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Journal Cover   Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2300 journals]
  • Morphological Reassessment of Triops cancriformis Bosc (Crustacea:
           Branchiopoda: Notostraca) Population from Kashmir, India with Comments on
           the Distribution of the Species in India
    • Abstract: Abstract Triops cancriformis was reported first from India in 1871 and has been subsequently shown to occur in different regions of the country. In this paper, we have morphologically re-examined the Triops cancriformis population from Kashmir from where this species was first reported. We have compared some morphological traits of our T. cancriformis population with a few closely related species. The result shows that the Kashmir population is more similar to the typical non gonochoric Triops cancriformis in morphology. From literature records, we show that T. cancriformis has a peculiar distribution in India with no record of occurrences below 23°N. We also highlight the 125 years of history of T. cancriformis records from India.
      PubDate: 2015-02-28
       
  • Above Ground Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Deciduous Forest in Ayodhya
           Hill, Purulia, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Arthropods exploiting terrestrial habitats constitute a single major group that represents extreme diversity of forms and functions. The present commentary provides a description of the above ground arthropod species diversity of the tropical deciduous forest in Ayodhya hills, Purulia, West Bengal, India. Species diversity was only considered for this study through random quadrat sampling method. Shannon-Wiener diversity index, equitability among species, relative dominance, species richness and community similarity for the two different habitats were calculated. A total of 289 individuals were recorded which included the insect orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Isoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Mantodea, and few individuals of class Isopoda, Araneae and Chilopoda. In majority of the quadrats the dominant insect order was Hymenoptera.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
       
  • Pathophysiological Scenario of Hematopoietic Disorders: A Comparative
           Study of Aplastic Anemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Leukemia in
           Experimental Animals
    • Abstract: Abstract The conversion of physiology to pathophysiology in hematological disorders viz: aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia in murine models was the subject of study in the present programme. Peripheral blood hemogram, spleno-somatic index, bone marrow smear study, cytochemical staining of marrow, cell release kinetics study during marrow explants culture, hematopoietic niche assessment, chromosomal aberration study, plasma membrane stability study of marrow cells, lysosomal membrane and mitochondrial membrane stability study and innate immune parameters were performed in the aplastic anemia, leukemia and MDS mouse model. In bone marrow aplasia, peripheral blood pancytopenia, marrow hypocellularity, decreased marrow cellular viability, deterioration of bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as hematopoietic microenvironment and extramedullary hematopoiesis were noticed. In addition, disruption of mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane integrity along with reduction of innate immune parameters were found in the hematopoietic suppressed condition. Surprisingly, no noticeable chromosomal aberration was found in the aplastic condition. Ineffective marrow hematopoiesis together with the disruption of hematopoietic microenvironment was observed in MDS. Also, extramedullary hematopoiesis, increased marrow cellular death, chromosomal aberration and loss of innate immunity were the common events. During leukemia, the number of functionally and structurally immature cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow was increased together with malignant conversion of hematopoietic cells in the presence of malignancy supportive stromal microenvironment. Chromosomal aberration, decrease of cell mediated immunity with least mitochondrial apoptotic damage were also found in leukemic condition as well.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
       
  • Hydrological and Nutrient Status of Mangrove Ecosystem of Kali Estuary,
           Karwar, Karnataka, West Coast of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Water samples were collected from three selected mangrove ecosystems of Kali Estuary west coast Karwar, on monthly basis and analyzed for various hydrographic parameters. The present work would give the recent information on the hydrographic condition of the mangrove ecosystem of Kali estuary. Surface water temperature varied from 27.4 to 32.07 °C and the salinity ranged between 4.1 and 30.15 ppt, pH ranged between 7.00 and 8.89. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 2.46 to 6.47 ml/l and suspended matter ranged between 0.03 and 1.05 gm/l. Concentrations of nutrients viz. phosphates (0.71–2.38 μg at/l), nitrates (0.73–2.42 μg at/l), nitrites (0.07–0.98 μg at/l) and silicate (131.18–298.18 μg at/l) also varied independently. The results of the study revealed that hydrographical conditions fluctuated moderately throughout the year.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
       
  • Stridulation and Courtship Behaviour of Four Endemic Pill-Millipedes,
           Arthrosphaera spp. (Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae) of the Western
           Ghats of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Mating behaviour of four species of pill-millipedes under genus Arthrosphaera Pocock (Arthrosphaera dalyi Pocock and Arthrosphaera disticta Pocock, Arthrosphaera fumosa Pocock and Arthrosphaera magna Attems) endemic to the Western Ghats of Southern India was analyzed in mesocosms. Stridulation is a classical communication signal in males as well as females for mate selection. Conglobation (or volvation) is a mechanism of defence to protect from disturbance or avoid predation. If male touches female or vice versa they conglobate. To avoid disparity among individuals of the same species, volvating pill-millipedes evolved stridulation behaviour for communication. The male broadcasts appropriate signal to female through stridulation to advertise its interest in mating. The females test the male’s fitness by conglobation and suitable male uncoils the partner through stridulation signals. Male with its pygidium successfully uncoils the female and attains suitable orientation for courtship. Male pairs with female ventro–ventro contact in opposite direction to deposit sperm into the vulva of female. The duration of mating varies from species to species and usually a lapse from 3 to 30 min. Vibration generated by stridulation is species-specific and its perception mechanism in pill-millipedes is yet to be clearly understood. Present study emphasized the structure of stridulatory organs, mechanism of stridulation and pattern of mating behaviour in four species of pill-millipedes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
       
  • Alcohol as a Risk Factor for Cancer Burden: A Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Alcohol is eliminated from the body by various metabolic mechanisms. The primary enzymes in such mechanism involved are alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 2E1, and catalase. Variations in the genes for these enzymes have been found to influence alcohol consumption. The consequences of alcohol metabolism include oxygen deficits (i.e., hypoxia) in the liver, resulting in the formation of harmful compounds (i.e., adducts) and highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules (i.e., reactive oxygen species) that can damage cell components. Approximately, worldwide 3.6 % of cancers derive from chronic alcohol drinking, including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colorectum and the breast. Although the mechanisms for alcohol-associated carcinogenesis are not completely understood, recent findings have focused on acetaldehyde, the first and most toxic ethanol metabolite, as a cancer-causing agent. Alcohol-related carcinogenesis may aggravate due to other factors such as smoking and being triggered by genetic susceptibility. Besides, the role of genetic polymorphisms of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes could not be ruled out.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
       
  • Effect of Different Animal Protein Sources on Growth and Nutrient
           Utilization of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata Fingerlings
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on the nutrient requirement of guppy, Poecilia reticulata fingerlings as reported earlier, nine experimental diets with 300 g protein, 100 g lipid and 16.72 MJ digestible energy/kg diet were formulated using snail meat (D-1), freshwater fish processing waste (D-2), surimi by-product (D-3), chicken offal (D-4), earthworm (D-5), squid (D-6), mussel (T-7), chicken liver (T-8) and lean prawn (T-9) as major protein source in addition to fish meal and peanut oil cake and fed ad libitum to the fish (0.27 ± 0.01 g) for a period of 60 days. Twenty-seven indoor circular fiber-reinforced plastic tanks (10 fish/tank) with 40 L of water were used for rearing the fish. At the end of the experiment, it was found that the guppy fed surumi by-product, squid, mussel and lean prawn meal diets had significantly higher (p < 0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio and lowest (p < 0.05) food conversion ratio than the snail, freshwater fish processing waste, chicken offal, earthworm and chicken liver meal diets and therefore, these four could be used as dietary protein source in formulating the diets for guppy. However, to formulate the cost-effective diets for guppy fingerlings, the use surimi by-product is suggested as it is being discarded as waste material and therefore, available free of cost.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
       
  • Suitability of Different Prey Aphids on the Growth, Development and
           Reproduction of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen)
           (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera)
    • Abstract: Abstract The prey preference of polyphagous predator, green lacewing (Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen)) was evaluated against five prey aphids viz., mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), black bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), spirea aphid (Aphis spiraecola) of agriculture importance and compared with eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). Lacewing larvae preferred Myzus persicae most followed by Brevicoryne brassicae. The highest growth index (8.31), larval survival (94.50 %), larval weight (10.45 mg), pupal weight (8.78 mg), faster multiplication rate (0.051) and fecundity (183.4 per gravid female) of the predator were recorded on M. persicae. However, the chrysopid reared on Corcyra eggs performed best in all biological parameters and fitness, than on aphid preys. This study explores the possibilities of selecting the most suitable prey aphid species for its exploitation as supplement for mass multiplication of chrysopid during off-season or unavailability of Corcyra eggs.
      PubDate: 2014-12-12
       
  • Season-Induced Changes in the Liver Cells and Ovarian Tissues During
           Growth, Maturation, Spawning and Post-spawning Phases in Spiny Eel
           Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède, 1800)
    • Abstract: Abstract Cytological status of hepatocytes in respect to seasons influencing ovarian activities has been studied in Mastacembelus armatus (Hamilton). Histologically, the hepatocyte of female liver was provided with distinct nucleus and basophilic cytoplasmic granules. In M. armatus different germ line cells were recognized on the basis of size and histoarchitecture of the cells. By examining seasonal changes in relation to hepatocytes and ovary, it was found that during growth and maturation phases the density of cytoplasmic granules of hepatocytes was increased in number as well as the nucleus become hypertrophied. These features were well correlated with the occurrence of cortical alveolus and yolk granule stage in the ovary. During spawning phase the cytoplasmic granules were sparse in the hypertrophied hepatic cells. This was due to the dynamic cytological activities like vitellogenesis and occurrence of mature oocytes in the ovary. However, no significant alterations were noticed in the hepatocytes during post spawning phase due to the appearance of new germ line cells in the ovary. Cytological changes in the hepatocytes were correlated with the reproductive phases in female M. armatus.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02
       
  • Stimulation of Murine Immune Response by the Tubers of        class="a-plus-plus">Dioscorea alata L. of
           North-Eastern Region of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Dioscorea alata is a staple food in south-eastern Asia and Africa and also widely consumed in the North-eastern region of India. Its medicinal value is well established, but the immunomodulatory property has never been studied on animal model. Therefore, we have investigated the immunomodulatory activity of D. alata by performing plaque forming cell assay, haemagglutination titer, stimulation of phagocytosis assay, inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, carbon-clearance test, in vitro cell adhesions assay and various cell counts. Effect of D. alata on various organ weight and total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels were also determined. At 100 mg/kg dose the macrophages were highly stimulated (P < 0.001) to proliferate and the plaque forming cell number was also found to be optimum (P < 0.001) at the same dose. Elimination of foreign material from the system was found to be highest at 250 mg/kg dose. Both at 100 and 250 mg/kg doses, the phagocytic activity of the macrophages was increased significantly (P < 0.001). Anti-inflammatory activity of D. alata was proved by the inhibition of LPS induced NO synthesis by macrophages. Therefore, it can be concluded that 70 % hydro-methanolic extract of D. alata has profound immunostimulating potential in the murine model, stimulating both humoral and innate arms of the immune system.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Factors Affecting Distribution of Earthworms in Kashmir Valley: A
           Multivariate Statistical Approach
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil characteristics influence earthworm population dynamics, species distribution and community structure. According in the present study an attempt was made to determine the soil physiochemical factors influencing earthworms of Kashmir valley with a view to improve the soil productivity by enhancing earthworm diversity under different pedoecosystems. Data collection on 15 soil parameters from 20 earthworm inhabiting sites revealed significant variation within and among the sites in soil temperature (F23, 19 = 148.83, 9.71; P < 0.05), moisture (F23, 19 = 16.91, 46.20; P < 0.05), pH (F19 = 47.21; P < 0.05), electrical conductivity (F23, 19 = 11.67, 87.13; P < 0.05), sodium (F23, 19 = 2.46, 211.25; P < 0.05), potassium (F19 = 22.91; P < 0.05), calcium (F19 = 15.90; P < 0.05), magnesium (F23, 19 = 1.76, 104.51; P < 0.05), organic carbon (F23, 19 = 64.60, 222.50; P < 0.05), organic nitrogen (F23, 19 = 4.59, 3.81; P < 0.05) and phosphorous (F23, 19 = 5.11, 137.87; P < 0.05). Aporrectodea caliginosa trapezoides and A. rosea rosea exhibited wide range of distribution whereas Octolasion cyaneum, A. c. trapezoides and A. parva showed restricted distribution. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 20 earthworm collection sites into three clusters—earthworm absent sites, low earthworm diversity sites and moderate earthworm diversity sites. Principal component analysis assisted from the data set of 20 sites, resulting into four latent factors accounting for 77.95 % of total variance, identified the factors affecting earthworm communities are mainly related to physical habitat factor, chemical factor, soil texture factor and growth factor, each accounting for 26.41, 20.16, 18.25 and 13.13 % of total variance respectively.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Visceral Dracunculiasis: A Case Report from East Medinipore District, West
           Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract A case of visceral dracunculiasis in a female patient is reported from east Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. It is the first report from the eastern India. The patient from rural West Bengal underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy on 13th March 2002 and after 3 days the patient was released with a drain in the upper abdomen because of persistence of fluid of about 50 ml per day. The patient was to readmit after 8 days with a history of expulsion of one worm through the drain tube and next day another four living worms were expelled through the tube. Subsequently the drain dried up and the patient was released after removing the tube. The worms are identified as Dracunculus medinensis, possibly remaining within the abscess developing adjacent to the gall bladder and it is a case of visceral dracunculiasis reported first time from eastern India.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Evaluation of Acute Toxicity Levels and Ethological Responses Under
           Tetrachlorocatechol Exposure in Common Carp,        class="a-plus-plus">Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)
    • Abstract: Abstract Tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) is one of the most toxic chlorinated catechol produced by the chlorobleaching of pulp and frequently found in the kraft pulp mill effluents. Toxicity of TCC to common carp, Cyprinus carpio and their ethological changes were evaluated in the present study. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of TCC to C. carpio were 4.73, 3.95, 3.20 and 2.43 mg/l respectively. The mortality rate of C. carpio showed significant relationship (p < 0.05) at different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) in different treatments of TCC (2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 mg/l). On the other hand, a significant correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between the mortality rate of fish with all the concentrations of TCC. Mean opercular movement in the fish increased significantly with the increasing dose and time of exposure to TCC indicating acute respiratory distress. The jerky movement, somersaulting, circular movement and mucus secretion of fish increased gradually with the increasing concentrations and exposure times of TCC for adapting a compensatory mechanism to derive energy in order to avoid stress due to toxicity.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Post Bleaching Assessment of Corals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands
    • Abstract: Abstract Reefs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands harbour 418 species of scleractinian corals spread over an area of 2,000 km2. In April to May, 2010, due to the delayed onset of the southwest monsoon the sea surface temperature of the coastal and oceanic region increased to 31.7 °C in respect to the earlier record of maximum 29.0 °C during the said period. This resulted in mass bleaching of hermatypic corals during May, 2010. Rapid under water surveys have been conducted in reefs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands to assess the health of corals between May 2010 and August 2011. It is estimated that 76.62 ± (SD) 10.83 % of coral species are bleached up to a water depth of 10–15 m. Species from the genus Acropora appeared more susceptible to bleaching than those belong to the genus Porites. During the month of June 2010 the sea surface temperature was reduced to 29 °C perhaps due to the rainfall which stimulated rebuilding of zooxanthellae population in bleached corals. Recovery of 85.54 ± (SD) 6.33 % of bleached corals was seen during the study period of 11 months after the bleaching event. Porites spp. showed a high recovery rate, while Acropora spp. had the highest mortality rate. Coral mortality can have profound ecological and socio-economical implications and highlights the need for sustained monitoring for coral reef conservation in India. Hence, steps must be taken to improve management tools to protect these resources of global significance.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Immunolocalization of Glucagon and Insulin Cells in Endocrine Pancreas and
           Cyclic Disparity of Plasma Glucose in the Lizard        class="a-plus-plus">Psammophilus dorsalis
    • Abstract: Abstract Reptiles are an interesting group to study the physiology of reproduction. As information on mobilisation of glucose and associated endocrine alterations in the pancreas are not known, a study on the lizard Psammophilus dorsalis was undertaken using immunohistochemistry. Glucagon-immunoreactive (IR) and insulin-IR cells never formed islets instead spread throughout the pancreas in P. dorsalis. Glucagon-IR cells appeared to release the secretory granules from all over the surface, insulin-IR cells are unidirectional in their secretion. Both cell types often have no direct contact with capillaries. The morphometric analysis showed that the glucagon-IR cells were the most abundant amounting approximately 63 % as against insulin-IR cells, amounting approximately to 37 % of the endocrine pancreatic mass in the present study. On an average P. dorsalis exhibited 288.3 ± 25.28 mg% of plasma glucose, the abdominal fat underwent clearance as there was energy demand during reproductive and recrudescent periods. Glycogen granules were evident in liver and this was inversely related with plasma glucose.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Macrozoobenthic Community and Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystem Health of
           three Waterbodies of East Calcutta Wetlands, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was aimed to understand the diversity, abundance and distribution of macrozoobenthic community of three selected fishponds differing in sewage intake and culture practices of East Calcutta Wetlands of Kolkata, India, as well as the aquatic ecosystem health of these waterbodies considering benthos as the best indicator of pollution. One year seasonal samplings were done to study the diversity and distribution of macrozoobenthos along with 12 water quality parameters to reflect the ecological conditions and aquatic ecosystem health of these waterbodies through biodiversity indices and statistical analysis (SPSS 10). A total of 27 species of macrozoobenthic organisms belonging to 18 families under four phyla comprising eight major groups viz. Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Diptera, Odonata, Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Pisces have been recorded. The diversity of macrozoobenthic fauna of these three waterbodies revealed that Ruby wetland had the highest representation of 24 species followed by Sukantanagar pond (17 species) and Sukantanagar bheri (16 species). The result of Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed that amongst the collected macrozoobenthos the gastropod species, Bellamya bengalensis and Lymnaea acuminata were wetland site-wise significant. The total benthic population and biomass have positive correlation with water transparency and organic enrichment of the waterbody. Shannon Weiner and Margalef’s indices have revealed higher values for Ruby wetland. Biodiversity indices and BMWP Score System designated to benthic organisms, suggested Ruby wetland is healthier than the other two waterbodies, differing in sewage intake and culture practices.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • On the Record of a Spot-Fin Porcupine Fish,        class="a-plus-plus">Diodon hystrix (Linnaeus,
           1758) from Mandarmani, Bay of Bengal Coast of West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract A dead specimen of a spot-fin porcupine fish Diodon hystrix was observed on the sea shore in Mandarmani, West Bengal, India. The fish weighed 2.7 kg, 76.5 cm in length and 2.54 cm in eye diameter. Although distributed circumtropically and recorded from Indian coastal waters, D. hystrix is not harvested at present, as a part of commercial capture fishery. Scars and symptoms ensuring trawler net trap caused death of the specimen. This incident warrants for a strict vigil on fishing gear used in this part of Bay of Bengal so as to ensure death escape of non-target marine resources.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Annual Cyclical Changes in the Histological Features and Surface
           Ultrastructure in Ovaries of the Freshwater Featherback        class="a-plus-plus">Notopterus notopterus (Pallas,
           1769)
    • Abstract: Abstract The feather back, Notopterus notopterus is an important food fish. Its ovary is an extremely dynamic organ and the oocytes present an asynchronous development. Variations in ovary weight, GSI, diameter of oocytes were studied in different months of the year in this fish. Different developmental stages of female germ cells were identified on the basis of histological and ultrastructural characteristics in the ovary of N. notopterus (Pallas). In the present investigation the oocyte development of N. notopterus was divided into five stages (oogonia, perinucleolar oocyte, cortical alveolus, yolk granules stage and mature oocyte). The cytophysiological features like vitellogenesis, chorion formation and atresia of some follicles were also studied in the present investigation. The seasonal changes in the ovary have been described according to the variations in gonadosomatic index and the cytological changes of the female germ line cells.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Induction of Apoptosis in G       class="a-plus-plus">1/S Blocked HeLa Cells by
           R-Roscovitine: A Preliminary Study
    • Abstract: Abstract HeLa cells are human cervical cancer cells with HR HPV-18 genes integrated in the genome. The functions of tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRB are abrogated and cell cycle regulation becomes nonfunctional. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the CDK inhibitor R-Roscovitine would allow the G1/S blocked HeLa cells to enter into mitosis prematurely and induce apoptosis. HeLa cells blocked in G1/S border were treated with different concentrations of Roscovitine for 4 and 18 h respectively. Induction of apoptosis was studied by FACS and DNA fragmentation. Presence of γH2AX in the treated cells was studied by confocal microscopy. Expression levels of CASP3, CDKN1A i.e. p21 (Cip1/Waf1) and Bcl2 were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR to analyze the role played by these proteins in Roscovitine induced apoptosis in G1/S blocked HeLa cells. Results indicate that the Roscovitine allowed the thymidine blocked HeLa cells to enter into mitosis prematurely. Presence of γH2AX loci in treated cells indicates DNA damage in prematurely mitotic cells. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation confirmed apoptosis as the possible mechanism of Roscovitine induced cell death. Our results also reveal that Roscovitine induced apoptosis is associated with the overexpression of CASP3, p21 (cip1/waf1) and Bcl2.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Photoperiod as Cues for Determining Optimal Foraging in Developmental
           Stages in Chitala
           chitala
    Hamilton, 1822
    • Abstract: Abstract Photoperiod plays an important role in controlling the feeding rhythmicity of juvenile fishes. Studies on feeding and spatial distribution pattern were made on wild populations of different juvenile stages of Chitala chitala, a threatened species in India. Results indicated that the prey preference of the fish increased with advancement of developmental stages. Moreover, nocturnal feeding was found to be more significant in the juveniles. Thus, feeding pattern of the different juvenile stages of Chitala is characterized by voracious predatory activity at dark condition. The vector controlling potential of the juvenile stages of Chitala specifically on mosquito and chironomid larvae was also significant. Studies on the distribution pattern of juvenile fishes were made with various combinations, viz. with or without food, in open surface and structured environments and observed during day as well as in dark regime. The juvenile distribution was clumped in open and closed environment during day time to minimize the chances of predation and juvenile mortality irrespective of food availability. A random distribution of juvenile fishes seemed to be advantageous for increasing feeding activity as observed in the experiment. This study is a pointer to the survival strategy of the larvae of C. chitala in their natural habitat which may be important from the perspective of conservation.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
 
 
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