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  Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 109 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (108 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (108 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Free   (Followers: 7)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Balduinia     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ciência Florestal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Colombia Forestal     Open Access  
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access  
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Floresta e Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Forestalia Polonica     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Phytophthoras     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Forest Research Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Forest Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Forest Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Forest Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Letters     Open Access  
Forestry Studies : Metsanduslikud Uurimused     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Holzforschung     Hybrid Journal  
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Livelihood     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forest Products and Industries     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University     Open Access  
Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Wood Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Lesnícky časopis     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences     Free  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Science Bulletin     Free   (Followers: 9)
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Árvore     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Silva Lusitana     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Southern African Forestry Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veld & Flora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)


Journal Cover Forests
  [SJR: 0.63]   [H-I: 16]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1999-4907
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [146 journals]
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 183: Ecosystem Services and Disservices of Mangrove
           Forests: Insights from Historical Colonial Observations

    • Authors: Daniel Friess
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Ecosystem services are now strongly applied to mangrove forests, though they are not a new way of viewing mangrove-people interactions; the benefits provided by such habitats, and the negative interactions (ecosystem disservices) between mangroves and people have guided perceptions of mangroves for centuries. This study quantified the ecosystem services and disservices of mangroves as written by colonial explorers from 1823–1883 through a literature survey of 96 expedition reports and studies. Ecosystem disservices were most commonly discussed (60%), with settlers considering mangroves as reservoirs of diseases such as malaria, with wide-ranging implications, such as the global drainage of wetlands in the 19th–20th centuries. Multiple ecosystem services were discussed, especially provisioning services for export, representing colonial views of new lands as ripe for economic use. Interestingly, regulating services of mangroves such as erosion control and sediment accretion that are a focus of much contemporary research were recognized as early as 1865. This study shows that the ecosystem service paradigm has a long history in mangroves. We should not underestimate mangrove ecosystem disservices, and how contemporary perceptions of mangroves may be influenced by such historical viewpoints. Archival materials provide a rich resource to study human-environment interactions, and how they change through time.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090183
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 184: Practitioner Perceptions of Wildland Fire
           Management across South Europe and Latin America

    • First page: 184
      Abstract: Wildfire presents a challenge to natural resource managers the world over, and the intentional setting of fires can be used to alleviate some of the challenges associated with wildfire management. Prescribed burning can be used prior to wildfires to reduce fuel loads and promote ecological integrity in fire-adapted systems, while suppression burning can help firefighters control the direction, extent, and intensity of wildfire behavior under extreme conditions. In both cases, the success of intentional fire use depends on training, knowledge, experience, and institutional and social support. The influence of these factors can significantly impact whether fire use is perceived as positive or negative, increasing or decreasing, and whether managers are supportive of its incorporation into their management planning and decision-making. Perceived impediments to fire use are likely to differ based on location, level of training and experience, and even the social context of fire management specific to different job positions in natural resource management. In order to explore how managers and stakeholders across the world perceive fire use, we surveyed over 700 respondents from 12 countries and three continents. This study represents the largest survey of perceptions on managed fire use ever conducted. Perceptions differed across age categories, job positions, and regions. Countries or regions with larger amounts of wildfire area burned tended to be more supportive of fire use for suppression, while countries with less wildfire had less positive perceptions of fire use for either prescribed or suppression burning. Bureaucracy and social perceptions were identified as impediments to using prescribed fire prior to wildfire occurrence, but neither were identified as impediments to fire use during suppression procedures. Across the countries, fire use in suppression was viewed more positively than prescribed fire use prior to wildfire occurrence.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090184
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 185: Spatio-Temporal Configurations of Human-Caused
           Fires in Spain through Point Patterns

    • Authors: Sergi Costafreda-Aumedes, Carles Comas, Cristina Vega-Garcia
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Human-caused wildfires are often regarded as unpredictable, but usually occur in patterns aggregated over space and time. We analysed the spatio-temporal configuration of 7790 anthropogenic wildfires (2007–2013) in nine study areas distributed throughout Peninsular Spain by using the Ripley’s K-function. We also related these aggregation patterns to weather, population density, and landscape structure descriptors of each study area. Our results provide statistical evidence for spatio-temporal structures around a maximum of 4 km and six months. These aggregations lose strength when the spatial and temporal distances increase. At short time lags after a wildfire (<1 month), the probability of another fire occurrence is high at any distance in the range of 0–16 km. When considering larger time lags (up to two years), the probability of fire occurrence is high only at short distances (>3 km). These aggregated patterns vary depending on location in Spain. Wildfires seem to aggregate within fewer days (heat waves) in warm and dry Mediterranean regions than in milder Atlantic areas (bimodal fire season). Wildfires aggregate spatially over shorter distances in diverse, fragmented landscapes with many small and complex patches. Urban interfaces seem to spatially concentrate fire occurrence, while wildland-agriculture interfaces correlate with larger aggregates.
      PubDate: 2016-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090185
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 186: From Litter to Humus in a Norwegian Spruce
           Forest: Long-Term Studies on the Decomposition of Needles and Cones

    • First page: 186
      Abstract: The aim of this review and synthesis is to illustrate the gradual transformation of needles and cones from litter to humus. Individual needles may follow quite different decomposition pathways, which contributes to a diverse humus structure. In the litter layer (Oi), about 40% of the needles were excavated by special mites that produced slowly decomposable excrements. In the fermentation layer (Oe), needles which happened to be in close contact with fine roots decomposed more rapidly. Cones decomposed slower than needles during the first 3–5 years, so the role of cones in carbon (C) storage may be greater than indicated by their fraction of fresh litter. Over a 13 years period, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) in cones was released, while the total amount of calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) increased strongly. Nitrogen concentration increased but the total nitrogen content remained rather constant. After 13 years, the cones had sunk about 6 cm into the soil and lost 60% of their dry weight but were morphologically intact. A cone monitored for 28 years was fully recognizable and had not yet reached the stable Oa layer. The most inert decomposition products in the Oa layer were fragments of needles and cone scales, microarthropod excrements and chitinous insect remains.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090186
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 187: Vegetation Mortality within Natural Wildfire
           Events in the Western Canadian Boreal Forest: What Burns and Why?

    • Authors: Colin Ferster, Bianca Eskelson, David Andison, Valerie LeMay
      First page: 187
      Abstract: Wildfires are a common disturbance event in the Canadian boreal forest. Within event boundaries, the level of vegetation mortality varies greatly. Understanding where surviving vegetation occurs within fire events and how this relates to pre-fire vegetation, topography, and fire weather can inform forest management decisions. We used pre-fire forest inventory data, digital elevation maps, and records of fire weather for 37 naturally-occurring wildfires (1961 to 1982; 30 to 5500 ha) covering a wide range of conditions in the western Canadian boreal forest to investigate these relationships using multinomial logistic models. Overall, vegetation mortality related to a combination of factors representing different spatial scales. Lower vegetation mortality occurred where there was lower fuel continuity and when fires occurred under non-drought conditions. Higher classification accuracy occurred for class extremes of no mortality (i.e., unburned areas within the burn event) and high mortality; partial vegetation mortality classes were harder to distinguish. This research contributes to the knowledge required for natural pattern emulation strategies, and developing responses to climate change.
      PubDate: 2016-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090187
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 188: Analyzing the Efficiency of a Start-Up Cable
           Yarding Crew in Southern China under New Forest Management Perspectives

    • Authors: Stephan Hoffmann, Dirk Jaeger, Marcus Lingenfelder, Siegmar Schoenherr
      First page: 188
      Abstract: This case study analyzed the performance of a start-up cable yarding crew in southern China through operational monitoring by consecutive time studies, long-term log book recordings and efficiency evaluation by stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). The crew, which used a KOLLER K303 H mobile tower yarder, was monitored for two years. During this period, detailed data recordings of 687 yarding cycles of 12 yarding corridors as well as log book recordings of an additional 1122 scheduled system hours (SSH, including all delays) were generated. Mean extraction productivity of the system ranged between 5.23 and 6.40 m3 per productive system hour (PSH0, excluding all delays), mostly depending on slope yarding distance and lateral distance. Corresponding gross-productivity ranged from 1.91 to 2.24 m3/SSH, with an overall mean machine utilization rate of 31%. Unproductive yarding times and delays associated with the relative low utilization rate were mainly caused by lengthy rigging processes, as well as organizational deficiencies and not yet fully developed skill sets of the operating crew. The latter was reflected in a mean efficiency effect frontier value of 0.62 based on evaluation of data sets of individual yarding cycles recorded during detailed assessments, suggesting a mean improvement potential of 38% based on the SFA, translating in a potentially achievable gross-productivity of 2.64 to 3.09 m3/SSH. We conclude that current local operating conditions including insufficient planning, implementation and logistics and in particular, frequent discontinuations of system operations of up to three months all resulting in generally low operation hours per shift and per year, inhibit efficient operations and rapid skill development. These circumstances also inhibit an economic utilization of the equipment. Nevertheless, from a technical perspective, yarding systems have a promising potential in southern China.
      PubDate: 2016-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090188
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 189: 350 Years of Fire-Climate-Human Interactions
           in a Great Lakes Sandy Outwash Plain

    • Authors: Richard Guyette, Michael Stambaugh, Daniel Dey, Joseph Marschall, Jay Saunders, John Lampereur
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Throughout much of eastern North America, quantitative records of historical fire regimes and interactions with humans are absent. Annual resolution fire scar histories provide data on fire frequency, extent, and severity, but also can be used to understand fire-climate-human interactions. This study used tree-ring dated fire scars from red pines (Pinus resinosa) at four sites in the Northern Sands Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin to quantify the interactions among fire occurrence and seasonality, drought, and humans. New methods for assessing the influence of human ignitions on fire regimes were developed. A temporal and spatial index of wildland fire was significantly correlated (r = 0.48) with drought indices (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI). Fire intervals varied through time with human activities that included early French Jesuit missions, European trade (fur), diseases, war, and land use. Comparisons of historical fire records suggest that annual climate in this region has a broad influence on the occurrence of fire years in the Great Lakes region.
      PubDate: 2016-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090189
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 190: Strategies to Combat Mycosphaerella Leaf
           Disease in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations in Northern Spain

    • First page: 190
      Abstract: Eucalyptus globulus is widely planted in temperate regions to produce pulp for its high performance but few studies of the impact of Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease (MLD) have been documented. This study aimed to explore and provide knowledge on disease in the management of young Eucalyptus globulus stands in the north of Spain. The influences of subspecies, cloning, and fertilization on the degree of severity of the disease were analyzed. The study was conducted with different material plants of Eucalyptus globulus, of Australian origin, from other sources, open-pollinated families, clones, and families of controlled pollination. Each series tested different vegetal material, except for a number of control codes that were used as reference samples for MLD evaluation. Severity, height at which foliage changes from juvenile to adult, total height, and volume were all measured. There were significant correlations in the average MLD severity of families and provenances obtained from the different trials. ANOVA revealed important differences between subspecies of E. globulus. A correlation was found between the percentage of adult leaf and the severity. There were differences in the impact of MLD between plant material non-selected and selected by its tolerance (p < 0.0001). There was a significant effect on the severity between mature cuttings and families from seed non-selected in their tolerance to MLD. Their tolerance was lower than that achieved from seed selected by its tolerance to MLD. Genetic selection was shown as the best strategy since there are individuals exceptionally tolerant to MLD.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090190
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 191: Eliminating Illegal Timber Consumption or

    • Authors: Xiaobiao Zhang, Bin Xu, Lei Wang, Aijun Yang, Hongqiang Yang
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Illegal logging, with its related trade of illegally harvested timber, is one of the main environmental and economic problems worldwide. Eliminating illegal timber consumption and production are two practical means to reduce illegal logging. However, the problem of determining which of the two means is more economical remains to be analyzed. In this study, an input–output analysis was conducted to evaluate the consumption and production of illegal timber in different countries. The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was employed to analyze the effects of eliminating illegal timber consumption and production on the added value of the forest sector at global and national levels. Results indicated that eliminating illegal timber production is more economical than eliminating consumption at the global level. The former is estimated to decrease the added value of the global forest sector only by 3.37% compared to 7.31% by the latter in 2030. Eliminating the production of illegal timber will result in uneven distribution of social wealth in the forest sector, and will pass the cost of reducing illegal logging onto developing countries. Developed countries would gain more added value and market scale than the global average, whereas developing countries would suffer a loss if illegal timber production is eliminated. Hence, developed countries are encouraged to provide financial support to help developing countries reduce illegal logging.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090191
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 192: Variation in the Growth Traits and Wood
           Properties of Chinese Fir from Six Provinces of Southern China

    • Authors: Hongjing Duan, Sen Cao, Huiquan Zheng, Dehuo Hu, Jun Lin, Huazhong Lin, Ruiyang Hu, Yuhan Sun, Yun Li
      First page: 192
      Abstract: To determine the phenotypic variation in 700 ten-year grafted Chinese fir collected from six provinces in southern China, 10 phenotypic traits were investigated: tree height, diameter at breast height, bark thickness, volume of timber, heartwood ratio, density of wood, hygroscopicity, tracheid length, tracheid diameter, and ratio of tracheid length to tracheid diameter. Abundant phenotypic variation was found among the six populations; the phenotypic variation coefficients all exceeded 10%, and the largest was for volume of timber. Significant variation (p < 0.01 or 0.05) in traits was found among the populations, except for diameter at breast height, heartwood ratio, and tracheid diameter, while all traits differed significantly (p < 0.01) within populations. The high value of repeatability (broad-sense heritability) suggested moderate genetic control of the traits. The 10 traits were strongly correlated within the entire population; strong positive correlations (p < 0.01) were observed between growth traits, and significant negative correlations (p < 0.01 or 0.05) were found between the density of wood and most other characteristics, except for heartwood ratio and ratio of tracheid length to tracheid diameter. Using diameter at breast height and density of wood as criteria, 98 relatively fast-growing genotypes with relatively high wood basic density were identified.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090192
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 193: Smallholder Forestry in the Western Amazon:
           Outcomes from Forest Reforms and Emerging Policy Perspectives

    • First page: 193
      Abstract: The forest reforms unfolding during the last two decades in the western Amazon have embraced policy regimes founded on the principles of sustainable forest management. The policy frameworks adopted for smallholder forestry aimed to clarify forest rights including those of the indigenous people and smallholders, support the adoption of sustainable forest management and put a system in place to assure a legal timber supply. The emerging forest policy regimes have significantly shaped who has access to the forest, how the forest resources are used and the benefits that are utilized. We argue that forest reforms have not addressed some critical constraints facing smallholders in managing their forests either individually or collectively. Informal timber extraction persists with contradictory effects on smallholders and forests. Local participants continue to make a significant contribution in meeting a growing demand for timber through vigorous market networks that combine legal and illegal sources of timber supply. Some recent changes to forest policy frameworks emphasize approaches towards additional integrated forest management, simplification of regulations and incentives for improved forest management. We critically reflect on the scope, implementation and expected outcomes of these policy frameworks.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090193
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 194: Developing an Improved Parameter Estimation
           Method for the Segmented Taper Equation through Combination of Constrained
           Two-Dimensional Optimum Seeking and Least Square Regression

    • Authors: Lifeng Pang, Yongpeng Ma, Ram Sharma, Shawn Rice, Xinyu Song, Liyong Fu
      First page: 194
      Abstract: The segmented taper equation has great flexibility and is widely applied in exiting taper systems. The unconstrained least square regression (ULSR) was generally used to estimate parameters in previous applications of the segmented taper equations. The joint point parameters estimated with ULSR may fall outside the feasible region, which leads to the results of the segmented taper equation being uncertain and meaningless. In this study, a combined method of constrained two-dimensional optimum seeking and least square regression (CTOS & LSR) was proposed as an improved method to estimate the parameters in the segmented taper equation. The CTOS & LSR was compared with ULSR for both individual tree-level equation and the population average-level equation using data from three tropical precious tree species (Castanopsis hystrix, Erythrophleum fordii, and Tectona grandis) in the southwest of China. The differences between CTOS & LSR and ULSR were found to be significant. The segmented taper equation estimated using CTOS & LSR resulted in not only increased prediction accuracy, but also guaranteed the parameter estimates in a more meaningful way. It is thus recommended that the combined method of constrained two-dimensional optimum seeking and least square regression should be a preferred choice for this application. The computation procedures required for this method is presented in the article.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090194
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 195: Does REDD+ Ensure Sectoral Coordination and
           Stakeholder Participation? A Comparative Analysis of REDD+ National
           Governance Structures in Countries of Asia-Pacific Region

    • Authors: Taiji Fujisaki, Kimihiko Hyakumura, Henry Scheyvens, Tim Cadman
      First page: 195
      Abstract: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) requires harmonizing different policy sectors and interests that have impacts on forests. However, these elements have not been well-operationalized in environmental policy-making processes of most developing countries. Drawing on five cases—Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Papua New Guinea, and Vietnam, this article aims to determine whether emerging governance arrangements help REDD+ development by delivering participatory mechanisms for policy coordination. Building upon literature on environmental governance and stakeholder participation, the article examines national governance structures for REDD+ and identifies who participates where, and what decision-making powers they have. Despite structural differences between the countries, our analysis illustrates that REDD+ potentially encourages a new form of environmental governance promoting a cross-sectoral approach and stakeholder participation. Cohesiveness of the structures within a broader governance system is key to defining the capacity of REDD+ governance. The result also poses a question as to the inclusiveness of the state actors involved in order to tackle the different pressure on forests. Considering structural inequalities, the analysis further suggests a need of policy support for those who are affected by REDD+ to ensure that their voices could be heard in decision-making processes.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090195
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 196: Correction: Lopatin, E., et al. Assessment of
           Compliance with PEFC Forest Certification Indicators with Remote Sensing.
           Forests 2016, 7, 85

    • Authors: Eugene Lopatin, Maxim Trishkin, Olga Gavrilova
      First page: 196
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [1].[...]
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090196
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 197: Genetic Diversity of the Black Mangrove
           Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn in Northwestern Mexico

    • First page: 197
      Abstract: Mangrove forests of Mexico have been threatened by the effects of anthropogenic activities during the last decades, mostly related to aquaculture, agriculture, livestock and urban development. Genetic diversity and fine-scale genetic structure of two generations of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn were investigated in perturbed and preserved sites from three lagoon systems in Sinaloa, Mexico. Genetic diversity and overall genetic structure were similar between perturbed and preserved sites. However, lower levels of fine-scale spatial genetic structure were observed in two of the younger (sapling) generations. We attribute this to differences in local dynamics of each lagoon system, their status of conservation and levels of fragmentation. Also, low connectivity and the effects of disturbance could restrict the movement of pollinators and seed dispersal capabilities, resulting in low levels of genetic diversity and signs of inbreeding. Perturbed populations of A. germinans may play an important role in in situ conservation of this complex ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2016-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090197
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 198: Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning in
           Vegetation Studies—A Review of Point Cloud and Waveform Features for
           Tree Species Classification

    • First page: 198
      Abstract: In recent years, small-footprint full-waveform airborne laser scanning has become readily available and established for vegetation studies in the fields of forestry, agriculture and urban studies. Independent of the field of application and the derived final product, each study uses features to classify a target object and to assess its characteristics (e.g., tree species). These laser scanning features describe an observable characteristic of the returned laser signal (e.g., signal amplitude) or a quantity of an object (e.g., height-width ratio of the tree crown). In particular, studies dealing with tree species classification apply a variety of such features as input. However, an extensive overview, categorization and comparison of features from full-waveform airborne laser scanning and how they relate to specific tree species are still missing. This review identifies frequently used full-waveform airborne laser scanning-based point cloud and waveform features for tree species classification and compares the applied features and their characteristics for specific tree species detection. Furthermore, limiting and influencing factors on feature characteristics and tree classification are discussed with respect to vegetation structure, data acquisition and processing.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090198
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 199: Failure to Communicate: Inefficiencies in
           Voluntary Incentive Programs for Private Forest Owners in Michigan

    • Authors: Mark Rouleau, Jennifer Lind-Riehl, Miranda Smith, Audrey Mayer
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Coordinating forest management across thousands of nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners is a difficult yet necessary task for state land management agencies. Voluntary Incentive Programs (VIPs) can coordinate the decentralized activities of these owners in return for services or financial incentives. However, many VIPs typically have low enrollment. Our study investigates the implementation of VIPs to increase forest management coordination among NIPFs in Michigan. We present findings from 20 semi-structured interviews with leaders of state and local land management organizations, and government officials at state natural resource agencies, and contrast their answers with those recorded from 37 interviews of NIPF owners regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward VIPs. Our interviews highlight a critical disconnect between NIPF owner motivations and VIP incentives, as well as misallocated resources for VIP promotion by state agencies, driving low enrollment. At the core, low enrollment in VIPs is generated by inadequate communication between NIPF owners and program managers, along with distrust of government agency objectives. Viewing managers as “street level bureaucrats”, civil servants whose job discretion is impacted heavily by available resources, may increase our understanding of the issues plaguing VIPs and help identify improvements to VIP design and implementation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090199
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 200: Quantifying Tree and Soil Carbon Stocks in a
           Temperate Urban Forest in Northeast China

    • Authors: Hailiang Lv, Wenjie Wang, Xingyuan He, Lu Xiao, Wei Zhou, Bo Zhang
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Society has placed greater focus on the ecological service of urban forests; however, more information is required on the variation of carbon (C) in trees and soils in different functional forest types, administrative districts, and urban-rural gradients. To address this issue, we measured various tree and soil parameters by sampling 219 plots in the urban forest of the Harbin city region. Averaged tree and soil C stock density (C stocks per unit tree cover) for Harbin city were 7.71 (±7.69) kg C·m−2 and 5.48 (±2.86) kg C·m−2, respectively. They were higher than those of other Chinese cities (Shenyang and Changchun), but were much lower than local natural forests. The tree C stock densities varied 2.3- to 3.2-fold among forest types, administrative districts, and ring road-based urban-rural gradients. In comparison, soil organic C (SOC) densities varied by much less (1.4–1.5-fold). We found these to be urbanization-dependent processes, which were closely related to the urban-rural gradient data based on ring-roads and settlement history patterns. We estimated that SOC accumulation during the 100-year urbanization of Harbin was very large (5 to 14 thousand tons), accounting for over one quarter of the stored C in trees. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of above- and below-ground C (especially in soil) during the urbanization process, and that a city’s ability to provide C-related ecosystem services increases as it ages. Our findings highlight that urbanization effects should be incorporated into calculations of soil C budgets in regions subject to rapid urban expansion, such as China.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090200
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 201: How Time since Forest Fire Affects Stand
           Structure, Soil Physical-Chemical Properties and Soil CO2 Efflux in
           Hemiboreal Scots Pine Forest Fire Chronosequence?

    • First page: 201
      Abstract: We compared the changes in aboveground biomass and initial recovery of C pools and CO2 efflux following fire disturbances in Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris L.) stands with different time since stand-replacing fire. The study areas are located in hemiboreal vegetation zone, in north-western Estonia, in Vihterpalu. Six areas where the last fire occurred in the year 1837, 1940, 1951, 1982, 1997, and 2008 were chosen for the study. Our results show that forest fire has a substantial effect on the C content in the top soil layer, but not in the mineral soil layers. Soil respiration showed a chronological response to the time since the forest fire and the values were lowest in the area where the fire was in the year 2008. The respiration values also followed seasonal pattern being highest in August and lowest in May and November. The CO2 effluxes were lowest on the newly burned area through the entire growing season. There was also a positive correlation between soil temperature and soil respiration values in our study areas.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090201
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 202: Natural and Anthropogenic Transformations of A
           Baltic Raised Bog (Bagno Kusowo, North West Poland) in the Light of
           Dendrochronological Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L.

    • Authors: Anna Cedro, Zofia Sotek
      First page: 202
      Abstract: This study was conducted in a drained, exploited, and afforested Baltic bog Bagno Kusowo, located in North West Poland. The study aimed (i) to assess if human activity has a stronger impact on tree-ring width of Pinus sylvestris than climatic conditions in this transformed Baltic bog; (ii) to investigate how much the human modification of the ecosystem has influenced tree growth; (iii) to use this knowledge to reconstruct changes in the ecosystem further back in time, in the study area and its immediate neighbourhood. Wood samples for dendrochronological analyses were collected from 45 trees. Next, using classic dating methods and standard procedures (cross-dating methods, COFECHA program), chronologies were constructed (raw tree-ring width and residual chronologies: de-trended, autocorrelation removed, ARSTAN program). They formed a basis for further analyses: signature years, correlation and response function, as well as percentage growth change. The results of dendroclimatological analyses show weak increment–climate relationships and the analysis of weather conditions in the identified signature years did not detect any unambiguous relations with tree-ring width. However, results of the analyses indicate that the dominant factors affecting tree growth dynamics in the bog are changes in the hydrological system. Moreover, our results show many phases of human impact on environmental changes. Dendrochronological methods, combined with an analysis of old maps and other historical records, allowed us to reconstruct transformations of the ecosystem with a high resolution.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090202
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 203: Response of Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine (Pinus
           taeda L.) Physiology and Productivity to Sustained, Moderate Drought on
           the Western Edge of the Range

    • Authors: Adam Maggard, Rodney Will, Duncan Wilson, Cassandra Meek
      First page: 203
      Abstract: The productivity of the approximately 11 million ha of loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern USA could be threatened by decreased water availability in a future climate. To determine the effects of sustained drought on leaf gas exchange, whole-tree water use, and individual tree growth, we examined the response of loblolly pine trees to 100% throughfall exclusion cumulatively spanning the sixth and seventh growing seasons of a plantation in southeastern Oklahoma. Throughfall exclusion reduced volumetric soil water content for 0–12 cm soil depth from 10.8% to 4.8% and for 12–45 cm soil depth from 24.2% to 15.6%. Compared to ambient throughfall trees, leaf water potential of the throughfall exclusion trees became more negative, −0.9 MPa vs. −1.3 MPa for predawn measurements and −1.5 MPa vs. −1.9 MPa for midday measurements. Throughfall exclusion did not significantly reduce leaf gas exchange or tree water use. However, throughfall exclusion significantly reduced leaf biomass by 21% and stem volume growth by 23%. These results indicate that sustained drought may cause downward shifts in leaf quantity to conserve water rather than reducing leaf-level water use.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090203
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 204: A Simulation of Image-Assisted Forest
           Monitoring for National Inventories

    • Authors: Francis Roesch
      First page: 204
      Abstract: The efficiency of national forest monitoring efforts can be increased by the judicious incorporation of ancillary data. For instance, a fixed number of ground plots might be used to inform a larger set of annual estimates by observing a smaller proportion of the plots each year while augmenting each annual estimate with ancillary data in order to reduce overall costs while maintaining a desired level of accuracy. Differencing successive geo-rectified remotely sensed images can conceivably provide forest change estimates at a scale and level of accuracy conducive to the improvement of temporally relevant forest attribute estimates. Naturally, the degree of improvement in the desired estimates is highly dependent on the relationships between the spatial-temporal scales of ground plot and remotely sensed observations and the desired spatial-temporal scale of estimation. In this paper, fixed scales of observation for each data source are used to explore the value of three different levels of information available from the remotely sensed image-change estimates. Four populations are simulated and sampled under four sampling error structures. The results show that the image change estimates (ICE) can be used to significantly reduce bias for annual estimates of harvest and mortality and that improved estimation of harvest and mortality can sometimes, but not always, contribute to better estimates of standing volume.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090204
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 205: Fires of the Last Millennium Led to Landscapes
           Dominated by Early Successional Species in Québec’s Clay Belt Boreal
           Forest, Canada

    • First page: 205
      Abstract: This study presents the long-term (over the last 8000 years) natural variability of a portion of the Picea mariana-moss bioclimatic domain belonging to Québec’s Clay Belt. The landscapes are dominated by mesic-subhydric clay and early successional forests composed of Populus tremuloides, Pinus banksiana and Picea mariana. The natural variability (fires and vegetation) of one of these landscapes was reconstructed by means of pollen and macroscopic charcoal analysis of sedimentary archives from two peatlands in order to assess when and how such landscapes were formed. Following an initial afforestation period dominated by Picea (8000–6800 cal. Years BP), small and low-severity fires favored the development and maintenance of landscapes dominated by Picea and Abies balsamea during a long period (6800–1000 BP). Over the last 1000 years, fires have become more severe and covered a larger area. These fires initiated a recurrence dynamic of early successional stands maintained until today. A decline of Abies balsamea has occurred over the last centuries, while the pollen representation of Pinus banksiana has recently reached its highest abundance. We hypothesize that the fire regime of the last millennium could characterize Québec’s Clay Belt belonging to the western Picea mariana-moss and Abies balsamea-Betula papyrifera domains.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090205
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 206: Tree Stem Diameter Estimation from Mobile
           Laser Scanning Using Line-Wise Intensity-Based Clustering

    • Authors: Mona Forsman, Johan Holmgren, Kenneth Olofsson
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Diameter at breast height has been estimated from mobile laser scanning using a new set of methods. A 2D laser scanner was mounted facing forward, tilted nine degrees downwards, on a car. The trajectory was recorded using inertial navigation and visual SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping). The laser scanner data, the trajectory and the orientation were used to calculate a 3D point cloud. Clusters representing trees were extracted line-wise to reduce the effects of uncertainty in the positioning system. The intensity of the laser echoes was used to filter out unreliable echoes only grazing a stem. The movement was used to obtain measurements from a larger part of the stem, and multiple lines from different views were used for the circle fit. Two trigonometric methods and two circle fit methods were tested. The best results with bias 2.3% (6 mm) and root mean squared error 14% (37 mm) were acquired with the circle fit on multiple 2D projected clusters. The method was evaluated compared to field data at five test areas with approximately 300 caliper-measured trees within a 10-m working range. The results show that this method is viable for stem measurements from a moving vehicle, for example a forest harvester.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090206
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 207: Single Tree Stem Profile Detection Using
           Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data, Flatness Saliency Features and Curvature

    • Authors: Kenneth Olofsson, Johan Holmgren
      First page: 207
      Abstract: A method for automatic stem detection and stem profile estimation based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was validated. The root-mean-square error was approximately 1 cm for stem diameter estimations. The method contains a new way of extracting the flatness saliency feature using the centroid of a subset of a point cloud within a voxel cell that approximates the point by point calculations. The loss of accuracy is outweighed by a much higher computational speed, making it possible to cover large datasets. The algorithm introduces a new way to connect surface patches belonging to a stem and investigates if they belong to curved surfaces. Thereby, cylindrical objects, like stems, are found in the pre-filtering stage. The algorithm uses a new cylinder fitting method that estimates the axis direction by transforming the TLS points into a radial-angular coordinate system and evaluates the deviations by a moving window convex hull algorithm. Once the axis direction is found, the cylinder center is chosen as the position with the smallest radial deviations. The cylinder fitting method works on a point cloud in both the single-scan setup, as well as a multiple scan setup of a TLS system.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090207
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 208: Urban Forest Indicators for Planning and
           Designing Future Forests

    • Authors: Sara Barron, Stephen Sheppard, Patrick Condon
      First page: 208
      Abstract: This paper describes a research project exploring future urban forests. This study uses a Delphi approach to develop a set of key indicators for healthy, resilient urban forests. Two groups of experts participated in the Delphi survey: International academics and local practitioners. The results of the Delphi indicate that “urban tree diversity” and “physical access to nature” are indicators of high importance. “Tree risk” and “energy conservation” were rated as indicators of relatively low importance. Results revealed some differences between academics and practitioners in terms of their rating of the indicators. The research shows that some indicators rated as high importance are not necessarily the ones measured or promoted by many municipal urban forestry programs. In particular, social indicators of human health and well-being were rated highly by participants, but not routinely measured by urban forestry programs.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090208
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 209: Incentives and Constraints of Community and
           Smallholder Forestry

    • Authors: Wil de Jong, Glenn Galloway, Pia Katila, Pablo Pacheco
      First page: 209
      Abstract: This editorial introduces the special issue: Incentives and constraints of community and smallholder forestry. The special issue contains nine papers, listed in a table in the main text. The editorial reviews briefly some key elements of our current understanding of community and smallholder forestry. The editorial also briefly introduces the nine papers of the special issue and points out how they link to the debate among academics and specialists on community and smallholder forestry. Finally, the editorial highlights the new elements that the nine papers contribute to our understanding of community and smallholder forestry, before it concludes at the end.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f7090209
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 152: Timber Regulation and Value Chain in
           Community-Based Timber Enterprise and Smallholder Forestry in the

    • Authors: Juan Pulhin, Mark Ramirez
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Forest tenure reform has no doubt attained significant gains in promoting social justice and equity in the forest sector, through legal recognition of the communities’ property rights over forest lands in many developing countries. This includes the right to harvest and market trees that the communities planted. Along these lines, the Philippines’ community-based forest management (CBFM) and smallholder forestry have the potential to meet the country’s wood demand and contribute to its poverty alleviation goal. Realities on the ground, however, make this lofty aspiration seems too far-fetched. Formal and informal barriers along the timber value chain restrict the growth and obstruct opportunities for community-based timber enterprises (CBTEs) and smallholder forestry. Using the case of CBFM and smallholder forestry in the Visayas and Mindanao Islands in the Philippines, respectively, this paper examines the hurdles posed by regulations and informal practices, such as restrictive policies and increased transaction costs, through a segment analysis of the timber value chain. It argues that failure to address these barriers would lead to the decline of CBTEs and smallholder enterprises, thus undermining the merits of the forest tenure reform.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080152
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 153: Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5,
           10, and 20/30 Years) in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and

    • Authors: Xin Zhao, Fadong Li, Wanjun Zhang, Zhipin Ai, Huitao Shen, Xiuping Liu, Jiansheng Cao, Kiril Manevski
      First page: 153
      Abstract: Understanding the effects of stand age and forest type on soil respiration is crucial for predicting the potential of soil carbon sequestration. Thus far, however, there is no consensus regarding the variations in soil respiration caused by stand age and forest type. This study investigated soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years) in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05). Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher in P. davidiana plantations and when the soil water content was below 12.8%. Temperature sensitivity incorporated a combined response of soil respiration to soil temperature, soil water content, soil organic carbon, and fine root biomass and, thus, provided an ecological metric for comparing forest carbon dynamics of these species.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080153
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 154: Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture in a
           Forest Catchment: Temporal Trend and Contributors

    • Authors: Zhenyang Peng, Fuqiang Tian, Hongchang Hu, Sihan Zhao, Qiang Tie, Hao Sheng, Christophe Darnault, Hui Lu
      First page: 154
      Abstract: Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamic of soil moisture is critical in hydrological and other land surface related studies. Until recently, however, there have been controversies about the relationship between spatial mean and spatial variance of soil moisture and the contributions of each of these factors to spatial variability. Therefore, in this study, spatial variability of soil moisture in a 7 km2 forest catchment is analyzed by time-series data on soil moisture obtained at a total of 12 observation sites. Results showed that soil moisture spatial mean and spatial variance varied almost synchronously and in three cyclic patterns during the monitoring period from 1 April 2015 to 31 October 2015. The spatial mean-variance relationship during the ascending and descending periods of spatial mean could be well-fitted by upward and downward convex quadratic curves, respectively, indicating possible clockwise hysteresis of this relationship. It was found that all through the monitoring period, contributions of time-invariant factors on total spatial variance increased from 68.9% to 88.2% with depth, and temporally stable ranking of sites was obtained. Because of the high spatial variation of soil moisture in our study area, it should be noted that a large number of sample plots would be needed to adequately estimate the spatial variability of soil moisture.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080154
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 155: Swiss Needle Cast in Western Oregon
           Douglas-Fir Plantations: 20‐Year Monitoring Results

    • First page: 155
      Abstract: Swiss needle cast (SNC), a foliar disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), is caused by an endemic Ascomycete fungus (Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii). In the late 1980s and early 1990s significant symptoms began to appear in coastal Oregon, and these have been associated with the planting of Douglas-fir in the Sitka spruce zone, leaf wetness during potential spore dispersal in May–August, and mild winter temperature. The first annual aerial survey was initiated in 1996 and has continued through 2015, which indicates a significant increase in area of visible symptoms from the air, increasing from 53,050 ha in 1996 to 238,705 ha in 2015. Monitoring plots in the NW Oregon Coast Range verified impacts of SNC on tree growth and productivity, with growth reductions averaging about 23% in the epidemic area linked to needle retention. A series of monitoring plots was set up in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon and 590 10–23-year old Douglas-fir trees in 59 stands were tracked for 10 years, measured in 2001, 2006, and 2011. No measureable growth impacts were noted in this region of Oregon. A new plot network is being installed throughout the Oregon and southwest Washington coastal ranges as a means of monitoring future disease impact and providing framework for additional studies.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080155
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 156: Salinity Differentially Affects Growth and
           Ecophysiology of Two Mastic Tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.) Accessions

    • Authors: Giuseppe Cristiano, Salvatore Camposeo, Mariano Fracchiolla, Gaetano Vivaldi, Barbara De Lucia, Eugenio Cazzato
      First page: 156
      Abstract: Pistacia lentiscus (Anacardiaceae; mastic tree) is an evergreen sclerophyll species, largely distributed in dry areas of the Mediterranean basin and well-adapted to severe conditions of drought in very unfertile soils. In the present study, we evaluated the growing responses of two accessions of P. lentiscus to three different levels of salinity under nursery conditions. The two mastic tree accessions (Manfredonia and Specchia) were collected from individual trees in two different sites in the Apulia region (Southern Italy) and subjected to three different levels of salinization by adding 0, 400, and 800 g of salts 100 L−1 of substrate, respectively. The following parameters were recorded: plant height; survival of plants and total root length; total biomass; number of leaves per plant and leaf area; as well as various ecophysiological traits. Salinity reduced the values of all the examined parameters, both morphological and physiological. Results suggested that P. lentiscus can tolerate and accumulate salt at high concentrations in nursery conditions. As a result, it is important to identify germplasm that is highly tolerant to salinity for the production of nursery seedlings that will be planted in saline soils.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080156
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 157: Mapping Local Effects of Forest Properties on
           Fire Risk across Canada

    • First page: 157
      Abstract: Fire is a dominant mechanism of forest renewal in most of Canada’s forests and its activity is predicted to increase over the coming decades. Individual fire events have been considered to be non-selective with regards to forest properties, but evidence now suggests otherwise. Our objective was therefore to quantify the effect of forest properties on fire selectivity or avoidance, evaluate the stability of these effects across varying burn rates, and use these results to map local fire risk across the forests of Canada. We used Canada-wide MODIS-based maps of annual fires and of forest properties to identify burned and unburned pixels for the 2002–2011 period and to bin them into classes of forest composition (% conifer and broadleaved deciduous), above-ground tree biomass and stand age. Logistic binomial regressions were then used to quantify fire selectivity by forest properties classes and by zones of homogeneous fire regime (HFR). Results suggest that fire exhibits a strong selectivity for conifer stands, but an even stronger avoidance of broadleaved stands. In terms of age classes, fire also shows a strong avoidance for young (0 to 29 year) stands. The large differences among regional burn rates do not significantly alter the overall preference and avoidance ratings. Finally, we combined these results on relative burn preference with regional burn rates to map local fire risks across Canada.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080157
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 158: Estimates of Wildfire Emissions in Boreal
           Forests of China

    • Authors: Kunpeng Yi, Yulong Bao
      First page: 158
      Abstract: Wildfire emissions in the boreal forests yield an important contribution to the chemical budget of the troposphere. To assess the contribution of wildfire to the emissions of atmospheric trace species in the Great Xing’an Mountains (GXM), which is also the most severe fire-prone boreal forest region in China, we estimated various wildfire activities by combining explicit spatio-temporal remote sensing data with fire-induced emission models. We observed 9998 fire scars with 46,096 km2 in the GXM between the years 1986 and 2010. The years 1987 and 2003 contributed 33.2% and 22.9%, respectively, in burned area during the 25 years. Fire activity is the strongest in May. Most large fires occurred in the north region of the GXM between 50° N and 54° N latitude due to much drier weather and higher fire danger in the northern region than in the southern region of the study domain. Evergreen and deciduous needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest are the main sources of emissions, accounting for 84%, 81%, 84%, 87%, 89%, 86%, 85% and 74% of the total annual CO2, CH4, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, BC and NOx emissions, respectively. Wildfire emissions from shrub, grassland and cropland only account for a small fraction of the total emissions level (approximately 4%–11%). Comparisons of our results with other published estimates of wildfire emissions show reasonable agreement.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080158
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 159: Soil Elements Influencing Community Structure
           in an Old-Growth Forest in Northeastern China

    • Authors: Wei Xu, Minhui Hao, Juan Wang, Chunyu Zhang, Xiuhai Zhao, Klaus Gadow
      First page: 159
      Abstract: This study uses detailed soil and vegetation data collected in a 30-ha old-growth broad-leaved Korean pine forest to study the effect of soil properties on tree community structures. Spatial distribution patterns are simulated using a homogeneous Poisson process (HomP) and a homogeneous Thomas process (HomT). The simulated distributions are compared with the observed ones to explore correlations between certain tree species and several soil elements. The HomP model shows that all tested tree species are significantly correlated with at least one principal component in the upper-layer soil elements. The HomT model shows that only 36.4% of tree species are significantly correlated with the principal component of at least one upper-layer soil element. This result shows that the impact of dispersal limitation is greater than impact of environmental heterogeneity on species spatial distributions. The spatial autocorrelation of species induced by the dispersal limitation will largely conceal the plant-soil relationships caused by the heterogeneity of soil elements. An additional analysis shows that the elements in the upper soil layer which have the greatest impact on community niche structure are Pb, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), Cu, Cr, Zn and available nitrogen (AN). The corresponding elements in the lower soil layers are Pb, TP, Cu, organic carbon (OC), Mn, total potassium (TK) and AN. Different species seem to be complementary regarding the demands on the available soil resources. The results of this study show that the tree species in the different growth groups have different habitat preferences. Compared with subcanopy and shrub species, the canopy species have more significant correlations with the soil elements.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080159
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 160: Assessing the Genetic Diversity and
           Genealogical Reconstruction of Cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl.) Breeding
           Parents Using SSR Markers

    • Authors: Hanbo Yang, Rui Zhang, Guoqing Jin, Zhongping Feng, Zhichun Zhou
      First page: 160
      Abstract: To identify genetic diversity, genetic structure and the relationship among accessions, and further establish a core collection for the long-term breeding of cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl.), the genealogy of breeding parents was reconstructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers. Seventeen SSR markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 290 cypress accessions from five provinces and 53 accessions with unknown origin in China. A total of 92 alleles (Na) were detected with 5.412 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.593. The haplotype diversity (H) ranged from 0.021 to 0.832, with an average of 0.406. The number of alleles (Na) and the effective number of alleles (Ne) ranged from 4.294 to 5.176 and from 2.488 to 2.817 among five populations, respectively. The pairwise population matrix of Nei’s genetic distance ranged from 0.008 to 0.023. Based on the results of unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA) cluster and population structure analyses, 343 breeding parents were divided into two major groups. Lower genetic differentiation coefficients and closer genetic relationships were observed among cypress breeding parents, suggesting that the genetic basis was narrow, and the genetic relationship was confused by frequent introduction and wide cultivation. Moreover, we reconstructed the genealogy between breeding parents and 30 accessions of breeding parents from an identified core collection. According to the present study, not only geographic origin but also the relationship of the individuals should be considered in future crossbreeding work.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080160
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 161: Diurnal Freeze-Thaw Cycles Modify Winter Soil
           Respiration in a Desert Shrub-Land Ecosystem

    • Authors: Peng Liu, Tianshan Zha, Xin Jia, Ben Wang, Xiaonan Guo, Yuqing Zhang, Bin Wu, Qiang Yang, Heli Peltola
      First page: 161
      Abstract: Winter soil respiration (Rs) is becoming a significant component of annual carbon budgets with more warming in winter than summer. However, little is known about the controlling mechanisms of winter Rs in dryland. We made continuous measurements of Rs in four microsites (non-crust (BS), lichen (LC), moss (MC), and a mixture of moss and lichen (ML)) in a desert shrub-land ecosystem northern China, to investigate the causes of Rs dynamics in winter. The mean winter Rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 µmol CO2 m−2·s−1 across microsites, with the highest value in BS. Winter Q10 (known as the increase in respiration rate per 10 °C increase in temperature) values (2.8–19) were much higher than those from the growing season (1.5). Rs and Q10 were greatly enhanced in freeze-thaw cycles compared to frozen days. Diurnal patterns of Rs between freeze-thaw and frozen days differed. Although the freeze-thaw period was relatively short, its cumulative Rs contributed significantly to winter Rs. The presence of biocrust might induce lower temperature, thus having fewer freeze-thaw cycles relative to bare soil, leading to the lower Rs for microsites with biocrusts. In conclusion, winter Rs in drylands was sensitive to soil temperature (Ts) and Ts-induced freeze-thaw cycles. The temperature impact on Rs varied among soil cover types. Winter Rs in drylands may become more important as the climate is continuously getting warmer.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080161
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 162: Exploring Relationships between Socioeconomic
           Background and Urban Greenery in Portland, OR

    • Authors: Lorien Nesbitt, Michael Meitner
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Do urban residents experience societal benefits derived from urban forests equitably? We conducted a broad-scale spatial analysis of the relationship between urban greenery and socioeconomic factors in the Portland metropolitan area. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program images to map urban vegetation cover, and Outdoor Recreation and Conservation Area data were used to identify green spaces. These measures of urban greenery were correlated with census data to identify socioeconomic factors associated with high levels of green inequity. Population density, house age, income, and race were strongly correlated with vegetation cover. However, the distribution of green spaces showed a much weaker relationship with socioeconomic factors. These results highlight the importance of different measures of access to urban greenery and suggest potential solutions to the problem of urban green inequity. Cities can use our methods to conduct targeted urban forest management to maximize urban forest benefits received by residents.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080162
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 163: Functional Diversity of Small and Large Trees
           along Secondary Succession in a Tropical Dry Forest

    • First page: 163
      Abstract: Functional Diversity is considered an important driver of community assembly in environmental and successional gradients. To understand tree assembly processes in a semideciduous tropical forest, we analyzed the variation of Functional Richness (FRic), Functional Divergence (FDiv), and Functional Evenness (FEve) of small vs. large trees in relation to fallow age after slash-and-burn agriculture and topographical position (flat sites vs. hills). FRic of small trees was lower than null model predicted values across the successional gradient, and decreased unexpectedly in older successional ages. FRic of large trees was higher than null model predictions early in succession and lower in late-successional stands on hills. Dominant species were more similar (low FDiv) in early and intermediate successional stands for small trees, and on hills for large trees, suggesting that species that are best adapted to harsh conditions share similar traits. We also found evidence of competitive exclusion among similar species (high FEve) for small trees in early successional stands. Overall, our results indicate that community assembly of small trees is strongly affected by the changing biotic and abiotic conditions along the successional and topographical gradient. For large trees, hills may represent the most stressful conditions in this landscape.
      PubDate: 2016-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080163
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 164: Long-Term Forest Paired Catchment Studies:
           What Do They Tell Us That Landscape-Level Monitoring Does Not?

    • Authors: Daniel Neary
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Forested catchments throughout the world are known for producing high quality water for human use. In the 20th Century, experimental forest catchment studies played a key role in studying the processes contributing to high water quality. The hydrologic processes investigated on these paired catchments have provided the science base for examining water quality responses to natural disturbances such as wildfire, insect outbreaks, and extreme hydrologic events, and human-induced disturbances such as timber harvesting, site preparation, prescribed fires, fertilizer applications, pesticide usage, rainfall acidification, and mining. This paper compares and contrasts the paired catchment approach with landscape-level water resource monitoring to highlight the information on hydrologic processes provided by the paired catchment approach that is not provided by the broad-brush landscape monitoring.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080164
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 165: Forest Stand Inventory Based on Combined
           Aerial and Terrestrial Close-Range Photogrammetry

    • First page: 165
      Abstract: In this article we introduce a new method for forest management inventories especially suitable for highly-valued timber where the precise estimation of stem parameters (diameter, form, and tapper) plays the key role for market purposes. The unmanned aerial system (UAS)-based photogrammetry is combined with terrestrial photogrammetry executed by walking inside the stand and the individual tree parameters are estimated. We compare two automatic methods for processing of the point clouds and the delineation of stem circumference at breast height. The error of the diameter estimation was observed to be under 1 cm root mean square error (RMSE) and the height estimation error was 1 m. Apart from the mentioned accuracy, the main advantage of the proposed work is shorter time demand for field measurement; we could complete both inventories of 1 hectare forest stand in less than 2 h of field work.
      PubDate: 2016-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080165
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 166: Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on
           Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser

    • First page: 166
      Abstract: Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology) at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m) over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080166
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 167: Towards Harmonizing Leas Litter Decomposition
           Studies Using Standard Tea Bags—A Field Study and Model Application

    • Authors: Markus Didion, Anna Repo, Jari Liski, Martin Forsius, Michael Bierbaumer, Ika Djukic
      First page: 167
      Abstract: Decomposition of plant litter is a key process for the transfer of carbon and nutrients in ecosystems. Carbon contained in the decaying biomass is released to the atmosphere as respired CO2, and may contribute to global warming. Litterbag studies have been used to improve our knowledge of the drivers of litter decomposition, but they lack comparability because litter quality is plant species-specific. The use of commercial tea bags as a standard substrate was suggested in order to harmonize studies, where green tea and rooibos represent more labile and more recalcitrant C compounds as surrogates of local litter. Here we examine the potential of the use of standardized material for improving our understanding of litter decomposition across climate regions, and to further develop pertinent models. We measured the decomposition of incubated local and standard litters over two years along an elevation gradient in the Austrian Limestone Alps. The similar response to changes in temperature and precipitation of the pairs of local and standard litter—i.e., Fagus sylvatica and green tea, and Pinus nigra and rooibos tea, respectively—suggests the suitability of the standard litters for further examining the role of environmental drivers of decomposition. Harmonized data obtained from standardized litter experiments would provide a key prerequisite for further developing simulation models for the estimation of the C balance of ecosystem litter pools.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080167
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 168: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties
           of Soil under Decaying Wood in a Tropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    • First page: 168
      Abstract: Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical, and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs (Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia macrophylla) at 2 stages of decay, and measured soil temperature, total and available nutrients, and root length in a tropical wet forest. We found decaying wood affected physical, chemical, and biotic properties of the underlying soil. Soil temperature was less variable under the decaying logs than away from the logs. Soil under the decaying wood had fewer roots, and lower NO3− and Mg2+ availability than samples collected a distance of 50 cm away from the logs. Tree species and decay stage were important factors defining the effect of decaying wood on the distribution of available nutrients. Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ levels were higher in the soil associated with the youngest logs, and were higher near S. macrophylla logs. Heavy metals were also higher in the soil located near the younger logs independent of the species; other metal ions such as Al3+ and Fe3+ were higher in the soil associated with D. excelsa and the oldest logs. These results indicate decaying wood can contribute to and generate spatial heterogeneity of soil properties.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080168
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 169: Improved Multi-Sensor Satellite-Based
           Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Selecting Temporally Stable Forest
           Inventory Plots Using NDVI Time Series

    • Authors: Mikhail Urbazaev, Christian Thiel, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Pedro Rodriguez-Veiga, Christiane Schmullius
      First page: 169
      Abstract: Accurate estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) are crucial to assess terrestrial C-stocks and C-emissions as well as to develop sustainable forest management strategies. In this study we used Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired at L-band and the Landsat tree cover product together with Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series data to improve AGB estimations over two study areas in southern Mexico. We used Mexican National Forest Inventory (INFyS) data collected between 2005 and 2011 to calibrate AGB models as well as to validate the derived AGB products. We applied MODIS NDVI time series data analysis to exclude field plots in which abrupt changes were detected. For this, we used Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend analysis (BFAST). We modelled AGB using an original field dataset and BFAST-filtered data. The results show higher accuracies of AGB estimations using BFAST-filtered data than using original field data in terms of R2 and root mean square error (RMSE) for both dry and humid tropical forests of southern Mexico. The best results were found in areas with high deforestation rates where the AGB models based on the BFAST-filtered data substantially outperformed those based on original field data (R2BFAST = 0.62 vs. R2orig = 0.45; RMSEBFAST = 28.4 t/ha vs. RMSEorig = 33.8 t/ha). We conclude that the presented method shows great potential to improve AGB estimations and can be easily and automatically implemented over large areas.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080169
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 170: The Place of Community Forest Management in
           the REDD+ Landscape

    • First page: 170
      Abstract: Community forest management (CFM) is identified by many actors as a core strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). Others however see REDD+ as a danger to CFM. In response to these contrasting views, we carried out a systematic review of CFM case studies to look at CFM’s potential role in achieving forest carbon benefits and social co-benefits for forest communities. We evaluated the potential impacts of REDD+ on CFM. Our review showed that there is strong evidence of CFM’s role in reducing degradation and stabilizing forested landscapes; however, the review also showed less evidence about the role of CFM in reducing deforestation. For social benefits, we found that CFM contributes to livelihoods, but its effect on poverty reduction may be limited. Also, CFM may not deal adequately with the distribution of benefits within communities or user groups. These insights are important for CFM-based REDD+ intervention; measures should be adopted to overcome these gaps. Innovative incentive structures to existing CFM are discussed. The recognition of rights for forest communities is one first step identified in promoting CFM. We call for sound empirical impact evaluations that analyze CFM and CFM-based REDD+ interventions by looking at both biophysical and social outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080170
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 171: Aftermath of Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in
           British Columbia: Stand Dynamics, Management Response and Ecosystem

    • Authors: Amalesh Dhar, Lael Parrott, Christopher Hawkins
      First page: 171
      Abstract: The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has infested and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm) forests in British Columbia, Canada, over the past decade. It is now spreading out of its native range into the Canadian boreal forest, with unknown social, economic and ecological consequences. This review explores the ramifications of the MPB epidemic with respect to mid-term timber supply, forest growth, structure and composition, vegetation diversity, forest fire, climate change, and ecosystem resilience. Research confirms that, in British Columbia, all of these variables are more significantly impacted when salvage logging is used as management response to the outbreak. We conclude that appropriate management in response to MPB is essential to ensuring ecologically resilient future forests and reliable mid-term timber supplies for affected human communities. We highlight knowledge gaps and avenues for research to advance our understanding in support of sustainable post-disturbance forest management policies in British Columbia and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080171
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 172: Baseline Mortality Analysis Reveals Legacy of
           Contrasting Land Use Practices on the Structural Sustainability of
           Endangered Moroccan and Spanish Mountain Forests

    • First page: 172
      Abstract: Disturbances can affect forest health and are important modulating factors of tree responses to environmental changes. However, standard methods are needed to assess and elucidate the relative effects of disturbance legacies on forest health among species. Here, structural sustainability was used to evaluate and to compare the impacts of contrasting disturbances on the health of Quercus ilex, Cedrus atlantica, and Abies pinsapo forest stands in Morocco and Spain. Disturbance effects on structural sustainability were related to type, severity, and land-use history, and showed inter-regional variability. Cedrus atlantica was structurally sustainable in its core distribution in Morocco, but not at its southern and northernmost geographical range limits. Quercus ilex was structurally sustainable in Morocco. Abies pinsapo was structurally sustainable at optimal elevation sites in Morocco (Rif Mts.), but considering the whole A. pinsapo dataset including Morocco and Spain, the species is structurally unsustainable due to excessive mortality. However, at the lower elevation plots in Spain, unsustainability was due to insufficient mortality. Although some forests were structurally sustainable, none of them were deemed healthy because none met their management objectives. Results also support the key role of disturbance regimes as drivers of forest structural sustainability and adaptive capacity.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080172
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 173: Forest Biomass and Net Primary Productivity in
           Southwestern China: A Meta-Analysis Focusing on Environmental Driving

    • Authors: Li Liu, Hua Yang, Yue Xu, Yin Guo, Jian Ni
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) are important factors for studying terrestrial carbon storage and the carbon cycle. Using data from existing literature, this study synthesized and analyzed a comprehensive database of direct field observations of forest biomass and NPP for Southwestern China. The biomass of mature natural forests and mature planted forests range from 81.2 Mg·ha−1 to 692.6 Mg·ha−1 (mean = 288.1 Mg·ha−1) and from 76.8 Mg·ha−1 to 670.1 Mg·ha−1 (mean = 181.5 Mg·ha−1), respectively. Mature natural forests have higher biomass than mature planted ones. The NPP values of natural and planted forests range from 1.4 Mg·ha−1·year−1 to 29.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1 (mean = 13.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1) and from 0.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1 to 26.5 Mg·ha−1·year−1 (mean = 9.9 Mg·ha−1·year−1), respectively. Correlations among biomass, NPP, and environmental factors show that NPP significantly decreases with latitude and increases with mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, growing degree-days on a 0 °C base, and mean annual drought index, whereas biomass positively correlates with stand age and leaf area index strongly. Karst forests exhibit almost the same NPP as non-karst forests, but the former have significantly lower biomass compared to the latter. Comprehensive regional data synthesis and analysis based on direct field observations of forest biomass and NPP are important for benchmarking global and regional vegetation and carbon models, estimating regional carbon content, restoring vegetation, and mitigating climate change.
      PubDate: 2016-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080173
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 174: Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth
           Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Related to Soil Alteration and
           Climate Change in Belgium

    • First page: 174
      Abstract: Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L.) were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old). The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size) were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate), mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity), mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1) before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition); and (2) since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080174
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 175: Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful
           Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.)

    • First page: 175
      Abstract: The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts). Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck) altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous) is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control.
      PubDate: 2016-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080175
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 176: Cellulose Dynamics during Foliar Litter
           Decomposition in an Alpine Forest Meta-Ecosystem

    • Authors: Kai Yue, Fuzhong Wu, Wanqin Yang, Chuan Zhang, Yan Peng, Bo Tan, Zhenfeng Xu, Chunping Huang
      First page: 176
      Abstract: To investigate the dynamics and relative drivers of cellulose degradation during litter decomposition, a field experiment was conducted in three individual ecosystems (i.e., forest floor, stream, and riparian zone) of an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana) that had varying initial litter chemical traits were placed separately in litterbags and then incubated on the soil surface of forest floor plots or in the water of the stream and riparian zone plots. Litterbags were retrieved five times each year during the two-year experiment, with nine replicates each time for each treatment. The results suggested that foliar litter lost 32.2%–89.2% of the initial dry mass depending on litter species and ecosystem type after two-year’s incubation. The cellulose lost 60.1%–96.8% of the initial mass with degradation rate in the order of stream > riparian zone > forest floor. Substantial cellulose degradation occurred at the very beginning (i.e., in the first pre-freezing period) of litter decomposition. Litter initial concentrations of phosphorus (P) and lignin were found to be the dominant chemical traits controlling cellulose degradation regardless of ecosystems type. The local-scale environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability were important moderators of cellulose degradation rate. Although the effects of common litter chemical traits (e.g., P and lignin concentrations) on cellulose degradation across different individual ecosystems were identified, local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability were found to be of great importance for cellulose degradation. These results indicated that local-scale environmental factors should be considered apart from litter quality for generating a reliable predictive framework for the drivers of cellulose degradation and further on litter decomposition at a global scale.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080176
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 177: Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and
           Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in
           Subtropical China

    • Authors: Hua Zhou, Shengwang Meng, Qijing Liu
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080177
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 178: Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in
           Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var.
           veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

    • First page: 178
      Abstract: Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero) and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw)) in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs). We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%), germination (5.0%) and seedling establishment (27.7%), with high levels of inbreeding (0.79). In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%), high germination (71.5%) and seedling establishment (84%–97%) and low inbreeding (0.33). Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080178
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 179: Variation in Mountain Vegetation Composition
           between the East and the West Sides of Southern Taiwan

    • Authors: Yi-Shin Chian, Ching-Long Yeh, Chih-Chiang Wang
      First page: 179
      Abstract: In this study, we classified twenty associations, 179 families, 810 genera, 1897 species, and identified 291 rare species. The vegetation units were named following floristic-sociological approach. A cocktail determination key was used to classify the following vegetation units of association. More of the west side than the east side of the study area was at a higher altitude, and the vegetation experienced significant compression. Follow the result of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), winter rainfall and average January temperature were the main environmental factors affecting variation in vegetation distribution by elevation gradient in this area. The particular association type on the eastern side of the study area is attributable to the northeast monsoon experienced year-round in this area, which causes relatively low temperature and humidity and wind rush, as well as the compression of the elevation range in each forest. The monsoon deciduous vegetation area exists only on the west of the low altitude mountains.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080179
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 180: Allometric Equations for Estimating Tree
           Aboveground Biomass in Tropical Dipterocarp Forests of Vietnam

    • First page: 180
      Abstract: There are few allometric equations available for dipterocarp forests, despite the fact that this forest type covers extensive areas in tropical Southeast Asia. This study aims to develop a set of equations to estimate tree aboveground biomass (AGB) in dipterocarp forests in Vietnam and to validate and compare their predictive performance with allometric equations used for dipterocarps in Indonesia and pantropical areas. Diameter at breast height (DBH), total tree height (H), and wood density (WD) were used as input variables of the nonlinear weighted least square models. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and residual plots were used to select the best models; while percent bias, root mean square percentage error, and mean absolute percent error were used to compare their performance to published models. For mixed-species, the best equation was AGB = 0.06203 × DBH 2.26430 × H 0.51415 × WD 0.79456 . When applied to a random independent validation dataset, the predicted values from the generic equations and the dipterocarp equations in Indonesia overestimated the AGB for different sites, indicating the need for region-specific equations. At the genus level, the selected equations were AGB = 0.03713 × DBH 2.73813 and AGB = 0.07483 × DBH 2.54496 for two genera, Dipterocarpus and Shorea, respectively, in Vietnam. Compared to the mixed-species equations, the genus-specific equations improved the accuracy of the AGB estimates. Additionally, the genus-specific equations showed no significant differences in predictive performance in different regions (e.g., Indonesia, Vietnam) of Southeast Asia.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080180
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 181: C Stocks in Forest Floor and Mineral Soil of
           Two Mediterranean Beech Forests

    • Authors: Anna De Marco, Antonietta Fioretto, Maria Giordano, Michele Innangi, Cristina Menta, Stefania Papa, Amalia Virzo De Santo
      First page: 181
      Abstract: This study focuses on two Mediterranean beech forests located in northern and southern Italy and therefore subjected to different environmental conditions. The research goal was to understand C storage in the forest floor and mineral soil and the major determinants. Relative to the northern forest (NF), the southern forest (SF) was found to produce higher amounts of litterfall (4.3 vs. 2.5 Mg·ha−1) and to store less C in the forest floor (~8 vs. ~12 Mg·ha−1) but more C in the mineral soil (~148 vs. ~72 Mg·ha−1). Newly-shed litter of NF had lower P (0.4 vs. 0.6 mg·g−1) but higher N concentration (13 vs. 10 mg·g−1) than SF. Despite its lower Mn concentration (0.06 vs. 0.18 mg·g−1), SF litter produces a Mn-richer humus (0.32 vs. 0.16 mg·g−1) that is less stable. The data suggest that decomposition in the NF forest floor is limited by the shorter growing season (178 days vs. 238 days) and the higher N concentrations in newly shed litter and forest floor. Differences in C stock in the mineral soil reflect differences in ecosystem productivity and long-term organic-matter accumulation. The vertical gradient of soluble and microbial fractions in the soil profile of SF was consistent with a faster turnover of organic matter in the forest floor and greater C accumulation in mineral soil relative to NF. With reference to regional-scale estimates from Italian National Forest Inventory data, the C stock in the mineral soil and the basal area of Italian beech forests were found to be significantly related, whereas C stock in the forest floor and C stock in the mineral soil were not.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080181
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 182: Analysis of the Mechanism Hindering
           Sustainable Forestry Operations: A Case Study of Japanese Forest

    • Authors: Yukari Fuchigami, Keishiro Hara, Michinori Uwasu, Shuji Kurimoto
      First page: 182
      Abstract: We investigated local forest management practices in Osaka, Japan aiming to clarify mechanisms that hinder long-term, sustainable forestry operation by carrying out forest surveys and interview surveys. Because mountain districts in Japan now face declining and aging populations, forestry work has shifted to forest owners’ associations, with efficient forest management being required on an ad hoc basis as a result of the subsidy system. We found that the forest management plan for the study site utilized only one-seventh of the economic value of the forest, mainly due to the local forestry structure and an inefficient subsidy system that requires efficiency. The income yielded by timber undergoing such forest management and distribution processes is too low to permit forest owners to carry out sufficient forest cultivation. To effectively utilize the wood, a subsidy system that takes a long-term view and a timber market that puts an appropriate price on wood are needed. We argue that it is important to bolster the management position of the Japanese Forest Owners’ Associations for design an institutional scheme that enables to practice forestry management from a long-term perspective.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f7080182
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 128: A Linear Programming Model to Biophysically
           Assess Some Ecosystem Service Synergies and Trade-Offs in Two Irish

    • Authors: Edwin Corrigan, Maarten Nieuwenhuis
      First page: 128
      Abstract: Ecosystem service provisions are becoming more frequently used to assess land-use related conflicts in recent decades. This study investigates the current spatial and research information available to quantify ecosystem services relative to forest land-use planning in Ireland. A model is developed using the linear-programming method in Remsoft’s Woodstock platform. This model is applied to two case study areas in Ireland: Western Peatlands and Newmarket. Each case study area was chosen to assess a unique issue in the Irish and European context on the provision of ecosystem services. Western Peatlands was chosen to assess the effects of forest and alternative land-use options and Newmarket was chosen to investigate the effect of afforestation. The synergies and trade-offs of biophysically optimising the provisions of each ecosystem service are presented and discussed. The study quantitatively determines that trade-offs among provisions of some ecosystem services are required when optimising an ecosystem service while other ecosystem services are synergistic when the provision of a single ecosystem service is optimised.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070128
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 129: Spatiotemporal Variability of Wildland Fuels
           in US Northern Rocky Mountain Forests

    • Authors: Robert Keane
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Fire regimes are ultimately controlled by wildland fuel dynamics over space and time; spatial distributions of fuel influence the size, spread, and intensity of individual fires, while the temporal distribution of fuel deposition influences fire’s frequency and controls fire size. These “shifting fuel mosaics” are both a cause and a consequence of fire regimes. This paper synthesizes results from two major fuel dynamics studies that described the spatial and temporal variability of canopy and surface wildland fuel characteristics found in US northern Rocky Mountain forests. Eight major surface fuel components—four downed dead woody fuel size classes (1, 10, 100, 1000 h), duff, litter, shrub, and herb—and three canopy fuel characteristics—loading, bulk density and cover—were studied. Properties of these fuel types were sampled on nested plots located within sampling grids to describe their variability across spatiotemporal scales. Important findings were that fuel component loadings were highly variable (two to three times the mean), and this variability increased with the size of fuel particles. The spatial variability of loadings also varied by spatial scale with fine fuels (duff, litter, 1 h, 10 h) varying at scales of 1 to 5 m; coarse fuels at 10 to 150 m, and canopy fuels at 100 to 600 m. Fine fuels are more uniformly distributed over both time and space and decayed quickly, while large fuels are rare on the landscape but have a high residence time.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070129
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 130: Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty in
           Financial Risk Assessment of Road Transportation of Wood in Uruguay

    • First page: 130
      Abstract: The uncertainty in road transportation of wood is inherent to its operational costs, to the amount of transported wood, to the traveled distance, to its revenue, and more. Although it is not possible to measure this uncertainty fully, it can be quantified by the investment risk, which is the probability and degree of financial loss. The objective of this study is to quantify the financial risk of the investment in wood transportation through Monte Carlo simulation, which uses realistic situations to estimate the operational cost of vehicles used for road transportation of wood. We quantify these uncertainties by assessing financial risk and building pseudorandom scenarios with the Monte Carlo simulation method, in addition to the Net Present Value techniques, the Modified Internal Rate of Return, and the Profitability Index, all commonly used in financial investment projects. The results show that the estimated operational costs are equivalent to the actual ones, along with the evidence that the cost of fuel, the driver’s manpower, and tires are components that mainly increase the degree of financial risk for an investment project in road transportation of wood. In contrast, optimizing the amount of transported wood and maximizing wood transportation cost have a significant and positive correlation with the volume of transported wood and the average price of wood transportation, leading to a reduction in the degree of financial risk.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070130
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 131: Quantifying Fire Cycle from Dendroecological
           Records Using Survival Analyses

    • Authors: Dominic Cyr, Sylvie Gauthier, Yan Boulanger, Yves Bergeron
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Quantifying fire regimes in the boreal forest ecosystem is crucial for understanding the past and present dynamics, as well as for predicting its future dynamics. Survival analyses have often been used to estimate the fire cycle in eastern Canada because they make it possible to take into account the censored information that is made prevalent by the typically long fire return intervals and the limited scope of the dendroecological methods that are used to quantify them. Here, we assess how the true length of the fire cycle, the short-term temporal variations in fire activity, and the sampling effort affect the accuracy and precision of estimates obtained from two types of parametric survival models, the Weibull and the exponential models, and one non-parametric model obtained with the Cox regression. Then, we apply those results in a case area located in eastern Canada. Our simulation experiment confirms some documented concerns regarding the detrimental effects of temporal variations in fire activity on parametric estimation of the fire cycle. Cox regressions appear to provide the most accurate and robust estimator, being by far the least affected by temporal variations in fire activity. The Cox-based estimate of the fire cycle for the last 300 years in the case study area is 229 years (CI95: 162–407), compared with the likely overestimated 319 years obtained with the commonly used exponential model.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070131
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 132: Regional Differences in Upland Forest to
           Developed (Urban) Land Cover Conversions in the Conterminous U.S.,

    • Authors: Roger Auch, Mark Drummond, George Xian, Kristi Sayler, William Acevedo, Janis Taylor
      First page: 132
      Abstract: In this U.S. Geological Survey study of forest land cover across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), specific proportions and rates of forest conversion to developed (urban) land were assessed on an ecoregional basis. The study period was divided into six time intervals between 1973 and 2011. Forest land cover was the source of 40% or more of the new urban land in 35 of the 84 ecoregions located within the CONUS. In 11 of these ecoregions this threshold exceeded in every time interval. When the percent of change, forest to urban, was compared to the percent of forest in each ecoregion, 58 ecoregions had a greater percent of change and, in six of those, change occurred in every time interval. Annual rates of forest to urban land cover change of 0.2% or higher occurred in 12 ecoregions at least once and in one ecoregion in all intervals. There were three ecoregions where the above conditions were met for nearly every time interval. Even though only a small number of the ecoregions were heavily impacted by forest loss to urban development within the CONUS, the ecosystem services provided by undeveloped forest land cover need to be quantified more completely to better inform future regional land management.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070132
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 133: Correction: Trishkin, M., et al. Assessment of
           a Company’s Due Diligence System against the EU Timber Regulation: A
           Case Study from Northwestern Russia. Forests 2015, 6, 1380–1396

    • Authors: Maxim Trishkin, Eugene Lopatin, Timo Karjalainen
      First page: 133
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes.[...]
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070133
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 134: Do Indigenous Street Trees Promote More
           Biodiversity than Alien Ones? Evidence Using Mistletoes and Birds in South

    • Authors: Charlie Shackleton
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Trees in urban landscapes provide a range of ecosystem services, including habitat, refugia, food, and corridors for other fauna and flora. However, there is some debate whether the richness and abundance of other biodiversity supported is influenced by the provenance of trees, i.e., native or non-native. This study assessed the presence of mistletoes and birds (and nests) in 1261 street trees. There were marked differences between native and non-native street trees, with the former having a significantly higher prevalence of birds (and nests) and supporting more species and in greater densities, whilst the latter supported a higher prevalence of mistletoes. Additionally, for birds, the proximity to green space, tree size and species were also important, whilst for mistletoes, the proximity to green space, slope aspect, and tree species were significant. Preference ratios indicated that some tree species had a higher than random occurrence of birds or mistletoes, whilst others had a low abundance. The indigenous tree species, Acacia karroo Hayne was the only reasonably abundant street tree species that was important for birds, nests, and mistletoes. At the street scale, there was a positive relationship between street tree species richness and bird species richness. These results emphasise the importance of selecting appropriate tree species if biodiversity conservation is a core outcome.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070134
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 135: Wood Density and Mechanical Properties of
           Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon in Malawi

    • Authors: Edward Missanjo, Junji Matsumura
      First page: 135
      Abstract: Successful development of an appropriate tree breeding strategy and wood utilization requires information on wood properties. This study was therefore conducted to assess wood density and mechanical properties of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon grown in Malawi. Wood samples from six families of P. kesiya at the age of 30 years were used for the study. The estimated mean wood density, Modulus of Elasticity (MoE), Modulus of Rupture (MoR) and moisture content were 0.593 ± 0.001 g/cm3, 13.46 ± 0.07 GPa, 113.67 ± 0.57 MPa and 12.08% ± 0.03%, respectively. There were statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences in wood density and mechanical properties along the radial direction and stem height. Wood density and mechanical properties increased from pith to bark and decreased from the butt upwards. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in wood density and mechanical properties among the families. This is an indication that any tree among the families can be selected for tree improvement programs if density is considered as a variable. Wood density had a strong positive significant linear relationship with both MoE (r = 0.790; p < 0.001) and MoR (r = 0.793; p < 0.001). This suggests that it has the potential to simultaneously improve the wood density and mechanical properties of this species. Therefore, controlling wood density for the tree improvement program of P. kesiya in Malawi would have a positive impact on mechanical properties.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070135
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 136: Developing Two Additive Biomass Equations for
           Three Coniferous Plantation Species in Northeast China

    • Authors: Lihu Dong, Lianjun Zhang, Fengri Li
      First page: 136
      Abstract: Accurate quantification of tree biomass is critical and essential for calculating carbon storage, as well as for studying climate change, forest health, forest productivity, nutrient cycling, etc. Tree biomass is typically estimated using statistical models. In this study, a total of 289 trees were harvested and measured for stem, root, branch, and foliage biomass from three coniferous plantation species in northeastern P.R. China. We developed two additive systems of biomass equations based on tree diameter (D) only and both tree diameter (D) and height (H). For each system, likelihood analysis was used to verify the error structures of power functions in order to determine if logarithmic transformation should be applied on both sides of biomass equations. The model coefficients were simultaneously estimated using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR). The results indicated that stem biomass had the largest relative contribution to total biomass, while foliage biomass had the smallest relative proportion for the three species. The root to shoot ratio averaged 0.27 for Korean pine, 0.25 for larch, and 0.23 for Mongolian pine. The two additive biomass systems obtained good model fitting and prediction performance, of which the model Ra2 > 0.80, and the percent mean absolute bias (MAB%), was <17%. The second additive system (D and H) had a relatively greater Ra2 and smaller root mean square error (RMSE). The model coefficient for the predictor H was statistically significant in eight of the twelve models, depending on tree species and biomass component. Adding tree height into the system of biomass equations can marginally improve model fitting and performance, especially for total, aboveground, and stem biomass. The two additive systems developed in this study can be applied to estimate individual tree biomass of three coniferous plantation species in the Chinese National Forest Inventory.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070136
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 137: Ponderosa Pine Forest Restoration Treatment
           Longevity: Implications of Regeneration on Fire Hazard

    • Authors: Wade Tinkham, Chad Hoffman, Seth Ex, Michael Battaglia, Jarred Saralecos
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Restoration of pine forests has become a priority for managers who are beginning to embrace ideas of highly heterogeneous forest structures that potentially encourages high levels of regeneration. This study utilizes stem-mapped stands to assess how simulated regeneration timing and magnitude influence longevity of reduced fire behavior by linking growth and yield model outputs to a crown fire prediction model. Treatment longevity was assessed as return time to within 10% of pre-treatment predicted wind speeds for the onset of passive (Torching) and active (Crowning) crown fire behavior. Treatment longevity in terms of Torching and Crowning was reduced 5 years for every 550 and 150 seedlings ha−1, respectively. Introducing regeneration as a single pulse further reduced Torching treatment longevity 10 years compared to other regeneration distributions. Crowning treatment longevity increased at higher site indices, where a 6 m increase in site index increased longevity 4.5 year. This result was contrary to expectations that canopy openings after treatments would close faster on higher productivity sites. Additionally, Torching longevity was influenced by the rate of crown recession, were reducing the recession rate decreased longevity in areas with higher site indices. These dependencies highlight a need for research exploring stand development in heterogeneous sites.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070137
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 138: Estimating Aboveground Biomass and Carbon
           Stocks in Periurban Andean Secondary Forests Using Very High Resolution

    • Authors: Nicola Clerici, Kristian Rubiano, Amr Abd-Elrahman, Juan Posada Hoestettler, Francisco Escobedo
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Periurban forests are key to offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions, but they are under constant threat from urbanization. In particular, secondary Neotropical forest types in Andean periurban areas have a high potential to store carbon, but are currently poorly characterized. To address this lack of information, we developed a method to estimate periurban aboveground biomass (AGB)—a proxy for multiple ecosystem services—of secondary Andean forests near Bogotá, Colombia, based on very high resolution (VHR) GeoEye-1, Pleiades-1A imagery and field-measured plot data. Specifically, we tested a series of different pre-processing workflows to derive six vegetation indices that were regressed against in situ estimates of AGB. Overall, the coupling of linear models and the Ratio Vegetation Index produced the most satisfactory results. Atmospheric and topographic correction proved to be key in improving model fit, especially in high aerosol and rugged terrain such as the Andes. Methods and findings provide baseline AGB and carbon stock information for little studied periurban Andean secondary forests. The methodological approach can also be used for integrating limited forest monitoring plot AGB data with very high resolution imagery for cost-effective modelling of ecosystem service provision from forests, monitoring reforestation and forest cover change, and for carbon offset assessments.
      PubDate: 2016-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070138
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 139: Detecting Local Drivers of Fire Cycle
           Heterogeneity in Boreal Forests: A Scale Issue

    • First page: 139
      Abstract: Severe crown fires are determining disturbances for the composition and structure of boreal forests in North America. Fire cycle (FC) associations with continental climate gradients are well known, but smaller scale controls remain poorly documented. Using a time since fire map (time scale of 300 years), the study aims to assess the relative contributions of local and regional controls on FC and to describe the relationship between FC heterogeneity and vegetation patterns. The study area, located in boreal eastern North America, was partitioned into watersheds according to five scales going from local (3 km2) to landscape (2800 km2) scales. Using survival analysis, we observed that dry surficial deposits and hydrography density better predict FC when measured at the local scale, while terrain complexity and slope position perform better when measured at the middle and landscape scales. The most parsimonious model was selected according to the Akaike information criterion to predict FC throughout the study area. We detected two FC zones, one short (159 years) and one long (303 years), with specific age structures and tree compositions. We argue that the local heterogeneity of the fire regime contributes to ecosystem diversity and must be considered in ecosystem management.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070139
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 140: Simulating Water-Use Efficiency of Piceacrassi
           folia Forest under Representative Concentration Pathway Scenarios in the
           Qilian Mountains of Northwest China

    • Authors: Shouzhang Peng, Yunming Chen, Yang Cao
      First page: 140
      Abstract: The current study used the Biome-Bio Geochemical Cycle (Biome-BGC) model to simulate water-use efficiency (WUE) of Piceacrassi folia (P. crassifolia) forest under four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and investigated the responses of forest WUE to different combinations of climatic changes and CO2 concentrations in the Qilian Mountains of Northwest China. The model was validated by comparing simulated forest net primary productivity and transpiration under current climatic condition with independent field-measured data. Subsequently, the model was used to predict P. crassi folia forest WUE response to different climatic and CO2 change scenarios. Results showed that (1) increases in temperature, precipitation and atmospheric CO2 concentrations led to associated increases in WUE (ranging from 54% to 66% above the reference climate); (2) effect of CO2 concentration (increased WUE from 36% to 42.3%) was more significant than that of climate change (increased WUE from 2.4% to 15%); and (3) forest WUE response to future global change was more intense at high elevations than at low ones, with CO2 concentration being the main factor that controlled forest WUE variation. These results provide valuable insight to help understand how these forest types might respond to future changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070140
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 141: Thinning Intensity Affects Soil-Atmosphere
           Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases and Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Lowland
           Poplar Plantation

    • Authors: Shengzuo Fang, Da Lin, Ye Tian, Senxian Hong
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Thinning is one of the intensive forest management techniques commonly applied to increase the merchantable timber volume. However, how thinning affects soil–atmospheric fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is poorly understood. A field experiment with four treatments (CK: unthinned; MB: medium intensity thinning from below; HB: high intensity thinning from below; and HI: high intensity thinning by removing every alternative row of trees) was conducted to assess the impact of thinning regimes on soil–atmospheric fluxes of GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and soil nitrogen mineralization in a poplar plantation established on a lowland. Thinning significantly increased soil water content and water table in the high thinning treatments (HB and HI) and tended to increase soil temperature (p < 0.10). The result of the one-year study showed that estimated annual emissions of CO2 and CH4 were higher in HB and HI than in other treatments, while the highest emission of N2O was in the CK. The thinning treatments increased the annual emission of CO2 by 23%–64% and that of CH4 by 190%–1200%, but decreased that of N2O by 41%–62%. Thinning increased annual N mineralization by 50.3% in HI and 30.1%in HB. Changes in soil temperature and water table drove CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, while soil water content was the most important factor driving CH4 emission. We conclude that the moderate thinning (MB) regime is the best thinning option to minimize the impact on GHG emissions for lowland poplar plantations with similar conditions to those tested in this study.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070141
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 142: Ecosystem Carbon Stock Loss after Land Use
           Change in Subtropical Forests in China

    • Authors: Shaohui Fan, Fengying Guan, Xingliang Xu, David Forrester, Wu Ma, Xiaolu Tang
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Converting secondary natural forests (SFs) to Chinese fir plantations (CFPs) represents one of the most important (8.9 million ha) land use changes in subtropical China. This study estimated both biomass and soil C stocks in a SF and a CFP that was converted from a SF, to quantify the effects of land use change on ecosystem C stock. After the forest conversion, biomass C in the CFP (73 Mg·ha−1) was significantly lower than that of the SF (114 Mg·ha−1). Soil organic C content and stock decreased with increasing soil depth, and the soil C stock in the 0–10 cm layer accounted for more than one third of the total soil C stock over 0–50 cm, emphasizing the importance of management of the top soil to reduce the soil C loss. Total ecosystem C stock of the SF and the CFP was 318 and 200 Mg·ha−1, respectively, 64% of which was soil C for both stands (205 Mg·ha−1 for the SF and 127 Mg·ha−1 for the CFP). This indicates that land use change from the SF to the CFP significantly decreased ecosystem C stock and highlights the importance of managing soil C.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070142
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 143: Evaluating the Performance of High-Altitude
           Aerial Image-Based Digital Surface Models in Detecting Individual Tree
           Crowns in Mature Boreal Forests

    • First page: 143
      Abstract: Height models based on high-altitude aerial images provide a low-cost means of generating detailed 3D models of the forest canopy. In this study, the performance of these height models in the detection of individual trees was evaluated in a commercially managed boreal forest. Airborne digital stereo imagery (DSI) was captured from a flight altitude of 5 km with a ground sample distance of 50 cm and corresponds to regular national topographic airborne data capture programs operated in many countries. Tree tops were detected from smoothed canopy height models (CHM) using watershed segmentation. The relative amount of detected trees varied between 26% and 140%, and the RMSE of plot-level arithmetic mean height between 2.2 m and 3.1 m. Both the dominant tree species and the filter used for smoothing affected the results. Even though the spatial resolution of DSI-based CHM was sufficient, detecting individual trees from the data proved to be demanding because of the shading effect of the dominant trees and the limited amount of data from lower canopy levels and near the ground.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070143
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 144: Erratum: Spatial Patterns of Irradiance and
           Advanced Reproduction along a Canopy Disturbance Severity Gradient in an
           Upland Hardwood Stand. Forests 2016, 7, 73

    • Authors: Forests Editorial Office
      First page: 144
      Abstract: Due to a mistake during the production process, there was one error in paragraph 3 of the introduction in the original published version [1].[...]
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070144
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 145: Sales of Forestry-Related Specialty License
           Plates in the Southern United States: A County Level Empirical Analysis

    • Authors: Shaun Tanger, Md Masum, Michael Blazier, A. Holley
      First page: 145
      Abstract: In recent years, specialty license plates have become an increasingly popular way to raise awareness and show support for a myriad of issues with which the plate is linked. Several states and various organizations that provide forestry education have developed forestry license plates. Vehicle owners can purchase the plates to show their support towards forestry by buying the forestry license plates, which generates revenue for the provider organization. Using county-level data from five states in the Southeastern United States, a statistical model was developed to examine explanatory factors of forestry-based specialty license plate sales in 2014. Using linear count regression modeling, we observed that the significant predictor variables of plate sales were income per capita, population density, the percentage of acres that are forested in the county, acres of forest in the county that are privately owned, percentage of people who are 65 or older, and presence of the forest industry in the county. Plate sales were positively correlated with the presence of the forest industry in the county.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070145
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 146: City “Green” Contributions: The Role of
           Urban Greenspaces as Reservoirs for Biodiversity

    • First page: 146
      Abstract: Urbanization poses important environmental, social, and ecological pressures, representing a major threat to biodiversity. However, urban areas are highly heterogeneous, with some greenspaces (e.g., urban forests, parks, private gardens) providing resources and a refuge for wildlife communities. In this study we surveyed 10 taxonomic groups to assess their species richness and composition in six greenspaces that differ in size, location, management, and human activities. Species richness differed among taxonomic groups, but not all differed statistically among the studied greenspaces (i.e., sac fungi, bats). Plants, basidiomycetous and sac fungi, and birds showed intermediate assemblage composition similarity (<54%). The composition of assemblages of copro-necrophagous beetles, grasshoppers, amphibians, and bats was related to the specific traits of greenspaces, mainly size and location. The species richness contribution of each greenspace considering all studied taxonomic groups was highest in the largest greenspace that is located at the southeastern border of the city, while the lowest contribution was recorded in the smallest ones, all of them closer to the city’s center. Our results shed some light on the way in which different taxonomic groups respond to an array of neotropical urban greenspaces, providing an important basis for future studies.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070146
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 147: Second-Log Branching in Multiaged Redwood and
           Douglas-Fir: Influence of Stand, Site, and Silviculture

    • Authors: Christopher Kirk, John-Pascal Berrill
      First page: 147
      Abstract: We studied branching in Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex D. Don) Endl. (coast redwood) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii (coast Douglas-fir) because of their commercial value to coastal northern California. We focused on branching in the second log, which constitutes an important part of a tree’s wood volume and potential value. We quantified branch size and branch growth of overstory trees in multiaged stands in Mendocino County, California, in response to topographic, silvicultural, and stand- and tree-related variables. Higher stand density—a measure of competition averaged across the sample plot—did not correlate with size of the largest second-log branch measured but was associated with a smaller average diameter of the largest branches measured on all sides of the study tree. The largest branch measured was smaller when in closer proximity to branches of its immediate neighbor tree. Redwood had larger branches than Douglas-fir but their size was more sensitive to an ecological gradient of soil-moisture deficit. Branches responded differently to individual tree selection harvest of conifers versus herbicide control of hardwoods. Residual conifer branches in harvested plots responded almost immediately with increased growth, but this release was short-lived. Branches in herbicide-treated plots exhibited a delayed release, giving more consistent branch growth throughout two five-year measurement periods after treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070147
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 148: Modeling Prices for Sawtimber Stumpage in the
           South-Central United States

    • Authors: Rajan Parajuli, Shaun Tanger, Omkar Joshi, James Henderson
      First page: 148
      Abstract: The South-Central United States, which includes the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Arkansas, represents an important segment of the softwood sawtimber market. By using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method to account for the linkage among the four contiguous timber markets, this study examines the dynamics of softwood sawtimber stumpage markets within the region. Based on quarterly data from 1981 to 2014, the findings reveal that both pulpwood and chip-and-saw (CNS) prices have a positive influence on the Texas and Arkansas sawtimber markets. Moreover, Granger-causality tests suggest that unidirectional causality runs from pulpwood and CNS markets to the respective sawtimber market. Compared to the pre-financial crisis period, sawtimber prices in these four states are 9%–17% lower in the recent years.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070148
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 149: Cost-Effectiveness of Fuel Removals in
           Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces Threatened by Wildfires

    • Authors: Mario Elia, Raffaella Lovreglio, Nicola Ranieri, Giovanni Sanesi, Raffaele Lafortezza
      First page: 149
      Abstract: One of the most important environmental issues in Europe is the expansion of wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) and how this trend may affect the occurrence of wildfires. Land use changes, the abandonment of farmland, and reduced grazing has led to an increase in forested areas with an accumulation and continuity of surface fuels available for combustion. Policies based exclusively on extensive fire suppression have become ineffective in different parts of Europe. To reduce the threat of damaging and costly wildfires, European countries must develop integrated fuel management programs. This approach has proven to be one of the most cost-effective for preventing wildfires and reducing economic loss. To this end, we have conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate how much fuel must be treated to determine fuel load removals with the lowest cost per hectare of unaffected WUIs threatened by wildfires in southern Italy (Apulia region). The analysis was carried out in three stages: (i) simulation of fire behavior in different fuel load reduction and wind direction scenarios; (ii) estimation of WUIs affected by wildfires within the study landscape; and (iii) the application of a cost-effectiveness ratio. Our results highlight the need to provide a method to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of fuel removal given the increasing number and extent of WUIs in the Mediterranean landscape of Europe. Optimizing the cost-effectiveness analysis of fuel removals offers the basis for appropriately assessing wildfire prevention and budgeting financial resources. Further, this method may be readily applied toward allocating any type of intervention in landscape management.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070149
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 150: Removal of PM10 by Forests as a Nature-Based
           Solution for Air Quality Improvement in the Metropolitan City of Rome

    • Authors: Federica Marando, Elisabetta Salvatori, Lina Fusaro, Fausto Manes
      First page: 150
      Abstract: Nature-based solutions have been identified by the European Union as being critical for the enhancement of environmental qualities in cities, where urban and peri-urban forests play a key role in air quality amelioration through pollutant removal. A remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) approach was applied to the Metropolitan City (MC) of Rome to assess the seasonal particulate matter (PM10) removal capacity of evergreen (broadleaves and conifers) and deciduous species. Moreover, a monetary evaluation of PM10 removal was performed on the basis of pollution externalities calculated for Europe. Deciduous broadleaves represent the most abundant tree functional group and also yielded the highest total annual PM10 deposition values (1769 Mg). By contrast, PM10 removal efficiency (Mg·ha−1) was 15%–22% higher in evergreen than in deciduous species. To assess the different removal capacity of the three functional groups in an area with homogeneous environmental conditions, a study case was performed in a peri-urban forest protected natural reserve (Castelporziano Presidential Estate). This study case highlighted the importance of deciduous species in summer and of evergreen communities as regards the annual PM10 removal balance. The monetary evaluation indicated that the overall PM10 removal value of the MC of Rome amounted to 161.78 million Euros. Our study lends further support to the crucial role played by nature-based solutions for human well-being in urban areas.
      PubDate: 2016-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070150
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 151: Spatial Heterogeneity of Climate Change
           Effects on Dominant Height of Larch Plantations in Northern and
           Northeastern China

    • Authors: Hao Zang, Xiangdong Lei, Wu Ma, Weisheng Zeng
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Determining the response of dominant height growth to climate change is important for understanding adaption strategies. Based on 550 permanent plots from a national forest inventory and climate data across seven provinces and three climate zones, we developed a climate-sensitive dominant height growth model under a mixed-effects model framework. The mean temperature of the wettest quarter and precipitation of the wettest month were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables that markedly improved model performance. Generally, future climate change had a positive effect on stand dominant height in northern and northeastern China, but the effect showed high spatial variability linked to local climatic conditions. The range in dominant height difference between the current climate and three future BC-RCP scenarios would change from −0.61 m to 1.75 m (−6.9% to 13.5%) during the period 2041–2060 and from −1.17 m to 3.28 m (−9.1% to 41.0%) during the period 2061–2080 across provinces. The impacts of climate change on stand dominant height decreased as stand age increased. Forests in cold and warm temperate zones had a smaller decrease in dominant height, owing to climate change, compared with those in the mid temperate zone. Overall, future climate change could impact dominant height growth in northern and northeastern China. As spatial heterogeneity of climate change affects dominant height growth, locally specific mitigation measures should be considered in forest management.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f7070151
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 113: Public Opinions and Use of Various Types of
           Recreational Infrastructure in Boreal Forest Settings

    • Authors: Vegard Gundersen, Odd Vistad
      First page: 113
      Abstract: We have investigated public preferences for use intensity and visual quality of forest recreational infrastructure. Forest infrastructure covers five classes, along a continuum from unmarked paths to paved walkways. Altogether, 39 sites were categorized into the five classes and measured with automatic counters. A sample of 545 respondents living in southeastern and middle Norway were asked to rate 15 forest scenes and 35 preconceptions of recreational settings. The path scenarios were depicted as digitally calibrated photos that systematically displayed physical path feature in boreal, semi-natural settings. Survey participants showed a clearly greater preference for photos and preconceptions of forests settings containing minor elements of forest infrastructure; unmarked paths received the highest score and forest roads/walkways/bikeways the lowest. We identified a clear mismatch between public preferences for forest infrastructure and the intensity of use; the less appreciated infrastructure was the most used. Planning and management has to consider these different needs for recreational infrastructure, and we propose an area zoning system that meets the different segments of forest visitors.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060113
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 114: Socioeconomic Predictors of Family Forest
           Owner Awareness and Use of U.S. Federal Income Tax Provisions

    • Authors: John Hatcher, Thomas Straka, Tamara Cushing, John Greene, William Bridges
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Family forest owners (FFOs) control a majority of private forestland in the United States and have widely diverse ownership and management objectives. Many FFOs manage their holdings for timber production and, thus, are concerned with issues such as reforestation incentives and tax treatment of timber revenues. Their actual knowledge of the tax aspects of timber management varies, with some owners even unaware of the federal income tax provisions that apply to timber. This research used econometric techniques to establish socioeconomic predictors of FFO awareness and use of federal income tax provisions. Socioeconomic factors (such as size of forest holding, ownership objective, education, age, and income) were evaluated in terms of association with awareness and use of income tax provisions. Data were obtained from a survey of 1350 South Carolina FFOs (472 useable responses). A two-step sample selection methodology revealed that membership in a landowner organization and size of forest holding positively influence landowner awareness of the seven tax provisions, while ownership objective and level of education exhibited varying degrees of influence. Overall, the findings suggest that size of forest holding is the key determinant that influences landowner use of the provisions. These tax incentives are one of the foundations of federal policies encouraging active forest management by FFOs and the effectiveness of the various incentives has crucial implications for forest policy analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060114
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 115: Surface Soil Carbon Storage in Urban Green
           Spaces in Three Major South Korean Cities

    • Authors: Tae Yoon, Kyung Seo, Gwan Park, Yeong Son, Yowhan Son
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Quantifying and managing carbon (C) storage in urban green space (UGS) soils is associated with the ecosystem services necessary for human well-being and the national C inventory report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Here, the soil C stocks at 30-cm depths in different types of UGS’s (roadside, park, school forest, and riverside) were studied in three major South Korean cities that have experienced recent, rapid development. The total C of 666 soil samples was analyzed, and these results were combined with the available UGS inventory data. Overall, the mean soil bulk density, C concentration, and C density at 30-cm depths were 1.22 g·cm−3, 7.31 g·C·kg−1, and 2.13 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The UGS soil C stock (Gg·C) at 30-cm depths was 105.6 for Seoul, 43.6 for Daegu, and 26.4 for Daejeon. The lower C storage of Korean UGS soils than those of other countries is due to the low soil C concentration and the smaller land area under UGS. Strategic management practices that augment the organic matter supply in soil are expected to enhance C storage in South Korean UGS soils.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060115
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 116: Carbon Sequestration and Sedimentation in
           Mangrove Swamps Influenced by Hydrogeomorphic Conditions and Urbanization
           in Southwest Florida

    • Authors: Daniel Marchio, Michael Savarese, Brian Bovard, William Mitsch
      First page: 116
      Abstract: This study compares carbon sequestration rates along two independent tidal mangrove creeks near Naples Bay in Southwest Florida, USA. One tidal creek is hydrologically disturbed due to upstream land use changes; the other is an undisturbed reference creek. Soil cores were collected in basin, fringe, and riverine hydrogeomorphic settings along each of the two tidal creeks and analyzed for bulk density, total organic carbon profiles, and sediment accretion. Radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb were used to estimate recent sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates. Carbon sequestration rates (mean ± standard error) for seven sites in the two tidal creeks on the Naples Bay (98 ± 12 g-C m−2·year−1 (n = 18)) are lower than published global means for mangrove wetlands, but consistent with other estimates from the same region. Mean carbon sequestration rates in the reference riverine setting were highest (162 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1), followed by rates in the reference fringe and disturbed riverine settings (127 ± 6 and 125 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1, respectively). The disturbed fringe sequestered 73 ± 10 g-C m−2·year−1, while rates within the basin settings were 50 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 and 47 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 for the reference and disturbed creeks, respectively. These data support our hypothesis that mangroves along a hydrologically disturbed tidal creek sequestered less carbon than did mangroves along an adjacent undisturbed reference creek.
      PubDate: 2016-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060116
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 117: Fertilization Response, Light Use, and Growth
           Efficiency in Eucalyptus Plantations across Soil and Climate Gradients in

    • First page: 117
      Abstract: Fertilization increases productivity in Eucalyptus plantations, but losses in productivity associated with soil fertility continue at operational scales. In this study, we evaluated the fertilization response (FR), light use efficiency (LUE) and growth efficiency (GE), i.e., the amount of wood biomass accumulated per unit of light absorbed (LUE) and per unit of leaf area index of Eucalyptus plantations. We used a “twin plot” approach, with 161 blocks representing 52,700 ha of planted forests that spanned a broad range of edaphoclimatic conditions in southeastern Brazil. The normal plots (NP) were part of a permanent inventory network, whereas the twin plots (TP) received extra high levels of fertilization and extra weed control after fertilization. The intensive management (twin plots) led to a large increase of 5.3 Mg·ha−1·year−1 of wood increment. The region without dry periods and with soils with high clay content was most responsive to fertilization, with a 15% increment in the LUE and 10% increase in the GE of the TPs compared with those of the NPs. Our results suggested that water availability was the primary element affecting productivity and potential response to fertilization. With this information, decisions can be made on which regions should receive priority fertilization investments. However, more research is required to determine the most limiting nutrient in each type of environment.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060117
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 118: Innovation Strategy in Slovak Forest
           Contractor Firms—A SWOT Analysis

    • First page: 118
      Abstract: The aim of the study is to determine the innovation strategy of contractor firms in the Slovak forestry service sector in the area of further innovation activities development. The strategy identification was based on the analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in this sector. The results indicate that weaknesses of contractor firms exceed their strengths and, considering the degree and importance of their impact, opportunities exceed identified threats. Based on these findings revealing the relations in the area of innovation activities of forestry service contractors, the “Strategy of Partnership” was suggested as the most suitable type of strategy. It can be concluded that such a form of grouping cooperation brings many benefits to contractors in the form of information availability, guidance, training, and management of conflicts, risks and uncertainty, which are associated with the innovation process.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060118
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 119: Managing Tree Diversity: A Comparison of
           Suburban Development in Two Canadian Cities

    • Authors: Sophie Nitoslawski, Peter Duinker
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Is (sub)urban forest diversity shaped by previous land use? This study was designed to quantitatively assess the impacts of subdivision development on urban tree-species composition in two Canadian cities: Halifax, Nova Scotia, and London, Ontario. The main goal was to determine whether cities with contrasting pre-urbanized or pre-settlement landscapes—woodlands in Halifax and agricultural fields in London—also revealed differences in urban tree diversity losses and/or gains due to urbanization. In each city, four residential neighbourhoods representing two age categories, older and newer (40–50 years, <15 years), were examined and trees on three land types were sampled: public (street), private (residential), and remnant (woodland). All public street trees within the chosen neighbourhoods were inventoried and approximately 10% of the residential property lots were sampled randomly. Plots were examined in remnant forests in or near each city, representing the original forest habitats prior to agricultural and/or urban landscape transformations. Diameter at breast height, species richness and evenness, and proportions of native and non-native trees were measured. In both cities, streetscapes in newer neighbourhoods exhibit greater species richness and evenness, and are characterized by substantially more native trees. Despite this trend, developers and home owners continue to intensively plant non-native species on newer and smaller property lots. Older neighbourhoods in Halifax containing remnant forest stands hold the greatest number of native trees on private property, alluding to the importance of residual forest buffers and patches in promoting naturalness in the private urban forest. These results suggest that identifying and quantifying flows of species between green spaces during and after development is valuable in order to effectively promote native species establishment and enhance overall urban forest diversity.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060119
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 120: How Do Urban Forests Compare? Tree Diversity
           in Urban and Periurban Forests of the Southeastern US

    • Authors: Amy Blood, Gregory Starr, Francisco Escobedo, Art Chappelka, Christina Staudhammer
      First page: 120
      Abstract: There is a need to understand how anthropogenic influences affect urban and periurban forest diversity at the regional scale. This study aims to compare urban and periurban tree composition along a geographic gradient, and test hypotheses about species composition and ecological homogeneity. We paired urban forest (UF) data from eight cities across the southeastern US with periurban forest (PF) data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program. We found that tree diversity, as well as both observed and estimated species richness values were greater in UF versus PF. Community size structure analysis also indicated a greater proportion of large trees and greater numbers of non-native, invasive, and unclassified tree species in the UF versus the PF, regardless of location. Both forest type and ecological province had a significant effect on community species composition, with forests closer together in space being more similar to each other than those more distant. While land use change and management has been associated with ecological homogenization in human dominated landscapes, we found that species composition was more dissimilar along latitudinal lines than compared to between forest types, refuting this hypothesis, at least in terms of tree diversity.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060120
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 121: Spatio-Temporal Changes in Structure for a
           Mediterranean Urban Forest: Santiago, Chile 2002 to 2014

    • Authors: Francisco Escobedo, Sebastian Palmas-Perez, Cynnamon Dobbs, Salvador Gezan, Jaime Hernandez
      First page: 121
      Abstract: There is little information on how urban forest ecosystems in South America and Mediterranean climates change across both space and time. This study statistically and spatially analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of Santiago, Chile’s urban forest using tree and plot-level data from permanent plots from 2002 to 2014. We found mortality, ingrowth, and tree cover remained stable over the analysis period and similar patterns were observed for basal area (BA) and biomass. However, tree cover increased, and was greater in the highest socioeconomic stratum neighborhoods while it dropped in the medium and low strata. Growth rates for the five most common tree species averaged from 0.12 to 0.36 cm·year−1. Spatially, tree biomass and BA were greater in the affluent, northeastern sections of the city and in southwest peri-urban areas. Conversely, less affluent central, northwest, and southern areas showed temporal losses in BA and biomass. Overall, we found that Santiago’s urban forest follows similar patterns as in other parts of the world; affluent areas tend to have more and better managed urban forests than poorer areas, and changes are primarily influenced by social and ecological drivers. Nonetheless, care is warranted when comparing urban forest structural metrics measured with similar sampling-monitoring approaches across ecologically disparate regions and biomes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060121
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 122: Object-Based Tree Species Classification in
           Urban Ecosystems Using LiDAR and Hyperspectral Data

    • Authors: Zhongya Zhang, Alexandra Kazakova, Ludmila Moskal, Diane Styers
      First page: 122
      Abstract: In precision forestry, tree species identification is key to evaluating the role of forest ecosystems in the provision of ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and assessing their effects on climate regulation and climate change. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of tree species classification of urban forests using aerial-based HyMap hyperspectral imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. First, we conducted an object-based image analysis (OBIA) to segment individual tree crowns present in LiDAR-derived Canopy Height Models (CHMs). Then, hyperspectral values for individual trees were extracted from HyMap data for band reduction through Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation which allowed us to reduce the data to 20 significant bands out of 118 bands acquired. Finally, we compared several different classifications using Random Forest (RF) and Multi Class Classifier (MCC) methods. Seven tree species were classified using all 118 bands which resulted in 46.3% overall classification accuracy for RF versus 79.6% for MCC. Using only the 20 optimal bands extracted through MNF, both RF and MCC achieved an increase in overall accuracy to 87.0% and 88.9%, respectively. Thus, the MNF band selection process is a preferable approach for tree species classification when using hyperspectral data. Further, our work also suggests that RF is heavily disadvantaged by the high-dimensionality and noise present in hyperspectral data, while MCC is more robust when handling high-dimensional datasets with small sample sizes. Our overall results indicated that individual tree species identification in urban forests can be accomplished with the fusion of object-based LiDAR segmentation of crowns and hyperspectral characterization.
      PubDate: 2016-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060122
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 123: Correction: Wang, J.S., et al. Effects of
           Nitrogen Addition on Leaf Decomposition of Single-Species and Litter
           Mixture in Pinus tabulaeformis Forests. Forests, 2015, 6, 4462–4476

    • Authors: Jinsong Wang, Wensheng Bu, Bo Zhao, Xiuhai Zhao, Chunyu Zhang, Juan Fan, Klaus Gadow
      First page: 123
      Abstract: We discovered typographical errors in two sentences and, therefore, changes are needed to our published manuscript [1].[...]
      PubDate: 2016-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060123
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 124: Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag
           Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark
           Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine

    • Authors: Kevin Dodds, Ryan Hanavan, Tom Wansleben
      First page: 124
      Abstract: We investigated two methods to create white pine and red maple snags in a forested setting. The first involved injecting trees with ethanol at two times (single Ethanol (ETOH) and double ETOH injections) to increase attractiveness to insects and elicit attacks on trees. The second method was unique to white pines and involved both injection treatments in combination with baiting trees with Ips-specific pheromones. Three of five white pines from the double ETOH treatment died in the second year. Species including Ips pini (Say), Ips grandicollis Eichhoff, Orthotomicus caelatus Eichhoff, Crypturgus borealis Swaine and Monochamus notatus (Drury) responded more strongly to at least one of the treatments over control trees. However, there were no differences found in individual Scolytinae or Cerambycidae species response to treatments in red maple. Fitness (FV/FM) and vitality (PIabs) were both significantly reduced in both ETOH treatments compared to controls in white pine. In red maple, fitness was reduced in the double ETOH treated trees but the final mean FV/FM values were within the approximate optimal of health. Ethanol injections, in combination with Ips-specific semiochemicals, show promise for creating standing coarse woody debris (CWD) in white pine. Injecting ethanol was not effective for stressing red maple.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060124
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 125: Wildfires Dynamics in Siberian Larch Forests

    • Authors: Evgenii Ponomarev, Viacheslav Kharuk, Kenneth Ranson
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45°–73° N) were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and field measurements for the period 1996–2015. In addition, fire return interval (FRI) along the south-north transect was analyzed. Both the number of forest fires and the size of the burned area increased during recent decades (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5) and drought index (The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) (r = −0.43). Within larch stands along the transect, wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91). Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect.  Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62° N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (66°33’ N), and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands (about 71°+ N). That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = −0.95).
      PubDate: 2016-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060125
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 126: Influence of Starvation on the Structure of
           Gut-Associated Bacterial Communities in the Chinese White Pine Beetle
           (Dendroctonus armandi)

    • Authors: Xia Hu, Ming Li, Feiping Zhang, Hui Chen
      First page: 126
      Abstract: This study investigated the influence of starvation on the structure of the gut bacterial community in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi). A total of 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs0.03) clusters belonging to nine genera were identified. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of bacterial PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from the guts of starved male and female adults revealed that the bacterial community diversity increased after starvation. The dominant genus Citrobacter decreased significantly, whereas the genus Serratia increased in both starved female and starved male adults. The most predominant bacterial genus in D. armandi adults was Citrobacter, except for starved male adults, in which Serratia was the most abundant genus (27%). Our findings reveal that starvation affects gut bacterial dynamics in D. armandi, as has been observed in other insect species.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060126
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 127: Forest Inventory with Terrestrial LiDAR: A
           Comparison of Static and Hand-Held Mobile Laser Scanning

    • First page: 127
      Abstract: The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this study, we assessed and compared a hand-held mobile laser scanner (HMLS) with two TLS approaches (single scan: SS, and multi scan: MS) for the estimation of several forest parameters in a wide range of forest types and structures. We found that SS is competitive to extract the ground surface of forest plots, while MS gives the best result to describe the upper part of the canopy. The whole cross-section at 1.3 m height is scanned for 91% of the trees (DBH > 10 cm) with the HMLS leading to the best results for DBH estimates (bias of −0.08 cm and RMSE of 1.11 cm), compared to no fully-scanned trees for SS and 42% fully-scanned trees for MS. Irregularities, such as bark roughness and non-circular cross-section may explain the negative bias encountered for all of the scanning approaches. The success of using MLS in forests will allow for 3D structure acquisition on a larger scale and in a time-efficient manner.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f7060127
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 210: Environmental Factors Effect on Stem Radial
           Variations of Picea crassifolia in Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    • Authors: Wenbin Wang, Fen Zhang, Liming Yuan, Qingtao Wang, Kai Zheng, Chuanyan Zhao
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Picea crassifolia Komarov (Qinghai spruce) is an endemic tree species in China and is widespread in the Qilian Mountains, in northwestern China. High temporal resolution changes of Qinghai spruce tree stem growth remain poorly investigated and the relationships between the species growth and climate are still not completely understood. In this study, we assessed the daily and seasonal stem radial variations, and analyzed the relationships between stem radial increment of Qinghai spruce and environmental factors during the main growing period (June–August). We have found that the stem radial variations of Qinghai spruce can be divided into three phases according to the air temperature and that Qinghai spruce has two diurnal cycle patterns. The main growing period of Qinghai spruce is 30 May–31 August according to micro-core measurements, in conformity with the daily mean air temperature keeping above 5 °C. Precipitation and relative humidity have positive effects on the growth of Qinghai spruce, and we develop a multiple linear regression model that can explain 63% of the stem radial increment over the main growing period.
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f7100210
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 211: Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of
           Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    • Authors: Jeanne Portier, Sylvie Gauthier, Alain Leduc, Dominique Arseneault, Yves Bergeron
      First page: 211
      Abstract: Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest management in the north, it is crucial to better understand how and why fire risk varies from the north to the south at the transition between the discontinuous and continuous boreal forest. We used time-since-fire (TSF) data from fire archives as well as a broad field campaign in Quebec’s coniferous boreal forests along four north-south transects in order to reconstruct the fire history of the past 150 to 300 years. We performed survival analyses in each transect in order to (1) determine if climate influences the fire risk along the latitudinal gradient; (2) fractionate the transects into different fire risk zones; and (3) quantify the fire cycle—defined as the time required to burn an area equivalent to the size of the study area—of each zone and compare its estimated value with current fire activity. Results suggest that drought conditions are moderately to highly responsible for the increasing fire risk from south to north in the three westernmost transects. No climate influence was observed in the last one, possibly because of its complex physical environment. Fire cycles are shortening from south to north, and from east to west. Limits between high and low fire risk zones are consistent with the limit between discontinuous and continuous forests, established based on recent fire activity. Compared to the last 40 years, fire cycles of the last 150–300 years are shorter. Our results suggest that as drought episodes are expected to become more frequent in the future, fire activity might increase significantly, possibly leading to greater openings within forests. However, if fire activity increases and yet remains within the range of variability of the last 150–300 years, the limit between open and closed forests should stay relatively stable.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f7100211
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2016)
  • Forests, Vol. 7, Pages 212: Governance Values in the Climate Change

    • First page: 212
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of two national-level studies of REDD+ governance values in Nepal and Papua New Guinea (PNG), using a hierarchical framework of principles, criteria, and indicators (PC&I), with evaluation at the indicator level. The research was conducted by means of an online survey to determine general perspectives on the governance quality of REDD+, as well as stakeholder workshops, in which participants were asked to rank indicators on the basis of perceived national significance. In the online survey, respondents in both countries identified inclusiveness and resources as the highest and lowest scoring governance values, while inclusiveness, resources, accountability, and transparency, were given priority, although their relative importance differed between countries given national circumstances. The reasons for the commonalities and differences of perceptions between these countries are discussed. The findings suggest that while a generic set of governance values may be usefully applied for determining the institutional legitimacy of REDD+, their relative importance is different. This leads to the conclusion that it may not be appropriate to use a simplified approach to REDD+ governance, focusing for example on safeguards, given different national priorities and contexts.
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f7100212
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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