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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 169 journals)
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TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

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Journal Cover Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
  [SJR: 2.062]   [H-I: 72]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0968-090X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Validation of an extended discrete first-order model with variable speed
           limits
    • Authors: Yu Han; Andreas Hegyi; Yufei Yuan; Serge Hoogendoorn
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 83
      Author(s): Yu Han, Andreas Hegyi, Yufei Yuan, Serge Hoogendoorn
      This paper validates the prediction model embedded in a model predictive controller (MPC) of variable speed limits (VSLs). The MPC controller was designed based on an extended discrete first-order model with a triangular fundamental diagram. In our previous work, the extended discrete first-order model was designed to reproduce the capacity drop and the propagation of jam waves, and it was validated with reasonable accuracy without the presence of VSLs. As VSLs influence traffic dynamics, the dynamics including VSLs needs to be validated, before it can be applied as a prediction model in MPC. For conceptual illustrations, we use two synthetic examples to show how the model reproduces the key mechanisms of VSLs that are applied by existing VSL control approaches. Furthermore, the model is calibrated by use of real traffic data from Dutch freeway A12, where the field test of a speed limit control algorithm (SPECIALIST) was conducted. In the calibration, the original model is extended by using a quadrangular fundamental diagram which keeps the linear feature of the model and represents traffic states at the under-critical branch more accurately. The resulting model is validated using various traffic data sets. The accuracy of the model is compared with a second-order traffic flow model. The performance of two models is comparable: both models reproduce accurate results matching with real data. Flow errors of the calibration and validation are around 10%. The extended discrete first-order model-based MPC controller has been demonstrated to resolve freeway jam waves efficiently by synthetic cases. It has a higher computation speed comparing to the second-order model-based MPC.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Hierarchical perimeter control with guaranteed stability for dynamically
           coupled heterogeneous urban traffic
    • Authors: Hui Fu; Na Liu; Gang Hu
      Pages: 18 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 83
      Author(s): Hui Fu, Na Liu, Gang Hu
      Perimeter control based on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) is widely developed for alleviating or postponing congestion in a protected region. Recent studies reveal that traffic conditions might not be improved if the perimeter control strategies are applied to unstable systems where high demand generates heavy and heterogeneously distributed traffic congestion. Therefore, considering stability of the targeted traffic system is essential, for the sake of developing a feasible and then optimal control strategy. This paper sheds light on this direction. It integrates a stability characterization algorithm of MFD system equations into the Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, and features respectively an upper and a lower bound of the feasible control inputs, to guarantee system stability. Firstly, the dynamics of traffic heterogeneity and its effect on the MFD are analyzed, using real data from Guangzhou in China. Piecewise affine functions of average flow are proposed to capture traffic heterogeneity in both regional and subregional MFDs. Secondly, stability of a three-state two-region system is investigated via stable equilibrium and surface boundaries analysis. Finally, a three-layer hierarchical control strategy is introduced for the studied two-region heterogeneous urban networks. The first layer of the controller calculates the stable surface boundaries for the given traffic demands and then determines the bounds of control input (split rate). An MPC approach in the second layer is used to solve an optimization problem with two objectives of minimizing total network delay and maximizing network throughput. Heterogeneity among the subregions is minimized in the last layer by implementing simultaneously a subregional perimeter flow control and an internal flow control. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed control approach are verified by comparison with four existing perimeter control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Scalable stability analysis on large connected vehicle systems subject to
           stochastic communication delays
    • Authors: Wubing B. Qin; Gábor Orosz
      Pages: 39 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 83
      Author(s): Wubing B. Qin, Gábor Orosz
      In this paper large connected vehicle systems are analyzed where vehicles utilize vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication to control their longitudinal motion. It is shown that packet drops in communication channels introduce stochastic delay variations in the feedback loops. Scalable methods are developed to evaluate stability and disturbance attenuation while utilizing the mean, second moment, and covariance dynamics in open chain and closed ring configurations. The stability results are summarized using stability diagrams in the plane of the control parameters while varying the packet delivery ratio and the number of vehicles. Also, the relationship between the stability of different configurations is characterized. The results emphasize the feasibility of V2V communication-based control in improving traffic flow.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • A copula-based approach for estimating the travel time reliability of
           urban arterial
    • Authors: Min Chen; Guizhen Yu; Peng Chen; Yunpeng Wang
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Min Chen, Guizhen Yu, Peng Chen, Yunpeng Wang
      Estimating the travel time reliability (TTR) of urban arterial is critical for real-time and reliable route guidance and provides theoretical bases and technical support for sophisticated traffic management and control. The state-of-art procedures for arterial TTR estimation usually assume that path travel time follows a certain distribution, with less consideration about segment correlations. However, the conventional approach is usually unrealistic because an important feature of urban arterial is the dependent structure of travel times on continuous segments. In this study, a copula-based approach that incorporates the stochastic characteristics of segments travel time is proposed to model arterial travel time distribution (TTD), which serves as a basis for TTR quantification. First, segments correlation is empirically analyzed and different types of copula models are examined. Then, fitting marginal distributions for segment TTD is conducted by parametric and non-parametric regression analysis, respectively. Based on the estimated parameters of the models, the best-fitting copula is determined in terms of the goodness-of-fit tests. Last, the model is examined at two study sites with AVI data and NGSIM trajectory data, respectively. The results of path TTD estimation demonstrate the advantage of the proposed copula-based approach, compared with the convolution model without capturing segments correlation and the empirical distribution fitting methods. Furthermore, when considering the segments correlation effect, it was found that the estimated path TTR is more accurate than that by the convolution model.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Long distance truck tracking from advanced point detectors using a
           selective weighted Bayesian model
    • Authors: Kyung (Kate) Hyun; Andre Tok; Stephen G. Ritchie
      Pages: 24 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kyung (Kate) Hyun, Andre Tok, Stephen G. Ritchie
      Truck flow patterns are known to vary by season and time-of-day, and to have important implications for freight modeling, highway infrastructure design and operation, and energy and environmental impacts. However, such variations cannot be captured by current truck data sources such as surveys or point detectors. To facilitate development of detailed truck flow pattern data, this paper describes a new truck tracking algorithm that was developed to estimate path flows of trucks by adopting a linear data fusion method utilizing weigh-in-motion (WIM) and inductive loop point detectors. A Selective Weighted Bayesian Model (SWBM) was developed to match individual vehicles between two detector locations using truck physical attributes and inductive waveform signatures. Key feature variables were identified and weighted via Bayesian modeling to improve vehicle matching performance. Data for model development were collected from two WIM sites spanning 26miles in California where only 11 percent of trucks observed at the downstream site traversed the whole corridor. The tracking model showed 81 percent of correct matching rate to the trucks declared as through trucks from the algorithm. This high accuracy showed that the tracking model is capable of not only correctly matching through vehicles but also successfully filtering out non-through vehicles on this relatively long distance corridor. In addition, the results showed that a Bayesian approach with full integration of two complementary detector data types could successfully track trucks over long distances by minimizing the impacts of measurement variations or errors from the detection systems employed in the tracking process. In a separate case study, the algorithm was implemented over an even longer 65-mile freeway section and demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is capable of providing valuable insights into truck travel patterns and industrial affiliation to yield a comprehensive truck activity data source.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Characterising Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory trajectories for
           platoon-based optimisation
    • Authors: Simon Stebbins; Mark Hickman; Jiwon Kim; Hai L. Vu
      Pages: 43 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Simon Stebbins, Mark Hickman, Jiwon Kim, Hai L. Vu
      Conceptually, a Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA) system suggests speeds to vehicles, allowing them to pass through an intersection during the green interval. In previous papers, a single speed is computed for each vehicle in a range between acceptable minimum and maximum values (for example between standstill and the speed limit). This speed is assumed to be constant until the beginning of the green interval, and sent as advice to the vehicle. The goal is to optimise for a particular objective, whether it be minimisation of emissions (for environmental reasons), fuel usage or delay. This paper generalises the advice given to a vehicle, by optimising for delay over the entire trajectory instead of suggesting an individual speed, regardless of initial conditions – time until green, distance to intersection and initial speed. This may require multiple acceleration manoeuvres, so the advice is sent as a suggested acceleration at each time step. Such advice also takes into account a suitable safety constraint, ensuring that vehicles are always able to stop before the intersection during a red interval, thus safeguarding against last-minute signal control schedule changes. While the algorithms developed primarily minimise delay, they also help to reduce fuel usage and emissions by conserving kinetic energy. Since vehicles travel in platoons, the effectiveness of a GLOSA system is heavily reliant on correctly identifying the leading vehicle that is the first to be given trajectory advice for each cycle. Vehicles naturally form a platoon behind this leading vehicle. A time loop technique is proposed which allows accurate identification of the leader even when there are complex interactions between preceding vehicles. The developed algorithms are ideal for connected autonomous vehicle environments, because computer control allows vehicles’ trajectories to be managed with greater accuracy and ease. However, the advice algorithms can also be used in conjunction with manual control provided Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication is available.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • A comparison of different container sorting systems in modern rail-rail
           transshipment yards
    • Authors: Stefan Fedtke; Nils Boysen
      Pages: 63 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Stefan Fedtke, Nils Boysen
      Rail-rail transshipment yards act as central hub nodes within a railway network and enable a rapid consolidation of containers between different freight trains. To avoid an excessive movement of gantry cranes when transferring a container from one train to another, modern yards apply sorting systems where shuttle cars move containers horizontally along the spread of the yard. This paper compares four elementary sorting systems. Specifically, we compare rubber-tired and rail-mounted shuttles and differentiate whether a pure shuttle system or a lift & shuttle system is applied. In pure shuttle systems, a shuttle receives a container from a crane and transports it towards the destination crane, where it serves as a storage device until being unloaded. A lift & shuttle system applies shuttles with an integrated lifting platform, so that they are able to autonomously store and receive containers from a separate storage rack. Both alternatives exist in rubber-tired and rail-mounted versions. As the shuttles are the main driver of the investment costs, we compare the required fleet size for timely supplying given gantry crane schedules within all four systems. For this purpose, we derive suited scheduling procedures. This way, decision support for yard managers having to identify a suited sorting system and to layout a new terminal is provided.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Empirics of multi-modal traffic networks – Using the 3D macroscopic
           fundamental diagram
    • Authors: Allister Loder; Lukas Ambühl; Monica Menendez; Kay W. Axhausen
      Pages: 88 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Allister Loder, Lukas Ambühl, Monica Menendez, Kay W. Axhausen
      Traffic is multi-modal in most cities. However, the impacts of different transport modes on traffic performance and on each other are unclear – especially at the network level. The recent extension of the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) into the 3D-MFD offers a novel framework to address this gap at the urban scale. The 3D-MFD relates the network accumulation of cars and public transport vehicles to the network travel production, for either vehicles or passengers. No empirical 3D-MFD has been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first empirical estimate of a 3D-MFD at the urban scale. To this end, we use data from loop detectors and automatic vehicle location devices (AVL) of the public transport vehicles in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. We compare two different areas within the city, that differ in their topology and share of dedicated lanes for public transport. We propose a statistical model of the 3D-MFD, which estimates the effects of the vehicle accumulation on car and public transport speeds under multi-modal traffic conditions. The results quantify the effects of both, vehicles and passengers, and confirm that a greater share of dedicated lanes reduces the marginal effects of public transport vehicles on car speeds. Lastly, we derive a new application of the 3D-MFD by identifying the share of public transport users that maximizes the journey speeds in an urban network accounting for all motorized transport modes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Nonlinear programming methods based on closed-form expressions for optimal
           train control
    • Authors: Hongbo Ye; Ronghui Liu
      Pages: 102 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Hongbo Ye, Ronghui Liu
      This paper proposes a novel approach to solve the complex optimal train control problems that so far cannot be perfectly tackled by the existing methods, including the optimal control of a fleet of interacting trains, and the optimal train control involving scheduling. By dividing the track into subsections with constant speed limit and constant gradient, and assuming the train’s running resistance to be a quadratic function of speed, two different methods are proposed to solve the problems of interest. The first method assumes an operation sequence of maximum traction – speedholding – coasting – maximum braking on each subsection of the track. To maintain the mathematical tractability, the maximum tractive and maximum braking functions are restricted to be decreasing and piecewise-quadratic, based on which the terminal speed, travel distance and energy consumption of each operation can be calculated in a closed-form, given the initial speed and time duration of that operation. With these closed-form expressions, the optimal train control problem is formulated and solved as a nonlinear programming problem. To allow more flexible forms of maximum tractive and maximum braking forces, the second method applies a constant force on each subsection. Performance of these two methods is compared through a case study of the classic single-train control on a single journey. The proposed methods are further utilised to formulate more complex optimal train control problems, including scheduling a subway line while taking train control into account, and simultaneously optimising the control of a leader-follower train pair under fixed- and moving-block signalling systems.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Semi-autonomous vehicle motor insurance: A Bayesian Network risk transfer
           approach
    • Authors: Barry Sheehan; Finbarr Murphy; Cian Ryan; Martin Mullins; Hai Yue Liu
      Pages: 124 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Barry Sheehan, Finbarr Murphy, Cian Ryan, Martin Mullins, Hai Yue Liu
      All developed economies mandate at least third party auto insurance resulting inW a vast global liability industry. The evolution towards semi-autonomous and eventually driverless vehicles will progressively remove the leading cause of vehicle accidents, human error, and significantly lower vehicle accident rates. However, this transition will force a departure from existing actuarial methods requires careful management to ensure risks are correctly assigned. Personal motor insurance lines are anticipated to diminish as liability shifts towards OEMs, tier 1 and 2 suppliers and software developers. Vehicle accident risks will hinge on vehicular characteristics in addition to driver related risks as drivers alternate between autonomous and manual driving modes. This paper proposes a Bayesian Network statistical risk estimation approach that can accommodate changing risk levels and the emergence of new risk structures. We demonstrate the use of this method for a Level 3 semi-autonomous vehicle for two scenarios, one where the driver is in control and one where the vehicle is in control. This approach is especially suited to use telematics data generated from the vehicle inherent technologies. We validate the efficacy of this approach from the perspective of the insurer and discuss how vehicle technology development will require a greater degree of collaboration between the insurance company and the manufacturers in order to develop a greater understanding of the risks semi-autonomous and fully autonomous vehicles.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Use of ubiquitous probe vehicle data for identifying secondary crashes
    • Authors: Hong Yang; Zhenyu Wang; Kun Xie; Dong Dai
      Pages: 138 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Hong Yang, Zhenyu Wang, Kun Xie, Dong Dai
      Secondary crashes are non-recurrent incidents that frequently affect traffic operations and safety. They are an important performance measure in evaluating traffic incident management programs. Although several methods (e.g., static, contour map-based, and shockwave-based) have been introduced to identify secondary crashes, the applications of the existing methods are often limited by their shortcomings such as the needs for extra incident information, assumptions, simplified model structures, etc. As an alternative, this paper aims to develop a new data-driven analysis framework to support the identification of secondary crashes. Unlike existing methods, the proposed approach is concentrated on exploring the untapped potential of ubiquitous probe vehicle data for secondary crash analysis. It consists of three major components: detection of the impact area of a primary crash, estimation of the boundary of the impact area, and identification of secondary crashes within the boundary. The first component uses clustering methods to highlight the congested area induced by a primary crash. The second component develops metaheuristic optimization algorithms to approximate the boundary of the congested area. With the estimated boundary, a novel identification method is introduced to automatically identify secondary crashes within the boundary. The performance of the proposed approach has been tested under a set of simulation scenarios. The test results show that the proposed approach based on the ant colony optimization can best describe the impact area and re-identify up to 95 percent of the simulated crashes. Although the performance of the proposed approach is related to the market penetration rate, the results suggest that a relatively low market penetration rate can already achieve promising performance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Definition of a merging assistant strategy using intelligent vehicles
    • Authors: Riccardo Scarinci; Andreas Hegyi; Benjamin Heydecker
      Pages: 161 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Riccardo Scarinci, Andreas Hegyi, Benjamin Heydecker
      In the area of active traffic management, new technologies provide opportunities to improve the use of current infrastructure. Vehicles equipped with in-car communication systems are capable of exchanging messages with the infrastructure and other vehicles. This new capability offers many opportunities for traffic management. This paper presents a novel merging assistant strategy that exploits the communication capabilities of intelligent vehicles. The proposed control requires the cooperation of equipped vehicles on the main carriageway in order to create merging gaps for on-ramp vehicles released by a traffic light. The aim is to reduce disruptions to the traffic flow created by the merging vehicles. This paper focuses on the analytical formulation of the control algorithm, and the traffic flow theories used to define the strategy. The dynamics of the gap formation derived from theoretical considerations are validated using a microscopic simulation. The validation indicates that the control strategy mostly developed from macroscopic theory well approximates microscopic traffic behaviour. The results present encouraging capabilities of the system. The size and frequency of the gaps created on the main carriageway, and the space and time required for their creation are compatible with a real deployment of the system. Finally, we summarise the results of a previous study showing that the proposed merging strategy reduces the occurrence of congestion and the number of late-merging vehicles. This innovative control strategy shows the potential of using intelligent vehicles for facilitating the merging manoeuvre through use of emerging communications technologies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.017
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • An integrated modelling approach for the bicriterion vehicle routing and
           scheduling problem with environmental considerations
    • Authors: Konstantinos N. Androutsopoulos; Konstantinos G. Zografos
      Pages: 180 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Konstantinos N. Androutsopoulos, Konstantinos G. Zografos
      The consideration of pollution in routing decisions gives rise to a new routing framework where measures of the environmental implications are traded off with business performance measures. To address this type of routing decisions, we formulate and solve a bi-objective time, load and path-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows (BTL-VRPTW). The proposed formulation incorporates a travel time model representing realistically time varying traffic conditions. A key feature of the problem under consideration is the need to address simultaneously routing and path finding decisions. To cope with the computational burden arising from this property of the problem we propose a network reduction approach. Computational tests on the effect of the network reduction approach on determining non-dominated solutions are reported. A generic solution framework is proposed to address the BTL-VRPTW. The proposed framework combines any technique that creates capacity-feasible routes with a routing and scheduling method that aims to convert the identified routes to problem solutions. We show that transforming a set of routes to BTL-VRPTW solutions is equivalent to solving a bi-objective time dependent shortest path problem on a specially structured graph. We propose a backward label setting technique to solve the emerging problem that takes advantage of the special structure of the graph. The proposed generic solution framework is implemented by integrating the routing and scheduling method into an Ant Colony System algorithm. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was assessed on the basis of its capability to determine minimum travel time and fuel consumption solutions. Although the computational results are encouraging, there is ample room for future research in algorithmic advances on addressing the proposed problem.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • A day-to-day route flow evolution process towards the mixed equilibria
    • Authors: Bojian Zhou; Min Xu; Qiang Meng; Zhongxiang Huang
      Pages: 210 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Bojian Zhou, Min Xu, Qiang Meng, Zhongxiang Huang
      This study investigates a travelers’ day-to-day route flow evolution process under a predefined market penetration of advanced traveler information system (ATIS). It is assumed that some travelers equipped with ATIS will follow the deterministic user equilibrium route choice behavior due to the complete traffic information provided by ATIS, while the other travelers unequipped with ATIS will follow the stochastic user equilibrium route choice behavior. The interaction between these two groups of travelers will result in a mixed equilibrium state. We first propose a discrete day-to-day route flow adjustment process for this mixed equilibrium behavior by specifying the travelers’ route adjustment principle and adjustment ratio. The convergence of the proposed day-to-day flow dynamic model to the mixed equilibrium state is then rigorously demonstrated under certain assumptions upon route adjustment principle and adjustment ratio. In addition, without affecting the convergence of the proposed day-to-day flow dynamic model, the assumption concerning the adjustment ratio is further relaxed, thus making the proposed model more appealing in practice. Finally, numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate and evaluate the performance of the proposed day-to-day flow dynamic model.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.018
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Congestion-aware system optimal route choice for shared autonomous
           vehicles
    • Authors: Michael W. Levin
      Pages: 229 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Michael W. Levin
      We study the shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) routing problem while considering congestion. SAVs essentially provide a dial-a-ride service to travelers, but the large number of vehicles involved (tens of thousands of SAVs to replace personal vehicles) results in SAV routing causing significant congestion. We combine the dial-a-ride service constraints with the linear program for system optimal dynamic traffic assignment, resulting in a congestion-aware formulation of the SAV routing problem. Traffic flow is modeled through the link transmission model, an approximate solution to the kinematic wave theory of traffic flow. SAVs interact with travelers at origins and destinations. Due to the large number of vehicles involved, we use a continuous approximation of flow to formulate a linear program. Optimal solutions demonstrate that peak hour demand is likely to have greater waiting and in-vehicle travel times than off-peak demand due to congestion. SAV travel times were only slightly greater than system optimal personal vehicle route choice. In addition, solutions can determine the optimal fleet size to minimize congestion or maximize service.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.020
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Heterogeneous hazard model of PEV users charging intervals: Analysis of
           four year charging transactions data
    • Authors: Seheon Kim; Dujuan Yang; Soora Rasouli; Harry Timmermans
      Pages: 248 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Seheon Kim, Dujuan Yang, Soora Rasouli, Harry Timmermans
      Public charging infrastructure represents a key success factor in the promotion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). Given that a large initial investment is required for the widespread adoption of PEV, many studies have addressed the location choice problem for charging infrastructure using a priori simple assumptions. Ideally, however, identifying optimal locations of charging stations necessitates an understanding of charging behavior. Limited market penetration of PEV makes it difficult to grasp any regularities in charging behavior. Using a Dutch data set about four-years of charging transactions, this study presents a detailed analysis of inter-charging times. Recognizing that PEV users may exhibit different charging behavior, this study estimates a latent class hazard duration model, which accommodates duration dependence, unobserved heterogeneity and the effects of time-varying covariates. PEV users are endogenously classified into regular and random users by treating charging regularity as a latent variable. The paper provides valuable insights into the dynamics of charging behavior at public charging stations, and which strategies can be successfully used to improve the performance of public charging infrastructure.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.022
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Integrated GNSS/DR/road segment information system for variable road user
           charging
    • Authors: Fan Qin; Rui Sun; Washington Yotto Ochieng; Shaojun Feng; Ke Han; Yuanqing Wang
      Pages: 261 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Fan Qin, Rui Sun, Washington Yotto Ochieng, Shaojun Feng, Ke Han, Yuanqing Wang
      Road User Charging (RUC) is designed to reduce congestion and collect revenue for the maintenance of transportation infrastructure. In order to determine the charges, it is important that appropriate Road User Charging Indicators (RUCI) are defined. This paper focusses on Variable Road User Charging (VRUC) as the more dynamic and flexible compared to Fixed Road User Charging (FRUC), and thus is a better reflection of the utility of the road space. The main issues associated with VRUC are the definition of appropriate charging indicators and their measurement. This paper addresses the former by proposing a number of new charging indicators, considering the equalization of the charges and marginal social cost imposed on others. The measurement of the indicators is addressed by a novel data fusion algorithm for the determination of the vehicle state based on the integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with Dead Reckoning (DR) and road segment information. Statistical analyses are presented in terms of the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) parameters of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability, based on simulation and field tests. It is shown that the proposed fusion model is superior to positioning with GPS only, and GPS plus GLONASS, in terms of all the RNP parameters with a significant improvement in availability.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Travel mode estimation for multi-modal journey planner
    • Authors: Heikki Mäenpää; Andrei Lobov; Jose L. Martinez Lastra
      Pages: 273 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Heikki Mäenpää, Andrei Lobov, Jose L. Martinez Lastra
      For route planning and tracking, it is sometimes necessary to know if the user is walking or using some other mode of transport. In most cases, the GPS data can be acquired from the user device. It is possible to estimate user’s transportation mode based on a GPS trace at a sampling rate of once per minute. There has been little prior work on the selection of a set of features from a large number of proposed features, especially for sparse GPS data. This article considers characteristics of distribution, auto- and cross-correlations, and spectral features of speed and acceleration as possible features, and presents an approach to selecting the most significant, non-correlating features from among those. Both speed and acceleration are inferred from changes in location and time between data points. Using GPS traces of buses in the city of Tampere, and of walking, biking and driving from the OpenStreetMap and Microsoft GeoLife projects, spectral bins were found to be among the most significant non-correlating features for differentiating between walking, bicycle, bus and driving, and were used to train classifiers with a fair accuracy. Auto- and cross-correlations, kurtoses and skewnesses were found to be of no use in the classification task. Useful features were found to have a fairly large (>0.4) correlation with each other.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.021
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Multi-agent immune networks to control interrupted flow at signalized
           intersections
    • Authors: Saber Darmoul; Sabeur Elkosantini; Ali Louati; Lamjed Ben Said
      Pages: 290 - 313
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Saber Darmoul, Sabeur Elkosantini, Ali Louati, Lamjed Ben Said
      Urban traffic is subject to disturbances that cause long queues and extended waiting times at signalized intersections. Although Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) were considered to control traffic at signalized intersections in a distributed way, their generic conceptual framework and lack of built-in adaptation mechanisms prevent them from achieving specific disturbance management capabilities. The traffic signal control problem is still a challenging open-ended problem for which learning and adaptation mechanisms need to be developed to deal with disturbances in an intelligent way. In this article, we rely on concepts and mechanisms inspired by biological immunity to design a distributed, intelligent and adaptive traffic signal control system. We suggest a heterarchical multi-agent architecture, where each agent represents a traffic signal controller assigned to a signalized intersection. Each agent communicates and coordinates with neighboring agents, and achieves learning and adaptation to disturbances based on an artificial immune network. The suggested Immune Network Algorithm based Multi-Agent System (INAMAS) provides intelligent mechanisms that capture disturbance-related knowledge explicitly and take advantage of previous successes and failures in dealing with disturbances through an adaptation of the reinforcement principle. To demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested control architecture, we assess its performance against two control strategies from literature, namely fixed-time control and a distributed adaptation of the Longest Queue First – Maximal Weight Matching (LQF-MWM) algorithm. Agents are developed using SPADE platform and used to control a network of signalized intersections simulated with VISSIM, a state-of-the-art traffic simulation software. The results show that INAMAS is able to handle different traffic scenarios with competitive performance (in terms of vehicle queue lengths and waiting times), and that it is particularly more successful than the other controllers in dealing with extreme situations involving blocked approaches and high traffic volumes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Performability evaluation of the ERTMS/ETCS – Level 3
    • Authors: Marco Biagi; Laura Carnevali; Marco Paolieri; Enrico Vicario
      Pages: 314 - 336
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Marco Biagi, Laura Carnevali, Marco Paolieri, Enrico Vicario
      Level 3 of the ERTMS/ETCS improves the capacity of railways by replacing fixed-block signalling, which prevents a train to enter a block occupied by another train, with moving block signalling, which allows a train to proceed as long as it receives radio messages ensuring that the track ahead is clear of other trains. If messages are lost, a train must stop for safety reasons within a given deadline, even though the track ahead is clear, making the availability of the communication link crucial for successful operation. We combine analytic evaluation of failures due to burst noise and connection losses with numerical solution of a non-Markovian model representing also failures due to handovers between radio stations. In so doing, we show that handovers experienced by a pair of chasing trains periodically affect the availability of the radio link, making behavior of the overall communication system recurrent over the hyper-period of periodic message releases and periodic arrivals at cell borders. As a notable aspect, non-Markovian transient analysis within two hyper-periods is sufficient to derive an upper bound on the first-passage time distribution to an emergency brake, permitting to achieve a trade-off between railway throughput and stop probability. A sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to train speed and headway distance, permitting to gain insight into the consequences of system-level design choices.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Understanding the distribution characteristics of bus speed based on
           geocoded data
    • Authors: Yuchuan Du; Fuwen Deng; Feixiong Liao; Yuxiong Ji
      Pages: 337 - 357
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Yuchuan Du, Fuwen Deng, Feixiong Liao, Yuxiong Ji
      Data-driven traffic management and control has attracted much attention recently. This paper conducts a series of coherent analyses based on geocoded data to understand the distribution characteristics of bus operational speed and to explore the potential applications of speed distributions. First, an original bipartite model is adopted for capturing instantaneous speed where the suspended and moving states are considered separately and a two-component mixed Weibull distribution is used to model the speed distribution in moving states. The mixed Gaussian distribution with variable components is found to be capable of expressing the speed distribution patterns of different road sections. Second, elaborate analyses on the basis of speed distribution modelling are conducted: (i) regression analyses are conducted to explore the correlations between parameters of instantaneous speed distributions and traffic related factors; (ii) a powerful clustering method using Kullback-Leibler divergence as the distance measure is proposed to grade the road sections of a bus route. These results can be utilized in fields such as bus operations management, bus priority signal control and infrastructure transformation aiming to improve the efficiency of bus operations systems.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Speed profile estimation using license plate recognition data
    • Authors: Baichuan Mo; Ruimin Li; Xianyuan Zhan
      Pages: 358 - 378
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82
      Author(s): Baichuan Mo, Ruimin Li, Xianyuan Zhan
      Vehicle speed profile is a fundamental data support for calculating vehicular emission using the micro-emission model. However, achieving accuracy and breadth for the speed profile estimation is difficult. This study proposes a new vehicle speed profile estimation model using license plate recognition (LPR) data. This model allows speed profile estimation of every individual vehicle between two consecutive intersections. A systematic LPR data-mending method is developed to infer the information of unmatched vehicles. Using the complete arrival and departure information as boundary conditions, a customized car-following model combined with dummy-overtaking hypothesis and boundary constraints is then applied to estimate the speed profile of vehicles. The proposed model is validated using ground truth speed information from a field experiment conducted in Langfang City in China. Results show that the model can fully capture the pattern of ground truth speed profile. A complementary model validation using the Next Generation Simulation dataset and a model application for calculating emissions are also conducted. The numerical results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed model in estimating vehicle speed profile and emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • What are the value and implications of two-car households for the electric
           car?
    • Authors: Sten Karlsson
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Sten Karlsson
      The major barriers to a more widespread introduction of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) beyond early adopters are the limited range, charging limitations, and costly batteries. An important question is therefore where these effects can be most effectively mitigated. An optimization model is developed to estimate the potential for BEVs to replace one of the conventional cars in two-car households and to viably contribute to the households’ driving demand. It uses data from 1 to 3months of simultaneous GPS logging of the movement patterns for both cars in 64 commuting Swedish two-car households in the Gothenburg region. The results show that, for home charging only, a flexible vehicle use strategy can considerably increase BEV driving and nearly eliminate the unfulfilled driving in the household due to the range and charging limitations with a small battery. The present value of this flexibility is estimated to be on average $6000–$7000 but varies considerably between households. With possible near-future prices for BEVs based on mass production cost estimates, this flexibility makes the total cost of ownership (TCO) for a BEV advantageous in almost all the investigated households compared to a conventional vehicle or a hybrid electric vehicle. Because of the ubiquity of multi-car households in developed economies, these families could be ideal candidates for the initial efforts to enhance BEV adoptions beyond the early adopters. The results of this research can inform the design and marketing of cheaper BEVs with small but enough range and contribute to increased knowledge and awareness of the suitability of BEVs in such households.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Coordinated multi-aircraft 4D trajectories planning considering buffer
           safety distance and fuel consumption optimization via pure-strategy game
    • Authors: Xiongwen Qian; Jianfeng Mao; Chun-Hsien Chen; Songlin Chen; Changpeng Yang
      Pages: 18 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Xiongwen Qian, Jianfeng Mao, Chun-Hsien Chen, Songlin Chen, Changpeng Yang
      In this paper, we consider a coordinated multi-aircraft 4D (3D space plus time) trajectories planning problem which is illustrated by planning 4D trajectories for aircraft traversing an Air Traffic Control (ATC) sector. The planned 4D trajectories need to specify each aircraft’s position at any time, ensuring conflict-free and reducing fuel and delay costs, with possible aircraft maneuvers such as speed adjustment and flight level change. Different from most existing literature, the impact of buffer safety distance is also under consideration, and conflict-free is guaranteed at any given time (not only at discrete time instances). The problem is formulated as a pure-strategy game with aircraft as players and all possible 4D trajectories as strategies. An efficient maximum improvement distributed algorithm is developed to find equilibrium at which every aircraft cannot unilaterally improve further, without enumerating all possible 4D trajectories in advance. Proof of existence of the equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are given. A case study based on real air traffic data shows that the algorithm is able to solve 4D trajectories for online application with estimated 16.7% reduction in monetary costs, and allocate abundant buffer safety distance at minimum separation point. Scalability of the algorithm is verified by computational experiments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Electric vehicle charging choices: Modelling and implications for smart
           charging services
    • Authors: Nicolò Daina; Aruna Sivakumar; John W. Polak
      Pages: 36 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Nicolò Daina, Aruna Sivakumar, John W. Polak
      The rollout of electric vehicles (EV) occurring in parallel with the decarbonisation of the power sector can bring uncontested environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 emission reduction and air quality. This roll out, however, poses challenges to power systems, as additional power demand is injected in context of increasingly volatile supply from renewable energy sources. Smart EV charging services can provide a solution to such challenges. The development of effective smart charging services requires evaluating pre-emptively EV drivers’ response. The current practice in the appraisal of smart charging strategies largely relies on simplistic or theoretical representation of drivers’ charging and travel behaviour. We propose a random utility model for joint EV drivers’ activity-travel scheduling and charging choices. Our model easily integrates in activity-based demand modelling systems for the analyses of integrated transport and energy systems. However, unlike previous charging behaviour models used in integrated transport and energy system analyses, our model empirically captures the behavioural nuances of tactical charging choices in smart grid context, using empirically estimated charging preferences. We present model estimation results that provide insights into the value placed by individuals on the main attributes of the charging choice and draw implications charging service providers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Controlling road congestion via a low-complexity route reservation
           approach
    • Authors: C. Menelaou; P. Kolios; S. Timotheou; C.G. Panayiotou; M.P. Polycarpou
      Pages: 118 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): C. Menelaou, P. Kolios, S. Timotheou, C.G. Panayiotou, M.P. Polycarpou
      This work introduces a novel route reservation architecture to manage road traffic within an urban area. The developed routing architecture decomposes the road infrastructure into slots in the spatial and temporal domains and for every vehicle, it makes the appropriate route reservations to avoid traffic congestion while minimizing the traveling time. Under this architecture, any road segment is admissible to be traversed only during time-slots when the accumulated reservations do not exceed its critical density. A road-side unit keeps track of all reservations which are subsequently used to solve the routing problem for each vehicle. Through this routing mechanism, vehicles can either be delayed at their origin or are routed through longer but non-congested routes such that their traveling time is minimized. In this work, the proposed architecture is presented and the resulting route reservation problem is mathematically formulated. Through a complexity analysis of the routing problem, it is shown that for certain cases, the problem reduces to an NP-complete problem. A heuristic solution to the problem is also proposed and is used to conduct realistic simulations across a particular region of the San Francisco area, demonstrating the promising gains of the proposed solution to alleviate traffic congestion.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Maximizing airborne delay at no extra fuel cost by means of linear holding
    • Authors: Yan Xu; Ramon Dalmau; Xavier Prats
      Pages: 137 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yan Xu, Ramon Dalmau, Xavier Prats
      This paper introduces a linear holding strategy based on prior works on cruise speed reduction, aimed at performing airborne delay at no extra fuel cost, as a complementary strategy to current ground and airborne holding strategies. Firstly, the equivalent speed concept is extended to climb and descent phases through an analysis of fuel consumption and speed from aircraft performance data. This gives an insight of the feasibility to implement the concept, differentiating the case where the cruise flight level initially requested is kept and the case where it can be changed before departure in order to maximize the linear holding time. Illustrative examples are given, where typical flights are simulated using an optimal trajectory generation tool where linear holding is maximized while keeping constant the initially planned fuel. Finally, the effects of linear holding are thoroughly assessed in terms of the vertical trajectory profiles, range of feasible speed intervals and trade-offs between fuel and time. Results show that the airborne delay increases significantly with nearly 3-fold time for short-haul flights and 2-fold for mid-hauls to the cases in prior works.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Measuring fine-grained metro interchange time via smartphones
    • Authors: Weixi Gu; Kai Zhang; Zimu Zhou; Ming Jin; Yuxun Zhou; Xi Liu; Costas J. Spanos; Zuo-Jun (Max) Shen; Wei-Hua Lin; Lin Zhang
      Pages: 153 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Weixi Gu, Kai Zhang, Zimu Zhou, Ming Jin, Yuxun Zhou, Xi Liu, Costas J. Spanos, Zuo-Jun (Max) Shen, Wei-Hua Lin, Lin Zhang
      High variability interchange times often significantly affect the reliability of metro travels. Fine-grained measurements of interchange times during metro transfers can provide valuable insights on the crowdedness of stations, usage of station facilities and efficiency of metro lines. Measuring interchange times in metro systems is challenging since agent-operated systems like automatic fare collection systems only provide coarse-grained trip information and popular localization services like GPS are often inaccessible underground. In this paper, we propose a smartphone-based interchange time measuring method from the passengers’ perspective. It leverages low-power sensors embedded in modern smartphones to record ambient contextual features, and utilizes a two-tier classifier to infer interchange states during a metro trip, and further distinguishes 10 fine-grained cases during interchanges. Experimental results within 6months across over 14 subway lines in 3 major cities demonstrate that our approach yields an overall interchange state inference F1-measurement of 91.0% and an average time error of less than 2min at an inference interval of 20s, and an average accuracy of 89.3% to distinguish the 10 fine-grained interchange cases. We also conducted a series of case studies using measurements collected from crowdsourced users during 3months, which reveals findings previously unattainable without fine-grained interchange time measurements, such as portions of waiting time during interchange, interchange directions, usage of facilities (stairs/escalators/lifts), and the root causes of long interchange times.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • A Bayesian Network model for contextual versus non-contextual driving
           behavior assessment
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Zhu; Yifei Yuan; Xianbiao Hu; Yi-Chang Chiu; Yu-Luen Ma
      Pages: 172 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Xiaoyu Zhu, Yifei Yuan, Xianbiao Hu, Yi-Chang Chiu, Yu-Luen Ma
      Driving behavior is generally considered to be one of the most important factors in crash occurrence. This paper aims to evaluate the benefits of utilizing context-relevant information in the driving behavior assessment process (i.e. contextual driving behavior assessment approach). We use a Bayesian Network (BN) model that investigates the relationships between GPS driving observations, individual driving behavior, individual driving risks, and individual crash frequency. In contrast to prior studies without context information (i.e. non-contextual approach), the data used in the BN approach is a combination of contextual features in the surrounding environment that may contribute to crash risk, such as road conditions surrounding the vehicle of interest and dynamic traffic flow information, as well as the non-contextual data such as instantaneous driving speed and the acceleration/deceleration of a vehicle. An information-aggregation mechanism is developed to aggregates massive amounts of vehicle GPS data points, kinematic events and context information into drivel-level data. With the proposed model, driving behavior risks for drivers is assessed and the relationship between contextual driving behavior and crash occurrence is established. The analysis results in the case study section show that the contextual model has significantly better performance than the non-contextual model, and that drivers who drive at a speed faster than others or much slower than the speed limit at the ramp, and with more rapid acceleration or deceleration on freeways are more likely to be involved in crash events. In addition, younger drivers, and female drivers with higher VMT are found to have higher crash risk.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • An ontology-based framework to support performance monitoring in public
           transport systems
    • Authors: Filippo Benvenuti; Claudia Diamantini; Domenico Potena; Emanuele Storti
      Pages: 188 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Filippo Benvenuti, Claudia Diamantini, Domenico Potena, Emanuele Storti
      Managers of public transport systems have been facing for years the strategic challenge of maintaining high quality of transport services to improve the mobility of citizens, while reducing costs and ensuring safety and low environmental impact. A well-established way to evaluate the performance achieved by the system or by specific activities is to monitor Key Performance Indicators (KPI). However, existing management systems, which refer to flexible yet large and complex data models, provide a limited support to define and select relevant KPIs for the objectives at hand, and even the identification of whether and how the data model is capable to achieve a certain informative need is a critical and time-consuming task. This work is aimed to propose a framework to ease the development of a monitoring system in the public transport domain. The approach is based on the ontological representation of all the knowledge regarding indicators and their formulas, business objectives, dimension analysis and their relation with the Transmodel, the European reference data model for public transport information systems. On its top, a reasoning framework provides logic functionalities to interactively support designers in a set of common design tasks: the choice of the most suitable indicators for the performance monitoring needs at hand, the definition of new indicators and the identification of the minimal set of Transmodel modules needed to calculate them. A case study is included to discuss these applications, while an evaluation shows the feasibility of the approach.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Feedback control speed harmonization algorithm: Methodology and
           preliminary testing
    • Authors: Hao Yang; Hesham Rakha
      Pages: 209 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Hao Yang, Hesham Rakha
      The capacity drop phenomenon, which reduces the maximum bottleneck discharge rate following the onset of congestion, is a critical restriction in transportation networks that produces additional traffic congestion. Consequently, preventing or reducing the occurrence of the capacity drop not only mitigates traffic congestion, but can also produce environmental and traffic safety benefits. In addressing this problem, the paper develops a novel bang-bang feedback control speed harmonization (SH) or Variable Speed Limit (VSL) algorithm, that attempts to prevent or delay the breakdown of a bottleneck and thus reduce traffic congestion. The novelty of the system lies in the fact that it is both proactive and reactive in responding to the dynamic stochastic nature of traffic. The system is proactive because it uses a calibrated fundamental diagram to initially identify the optimum throughput to maintain within the SH zone. Furthermore, the system is reactive (dynamic) because it monitors the traffic stream directly upstream of the bottleneck to adjustment the metering rate to capture the dynamic and stochastic nature of traffic. The steady-state traffic states in the vicinity of a lane-drop bottleneck before and after applying the SH algorithm is analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in alleviating the capacity drop. We demonstrate theoretically that the SH algorithm is effective in enhancing the bottleneck discharge rate. A microscopic simulation of the network using the INTEGRATION software further demonstrates the benefits of the algorithm in increasing the bottleneck discharge rate, decreasing vehicle delay, and reducing vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emission levels. Specifically, compared with the base case without the SH algorithm, the advisory speed limit increases the bottleneck discharge rate by approximately 7%, reduces the overall system delay by approximately 20%, and reduces the system-wide fuel consumption and CO2 emission levels by 5%.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Integrated airline planning: Robust update of scheduling and fleet
           balancing under demand uncertainty
    • Authors: Luis Cadarso; Raúl de Celis
      Pages: 227 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Luis Cadarso, Raúl de Celis
      The airline schedule planning problem is defined as the sequence of decisions that need to be made to obtain a fully operational flight schedule. Historically, the airline scheduling problem has been sequentially solved. However, there have already been many attempts in order to obtain airline schedules in an integrated way. But due to tractability issues it is nowadays impossible to determine a fully operative and optimal schedule with an integrated model which accounts for all the key airline related aspects such as competitive effects, stochastic demand figures and uncertain operating conditions. Airlines usually develop base schedules, which are obtained much time in advance to the day of operations and not accounting for all the related uncertainty. This paper proposes a mathematical model in order to update base schedules in terms of timetable and fleet assignments while considering stochastic demand figures and uncertain operating conditions, and where robust itineraries are introduced in order to ameliorate miss-connected passengers. The proposed model leads to a large-scale problem which is difficult to be solved. Therefore, a novel improved and accelerated Benders decomposition approach is proposed. The analytical work is supported with case studies involving the Spanish legacy airline, IBERIA. The presented approach shows that the number of miss-connected passengers may be reduced when robust planning is applied.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Real-time automatic rescheduling strategy for an urban rail line by
           integrating the information of fault handling
    • Authors: Yuan Gao; Lixing Yang; Ziyou Gao
      Pages: 246 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yuan Gao, Lixing Yang, Ziyou Gao
      In the operation of urban rails, faults are inevitable, which leads to deviation between the actual timetable and the planned timetable. In nowadays, timetable rescheduling strategies rarely integrate the information of fault handling. In this paper, we develop a real-time automatic rescheduling strategy, which integrates the dynamic information of fault handling. The rescheduled timetable is obtained by a mathematical optimization model, the constraints set of which is automatically generated and adjusted as more information of fault handling is feedback. Compared with the experience-based rescheduling methods, the automatic rescheduling strategy reacts more quickly, and uses the information of fault handling more efficiently. A simulation system for testing the automatic rescheduling strategy is built, which uses the data of the Beijing Yizhuang metro line. Via testing on the simulation system, the effectiveness and efficiency of the automatic rescheduling strategy are validated.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Auction-based tolling systems in a connected and automated vehicles
           environment: Public opinion and implications for toll revenue and capacity
           utilization
    • Authors: Gulsevi Basar; Mecit Cetin
      Pages: 268 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Gulsevi Basar, Mecit Cetin
      Autonomous and connected vehicles are expected to enable new tolling mechanisms, such as auction-based tolls, for allocating the limited roadway capacity. This research examines the public perception of futuristic auction-based tolling systems, with a focus on the public acceptance of such systems over current tolling practices on highways (e.g., dynamic and fixed tolling methodologies). Through a stated-preference survey, responses from 159 road-users residing in Virginia are elicited to understand route choice behavior under a descending price auction implemented on a hypothetical two-route network. Analysis of the survey data shows that there is no outright rejection of the presented auction-based tolling among those who are familiar with the current tolling methods. While males strongly support the new method, no clear pattern emerges among other demographic variables such as income and education level, and age. While high income respondents and regular commuters are more likely to pay higher tolls, no statistical significance between different genders, age groups, household sizes, and education levels is found. Based on the modeling results and the hypothetical road network, it is found that descending price tolling method yields higher average toll rates, and generates at least 70% more revenue when travel time saving is 30min, and improves capacity utilization of the toll road significantly compared to fixed tolls.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T00:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Modeling free-floating car-sharing use in Switzerland: A spatial
           regression and conditional logit approach
    • Authors: Henrik Becker; Francesco Ciari; Kay W. Axhausen
      Pages: 286 - 299
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Henrik Becker, Francesco Ciari, Kay W. Axhausen
      Free-floating car-sharing has been one of the latest innovations in the car-sharing market. It allows its customers to locate available vehicles via a smartphone app and reserve them for a short time prior to their rental. Because it is available for point-to-point trips, free-floating car-sharing is not only an alternative to private cars, but also to public transportation. Using spatial regression and conditional logit analysis of original transaction data of a free-floating car-sharing scheme in Switzerland, this research shows that free-floating car-sharing is mainly used for discretionary trips, for which only substantially inferior public transportation alternatives are available. In contrast to station-based car-sharing, it does not rely on high-quality local public transportation access, but bridges gaps in the existing public transportation network.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Traffic guidance–perimeter control coupled method for the congestion
           in a macro network
    • Authors: Heng Ding; Fang Guo; Xiaoyan Zheng; Weihua Zhang
      Pages: 300 - 316
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Heng Ding, Fang Guo, Xiaoyan Zheng, Weihua Zhang
      Macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) describes the macro relationship between a network vehicle density and a network space mean flow, without requiring the mastery of complex origin to destination data. Thus, MFD provides an opportunity for the macro control of urban road network. However, most of the existing MFD control methods ignore the active role of traffic guidance in solving congestion problems. This study presents a traffic guidance–perimeter control coupled (TGPCC) method to improve the performance of macroscopic traffic networks. The method considers the optimal cumulative volume of a network as the goal and establishes a programming function according to the network equilibrium rule of traffic flow amongst multiple MFD sub-regions, which regards the minimum delay of network, as the objective. The Logit model for the compliance rate of driver route guidance is established by the stated preference survey. Moreover, the perimeter control (PC) method is proposed for adjusting the phase split of intersections. Finally, three schemes, namely, the TGPCC, PC and the method without PC and guidance are tested on a network with four well-defined MFD sub-regions. Results show that the TGPCC addresses the issue of congestion and decreases the total delay accordingly.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • A study of pedestrian group behaviors in crowd evacuation based on an
           extended floor field cellular automaton model
    • Authors: Lili Lu; Ching-Yao Chan; Jian Wang; Wei Wang
      Pages: 317 - 329
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Lili Lu, Ching-Yao Chan, Jian Wang, Wei Wang
      In the study of pedestrian movements, a consideration of group behaviors is important because of their potential impacts on pedestrian flow dynamics. In this paper, we investigate the group behaviors during emergency evacuation, which is a critical case for emergency crowd management but has not been fully explored and understood. It has been well recognized that in evacuation situations, some people within a crowd, especially those who are with families and friends, often move in small groups and act in particular patterns distinct from individuals. As a result, the crowd is a mixture of individuals and groups rather than a pure collection of individuals. To capture and evaluate the influence of group behaviors on crowd evacuation, we propose an extended floor field cellular automaton (CA) model that takes into account such phenomena. Our model is formulated by leveraging the leader-follower behavior rule that is evident in pedestrian group behaviors. To calibrate and validate the proposed model, a few field experiments of crowd evacuation were conducted in a university building. Through a representative case study, it is demonstrated that the proposed extended floor field CA model can replicate the well-known phenomena in crowd evacuation such as collective arch-like clogging at the exit as well as other commonly observed group behaviors in evacuation. Moreover, it is found that the total crowd evacuation time significantly increases with the presence of pedestrian groups in the crowd. The results also show that such negative effects of group behaviors in crowd evacuation intensify when the density of the crowd is higher. Subsequently, sensitivity analyses are performed to further explore how pedestrian group behaviors are influenced by model parameters that reflect the pedestrian flow dynamics in evacuation scenarios. With its capability of realistically replicating the field pedestrian evacuation, the proposed model can serve as a valuable tool for predicting crowd evacuation time and designing guidelines for pedestrian evacuation in emergency situations, in particular when group behaviors are salient.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Incident detection methods using probe vehicles with on-board GPS
           equipment
    • Authors: Yasuo Asakura; Takahiko Kusakabe; Long Xuan Nguyen; Takamasa Ushiki
      Pages: 330 - 341
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yasuo Asakura, Takahiko Kusakabe, Long Xuan Nguyen, Takamasa Ushiki
      Mobile communication instruments have made detecting traffic incidents possible by using floating traffic data. This paper studies the properties of traffic flow dynamics during incidents and proposes incident detection methods using floating data collected by probe vehicles equipped with on-board global positioning system (GPS) equipment. The proposed algorithms predict the time and location of traffic congestion caused by an incident. The detection rate and false rate of the models are examined using a traffic flow simulator, and the performance measures of the proposed methods are compared with those of previous methods.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic charging-while-driving systems for freight delivery services with
           electric vehicles: Traffic and energy modelling
    • Authors: Francesco Deflorio; Luca Castello
      Pages: 342 - 362
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Francesco Deflorio, Luca Castello
      This paper presents a research on traffic modelling developed for assessing traffic and energy performance of electric systems installed along roads for dynamic charging-while-driving (CWD) of fully electric vehicles (FEVs). The logic adopted by the developed traffic model is derived from a particular simulation scenario of electric charging: a freight distribution service operated using medium-sized vans. In this case, the CWD service is used to recover the state of charge of the FEV batteries to shortly start with further activities after arrival at the depot. The CWD system is assumed to be implemented in a multilane ring road with several intermediate on-ramp entrances, where the slowest lane is reserved for the dynamic charging of authorized electric vehicles. A specific traffic model is developed and implemented based on a mesoscopic approach, where energy requirements and charging opportunities affect driving and traffic behaviours. Overtaking manoeuvres as well as new entries in the CWD lane of vehicles that need to charge are modelled according to a cooperative driving system, which manages adequate time gaps between consecutive vehicles. Finally, a speed control strategy is simulated at a defined node to create an empty time-space slot in the CWD lane, by delaying the arriving vehicles. This simulated control, implemented to allow maintenance operations for CWD that may require clearing a charging zone for a short time slot, could also be applied to facilitate on-ramp merging manoeuvres.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • An investigation of timed transfer coordination using event-based multi
           agent simulation
    • Authors: Le Minh Kieu; Ashish Bhaskar; Mario Cools; Edward Chung
      Pages: 363 - 378
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Le Minh Kieu, Ashish Bhaskar, Mario Cools, Edward Chung
      While transfers extend transit service coverage by omnidirectional connections, poorly coordinated transfers significantly increase passenger waiting time, especially in case of missed connections. This paper proposes a simulation approach to investigate the feasibilities of different timed transfer strategies in both schedule planning and operational control. In particular, an Event-Based Multi-Agent Simulation (EMAS) model is proposed, that captures the interactions between the transit vehicles, its passengers and the (urban) environment by considering the transit vehicles and passengers as separate classes of agents which interact in a dynamic system. The model is validated by using observed Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) and Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) data from two routes with transfers in South East Queensland, Australia. EMAS is then used to evaluate different timed transfer strategies for both schedule planning and operational control. The analysis on timed transfers in schedule planning provides valuable insights on the probability of missing a transfer and extra waiting time for transfer. Six different strategies for timed transfers in operational control are thoroughly tested, including an elaborate sensitivity analysis of the effectiveness of the strategies for different levels of transferring demand and schedule headways. This paper assists transit operators to exploit observed AVL and AFC data to augment the transfer coordination quality.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Yu Zhang; Hamsa Balakrishnan
      First page: 423
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Yu Zhang, Hamsa Balakrishnan


      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Solving the gate assignment problem through the Fuzzy Bee Colony
           Optimization
    • Authors: Mauro Dell'Orco; Mario Marinelli; Maria Giovanna Altieri
      Pages: 424 - 438
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Mauro Dell'Orco, Mario Marinelli, Maria Giovanna Altieri
      In the field of Swarm Intelligence, the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) has proven to be capable of solving high-level combinatorial problems, like the Flight-Gate Assignment Problem (FGAP), with fast convergence performances. However, given that the FGAP can be often affected by uncertainty or approximation in data, in this paper we develop a new metaheuristic algorithm, based on the Fuzzy Bee Colony Optimization (FBCO), which integrates the concepts of BCO with a Fuzzy Inference System. The proposed method assigns, through the multicriteria analysis, airport gates to scheduled flights based on both passengers’ total walking distance and use of remote gates, to find an optimal flight-to-gate assignment for a given schedule. Comparison of the results with the schedules of real airports has allowed us to show the characteristics of the proposed concepts and, at the same time, it stressed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Airport apron roundabout – Operational concept and capacity
           evaluation
    • Authors: Bojana Mirković; Vojin Tošić; Peter Kanzler; Michael Höhenberger
      Pages: 439 - 453
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Bojana Mirković, Vojin Tošić, Peter Kanzler, Michael Höhenberger
      The paper presents one of the initial steps in the evaluation process towards possible implementation of an innovative taxiway intersection design at Munich Airport apron. A roundabout is proposed as a potential solution for the 12-line intersection area expected at redesigned Apron 3. Although it is a common solution used in road transport for complex intersections, the roundabout has never previously been used for airport surface operations nor has its possible use been considered or analyzed. The paper presents preliminary design and operations concepts of the apron roundabout, followed by its capacity evaluation under Munich Airport operating conditions. The aim was to analyze whether a roundabout is suitable to replace a conventional intersection, in terms of capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Estimating fuel burn impacts of taxi-out delay with implications for
           gate-hold benefits
    • Authors: Lu Hao; Megan S. Ryerson; Lei Kang; Mark Hansen
      Pages: 454 - 466
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Lu Hao, Megan S. Ryerson, Lei Kang, Mark Hansen
      The aviation community is actively investigating initiatives to reduce aircraft fuel consumption from surface operations, as surface management strategies may face fewer implementation barriers compared with en route strategies. One fuel-saving initiative for the air transportation system is the possibility of holding aircraft at the gate, or the spot, until the point at which they can taxi unimpeded to the departure runway. The extent to which gate holding strategies have financial and environmental benefits hinges on the quantity of fuel that is consumed during surface operations. A pilot of an aircraft may execute the taxi procedure on a single engine or utilize different engine thrust rates during taxi because of a delay. In the following study, we use airline fuel consumption data to estimate aircraft taxi fuel consumption rates during the “unimpeded” and “delayed” portions of taxi time. We find that the fuel consumption attributed to a minute of taxi-out delay is less than that attributed to minute of unimpeded taxi time; for some aircraft types, the fuel consumption rate for a minute of taxi delay is half of that for unimpeded taxi. It is therefore not appropriate, even for rough calculations, to apply nominal taxi fuel consumption rates to convert delayed taxi-out time into fuel burn. On average we find that eliminating taxi delay would reduce overall flight fuel consumption by about 1%. When we consider the savings on an airport-by-airport basis, we find that for some airports the potential reduction from reducing taxi delay is as much as 2%.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 82


      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:02:01Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81


      PubDate: 2017-07-03T09:56:19Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80


      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
       
  • On the variance of recurrent traffic flow for statistical traffic
           assignment
    • Authors: Wei Zhen; (Sean) Qian
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Wei Ma, Zhen (Sean) Qian
      This paper generalizes and extends classical traffic assignment models to characterize the statistical features of Origin-Destination (O-D) demands, link/path flow and link/path costs, all of which vary from day to day. The generalized statistical traffic assignment (GESTA) model has a clear multi-level variance structure. Flow variance is analytically decomposed into three sources, O-D demands, route choices and measurement errors. Consequently, optimal decisions on roadway design, maintenance, operations and planning can be made using estimated probability distributions of link/path flow and system performance. The statistical equilibrium in GESTA is mathematically defined. Its multi-level statistical structure well fits large-scale data mining techniques. The embedded route choice model is consistent with the settings of O-D demands considering link costs that vary from day to day. We propose a Method of Successive Averages (MSA) based solution algorithm to solve for GESTA. Its convergence and computational complexity are analyzed. Three example networks including a large-scale network are solved to provide insights for decision making and to demonstrate computational efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
       
  • Dynamic demand estimation and prediction for traffic urban networks
           adopting new data sources
    • Authors: Stefano Carrese; Ernesto Cipriani Livia Mannini Marialisa Nigro
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Stefano Carrese, Ernesto Cipriani, Livia Mannini, Marialisa Nigro
      Nowadays, new mobility information can be derived from advanced traffic surveillance systems that collect updated traffic measurements, both in fixed locations and over specific corridors or paths. Such recent technological developments point to challenging and promising opportunities that academics and practitioners have only partially explored so far. The paper looks at some of these opportunities within the Dynamic Demand Estimation problem (DDEP). At first, data heterogeneity, accounting for different sets of data providing a wide spatial coverage, has been investigated for the benefit of off-line demand estimation. In an attempt to mimic the current urban networks monitoring, examples of complex real case applications are being reported where route travel times and route choice probabilities from probe vehicles are exploited together with common link traffic measurements. Subsequently, on-line detection of non-recurrent conditions is being recorded, adopting a sequential approach based on an extension of the Kalman Filter theory called Local Ensemble Transformed Kalman Filter (LETKF). Both the off-line and the on-line investigations adopt a simulation approach capable of capturing the highly nonlinear dependence between the travel demand and the traffic measurements through the use of dynamic traffic assignment models. Consequently, the possibility of using collected traffic information is enhanced, thus overcoming most of the limitations of current DDEP approaches found in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
       
  • Flight and passenger delay assignment optimization strategies
    • Authors: Montlaur Delgado
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): A. Montlaur, L. Delgado
      This paper compares different optimization strategies for the minimization of flight and passenger delays at two levels: pre-tactical, with on-ground delay at origin, and tactical, with airborne delay close to the destination airport. The optimization model is based on the ground holding problem and uses various cost functions. The scenario considered takes place in a busy European airport and includes realistic values of traffic. A passenger assignment with connections at the hub is modeled. Statistical models are used for passenger and connecting passenger allocation, minimum time required for turnaround and tactical noise; whereas uncertainty is also introduced in the model for tactical noise. Performance of the various optimization processes is presented and compared to ration by schedule results.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
       
 
 
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