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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
  Number of Followers: 1  
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Occurrence, Distribution and Morphological Description of 11 Species of
           Endemic Giant Pill-Millipedes of the Genus Arthrosphaera (Diplopoda:
           Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae) in Southern India
    • Authors: Cheviri N. Ambarish; Kandikere R. Sridhar
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: The endemic giant pill-millipedes belonging to the genus Arthrosphaera has a long history of occurrence and distribution in the Indian Subcontinent. According to the earlier and recent records, up to 40 species of Arthrosphaera are confined to southern India and Sri Lanka. Being detritus feeders, they are sensitive to narrow range of abiotic factors and their population is dwindling due to severe human interference especially landscape modification or modern forestry/agricultural practices. There is an urgent need to update the status, occurrence and distribution in distinct ecological conditions of pill-millipedes in southern India as they are important component in organic matter decomposition as well as nutrient turn over in the forests or plantations. Based on recent surveys, the present study attempts to update occurrence, distribution and morphological description (light and scanning electron microscopy) with a diagnostic key for identification of 11 species of pill-millipedes occurring in the Western Ghats of India with commentary on their distribution pattern in different ecological conditions and impact of edaphic factors.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0177-8
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Perceived Effectiveness of Indigenous Technological Knowledge (ITK) of
           Insect and Vertebrate Pests Management in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Jaydeep Halder; Manoj Kumar Pandey; Neeraj Singh; A. B. Rai; B. Singh
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Indigenous technological knowledge is considered as a traditional knowledge that inherited from their ancestors, unique to a culture, society and environment. In this article we documented uses of such local knowledge used by the local farmers of seven villages form Varanasi, Deoria and Mirzapur districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India for their crop protection. Data were collected from 140 respondents (twenty from each village) and 60 respondents who had visited the institute from these three districts during farmers’ fair and farmers’ training and whole making a total of 200 respondents. The farmers in the study developed notable innovations to control major pests of agricultural and horticultural crops such as use of ashes to control vegetable insect pests; use of onion/garlic bulbs, neem leaves, salt crystals, wheat straw, brick kiln powder etc. to prevent store grain pests of cereals; ash and kerosene mixture to repel the sucking pests of rice at milky stage; well-rotted fish scales against Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus); red chilli pods against bruchids in pulses; salt and turmeric powder mixture against ants; use of neem cake to repel termite and other soil insects etc. The local farmers were following these practices because of easy availability, eco-friendly, easy to handle, do not leave any harmful residue, pose any threat to develop resistance and resurgence of secondary pests, easy to apply and compatible with other pest management techniques and socio-cultural situation of the farmers.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0179-6
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Comparative Burrow Architectures of Resident Fiddler Crabs (Ocypodidae) in
           Indian Sundarban Mangroves to Assess Their Suitability as Bioturbating
    • Authors: Shilpa Sen; Sumit Homechaudhuri
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Excavation of burrows by fiddler crabs (genus Uca) is an important component in mangrove ecosystem functioning. This bioturbation activity can be measured by analysing the burrow architecture of these crabs. The aim of the present study is to describe and evaluate inter specific differences in the burrow morphologies of four species of fiddler crabs (Uca rosea, Uca triangularis, Uca dussumieri and Uca vocans) using polyester resin casts of the burrows. For each of the species, sex and carapace width (CW; mm) were determined for all the individuals. Three burrow morphological characters viz. burrow diameter (BD; mm), total burrow depth (TBD; mm) and burrow volume (BV; cm3) were considered during the study. Density of each species throughout the year was also assessed. For all the species BD and BV were higher in case of males compared to the females and they showed significant positive correlation with the CW of the burrow inhabitants. The amount of sediment excavated by each crab was evaluated in terms of BV. Among all the studied species, U. rosea was established as the most potent bioturbative candidate in the studied mangrove due to their greater density and moderate ability to excavate burrow.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0178-7
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Does Colour of the Food Attract Ants'
    • Authors: K. Naskar; S. K. Raut
      Pages: 25 - 29
      Abstract: Milky white, brown, yellow and pink sugar grains along with normal sugar grains in equal number were offered to the ants at different sites, in the foraging ground of a garden locating at Garia, Kolkata, India to note the role of colouration of the food in food selection, if any. It is revealed that the ants Anoplolepis gracilipes procured all the supplied colour sugar grains from the offered sites between 1 and 43 min and the normal sugar grains between 1 and 38 min from the offered sites. Results of statistical analyses clearly indicate that the colour of the food has no role to attract the ants A. gracilipes in respect to procurement times of the sugar grains noted. This suggests that the colour of the food does not act as an attractant for the ants A. gracilipes in food selection.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0181-z
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Noise Induces Hypothyroidism and Gonadal Dysfunction Via Stimulation of
           Pineal–Adrenal Axis in Chicks
    • Authors: Prajna Paramita Ray; Tania Chatterjee; Sraboni Roy; Suvojit Rakshit; Madhumita Bhowmik; Jaysree Guha; Aniruddha Maity; Indraneel Saha; Ankur Bhowal; Aniruddha Chatterjee; Supriti Sarkar; Debabrata Nag; B. R. Maiti
      Pages: 30 - 47
      Abstract: Noise is a world-wide problem that causes nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular disorders, and eventually health hazards in humans and animals. Objective of the current work is to investigate endocrine interaction in noise stress, which subsequently affects other endocrine functions including gonads in a poultry bird like chicks. Gravimetric, ultrastructural and hormonal status of the endocrine organs were examined to ascertain the effects of noise stress. Acute noise at 60 dB had no effect, but at 80 and 100 dB each for 3 h, increased pineal and serum serotonin, and adrenal and serum corticosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations, without any change in thyroid or gonadal hormones. Chronic noise exposure at 60, 80 and 100 dB each for 6 h, daily for 7 days, drastically disturbed normal behavior, and quantum of food consumption and water intake. Chronic exposure also significantly decreased body weight including thyroid, ovary and testis weight, and increased adrenal weight. Noise stress caused ultrastructural changes leading to stimulations of pinealocytes (with abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria), adrenocortical cells (enlarged nuclei and abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum) and adrenomedullary cells (enlarged nuclei with presence of chromaffin granules) were observed in noise stress. Additionally, pineal and serum serotonin, N-acetyl serotonin and melatonin, and adrenal and serum corticosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were significantly elevated following chronic noise exposure. Contrarily, thyroid activity was suppressed with atrophied thyroid follicles followed by declined levels of serum T3 and T4 with elevation of TSH level. Simultaneously, serum 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) concentrations were also significantly declined in all the doses of chronic noise. These changes were dose dependent of noise exposure. The findings suggest that (a) adrenal and pineal glands respond primarily to noise and secondarily act on other endocrine organs including gonads in chicks, (b) adrenal directly and/or indirectly causes thyroid and gonadal dysfunctions via pineal following noise exposure in chicks.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0180-0
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Association of Endogenous Testosterone with Lipid and Blood Glucose
           Profiles in Elderly Men with Angiographically Proven Cardiovascular
           Disease of Nadia and Murshidabad District, West Bengal
    • Authors: Piyali Chowdhury; Koushik Sen; Shreyasi Gupta; Suravi Majumder; Payel Guha; Arindam Chakraborty; Amar K. Chandra; Dilip Mukherjee
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Testosterone is commonly known for its role in the regulation of reproductive physiology in men. Epidemiologic studies suggest that endogenous testosterone levels may be implicated in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) levels and lipid profile as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in male patients ranging from 40 to 70 years old with angiographically proven CVDs from Nadia and Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India. These data were compared with the normal men with no CVD history. We observed a significantly low serum TT levels in CVD patient group compared to the normal group. Among CVD patients, a significant (p < 0.05) negative association was found between serum TT and total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was found between serum TT and high density lipoprotein. We also observed a highly significant negative correlation between TT and FBG levels in CVD patient group. Thus, in these two densely populated district of West Bengal with poor socio-economic condition, low levels of serum TT in elderly men is associated with CVD that appear together with an atherogenic lipid milieu that may be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD. Results further indicate that low serum TT might have a role in the development of hyperglycemia as evidenced from high FBG level in elderly men.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0184-9
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Insect Pollinators of Crops and Fruits in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern
           Himalaya: Rich Diversity in Flowers with Yellow Anther
    • Authors: Minam Tayeng; Hiren Gogoi
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: A study on the insect pollinators of the commercial crops and fruits in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was conducted from June, 2015 to May, 2016. For this, monitoring and sampling of insect pollinators in the important crops and fruits cultivated in the selected regions were done from 5 a.m. to 6 p.m. for 9 days covering 9 spots in each crop and fruit during peak blooming period. In each spot, 10 replications of 100 m2 were considered as sample size. During the study, 57 species of insects belonging to the order Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera were documented in 11 crop species and 7 fruit species. The number of species recorded from the order Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera was 23, 18, 15 and 1 respectively. While analysing the floral color discrimination, the highest species richness of insect pollinators was recorded in flowers with yellow anther color. This result coincided with Brassica juncea, as both Simpson and Shannon index showed the highest species richness in B. juncea with 19 species of insect pollinators belonging 3 orders. From the results, it is evident that, in eastern Himalayan region these native insect pollinators play significant role for yielding good quality sustainable organic crops and fruits. Further, this study leads to hypothesize that the reward patterns of flowers are ‘advertised’ in the color of the anthers to control indirectly the gamete export mediated by insect pollinators.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0185-8
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Redescription of the Male and Female of Caliris keralensis (Vyjayandi et
           al., 2006) (Mantodea: Caliridinae)
    • Authors: Parbati Chatterjee; Manikkoth Chandroth Vyjayandi; Narayan Ghorai; Tushar Kanti Mukherjee
      Pages: 63 - 67
      Abstract: The holotype of Caliris keralensis (Vyjayandi et al. 2006) (Mantodea: Caliridinae) is reviewed along with another paratype female not listed by the authors. The male of this species is re-described in details and is assigned paratype male. Photographs of the specimens are given. Male genital complex is described for better understanding the species.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0186-7
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Anonchotaenia adhiraji sp.n. (Platyhelminthes:Cestoidea) from a Bird
           Hypsipetes madagascarensis from Arunachal Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Suranjana Banerjee; Buddhadeb Manna; A. K. Sanyal
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: The genus Anonchotaenia Cohn, 1900 contains 23 valid species. In this paper Anonchotaenia adhiraji sp.n. obtained from the intestine of a bird Hypsipetes madagascarensis commonly known as black bulbul from Bomdila in Dirang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India is described and illustrated.The species is characterized by a large unarmed, square-shaped scolex; testes 7–8 in number arranged in two lateral groups and a voluminous paruterine organ that differentiates it from the rest of the described species in the genus. This is also the first report of the genus Anonchotaenia Cohn, 1900 from Arunachal Pradesh, India.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0183-x
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Dry-Powdered Water Hyacinth (
           Eichhornia crassipes ) Meal on Growth and Digestibility of Labeo rohita
    • Authors: Dipesh Debnath; Sona Yengkokpam; B. K. Bhattacharjya; Pradyut Biswas; C. Prakash; M. P. S. Kohli; A. P. Sharma
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Keeping the importance and search for unconventional feed resources and/or standardizing their level of incorporation in mind, we incorporated dry-powdered water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) meal in feeds and studied its effect on growth and digestibility in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Five feeds with 30 % crude protein level were formulated using Eichhornia meal (EM) at 0 (control), 5 (EMF1), 10 (EMF2), 15 (EMF3) or 20 % (EMF4) of the diet replacing rice bran by equal proportions. Three hundred fingerlings (7.40 ± 0.05 cm; 5.27 ± 0.12 g) were distributed into fifteen tanks (200 l capacity) and fed the experimental diets for 60 days. In the last 30 days, digestibility studies were conducted using 0.5 % chromic oxide as an external marker in feed. At 10 % inclusion of EM, the experimental fish showed the highest weight gain percent (WG%), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization with lowest feed conversion ratio. Whereas the growth performance at 15 % inclusion level was comparable with the control and further increase to 20 % level of EM showed reduced growth responses but the feed was fairly palatable to the fish. Lower digestibility was also observed in EMF4 group. It is concluded that EM can be included at 15 % level in the feed of L. rohita fingerlings without adversely affecting the growth, dry matter and nutrient digestibility. However, economic feasibility of this feedstuff needs to be analyzed to see whether the reduced cost of diets would compensate for the reduced performance of fish at higher inclusion levels.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0187-6
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of Some Honeybee Diseases on Seasonal Mortality of Apis mellifera
           intermissa in Algeria Apiaries
    • Authors: Noureddine Adjlane; Nizar Haddad
      Pages: 83 - 87
      Abstract: With a view to identify the pathogens and to establish the role of these pathogens in regulation of the density of honey bee population occurring in the apiaries of the area concerned samples of honeybee were collected from the beekeepers in some parts of central Algeria It is revealed that Nosema sp., Varroa destrutor, Peanibacillus larvae are associated with the disease manifestation in honey bees. The presence of Nosema sp., Varroa destrutor, Peanibacillus larvae was analyzed using standard OIE methods. Spores of Paenibacillus larvae were detected in 56.6 % in winter 52.32 % in spring. 29.33 % in autumn and 11.25 % in summer. Nosema infestation was recorded in 47.91 % bee individuals during spring. Varroa infestation rate was maximum 12.57 % in summer and lowest 3.44 % in spring. Analysis of data indicates that Boumerdes and Tipaza, diseases induced mortality exceeds 10 % in honeybee. There exists a significant correlation between Nosema disease and mortalities in honeybees. Seasons play significant role, irrespective of pathogens, in disease manifestation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0188-5
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Pollinator Limitation and Crop Production: Experimental Observations on
           Few Economically Important Vegetable Crops in West Bengal, India
    • Authors: Ritam Bhattacharya; Parthiba Basu
      Pages: 88 - 91
      Abstract: Pollination limitation and its impact on agricultural production is a serious concern of recent time. Assessment of the extent of dependency of various pollinator dependent crops on insect pollination assumes importance in this context. On the other hand, measures for restoring the pollination service needs to be explored for sustainable production of economically important crops particularly for the benefit of the small and marginal farmers. The present study aimed to assess the extent of insect pollinator dependency of brinjal (eggplant) fruit production and impact of honey bee (Apis cerana F) box introduction on the production in vegetable farms of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Through a pollinator exclusion experiment using enclosures it was found that brinjal fruit production reduces by 54.5 % when they are pollinator limited. This finding is in contrast with earlier report of 25 % dependency. The flower density in a pollinator limited environment was observed to increase by 31 %. This might be plant’s response to pollinator limitation where the plant invests more on reproductive structure than vegetative structures. However, this requires further exploration. Introduction of bee boxes in brinjal, pumpkin and pointed gourd farms showed significant increase in fruit production. This indicates both pollination limitation as well as the need for increasing the pollinators in the crop field for sustainable crop production.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0189-4
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Prey Animals of Tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris ) in Dudhwa Landscape,
           Terai Region, North India
    • Authors: Krishnendu Basak; Dibyendu Mandal; Sanjay Babu; Rahul Kaul; N. V. K. Ashraf; Anil Singh; Krishnendu Mondal
      Pages: 92 - 98
      Abstract: Livestock depredation by carnivores cause substantial human carnivore conflict and subsequently decreased support for carnivore conservation. Thus, understanding carnivore diet with respect to wild prey availability has major implications to determine the reasons behind livestock depredation. A study was conducted to investigate food habits and prey use of tiger at four study sites (Dudhwa National Park, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Pilibhit Forest Division and Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary) in Dudhwa landscape, Terai Region, North India for further understanding of prey–predator relationship and partial impact of wild prey availability on livestock depredation by tiger through scat analysis. Scat analysis shows that the tigers depend mostly on medium sized prey throughout the study area (74.11, 73.58, 71.79, 47.62%). In Dudhwa National Park and Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, predation was attempted subsequently on wider prey variety of eleven and nine different available prey species where livestock depredation were only 3.77 and 5.36% respectively. While, in absence of wider prey variety, large sized livestock (21.91, 16.55%) and nilgai (24.41, 5.57%) contributed much higher in tiger diet in Pilibhit Forest Division and Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary respectively. Our study suggested that availability of prey variety has an important role in reduced livestock depredation. Medium sized preys were mostly contributing in tiger diet and seems to be a significant parameter for sustaining tiger population where abundance of large sized prey is rare. Conservation of medium sized preys is important but along with natural restoration of the population of large sized prey species like sambar and swamp deer is essential in order to reduce livestock depredation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0196-5
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Insect Fauna of Pitchavaram and Parangipettai Mangroves of Southeast Coast
           of India
    • Authors: S. Balakrishnan; M. Srinivasan; P. Santhanam
      Pages: 99 - 102
      Abstract: Biodiversity of the insect fauna of natural mangrove ecosystem (Pitchavaram) and adjusted mangroves (Parangipettai), was studied through weekly sampling programmes from April 2013 to September 2013. A total of 27 species belonging to 17 families (Formicidae, Sphecidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Tenebrionidae, Culicidae, Nymphalidae, Crambidae, Pyralidae, Tortricidae, Lecidotheridae, Pieridae, Pyrrhocoridae, Corixidae, Apidae, Gerridae and Diaspidiae) were recorded. This work is the checklist of the collected insect fauna from the Pitchavaram and Parangipettai mangrove areas lying along the Southeast coast of India.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0182-y
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of Urbanization and Seasonality in Bird Communities of Kathmandu
           Valley, Nepal
    • Authors: Hem Bahadur Katuwal; Narendra Man Babu Pradhan; Jyotendra Jyu Thakuri; Krishna Prasad Bhusal; Prakash Chandra Aryal; Ishana Thapa
      Abstract: Kathmandu Valley, Nepal is undergoing rapid urbanization but its effects on the bird communities have not been reported till date. Kathmandu Valley was categorized into urban, sub-urban and rural to study the impact of urbanization in bird communities. By mobilizing volunteers, we monitored 24 transects each with one km long in summer and winter seasons of 2016. A total of 13,749 individuals of birds belonging to 102 species were recorded. Species richness and diversity of all birds declined from rural to urban areas and showed significant variation along urban–rural gradients. Insectivore was the most species-rich guild while nectarivore the least. The richness of insectivore, frugivore and carnivore guilds showed significant variations along the urban–rural gradients and higher preference towards the rural areas. Similarly, species richness of all birds and richness of insectivore and carnivore guilds showed significant seasonal variation and were higher in the winter season. Our results indicate that richness, diversity and feeding guilds of birds show different response towards the urbanization gradients and seasons. Sub-urban areas can function as bird refugia, however, habitat enrichments (like increasing green spaces, setting up new parks and gardens, plantation of native fruiting trees etc.) are utmost necessary to support the bird communities in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0265-z
  • Preliminary Screening of Halophilic Microalgae Collected from Different
           Salt Pans of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India
    • Authors: S. Balakrishnan; P. Santhanam; S. Jeyanthi; M. Divya; M. Srinivasan
      Abstract: Halophilic microalgae were collected from the salt pans of Tuticorin, Southeast coast of India. Collected specimens belonged to 13 species, of which 3 were Bacillariophyceae, 4 were Chlorophyceae and 6 were Cyanophyceae. During the study period, it was observed that the species diversity was decreased sharply when the salinity of the water increases. Hypersaline region i.e. in the crystallizing area only Dunaliella sp. and Nitzschia sp. were seen. Dunaliella sp. was the most prominent species in the crystallizing area forming orange-red patches on the salt crystals. While the algae were cultured under laboratory condition, most of the species were failed to grow except Oscillatoria sp. and Dunaliella sp. are the prevailing collection in hypersaline area Tuticorin.
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0264-0
  • Finfish Diversity of Narmada Estuary in Gujarat of India
    • Authors: Dibakar Bhakta; W. Anand Meetei; G. Vaisakh; Suhas Kamble; Sanjoy K. Das; Basanta K. Das
      Abstract: During the period (July 2014–June 2015) of investigation, 85 finfish species belonging to 65 genera, 35 families and 12 orders were encountered from 72 km stretch of Narmada estuarine region. The order Perciformes was found dominant (30 species) followed by Siluriformes (18 species), Cypriniformes (15 species), Clupeiformes (8) etc. Four species such as Tor tor, Wallago attu, Ompok bimaculatus and Ailia coila found under Near Threatened and Cyprinus carpio as a Vulnerable category during the investigation. During 2014–2015, the total fish production from Narmada estuary was 1618 tonnes and it exhibited a decline trend with species like Tenualosa ilisha, Tor tor, Labeo fimbriatus, Rita rita, Rita gogra and Notopterus notopterus being the most affected species. It could be attributed to various factors like the construction of dams, industrial effluents, domestic sewage, over fishing and habitat destruction. It needs suitable interventions for conservation of rich fish diversity of the estuary.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0263-1
  • Morphometric Studies of Two Species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera:
    • Authors: Salman Khan; Mohd. Yousuf; Mohsin Ikram
      Abstract: Trichogramma is very minute insect which is being used in controlling the many insect pests. Due to the smaller size, the identification of different species of Trichogramma become complex work. In present study, Trichogramma chilonis and Trichogramma japonicum has been studied for its morphometric analyses. As a whole 33 characters of males and 27 of females have been studied. Parameters of different characters and their ratios have been analyzed by t test. In males of T. chilonis and T. japonicum, genital capsule length and width, longest flagellar hair length, fore and hind wings width, longest marginal fringe of fore and hind wings have been found to be useful in separating these two species. Similarly, females of these two species can be separated distinctly by morphometrics characters including ovipositor length, fore and hind wings width, antennal club length, longest marginal fringe of fore and hind wings. The details of parameters of different characters have been discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0260-4
  • Proteocephalus southwelli sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Cestoidea) from a
           Freshwater Fish, Aorichthys seenghala in West Bengal, India, with a Review
           of the Genus
    • Authors: Suranjana Banerjee; Buddhadeb Manna; A. K. Sanyal
      Abstract: The genus Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 contains 31 valid species. In this paper Proteocephalus southwelli sp. n., obtained from the intestine of a freshwater fish Aorichthys seenghala in West Bengal, India, is described. The species is characterized by a triangular scolex, presence of fifth apical sucker measuring 0.09 × 0.10 mm, 45–50 numbers of testes and uterus with median stem, branching into 20–25 lateral diverticulae.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0262-2
  • Effect of Marine Alga ( Turbinaria Ornata ) Mixed Diet on Some Aspects of
           Biology of Post Larval Macrobrachium Rosenbergii
    • Authors: Gopalan Rajkumar; Periyakali Saravana Bhavan; Veeran Srinivasan; Annamalai Asaikkutti; Rajendran Udayasuriyan; Madhayan Karthik; Thangavelu Satgurunathan
      Abstract: The possibility of inclusion of hexanic, acetonic and methanolic extracts of Turbinaria ornata as aqua feed additive was assessed by evaluating its growth promoting potential on Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). The each solvent extract of T. ornata was incorporated at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% with basal diet prepared using fish meal, groundnut oilcake, soy bean meal, wheat bran, sun flavor oil, tapioca flour and egg albumin, and fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. On the final day, the survival and nutritional indices including weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, the contents of basic biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid), and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase) were found to be improved significantly (P < 0.05). Among the three solvents, methanolic extract of T. ornata incorporated feed, particularly at 1.5% produced the best (P < 0.05) performance in all these parameters. The activities of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and metabolic (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase) enzymes, and the status of lipid peroxidation were found to be insignificantly altered (P > 0.05). Therefore, T. ornata extract was not toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, it is recommended as a feed additive for sustainable aquaculture development.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0261-3
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