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Journal Cover Petroleum Geoscience     [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 31]
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1354-0793 - ISSN (Online) 2041-496X
   Published by Geological Society of London Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Geomechanical modelling of CO2 geological storage with the use of site
           specific rock mechanics laboratory data
    • Authors: Olden, P; Jin, M, Pickup, G, Mackay, E, Hamilton, S, Somerville, J, Todd, A.
      Pages: 323 - 337
      Abstract: Many diverse challenges – political, economic, legal and technical – face the continued development and deployment of geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. Among the technical challenges will be the satisfactory proof of storage site security and efficacy. Evidence from many past geotechnical projects has shown the investigations and analyses that are required to demonstrate safe and satisfactory performance will be site specific. This will hold for the geomechanical assessment of saline aquifer storage site integrity where, compared to depleted hydrocarbon fields, there will be no previous pressure response history or rock property characterization data available. The work presented was carried out as part of a project investigating the improvement in levels of confidence in all aspects of saline aquifer site selection and characterization that could be expected with increasing data availability and in-depth analysis. Attention focused on the geomechanical modelling and the rock mechanics data used to populate models of two storage sites in geological settings analogous to those where CO2 storage might be considered. Coupled geomechanical models were developed from reservoir simulation models initially incorporating generic rock mechanical properties and then laboratory-derived site-specific properties. The models were run in various configurations to investigate the effect of changing the rock mechanical properties on the geomechanical response of the storage systems. Modelling results showed that the pressure response at one site due to low injectivity caused significant potential for fault reactivation. Increasing the number of injection wells, thereby reducing the individual rates needed to deliver the target capacity, reduced the injection pressures and ameliorated, but did not eliminate, this adverse response.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24T11:36:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1144/petgeo2012-048|hwp:master-id:petgeo;petgeo2012-048
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2014)
  • Reservoir rock typing of Upper Shu'aiba limestones, northwestern Oman
    • Authors: Al-Tooqi, S; Ehrenberg, S. N, Al-Habsi, N, Al-Shukaili, M.
      Pages: 339 - 352
      Abstract: Core samples from seven wells in Lower Cretaceous limestones of the Upper Shu’aiba Member were characterized by conventional core analyses, petrography, bulk chemistry and mercury-injection capillary pressure data to define reservoir rock types (RRT). In the main oilfield studied, lithofacies are arranged in three main belts corresponding to ramp crest, upper slope and lower slope, with bioclast content and size decreasing down depositional dip. Rock typing is based on the observation of distinct, but overlapping, porosity–permeability transforms for each lithofacies, although most samples plot in or below the class 3 field of Lucia, reflecting the presence of abundant lime-mud matrix. Because of the wide range of porosity in each of the main lithofacies, an arbitrary division at 20% porosity is used in combination with lithofacies to define RRT with both three-dimensional (3D) geological significance and distinct ranges of permeability and capillary pressure characteristics. The use of total porosity as a rock-typing criterion is based on the interpretation that porosity is controlled on the reservoir scale by the depositional clay content of the local stratigraphic environment. The seaward and uppermost parts of the clinoforms a have low clay, and, thus, highest porosity. Because both lithofacies and porosity are linked to the sedimentological and stratigraphic organization of the Upper Shu’aiba clinoforms, the RRT can potentially be implemented in a reservoir model for assigning distinct ranges of petrophysical properties to the different architectural elements comprising each clinoform. Two additional grain-dominated RRT have also been defined in a single core that was available from a second oilfield.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24T11:36:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1144/petgeo2014-024|hwp:master-id:petgeo;petgeo2014-024
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2014)
  • Using geological well testing for improving the selection of appropriate
           reservoir models
    • Authors: Hamdi, H; Ruelland, P, Bergey, P, Corbett, P. W. M.
      Pages: 353 - 368
      Abstract: Analytical well-test solutions are mainly derived for simplified and idealized reservoir models and therefore cannot always honour the true complexity of real reservoir heterogeneities. Pressure transients in the reservoir average out heterogeneities, and therefore some interpretations may not be relevant and could be misleading. Geological well testing refers to the numerical simulation of transient tests by setting up detailed geological models, within which different scales of heterogeneity are present. The concept of geological well testing described in this paper assists in selecting from multiple equi-probable static models. This approach is used to understand which heterogeneities can influence the pressure transients. In this paper, a low-energy multi-facies fluvial reservoir is studied, for which data from a well test of exceptionally long duration are available. The pervasive low reservoir quality facies and restricted macro cross-flow between the reservoir layers give rise to an effective commingled system of flow into the wellbore (i.e. zero or very low vertical cross-flow between the reservoir units). In our model, facies transitions produce lateral cross-flow transients that result in a ‘double-ramp-effect’ signature in the test response. A sophisticated multi-point statistical (MPS) facies modelling approach is utilized to simulate complex geological heterogeneities and to represent facies spatial connectivity within a set of generated static models. The geological well-test model responses to a real well-testing cycle are then evaluated using dynamic simulation. The pressure match between simulated and recorded data is improved by generating multiple facies and petrophysical realizations, and by applying an engineering-based hybridization algorithm to combine different models that match particular portions of the real well-test response. In this example, the reservoir dynamics are controlled by subtle interaction between high-permeability channels and low-permeability floodplain deposits. Effective integration of geology and dynamic data using modern methods can lead to better reservoir characterization and modelling of such complex reservoir systems.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24T11:36:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1144/petgeo2012-074|hwp:master-id:petgeo;petgeo2012-074
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2014)
  • Preparation of microporous rock samples for confocal laser scanning
    • Authors: Shah, S. M; Crawshaw, J. P, Boek, E. S.
      Pages: 369 - 374
      Abstract: In this paper we describe an improved sample-preparation technique for applying confocal laser scanning microscopy to image the void space of porous geological media, particularly various kinds of carbonate rocks with significant microporosity. We have improved the existing sample-preparation technique for confocal imaging by introducing a positive-pressure application step. This additional step helps to force the fluorescent-doped epoxy mixture inside the submicron pores (the microporosity) which make up a significant fraction of the total porosity of the carbonate rocks being characterized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We also provide additional technical details and discuss practical aspects important to consider when imaging carbonate rock samples using this technique.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24T11:36:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1144/petgeo2014-021|hwp:master-id:petgeo;petgeo2014-021
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2014)
  • A Bayesian shifting method for uncertainty in the open-hole gamma-ray log
           around casing points
    • Authors: Oughton, R. H; Wooff, D. A, O'Connor, S. A.
      Pages: 375 - 391
      Abstract: The wireline gamma-ray log is sensitive to open-hole conditions and, in particular, the diameter. This means that the log can jump at casing points. Although environmental corrections exist, they can fail at these points. We present a Bayesian method for deriving a new quantity – the shifted gamma–ray index – that takes these shifts into account by fitting a piecewise linear function to open-hole data in a depth window around the casing point. Because it is Bayesian, the method enables us to assess our uncertainty about its performance. This method requires very little knowledge of the borehole or drilling conditions but relies on the assumption that the lithology is consistent. Investigating the other wireline logs enables us to assess whether this assumption is valid. We demonstrate our method using well data from offshore mid-Norway.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24T11:36:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1144/petgeo2014-006|hwp:master-id:petgeo;petgeo2014-006
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2014)
  • Experimental study of surface-modified silica nanoparticles in enhancing
           oil recovery
    • Authors: Roustaei; A.
      Pages: 393 - 400
      Abstract: One of the main objectives of nanotechnology in the oil industry is to identify applications that could bring significant benefits to enhanced oil recovery. Therefore, it has attracted the attention of many researchers over the last decade. This paper experimentally investigates the efficiency of surface-modified silica nanoparticles in enhanced oil recovery. These nanoparticles improve oil recovery through two main mechanisms: oil–water interfacial tension reduction; and wettability alteration. Various concentrations of nanofluid were made, and their effect on wettability and interfacial tension were investigated to determine the optimum concentration for injection into core samples. The results indicate that a concentration of 4 g l–1 is the optimum concentration. Moreover, this paper reports the nanofluids’ potential in enhanced oil recovery of water-wet core plugs. The results of coreflood experiments reveal that oil recovery increases by 26.2% and total oil recovery considerably improves after the injection of nanofluid. In addition, filtration of the nanofluid before injection into the core was very effective in reducing the risk of possible permeability damage that occurred due to the deposition of large nanoparticle aggregates onto the rock surface.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24T11:36:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1144/petgeo2013-053|hwp:master-id:petgeo;petgeo2013-053
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2014)
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