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Journal Cover   Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Potentiality of Bacterial Pathogens Including Invasive Exotic Species as
           Threat to Indigenous Fish Species
    • Abstract: Abstract The Indian major carps (viz. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala) were chosen as model to study the bacterial load of the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila upon artificial inoculation. Aeromonas load was detected in the asymptomatic carriers after 30 days of exposure. The results showed significant difference in load among three different species of carps and among fish populations of each species injected with seven different doses individually and also when they interacted among themselves. Duncan’s Post Hoc test for homogeneity among these major carps revealed the presence of seven subsets in each, indicating that there is a significant difference in Aeromonas load with respect to all the doses when compared pair-wise. Cirrhinus mrigala showed the highest sensitivity to the bacterial exposure, followed by L. rohita and C. catla. The presence of the pathogen was also confirmed using Duplex PCR technique. Then, the pathogenic potentiality of an exotic species of aeromonad (Aeromonas salmonicida) was compared with the indigenous species of A. hydrophila in a tropical air-breathing fish, Channa punctatus. The seasonal disease occurrence, mortality and survival of adult C. punctatus due to artificial inoculation (4 × 107 cfu ml−1) of both species of aeromonads were investigated. The disease occurrence was more prevalent due to the infection of A. salmonicida than that of A. hydrophila especially in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, clearly reflecting that exotic is more harmful than indigenous species of aeromonads and is a serious concern as a threat to fish in India.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Microalgae in Aquaculture: A Review with Special References to Nutritional
           Value and Fish Dietetics
    • Abstract: Abstract Microalgal biotechnology has gained considerable importance in recent decades and its use is extending day by day into several areas like nutraceutical research, renewable energy source, production of essential biomolecules like β-carotene, astaxanthin, PUFA, bio colorant production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation and aquaculture etc. Among all these, microalgae as a source of nutrition have drawn the attention since long back and are widely used in animal nutrition. Fishmeal is the preferred protein ingredient of feed in aquaculture industry, contributing significantly to the variable production cost. However, decreasing fishmeal supply and increasing costs threaten the sustainability and growth of the aquaculture industry. Therefore, complete or partial substitution of fishmeal with alternative proteins is needed to solve the problem. Presently, microalgae are used worldwide as an alternate protein source replacing fishmeal successfully. In feeding trials with fish, many types of microalgae have been found to be used for increasing growth (protein accretion), feed utilization, physiological activity, stress response, starvation tolerance, disease resistance, and carcass quality. In the present communication an attempt has been taken to review the application of different microalgae in rearing of aquaculture animal especially the fishes.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Satellite Based Integrated Potential Fishing Zone Advisories: A
           Feasibility Analysis in the Coastal Water of West Bengal
    • Abstract: Abstract Satellite derived ocean colour (chlorophyll a) and sea surface temperature data can be used for prediction of “Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ)” in sea. Present study elicits the benefit of satellite derived PFZ advisories in the coastal stretch (<150 m isobaths) of West Bengal, India during the period of October 2008 to February 2009, a total of 16 PFZ advisories, provided by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), have been validated using two identical fishing crafts operated from Frasergunj fishing harbour. As a benefit, search time to locate fish schools have gone down significantly and mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) in notified area was 51.47 ± 4.30 SE kg/h, almost twofolds in comparison to the CPUE of non-notified area. It has been also observed that benefit cost ratio of each fishing trip operated in notified area varies between 1.90 and 6.40 and the range is almost double than the boats operated in non-notified areas.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Caenorhabditis chinkari sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from Chinkara of
           Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Caenorhabditis chinkari sp. n. is described and illustrated. The species is characterized by the body size (1.07–1.40 μm ♀; 0.76–1.01 μm ♂) and the presence of anteriorly closed ellipsoidal bursa whose posterior end is blunt or rounded, with smooth edge throughout, papillae pattern 2 + 1 + 3 + 3 in males. Distal tips of caudal papillae 1, 2 and 3 attached to the dorsal surface of bursa, 4 and 9 to ventral surface and 5, 6, 7, and 8 to edge. It was collected from the faecal samples of Chinkara (Gazella gazella bennettii Sykes, 1831), captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. The collected samples were maintained in a culture plate in the laboratory and certain aspects of its biology and the ecology have been noted. Besides, C. avicola, C. bovis, C. clavopapillata and C. genitalis, this paper highlights the occurrence of another new species of the genus Caenorhabditis (Ösche, Abteilung Systematik 81: 190–280, 1952; Dougherty, The genera of the subfamily Rhabditinae Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda): 69–76, 1953) in association with a vertebrate host.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Influence of Probiotics on Survival, Growth, Biochemical Changes and
           Energy Utilization Performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-larvae
    • Abstract: Abstract A 90 days feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of the combined probiotics Bacillus subtilis (BS) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on the survival, growth, biochemical changes and energy utilization performance of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The probiotics, BS (3) and SC (4) were taken and mixed, as 1, 2, 3 and 4 % of BS + SC (3:4) was incorporated with basal diet. Diet without probiotics served as control. PL-30 of M. rosenbergii was fed with BS + SC (3:4) incorporated diet for a period of 90 days in triplicates. After the feeding experiment, the growth parameters such as survival, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency rate were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 3 % BS + SC incorporated diet fed PL group. Similarly, the biochemical composition of the total protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, lipid and ash content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 3 % BS + SC incorporated diet fed PL group. The energy utilization parameters, such as feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate, NH3 excretory rate and metabolic rate were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 3 % BS + SC incorporated diet fed PL group. However, BS + SC incorporated diet fed PLs produced better growth performance.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Cephaline Gregarines of Purulia District, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract On way of survey in the Jhalda block of Purulia district, altogether 44 insect species belonging to 3 orders have been examined. Of these 14 species of insects have been found with cephaline gregarine infection. It is revealed that, most of the recorded cephaline gregarine parasites belonged to Gregarina, Hirmocystis, Stylocephalus, Quadruspinospora, Phleobum, Retractocephalus, Odonaticola, Pileocephalus, Steinina and Laterospora genera. Though infestation is species specific, occurrence of two species of gregarines in the same host at the same time is well documented.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Evaluation of Enzymatic Activities in Liver of Three Teleostean Fishes
           Exposed to Commercial Herbicide, Almix 20 WP
    • Abstract: Abstract Activities of three enzymes in liver viz., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in three Indian teleosts, Anabas testudineus, Heteropneustes fossilis, and Oreochromis niloticus exposed to a dose of 66.67 mg/l Almix 20 WP herbicide for a period of 30 days are reported here. The study revealed that the total protein content in liver was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in H. fossilis (Mean ± SEM, 63.82 ± 4.33 to 34.50 ± 0.83 mg/g) but minimum in A. testudineus (53.29 ± 3.33 to 42.11 ± 1.83 mg/g). AST and ALT activities were significantly (p < 0.05) increased and highest in O. niloticus (154.99 ± 2.51 to 716.99 ± 4.09 and 97.67 ± 1.22 to 144.64 ± 6.84 unit/mg protein respectively), while minimum activity was noted in H. fossilis (88.44 ± 1.97 to 147.55 ± 2.72 unit/mg protein) and A. testudineus (87.51 ± 2.98 to 129.31 ± 2.87 unit/mg protein) respectively. ALP activity showed significant (p < 0.05) increment in H. fossilis (12.66 ± 1.26 to 18.24 ± 1.05 unit/mg protein), while less in O. niloticus (31.68 ± 1.41 to 38.01 ± 0.93 unit/mg protein) and moderate in A. testudineus. Enhanced levels of both aminotranferases and ALP indicated that liver was damaged excessively by almix exposure. The results also disclosed that O. niloticus was more sensitive than other two fishes and from these alterations it can be inferred that hepatic AST, ALT and ALP activity could be a diagnostic tool and considered as the indicators of herbicide toxicity in an aquatic environment.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Affinity of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) with Nesting Trees occurring
           in and around Kolkata, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The house crows Corvus splendens Vieillot are accustomed to construct nest in suitable trees belonging to certain species. In the present study an attempt was made to draw the affinity of crows with the nest-tree species occurring in and around Kolkata (22°34′N, 88°24′E), West Bengal, India. Accordingly, survey was conducted in different road side trees during the period of eight consecutive breeding seasons from 2006 to 2013. Of the recorded 46 nest-tree species belonging to 27 families, irrespective of Ivlev’s and Jacobs preference indices, 13 were of ‘exclusive selection’, 2 were of ‘no active selection’ and 16 were of ‘complete avoidance selection’ by C. splendens for nesting. The status of the remaining 15 nest-tree species were either avoiding or no active selection in nature. Out of 13 exclusive/complete selection nest-tree species 8 species harboured 85.65 % of the total 1,171 nests recorded out of 3,083 nests in course of studies. Apart from canopy configuration, leaf phenology and food resource mobilization these nest-tree species had a number of spots, amongst the ramifications, presenting a platform because of agglomeration of 2–3, 4–5 or more than 5 suitable branches. As such kinds of spots were the sites for construction of nest by C. splendens; it is imperative that the said factor determines the affinity of house crows with the nest-tree species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Mosquito Prey Vulnerability in Intraguild Predation Between Ranatra
           filiformis and Anisops bouvieri : Implications in Biological Control
    • Abstract: Abstract Wetlands are common habitats of a range of predatory water bugs (Heteroptera) constituting a guild that exhibit similar dietary choice including mosquito. Differences in body size and micro habitat preference among the heteropteran guild members provide a fair possibility of intraguild predation that can influence the regulatory effect on the prey species. This proposition was tested under laboratory conditions, using varying density of Ranatra filiformis (IG predator) and Anisops bouvieri (IG prey) as predators against mosquito larvae as shared prey. Compared to single predator system, mosquito larvae were proportionately less vulnerable to predation in intraguild predation (IGP), at low density of shared prey. In IGP system, vulnerability of shared prey increased with increase in density accompanied by a decline in mortality of IG prey. The mean mortality of shared prey and IG prey increased with the density of IG predator. It was apparent that the mosquito prey vulnerability was enhanced with increase in density of mosquito and R. filiformis while reducing the mortality of A. bouvieri partly. The interaction between R. filiformis and A. bouvieri as a part of IGP system indicate about the possible mechanism of coexistence of predators and prey in the wetlands. The density dependent effects on reduction and enhancement of shared prey (mosquito) mortality indicate that appropriate ratio of R. filiformis, A. bouvieri and mosquito larvae will be required to make biological regulation of wetland mosquitoes feasible.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Immunohistochemical Localization of Gastrin Cells (G-Cells) in the
           Alimentary Canal of a Skipper Frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Schiedner,
           (Anura; Ranidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract The present investigation deals with the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin secreting cells in different parts of the alimentary canal of an insectivorous skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schiedner). The gastrin immunoreactive (G IR) cells have been observed in stomach and in duodenal regions of the gut only. Three different morphological types of G IR cells have been recorded. The first type was with long protoplasmic extension projecting towards the lumen indicating lumone nature of secretion. The second type were rounded or oval in shape present towards basal region adjacent to gastric gland suggesting a non-secretory or parahormone or notch signal property of secretory molecule. The third type of cell was with multiple protoplasmic projections related to the secretory behaviour of gastrin cell. In stomach the G IR cells were more in pyloric region and less in fundic region. In stomach, the first type dominates in its number and the two latter types were less. In the duodenal region, the majority of G IR cells were of second type with scanty first type. It is concluded that the three different morphotypes of G IR cells are in fact different secretory stages of gastrin cells (G cells). The existence of different morphotypes of G cells is also linked with their strategic location and requirement to act as either hormone or parahormone or neurohormone or lumone.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Diversity of Rotifers in Shallow Lake of Sultanpur National Park, Gurgaon
    • Abstract: Abstract Community composition, diversity and density of rotifers were analyzed in shallow lake of Sultanpur National Park, Gurgaon, Haryana (India) from February, 2011 to January, 2012. 32 species of rotifer were encountered belonging to 11 genera, 7 families and 3 orders. Order Monogononta had maximum species richness (27, 85 %) belonging to five families, namely, Brachionidae, Mytilinidae, Trichocercidae, Lecanidae and Gastropodidae. The most diversified genera was Brachionus, represented by eight species, namely, B. bidentata; B. quadridentatus; B. caudatus; B. diversicornis; B. forficula; B. patulus; B. plicatilis and B. calyciflorus. The least dominanted genera which were represented by single species includes Anuraeopsis sp., Gastropus sp. and Mytlina sp.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Stomach Contents of Olive Ridley Turtles ( Lepidochelys Olivacea )
           Occurring in Gahirmatha, Odisha Coast of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Stomach contents of olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) occurring along the Gahirmatha coast of Odisha, India have been studied between October 2008 and May 2010. We obtained 76 stomach contents from olive ridley turtles that were stranded freshly, of which 12 were males and 64 were females. Among food items, molluscs dominated with 34.5 % in volume while crustaceans were next in order of volume (27.6 %). Occurrence of fish and other invertebrate and algae fragments though were less in amount have been noted almost in all specimens.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Toxicological Evaluation of Antimicrobially Potent Sulfur Nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract Toxicological properties of orthorhombic (~10 nm) and monoclinic (~50 nm) allotropes of sulfur nanoparticles (SNPs) of antimicrobial importance have been evaluated against mice (Mus musculus) model. The present study investigates possible bio-adverse properties of SNP-allotropes on hematological (haemoglobin, total count, differential count), biochemical (hepatic enzymes, renal physiology, blood lipids, blood glucose), and histological parameters in mice. Effects of SNPs were also determined against cognition pattern of mice using the open field assay, and acetylcholine esterase activity assay. In addition, SNPs were tested against fecundity (rate of reproduction), and allergenicity (by monitoring physical symptoms) of the treated animals. Cumulative results of the performed assays suggest that SNPs induce vascular congestion in liver with sinusoidal dilation, and hypersensitive reactions among the targets.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Distribution of Major Sucking Pest, Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae)
           of Cashew in India
    • Abstract: Abstract Surveys were conducted between 2010 and 2013 in west coast and east coast belts of India for major sucking pests, Helopeltis spp. in cashew. It reveals that three species viz., H. antonii Signoret, H. bradyi Waterhouse and H. theivora Waterhouse spread over different host plants. H. antonii was noticed as the predominant species and collected from 14 locations on five different host plants whereas; H.bradyi was collected from five locations on two host plants. The study also highlighted first record of H. antonii from Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Odhisa cashew region. Similarly, H. bradyi was reported for the first time in high altitude Tura region, Meghalaya. H. theivora was predominant species on cashew in North East region. Incidence of Helopeltis spp. was very severe in most of the cashew growing tracts of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra in the west coast region. Pachypeltis maesarum Kirkaldy was observed as a minor pest along with H. antonii on cashew and with H. theivora on Solanum torvum Sw.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Zooplankton Composition, Diversity and Physicochemical Features of Bandam
           Kommu Pond, Medak District, Telangana, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The present investigation aims to study the zooplankton composition, diversity along with physicochemical profile in a chosen pond at Medak district from December, 2010 to November, 2012. The study revealed the occurrence of 80 zooplankton species including 60 rotifers, 18 cladocerans and 02 copepods. Zooplankton density fluctuated between 119 and 26,463/L, diversity H′ = 0.89–2.68, species richness 5–21 and dominance 18.6–74.1 % over the 2 years study period. Rotifers were more predominant than other zooplankton communities, especially family Brachionidae and Lecanidae. High density of the overall zooplankton community was due to more rotifer population and the numerical dominance of the species Brachionus angularis, B. calyciflorus, B. caudatus, Keratella tropica, Filinia terminalis and Epiphanies mucronata. It was observed that the zooplankton density significantly correlates with pH values of the pond. Physicochemical profile of the pond shows tropical climate, hard water and alkaline in nature. Chloride content was found to be high may be due to the anthropogenic pressure and influx of sewage. The high content of phosphate and nitrate reveals that the pond is enriched with nutrients. This has significant correlation with zooplankton dominance. The present findings clearly indicates the eutrophication of the pond.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02
  • Estimating Mammalian Abundance Using Camera Traps in the Tropical Forest
           of Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of species is crucial for designing and evaluating conservation strategies within a geographical region. Similipal Tiger Reserve though confined to a small area needs information on the diversity and abundance of mammalian fauna to ensure conservation of tiger. Thus, we aimed to assess the diversity and abundance of medium to large sized mammals in Similipal Tiger Reserve by using remotely triggered camera traps. A total of 6413 camera trap days at 187 trap stations were deployed from November 2012 to July 2013 to estimate the status of mammal. We obtained 3763 independent photographs and detected 24 species of mammals. The relative abundance index of each mammalian species was calculated. Leopard (Panthera pardus) was the most abundant carnivore while barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac) was the most abundant prey. Anthropogenic activities like hunting, livestock grazing and free ranging domestic dogs were found to be the detrimental factors for the existing mammalian species. These activities should be addressed through conservation and development perception with an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating social and ecological components cautiously.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27
  • Biology and Conservation Status of Flying Squirrels (Pteromyini,
           Sciuridae, Rodentia) in India: An Update and Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Flying squirrels are capable of gliding and one of the least known mammals of the world. Work on these animals is less and sporadic due to their crepuscular and cryptic habits. At the present scenario, a complete pilot study is in an urgent need to formulate conservation strategies and policies to conserve them in India. Therefore, a thorough review on biology and conservation status of flying squirrels in India is provided here. A total of 13 species of flying squirrels present in India i.e., Belomys pearsonii, Biswamoyopterus biswasi, Eupetaurus cinereus, Eoglaucomys fimbriatus, Hylopetes alboniger, Petaurista elegans, P. mishmiensis, P. magnificus, P. mechukaensis, P. nobilis, P. petaurista, P. philippensis and Petinomys fuscocapillus, wherein three are endemic to the country. P. philippensis has broader distribution and is found to be more studied than others. Eastern part of the country contains the highest species number (n = 10) follows three in northern part, two in southern part and one in western part subsequently. All species are facing threat to their population due to native habitat loss, degradation and hunting. Harmonization, alliances and partnership between various stakeholders along with better application of standard techniques would be strengthen to develop conservation strategies and implementing their coordinated actions could preserve flying squirrels’ future in the country landscape.
      PubDate: 2015-03-26
  • DNA Barcoding of Sharp Tail Sunfish Masturus lanceolatus Lienard, 1840
           (Tetraodontiformes: Molidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract Detailed analyses on morphometry (expressed as % standard length and % head length), meristic characters and mitochondrial barcode region sequence of the sharp tail sunfish Masturus lanceolatus Lienard, 1840 have made to confirm the species identity. Further, investigations on phylogenetic relationships between species of the Molidae family have been taken into consideration by constructing neighbor-joining tree to fulfill the gaps on taxonomical validation and their biological information.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
  • The Status of the Marine Fisheries of West Bengal Coast of the Northern
           Bay of Bengal and Its Management Options: A Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Marine fishery is one of the most important sectors for both economic and social development of the country. The whole coast of West Bengal was surveyed from July 2010 to August 2012 for acquiring data on marine fishing. The secondary data were also collected from various government departments and non-government organizations. After compiling all the data a clear picture of marine fisheries in the coastal region of West Bengal was emerged. Arius spp. has the height percentage (15.16) and Yellow Fin Tuna has the lowest percentage (0.06) of landing in West Bengal coast during 2006–2012. Bombay duck and Hairtail Ribbon fish landing shows a decreasing tendency in these 7 years. As the number of mechanically powered boats are increasing in recent years, the total marine fish landing from West Bengal coast is remained more or less static. Therefore, the catch per unit effort has declined significantly in recent years (r = 0.77). So, immediate remedial measures should be taken to manage sustainably, the marine fishery sector of West Bengal.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
  • Occurrence of Marbled Shrimp Saron marmoratus (Olivier, 1811) (Decapoda:
           Caridea: Hippolytidae) in Lakshadweep Archipelago, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Two juvenile specimens of Saron marmoratus (Olivier, 1811) were collected from the inter tidal lagoon area of Eastern side of Agatti Island, Lakshadweep on November 4, 2013. These shrimp are brown and slightly green in color with yellow and white speckled spot and having a typical tuft of cirri on the back. Marbled shrimps are highly demanded and good priced in the marine aquarium trade. This is a new record to the Lakshadweep waters.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
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