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Proceedings of the Zoological Society    [4 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]
  • Affinity of House Crows (Corvus
    ) with Nesting Trees occurring in and around Kolkata,
    • Abstract: Abstract The house crows Corvus splendens Vieillot are accustomed to construct nest in suitable trees belonging to certain species. In the present study an attempt was made to draw the affinity of crows with the nest-tree species occurring in and around Kolkata (22°34′N, 88°24′E), West Bengal, India. Accordingly, survey was conducted in different road side trees during the period of eight consecutive breeding seasons from 2006 to 2013. Of the recorded 46 nest-tree species belonging to 27 families, irrespective of Ivlev’s and Jacobs preference indices, 13 were of ‘exclusive selection’, 2 were of ‘no active selection’ and 16 were of ‘complete avoidance selection’ by C. splendens for nesting. The status of the remaining 15 nest-tree species were either avoiding or no active selection in nature. Out of 13 exclusive/complete selection nest-tree species 8 species harboured 85.65 % of the total 1,171 nests recorded out of 3,083 nests in course of studies. Apart from canopy configuration, leaf phenology and food resource mobilization these nest-tree species had a number of spots, amongst the ramifications, presenting a platform because of agglomeration of 2–3, 4–5 or more than 5 suitable branches. As such kinds of spots were the sites for construction of nest by C. splendens; it is imperative that the said factor determines the affinity of house crows with the nest-tree species.
      PubDate: 2014-03-09
  • Diagnosis of Mycobacterium
    in Captive Sloth Bears (       class="a-plus-plus">Melursus ursinus) by
           Polymerase Chain reaction
    • Abstract: Abstract Diagnosis of mycobacterial infection is paramount important from the public health perspective since treatment and control measures are very significant, particularly in captive animals. In this diagnostic study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had been used with the primer sequence of pncA-8 (5′-GGTTGGGTGGCCGCCGGTCAG-3′) and pncA-11 (5′-GCTTTGCGGCGAGCGCTCCA-3′) that were specific for M. bovis pncA gene. Forty-two fresh faecal samples were collected randomly from the apparently healthy sloth bears maintained in captive conditions. The DNA extraction procedure was done as per the manufacturer’s protocol and further subjected to amplification. The amplification profile includes respectively: initial heating of the samples for 5 min at 94 °C, annealing at 55 °C for 1 min, primer extension at 72 °C for 1 min and final elongation step for 10 min at 72 °C. Out of 57 samples, 5 samples were yielded on expected amplified PCR product size of 744 bp when electrophoresed in 1.5 % agarose gel. A positive control of M. bovis DNA procured from Tuberculosis Research Centre and a negative control from a healthy bovine sample were used. These results demonstrated that PCR test will increase the effectiveness of laboratory diagnosis to detect and identifying the M. bovis in captive wild animals.
      PubDate: 2014-03-09
  • Stomach Contents of Olive Ridley Turtles (       class="a-plus-plus">Lepidochelys Olivacea)
           Occurring in Gahirmatha, Odisha Coast of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Stomach contents of olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) occurring along the Gahirmatha coast of Odisha, India have been studied between October 2008 and May 2010. We obtained 76 stomach contents from olive ridley turtles that were stranded freshly, of which 12 were males and 64 were females. Among food items, molluscs dominated with 34.5 % in volume while crustaceans were next in order of volume (27.6 %). Occurrence of fish and other invertebrate and algae fragments though were less in amount have been noted almost in all specimens.
      PubDate: 2014-03-08
  • Microalgae in Aquaculture: A Review with Special References to Nutritional
           Value and Fish Dietetics
    • Abstract: Abstract Microalgal biotechnology has gained considerable importance in recent decades and its use is extending day by day into several areas like nutraceutical research, renewable energy source, production of essential biomolecules like β-carotene, astaxanthin, PUFA, bio colorant production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation and aquaculture etc. Among all these, microalgae as a source of nutrition have drawn the attention since long back and are widely used in animal nutrition. Fishmeal is the preferred protein ingredient of feed in aquaculture industry, contributing significantly to the variable production cost. However, decreasing fishmeal supply and increasing costs threaten the sustainability and growth of the aquaculture industry. Therefore, complete or partial substitution of fishmeal with alternative proteins is needed to solve the problem. Presently, microalgae are used worldwide as an alternate protein source replacing fishmeal successfully. In feeding trials with fish, many types of microalgae have been found to be used for increasing growth (protein accretion), feed utilization, physiological activity, stress response, starvation tolerance, disease resistance, and carcass quality. In the present communication an attempt has been taken to review the application of different microalgae in rearing of aquaculture animal especially the fishes.
      PubDate: 2014-03-04
  • Influence of Probiotics on Survival, Growth, Biochemical Changes and
           Energy Utilization Performance of        class="a-plus-plus">Macrobrachium rosenbergii
    • Abstract: Abstract A 90 days feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of the combined probiotics Bacillus subtilis (BS) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on the survival, growth, biochemical changes and energy utilization performance of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The probiotics, BS (3) and SC (4) were taken and mixed, as 1, 2, 3 and 4 % of BS + SC (3:4) was incorporated with basal diet. Diet without probiotics served as control. PL-30 of M. rosenbergii was fed with BS + SC (3:4) incorporated diet for a period of 90 days in triplicates. After the feeding experiment, the growth parameters such as survival, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency rate were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 3 % BS + SC incorporated diet fed PL group. Similarly, the biochemical composition of the total protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, lipid and ash content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 3 % BS + SC incorporated diet fed PL group. The energy utilization parameters, such as feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate, NH3 excretory rate and metabolic rate were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 3 % BS + SC incorporated diet fed PL group. However, BS + SC incorporated diet fed PLs produced better growth performance.
      PubDate: 2014-02-23
  • Potentiality of Bacterial Pathogens Including Invasive Exotic Species as
           Threat to Indigenous Fish Species
    • Abstract: Abstract The Indian major carps (viz. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala) were chosen as model to study the bacterial load of the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila upon artificial inoculation. Aeromonas load was detected in the asymptomatic carriers after 30 days of exposure. The results showed significant difference in load among three different species of carps and among fish populations of each species injected with seven different doses individually and also when they interacted among themselves. Duncan’s Post Hoc test for homogeneity among these major carps revealed the presence of seven subsets in each, indicating that there is a significant difference in Aeromonas load with respect to all the doses when compared pair-wise. Cirrhinus mrigala showed the highest sensitivity to the bacterial exposure, followed by L. rohita and C. catla. The presence of the pathogen was also confirmed using Duplex PCR technique. Then, the pathogenic potentiality of an exotic species of aeromonad (Aeromonas salmonicida) was compared with the indigenous species of A. hydrophila in a tropical air-breathing fish, Channa punctatus. The seasonal disease occurrence, mortality and survival of adult C. punctatus due to artificial inoculation (4 × 107 cfu ml−1) of both species of aeromonads were investigated. The disease occurrence was more prevalent due to the infection of A. salmonicida than that of A. hydrophila especially in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, clearly reflecting that exotic is more harmful than indigenous species of aeromonads and is a serious concern as a threat to fish in India.
      PubDate: 2014-02-23
  • Toxicological Evaluation of Antimicrobially Potent Sulfur Nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract Toxicological properties of orthorhombic (~10 nm) and monoclinic (~50 nm) allotropes of sulfur nanoparticles (SNPs) of antimicrobial importance have been evaluated against mice (Mus musculus) model. The present study investigates possible bio-adverse properties of SNP-allotropes on hematological (haemoglobin, total count, differential count), biochemical (hepatic enzymes, renal physiology, blood lipids, blood glucose), and histological parameters in mice. Effects of SNPs were also determined against cognition pattern of mice using the open field assay, and acetylcholine esterase activity assay. In addition, SNPs were tested against fecundity (rate of reproduction), and allergenicity (by monitoring physical symptoms) of the treated animals. Cumulative results of the performed assays suggest that SNPs induce vascular congestion in liver with sinusoidal dilation, and hypersensitive reactions among the targets.
      PubDate: 2014-02-21
  • Diversity of Rotifers in Shallow Lake of Sultanpur National Park, Gurgaon
    • Abstract: Abstract Community composition, diversity and density of rotifers were analyzed in shallow lake of Sultanpur National Park, Gurgaon, Haryana (India) from February, 2011 to January, 2012. 32 species of rotifer were encountered belonging to 11 genera, 7 families and 3 orders. Order Monogononta had maximum species richness (27, 85 %) belonging to five families, namely, Brachionidae, Mytilinidae, Trichocercidae, Lecanidae and Gastropodidae. The most diversified genera was Brachionus, represented by eight species, namely, B. bidentata; B. quadridentatus; B. caudatus; B. diversicornis; B. forficula; B. patulus; B. plicatilis and B. calyciflorus. The least dominanted genera which were represented by single species includes Anuraeopsis sp., Gastropus sp. and Mytlina sp.
      PubDate: 2014-02-06
  • Caenorhabditis chinkari
           sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from Chinkara of Alipore Zoological Garden,
           Kolkata, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Caenorhabditis chinkari sp. n. is described and illustrated. The species is characterized by the body size (1.07–1.40 μm ♀; 0.76–1.01 μm ♂) and the presence of anteriorly closed ellipsoidal bursa whose posterior end is blunt or rounded, with smooth edge throughout, papillae pattern 2 + 1 + 3 + 3 in males. Distal tips of caudal papillae 1, 2 and 3 attached to the dorsal surface of bursa, 4 and 9 to ventral surface and 5, 6, 7, and 8 to edge. It was collected from the faecal samples of Chinkara (Gazella gazella bennettii Sykes, 1831), captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. The collected samples were maintained in a culture plate in the laboratory and certain aspects of its biology and the ecology have been noted. Besides, C. avicola, C. bovis, C. clavopapillata and C. genitalis, this paper highlights the occurrence of another new species of the genus Caenorhabditis (Ösche, Abteilung Systematik 81: 190–280, 1952; Dougherty, The genera of the subfamily Rhabditinae Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda): 69–76, 1953) in association with a vertebrate host.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29
  • Mosquito Prey Vulnerability in Intraguild Predation Between        class="a-plus-plus">Ranatra filiformis and        class="a-plus-plus">Anisops bouvieri: Implications
           in Biological Control
    • Abstract: Abstract Wetlands are common habitats of a range of predatory water bugs (Heteroptera) constituting a guild that exhibit similar dietary choice including mosquito. Differences in body size and micro habitat preference among the heteropteran guild members provide a fair possibility of intraguild predation that can influence the regulatory effect on the prey species. This proposition was tested under laboratory conditions, using varying density of Ranatra filiformis (IG predator) and Anisops bouvieri (IG prey) as predators against mosquito larvae as shared prey. Compared to single predator system, mosquito larvae were proportionately less vulnerable to predation in intraguild predation (IGP), at low density of shared prey. In IGP system, vulnerability of shared prey increased with increase in density accompanied by a decline in mortality of IG prey. The mean mortality of shared prey and IG prey increased with the density of IG predator. It was apparent that the mosquito prey vulnerability was enhanced with increase in density of mosquito and R. filiformis while reducing the mortality of A. bouvieri partly. The interaction between R. filiformis and A. bouvieri as a part of IGP system indicate about the possible mechanism of coexistence of predators and prey in the wetlands. The density dependent effects on reduction and enhancement of shared prey (mosquito) mortality indicate that appropriate ratio of R. filiformis, A. bouvieri and mosquito larvae will be required to make biological regulation of wetland mosquitoes feasible.
      PubDate: 2014-01-04
  • Immunohistochemical Localization of Gastrin Cells (G-Cells) in the
           Alimentary Canal of a Skipper Frog,        class="a-plus-plus">Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis,
           Schiedner, (Anura; Ranidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract The present investigation deals with the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin secreting cells in different parts of the alimentary canal of an insectivorous skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schiedner). The gastrin immunoreactive (G IR) cells have been observed in stomach and in duodenal regions of the gut only. Three different morphological types of G IR cells have been recorded. The first type was with long protoplasmic extension projecting towards the lumen indicating lumone nature of secretion. The second type were rounded or oval in shape present towards basal region adjacent to gastric gland suggesting a non-secretory or parahormone or notch signal property of secretory molecule. The third type of cell was with multiple protoplasmic projections related to the secretory behaviour of gastrin cell. In stomach the G IR cells were more in pyloric region and less in fundic region. In stomach, the first type dominates in its number and the two latter types were less. In the duodenal region, the majority of G IR cells were of second type with scanty first type. It is concluded that the three different morphotypes of G IR cells are in fact different secretory stages of gastrin cells (G cells). The existence of different morphotypes of G cells is also linked with their strategic location and requirement to act as either hormone or parahormone or neurohormone or lumone.
      PubDate: 2014-01-04
  • Distribution of Major Sucking Pest,        class="a-plus-plus">Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera:
           Miridae) of Cashew in India
    • Abstract: Abstract Surveys were conducted between 2010 and 2013 in west coast and east coast belts of India for major sucking pests, Helopeltis spp. in cashew. It reveals that three species viz., H. antonii Signoret, H. bradyi Waterhouse and H. theivora Waterhouse spread over different host plants. H. antonii was noticed as the predominant species and collected from 14 locations on five different host plants whereas; H.bradyi was collected from five locations on two host plants. The study also highlighted first record of H. antonii from Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Odhisa cashew region. Similarly, H. bradyi was reported for the first time in high altitude Tura region, Meghalaya. H. theivora was predominant species on cashew in North East region. Incidence of Helopeltis spp. was very severe in most of the cashew growing tracts of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra in the west coast region. Pachypeltis maesarum Kirkaldy was observed as a minor pest along with H. antonii on cashew and with H. theivora on Solanum torvum Sw.
      PubDate: 2013-12-28
  • Cephaline Gregarines of Purulia District, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract On way of survey in the Jhalda block of Purulia district, altogether 44 insect species belonging to 3 orders have been examined. Of these 14 species of insects have been found with cephaline gregarine infection. It is revealed that, most of the recorded cephaline gregarine parasites belonged to Gregarina, Hirmocystis, Stylocephalus, Quadruspinospora, Phleobum, Retractocephalus, Odonaticola, Pileocephalus, Steinina and Laterospora genera. Though infestation is species specific, occurrence of two species of gregarines in the same host at the same time is well documented.
      PubDate: 2013-12-15
  • On the Record of a Spot-Fin Porcupine Fish,        class="a-plus-plus">Diodon hystrix (Linnaeus,
           1758) from Mandarmani, Bay of Bengal Coast of West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract A dead specimen of a spot-fin porcupine fish Diodon hystrix was observed on the sea shore in Mandarmani, West Bengal, India. The fish weighed 2.7 kg, 76.5 cm in length and 2.54 cm in eye diameter. Although distributed circumtropically and recorded from Indian coastal waters, D. hystrix is not harvested at present, as a part of commercial capture fishery. Scars and symptoms ensuring trawler net trap caused death of the specimen. This incident warrants for a strict vigil on fishing gear used in this part of Bay of Bengal so as to ensure death escape of non-target marine resources.
      PubDate: 2013-12-03
  • Satellite Based Integrated Potential Fishing Zone Advisories: A
           Feasibility Analysis in the Coastal Water of West Bengal
    • Abstract: Abstract Satellite derived ocean colour (chlorophyll a) and sea surface temperature data can be used for prediction of “Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ)” in sea. Present study elicits the benefit of satellite derived PFZ advisories in the coastal stretch (<150 m isobaths) of West Bengal, India during the period of October 2008 to February 2009, a total of 16 PFZ advisories, provided by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), have been validated using two identical fishing crafts operated from Frasergunj fishing harbour. As a benefit, search time to locate fish schools have gone down significantly and mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) in notified area was 51.47 ± 4.30 SE kg/h, almost twofolds in comparison to the CPUE of non-notified area. It has been also observed that benefit cost ratio of each fishing trip operated in notified area varies between 1.90 and 6.40 and the range is almost double than the boats operated in non-notified areas.
      PubDate: 2013-12-03
  • Urea Excretion in Isoparorchis
    (Billet, 1898)
    • Abstract: Abstract To understand the nature and amount of excretory products of Isoparorchis hypselobagri, a digenetic trematode inhabiting the swim bladder of Wallago attu the parasites were kept in PBS media without glucose (control) and with glucose (treated) successfully up to 300 h and estimated different excretory products in the media after every alternate 12 h. The quantitative estimation of urea excreted by I. hypselobagri is done. It is lower when the flukes were kept in vitro in the control incubation media than in the treated incubation media. The highest amount of urea excreted in control media was 18.563 mg % at 276 h, and in treated condition 29.759 mg % after 216 h of incubation, while the lowest amount of urea excreted, 6.08 mg %, in control media and 10.343 mg % in treated media respectively after 12 h of incubation. The results were highly significant at 5 % level. The rate of change of excretion of urea in treated condition after every 12 h of incubation time interval was also studied. In the swim bladder washings of host urea is also present in significant amount and the amount excreted depends on the number of parasites harbor. From the results presence of both ammonotelic and ureotelic conditions are suggested.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Avian Fauna of Khajjiar Lake, District Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Avifauna of Khajjiar lake revealed the presence of 77 species of birds belonging to 62 genera, 12 orders and 31 families. In this area Muscicapidae is the most represented family with 22 species belonging to 15 genera followed by Accipitridae and Corvidae (six species each), Paridae, Phasianidae, Columbidae and Picidae (three species each). 20 species of birds were local and the rest 57 seasonal-local and long range migrants Of the 57 species, 35 were seasonal-local migrants, four were winter visitors and ten were summer visitors. Moreover, Khajjiar lake supported eight such species which showed winter and summer influx. Of these, six showed summer influx, whereas, winter influx was shown by two species only. Data on relative abundance showed that 25 species of birds were very common, 30 common, 21 uncommon and one rarely seen in the area.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Nesting Site of House Crow: Tree Versus Light-Post—An Impact
    • Abstract: Abstract Surveys on the nesting sites of the crows Corvus splendens were conducted along different road-side trees and light-posts in different localities of greater Kolkata, India during the breeding seasons in 2009–2012. It is revealed that C. splendens prefer light-posts as nesting sites to trees under certain environmental conditions like availability of foods, assurance of nest, nest building materials and eggs and/or young. As there exists, in most cases only one spot for nesting in a light-post and the said spot is usually located at a height ranging from 5.5 to 6.0 m from the ground contrast to an average 11.9 m height of the tree nest. The height of the nest determines the time and energy to be required either for the collection of foods, or to return to the nest within a short time as and when needed in respect to the evolved circumstances. It is apparent that the crows did not care to face the unusual danger to ensure their survival by developing this sort of nesting habit. Thus, it seems that the crows have developed the strategy of nesting in the light-post by the road side or on the road only to maximize their benefit in respect to their survival and propagation.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Toxicity of Khaya
    (Meliaceae) Seed Oil Against the Larvae of        class="a-plus-plus">Boophilus decoloratus: A
           One-Host Tick in Cattle
    • Abstract: Abstract The in vitro toxicity of seed oil of Khaya senegalensis (family: Meliaceae) was tested against the larvae of a one host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick) known as ‘blue tick’ parasitic mainly to cattle commonly found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 % concentrations of seed oil were found to kill all (100 % mortality) the larvae after 28, 28, 24, 20 and 20 h respectively.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Flesh of an Edible Marine Fish:
           Amadi (Coilia reynaldi)
    • Abstract: Abstract Amadi is a small sized edible marine fish species (Coilia reynaldi) under the order-Clupeiformes. It is important for principal lipids and in particular for highly unsaturated fatty acids which have potential biomedical benefits. Among the lipid classes, phospholipids were found to be the most predominant constituents than the glycolipid and neutral lipid in Amadi. Twenty six fatty acids were quantified by open tube gas–liquid chromatography. Dominant fatty acids in this fish are Palmitic acid (C16:0), Stearic acid (C18:0), Oleic acid (C18:1n−9), Myristic acid (C14:0), Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), Docosahexanoic acid (C22:6n−3), Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), and Eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4n−3). Fatty acid deficiency in fish species is indicated by the presence of C20:3n−9 acid. It is absent in this fish.The content of DHA and EPA are maximum in amount in neutral lipid than other lipid classes.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
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