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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]
  • Polyphenolics and Energy Content in Phytoplankton: Evidence from a
           Freshwater Lake
    • Abstract: Abstract Investigation was carried out in the ancient man-made, shallow, freshwater lake, Lake Krishnasayer, at Burdwan (23°16′N, 87°54′E), India, to note the variations in physico-chemical parameters, nutrients, phytoplankton communities, concentration of phenols and energy content in phytoplanktons during January–December 2006. The lake was represented by 16, 15, 2 and 17 genera of Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Bacillariophyceae, respectively with significant variation in relative abundance as was revealed through Discriminant Analysis. Wilk’s λ values indicate that nitrate, phosphate, dissolved chlorides and silica, and phenol content were significant (P < 0.05) predictor for such differences. PCA analysis yielded three components explaining more than 68 % of the variations in the data on physico-chemical parameters, nutrients, phenol concentration and energy content of total phytoplankton. The interactions of the environmental variables contribute significantly to the observed variations in the phenol and energy content of the phytoplankton. However, the phenomenon of temporal variation in the total phytoplankton and energy content is accounted as a function of nitrate, phosphate-phosphorous, silicate and organic carbon levels. It is apparent that this quality of phytoplanktons varied with the seasons and thereby influencing the amount of phenol and energy content in the engulfing phytoplanktons. Therefore, adequate allocation is needed regarding nutritional status of phytoplanktons, in respect to the dietary need of aquaculture programme in practice.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Possible Alteration of Female Specific Protein by Estradiol-17β in
           Silkworm, Bombyx mori L
    • Abstract: Abstract In our attempt to understand the biological significance of natural occurrence of estradiol-17β (E2, a vertebrate female sex steroid) in silkworms effect of exogenous estradiol-17β injection on the appearance of female-specific proteins both in pupal hemolymph and ovarian extracts was undertaken. A single injection of 2 μg of E2 per g of body weight on the 3rd day in the 5th instar female silkworm (Bombyx mori L. race Nistari) larvae revealed more accumulation of both 170- and 43 kDa proteins from the day 3 to 7 of pupal life with a peak on the day 7 in comparison to the untreated (control) hemolymph. On the contrary, the ovarian extracts revealed highest accumulation of both the proteins in female silkworm pupae on the day 4 and thereafter, declined gradually to level up with the control on the day 8. The fertilized egg extracts irrespective of control and E2-treated silkworms failed to establish quantitative differences of the proteins in question. Thus the metabolic role of E2 on the female-specific proteins in silkworm could not be ruled out.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Uric Acid Excretion in Isoparorchis
    (Billet, 1898)
    • Abstract: Abstract The nature and amount of excretory products of Isoparorchis hypselobagri, a digenetic trematode inhabiting the swim bladder of Wallago attu have been studied. The parasites were kept in PBS media without glucose (control) and with glucose (treated) successfully up to 300 h and different excretory products were estimated at an interval of 12 h. The quantitative estimation of excreted uric acid in I. hypselobagri was revealed less in amount in the flukes which were kept in vitro in the control incubation media than those considered from the treated incubation media. The highest amount of uric acid excreted in control media was 6.72 mg % at 204 h, and in treated condition 16.658 mg % after 216 h of incubation. The lowest amount of uric acid excreted, 0.186 mg % in control media after 252 h of incubation and 2.896 mg % in treated media after 192 h of incubation. The rate of excretion of uric acid in treated condition after every 12 h of incubation is much higher than the control. Significant amount of uric acid have also been recorded in the swim bladder washings of host. It is apparent that the amount of excreted uric acid depends on the number and weight of the parasites harbor. Results suggest that I. hypselobagri is ammonotelic, ureotelic and also uricotelic trematode.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • An Appraisal of Life History Features of        class="a-plus-plus">Kiefferulus calligaster (Kieffer, 1911)
           (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Kolkata, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Life history parameters of the freshwater chironomid species Kiefferulus calligaster (Kieffer, 1911) were investigated under laboratory conditions, with the use of larval development time and wing length as key features. An index of fitness was derived using these two parameters to represent the fitness of adults as a function of the larval development. Survivorship, deduced from the data on the mortality of larval stages, was related to developmental time as—(survivorship, lx) y = 1.16 − 0.04 × (days). The larval development time varied between males and females with a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 12 days from first instar larva to eclosion of imagine. The average wing length of adult females was larger than males (3.9 mm ± 0.03 S.E. vs. 3.36 mm ± 0.02 S.E.), for both early and late emerging individuals. The degree of dimorphism between the sexes was prominent for wing length and larval development time. The index of fitness for the early and late emerging adults differed significantly (P < 0.05) in both the sexes.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Joint Insecticidal Action of Bacillus
           thuringiensis kurstaki
    with Annona
    L. and Prosopis
    Swartz DC on Helicoverpa
    (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract The efficacy of methanolic seed extracts of Annona squamosa (As) and Prosopis juliflora (Pj) individually and in combination with spore-crystal mixture of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) was tested against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. The combination of botanicals with Btk significantly decreased LC50 values in less time as compared to individual treatments. As and Pj in combination with Btk significantly affected feeding and dietary utilization of H. armigera significantly than in individual treatments. Physiological effects found in larvae fed on Btk and botanicals included extended larval and pupal durations, decreased adult longevity and fecundity, difficulty in moulting between various instars, formation of larval–pupal intermediates and abnormal pupae. As was found to have a higher interaction with Btk than Pj. Further, Btk showed strong synergistic action with As and Pj, which are the promising candidates for development of alternative bioinsecticide in IPM programs.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Distribution and Abundance of Macrozoobenthic Species in Some Tropical
           Brackishwater Wetlands of West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Benthos inhabiting brackishwater ecosystems is subjected to transitional environment of freshwater and saltwater conditions. In the present paper the effects of environmental variables were studied along with anthropogenic activities, selecting two man-made fishery systems (bheri) and one natural estuarine system at Canning town, West Bengal, India. 11 water parameters and five sediment parameters were studied. Qualitative study of macrozoobenthos indicates that natural estuarine ecosystem harbours 57 species of nine groups while brackishwater impoundments are inhabited by 17–20 species only. The population density of the commonly occurring macrobenthic species reveals variation with respect to season and sites. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis and canonical correspondence analysis results suggest that more than 15 macrozoobenthic species bear significant correlation with one or more water and sediment parameters, within which 12 species showed significant correlation in estuarine ecosystem indicating more environmental stress in impoundments than estuary.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Diet Composition and Intensity of Feeding of        class="a-plus-plus">Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822)
           Occurring in the Northern Bay of Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Feeding intensity and diet composition of Hilsa Shad (Tenualosa ilisha) from Northern Bay of Bengal were studied between June 2010 and March 2011. The stomach contents of 320 fishes were analyzed from the northern part of the Bay of Bengal to understand the food items of this species. The major constituents of food are organic debris (26.06 ± 5.19 % SD), diatoms (31.22 ± 11.97 % SD), other algae (12.41 ± 2.62 % SD), and crustaceans (3.50 ± 1.28 % SD). The most abundant species of diatoms were Coscinodiscus, Pleurosigma, Bacillaria, Nitzschia, Biddulphia, Diatoma and Asterionella. The stomach of Hilsa was found to be almost empty during June to October while it was almost full during November to March. Significant positive correlation among feeding intensity, chlorophyll-A concentration and salinity of the ambient water indicated that feeding in T. ilisha is influenced by a number of factors. Strong positive correlation between percentage occurrence of diatoms and intensity of feeding indicated their preference for diatom–food.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Dry Season Diet of the Sloth Bear (       class="a-plus-plus">Melursus ursinus) in Hadagarh Wildlife
           Sanctuary, Eastern India
    • Abstract: Abstract Dry season food habit of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) in Hadagarh Wildlife Sanctuary was characterized by scat analysis. Importance value index (IVI) of contribution of different food items in the diet of sloth bear was estimated from the undigested food remnants. Percentage of dry weight and IVI score of Ziziphus fruits was highest, termites were the most frequently occurring food item in the diet and percentage of frequency occurrence was equal for both fruits and insects. The present study, as compared to previous studies, suggests that the dietary preference of sloth bear varies according to availability of food and the habitat quality.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Diclofenac Mediated Demodulation of Alkaline Phosphatase and Renal
           Cortical Damage in Experimental Albino Mice
    • Abstract: Abstract Diclofenac sodium is known to interfere with renal physiology by inhibiting prostaglandins. Previous studies indicate that various nephrotoxins damage proximal renal tubules by altering alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity. APase has been reported to be a function related marker in renal proximal tubular epithelia where it is highly expressed. Present investigation deals with toxicity caused in mice kidney at histological and biochemical levels after diclofenac administration. Diclofenac toxicity was assessed by localizing APase in kidney histochemically and biochemically. Intramuscular diclofenac administration (10 mg/kg/body wt) for 30 days exhibited substantial degeneration in kidney. A marked change in APase activity was observed in histochemical and biochemical studies. A change was noticed in specific activity of APase at different periods of diclofenac treatment. Decrease in specific activity of APase after 10 days (18.41 %) and 30 days (55.3 %) of diclofenac exposure was observed. However, an insignificant hike in APase was observed after 20 days of drug therapy. Similar trends in APase activity were evidenced by the electrophoretic analysis. Histological and ultrastructural observations also corroborated above mentioned findings. Present investigation gives an insight into probable mechanism of renal pathology caused by diclofenac administration in mice.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Standardization of Genomic DNA Isolation from Minute Quantities of Fish
           Scales and Fins Amenable to RAPD-PCR
    • Abstract: Abstract The main focus of this study was to standardize a non-destructive procedure for extraction of genomic DNA (gDNA) from minute quantities of scales and fins of two commonly available fishes Labeo bata and Heteropneustes fossilis and also to compare the gDNA yields from live and as well from frozen samples. The spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed a significant difference in the DNA yields from live and frozen samples. The isolated gDNAs were used as templates for RAPD-PCR. The quality and consistency of banding pattern showed that gDNA templates from live tissues performed better than that from frozen tissue samples. It was also found that the minute quantities of fresh scales or fin tissues from live fish provided satisfactory quantity and quality of gDNAs that could support several rounds of RAPD-PCR. This non-destructive sampling has a great implication in gDNA based population genetic studies in endangered and vulnerable species of fishes, where killing or sacrificing is an ethical issue.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • A Review on Biology and Function of Regulatory B Cells with Special
           Reference to Inflammation and Autoimmune Pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Abstract Once considered to be predominantly a positive regulator of immune function, B cells are increasingly getting attributed with new and diversified functions. In recent years a number of reports indicate that a definite regulatory function of B cell exists. A number of B cell subsets that shares various developmental markers shown to have the ability to produce the suppressive cytokine IL-10. A particularly strong candidate with distinct IL-10 production profile is CD19hiCD1dhiCD5+ population, which constitutes about 1–2 % of splenic B cells. These B cells are also called B10 cells as they produce large amount of IL-10. Increasingly it is becoming clear that a variety of regulatory B cell population exists and expands during inflammatory condition and autoimmune disease. A detailed study of development and mechanism that governs B reg generation may provide us with valuable information for therapeutic intervention.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Ethotoxicological Role of Melatonin as an Anti-Stressor Agent in Heavy
           Metal Intoxicated Fish Channa
    • Abstract: Abstract Sublethal effects of arsenic trioxide, cadmium chloride, lead nitrate and mercuric chloride, were investigated on chromatophore morphology and behaviour of Channa punctatus. The protective role of melatonin was investigated. Changes were observed in the chromatophore pattern of fish scales and in fish behaviour after administration of the heavy metals. Heavy metal exposure caused restlessness in fishes and increased the dispersal of pigments in the chromatophores. Melatonin administration counteracted both these effects. The melatonin treatment did not modify metal concentration in scales, but it caused the aggregation of pigments in chromatophores of the fish. It also reduced the aggression observed in the fishes caused by the heavy metal administration. Toxicopathological alterations include statistically significant variations in the number, size and shape of the melanophores. The heavy metal-induced morphological changes in the melanophores indicate protective role against toxic insult of heavy metals.
      PubDate: 2014-05-09
  • Judicious Foraging by the Ants Pheidole
    • Abstract: Abstract The ants Pheidole roberti were offered five kinds of food out of the six kinds viz. freshly dead mosquito, sugar cubes, biscuit, dry fish, papad and nut in 10 trials to note the foraging behavior and food preferences, if any. Mosquitoes were supplied as such while the remaining five types of food were provided as fragmented particles each weighing from 40 to 60 mg. Irrespective of offering hours i.e. day or night times the ants were seen to come in contact of the supplied food within 2–17 min. Because of weight of the food piece the ants were unable to carry the same individually to the nest. Therefore, the pull and push food carrying mechanism was not initiated until required number partners were assembled at the site. Irrespective of trials the ants carried all the mosquitoes while sugar cubes in 9 trials, biscuit and dry fish in 4 trials and, papad and nut in 2 trials were taken to the nest by the ants within 12 h after supplying of the same. In some trials though certain amount of food particles were taken away by the ants, the sugar cubes, dry fish, biscuit and nut particles were left as such in 1–3 trials at the site. Thus, food preference in P. roberti is well marked but the reasons for such preference are matter for further studies.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Causes, Consequences and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Conflicts Caused by
           Tiger Straying Incidents in Sundarban, India
    • Abstract: Abstract An increasing number of tigers are leaving natural mangrove habitats and straying into the surrounding villages in the Indian Sundarban. This creates a serious hazard for humans, livestock and tigers. Household surveys in villages adjacent to the mangroves found 237 incidents of tigers straying during 1995–2010. An average of 14 tigers strays into villages per year. Consequences of tigers straying include, villagers killed (N = 7) or injured (N = 73), tiger predation on livestock (N = 242), and villagers killing tigers (N = 12). Most (68 %) of tigers leaving the mangroves were male. Of female tigers, most (65 %) had litters and were accompanied by their cubs. Confusing riverside plantations with jungles or confusing paddy fields with wild grasses (31.12 % combined) and predation of domestic livestock (26.96 %) are two main reasons for tigers straying. Tigers may also prefer domestic livestock over wild boar and deer as hunting livestock is easier than hunting natural prey in mangroves. Benefit, cost ratios for human–tiger conflicts were calculated at 0.81–0.92: 1. Appropriate compensation and a strategy of prey population increase might provide solutions to existing problems.
      PubDate: 2014-03-27
  • Acute Toxicity of Cadmium to Benthic Oligochaete Worm,        class="a-plus-plus">Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard, 1982 and
           Juvenile Catfish, Clarias batrachus
           Linnaeus, 1758
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was done to determine the toxicity of cadmium to Branchiura sowerbyi and juvenile Clarias batrachus. The 96 h median lethal concentrations (with 95 % confidence limit) of cadmium for B. sowerbyi and juvenile C. batrachus were 15.98 (10.78–20.82) and 29.39 (23.70–33.42) mg/l respectively. It indicates that B. sowerbyi was more susceptible to cadmium toxicity than C. batrachus. A significant relationship (p < 0.05) was recorded between mortality rate and all the exposure times at 15, 25, 30 and 35 mg/l of the toxicant for B. sowerbyi and at 26, 30, 36, 48 and 50 mg/l for C. batrachus. Similarly, significant variation was also observed between mortality rate and all the exposure concentrations at all the exposure times (p < 0.01) for both the worm and fish. Excessive mucous secretion, loss of balance and reduced movement were observed in both the worms and fish at higher concentrations during 72 and 96 h of exposure. With progress of time and increasing concentration fish showed behavioural changes like erratic fin movement, hyperactivity, suffocation and increased surface attachment followed by death. The findings of the work can be used in ecological risk assessment and in the determination of safe disposal level of cadmium.
      PubDate: 2014-03-23
  • Study of Histopathological Changes in Experimental        class="a-plus-plus">Trypanosoma evansi Infected Rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Wistar albino rats (N:30) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each animal was infected with 5 × 105 trypanosomes intraperitoneally. The animals were examined daily for the development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the tail veins. The infected rats were dull and depressed from 3 DPI onwards. Postmortem examination from 5 to 8 DPI (the maximum period of observation) revealed splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, marked congestion of lungs, presence of fluid in peritoneal cavity. Histopathologically, heart muscles showed hyaline degenerative changes and haemorrhages. Liver parenchyma revealed congestion of central vein and sinusoids, binucleated hepatocytes and fatty degeneration (lipid accumulation) of hepatic cells. Thickening of interstitial space with mononuclear infiltration, areas of collapse, areas of emphysema, edema and dilated and congested blood vessels were the histopathological changes noticed in the lungs of the infected rats. In spleen giant cells aggregation, hyperplasia, thickening of capsule and trabecule were the observed changes which indicate irreversible degeneration. The affected kidney showed inter tubular hemorrhages in the cortex, medullary hemorrhages, congested glomerulus, atrophied glomerulus, desquamated tubular epithelium and disruption of renal tubules at some places.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
  • First Record of Rama Rao’s Scorpionfish,        class="a-plus-plus">Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi Randall and
           Eschmeyer, 2001 (Family: Scorpaenidae) from Indian Waters
    • Abstract: Abstract The first record of Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi from Indian coast is reported based on three specimens ranging from 137 to 148 mm standard length. Specimens were collected from Digha coast, West Bengal state, northern most part of east coast of India on the bank of Bay of Bengal. This species is distinguished from its closest relatives by having no extra spine anterior to each tympanic spine; well-developed supraocular tentacle; occipital pit shallow, not quadrangular and 18 pectoral fin.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
  • Diversity and Species Composition of Odonates in Southern Rajasthan, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The study was conducted in south Rajasthan to explore diversity and species composition of Odonata from January 2013 to June 2013. Odonates were sampled from 13 localities i.e., Pichola lake, Udaisagar lake, Badi lake, Ghasa lake, Menar lake, Badwai lake, Rup sagar lake, Roli todgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary, Karmoi river stream in Sitamata WLS, College campus, Rajsmand lake and Meja dam. During the study period, a total of 1,290 individuals from 8 families and 54 species were recorded. 4 families and 28 species were related to Anisoptera, while 4 families and 26 species belonged to Zygoptera. Suborder Zygoptera were represented by the families Chlorocyphidae, Coenagrionidae, Lestidae and Platycnemididae, and suborder Anisoptera by the Aeshnidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae and Macromiidae. Libellulidae was the largest family with 24 species, while the most dominant species was Brachythemis contaminata (21.80 %). Orthetrum chrysis and Lestes sp. were found randomly distributed in the study area, while other were aggregated and showed habitat preference.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
  • Affinity of House Crows (Corvus
    ) with Nesting Trees occurring in and around Kolkata,
    • Abstract: Abstract The house crows Corvus splendens Vieillot are accustomed to construct nest in suitable trees belonging to certain species. In the present study an attempt was made to draw the affinity of crows with the nest-tree species occurring in and around Kolkata (22°34′N, 88°24′E), West Bengal, India. Accordingly, survey was conducted in different road side trees during the period of eight consecutive breeding seasons from 2006 to 2013. Of the recorded 46 nest-tree species belonging to 27 families, irrespective of Ivlev’s and Jacobs preference indices, 13 were of ‘exclusive selection’, 2 were of ‘no active selection’ and 16 were of ‘complete avoidance selection’ by C. splendens for nesting. The status of the remaining 15 nest-tree species were either avoiding or no active selection in nature. Out of 13 exclusive/complete selection nest-tree species 8 species harboured 85.65 % of the total 1,171 nests recorded out of 3,083 nests in course of studies. Apart from canopy configuration, leaf phenology and food resource mobilization these nest-tree species had a number of spots, amongst the ramifications, presenting a platform because of agglomeration of 2–3, 4–5 or more than 5 suitable branches. As such kinds of spots were the sites for construction of nest by C. splendens; it is imperative that the said factor determines the affinity of house crows with the nest-tree species.
      PubDate: 2014-03-09
  • Diagnosis of Mycobacterium
    in Captive Sloth Bears (       class="a-plus-plus">Melursus ursinus) by
           Polymerase Chain reaction
    • Abstract: Abstract Diagnosis of mycobacterial infection is paramount important from the public health perspective since treatment and control measures are very significant, particularly in captive animals. In this diagnostic study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had been used with the primer sequence of pncA-8 (5′-GGTTGGGTGGCCGCCGGTCAG-3′) and pncA-11 (5′-GCTTTGCGGCGAGCGCTCCA-3′) that were specific for M. bovis pncA gene. Forty-two fresh faecal samples were collected randomly from the apparently healthy sloth bears maintained in captive conditions. The DNA extraction procedure was done as per the manufacturer’s protocol and further subjected to amplification. The amplification profile includes respectively: initial heating of the samples for 5 min at 94 °C, annealing at 55 °C for 1 min, primer extension at 72 °C for 1 min and final elongation step for 10 min at 72 °C. Out of 57 samples, 5 samples were yielded on expected amplified PCR product size of 744 bp when electrophoresed in 1.5 % agarose gel. A positive control of M. bovis DNA procured from Tuberculosis Research Centre and a negative control from a healthy bovine sample were used. These results demonstrated that PCR test will increase the effectiveness of laboratory diagnosis to detect and identifying the M. bovis in captive wild animals.
      PubDate: 2014-03-09
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