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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Biology and Conservation Status of Flying Squirrels (Pteromyini,
           Sciuridae, Rodentia) in India: An Update and Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Flying squirrels are capable of gliding and one of the least known mammals of the world. Work on these animals is less and sporadic due to their crepuscular and cryptic habits. At the present scenario, a complete pilot study is in an urgent need to formulate conservation strategies and policies to conserve them in India. Therefore, a thorough review on biology and conservation status of flying squirrels in India is provided here. A total of 13 species of flying squirrels present in India i.e., Belomys pearsonii, Biswamoyopterus biswasi, Eupetaurus cinereus, Eoglaucomys fimbriatus, Hylopetes alboniger, Petaurista elegans, P. mishmiensis, P. magnificus, P. mechukaensis, P. nobilis, P. petaurista, P. philippensis and Petinomys fuscocapillus, wherein three are endemic to the country. P. philippensis has broader distribution and is found to be more studied than others. Eastern part of the country contains the highest species number (n = 10) follows three in northern part, two in southern part and one in western part subsequently. All species are facing threat to their population due to native habitat loss, degradation and hunting. Harmonization, alliances and partnership between various stakeholders along with better application of standard techniques would be strengthen to develop conservation strategies and implementing their coordinated actions could preserve flying squirrels’ future in the country landscape.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Season-Induced Changes in the Liver Cells and Ovarian Tissues During
           Growth, Maturation, Spawning and Post-spawning Phases in Spiny Eel
           Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède, 1800)
    • Abstract: Abstract Cytological status of hepatocytes in respect to seasons influencing ovarian activities has been studied in Mastacembelus armatus (Hamilton). Histologically, the hepatocyte of female liver was provided with distinct nucleus and basophilic cytoplasmic granules. In M. armatus different germ line cells were recognized on the basis of size and histoarchitecture of the cells. By examining seasonal changes in relation to hepatocytes and ovary, it was found that during growth and maturation phases the density of cytoplasmic granules of hepatocytes was increased in number as well as the nucleus become hypertrophied. These features were well correlated with the occurrence of cortical alveolus and yolk granule stage in the ovary. During spawning phase the cytoplasmic granules were sparse in the hypertrophied hepatic cells. This was due to the dynamic cytological activities like vitellogenesis and occurrence of mature oocytes in the ovary. However, no significant alterations were noticed in the hepatocytes during post spawning phase due to the appearance of new germ line cells in the ovary. Cytological changes in the hepatocytes were correlated with the reproductive phases in female M. armatus.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Avian Diversity in Agricultural Landscape: Records from Burdwan, West
           Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Avian species assemblages are potential indicators of integrity and stability of ecosystem structure and functions. Characteristic avian fauna in landscapes enable predictions about the environmental state and possible deviations in the ecosystem functions. Documentation of avian species assemblages in different landscapes are therefore being emphasized from environmental monitoring perspective. As a primary effort, the present commentary depicts the avian species assemblage of agricultural landscapes, using Burdwan, West Bengal, India, as a study area. Employing line-transect method of continuous survey and opportunistic encounter, a total of 144 bird species under 51 families and 19 orders were recorded from the study area. The avian species richness was highest for the order Passeriformes followed by Charadriidae and rest 17 orders. Resident, local migrant and migrant species constituted 61.15, 31.65 and 7.20 % of the bird community, respectively. Most of the bird species (51.85 %) were associated consistently with the agricultural fields as their habitat followed by aquatic systems (29.20 %) and human habitat (18.98 %). The study records the presence of three species under IUCN Near Threatened category and many species exhibiting sparse population based on the encounter rate and number of individuals in the habitat. The observed richness of bird species in the study area calls for further studies on habitat preference, census and breeding biology to highlight species specific roles in ecosystem functions and sustenance of ecosystem services.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Stridulation and Courtship Behaviour of Four Endemic Pill-Millipedes,
           Arthrosphaera spp. (Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae) of the Western
           Ghats of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Mating behaviour of four species of pill-millipedes under genus Arthrosphaera Pocock (Arthrosphaera dalyi Pocock and Arthrosphaera disticta Pocock, Arthrosphaera fumosa Pocock and Arthrosphaera magna Attems) endemic to the Western Ghats of Southern India was analyzed in mesocosms. Stridulation is a classical communication signal in males as well as females for mate selection. Conglobation (or volvation) is a mechanism of defence to protect from disturbance or avoid predation. If male touches female or vice versa they conglobate. To avoid disparity among individuals of the same species, volvating pill-millipedes evolved stridulation behaviour for communication. The male broadcasts appropriate signal to female through stridulation to advertise its interest in mating. The females test the male’s fitness by conglobation and suitable male uncoils the partner through stridulation signals. Male with its pygidium successfully uncoils the female and attains suitable orientation for courtship. Male pairs with female ventro–ventro contact in opposite direction to deposit sperm into the vulva of female. The duration of mating varies from species to species and usually a lapse from 3 to 30 min. Vibration generated by stridulation is species-specific and its perception mechanism in pill-millipedes is yet to be clearly understood. Present study emphasized the structure of stridulatory organs, mechanism of stridulation and pattern of mating behaviour in four species of pill-millipedes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Morphological Reassessment of Triops cancriformis Bosc (Crustacea:
           Branchiopoda: Notostraca) Population from Kashmir, India with Comments on
           the Distribution of the Species in India
    • Abstract: Abstract Triops cancriformis was reported first from India in 1871 and has been subsequently shown to occur in different regions of the country. In this paper, we have morphologically re-examined the Triops cancriformis population from Kashmir from where this species was first reported. We have compared some morphological traits of our T. cancriformis population with a few closely related species. The result shows that the Kashmir population is more similar to the typical non gonochoric Triops cancriformis in morphology. From literature records, we show that T. cancriformis has a peculiar distribution in India with no record of occurrences below 23°N. We also highlight the 125 years of history of T. cancriformis records from India.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Diurnal Activity Pattern of Golden Jackal ( Canis aureus Linn.) in an
           Urban Landscape of Kolkata, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The Golden jackal is known to have a wide distribution range and has been put under “Least Concern” category in the IUCN (ver 3.1) Red Data Book. However, the species once quite common along with the Bengal Fox in the eighteenth and nineteenth century of Kolkata has faced serious challenge due to land use and land cover changes in their urban habitats. As such, the Golden jackal has become “locally endangered” in the city of Kolkata, India. Kolkata, one of the largest cities in India, with population density of 14,112,536 is one such example where the land use change is profound. The Tollygunge Club, Kolkata is a social club with restricted entry at the heart of the city of Kolkata and harbours a healthy breeding population of the Golden jackal (Canis aureus Linn.). The present study focuses on the adaptability of the jackals to human proximity and its capacity to switch to natural food (fruits and leaves of available plants in the club, molluscs etc.) present in the club when the club refuse is not available. Their diurnal activity has been studied. These animals show diurnal activity in the open terrains of the club as they are least threatened by the humans. Only few intraspecific and interspecific (with the stray dogs in the club premises) conflicts have been noticed. In is interesting to note that at the heart of a city, in an urban area, such social clubs with restricted entry can provide suitable habitat to sustain a healthy breeding populations of the animals which are showing constant decline in their population due to change in land use pattern.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Above Ground Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Deciduous Forest in Ayodhya
           Hill, Purulia, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Arthropods exploiting terrestrial habitats constitute a single major group that represents extreme diversity of forms and functions. The present commentary provides a description of the above ground arthropod species diversity of the tropical deciduous forest in Ayodhya hills, Purulia, West Bengal, India. Species diversity was only considered for this study through random quadrat sampling method. Shannon-Wiener diversity index, equitability among species, relative dominance, species richness and community similarity for the two different habitats were calculated. A total of 289 individuals were recorded which included the insect orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Isoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Mantodea, and few individuals of class Isopoda, Araneae and Chilopoda. In majority of the quadrats the dominant insect order was Hymenoptera.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • DNA Barcoding of Sharp Tail Sunfish Masturus lanceolatus Lienard, 1840
           (Tetraodontiformes: Molidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract Detailed analyses on morphometry (expressed as % standard length and % head length), meristic characters and mitochondrial barcode region sequence of the sharp tail sunfish Masturus lanceolatus Lienard, 1840 have made to confirm the species identity. Further, investigations on phylogenetic relationships between species of the Molidae family have been taken into consideration by constructing neighbor-joining tree to fulfill the gaps on taxonomical validation and their biological information.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Hydrological and Nutrient Status of Mangrove Ecosystem of Kali Estuary,
           Karwar, Karnataka, West Coast of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Water samples were collected from three selected mangrove ecosystems of Kali Estuary west coast Karwar, on monthly basis and analyzed for various hydrographic parameters. The present work would give the recent information on the hydrographic condition of the mangrove ecosystem of Kali estuary. Surface water temperature varied from 27.4 to 32.07 °C and the salinity ranged between 4.1 and 30.15 ppt, pH ranged between 7.00 and 8.89. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 2.46 to 6.47 ml/l and suspended matter ranged between 0.03 and 1.05 gm/l. Concentrations of nutrients viz. phosphates (0.71–2.38 μg at/l), nitrates (0.73–2.42 μg at/l), nitrites (0.07–0.98 μg at/l) and silicate (131.18–298.18 μg at/l) also varied independently. The results of the study revealed that hydrographical conditions fluctuated moderately throughout the year.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Sustainable Aquaculture Practice of Climbing Perch Koi, Anabas testudineus
           (Bloch, 1792) Under Semi Intensive Aquaculture System in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Abstract To establish the sustainable aquaculture practices of climbing perch koi, Anabas testudineus experiments were conducted for a rearing period of 100 days in nine earthen ponds having an area of 0.35 ha each. The fry was stocked at 0.1976, 0.2470, and 0.2964 million ha−1 in different farms of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh for treatment T1, T2 and T3. Fish fries having 1.82 ± 0.01 cm in length and 1.52 ± 0.04 g in weight were considered for experimentations initially. Under favourable conditions yield rate was noted highest in treatment T1 and lowest in treatment T3. Final length, final weight and survival of A. testudineus also followed the same trends as weight gained. Individuals in treatment T1 produced significantly higher specific growth rate than treatments T2 and T3. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in treatment T1 followed by treatment T2 and T3 in that order. Fish production in treatments T1, T2 and T3 were 31758.66 ± 88.01, 31350.16 ± 98.07 and 28646.56 ± 100.50 kg ha−1 day−100, respectively. Significantly higher production was recorded in treatment T1 than in treatments T2 and T3, respectively. Consistently higher net benefit was found also from treatment T1 than from treatments T2 and T3. Significantly higher economically benefit was also recorded in treatment T1 than in treatment T2 and T3 respectively. Overall, highest growth, survival and net benefit of climbing perch were obtained from treatment T1 at a density of 0.1976 million individual ha−1. Among three treatments, treatment T1 appears to be most sustainable aquaculture practice for koi, A. Testudineus in 100 days rearing system. The present findings indicate the feasibility of establishing sustainable aquaculture of koi in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Occurrence of Marbled Shrimp Saron marmoratus (Olivier, 1811) (Decapoda:
           Caridea: Hippolytidae) in Lakshadweep Archipelago, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Two juvenile specimens of Saron marmoratus (Olivier, 1811) were collected from the inter tidal lagoon area of Eastern side of Agatti Island, Lakshadweep on November 4, 2013. These shrimp are brown and slightly green in color with yellow and white speckled spot and having a typical tuft of cirri on the back. Marbled shrimps are highly demanded and good priced in the marine aquarium trade. This is a new record to the Lakshadweep waters.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Polysaccharides as Constituents in Chromosome Organization: A Study on
           Meiotic Chromosomes of Grasshopper and Polytene Chromosomes of Dipterous
    • Abstract: Abstract Study on meiotic chromosomes of grasshopper, Gesonula punctifrons and interphase polytene chromosomes from Dipteran larvae as of Chironomus striatipennis and Drosophila melanogaster following staining by periodic acid-Schiff technique revealed that chromosomes contained polysaccharides as an integral part of their organization. PAS +ve nature of the chromosomes both at highly condensed state as available during meiotic cell division and at extended state as in polytene chromosomes supports the idea that chromosomes contain polysaccharides as one of the constituent biological macromolecules. PAS +ve chromosomes appeared to be fluorescent under fluorescence microscope and fluorescence was found to be more or less uniform along the whole length of the meiotic chromosomes, while in case of polytene chromosomes intense fluorescence could be noticed along the band regions of the chromosomes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Alterations in Digestive Enzymes of Three Freshwater Teleostean Fishes by
           Almix Herbicide: A Comparative Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Three freshwater teleostean fishes viz., Anabas testudineus (Bloch), Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) were exposed to almix (66.67 mg/l) herbicide for 30 days to investigate the activity of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase and protease) in stomach, intestine and liver. Amylase activity showed significantly high (p < 0.05) in all the fishes compared to control value and highest activity was observed in liver of A. testudineus (721.99 %) and minimum in intestine of H. fossilis (195.37 %). Lipase activity was also significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all the tissues; but highest in intestine of O. niloticus (235.51 %) and minimum in intestine of A. testudineus (130.51 %). Protease activity also showed similar trends of enhancement; it was maximum in stomach of O. niloticus (362.69 %), whereas in liver of H. fossilis it was rather less (173.72 %). Increased activity of digestive enzymes resulting from tissue damage ultimately affected the fish health due to impairment of digestive physiology confirming the herbicidal contamination on fish species. The sensitivity to the almix herbicide was pronounced in the order of O. niloticus > A. testudineus > H. fossilis.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Alcohol as a Risk Factor for Cancer Burden: A Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Alcohol is eliminated from the body by various metabolic mechanisms. The primary enzymes in such mechanism involved are alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 2E1, and catalase. Variations in the genes for these enzymes have been found to influence alcohol consumption. The consequences of alcohol metabolism include oxygen deficits (i.e., hypoxia) in the liver, resulting in the formation of harmful compounds (i.e., adducts) and highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules (i.e., reactive oxygen species) that can damage cell components. Approximately, worldwide 3.6 % of cancers derive from chronic alcohol drinking, including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colorectum and the breast. Although the mechanisms for alcohol-associated carcinogenesis are not completely understood, recent findings have focused on acetaldehyde, the first and most toxic ethanol metabolite, as a cancer-causing agent. Alcohol-related carcinogenesis may aggravate due to other factors such as smoking and being triggered by genetic susceptibility. Besides, the role of genetic polymorphisms of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes could not be ruled out.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • The Status of the Marine Fisheries of West Bengal Coast of the Northern
           Bay of Bengal and Its Management Options: A Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Marine fishery is one of the most important sectors for both economic and social development of the country. The whole coast of West Bengal was surveyed from July 2010 to August 2012 for acquiring data on marine fishing. The secondary data were also collected from various government departments and non-government organizations. After compiling all the data a clear picture of marine fisheries in the coastal region of West Bengal was emerged. Arius spp. has the height percentage (15.16) and Yellow Fin Tuna has the lowest percentage (0.06) of landing in West Bengal coast during 2006–2012. Bombay duck and Hairtail Ribbon fish landing shows a decreasing tendency in these 7 years. As the number of mechanically powered boats are increasing in recent years, the total marine fish landing from West Bengal coast is remained more or less static. Therefore, the catch per unit effort has declined significantly in recent years (r = 0.77). So, immediate remedial measures should be taken to manage sustainably, the marine fishery sector of West Bengal.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Suitability of Different Prey Aphids on the Growth, Development and
           Reproduction of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen)
           (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera)
    • Abstract: Abstract The prey preference of polyphagous predator, green lacewing (Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen)) was evaluated against five prey aphids viz., mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), black bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), spirea aphid (Aphis spiraecola) of agriculture importance and compared with eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). Lacewing larvae preferred Myzus persicae most followed by Brevicoryne brassicae. The highest growth index (8.31), larval survival (94.50 %), larval weight (10.45 mg), pupal weight (8.78 mg), faster multiplication rate (0.051) and fecundity (183.4 per gravid female) of the predator were recorded on M. persicae. However, the chrysopid reared on Corcyra eggs performed best in all biological parameters and fitness, than on aphid preys. This study explores the possibilities of selecting the most suitable prey aphid species for its exploitation as supplement for mass multiplication of chrysopid during off-season or unavailability of Corcyra eggs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Pathophysiological Scenario of Hematopoietic Disorders: A Comparative
           Study of Aplastic Anemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Leukemia in
           Experimental Animals
    • Abstract: Abstract The conversion of physiology to pathophysiology in hematological disorders viz: aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia in murine models was the subject of study in the present programme. Peripheral blood hemogram, spleno-somatic index, bone marrow smear study, cytochemical staining of marrow, cell release kinetics study during marrow explants culture, hematopoietic niche assessment, chromosomal aberration study, plasma membrane stability study of marrow cells, lysosomal membrane and mitochondrial membrane stability study and innate immune parameters were performed in the aplastic anemia, leukemia and MDS mouse model. In bone marrow aplasia, peripheral blood pancytopenia, marrow hypocellularity, decreased marrow cellular viability, deterioration of bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as hematopoietic microenvironment and extramedullary hematopoiesis were noticed. In addition, disruption of mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane integrity along with reduction of innate immune parameters were found in the hematopoietic suppressed condition. Surprisingly, no noticeable chromosomal aberration was found in the aplastic condition. Ineffective marrow hematopoiesis together with the disruption of hematopoietic microenvironment was observed in MDS. Also, extramedullary hematopoiesis, increased marrow cellular death, chromosomal aberration and loss of innate immunity were the common events. During leukemia, the number of functionally and structurally immature cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow was increased together with malignant conversion of hematopoietic cells in the presence of malignancy supportive stromal microenvironment. Chromosomal aberration, decrease of cell mediated immunity with least mitochondrial apoptotic damage were also found in leukemic condition as well.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Effects of Probiotics on Survival, Growth and Digestive Enzymes Activities
           in Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man 1879)
    • Abstract: Abstract A study was conducted to examine the effects of three probiotics, Lactobacillus sporogenes, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the survival, growth and digestive enzymes activities of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The probiotics, L. sporogenes (4 %), B. subtilis (3 %) and S. cerevisiae (4 %) were taken and mixed with basal diet. Diet without probiotics served as control. These probiotics diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 60 days. After the feeding trail, the growth parameters such as survival, weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency rate were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 4 % S. cerevisiae incorporated diet fed PL when compared with control. In the case of feed conversion rate just the reverse was seen (P < 0.05) at this concentration. This indicates its superior quality among different concentrations of probiotics tested. Activities of digestive enzymes, such as protease, amylase and lipase were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at this concentration (4 % S. cerevisiae). Some of essential and non-essential amino acids also significantly elevated in probiotics supplemented diet fed prawns. This study indicated that probiotics, S. cerevisiae incorporated diets were beneficial for M. rosenbergii in terms of increasing growth, enzyme and amino acid production.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Effect of Different Animal Protein Sources on Growth and Nutrient
           Utilization of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata Fingerlings
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on the nutrient requirement of guppy, Poecilia reticulata fingerlings as reported earlier, nine experimental diets with 300 g protein, 100 g lipid and 16.72 MJ digestible energy/kg diet were formulated using snail meat (D-1), freshwater fish processing waste (D-2), surimi by-product (D-3), chicken offal (D-4), earthworm (D-5), squid (D-6), mussel (T-7), chicken liver (T-8) and lean prawn (T-9) as major protein source in addition to fish meal and peanut oil cake and fed ad libitum to the fish (0.27 ± 0.01 g) for a period of 60 days. Twenty-seven indoor circular fiber-reinforced plastic tanks (10 fish/tank) with 40 L of water were used for rearing the fish. At the end of the experiment, it was found that the guppy fed surumi by-product, squid, mussel and lean prawn meal diets had significantly higher (p < 0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio and lowest (p < 0.05) food conversion ratio than the snail, freshwater fish processing waste, chicken offal, earthworm and chicken liver meal diets and therefore, these four could be used as dietary protein source in formulating the diets for guppy. However, to formulate the cost-effective diets for guppy fingerlings, the use surimi by-product is suggested as it is being discarded as waste material and therefore, available free of cost.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Allozyme polymorphism in Drosophila
    • Abstract: Abstract Every population possesses genetic variations which are achieved through gene mutation, genetic recombination, hybridization, gene duplication etc. These genetic variations provide raw materials for evolutionary forces to create a better surviving species. Genetic polymorphism is reflected at every level in the populations, for example, at phenotypic, chromosomal, protein and DNA levels. Protein or enzyme polymorphisms have been well studied in various organisms including Drosophila and humans. Drosophila has proven to be a good model organism for carrying out polymorphism studies. Among the different species of Drosophila, there is a wide variation in the levels of allozyme polymorphisms and heterozygosities which depends upon species, geographical regions, number and nature of loci in question etc. In Drosophila, the average polymorphic enzyme loci and average heterozygosity ranges from 35 to 70 percent and 10 to 20 percent respectively. The genetic differentiation as observed through allozyme or isozyme variation affords an important parameter in evaluating the phylogenetic relationships between different species of Drosophila and also for discussing the adaptive significance of allozyme polymorphisms. Therefore, this review attempts to compile all studies on allozyme polymorphism in Drosophila that have been undertaken so far.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
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