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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • A Review on Reservoir System and Its Ecology in Indian Perspective
    • Authors: Moitreyee Banerjee; Joyita Mukherjee; Santanu Ray
      Pages: 5 - 20
      Abstract: Rural populations often depend on small reservoirs for their water supply. These are not natural aquatic system but are designed to serve specific purposes and provide the means to utilize water in a variety of useful and efficient ways. Water from these sources is not only utilized for drinking purposes, but also for commercial and industrial use. Though reservoirs are constructed, they are considered as an intermediate between a river and a lake. Thus limnological characteristics of this hybrid system have been of great interest to ecologists and researchers. Several limnological attributes regarding water quality, plankton abundance, fish population are been discussed in this review article. Ecological studies on global and Indian perspective are the major highlight of this review. A few modeling approaches are also discussed which are commonly used globally to preserve and manage the pristine aquatic nature of this hybrid ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0165-z
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Impact of Urbanization on House Sparrow Distribution: A Case Study from
           Greater Kolkata, India
    • Authors: Biplob Kumar Modak
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: House Sparrow was the most abundant bird species near human habitat until few years back. But from the mid of twentieth century, the declining trend of House Sparrow has been reported from various countries. It has already been red listed in Netherlands and UK. Researches indicate the declining trend of House Sparrow in different cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru. A 3-month wide survey has been conducted to get a preliminary idea about the distributional trend of House Sparrow in greater Kolkata. Depending on nature of urbanization and human habitat, greater Kolkata, has been subdivided into four regions (Planned City, Highly dense city, Medium dense city and Low dense city regions). In high density urban region the avian density recoded was highest, although avian diversity was maximum in medium and low dense city regions and minimum in planned city. Among 20 observational units of planned city region, House Sparrow has been noticed in 6 units and crow in all units. Among 115 observational units of rest of the regions of greater Kolkata, House Sparrow was observed in 79 units and crow in 98 units. The preliminary information revealed from this survey indicates towards negative relationship between urbanization and House Sparrow population in greater Kolkata and this negative influence is maximum in planned urban region. The presence of sufficient number of House Sparrow in any region indicates environmental stability of that region. So the declining trend of House Sparrow population in greater Kolkata, particularly in planned city region, indirectly gives the evidence of serious environmental degradation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0157-4
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Activity of Some Selected Hydrolases in Worker Honey Bees, Apis cerana
           (Fabr.). [Apidae:Insecta]
    • Authors: Sanjay Naiya; Narayan Ghorai
      Pages: 42 - 45
      Abstract: An API ZYM (Bio-Merieux, Lyon, France) test kit was used to examine the activity 19 hydrolases in in-hive bees and out-hive bees of worker Apis cerana. The study indicated that the activity of enzymes was changing in hypopharyngeal gland in in-hive and out-hive worker bees distinctly. The activities of most of the enzymes were observed. The protein hydrolases (acidic hydrolases) viz. leucine arylamidase, and valine arylamidase were more active in in-hive bees than out-hive bees. Rest of the tested enzymes were moderately present both in in-hive and out-hive bees. The hypopharyngeal gland and their secretion play important role affecting digestion of pollen, lipids and carbohydrates.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0154-7
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Biotic Potential of a Short-Horned Grasshopper, Oxya hyla hyla Serville
           (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to Assess Its Biomass Producing Capacity
    • Authors: Subhasish Ghosh; Parimalendu Haldar; Dipak Kumar Mandal
      Pages: 46 - 51
      Abstract: The growth of fishery and animal husbandry is being hindered by the scarcity of protein rich feed ingredients. Being rich in protein grasshoppers may be an alternative source of protein rich feed ingredients and hence rearing of these insects is essential for sustainable supply of insect biomass to the feed industry. The success of biomass production through insect rearing depends on the reproductive potentiality, rate of survival and growth of that particular insect. This study examines the biotic potential, fecundity, fertility, nymph mortality, life span and biomass production ability of a multivoltine grasshopper, Oxya hyla hyla (Serville, 1931) under semi-controlled condition. The grasshoppers are reared in 35 ± 2 °C temperature and 12L: 12D photoperiod and provided with food as fresh leaves of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. to nymphs and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. to the adults. The result shows that a single pair of O. hyla hyla can lay on average 69.87 eggs in 4.96 ± 0.43 egg pods of which 7.37 ± 0.92 % eggs and 8.26 ± 0.99 % nymphs do not survive. The remaining survived nymphs metamorphose to 27.8 ± 3.35 male and 32.6 ± 3.21 female adults which produce a biomass of 18.48 ± 1.67 g wet weight. Thus a mass scale rearing of this insect may produce good amount of insect biomass which may be usable for fish and animal feed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0159-2
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Icthyofaunal Diversity of Siang River in Arunachal Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Biplab Kumar Das; Prasanna Boruah; Devashish Kar
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Study was carried out from June 2012 to July 2013 in a 58 km stretch of the river Siang in Arunachal Pradesh, India to determine ichthyofaunal diversity in this section of the river. The study revealed the presence of 82 species of fishes belonging to 8 orders, 24 families and 53 genera. Species representing the order Cypriniformes dominated the ichthyofauna while those representing Tetradontiformes are in less number.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0155-6
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Characterization of the Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Virulent Against
           Rice Leaf Folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee)
    • Authors: Soumendranath Chatterjee; Syed Afrin Azmi; Tuhin Subhra Ghosh; Tushar Kanti Dangar
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Soil samples were collected from different rice fields of Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal, India. Spore forming bacteria were isolated from the soil samples and among them, two isolates (BUSNC25 and BUSNC26) were larvicidal against third, fourth and fifth instar larvae of rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. The phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA analysis of the two isolates were done. On the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and phylogenetic analysis, the selected bacterial isolates (BUSNC25 and BUSNC26) were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The antibiotic sensitivity tests of these two isolates against selected doses of some standard antibiotics were done. Against the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of C. medinalis, the LC50 values of BUSNC25 were 2.45 × 104, 1.325 × 104 and 2.35 × 104 cfu/ml and of BUSNC26 were 3.375 × 104, 1.9 × 104 and 3.325 × 104 cfu/ml, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0161-8
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Bionomics of Momordica cochinchinensis Fed Aulacophora foveicollis
           (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    • Authors: Abhishek Mukherjee; Amarnath Karmakar; Anandamay Barik
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: The effects of feeding on root by the larvae and three types of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (Cucubitaceae) leaves (young, mature and senescent) by the adults of Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. Total larval developmental time was 19.7 ± 0.2 days by feeding on young roots. Adult males lived for 28.4 ± 1, 65.7 ± 1.1 and 22.8 ± 1.3 days on young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively; whilst adult females lived for 34.3 ± 1.2, 68.5 ± 0.9 and 26.4 ± 1.4 days on young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Fecundity was highest in mature leaves fed insects (202.2 ± 10.6). Total carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nitrogen and amino acid were much higher in root followed by mature leaves than young and senescent leaves. Moisture content was highest in mature leaves than the roots, young and senescent leaves. Phenols were greatest in young leaves followed by mature leaves and least in senescent leaves and roots of the said plant. Flavonols were higher in young leaves and least in root. These results suggest that A. foveicollis adults perform better on mature leaves than young and senescent leaves for their nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0166-y
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Seasonal Trend of Body Protein and Growth of Chironomid Larvae
    • Authors: Susanta Nath; Rahul Podder; Biplob Kumar Modak
      Pages: 88 - 91
      Abstract: Chironomid midges technically named blood worms are known as useful live food for higher aquatic organism like fish. Present study deals with the seasonal variations of total body protein and the growth rates of chironomid larvae occurring in two water bodies of West Bengal, India. Analysis of the data revealed that the amount of body protein and the growth rate of larvae are higher during summer and monsoon. Comparative analysis of the data, indicates that the entire phenomenon depends on nutrient cycle of the water bodies which is influenced by a number of factors such as water temperature, alkalinity and soil organic carbon.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0146-7
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Clove Oil Efficacy on the Red Spider Mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner
           (Acari: Tetranychidae) Infesting Tea Plants
    • Authors: Archita Barua; Somnath Roy; Gautam Handique; Foridur Rahman Bora; Azizur Rahman; Dwiban Pujari; Narayanannair Muraleedharan
      Pages: 92 - 96
      Abstract: The tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae), is an economically important pest of agricultural and ornamental crops and considered one of the major pests of tea plants in North-east India. In view of increasing resistance recorded in insect and mite pests against pesticides, a study was conducted to determine the acaricidal, antiovipositional, repellent and ovicidal activities of clove oil (an essential oil from the clove plant, Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. & Perry: Myrtaceae) against tea-red-spider-mite. Mortality of O. coffeae varied with the concentrations and the duration of exposure time of the mites after application of oil. Rate of deposition of eggs by mites on treated leaf surfaces as well as the viability rate of eggs decreased significantly. In addition, certain concentrations of clove oil have been proved effective against adult mites.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0147-6
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Occurrence of Grey-headed Gliding Squirrel ( Petaurista caniceps ) in
           Arunachal Pradesh, India with a Note on Its Taxonomy
    • Authors: Murali C. Krishna; Awadhesh Kumar
      Pages: 97 - 99
      Abstract: Reports on the distribution pattern of Grey-headed gliding Squirrel Petaurista caniceps are distorted though it is on record that they inhabit the easternmost parts of Arunachal Pradesh. But recently through spotlight surveys in the month of February and March 2015 it has been possible to note their occurrence in Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary and Talle Wildlife Sanctuary in Arunachal Pradesh. P. caniceps is included as synonym to Petaurista elegans by IUCN. P. caniceps differs from P. elegans in having a distinct grey head and molecular evidences too have proved it to be a separate species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0158-3
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2017)
  • Probiotic Effect of Bacillus licheniformis fb11 on the Digestive
           Efficiency and Growth Performance in Juvenile Chitala chitala (Hamilton,
    • Authors: Anisa Mitra; Pratap Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Sumit Homechaudhuri
      Abstract: Five isocaloric (430 kcal 100 g−1), isonitrogenous (40% CP) experimental diets were formulated with different concentrations of Bacillus licheniformis fb11 probionts (isolated from the gut of Chitala chitala) viz. Control (without probionts), 5 × 104 CFU g−1 (D1), 5 × 105 CFU g−1 (D2), 5 × 106 CFU g−1 (D3), 5 × 107 CFU g−1 (D4), 5 × 108 CFU g−1 (D5) to evaluate its efficiency in C. chitala juvenile. The best growth performance, feed utilisation, specific α-amylase, total protease and lipase activity were observed with the diet D3 (P < 0.05). The lowest Presumptive Pseudomonas Count, Motile Aeromonad Count, Total Coliform Count was observed for D3 (P < 0.05) on 90th day of trial. Two uppermost values were achieved in case of crude protein for D3 and D2 (P > 0.05). The highest lipid content (12.12 ± 0.4 g 100 g−1) was found for D5 (P < 0.05). The highest gross energy (18.75 ± 0.21 MJ 100 g−1) of carcass was recorded for D3. Thus B. licheniformis fb11 at the concentration 5 × 106 CFU g−1 as probiotic supplement promoted growth, digestion in C. chitala juvenile significantly by modulating intestinal microflora.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0227-x
  • Black Tea ( Camellia sinensis ) Extract Induced Changes in Blood and Liver
           Parameters on Pregnant and Lactating Experimental Albino Rats
    • Authors: Avijit Dey; Antony Gomes; Subir Chandra Dasgupta
      Abstract: This study was to evaluate the changes in blood and liver parameters caused by oral dose of black tea extract (BTE) in experimental albino rats throughout pregnancy and lactation periods. Pregnant female Wister albino rats were chosen for this study. Group 1 was control group treated with saline. Group 2 and Group 3 were pregnant female rats treated with 50 and 100 mg BTE/kg/day respectively throughout pregnancy and lactation periods. All three groups of rats were provided with food and drinking water ad libitum. Animals were examined through their hematological profile, SEM of RBC and liver function test. BTE (100 mg/kg/day) produced significant alterations in hemoglobin concentration, total RBC and WBC count compared to control groups. BTE (100 mg/kg/day) also induced significant changes in the histology of liver and serum enzymes for liver function test compared to control groups. This study confirmed that BTE altered the parameters of blood and liver in pregnant and lactating experimental albino rats.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0229-8
  • Occurrence of a Pempheris flavicycla in Chennai Coast, India
    • Authors: K. Silambarasan; E. Rajalakshmi; A. Sundaramanickam; K. Sujatha
      Abstract: The sweeper fish Pempheris flavicycla is recorded from Kasimedu fish landing center, Chennai, India, for the first time.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0226-y
  • Natural Selection: A Misnomer Concept
    • Authors: S. K. Raut
      Abstract: Charles Robert Darwin hypothesized that the mechanism of evolution and the diversity of life on earth are because of natural selection. That is, which biological entity would thrive on earth is a matter of selection by the nature. But, in the present article it is hypothesized that the process of appearance of different types of biological entities and the orientation of these organisms in the space in respect to time are the effects of ‘will force’ of the organisms concerned. That is, the mechanism of evolution is a process of self selection, not natural selection.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0225-z
  • New Species and New Records of Eriophyoid Mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) from
           West Bengal, India
    • Authors: Surajit Sur; Sourav Roy; S. Chakrabarti
      Abstract: Two new species viz., Acaricalus indicus n. sp. from Fern (indet) and Neooxycenus dilleniae n. sp. from Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. (Dilleniaceae) are described from West Bengal. Four species viz., Acaphyllisa araucuriae Flechtmann (2000), Aculops pretoriensis Smith Meyer and Ueckermann (1990), Tetra tyrohylae Smith Meyer (1992) and Tetra visci Smith Meyer (1992) are recorded for the first time from India. Besides, 23 other species are reported for the first time from West Bengal. An eriophyoid species is recorded for the first time from a species of Fern in India.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0224-0
  • Anionic Surfactant, Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Induced Oxidative
           Stress and Hepatic Impairments in Fish Channa punctatus
    • Authors: Anubha Shukla; Sunil P. Trivedi
      Abstract: Linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS), one of the main ingredients used in synthetic detergents to enhance their cleansing properties. Indiscriminate and untreated discharge of detergents and their residues in both lantic and lotic habitats pose a variety of ecological threats and also adversely affect aquatic fauna. In vivo, LAS metabolism and biotransformation occurs via monooxygenases in liver, leading to Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS, production and consequently oxidative stress by disturbing cellular antioxidant enzymatic equilibrium. Present study aims to evaluate the activities of two widely distributed antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ROS induced histological impairments in liver of freshwater fish, Channa punctatus. For the estimation of oxidative stress and hepatic impairments, well acclimatized fishes were divided in three groups. Fish of group G1 serves as control whereas fish of the other two groups, G2 and G3 were exposed to two fractions, 1/20th and 1/10th of 96 h LC50 of LAS for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure periods. Our results showed a significant induction in CAT and SOD activities in liver tissue of C. punctatus in a dose and time dependent manner. ROS induced histopathological impairments in hepatic tissues are characterized by loosely arranged, irregularly distributed and degenerated hepatocytes with increased vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei. The results are quite suggestive that LAS intoxication generates oxidative stress by ROS production which brings about histopathological impairments in exposed fish.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0223-1
  • Ichthyofaunal Assemblage of the Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, China:
           Implications for Management
    • Authors: R. Kindong; X.-J. Dai; S.-Q. Tian; C.-X. Gao
      Abstract: Ichthyofaunal diversity of the Dianshan lake in Shanghai, China was assessed during the year 2013 from samples of finfish harvested using fleets of gillnets and trawls of different mesh sizes with the aim of generating necessary data that could support sustainable use of finfish in this lake. Morphometric parameters of specimens caught were taken following standard procedures. Totally 21,308 specimens belonging to 40 species, 15 families and 7 orders were encountered throughout the study period. Seasonal abundance was lowest (395 individuals) during March (spring) and highest (4428 individuals) during August (summer). Cyprinidae was the dominant family (22 species) and Coilia ecetenes taihuensis was the most abundant species (30.69%), followed by Acheilognathus taenianalis (17.8618%), Plagiognathops microlepis (16.567%), Carassius auratus (14.492%). The evenness, richness and biodiversity of the faunal assemblage were also evaluated by Shannon–Wiener index (H′), Margalef’s diversity Index (d) and evenness index (J) respectively. Hypophthalmichthys nobilis was the largest and heaviest fish (34.909 cm, FL; 889.355 g, W), the smallest fish in length recorded was Odontamblyopus rubicundus (4.19 cm) while Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis (1.1 g) was the lowest in terms of mean weight. The mean condition factor for all fish species was (K = 1.72), showing fish species were generally in ‘good’ condition. Fluctuations in species occurrence and abundance noted in our study may be accounted from the variation in the physico-chemical parameters of the Lake in respect to time. But, under such a situation it is evident that the small fish species increased to a great extent and a few like Coilia ecetenes taihuensis became the dominant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0220-4
  • Fatty Acid Profiling of Commercially Important Raw and Boiled Seer Fish
           Scomberomorus commerson (Lacepede, 1800) (Scombridae, Teleostei, Pisces)
    • Authors: R. Rajaram; A. Maruthamuthu; Ephrime B. Metillo
      Abstract: The present study aims to determine the fatty acid profiling of commercially important fresh and boiled Scomberomorus commerson. Fatty acids in fresh and boiled fish were separated and quantitatively determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometer using standard methods. The findings revealed that the predominant fatty acids in fresh S. commerson were octadecanoic acid methyl ester, octanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 3-cyclopentylpropionic acid representing respectively 45.91, 5.69, 6.75 and 8.65% of total fatty acids. Boiled S. commerson showed predominant changes in their fatty acid profiles. In the omega-3 and omega-6 families the dominant fatty acids were doconexent, 3-cyclopentylpropionic acid, octadeconoic acid methyl ester and Hexadecane representing respectively 3.87, 12.08, 44.26 and 3.11% of total fatty acids. After boiling, some fatty acids present in fresh fish are damaged and formed new fatty acids which belonged to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Boiling increased the concentration of PUFAs from 73.25 to 80.37% of total fatty acids and also formed new fatty acids.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0222-2
  • Ultrastructure of Spermatozoa in a Freshwater Fairy Shrimp,
           Streptocephalus dichotomus (Crustacea: Anostraca)
    • Authors: Dhanasekar Krishnamoorthy; Selvakumar Narasimman; Munuswamy Natesan
      Abstract: Ultrastructure of spermatozoa in fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dichotomus revealed that they are amoeboid type with no acrosome and flagella. Surface topography of the spermatozoon is smooth with occasional pseudopodial projections. Transmission electron micrographs of spermatozoa show organelle and the mitochondria which is not fused to form the so called ‘Nebenkern’. The testicular lumen reveals spermatozoa in varying sizes and shapes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0221-3
  • Evolution: A Function of Will Force
    • Authors: S. K. Raut
      Abstract: Evolution is a gradual but continuous process. To explain the process of organic evolution different theories have been put forward by various authorities. But, all these theories are significant in respect to explanations of the possible mechanisms of evolution and certainly without acceptable analysis regarding the cause of initiation of evolution and the reason of maintaining the said flow all along. In the present article it is hypothesized that the process of initiation of evolution is initiated due to ‘will force’ and the said flow is being maintained because of ‘will force’.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0206-7
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