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HISTORY (776 journals)

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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • The Status of the Marine Fisheries of West Bengal Coast of the Northern
           Bay of Bengal and Its Management Options: A Review
    • Authors: Sachinandan Dutta; Kunal Chakraborty; Sugata Hazra
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Abstract Marine fishery is one of the most important sectors for both economic and social development of the country. The whole coast of West Bengal was surveyed from July 2010 to August 2012 for acquiring data on marine fishing. The secondary data were also collected from various government departments and non-government organizations. After compiling all the data a clear picture of marine fisheries in the coastal region of West Bengal was emerged. Arius spp. has the height percentage (15.16) and Yellow Fin Tuna has the lowest percentage (0.06) of landing in West Bengal coast during 2006–2012. Bombay duck and Hairtail Ribbon fish landing shows a decreasing tendency in these 7 years. As the number of mechanically powered boats are increasing in recent years, the total marine fish landing from West Bengal coast is remained more or less static. Therefore, the catch per unit effort has declined significantly in recent years (r = 0.77). So, immediate remedial measures should be taken to manage sustainably, the marine fishery sector of West Bengal.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0138-7
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Alcohol as a Risk Factor for Cancer Burden: A Review
    • Authors: Sudakshina Ghosh; Srikanta Guria; Madhusudan Das
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Abstract Alcohol is eliminated from the body by various metabolic mechanisms. The primary enzymes in such mechanism involved are alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 2E1, and catalase. Variations in the genes for these enzymes have been found to influence alcohol consumption. The consequences of alcohol metabolism include oxygen deficits (i.e., hypoxia) in the liver, resulting in the formation of harmful compounds (i.e., adducts) and highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules (i.e., reactive oxygen species) that can damage cell components. Approximately, worldwide 3.6 % of cancers derive from chronic alcohol drinking, including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colorectum and the breast. Although the mechanisms for alcohol-associated carcinogenesis are not completely understood, recent findings have focused on acetaldehyde, the first and most toxic ethanol metabolite, as a cancer-causing agent. Alcohol-related carcinogenesis may aggravate due to other factors such as smoking and being triggered by genetic susceptibility. Besides, the role of genetic polymorphisms of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes could not be ruled out.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-014-0134-3
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Alterations in Digestive Enzymes of Three Freshwater Teleostean Fishes by
           Almix Herbicide: A Comparative Study
    • Authors: Palas Samanta; Sandipan Pal; Aloke Kumar Mukherjee; Tarakeshwar Senapati; Apurba Ratan Ghosh
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Abstract Three freshwater teleostean fishes viz., Anabas testudineus (Bloch), Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) were exposed to almix (66.67 mg/l) herbicide for 30 days to investigate the activity of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase and protease) in stomach, intestine and liver. Amylase activity showed significantly high (p < 0.05) in all the fishes compared to control value and highest activity was observed in liver of A. testudineus (721.99 %) and minimum in intestine of H. fossilis (195.37 %). Lipase activity was also significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all the tissues; but highest in intestine of O. niloticus (235.51 %) and minimum in intestine of A. testudineus (130.51 %). Protease activity also showed similar trends of enhancement; it was maximum in stomach of O. niloticus (362.69 %), whereas in liver of H. fossilis it was rather less (173.72 %). Increased activity of digestive enzymes resulting from tissue damage ultimately affected the fish health due to impairment of digestive physiology confirming the herbicidal contamination on fish species. The sensitivity to the almix herbicide was pronounced in the order of O. niloticus > A. testudineus > H. fossilis.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-014-0122-7
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Polysaccharides as Constituents in Chromosome Organization: A Study on
           Meiotic Chromosomes of Grasshopper and Polytene Chromosomes of Dipterous
           Flies
    • Authors: Trilochan Midya; Swapna Bhaduri
      Pages: 67 - 74
      Abstract: Abstract Study on meiotic chromosomes of grasshopper, Gesonula punctifrons and interphase polytene chromosomes from Dipteran larvae as of Chironomus striatipennis and Drosophila melanogaster following staining by periodic acid-Schiff technique revealed that chromosomes contained polysaccharides as an integral part of their organization. PAS +ve nature of the chromosomes both at highly condensed state as available during meiotic cell division and at extended state as in polytene chromosomes supports the idea that chromosomes contain polysaccharides as one of the constituent biological macromolecules. PAS +ve chromosomes appeared to be fluorescent under fluorescence microscope and fluorescence was found to be more or less uniform along the whole length of the meiotic chromosomes, while in case of polytene chromosomes intense fluorescence could be noticed along the band regions of the chromosomes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-014-0127-2
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Suitability of Different Prey Aphids on the Growth, Development and
           Reproduction of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen)
           (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera)
    • Authors: Jaydeep Halder; A. B. Rai
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Abstract The prey preference of polyphagous predator, green lacewing (Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen)) was evaluated against five prey aphids viz., mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), black bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), spirea aphid (Aphis spiraecola) of agriculture importance and compared with eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). Lacewing larvae preferred Myzus persicae most followed by Brevicoryne brassicae. The highest growth index (8.31), larval survival (94.50 %), larval weight (10.45 mg), pupal weight (8.78 mg), faster multiplication rate (0.051) and fecundity (183.4 per gravid female) of the predator were recorded on M. persicae. However, the chrysopid reared on Corcyra eggs performed best in all biological parameters and fitness, than on aphid preys. This study explores the possibilities of selecting the most suitable prey aphid species for its exploitation as supplement for mass multiplication of chrysopid during off-season or unavailability of Corcyra eggs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-014-0131-6
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Occurrence of Marbled Shrimp Saron marmoratus (Olivier, 1811) (Decapoda:
           Caridea: Hippolytidae) in Lakshadweep Archipelago, India
    • Authors: Sibi Thaitharanikathil Baby; Swagat Ghosh; Gopi Mohan; Sherine Sonia Cubelio; M. Sudhakar
      Pages: 157 - 160
      Abstract: Abstract Two juvenile specimens of Saron marmoratus (Olivier, 1811) were collected from the inter tidal lagoon area of Eastern side of Agatti Island, Lakshadweep on November 4, 2013. These shrimp are brown and slightly green in color with yellow and white speckled spot and having a typical tuft of cirri on the back. Marbled shrimps are highly demanded and good priced in the marine aquarium trade. This is a new record to the Lakshadweep waters.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0136-9
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Effect of Some Honeybee Diseases on Seasonal Mortality of Apis mellifera
           intermissa in Algeria Apiaries
    • Authors: Noureddine Adjlane; Nizar Haddad
      Abstract: Abstract With a view to identify the pathogens and to establish the role of these pathogens in regulation of the density of honey bee population occurring in the apiaries of the area concerned samples of honeybee were collected from the beekeepers in some parts of central Algeria It is revealed that Nosema sp., Varroa destrutor, Peanibacillus larvae are associated with the disease manifestation in honey bees. The presence of Nosema sp., Varroa destrutor, Peanibacillus larvae was analyzed using standard OIE methods. Spores of Paenibacillus larvae were detected in 56.6 % in winter 52.32 % in spring. 29.33 % in autumn and 11.25 % in summer. Nosema infestation was recorded in 47.91 % bee individuals during spring. Varroa infestation rate was maximum 12.57 % in summer and lowest 3.44 % in spring. Analysis of data indicates that Boumerdes and Tipaza, diseases induced mortality exceeds 10 % in honeybee. There exists a significant correlation between Nosema disease and mortalities in honeybees. Seasons play significant role, irrespective of pathogens, in disease manifestation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0188-5
       
  • Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Dry-Powdered Water Hyacinth (
           Eichhornia crassipes ) Meal on Growth and Digestibility of Labeo rohita
           Fingerlings
    • Authors: Dipesh Debnath; Sona Yengkokpam; B. K. Bhattacharjya; Pradyut Biswas; C. Prakash; M. P. S. Kohli; A. P. Sharma
      Abstract: Abstract Keeping the importance and search for unconventional feed resources and/or standardizing their level of incorporation in mind, we incorporated dry-powdered water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) meal in feeds and studied its effect on growth and digestibility in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Five feeds with 30 % crude protein level were formulated using Eichhornia meal (EM) at 0 (control), 5 (EMF1), 10 (EMF2), 15 (EMF3) or 20 % (EMF4) of the diet replacing rice bran by equal proportions. Three hundred fingerlings (7.40 ± 0.05 cm; 5.27 ± 0.12 g) were distributed into fifteen tanks (200 l capacity) and fed the experimental diets for 60 days. In the last 30 days, digestibility studies were conducted using 0.5 % chromic oxide as an external marker in feed. At 10 % inclusion of EM, the experimental fish showed the highest weight gain percent (WG%), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization with lowest feed conversion ratio. Whereas the growth performance at 15 % inclusion level was comparable with the control and further increase to 20 % level of EM showed reduced growth responses but the feed was fairly palatable to the fish. Lower digestibility was also observed in EMF4 group. It is concluded that EM can be included at 15 % level in the feed of L. rohita fingerlings without adversely affecting the growth, dry matter and nutrient digestibility. However, economic feasibility of this feedstuff needs to be analyzed to see whether the reduced cost of diets would compensate for the reduced performance of fish at higher inclusion levels.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0187-6
       
  • Redescription of the Male and Female of Caliris keralensis (Vyjayandi et
           al., 2006) (Mantodea: Caliridinae)
    • Authors: Parbati Chatterjee; Manikkoth Chandroth Vyjayandi; Narayan Ghorai; Tushar Kanti Mukherjee
      Abstract: Abstract The holotype of Caliris keralensis (Vyjayandi et al. 2006) (Mantodea: Caliridinae) is reviewed along with another paratype female not listed by the authors. The male of this species is re-described in details and is assigned paratype male. Photographs of the specimens are given. Male genital complex is described for better understanding the species.
      PubDate: 2016-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0186-7
       
  • Anonchotaenia adhiraji sp.n. (Platyhelminthes:Cestoidea) from a Bird
           Hypsipetes madagascarensis from Arunachal Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Suranjana Banerjee; Buddhadeb Manna; A. K. Sanyal
      Abstract: Abstract The genus Anonchotaenia Cohn, 1900 contains 23 valid species. In this paper Anonchotaenia adhiraji sp.n. obtained from the intestine of a bird Hypsipetes madagascarensis commonly known as black bulbul from Bomdila in Dirang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India is described and illustrated.The species is characterized by a large unarmed, square-shaped scolex; testes 7–8 in number arranged in two lateral groups and a voluminous paruterine organ that differentiates it from the rest of the described species in the genus. This is also the first report of the genus Anonchotaenia Cohn, 1900 from Arunachal Pradesh, India.
      PubDate: 2016-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0183-x
       
  • Insect Pollinators of Crops and Fruits in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern
           Himalaya: Rich Diversity in Flowers with Yellow Anther
    • Authors: Minam Tayeng; Hiren Gogoi
      Abstract: Abstract A study on the insect pollinators of the commercial crops and fruits in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was conducted from June, 2015 to May, 2016. For this, monitoring and sampling of insect pollinators in the important crops and fruits cultivated in the selected regions were done from 5 a.m. to 6 p.m. for 9 days covering 9 spots in each crop and fruit during peak blooming period. In each spot, 10 replications of 100 m2 were considered as sample size. During the study, 57 species of insects belonging to the order Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera were documented in 11 crop species and 7 fruit species. The number of species recorded from the order Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera was 23, 18, 15 and 1 respectively. While analysing the floral color discrimination, the highest species richness of insect pollinators was recorded in flowers with yellow anther color. This result coincided with Brassica juncea, as both Simpson and Shannon index showed the highest species richness in B. juncea with 19 species of insect pollinators belonging 3 orders. From the results, it is evident that, in eastern Himalayan region these native insect pollinators play significant role for yielding good quality sustainable organic crops and fruits. Further, this study leads to hypothesize that the reward patterns of flowers are ‘advertised’ in the color of the anthers to control indirectly the gamete export mediated by insect pollinators.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0185-8
       
  • Association of Endogenous Testosterone with Lipid and Blood Glucose
           Profiles in Elderly Men with Angiographically Proven Cardiovascular
           Disease of Nadia and Murshidabad District, West Bengal
    • Authors: Piyali Chowdhury; Koushik Sen; Shreyasi Gupta; Suravi Majumder; Payel Guha; Arindam Chakraborty; Amar K. Chandra; Dilip Mukherjee
      Abstract: Abstract Testosterone is commonly known for its role in the regulation of reproductive physiology in men. Epidemiologic studies suggest that endogenous testosterone levels may be implicated in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) levels and lipid profile as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in male patients ranging from 40 to 70 years old with angiographically proven CVDs from Nadia and Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India. These data were compared with the normal men with no CVD history. We observed a significantly low serum TT levels in CVD patient group compared to the normal group. Among CVD patients, a significant (p < 0.05) negative association was found between serum TT and total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was found between serum TT and high density lipoprotein. We also observed a highly significant negative correlation between TT and FBG levels in CVD patient group. Thus, in these two densely populated district of West Bengal with poor socio-economic condition, low levels of serum TT in elderly men is associated with CVD that appear together with an atherogenic lipid milieu that may be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD. Results further indicate that low serum TT might have a role in the development of hyperglycemia as evidenced from high FBG level in elderly men.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0184-9
       
  • Noise Induces Hypothyroidism and Gonadal Dysfunction Via Stimulation of
           Pineal–Adrenal Axis in Chicks
    • Authors: Prajna Paramita Ray; Tania Chatterjee; Sraboni Roy; Suvojit Rakshit; Madhumita Bhowmik; Jaysree Guha; Aniruddha Maity; Indraneel Saha; Ankur Bhowal; Aniruddha Chatterjee; Supriti Sarkar; Debabrata Nag; B. R. Maiti
      Abstract: Abstract Noise is a world-wide problem that causes nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular disorders, and eventually health hazards in humans and animals. Objective of the current work is to investigate endocrine interaction in noise stress, which subsequently affects other endocrine functions including gonads in a poultry bird like chicks. Gravimetric, ultrastructural and hormonal status of the endocrine organs were examined to ascertain the effects of noise stress. Acute noise at 60 dB had no effect, but at 80 and 100 dB each for 3 h, increased pineal and serum serotonin, and adrenal and serum corticosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations, without any change in thyroid or gonadal hormones. Chronic noise exposure at 60, 80 and 100 dB each for 6 h, daily for 7 days, drastically disturbed normal behavior, and quantum of food consumption and water intake. Chronic exposure also significantly decreased body weight including thyroid, ovary and testis weight, and increased adrenal weight. Noise stress caused ultrastructural changes leading to stimulations of pinealocytes (with abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria), adrenocortical cells (enlarged nuclei and abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum) and adrenomedullary cells (enlarged nuclei with presence of chromaffin granules) were observed in noise stress. Additionally, pineal and serum serotonin, N-acetyl serotonin and melatonin, and adrenal and serum corticosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were significantly elevated following chronic noise exposure. Contrarily, thyroid activity was suppressed with atrophied thyroid follicles followed by declined levels of serum T3 and T4 with elevation of TSH level. Simultaneously, serum 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) concentrations were also significantly declined in all the doses of chronic noise. These changes were dose dependent of noise exposure. The findings suggest that (a) adrenal and pineal glands respond primarily to noise and secondarily act on other endocrine organs including gonads in chicks, (b) adrenal directly and/or indirectly causes thyroid and gonadal dysfunctions via pineal following noise exposure in chicks.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0180-0
       
  • Insect Fauna of Pitchavaram and Parangipettai Mangroves of Southeast Coast
           of India
    • Authors: S. Balakrishnan; M. Srinivasan; P. Santhanam
      Abstract: Abstract Biodiversity of the insect fauna of natural mangrove ecosystem (Pitchavaram) and adjusted mangroves (Parangipettai), was studied through weekly sampling programmes from April 2013 to September 2013. A total of 27 species belonging to 17 families (Formicidae, Sphecidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Tenebrionidae, Culicidae, Nymphalidae, Crambidae, Pyralidae, Tortricidae, Lecidotheridae, Pieridae, Pyrrhocoridae, Corixidae, Apidae, Gerridae and Diaspidiae) were recorded. This work is the checklist of the collected insect fauna from the Pitchavaram and Parangipettai mangrove areas lying along the Southeast coast of India.
      PubDate: 2016-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0182-y
       
  • Does Colour of the Food Attract Ants?
    • Authors: K. Naskar; S. K. Raut
      Abstract: Abstract Milky white, brown, yellow and pink sugar grains along with normal sugar grains in equal number were offered to the ants at different sites, in the foraging ground of a garden locating at Garia, Kolkata, India to note the role of colouration of the food in food selection, if any. It is revealed that the ants Anoplolepis gracilipes procured all the supplied colour sugar grains from the offered sites between 1 and 43 min and the normal sugar grains between 1 and 38 min from the offered sites. Results of statistical analyses clearly indicate that the colour of the food has no role to attract the ants A. gracilipes in respect to procurement times of the sugar grains noted. This suggests that the colour of the food does not act as an attractant for the ants A. gracilipes in food selection.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0181-z
       
  • Comparative Burrow Architectures of Resident Fiddler Crabs (Ocypodidae) in
           Indian Sundarban Mangroves to Assess Their Suitability as Bioturbating
           Agents
    • Authors: Shilpa Sen; Sumit Homechaudhuri
      Abstract: Abstract Excavation of burrows by fiddler crabs (genus Uca) is an important component in mangrove ecosystem functioning. This bioturbation activity can be measured by analysing the burrow architecture of these crabs. The aim of the present study is to describe and evaluate inter specific differences in the burrow morphologies of four species of fiddler crabs (Uca rosea, Uca triangularis, Uca dussumieri and Uca vocans) using polyester resin casts of the burrows. For each of the species, sex and carapace width (CW; mm) were determined for all the individuals. Three burrow morphological characters viz. burrow diameter (BD; mm), total burrow depth (TBD; mm) and burrow volume (BV; cm3) were considered during the study. Density of each species throughout the year was also assessed. For all the species BD and BV were higher in case of males compared to the females and they showed significant positive correlation with the CW of the burrow inhabitants. The amount of sediment excavated by each crab was evaluated in terms of BV. Among all the studied species, U. rosea was established as the most potent bioturbative candidate in the studied mangrove due to their greater density and moderate ability to excavate burrow.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0178-7
       
  • Perceived Effectiveness of Indigenous Technological Knowledge (ITK) of
           Insect and Vertebrate Pests Management in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Jaydeep Halder; Manoj Kumar Pandey; Neeraj Singh; A. B. Rai; B. Singh
      Abstract: Abstract Indigenous technological knowledge is considered as a traditional knowledge that inherited from their ancestors, unique to a culture, society and environment. In this article we documented uses of such local knowledge used by the local farmers of seven villages form Varanasi, Deoria and Mirzapur districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India for their crop protection. Data were collected from 140 respondents (twenty from each village) and 60 respondents who had visited the institute from these three districts during farmers’ fair and farmers’ training and whole making a total of 200 respondents. The farmers in the study developed notable innovations to control major pests of agricultural and horticultural crops such as use of ashes to control vegetable insect pests; use of onion/garlic bulbs, neem leaves, salt crystals, wheat straw, brick kiln powder etc. to prevent store grain pests of cereals; ash and kerosene mixture to repel the sucking pests of rice at milky stage; well-rotted fish scales against Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus); red chilli pods against bruchids in pulses; salt and turmeric powder mixture against ants; use of neem cake to repel termite and other soil insects etc. The local farmers were following these practices because of easy availability, eco-friendly, easy to handle, do not leave any harmful residue, pose any threat to develop resistance and resurgence of secondary pests, easy to apply and compatible with other pest management techniques and socio-cultural situation of the farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0179-6
       
  • Occurrence, Distribution and Morphological Description of 11 Species of
           Endemic Giant Pill-Millipedes of the Genus Arthrosphaera (Diplopoda:
           Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae) in Southern India
    • Authors: Cheviri N. Ambarish; Kandikere R. Sridhar
      Abstract: Abstract The endemic giant pill-millipedes belonging to the genus Arthrosphaera has a long history of occurrence and distribution in the Indian Subcontinent. According to the earlier and recent records, up to 40 species of Arthrosphaera are confined to southern India and Sri Lanka. Being detritus feeders, they are sensitive to narrow range of abiotic factors and their population is dwindling due to severe human interference especially landscape modification or modern forestry/agricultural practices. There is an urgent need to update the status, occurrence and distribution in distinct ecological conditions of pill-millipedes in southern India as they are important component in organic matter decomposition as well as nutrient turn over in the forests or plantations. Based on recent surveys, the present study attempts to update occurrence, distribution and morphological description (light and scanning electron microscopy) with a diagnostic key for identification of 11 species of pill-millipedes occurring in the Western Ghats of India with commentary on their distribution pattern in different ecological conditions and impact of edaphic factors.
      PubDate: 2016-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0177-8
       
  • Nesting Behaviour of the Giant Honeybees Apis dorsata Occurring in
           Jhargram, West Bengal, India
    • Authors: T. K. Misra; S. Pahari; S. Murmu; S. K. Raut
      Abstract: Abstract The giant honeybees Apis dorsata are habituated to construct combs in trees, houses, caves as well as in overhead water reservoir occurring in their nesting localities. To verify their preference for nesting sites if any, surveys were conducted in recent years (2013–16), during nesting seasons of these bees in Jhargram area of West Bengal, India. It is revealed that A. dorsata construct their combs in big, tall, aged simul (Bombax ceiba), bot (Ficus benghalensis) trees mostly, irrespective of localities. Also they were seen to construct nest at the underside of the overhead water reservoir ignoring nesting potential trees occurring nearby. Of course, nesting in the houses, and on the walls of culvert is not uncommon. As the bees constructed more than 100–200 nests at the same nesting site e.g., a tree or/and an overhead water reservoir, depending upon the availability of space for construction of nest it is concluded that these insects prefer colonial nesting.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0176-9
       
  • Seasonal Incidence and Diversity Pattern of Avian Communities in the
           Bangalore University Campus, India
    • Authors: S. Rajashekara; M. G. Venkatesha
      Abstract: Abstract The present study deals with the species abundance, diversity and species richness of avian communities in the Bangalore University Campus (BUC), Bengaluru, India. One hundred and six species of birds belonging to 42 families under 68 genera were recorded. Shannon–Wiener’s and Fisher’s alpha diversities, species evenness, species richness of bird communities, number of bird species and percentage of population density of birds between various seasons in the BUC differed significantly between the study years. Of these bird species, the relative abundance (6.96 %) and species distribution ratio (0.070) of Psittacula krameri were highest, whereas relative abundance (0.04 %) and species distribution ratio (0.002) of Coracias benghalensis were lowest. The existing 32 species of flowering plants/trees belonging to 29 genera under 14 families in the campus are used for perching by birds. Moreover 29 species of flowering plants/trees belonging to 24 genera under 16 families depend on birds for pollination and/or seed dispersal. Occurrence of greater bird diversity and abundance of avian communities were recorded highest in the winter season in the BUC premises. In the different seasons, the BUC had varying community structure of birds between the study years. BUC suffers from numerous threats namely grass cutting, fire and grazing of domestic animals. Conservation methods needed for habitat management are restoration of vegetation and wetlands, and increase plant and tree diversity to protect the ecosystem of BUC habitat and to preserve its diversity of avifauna.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0175-x
       
 
 
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