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Journal Cover Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Morphometric Studies of Two Species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera:
    • Authors: Salman Khan; Mohd. Yousuf; Mohsin Ikram
      Abstract: Trichogramma is very minute insect which is being used in controlling the many insect pests. Due to the smaller size, the identification of different species of Trichogramma become complex work. In present study, Trichogramma chilonis and Trichogramma japonicum has been studied for its morphometric analyses. As a whole 33 characters of males and 27 of females have been studied. Parameters of different characters and their ratios have been analyzed by t test. In males of T. chilonis and T. japonicum, genital capsule length and width, longest flagellar hair length, fore and hind wings width, longest marginal fringe of fore and hind wings have been found to be useful in separating these two species. Similarly, females of these two species can be separated distinctly by morphometrics characters including ovipositor length, fore and hind wings width, antennal club length, longest marginal fringe of fore and hind wings. The details of parameters of different characters have been discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0260-4
  • Proteocephalus southwelli sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Cestoidea) from a
           Freshwater Fish, Aorichthys seenghala in West Bengal, India, with a Review
           of the Genus
    • Authors: Suranjana Banerjee; Buddhadeb Manna; A. K. Sanyal
      Abstract: The genus Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 contains 31 valid species. In this paper Proteocephalus southwelli sp. n., obtained from the intestine of a freshwater fish Aorichthys seenghala in West Bengal, India, is described. The species is characterized by a triangular scolex, presence of fifth apical sucker measuring 0.09 × 0.10 mm, 45–50 numbers of testes and uterus with median stem, branching into 20–25 lateral diverticulae.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0262-2
  • Effect of Marine Alga ( Turbinaria Ornata ) Mixed Diet on Some Aspects of
           Biology of Post Larval Macrobrachium Rosenbergii
    • Authors: Gopalan Rajkumar; Periyakali Saravana Bhavan; Veeran Srinivasan; Annamalai Asaikkutti; Rajendran Udayasuriyan; Madhayan Karthik; Thangavelu Satgurunathan
      Abstract: The possibility of inclusion of hexanic, acetonic and methanolic extracts of Turbinaria ornata as aqua feed additive was assessed by evaluating its growth promoting potential on Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). The each solvent extract of T. ornata was incorporated at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% with basal diet prepared using fish meal, groundnut oilcake, soy bean meal, wheat bran, sun flavor oil, tapioca flour and egg albumin, and fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. On the final day, the survival and nutritional indices including weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, the contents of basic biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid), and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase) were found to be improved significantly (P < 0.05). Among the three solvents, methanolic extract of T. ornata incorporated feed, particularly at 1.5% produced the best (P < 0.05) performance in all these parameters. The activities of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and metabolic (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase) enzymes, and the status of lipid peroxidation were found to be insignificantly altered (P > 0.05). Therefore, T. ornata extract was not toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, it is recommended as a feed additive for sustainable aquaculture development.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0261-3
  • Wetland Birds Assemblages in Man-Made Sacred Ponds of Kurukshetra, India
    • Authors: Parmesh Kumar; Archna Sharma
      Abstract: Wetland bird assemblages of four man-made, perennial and sacred ponds of Kurukshetra, Haryana, India were studied to assess the species composition and richness along with their seasonal variation during April 2015 to March 2016. A total of 62 species of wetland birds belonging to 43 genera, 17 families and 8 orders were recorded. Anatidae was the richest mentioned family with 15 species and constituting 24.19% of the wetland bird community in the study area. These wetlands support 32 winter migrants, 25 residents and 05 summer migrants. Most of winter migrant species were encountered from November to March. In the month of January, assemblage of wetland birds was recorded highest compared to the remaining months. Species richness, diversity and evenness of wetland birds varied significantly (P < 0.05) between seasons as well as among habitats. Among recorded species, four species are considered as near threatened, and one species as vulnerable in IUCN Red list. Comb Duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos) and Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) are listed in Appendix II of CITES. This study emphasizes the importance of these sacred ponds for resident and migratory as well as special-status wetland bird species. Weed infestation and anthropogenic activities such as festivals, random assemblies and gatherings, dumping of waste materials, noise pollution and electric lightening in the complexes of the sacred ponds during festivals are some major threats to aquatic avifauna. We discuss possible management measures of these sacred wetlands from conservation perspective of wetland bird community.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-018-0259-x
  • Phylogenetic Affinities of Indian Apple Snails: An Insight into the
           Tibetan Tectonic Terranes
    • Authors: Silpi Sarkar; Krupanidhi Sreerama
      Abstract: Gastropods belong to a hyper-diverse clade of molluscs and encompass limpets, slugs and snails. Interestingly, gastropods have effectively colonized land, freshwaters and marine habitats. However, the relationships among and within its constituent taxa remained in flux for decades due to delimitation in their morphological and anatomical features and hence molecular approach has taken a lead. An understanding into the history of Tibetan tectonic terranes is attempted in this article to derive through the phylogeny of Pila. In our study, we have re-evaluated the relationships within Ampullariidae by collecting the species of Pila globosa and Pila virens (India) and analyzed them comparing with 18S rDNA sequences from public domain. Obtained sequences are evaluated through Maximum Likelihood method in MEGA v 5 which clearly established a single cluster for the three individual taxons namely P. globosa with high bootstrap support. Pila virens showed a paraphyletic cluster with Pila ovata. A low bootstrap value of a few species of Pila possibly inferred rapid speciation among them. The novel observation in the present study is that P. virens forming a secondary cluster with the species from Vietnam namely Pila polita, Pila conica and Pila ampullacea has authenticated that the south India and Vietnam are in the same latitude namely 9–20°N, supporting the paleomagnetic data which unravelled that India collided with Asia around 57 mya in the Coenozoic era, whereas ampullariids must have been in co-existence since the Cambrian Period indicating their long evolutionary affinity and zoo-geographical relationship.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0257-4
  • Natural Selection: A Misnomer Concept
    • Authors: S. K. Raut
      Pages: 101 - 104
      Abstract: Charles Robert Darwin hypothesized that the mechanism of evolution and the diversity of life on earth are because of natural selection. That is, which biological entity would thrive on earth is a matter of selection by the nature. But, in the present article it is hypothesized that the process of appearance of different types of biological entities and the orientation of these organisms in the space in respect to time are the effects of ‘will force’ of the organisms concerned. That is, the mechanism of evolution is a process of self selection, not natural selection.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0225-z
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Earthworm Communities in the Bamboo Plantations of West Tripura (India)
    • Authors: Sourabh Chakraborty; P. S. Chaudhuri
      Pages: 105 - 118
      Abstract: Present study revealed the presence of 16 earthworm species belonging to 11 genera and four families viz. Megascolecidae (Amynthus alexandri, Metaphire houlleti, Lampito mauritii, Kanchuria sp1, Perionyx excavatus), Octochaetidae (Eutyphoeus gigas, Eutyphoeus comillahnus, Eutyphoeus orientalis, Octochaetona beatrix, Dichogaster bolaui, Lennogaster chittagongensis, Lennogaster yeicus), Moniligastridae (Drawida papillifer papillifer, Drawida assamensis, Drawida nepalensis) and Glossoscolecidae (Pontoscolex corethrurus) in the soils of five bamboo species [Bambusa balcooa (Sil Barak), Melocanna baccifera (Muli), Bambusa polumorpha (Bari), Bambus cacharensis (Bom) and Bambus bambus (Katabarak)] of West-Tripura. While four earthworm species viz. Metaphire houlleti, Drawida assamensis, Drawida papillifer papillifer and Pontoscolex corethrurus were common to all species of bamboo plantations, the rest showed restricted distribution. Among the earthworm species 4 were exotic (Amynthus alexandri, Metaphire houlleti, Dichogaster bolaui and Pontoscolex corethrurus) and the others were native to the Indian sub-continent. In general, earthworms under the bamboo plantations occurred within temperature range of 21.6 °C–28.0 °C, pH 4.0–7.0, organic matter 0.56–5.99 %, moisture 9.6–31.7 %, water holding capacity 14.6–43.9 % and bulk density 0.7–1.8 g cm−3. The average density and biomass of the earthworms in the studied places were 108 ind m−2 and 44 g m−2 respectively. Earthworm diversity, dominance and evenness indices showed the values 1.00, 0.47 and 0.70 respectively. Earthworm density and biomass showed a negative correlation with temperature whereas those had a strong positive correlation with pH, moisture and organic matter of the soils.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0164-5
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Ants’ Food Examination
    • Authors: K. Naskar; S. K. Raut
      Pages: 119 - 131
      Abstract: Sugar, salt and alum grains between 15 and 55 mg were deposited at different sites in the foraging ground of the ants Anoplolepis gracilipes and Paratrechina longicornis to study the examination processes the ants applied prior to carry these grains to the nest or refused at the site. It is revealed that, of the supplied 10 grains of these three substances A. gracilipes and P. longicornis examined only one sugar grain in most cases and two grains in few cases prior to carry a grain to the nest. Under similar situation an ant irrespective of species examined in most cases only one salt grain though few individuals examined 2 or 3 or 4 grains prior to have a decision either to carry one to the nest or to move elsewhere refusing the same at the site. Interestingly, an ant individual only in few cases examined only one alum grain but in most cases it examined 2, 3, 4 even up to all the 10 supplied alum grains scrupulously prior to refuse the same. Of the offered grain the ants procured 100 % sugar grains and 60 % salt grains from the sites to the nest while 100 % alum grains were refused at the sites following careful examination. As sugar, salt and alum grains look almost alike examination of all the alum grains was performed by the ants with a hope to get sugar grains, if any, from amongst these visually similar kinds of grains. This may be due to lack of food examination system at a precision level.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0168-9
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Mode of Association, Enzyme Producing Ability and Identification of
           Autochthonous Bacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Two Indian
           Air-Breathing Fish, Murrel ( Channa punctatus ) and Stinging Catfish (
           Heteropneustes fossilis )
    • Authors: Goutam Banerjee; Ankita Nandi; Suhas Kumar Dan; Pinki Ghosh; Arun Kumar Ray
      Pages: 132 - 140
      Abstract: The mode of association of epithelium-associated bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of two Indian air-breathing fish species, the murrel, Channa punctatus and the stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis was demonstrated through scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The SEM examination revealed substantial numbers of rod shaped bacterial cells associated with the microvillus brush borders of enterocytes in proximal (PI) and distal regions (DI) of the GI tract of both the fish species. The TEM investigation indicated endocytosis and translocation of bacteria in the microvilli. The isolated bacterial strains (two each from the PI and DI of murrel and stinging catfish) were quantitatively evaluated for their extracellular amylase, cellulase and protease production. All the bacterial strains exhibited high cellulolytic activity than that of amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Only two strains, CPF1 and CPF2, isolated from the PI of murrel exhibited high proteolytic activity. Maximum amylase activity was exhibited by the strain, HFH5, isolated from the DI of stinging catfish. Totally six most promising enzyme-producing autochthonous bacterial strains were identified based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analytical results. All the strains showed close (92–99 %) similarity to Bacillus licheniformis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0167-x
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Profile of Digestive Enzymes Activity During Early Development of
           Featherback Chitala chitala (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: Anisa Mitra; Pratap Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Sumit Homechaudhuri
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: The ontogenetic development of the key digestive enzymes of featherback Chitala chitala was assayed during the early development. Amylase, lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were detected on 1 days after hatch (DAH), (during endotrophic stage) but pepsin activity was detected on 12 DAH (exotrophic phase) correlated with the improvement of gastric secretion at the beginning of flexion stage. The gradual shift of alkaline protease activity (trypsin and chymotrypsin) to more efficient acidic digestion indicated a change in the digestive physiology as a result of metamorphosis acquiring the juvenile characteristic during the postflexion or extrophic phase. The initial high level of amylase (i.e. from 1 DAH to 9 DAH) during endotrophic and endoexotrophic feeding stage could be better explained as a result of programmed gene expression. But a constant decrease in activity after the 12 DAH i.e. on the onset of flexion and exotrophic stage of featherback fish in the present study may be possibly due to the developmental changes in the gut morphology and increased protein level in the tissue. These fluctuations of the enzymatic activities in featherback larvae reflect the ability of the fish to adapt with the diet during ontogenetic shift. This information can lead to the possibility of developing an age specific formulated feed for intensive farming of this new candidate species.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0169-8
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of Temperature on Development and Reproduction of Epilachna
           dodecastigma (Wied.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
    • Authors: Nupur Sarkar; Anandamay Barik
      Pages: 150 - 155
      Abstract: The effect of five constant temperatures of 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 °C on adult life span, reproduction, oviposition behavior and larval developmental time of a bitter gourd inhabited coleopteran insect Epilachna dodecastigma (Wied.) (Coccinellidae) was determined in laboratory conditions under 70 ± 5 % relative humidity and a photoperiod of 12 L : 12 D. Larval developmental time of E. dodecastigma decreased as temperature increased from 21 to 33 °C. Life table data revealed that overall mortality was lowest at 27 °C and highest at 21 °C. Females lived longer than males at all temperatures; but longevity decreased with increase in temperature. Pre-oviposition period decreased significantly with increase in temperature up to 27 °C and thereafter increased at a slower rate; whereas oviposition period decreased significantly with increase in temperature. Fecundity and egg viability increased significantly with an increase in temperature up to 27 °C and thereafter decreased at a slower rate. The intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was 0.1703, 0.1984, 0.2235, 0.2227 and 0.2181 day−1 at 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 °C, respectively. The net reproductive rate and finite rate of increase was highest at 27 °C (R o  = 112.05; λ = 1.4233) and lowest at 21 °C (R o  = 51.23; λ = 1.2581).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0171-1
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Seasonal Changes in Zooplankton and Macro-fauna Populations of the East
           Calcutta Wetland Fish Ponds
    • Authors: Sarmistha Saha; Tapan Saha; Parthiba Basu
      Pages: 156 - 164
      Abstract: The current study was to explore the seasonal variation in the zooplankton and aquatic macroinvertebrate population in India’s oldest and largest sewage fed fish ponds of East Kolkata Wetlands and whether they show different trends from the natural ponds. Zooplankton diversity was significantly higher in fish ponds whereas macroinvertebrate diversity was higher in natural ponds. Zooplanktons showed significant seasonal variation in the natural ponds but did not show any variation throughout the year in sewage fed fisheries. Among zooplankton species Brachionus spp., Keratella tropica which are pollution (eutrophy) indicator were found in greater abundance in EKW fisheries than natural ponds. Chironomid larvae which thrive and flourish in highly organically polluted or eutrophicated waters were dominant in EKW. The regular input of sewage provides a certain high level of nutrient to the fisheries which help to maintain greater and consistent population density and diversity of zooplanktons forming a strong base for the food webs in the EKW ponds.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0173-z
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Ichthyofaunal Diversity of Kangsabati River at Paschim Medinipur District,
           West Bengal, India
    • Authors: Avijit Kar; Manojit Bhattacharya; Mrinmay Ghorai; Shampa Patra; Bidhan Chandra Patra
      Pages: 165 - 173
      Abstract: Fish faunal diversity and their abundance vary to a great extent in respect to physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water body. The present study deals with the fish biodiversity and distribution with respect to several physicochemical characters of the habitat, from August-2013 to January-2015 in the Kangsabati River, Paschim Medinipur District of West Bengal. Occurrence of 45 fish species belonging to 8 orders, 17 families and 29 genera have been noted during the study period. It is evident that the members belonging to Cyprinifomes constitute 41 % of the total fish fauna of the river. Fluctuation in occurrence and abundance of the species are influenced by a number of physicochemical parameters viz. pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, conductivity and suspended solids.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0172-0
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • On Hirmocystis theodoridesi Kundu and Haldar, 1981 a Septate Gregarine
           from Aphis fabae of Manipur, India
    • Authors: Indira Yumnam; N. Mohilal
      Pages: 174 - 177
      Abstract: During a survey on the septate gregarine parasite of Aphids a species of septate gregarines (Protozoa: Sporozoa), Hirmocystis theodoridesi was isolated from the mid gut of Aphis fabae. Distinctive characteristics of Hirmocystis theodoridesi and its taxonomic position have been redescribed. The prevalence of the infection was 25 out of 60 (33.3 %).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0174-y
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Nesting Behaviour of the Giant Honeybees Apis dorsata Occurring in
           Jhargram, West Bengal, India
    • Authors: T. K. Misra; S. Pahari; S. Murmu; S. K. Raut
      Pages: 194 - 200
      Abstract: The giant honeybees Apis dorsata are habituated to construct combs in trees, houses, caves as well as in overhead water reservoir occurring in their nesting localities. To verify their preference for nesting sites if any, surveys were conducted in recent years (2013–16), during nesting seasons of these bees in Jhargram area of West Bengal, India. It is revealed that A. dorsata construct their combs in big, tall, aged simul (Bombax ceiba), bot (Ficus benghalensis) trees mostly, irrespective of localities. Also they were seen to construct nest at the underside of the overhead water reservoir ignoring nesting potential trees occurring nearby. Of course, nesting in the houses, and on the walls of culvert is not uncommon. As the bees constructed more than 100–200 nests at the same nesting site e.g., a tree or/and an overhead water reservoir, depending upon the availability of space for construction of nest it is concluded that these insects prefer colonial nesting.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-016-0176-9
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Nests of Black Kite ( Milvus migrans govinda ) in Urban Landscape of
           Kolkata, India
    • Authors: Subhendu Mazumdar; Dipankar Ghose; Goutam Kumar Saha
      Pages: 201 - 205
      Abstract: All birds construct nests to lay eggs and/or to raise offspring. Scientific description on the nest materials of Black Kite Milvus migrans govinda is very few and is particularly lacking in urban landscape. Therefore, the present study was carried out on three nests of Black Kites collected from different regions of Kolkata metropolis, India to generate quantitative data on the nest parameters and materials used by the Black Kites to construct nest in this urban metropolis of the country. All these nests of Black Kites were large oval shaped platform nests, which mostly comprised of dry twigs of various plants (1.265 ± 0.094 kg, range 1.147–1.452, n = 3), followed by fair amount of human derived (artificial) objects (0.507 ± 0.049 kg, range 0.42–0.59, n = 3) and clay (0.347 ± 0.038 kg, range 0.29–0.42 kg, n = 3). Dimensions of three nests did not vary significantly (Kruskal–Wallis test: H = 0.195, df = 2, P > 0.05), but the weight of ‘plant materials’, ‘human derived materials’ and ‘clay’ present in all three nests varied significantly (Kruskal–Wallis test: H = 6.88, df = 2, P < 0.05). Present study thus adds to the existing knowledge of nest materials used by Milvus migrans govinda and is the first scientific report on nest materials used by these diurnal raptors in Kolkata metropolis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-015-0163-6
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Modulation of Immune Response by Organophosphate Pesticides: Mammals as
           Potential Model
    • Authors: Anindita Mitra; Mainak Sarkar; Chandranath Chatterjee
      Abstract: Organophosphates (OPs) are most widely used pesticides and primarily induce toxicity by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nerve terminals of central and peripheral nervous system, leading to a variety of short-term and chronic effects in the non-target animals. In addition to acetylcholinesterase, OPs are known to potent inhibitors of serine hydrolases which are vital component of the immune system and therefore influence the immune functions. OPs induce several immunomodulatory effects in vertebrates by altering neutrophil function, macrophage production, antibody production, immunosuppression, reduced interleukin production and T cell proliferation. Immunotoxicity due to OP exposure is mediated through perturbation of the cholinergic response of lymphocytes, altering signal transduction, mutilating granule exocytosis pathway and impairing FasL/Fas pathway of natural killer cell and other immune related cells. Apoptosis of lymphocytes or immune related cells is promoted through mitochondrial pore formation and DNA fragmentation. In this review an attempt has been made to document the immunomodulatory effects of organophosphate pesticides using mammals as potential model with an additional information on the probable mechanism of immunotoxicity induced by OPs.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0256-5
  • Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticle Using Garlic, Allium sativum
           with Reference to Its Antimicrobial Activity Against the Pathogenic Strain
    • Authors: Mandira Saha; Probir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
      Abstract: Bacterial disease is a growing threat to aquaculture. The use of commercial antibiotics in aquaculture increases antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria in exposed ecosystem and also creating environmental and public health hazards. As a consequence nowadays scientists are in search of alternate antibiotics. The use of Alliums by humans has a long history that can be traced back to the ancient Indians. Therefore, garlic-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has garnered wide interest owing to its inherent features such as rapidity, simplicity, eco-friendliness and cheaper costs. This study deals with an environmentally friendly and biosynthesis process of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Allium sativum. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction profile. Furthermore, the synthesized nanoparticles were examined against the pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa PB112 (JN996498) and Bacillus licheniformis PKBMS16 (KX235179) infecting goldfish, Carassius auratus. From the experiment, it was found that the biologically synthesized nanoparticles by using A. sativum have a significant antibacterial activity and provide a scope for possible development of the formulations antimicrobial drug. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0258-3
  • Wetlands and Lakes of the World: Devashish Kar
    • Authors: Gautam Aditya
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0248-5
  • Shivendu K. Srivastava: Commercial Use of Biodiversity: Resolving the
           Access and Benefit Sharing Issues
    • Authors: A. K. Ghosh
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12595-017-0247-6
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