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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]
  • Ethno Veterinary Practices Prevalent Among Livestock Rearers at Arbe Gona
           And Loka Abaya Woredas of Sidama Zone of Southern Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of ethno veterinary medicine as practiced among the residents of Arbe Gona and Loka Abaya woredas has been discussed. The study was conducted using semi structured questioner, focus group discussion and personal interviews. The respondents were identified by stepwise purposive sampling procedures. The study indicates that ethno veterinary medicine has been practiced among the agrarian community in the region since time immemorial. The results indicate that the practice is mostly a family affair with the knowledge transferred from the elders to the youngsters within a family. Thirty seven different types of medicinal herbs/plants used in ethno veterinary drug preparation were identified, the most commonly used plant part was the leaf followed by other plant parts viz. xylem, roots, barks etc. Mostly the drugs were used through oral route. Though topical application, fumigation and intravenous route of administration of the drugs too are on record. Twenty two commonly occurring diseases were identified by the respondents and their treatments too have been discussed. Use of different parts of several plants in unison is the common practice. The results also indicated that the medicinal plants are mostly collected from the wild and are under threat due to both ecological and anthropogenic factors and hence need conservation. The study also revealed that the millennia old practice is under threat due to lack of enthusiasm from the younger generations to take up the baton from the elder generation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-17
       
  • Enhancement of Resistance vis-à-vis Defence-Enzyme Activity in Tea
           Mosquito Bug, Helopeltis
           theivora
    Waterhouse (Hemiptera: Miridae) Selected Through
           Exposure to Sub-lethal Dose of Monochrotophos
    • Abstract: Abstract Tea industry is the back bone of agro-economy of the tea producing regions. Tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse is one of the most devastating sucking pests of tea and is a menace to tea plantations of North Bengal and other states of NE India. Insecticide forms the mainstay of pest management programme in tea plantations. Insecticide stress and selection have led to the development of high tolerance or resistance in many pests including the sucking bug H. theivora. LC50 value of an organophosphate insecticide, monochrotophos (SL 36 %) to this species increased about 105 fold when selected by exposure to sub-lethal dose for three generations. Generation-wise relative tolerance level when selected by sub-lethal dose of monochrotophos showed a significant increase in 1st and 2nd filial generations as compared to the parental generation (P < F1 < F2). General esterases (GE) activity got enhanced by 5.32 and 16.4 fold, and the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) increased by 1.96 and 9.50 fold in F1 and F2 generations respectively as compared to parental generation. The generation-wise increase in relative resistance and the activity of defence enzymes were found to have high positive correlation; r = 0.999 for GE and r = 0.994 for CYP. The study suggests that the titres of GE and CYP in H. theivora can be used as the markers of relative tolerance to insecticides in general, with mode of action similar to monochrotophos. Such defence-enzyme based detection technique for tolerance levels may help early identification of resistant population of H. theivora; hence its management.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
       
  • Drosophila curviceps
           S
    pecies-Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from India, with
           Description of a New Species and Redescription of a Known Species
    • Abstract: Abstract The Drosophila curviceps species subgroup is upgraded to a species-group independent from the Drosophila immigrans species group to which it has belonged, but its subgeneric assignment is still undetermined, i.e., incertae sedis. A new species, Drosophila teresae Pradhan & Sati, sp. nov., collected from Darjeeling and Uttarakhand in the Himalaya region, India is described, and supplementary and revised description for Drosophila mukteshwarensis Joshi et al. (Entomon (India) 30:75–84, 2005) is provided.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
       
  • Relation Between Water Quality and Protein Content of Chironomid Larvae
    • Abstract: Abstract Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) are considered as a good protein source for fish culture. In this communication an assessment of the protein content of the chironomid larvae occurring in ponds has been made with reference to the limnological parameters. The total body protein (TBP) of chironomid larvae was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with soil organic carbon as well as soil organic matter. Moreover TBP also found to be positively correlated with alkalinity, indicating a wide tolerance of this insect in relation to the pH ranged between 5.5–8.4. Result indicates nutrient rich fresh water body along with high productivity stimulate increasing body protein in chironomid larvae.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
       
  • Observations on Yellow-Wattled Lapwing,        class="a-plus-plus">Vanellus malabaricus
           (Boddaert, 1783) in South West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The present note highlights the geographical distribution of Yellow-Wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus, which is rarest among the four Vanellus species found in south West Bengal. Perhaps, due to low encounter of V. malabaricus, the distribution of this species in south West Bengal remains obscured till now. Recent field observations in eight patches in the Gangetic plains of (Hooghly and Nadia) West Bengal, India, support their consistent availability in habitats characteristically different from the described ones. In the Indian subcontinent, including peninsular India, V. malabaricus is reported to prefer dry and arid lands, whereas the same species was located in rice fields and adjacent bushes in the Gangetic plains. As possible adaptive features, some characteristic behaviour is discussed that make them compatible with the local climatic condition of Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India.
      PubDate: 2014-08-13
       
  • Modified Flame Drying Technique to Study Chromosomes of
           Grasshopper’s Testis
    • Abstract: Abstract A modified technique for the preparation of chromosomes from the different stages of meiosis from male grasshopper (Gesonula punctifrons) has been standardized. This technique is simpler and quicker method in comparison to squash technique. Moreover, this technique is inexpensive with low maintenance cost. With this method, a large number of dividing cells from testis of one animal can be accumulated. This technique will be of immense value in cytogenetic monitoring of grasshopper chromosomes for clear morphology and banding profiles.
      PubDate: 2014-07-29
       
  • Ultrastructure of Thyroid Gland in Hipposiderid Bat        class="a-plus-plus">Hipposideros lankadiva
           (Kelaart)
    • Abstract: Abstract In chiropterans, thyroid gland plays vital role during initial growth phase of life and in mobilizing the energy to overcome stress of puberty, pregnancy and lactation. Ultrastructural observation of the thyroid gland of hipposiderid bat Hipposideros lankadiva which undergoes the phenomenon of embryonic diapauses confirms the important role played by thyroid gland during diapause. The cuboidal follicular cells with well developed cell organelle and small follicular lumen during estrous, arousal and lactation period show active state of gland in nonpregnant female bat while flattened follicular cells with less developed cell organelle and large follicular lumen show hypothyroid condition in pregnant bat H. lankadiva undergoing diapause. Probably this maternal hypothyroid condition in pregnant animal regulates the embryonic diapause.
      PubDate: 2014-07-19
       
  • Survival and Growth Rate of Larval        class="a-plus-plus">Ompok pabda
           (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) of Tripura, India: Related to Efficient Feed
    • Abstract: Abstract Mass larval population of the captive bred stock of Ompok pabda was reared successfully for the first time in India. In order to evaluate the increase of survival and growth rate of the larvae, an ex-situ experiment was continued for about 28 days with the supply of different types of food by maintaining the water quality at standard level (water velocity = 1.01 − 1.26 m/s, temperature = 24.0 − 29.5 °C, DO2 = 4.8 − 6.4 ppm, CO2 = 1.2 − 2.9 ppm, pH = 7.3 − 8.5, DOM = 0.94 − 2.23 ppm and HCO3 = 120 − 176 ppm) under a specific cycling water-flow system to the larvae. The experiment revealed significantly higher (91.72 %, r = 0.987, P < 0.01) survival and growth rate of the larvae, when zooplankton along with tubifex were offered as feed. The impact of other feeds such as tubifex (72.28 %, r = 0.822, P < 0.05), zooplankton (73.42 %, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), egg custard (56.80 %) and compound feed (34.28 %) were gradually less. Specific growth rate (SGR = 6.39 ± 0.58) was also highest in the larvae fed with zooplankton plus tubifex as feed. The said feed was also effective to increase the body weight at a maximum level. Therefore, the feed prepared through the use of mass cultured zooplankton and tubifex seems to be suitable under specific rearing system to promote aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10
       
  • Breeding and Rearing of an Exotic Ornamental Catfish,        class="a-plus-plus">Corydorus        class="a-plus-plus">aeneus (Gill, 1858) in
           Kolkata, West Bengal and Its Economics
    • Abstract: Abstract Cory cat, Corydorus aeneus (Gill, 1858) are popular among the hobbyists all over the world. They were reared successfully in glass aquaria and small cemented tanks in Kolkata, India. The females attained sexual maturity at the age of 12.2 ± 1.8 SD months while the males took 24.0 ± 1.6 SD months to take part in reproduction. Females are larger and more rounded than the males while males are attractive because of the dorsal fin. At a temperature range 14–22 °C breeding was continued during November to March period in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Cooling of egg laying substratum stimulated spawning to a great extent. Under favourable thermal condition breeding took place at an interval of 10.4 ± 2.1 SD days. Brood size varied from 175–225 and on average 80 % eggs were fertile. Water quality management and supply of proper food proved successful to establish an economically viable farm through the spread of indoor aqua business.
      PubDate: 2014-07-08
       
  • Excretory–Secretory Protein of        class="a-plus-plus">Wallago attu-Infesting        class="a-plus-plus">Isoparorchis hypselobagri
           (Billet, 1898)
    • Abstract: Abstract Wallago attu swim bladder-infesting digenetic trematode Isoparorchis hypselobagri were kept in PBS media without glucose (control) and with glucose (treated) up to 300 h to note the amount of excretory–secretory protein (ES) through the collection of samples at an interval of 12 h. The quantitative estimation of ES protein revealed less in amount in the control incubation media than that of treated incubation media. The highest amount of ES protein in control media was 0.475 mg/ml at 84 h and in treated condition 1.905 mg/ml after 96 h of incubation. The lowest amount of ES protein was 0.038 mg/ml in control media after 180 and 192 h of incubation and 0.545 mg/ml in treated media after 168 and 180 h of incubation. The rate of excretion-secretion of protein in treated condition after every 12 h of incubation was much higher than the control. Significant amount of ES protein have also been recorded in the swim bladder washings. It is apparent that the amount of ES protein depends on the number and weight of the parasites involved with the interaction process.
      PubDate: 2014-07-06
       
  • Differential Effect of Fruit Availability on Avian Frugivore Guilds in a
           Moist Deciduous Forest of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Frugivores provide a critical ecosystem service by dispersing seeds and therefore play a major role in the survival and maintenance of trees in tropical forests. Avian frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests whose activities are significantly governed by the availability of fruits across space and time. In our current study we examined the effects of the spatial and temporal pattern of food availability on avian frugivores and various avian frugivore functional groups in particular. We found a differential effect of fruit density and number of tree species in fruiting on different functional groups of avian frugivores along both spatial and temporal scales. Total frugivore density was best explained by ‘number of tree species in fruiting’ at both special and temporal scale. The variation in large frugivore density was best explained both by ‘fruit density’ and ‘fruit density’ and ‘number of tree species in fruiting’ together. This pattern was observed at a spatial scale but not along temporal scale. Along temporal scale large frugivore density was best explained only by ‘number of tree species in fruiting’. The medium sized frugivore density was not significantly explained by either ‘fruit density’ or ‘number of tree species in fruiting’. The medium sized frugivores are dependent both on insects and fruits and variation in insect density may determine spatial and temporal variation in medium sized frugivore density. The mixed diet frugivore group with a smaller gape width is limited by the variety of fruit they consume and thus their population was significantly controlled by the number of fleshy fruited tree species in fruiting along spatial scale. We observed breeding synchronization during the time of fruiting peak and we suggest that this could be a strategy for effective seed dispersal. Our study indicated very strong dependability of the large frugivore (dependent only on fruit) population on fruit availability unlike the mixed diet frugivore guild (fruit as secondary diet).
      PubDate: 2014-07-03
       
  • Correlation Between the Type of Vegetation and Occurrence of Birds in
           Agrifields
    • Abstract: Abstract Avian diversity in four areas of agrifields of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana was studied in order to find a correlation between agricultural land use, woody vegetation and the occurrence of bird species. The areas included College Orchard (Transect I), Agrifields of Oil seed section of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics adjacent to orchards of PAU (Transect II), Crop field area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics on the back of Thapar Hall, PAU (Transect III) and Experimental area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics of PAU (Transect IV) which was without any trees around it. A total of 12,642 birds including 30 different species were recorded in all the four transects. The total no. of birds (5,074) and species (22) was highest in transect IV. House crow, red wattled lapwing, rose ringed parakeet and common myna were found to be the dominant birds in Transect I, II, III and IV respectively. Species richness and species diversity varied throughout the year. All the four areas had one or the other crop which attracted a number of bird species for food and the adjacent woody vegetation in Transect I, II and III providing nesting, perching and roosting sites to birds. It reveals that both the trees and food availability in the agrifields attract different bird species for different purposes like food, nesting and roosting.
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
       
  • Possible Alteration of Female Specific Protein by Estradiol-17β in
           Silkworm, Bombyx mori L
    • Abstract: Abstract In our attempt to understand the biological significance of natural occurrence of estradiol-17β (E2, a vertebrate female sex steroid) in silkworms effect of exogenous estradiol-17β injection on the appearance of female-specific proteins both in pupal hemolymph and ovarian extracts was undertaken. A single injection of 2 μg of E2 per g of body weight on the 3rd day in the 5th instar female silkworm (Bombyx mori L. race Nistari) larvae revealed more accumulation of both 170- and 43 kDa proteins from the day 3 to 7 of pupal life with a peak on the day 7 in comparison to the untreated (control) hemolymph. On the contrary, the ovarian extracts revealed highest accumulation of both the proteins in female silkworm pupae on the day 4 and thereafter, declined gradually to level up with the control on the day 8. The fertilized egg extracts irrespective of control and E2-treated silkworms failed to establish quantitative differences of the proteins in question. Thus the metabolic role of E2 on the female-specific proteins in silkworm could not be ruled out.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Uric Acid Excretion in Isoparorchis
           hypselobagri
    (Billet, 1898)
    • Abstract: Abstract The nature and amount of excretory products of Isoparorchis hypselobagri, a digenetic trematode inhabiting the swim bladder of Wallago attu have been studied. The parasites were kept in PBS media without glucose (control) and with glucose (treated) successfully up to 300 h and different excretory products were estimated at an interval of 12 h. The quantitative estimation of excreted uric acid in I. hypselobagri was revealed less in amount in the flukes which were kept in vitro in the control incubation media than those considered from the treated incubation media. The highest amount of uric acid excreted in control media was 6.72 mg % at 204 h, and in treated condition 16.658 mg % after 216 h of incubation. The lowest amount of uric acid excreted, 0.186 mg % in control media after 252 h of incubation and 2.896 mg % in treated media after 192 h of incubation. The rate of excretion of uric acid in treated condition after every 12 h of incubation is much higher than the control. Significant amount of uric acid have also been recorded in the swim bladder washings of host. It is apparent that the amount of excreted uric acid depends on the number and weight of the parasites harbor. Results suggest that I. hypselobagri is ammonotelic, ureotelic and also uricotelic trematode.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • An Appraisal of Life History Features of        class="a-plus-plus">Kiefferulus calligaster (Kieffer, 1911)
           (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Kolkata, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Life history parameters of the freshwater chironomid species Kiefferulus calligaster (Kieffer, 1911) were investigated under laboratory conditions, with the use of larval development time and wing length as key features. An index of fitness was derived using these two parameters to represent the fitness of adults as a function of the larval development. Survivorship, deduced from the data on the mortality of larval stages, was related to developmental time as—(survivorship, lx) y = 1.16 − 0.04 × (days). The larval development time varied between males and females with a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 12 days from first instar larva to eclosion of imagine. The average wing length of adult females was larger than males (3.9 mm ± 0.03 S.E. vs. 3.36 mm ± 0.02 S.E.), for both early and late emerging individuals. The degree of dimorphism between the sexes was prominent for wing length and larval development time. The index of fitness for the early and late emerging adults differed significantly (P < 0.05) in both the sexes.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Diet Composition and Intensity of Feeding of        class="a-plus-plus">Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822)
           Occurring in the Northern Bay of Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Feeding intensity and diet composition of Hilsa Shad (Tenualosa ilisha) from Northern Bay of Bengal were studied between June 2010 and March 2011. The stomach contents of 320 fishes were analyzed from the northern part of the Bay of Bengal to understand the food items of this species. The major constituents of food are organic debris (26.06 ± 5.19 % SD), diatoms (31.22 ± 11.97 % SD), other algae (12.41 ± 2.62 % SD), and crustaceans (3.50 ± 1.28 % SD). The most abundant species of diatoms were Coscinodiscus, Pleurosigma, Bacillaria, Nitzschia, Biddulphia, Diatoma and Asterionella. The stomach of Hilsa was found to be almost empty during June to October while it was almost full during November to March. Significant positive correlation among feeding intensity, chlorophyll-A concentration and salinity of the ambient water indicated that feeding in T. ilisha is influenced by a number of factors. Strong positive correlation between percentage occurrence of diatoms and intensity of feeding indicated their preference for diatom–food.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Dry Season Diet of the Sloth Bear (       class="a-plus-plus">Melursus ursinus) in Hadagarh Wildlife
           Sanctuary, Eastern India
    • Abstract: Abstract Dry season food habit of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) in Hadagarh Wildlife Sanctuary was characterized by scat analysis. Importance value index (IVI) of contribution of different food items in the diet of sloth bear was estimated from the undigested food remnants. Percentage of dry weight and IVI score of Ziziphus fruits was highest, termites were the most frequently occurring food item in the diet and percentage of frequency occurrence was equal for both fruits and insects. The present study, as compared to previous studies, suggests that the dietary preference of sloth bear varies according to availability of food and the habitat quality.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Diclofenac Mediated Demodulation of Alkaline Phosphatase and Renal
           Cortical Damage in Experimental Albino Mice
    • Abstract: Abstract Diclofenac sodium is known to interfere with renal physiology by inhibiting prostaglandins. Previous studies indicate that various nephrotoxins damage proximal renal tubules by altering alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity. APase has been reported to be a function related marker in renal proximal tubular epithelia where it is highly expressed. Present investigation deals with toxicity caused in mice kidney at histological and biochemical levels after diclofenac administration. Diclofenac toxicity was assessed by localizing APase in kidney histochemically and biochemically. Intramuscular diclofenac administration (10 mg/kg/body wt) for 30 days exhibited substantial degeneration in kidney. A marked change in APase activity was observed in histochemical and biochemical studies. A change was noticed in specific activity of APase at different periods of diclofenac treatment. Decrease in specific activity of APase after 10 days (18.41 %) and 30 days (55.3 %) of diclofenac exposure was observed. However, an insignificant hike in APase was observed after 20 days of drug therapy. Similar trends in APase activity were evidenced by the electrophoretic analysis. Histological and ultrastructural observations also corroborated above mentioned findings. Present investigation gives an insight into probable mechanism of renal pathology caused by diclofenac administration in mice.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Standardization of Genomic DNA Isolation from Minute Quantities of Fish
           Scales and Fins Amenable to RAPD-PCR
    • Abstract: Abstract The main focus of this study was to standardize a non-destructive procedure for extraction of genomic DNA (gDNA) from minute quantities of scales and fins of two commonly available fishes Labeo bata and Heteropneustes fossilis and also to compare the gDNA yields from live and as well from frozen samples. The spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed a significant difference in the DNA yields from live and frozen samples. The isolated gDNAs were used as templates for RAPD-PCR. The quality and consistency of banding pattern showed that gDNA templates from live tissues performed better than that from frozen tissue samples. It was also found that the minute quantities of fresh scales or fin tissues from live fish provided satisfactory quantity and quality of gDNAs that could support several rounds of RAPD-PCR. This non-destructive sampling has a great implication in gDNA based population genetic studies in endangered and vulnerable species of fishes, where killing or sacrificing is an ethical issue.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • A Review on Biology and Function of Regulatory B Cells with Special
           Reference to Inflammation and Autoimmune Pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Abstract Once considered to be predominantly a positive regulator of immune function, B cells are increasingly getting attributed with new and diversified functions. In recent years a number of reports indicate that a definite regulatory function of B cell exists. A number of B cell subsets that shares various developmental markers shown to have the ability to produce the suppressive cytokine IL-10. A particularly strong candidate with distinct IL-10 production profile is CD19hiCD1dhiCD5+ population, which constitutes about 1–2 % of splenic B cells. These B cells are also called B10 cells as they produce large amount of IL-10. Increasingly it is becoming clear that a variety of regulatory B cell population exists and expands during inflammatory condition and autoimmune disease. A detailed study of development and mechanism that governs B reg generation may provide us with valuable information for therapeutic intervention.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
 
 
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