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HISTORY (779 journals)

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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Haemotoxic Effect of Lead: A Review
    • Authors: Rina Rani Ray
      Pages: 161 - 172
      Abstract: Abstract Lead exposure is one of the major environmental issues to alter the health and well being of man and animals. Blood being the easy target for lead intoxication shows prominent effects and alteration of several hematological parameters may be regarded as a bio indicator of lead intoxication. Blood lead levels above 10 μg/dL have been associated with numerous manifestations. Anaemia is reported after acute and chronic exposure of lead in both workers of lead factory and in laboratory animals, accomplished either through impairment of heme biosynthesis or by enhanced rate of blood cell destruction. This is confirmed by marked reductions in blood haemoglobin level and haematocrit value and echinocytic transformation of normal erythrocytes after lead exposure. The number of total leucocytes tends to increase with the increase in basophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes possibly due to direct toxic action of lead on leucopoiesis in lymphoid organs. High levels of lead inhibit aggregation of platelets both in human and rat blood. Lead induced changes in the red blood membrane include the changes in lipids and proteins profile of some membrane-associated enzymes or in ions transport mechanisms. The mechanism of lead toxicity may be due, in part, to disruption of calcium-mediated processes. The chronic exposure to lead can result in a drastic changes in the cholesterol and phospholipid content, hexose, hexosamine and sialic acid levels and membrane acetyl cholinesterase, NADH dehydrogenase and Na+–K+ ATPase levels. Moderate exercise, intake of methionine, glycine, curcumin, methionine, carotene and pectin enriched food and vitamin C could reduce the severity of lead toxicity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0160-9
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Correlation Between the Type of Vegetation and Occurrence of Birds in
           Agrifields
    • Authors: C. K. Dhanju; Ashima Goswami; Navdeep Kaur
      Pages: 173 - 180
      Abstract: Abstract Avian diversity in four areas of agrifields of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana was studied in order to find a correlation between agricultural land use, woody vegetation and the occurrence of bird species. The areas included College Orchard (Transect I), Agrifields of Oil seed section of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics adjacent to orchards of PAU (Transect II), Crop field area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics on the back of Thapar Hall, PAU (Transect III) and Experimental area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics of PAU (Transect IV) which was without any trees around it. A total of 12,642 birds including 30 different species were recorded in all the four transects. The total no. of birds (5,074) and species (22) was highest in transect IV. House crow, red wattled lapwing, rose ringed parakeet and common myna were found to be the dominant birds in Transect I, II, III and IV respectively. Species richness and species diversity varied throughout the year. All the four areas had one or the other crop which attracted a number of bird species for food and the adjacent woody vegetation in Transect I, II and III providing nesting, perching and roosting sites to birds. It reveals that both the trees and food availability in the agrifields attract different bird species for different purposes like food, nesting and roosting.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-014-0109-4
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Estimating Mammalian Abundance Using Camera Traps in the Tropical Forest
           of Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India
    • Authors: Himanshu S. Palei; Tilak Pradhan; Hemanta K. Sahu; Anup K. Nayak
      Pages: 181 - 188
      Abstract: Abstract Knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of species is crucial for designing and evaluating conservation strategies within a geographical region. Similipal Tiger Reserve though confined to a small area needs information on the diversity and abundance of mammalian fauna to ensure conservation of tiger. Thus, we aimed to assess the diversity and abundance of medium to large sized mammals in Similipal Tiger Reserve by using remotely triggered camera traps. A total of 6413 camera trap days at 187 trap stations were deployed from November 2012 to July 2013 to estimate the status of mammal. We obtained 3763 independent photographs and detected 24 species of mammals. The relative abundance index of each mammalian species was calculated. Leopard (Panthera pardus) was the most abundant carnivore while barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac) was the most abundant prey. Anthropogenic activities like hunting, livestock grazing and free ranging domestic dogs were found to be the detrimental factors for the existing mammalian species. These activities should be addressed through conservation and development perception with an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating social and ecological components cautiously.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0143-x
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Zooplankton Composition, Diversity and Physicochemical Features of Bandam
           Kommu Pond, Medak District, Telangana, India
    • Authors: M. Karuthapandi; D. V. Rao; B. Xavier Innocent
      Pages: 189 - 204
      Abstract: Abstract The present investigation aims to study the zooplankton composition, diversity along with physicochemical profile in a chosen pond at Medak district from December, 2010 to November, 2012. The study revealed the occurrence of 80 zooplankton species including 60 rotifers, 18 cladocerans and 02 copepods. Zooplankton density fluctuated between 119 and 26,463/L, diversity H′ = 0.89–2.68, species richness 5–21 and dominance 18.6–74.1 % over the 2 years study period. Rotifers were more predominant than other zooplankton communities, especially family Brachionidae and Lecanidae. High density of the overall zooplankton community was due to more rotifer population and the numerical dominance of the species Brachionus angularis, B. calyciflorus, B. caudatus, Keratella tropica, Filinia terminalis and Epiphanies mucronata. It was observed that the zooplankton density significantly correlates with pH values of the pond. Physicochemical profile of the pond shows tropical climate, hard water and alkaline in nature. Chloride content was found to be high may be due to the anthropogenic pressure and influx of sewage. The high content of phosphate and nitrate reveals that the pond is enriched with nutrients. This has significant correlation with zooplankton dominance. The present findings clearly indicates the eutrophication of the pond.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0142-y
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Diversity of Scleractinian Corals in Great Nicobar Island, Andaman and
           Nicobar Islands, India
    • Authors: Tamal Mondal; C. Raghunathan; K. Venkataraman
      Pages: 205 - 216
      Abstract: Abstract Great Nicobar Island is the southernmost island of Andaman and Nicobar group of islands and largest island of Nicobar group included in UNESCO-MAB-Network of biosphere reserve. The island is inhabited by a total of 173 species of scleractinian corals from 6 different study areas among the 577 species reported from entire Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Shannon–Weiner diversity index ranged from 2.84 to 4.45 while the Simpson’s density index ranges from 0.93 to 0.99. Among the study areas, it was seen that the Laxman Beach is most diverse in comparison with the other 5 areas. Presence of 29.98 % scleractinian coral species in Great Nicobar Island denotes the sense of ecological attributes behind the sustainable support towards the coral settlement, growth and development.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0145-8
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Foraminifera of Lakshadweep Archipelago, Arabian Sea
    • Authors: Subhadra Devi Gadi; P. Vidya; M. S. Mustak; K. P. Rajashekhar
      Pages: 217 - 224
      Abstract: Abstract Ocean acidification is a threat for coral reefs and shelled protists like foraminifera. A study on distribution of foraminifera in the intertidal regions of Lakshadweep Archipelago, Arabian Sea was carried out. Agatti, Amini Bangaram, Kadmat, Parali Ι and Tinnakkara Islands of Lakshadweep were the six sites selected for the study. A total of 29 species belonging to 17 genera, 14 families and four sub-orders of foraminifera were identified. Nine species were unique to Lakshadweep islands. The distribution of foraminifera in relation to sediment characteristics was assessed. The diversity and morphology of Lakshadweep foraminifera was compared to that of the foraminifera of the West and East coast of India in which 37.5 % of foraminifera occurring in the lagoons of Lakshadweep Islands studied here are exclusive. The foraminifera of the Archipelago are 1.5 times larger in size compared to that found in Indian coast. Miliolina and Rotaliina were the predominant suborders in both abundance and species richness. Marginopora vertabralis, Calcarina calcar, Amphistegina madagascariensis¸ Amphistegina radiata and Amphistegina lessoni were the abundant species. Sediment characteristics like organic matter, calcium carbonate and sediment texture were analysed and were found to correlate significantly with abundance and species richness of total and live foraminiferal populations of study sites.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0150-y
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Determination of ETL for Major Pests in Betelvine
    • Authors: Satyabrata Pal; Arunava Ghosh; Buddhadeb Manna
      Pages: 225 - 228
      Abstract: Abstract The plantation crop, Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is one of the most important cash crops in India. Major crop-loss (betel vine crop) occurs owing to the damage caused by white fly (Singhiella palled) and black fly (Aleurocanthus rugosa), and as such these are considered as the most harmful pests in respect of the damage caused by them. The quantum of damage is determined by calculating economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold level (ETL). Knowledge of ETL helps to reduce crop loss (and ensures less pesticide application), and as a consequence, profit is increased. Also substantial knowledge is required on the dynamics of the pest population in order to determine the density at which the EIL may be prevented. This communication is devoted to the development of a method for determination of ETL in case of the plantation crop, betel vine. As the knowledge of ETL is Vital to the farmers, this article presents a systematic method to determine the ETL from a special type of experiment on betel vine designed for this purpose. The existing method of determination is based on economic parameters (Weersink et al. in Can J Agric Econ 39(4):619–625, 1991) which are subject to local, temporal and spatial variation. The developed method is divested of the above-mentioned variations and depends on the features of pest-infestation data solely.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0152-9
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Pattern of Distribution of Endemic Pill-Millipedes in the Southwestern
           India
    • Authors: Cheviri N. Ambarish; Kandikere R. Sridhar
      Pages: 229 - 236
      Abstract: Abstract Pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera (Sphaerotheriidae) has restricted geographic distribution (Southern India, Sri Lanka and Madagascar) were under studied category of soil macrofauna. In the current study, seven morphospecies of Arthrosphaera were recovered in four biomes of the Western Ghats and west coast of India. In locations Makutta (A. fumosa), Karike (A. fumosa), Ninthikal (A. dalyi), Uppinangadi (A. magna) and Uppala (A. hendersoni) were endowed with only one species of Arthrosphaera. Although some locations consist of more than one species, one of them was dominated. Shankaraghatta forest consists of A. disticta and A. versicolor, but A. disticta was highly dominant. In Adyanadka plantations, A. magna was dominant than A. carinata. The highest number of A. disticta was recorded per quadrate in high-altitude location (Shimoga), followed by A. hendersoni in the coastal location (Uppala), A. magna (Adyanadka) and A. dalyi (Ninthikal) in foothill locations. The highest biomass of A. dalyi per quadrate was seen in Ninthikal, followed by A. magna in Adyanadka, A. disticta in Shimoga, A. fumosa in Karike and A. magna in Adyanadka and Uppinangadi. The richness of Arthrosphaera was positively correlated with biomass, conductivity, total nitrogen, potassium contents in soil and negatively correlated with calcium content in soil.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0153-8
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Habitat Fingerprinting Using Otolith Trace Metal Profile of Two Catfish
           Species of Genus Ompok (Siluridae) from Ganges Basin, India
    • Authors: U. K. Sarkar; A. K. Pathak; B. K. Gupta; D. D. Patra
      Pages: 237 - 241
      Abstract: Abstract In fish, otoliths are continuously deposited elements with environmental information. This paper discusses the bioaccumulation level of essential and non-essential metals in water and otoliths samples of two threatened freshwater catfishes of genus Ompok collected from the Gomti river of Uttar Pradesh, India. The concentration level of trace metals (Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn) in otoliths and water samples differed considerably between sampling locations (p < 0.05) and a strong correlation exists on trace metals (r > 0.9) between otoliths and water samples. The occurrence of trace metal type and its concentration in otoliths proves the potential sites preferred for O. pabda and O. bimaculatus.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0144-9
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Compensatory Adjustment in Chloride Cells During Salinity Adaptation in
           Mud Crab, Scylla serrata
    • Authors: R Roy; S Bhoite
      Pages: 242 - 248
      Abstract: Abstract Capacity acclimation is a measurement of understanding the degree of adaptation that take place in physiological activities or biological functions in altered environmental conditions. Precht and Prosser in different ways classified capacity acclimation due to alterations of environmental temperature with respect to various physiological processes in a variety of organisms. We hypothesized that the same may be applied to understand the degree of adaptation in various physiological processes of organisms due to change in the salinity or any other environmental parameters. In order to understand the adaptive capability or the degree of compensation in different saline environment in some of the physiological processes of chloride cells, the chloride cells from 1 psu and or 35 psu acclimated crabs were cultured further in vitro, in L-15 media maintained with 12 psu salinity for another 5 h without any mortality. Rate of ion transport across the chloride cell membrane, and the activity of ion transporting enzyme were recorded. Over compensation or perfect compensation in the transport rate of K+, Na+ and Ca++ ions, due to hypo saline as well as hyper saline acclimation, clearly indicates their role in maintaining the homeostasis in osmoregulatory processes during salinity adaptation. On the other hand, inverse compensation or partial compensation in the transport rate of Cl− ions and the activity of ATPases indicate about their involvement in adjusting the osmoregulatory processes in altered saline environment rather that contributing to adaptability processes during change in the environmental salinity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0148-5
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Nesting in a Crowd: Response of House Sparrow Towards Proximity to Spatial
           Cues in Commercial Zones of Guwahati City
    • Authors: Anukul Nath; Hilloljyoti Singha; Panna Deb; Arup Kumar Das; Bibhuti P. Lahkar
      Pages: 249 - 254
      Abstract: Abstract We studied the nest site characteristics features of House Sparrow Passer domesticus in highly crowded commercial zones of Guwahati city, Assam, India. Active nests of House Sparrow were recorded during the peak breeding season—February to April 2013. A total of 106 nests were recorded, out of which 36 % of nests were in colonies having more than two nests with a maximum of 20 nests in a single colony. The shutters were found to be the predominant substrates for nest construction. The average nest height was 3.78 ± 2.18 m. Most of the nests were recorded in less than 5 m height. The habitat patch selection for nesting might be a response to food availability or protection against abiotic factors. The availability or proximity of suitable foraging sites seems to be an important feature for nest site choice. The shopping centers with glass facades (exterior construction of the buildings) do not provide much space for placing the nests. The development of modern buildings is going to be a major threat to the breeding sparrows in near future.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0149-4
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • A Preliminary Report on the Butterfly Diversity of Kurumpuram Reserve
           Forest, Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu
    • Authors: K. Silambarasan; K. Sujatha; A. Anitha Joice; P. Senthilkumaar; E. Rajalakshmi
      Pages: 255 - 258
      Abstract: Abstract The biodiversity of the butterfly fauna of Kurumpuram reserve forest, Marakkanam was studied through weekly sampling programme from July 2013–December 2013. A total of 26 species belonging to five families (Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lyacaenidae, Arctiidae) and 22 genera were recorded. Out of these, members of Nymphalidae were dominant with 14 species followed by Pieridae (04 species), Papilionidae (03 species), Lyacaenidae (03 species), and Arctiidae (02 species).
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0151-x
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • A Report on Intergeneric Mating Among Butterfly Species in Nature
    • Authors: Puja Ray; Writuparna Dutta
      Pages: 259 - 261
      Abstract: Abstract A rare sight of intergeneric mating of two lycaenid butterfly species, Rathinda amor Fabricius (Monkey Puzzle) and Anthene emolus Godart (Common Ciliate Blue) is being reported for the first time from Chintamani Kar Bird Sanctuary, Kolkata, India.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0170-2
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Dietary Supplement of Medicinal Herbal Leaf Powder on Growth Performance,
           Digestive Enzymes Activities, Energy Utilization and Vitamin Levels of the
           Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii
    • Authors: T. Muralisankar; P. Saravana Bhavan; S. Radhakrishnan; P. Santhanam
      Abstract: Abstract Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary supplement (@ 5%) dried leaf powder of the medicinal herbs, Ocimum sanctum, Solanum trilobatum and Phyllanthus amarus on survival, growth, activities of digestive enzymes, energy utilization, and vitamin contents of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Results indicated significant (P < 0.05) improvements in survival, growth, activities of digestive enzymes, energy utilization, and vitamin levels in herb supplemented feeds fed prawns group compared to prawns fed non-herbs feed. Best growth was noted in prawns fed with the feed supplemented by leaf powder of P. amarus, followed by S. trilobatum and O. sanctum. It is concluded that leaf powder of these herbs can be used as dietary supplement for better growth of freshwater prawn.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0202-y
       
  • Biology of Galerucella placida Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on the
           Rice-Field Weed Polygonum orientale L. (Polygonaceae)
    • Authors: Ujjwal Malik; Swati Das; Anandamay Barik
      Abstract: Abstract Galerucella placida Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a promising biocontrol agent of the rice-field weed Polygonum orientale L. (Polygonaceae) in India and Bangladesh. The longevity of G. placida adults was related with nutrients and antinutrients of young, mature and senescent leaves of P. orientale. Mature leaves of P. orientale had higher level of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nitrogen and amino acids) and lower level of antinutrients (phenols and flavonols) compared to young and senescent leaves. Higher level of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nitrogen, amino acids including water content, and lower phenol and flavonol content of mature leaves had influenced higher survival of G. placida. Total larval developmental and pupal periods were 26.27 ± 0.45 SE and 7.06 ± 0.17 SE days on mature weed leaves, respectively; whilst adult males and females lived for 52.15 ± 0.33 SE and 58.0 ± 0.38 SE days on mature leaves, respectively. Fecundity of individual G. placida was 133.3 ± 3.2 SE eggs during life time. The net reproductive rate, generation time, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and doubling time were 66.675, 27.5376, 0.1525, 1.2502 and 4.5452 days, respectively, under laboratory conditions (27 ± 0.5 °C, 12L:12D photoperiod, 65 ± 5% RH).
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0203-x
       
  • Rotifer Species Assemblages in Three Freshwater Habitats of Manipur, India
    • Authors: Maibam Bimola; Uma Das; Papia Das; Sulata Kar; Oinam Shashikumar Singh; Devashish Kar; Gautam Aditya
      Abstract: Abstract The present commentary deals with the diversity of rotifers from three different habitats that include a river, lake and an irrigation canal from Manipur, India. Using the samples (n = 288) spanning over a 2-year period the species richness and the abundance of rotifers were assessed. A total of 34 species of rotifers from 11 families were observed with varying relative abundance, with the diversity indices (Shannon–Wiener, H’) ranging between 2.98 and 3.23. The species composition of the three habitats differed considerably, as evident from the multivariate analysis. In the lake habitat, the dominant species was Brachionus calyciflorus (7.9%), while in the irrigation canal the dominant species was Brachionus ruben (10.4%), and for the river habitat the dominant species was B. calyciflorus (11.5%). Using relative abundance of the rotifer species as explanatory variables, the ordination of the 34 species yielded significant differences based on the similarity in the abundance over the sampling period. On the basis of the overall differences in the species composition of rotifers, the three habitats could be segregated significantly (P < 0.05) based on the discriminant function analysis. Although the species composition of rotifers remained similar to other freshwater bodies of the this geographical region, the diversity and community analysis suggested considerable differences with reference to the three habitats, implying significance for limnological management.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0201-z
       
  • A New Genus of the Tetraphyllidean Cestodes from Dasyatis sephen Forsskal,
           1775 Captured from Digha Coastal Water, Bay of Bengal, India
    • Authors: Sanjukta Manna; Buddhadeb Manna
      Abstract: Abstract Aloculibothrium dasyatii n. gen. n. sp. is described from the spiral intestine of Dasyatis sephen Forsskal, 1775 captured at Digha coastal waters, Bay of Bengal, India. This species is placed under the famil Onchobothriidae (Braun, 1900) and erected a new genus Aloculibothrium to accommodate this specimen. The body is 24.22–36.58 mm long and with 310–325 proglottids; scolex rectangular with two parts; anterior bearing four bothridia with paired bifurcated hooks, divided into inner and outer prong and posterior with fleshy collar. The cestode has been compared with all the existing twelve different valid genera under the family Onchobothriidae but to accommodate the present specimens a new genera Aloculibothrium is erected.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0190-y
       
  • Variation in Esterase Activity Among Different Aedes aegypti L.
           Populations from the Dooars and Terai Regions of West Bengal, India
    • Authors: Minu Bharati; Prasanta Saha; Dhiraj Saha
      Abstract: Abstract Mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting the most important vector-borne diseases like malaria, dengue etc. across the world, especially in tropical countries. The most prominent species of the genus Aedes, A. aegypti and A. albopictus act as vectors for numerous viral infections. Because of non-availability of vaccine for dengue fever, vector control stands the only approach to prevent the viral transmission. As per recommendations by World Health Organization (2015), the main insecticides used for mosquito control are DDT, malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos, bendiocarb and synthetic pyrethroids. Excessive and unwanted usage of insecticides not only increases vectors’ resistance to insecticides, but also results in cross resistance to other insecticides. In mosquitoes, metabolic detoxifications of insecticides by detoxifying enzymes are the main strategy to withstand recurrent exposure to synthetic insecticides. Esterases are one of the three gene families of detoxification enzymes involved in metabolic detoxification of insecticide and confers resistance for organophosphorus insecticide (OP) as well as for carbamate insecticide. In the present study, the activity of α- and β-esterases have been evaluated in different A. aegypti populations collected from the Dooars and Terai regions of West Bengal, India. The activity of α-esterases was 1.2–3.1 fold and β-esterases was 2.0–23.0 fold higher than laboratory control population. The electro-phoregrams of α-esterases showed expression of 11 isozymes from two gene loci and for β-esterases showed expression of 09 isozymes from two gene loci in all the field populations of A. aegypti. The results showed a significant variation of esterase activity and isozyme expression among different population indicating variability in biochemical susceptibility among the populations. The present work presents first hand data on biochemical resistance of A. aegypti in this region and may be used as an integral component for planning and evaluation of vector-borne diseases and integrated vector management programmes.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0193-8
       
  • Agroforestry Systems as Habitat for Avian Species: Assessing Its Role in
           Conservation
    • Authors: Yashmita-Ulman; Madhubala Sharma; Awadhesh Kumar
      Abstract: Abstract In the current scenario of rapid conversion of tropical forests into human-dominated activities landscape, the present study was undertaken to understand the role of existing agroforestry systems in conservation of avian species. Three types of agroforestry systems namely tea gardens, homegardens and agrisilviculture were selected in the Brahmaputra North Bank Landscape of Assam, northeast India for the study. A total of 468 point counts revealed 164 bird species belonging to 51 families and 18 orders across all the three different types of agroforestry systems. Tea gardens showed significantly higher bird species richness followed by homegardens and agrisilviculture systems. As per IUCN, four species were categorized as Near Threatened and one species was categorized as Vulnerable. Out of 164 species recorded, 68.3% species were residents, 30.5% species were winter visitors and remaining were summer visitors (1.2%). Majority of the species (45.7%) were common to all the three types of selected agroforestry systems. The feeding guilds revealed that most of the species were insectivorous (50.0%) in habit. A total of 167 tree species belonging to 54 families and 24 orders was recorded across all the three different types of agroforestry systems. The highest tree species richness was recorded in the homegardens (160), followed by agrisilviculture systems (19) and least in tea gardens (11). No statistically significant correlation was found among bird species richness and patch size, tree species richness and number of bird species individuals. The selected agroforestry systems have provided shelter, nesting space, feeding and foraging grounds for birds during the winter season. This data can be useful for the policy makers, tea garden managers, homegarden owners for framing conservation policies of avian species in an era of natural wildlife habitat loss and degradation.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0198-3
       
  • Zooplankton Diversity of Osmansagar Reservoir, Telangana, India
    • Authors: M. Karuthapandi; D. V. Rao; B. Xavier Innocent
      Abstract: Abstract Zooplankton composition and diversity in Osmansagar reservoir, Telangana, India were investigated during the year 2010–2012. Collected data revealed the occurrence of 66 species of zooplankton, of which 50 rotifers, 14 cladocerans and two copepods. The population density of zooplankton varied from 83 to 1080 Ind./L. The highest density was due to rotifer and copepod population. Diversity (H′) was ranged from 0.679 to 2.631, evenness (J′) was 0.257 to 0.904 and species richness was 8–24. The less diversity and evenness was observed in November 2011, March and August 2012, because of copepoda dominance by Mesocyclops leuckarti. The population abundance of zooplankton was Brachionus forficula, Brachionus diversicornis, Brachionus calyciflorus, Keratella tropica, Trichocerca similis and Diaphanosoma sp. especially during the summer seasons in both the years. There was no seasonal periodicity of any zooplankton communities, but the population turnover was observed from rotifers to copepoda over the study period. The significant inter and intra relationship between and within physicochemical and zooplankton indices were noted. It is found that surface water temperature, magnesium and total hardness could be a limiting factor for the species richness. Dominance may be due to the numerical abundance of rotifer and copepod and it has a positive significant correlation with pH.
      PubDate: 2016-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0194-7
       
 
 
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