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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Wetlands and Lakes of the World: Devashish Kar
    • Authors: Gautam Aditya
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0248-5
  • Shivendu K. Srivastava: Commercial Use of Biodiversity: Resolving the
           Access and Benefit Sharing Issues
    • Authors: A. K. Ghosh
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0247-6
  • Comparative Assessment of Nutritional Composition in Raw and Cooked Indian
           Freshwater Fish Lepidocephalus thermalis (V.)
    • Authors: Shobana Manoharan; Raghavan Kuppu; Ramesh Uthandakalaipandian
      Abstract: Lepidocephalus thermalis, the Indian Spiny Loach is an IUCN least concern status edible freshwater fish with indigenous flavor and taste found endemic in Tamil Nadu. In this study, the proximate nutritional composition, amino acid, vitamin, fatty acid, micro and macro mineral analyses for raw and boiled fish samples were estimated instantaneously as cooking could lead to changes in the level of certain nutrients. This fish is with 33.09% saturated, 32.86% mono unsaturated and 30.49% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The predominant amino acids were glycine (715 mg/100 g), histidine (375 mg/100 g), alanine (237 mg/100 g) and arginine (130 mg/100 g). The fish comprised a good level of calcium (924 mg/100 g), zinc (0.14 mg/100 g) and iron (1.86 mg/100 g). Boiled fish had reduced level of certain amino acids like glycine (410 mg/100 g) and alanine (124 mg/100 g). There was no significant difference in the fatty acid composition in the boiled fish.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0249-4
  • New Extracellular Polymeric Substance Producing Enteric Bacterium from
           Earthworm, Metaphire posthuma : Modulation Through Culture Conditions
    • Authors: Jayanta Kumar Biswas; Anurupa Banerjee; Santanu Majumder; Nanthi Bolan; Balaji Seshadri; Madhab Chandra Dash
      Abstract: An extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) producing microorganism, identified and characterized as Bacillus licheniformis strain KX657843 based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, was isolated from earthworms (Metaphire posthuma). The bacteria was found to be uniquely influenced by the amino acid l-asparagine monohydrate. The organism produced the maximum yield of 2.7 g L−1 EPS in the presence of sucrose supplemented with l-asparagine monohydrate while no EPS was produced in absence of the amino acid. The order of growth and EPS production in presence of different carbon substrates supplemented with l-asparagine monohydrate was observed as sucrose > glucose > glycerol > mannitol > citrate > cellulose > starch. l-asparagine monohydrate could serve as the sole nitrogen source for the organism but it alone cannot satisfy the requisite carbon demand for growth and EPS production. EPS production showed a positive correlation with sucrose concentration but a negative correlation with citrate levels. Analysis of extracted EPS using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and measurement of its zeta potential revealed the chemical composition and anionic nature of the EPS. The bacterium produced 119.235 IU mL−1 extracellular l-asparaginase. This is the first report of an l-asparagine monohydrate dependent EPS producing Bacillus licheniformis from the gut of the earthworm, Metaphire posthuma.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0250-y
  • Human–Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) Conflict in Western
    • Authors: Srijana Khanal; Nanda Bahadur Singh
      Abstract: While human–wild boar conflict is common in conservation areas, there is a lack of information about aspects of conflict and conservation outside the protected areas. The study aimed to report on the crop damage and human casualties caused by wild boar in the western region of Nepal. Simple random sampling was used to collect the data on crop damage and human casualties caused by wild boar. Structured questionnaires were administered in face-to-face interviews with household heads in 219 households. The economic values of crops were calculated based on the local market rate. One-way ANOVA test was conducted to investigate the relationship between crop losses among different study areas, and the Pearson Chi square test was used to examine the perception held by local people about wild boar conservation. The total crop damage by wild boar was estimated to be NPR 26, 06,156 (US$23,962). Damaged agricultural crops included paddy, wheat, maize, mustard, pulses, vegetables, and others. Pulses (8.8%) and vegetables (8.7%) were the most affected crops. There were 10 human injuries among individuals aged 15 years and over. Our study found the majority of respondents (84%) had a negative attitude towards wild boar conservation. Furthermore, this study revealed that local people used deterrents and scare crows as measures to control wild boar. The current findings indicated food shortage and a loss of income caused by wild boar were the factors affecting peoples’ livelihoods, and the majority of respondents were against wild boar conservation. The awareness programme was found to be the best method to reduce human–wild boar conflict. The findings from this study suggest that the development and cultivation of alternative crops should be considered, because crop loss may be reduced by changes in cropping patterns and the cultivation of crops that wild boar do not prefer.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0246-7
  • On the Development of an Electric Fish Catcher
    • Authors: K. P. Biswas; N. A. Talwar
      Abstract: Catching fish with electricity is found to be the easiest and most effective than other methods of capture. In practice, a galvanotropic response of fishes in an electrical field is evoked in developing fish catching devices. These devices are commercially available in many countries, not only to capture the fishes but also to study fish population. As such a device is not in practice in India, an attempt has been made to develop an electrical fish catcher by using indigenous materials to be effective for fresh water fishes. Tests were carried out on eight Indian fresh water food fishes to identify their significant behaviours with rising current densities and to determine the threshold values initiating those reactions especially, for the galvanotropic response. The test results were synthesized to develop a prototype electrical fish catcher. Its performance was tested with respect to initiating galvanotropic reactions of fishes (all species together). The developed unit has two components (1) a specially designed catcher (anode) and (2) DC power supply by stepping down and rectifying AC to continuous DC and pulsed DC of very low frequencies. Two electrical (continuous and pulsed DC), two environmental (standing and flowing water) and three field patterns (made by different electrode arrangements) were tested to find out the most effective use of the catcher electrode for bringing out directional forced swimming of fishes towards the catcher electrode. The field generated with an alternate polarity system has shown significant results (90–100%) for influencing the fishes to galvanotropic reactions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0245-8
  • Melatonin Modulates Thyroid Hormones and Splenocytes Proliferation Through
           Mediation of Its MT1 and MT2 Receptors in Hyperthyroid Mice
    • Authors: Prashanjit Laskar; Shiv Shankar Singh
      Abstract: Hyperthyroidism is characterized by an increased metabolic rate with the alteration of immune activity. The pineal hormone melatonin regulates various physiological activities through sensitization of MT1 and MT2 membrane receptors in mammals. In the present study we have evaluated the involvement of MT1 and MT2 receptors in melatonin mediated modulation of thyroid hormones and splenocyte proliferation in experimentally induced hyperthyroidic mice. The l-thyroxine treatment induced the hyperthyroidism in mice evidenced with hypersecretion of T3 and T4 hormones from thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidic state increased the TSH hormone level which might be inducing hyper activity in thyroid gland. Exogenous melatonin suppressed the thyroid hormones level as well as TSH level in circulation. The l-thyroxine treatment increased the splenocyte proliferation and showed synergic effects along with melatonin. l-thyroxine treated mice alone or along with melatonin treatment showed differential expression pattern of MT1 and MT2 receptors protein in thyroid and spleen tissues. It seems that melatonin regulates thyroid hormones and splenocyte proliferation through activation of MT1 and MT2 receptors.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0244-9
  • Ultra Structural Studies of the Septate Gregarine Phleobum elliptica Modak
           et al., 2011
    • Abstract: Genus Phleobum Haldar and Chakraborty, 1974 is one of the important genera of septate gregarine (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Hirmocystidae), observed in the gut of grasshoppers. So far nine species of the genus Phleobum has been described but there is no report of ultrastructural study. The present study records the ultrastructural details of Phleobum elliptica inhabiting the gut lumen of the grasshopper Atractomorpha crenulata (Insecta: Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). Under SEM, both the protomerite and deutomerite are found to be entirely covered with longitudinal, parallel pellicular folds, which are either straight or undulating in nature. A deep constriction is present at the junction of protomerite and deutomerite. Folds of the gamont are not continuous from the tip to bottom, rather interrupted at the region of septum. Protomerite bears protuberance like apical uplifted area, delimited by a deep groove. Association are caudo-frontal. Anterior end of satellite bears sucker like structure which receive the pointed end of the primate’s deutomerite.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0230-2
  • First Report of Three Metazoan Gut Parasites of Live Fishes from West
           Bengal, India
    • Authors: Prabir Banerjee; Saugata Basu; Biplob Kr. Modak
      Abstract: Three parasitic gut worms, one cestode and two acanthocephalan species, have been recorded from two fresh water live fishes (Channa punctatus and Channa striatus) of Channidae family from West Bengal, India for the first time. These parasites were revealed from new host species which were hitherto not reported till now. The cestode is Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Family Bothriocephalidae) and the acanthocephalans are Pallisentis ophiocephali (family Quadrogyridae) and Neoechinorhynchus sootai (family Neoechinorhynchidae). In this communication, the morphological studies of prevailing cestode and two acanthocephalan species were also incorporated.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0240-0
  • Checklist of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Taxa Along Different Riparian Land
           Use Types in Alaknanda River Catchment of the Central Himalaya,
           Uttarakhand (India)
    • Authors: Jitendra Singh Rana; Bhaskaranand Semalty; Pranav Singh; Navneet Swami; Saurabh Dewan; Jagmohan Singh; Manju Prakash Gusain; Om Prakash Gusain
      Abstract: A checklist of benthic macroinvertebrates recorded at 08 different riparian land use (RLU) types in Alaknanda river catchment (ARC) in the Central Himalaya (India) is provided here. Among 77 taxa recorded, 73 insect genera belonged to 09 orders and 52 families at different RLU types. Majorities were nymphs and larvae of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Hemiptera, Megaloptera and Diptera. The highest number of insect taxa (50) was recorded from Dense Mixed Forest; whereas, the lowest (27) was recorded from barren site i.e., Montane Barren. Also, the forested site had most number of common taxa (25). Benthic macroinvertebrates at Chir Pine Forest serves as a link between Dense Mixed Forest and Open Mixed Forest. Agricultural sites had 36 taxa in common. Interestingly the agricultural sites share 24 taxa with the forested sites. Overall 13 benthic insect taxa were ubiquitous in ARC, while 15 were rare, confined to a single site.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0241-z
  • In - Silico Construction of Phylogenetic Relationships Between
           Ampullariidae and Viviparidae Families (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) Using
           Partial Mitochondrial COI Sequences
    • Authors: Chittaranjan Jena; Krupanidhi Srirama
      Abstract: Freshwater biota especially molluscs are more vulnerable because even the slightest change in the quality of their habitat possibly leads to their mortality. In addition, their importance is felt that particularly molluscs contribute toward carbon sequestering from the environment as atmospheric carbon gets deposited as carbonates in their shell which constitute 10% of their body mass. Hence, the molecular phylogenetic relationships of two families inhabiting freshwater streams viz., Ampullariidae and Viviparidae considering the genera dwelling in Indian subcontinent namely Pila globosa and Bellamya bengalensis using the partial nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial COI gene were of considerable importance in building conservational strategies. The phylogenetic analysis of ampullariid and viviparid species inferred that these two chosen families were paraphyletic and rooted on the genera of Cyclophoroidea and possibly with Saulea vitrea as the connecting link.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0242-y
  • Two New Species of Gangesia Woodland, 1924 (Platyhelminthes:Cestoidea)
           from Freshwater Fishes of West Bengal and Odhisa, India
    • Authors: Suranjana Banerjee; Buddhadeb Manna; A. K. Sanyal
      Abstract: The genus Gangesia Woodland, 1924 contains 8 valid species. Gangesia pashupatii sp.n. from the intestine of a freshwater fish Wallago attu from Canning, South 24-Parganas, West Bengal, India and Gangesia puriensis sp.n. from Ompok bimaculatus from Puri in Odhisa, India are described and illustrated. Gangesia pashupatii sp.n. is characterized by presence of a rostellum that bears 50 hooks in two alternate rows; each hook 0.078 long; neck absent; testes 100-160 in number; and a uterus with 20-23 lateral diverticulae on each side. Gangesia puriensis sp.n. is characterized by an oval to bulbous scolex; rostellar hooks 28-29 in number all alike arranged in a single row; suckers without spines; long neck; testes 200-250 in number; long cirrus sac and uterus with 15-16 lateral diverticulae on each side. The presence of these new morphological characters differentiates the two observed new species from the rest of the described valid species in the genus.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0233-z
  • On the Occurrence of Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus (I.
           Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in Odisha,
           Eastern India
    • Authors: Himanshu Shekhar Palei; Subrat Debata
      Abstract: Lack of scientific information encourages biased understanding on status and distribution of different species. The Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus is the world’s smallest felid endemic to India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. As much of its distributional range is falling outside protected area network, it is more vulnerable to loss and degradation of the habitat from anthropogenic activities. So, region specific baseline information is essential to reassess its status. In the present study, based on the Forest Department rescue records, we have reported its wide spread distribution in Odisha, eastern India. So, further targeted study in the identified localities is needed to generate baseline information on its status and ecology to develop appropriate conservation plans for future.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0243-x
  • Wenyonia sanyali sp.n. (Platyhelminthes: Cestoidea) from Chilloscyllium
           griseum (Bamboo Shark) in West Bengal, India
    • Authors: Suranjana Banerjee; Buddhadeb Manna
      Abstract: The genus Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 contains 7 valid species. In this paper Wenyonia sanyali sp.n. is described and illustrated from the intestine of Chilloscyllium griseum (bamboo shark) from West Bengal, India. The species is characterized by an undifferentiated scolex, without grooves, furrows and bothria; absence of neck and 14–40 testes in apical region that differentiates it from the rest of the described species in the genus.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0238-7
  • Composition of Avian Communities in a Human-modified Wetland Okhla Bird
           Sanctuary, India: With Notes on Conservation Initiatives
    • Authors: Subhendu Mazumdar
      Abstract: Monitoring of avian community composition in different landscapes are being emphasized from environmental monitoring perspective. Okhla bird sanctuary is an important bird area and has widest flood plains along the stretch of river Yamuna flowing through National Capital Region, India. At the same time, this sanctuary is under tremendous pressure particularly due to encroachment, unsustainable harvesting and pollution. Present study was carried out in Okhla bird sanctuary from July 2004 to June 2005 to assess the species composition and richness of the avifaunal community along with their seasonal variation. A total of 126 species belonging to 18 orders and 44 families were recorded. The avian species richness was highest for the order Passeriformes followed by Charadriformes, Anseriformes, Pelicaniformes and others. Anatidae was the most diverse avian family in the study area. Species richness of avifauna was highest in January (83 species) and least during July (37 species). This wetland supports good number of resident (86 species) and migratory birds (40 species). Most avian species (41.27%) were found to be wetland-dependent followed by wetland-associated (34.13%) and terrestrial (24.6%) birds. Kruskal–Wallis test revealed significant variation in the number of migratory and wetland-dependent species in different seasons. This study emphasize the importance of Okhla bird sanctuary for resident and migratory, as well as, terrestrial, wetland-associated and wetland dependent birds and thus contribute towards the existing knowledge of the seasonal pattern avifaunal composition of this wetland. Long-term monitoring of avifaunal composition over the years is an excellent means to assess the health of this waterbody and thus might be useful to foster its sustainable improvement.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0239-6
  • Predatory Behaviour of Larval Alluaudomyia formosana Okada on Alluaudomyia
           xanthocoma Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)–Video Documentation
    • Authors: Sudipta Sarkar; Abhijit Mazumdar
      Abstract: The predation of adult Alluaudomyia upon several insects is well documented. However, the phenomenon of larval predation within the group is scant. The videos depict the predatory behaviour of larvae of Alluaudomyia formosana on Alluaudomyia xanthocoma within a petridish in the laboratory. The footages clearly demonstrate the mode of infliction of A. formosana on the intertergal membrane of A. xanthocoma with concomitant extradition of tissue fluids which led to death of the larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0237-8
  • Pan-Himalayan High Altitude Endemic Cliff Bee, Apis laborisa Smith
           (Hymenoptera: Apidae): A Review
    • Authors: Hiren Gogoi; Minam Tayeng; Meth Taba
      Abstract: The high altitude bee, Apis laboriosa Smith significantly differs from the close phylogenetic relative A. dorsata Fabricius in colour and shape of the abdomen, the endophalli of male genitalia, nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial protein coding genes, chemical constituents of the cephalic and abdominal endocrine glands, nesting pattern, foraging and mating behaviour to distinguish them as separate species. They are found to construct single combed exposed nests under rock ledges in altitude ranging from 1200 to 3500 m above mean sea level from northern India to northern Vietnam. Current research trend shows the need of special attention for maximum possible and better quality agricultural and horticultural yield using A. laboriosa as it is known to pollinate a number of crops and fruits. General aspects of A. laboriosa to create sensitivity towards conservation of this species native to high altitude Himalayan foothills before being stressed by honey hunting, changing agricultural practices and crowding of natural enemies have also been focussed here.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0234-y
  • Improvement of Growth and Survival of the Juvenile Walking Catfish,
           Clarias batrachus (L.) (Siluriformes: Clariidae) Fed on Probiotics
           Encapsulated and Ascorbic Acid Enriched Chironomid Larvae (Diptera:
    • Authors: Atrayee Dey; Koushik Ghosh; Niladri Hazra
      Abstract: Effects of probiotics encapsulated and ascorbic acid enriched chironomid midge larvae as live feed on growth and survival of 12 day old Clarias batrachus juveniles (average weight 0.4 ± 0.06 g) were observed with feeding experiment for four weeks. Presumptive probiotic strains Bacillus aryabhattai KP784311, B. flexus KR809411, and B. cereus KR809412 were considered for bioencapsulation of chironomid larvae, and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was used further for bioenrichment of the same. Seven experimental diets, D0: non-bioencapsulated and non-bioenriched chironomid larvae (control), D1: chironomid larvae bioencapsulated with B. aryabhattai, D2: chironomid larvae bioencapsulated with B. flexus, D3: chironomid larvae bioencapsulated with B. cereus, D4: chironomid larvae bioencapsulated with mixture of three strains, D5: chironomid larvae non-bioencapsulated and bioenriched with ascorbic acid, and D6: chironomid larvae bioencapsulated with probiotics and bioenriched with ascorbic acid were fed to triplicate groups. The juveniles were fed ad libitum for four weeks and the result of D6 group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) specific growth rate and survivability than other groups. Although the RNA content in the carcass was increased initially in all dietary groups, any significant change of the DNA was not noticed. The coefficient (r value) of 0.992 in experiment 1 and 0.993 in experiment 2 along with regression slopes suggested a positive correlation (0.01 level) between RNA: DNA ratio and specific growth rate.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0236-9
  • Determination of Chronic Median Lethal Concentration of Sodium Fluoride in
           Drosophila melanogaster and Exploring Effect of Sub-lethal Concentrations
           on Differential Hemocyte Count
    • Authors: Moumita Dutta; Prem Rajak; Sumedha Roy
      Abstract: The prerequisite for toxicity assessment of any chemical is the determination of its median lethal concentrations and thus, this study initiates with determination of chronic median lethal concentration of sodium fluoride (NaF) in a non-target organism Drosophila melanogaster, which was found to be 125–130 µg/mL. Further, chronic exposure to NaF at sub-lethal concentrations (10–100 µg/mL) resulted in significant reduction in total hemocyte number in general and plasmatocytes in particular, whereas, crystal cells were significantly increased in number. Since hemocytes are an integral part of innate immune system in Drosophila, their numerical fluctuation confirms fluoride-induced compromise in innate immunity status of Drosophila.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0235-x
  • Additions to the Birds of Bangalore University Campus (BUC), India
    • Authors: S. Rajashekara; M. G. Venkatesha
      Abstract: The present study was designed to note the birds occurring in the microhabitats of Bangalore University Campus, India. Birds were monitored and surveyed using line transect methods that were laid in different spots of the campus. Twenty-eight species were newly added to this campus premises, out of which 20 are waterbirds. Conservation methods needed for habitat improvement through restoration of ponds and water check-dams including vegetation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0231-1
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