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Journal Cover   Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • SAC and Berberine Mediated Repression of Reactive Species and
           Hepatoprotection After DEN + CCl 4 Exposure
    • Abstract: Abstract Oxidative stress is proposed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. With an accelerated metabolism cancer cells demand high reactive species accumulation to maintain their indiscriminate cell growth and proliferation. Here we wanted to see the status of reactive species in the chemically induced liver cancer. For this purpose swiss albino mice were exposed to DEN and CCl4 to develop an in vivo model of hepatocarcinoma. Depletion of cellular antioxidants regulated accretion of reactive species during the development of DEN + CCl4 induced tumor formation in hepatocytes. Currently available therapeutics for heptatocellular carcinoma is costly and coupled with certain bystander effects to the surrounding control cells. Therefore considering the antioxidant properties of SAC and berberine we treated DEN + CCl4 exposed mice after the development of liver tumor. Results effectively pointed out the usefulness of the alternative treatment with SAC and berberine in hepatoprotection. Replenishment of both enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant efficiently reduced accumulation of reactive species and that eventually closely associated with effective reduction in tumor number and size after drug treatment in DEN + CCl4 exposed mice.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25
  • Impact of Urbanization on House Sparrow Distribution: A Case Study from
           Greater Kolkata, India
    • Abstract: Abstract House Sparrow was the most abundant bird species near human habitat until few years back. But from the mid of twentieth century, the declining trend of House Sparrow has been reported from various countries. It has already been red listed in Netherlands and UK. Researches indicate the declining trend of House Sparrow in different cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru. A 3-month wide survey has been conducted to get a preliminary idea about the distributional trend of House Sparrow in greater Kolkata. Depending on nature of urbanization and human habitat, greater Kolkata, has been subdivided into four regions (Planned City, Highly dense city, Medium dense city and Low dense city regions). In high density urban region the avian density recoded was highest, although avian diversity was maximum in medium and low dense city regions and minimum in planned city. Among 20 observational units of planned city region, House Sparrow has been noticed in 6 units and crow in all units. Among 115 observational units of rest of the regions of greater Kolkata, House Sparrow was observed in 79 units and crow in 98 units. The preliminary information revealed from this survey indicates towards negative relationship between urbanization and House Sparrow population in greater Kolkata and this negative influence is maximum in planned urban region. The presence of sufficient number of House Sparrow in any region indicates environmental stability of that region. So the declining trend of House Sparrow population in greater Kolkata, particularly in planned city region, indirectly gives the evidence of serious environmental degradation.
      PubDate: 2015-08-13
  • Pattern of Distribution of Endemic Pill-Millipedes in the Southwestern
    • Abstract: Abstract Pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera (Sphaerotheriidae) has restricted geographic distribution (Southern India, Sri Lanka and Madagascar) were under studied category of soil macrofauna. In the current study, seven morphospecies of Arthrosphaera were recovered in four biomes of the Western Ghats and west coast of India. In locations Makutta (A. fumosa), Karike (A. fumosa), Ninthikal (A. dalyi), Uppinangadi (A. magna) and Uppala (A. hendersoni) were endowed with only one species of Arthrosphaera. Although some locations consist of more than one species, one of them was dominated. Shankaraghatta forest consists of A. disticta and A. versicolor, but A. disticta was highly dominant. In Adyanadka plantations, A. magna was dominant than A. carinata. The highest number of A. disticta was recorded per quadrate in high-altitude location (Shimoga), followed by A. hendersoni in the coastal location (Uppala), A. magna (Adyanadka) and A. dalyi (Ninthikal) in foothill locations. The highest biomass of A. dalyi per quadrate was seen in Ninthikal, followed by A. magna in Adyanadka, A. disticta in Shimoga, A. fumosa in Karike and A. magna in Adyanadka and Uppinangadi. The richness of Arthrosphaera was positively correlated with biomass, conductivity, total nitrogen, potassium contents in soil and negatively correlated with calcium content in soil.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30
  • Determination of ETL for Major Pests in Betelvine
    • Abstract: Abstract The plantation crop, Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is one of the most important cash crops in India. Major crop-loss (betel vine crop) occurs owing to the damage caused by white fly (Singhiella palled) and black fly (Aleurocanthus rugosa), and as such these are considered as the most harmful pests in respect of the damage caused by them. The quantum of damage is determined by calculating economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold level (ETL). Knowledge of ETL helps to reduce crop loss (and ensures less pesticide application), and as a consequence, profit is increased. Also substantial knowledge is required on the dynamics of the pest population in order to determine the density at which the EIL may be prevented. This communication is devoted to the development of a method for determination of ETL in case of the plantation crop, betel vine. As the knowledge of ETL is Vital to the farmers, this article presents a systematic method to determine the ETL from a special type of experiment on betel vine designed for this purpose. The existing method of determination is based on economic parameters (Weersink et al. in Can J Agric Econ 39(4):619–625, 1991) which are subject to local, temporal and spatial variation. The developed method is divested of the above-mentioned variations and depends on the features of pest-infestation data solely.
      PubDate: 2015-07-09
  • Nesting in a Crowd: Response of House Sparrow Towards Proximity to Spatial
           Cues in Commercial Zones of Guwahati City
    • Abstract: Abstract We studied the nest site characteristics features of House Sparrow Passer domesticus in highly crowded commercial zones of Guwahati city, Assam, India. Active nests of House Sparrow were recorded during the peak breeding season—February to April 2013. A total of 106 nests were recorded, out of which 36 % of nests were in colonies having more than two nests with a maximum of 20 nests in a single colony. The shutters were found to be the predominant substrates for nest construction. The average nest height was 3.78 ± 2.18 m. Most of the nests were recorded in less than 5 m height. The habitat patch selection for nesting might be a response to food availability or protection against abiotic factors. The availability or proximity of suitable foraging sites seems to be an important feature for nest site choice. The shopping centers with glass facades (exterior construction of the buildings) do not provide much space for placing the nests. The development of modern buildings is going to be a major threat to the breeding sparrows in near future.
      PubDate: 2015-07-08
  • A Preliminary Report on the Butterfly Diversity of Kurumpuram Reserve
           Forest, Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu
    • Abstract: Abstract The biodiversity of the butterfly fauna of Kurumpuram reserve forest, Marakkanam was studied through weekly sampling programme from July 2013–December 2013. A total of 26 species belonging to five families (Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lyacaenidae, Arctiidae) and 22 genera were recorded. Out of these, members of Nymphalidae were dominant with 14 species followed by Pieridae (04 species), Papilionidae (03 species), Lyacaenidae (03 species), and Arctiidae (02 species).
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
  • Compensatory Adjustment in Chloride Cells During Salinity Adaptation in
           Mud Crab, Scylla serrata
    • Abstract: Abstract Capacity acclimation is a measurement of understanding the degree of adaptation that take place in physiological activities or biological functions in altered environmental conditions. Precht and Prosser in different ways classified capacity acclimation due to alterations of environmental temperature with respect to various physiological processes in a variety of organisms. We hypothesized that the same may be applied to understand the degree of adaptation in various physiological processes of organisms due to change in the salinity or any other environmental parameters. In order to understand the adaptive capability or the degree of compensation in different saline environment in some of the physiological processes of chloride cells, the chloride cells from 1 psu and or 35 psu acclimated crabs were cultured further in vitro, in L-15 media maintained with 12 psu salinity for another 5 h without any mortality. Rate of ion transport across the chloride cell membrane, and the activity of ion transporting enzyme were recorded. Over compensation or perfect compensation in the transport rate of K+, Na+ and Ca++ ions, due to hypo saline as well as hyper saline acclimation, clearly indicates their role in maintaining the homeostasis in osmoregulatory processes during salinity adaptation. On the other hand, inverse compensation or partial compensation in the transport rate of Cl− ions and the activity of ATPases indicate about their involvement in adjusting the osmoregulatory processes in altered saline environment rather that contributing to adaptability processes during change in the environmental salinity.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23
  • Clove Oil Efficacy on the Red Spider Mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner
           (Acari: Tetranychidae) Infesting Tea Plants
    • Abstract: Abstract The tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae), is an economically important pest of agricultural and ornamental crops and considered one of the major pests of tea plants in North-east India. In view of increasing resistance recorded in insect and mite pests against pesticides, a study was conducted to determine the acaricidal, antiovipositional, repellent and ovicidal activities of clove oil (an essential oil from the clove plant, Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. & Perry: Myrtaceae) against tea-red-spider-mite. Mortality of O. coffeae varied with the concentrations and the duration of exposure time of the mites after application of oil. Rate of deposition of eggs by mites on treated leaf surfaces as well as the viability rate of eggs decreased significantly. In addition, certain concentrations of clove oil have been proved effective against adult mites.
      PubDate: 2015-06-21
  • Foraminifera of Lakshadweep Archipelago, Arabian Sea
    • Abstract: Abstract Ocean acidification is a threat for coral reefs and shelled protists like foraminifera. A study on distribution of foraminifera in the intertidal regions of Lakshadweep Archipelago, Arabian Sea was carried out. Agatti, Amini Bangaram, Kadmat, Parali Ι and Tinnakkara Islands of Lakshadweep were the six sites selected for the study. A total of 29 species belonging to 17 genera, 14 families and four sub-orders of foraminifera were identified. Nine species were unique to Lakshadweep islands. The distribution of foraminifera in relation to sediment characteristics was assessed. The diversity and morphology of Lakshadweep foraminifera was compared to that of the foraminifera of the West and East coast of India in which 37.5 % of foraminifera occurring in the lagoons of Lakshadweep Islands studied here are exclusive. The foraminifera of the Archipelago are 1.5 times larger in size compared to that found in Indian coast. Miliolina and Rotaliina were the predominant suborders in both abundance and species richness. Marginopora vertabralis, Calcarina calcar, Amphistegina madagascariensis¸ Amphistegina radiata and Amphistegina lessoni were the abundant species. Sediment characteristics like organic matter, calcium carbonate and sediment texture were analysed and were found to correlate significantly with abundance and species richness of total and live foraminiferal populations of study sites.
      PubDate: 2015-06-18
  • Potentiality of Bacterial Pathogens Including Invasive Exotic Species as
           Threat to Indigenous Fish Species
    • Abstract: Abstract The Indian major carps (viz. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala) were chosen as model to study the bacterial load of the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila upon artificial inoculation. Aeromonas load was detected in the asymptomatic carriers after 30 days of exposure. The results showed significant difference in load among three different species of carps and among fish populations of each species injected with seven different doses individually and also when they interacted among themselves. Duncan’s Post Hoc test for homogeneity among these major carps revealed the presence of seven subsets in each, indicating that there is a significant difference in Aeromonas load with respect to all the doses when compared pair-wise. Cirrhinus mrigala showed the highest sensitivity to the bacterial exposure, followed by L. rohita and C. catla. The presence of the pathogen was also confirmed using Duplex PCR technique. Then, the pathogenic potentiality of an exotic species of aeromonad (Aeromonas salmonicida) was compared with the indigenous species of A. hydrophila in a tropical air-breathing fish, Channa punctatus. The seasonal disease occurrence, mortality and survival of adult C. punctatus due to artificial inoculation (4 × 107 cfu ml−1) of both species of aeromonads were investigated. The disease occurrence was more prevalent due to the infection of A. salmonicida than that of A. hydrophila especially in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, clearly reflecting that exotic is more harmful than indigenous species of aeromonads and is a serious concern as a threat to fish in India.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Microalgae in Aquaculture: A Review with Special References to Nutritional
           Value and Fish Dietetics
    • Abstract: Abstract Microalgal biotechnology has gained considerable importance in recent decades and its use is extending day by day into several areas like nutraceutical research, renewable energy source, production of essential biomolecules like β-carotene, astaxanthin, PUFA, bio colorant production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation and aquaculture etc. Among all these, microalgae as a source of nutrition have drawn the attention since long back and are widely used in animal nutrition. Fishmeal is the preferred protein ingredient of feed in aquaculture industry, contributing significantly to the variable production cost. However, decreasing fishmeal supply and increasing costs threaten the sustainability and growth of the aquaculture industry. Therefore, complete or partial substitution of fishmeal with alternative proteins is needed to solve the problem. Presently, microalgae are used worldwide as an alternate protein source replacing fishmeal successfully. In feeding trials with fish, many types of microalgae have been found to be used for increasing growth (protein accretion), feed utilization, physiological activity, stress response, starvation tolerance, disease resistance, and carcass quality. In the present communication an attempt has been taken to review the application of different microalgae in rearing of aquaculture animal especially the fishes.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Satellite Based Integrated Potential Fishing Zone Advisories: A
           Feasibility Analysis in the Coastal Water of West Bengal
    • Abstract: Abstract Satellite derived ocean colour (chlorophyll a) and sea surface temperature data can be used for prediction of “Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ)” in sea. Present study elicits the benefit of satellite derived PFZ advisories in the coastal stretch (<150 m isobaths) of West Bengal, India during the period of October 2008 to February 2009, a total of 16 PFZ advisories, provided by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), have been validated using two identical fishing crafts operated from Frasergunj fishing harbour. As a benefit, search time to locate fish schools have gone down significantly and mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) in notified area was 51.47 ± 4.30 SE kg/h, almost twofolds in comparison to the CPUE of non-notified area. It has been also observed that benefit cost ratio of each fishing trip operated in notified area varies between 1.90 and 6.40 and the range is almost double than the boats operated in non-notified areas.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Caenorhabditis chinkari sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from Chinkara of
           Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Caenorhabditis chinkari sp. n. is described and illustrated. The species is characterized by the body size (1.07–1.40 μm ♀; 0.76–1.01 μm ♂) and the presence of anteriorly closed ellipsoidal bursa whose posterior end is blunt or rounded, with smooth edge throughout, papillae pattern 2 + 1 + 3 + 3 in males. Distal tips of caudal papillae 1, 2 and 3 attached to the dorsal surface of bursa, 4 and 9 to ventral surface and 5, 6, 7, and 8 to edge. It was collected from the faecal samples of Chinkara (Gazella gazella bennettii Sykes, 1831), captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. The collected samples were maintained in a culture plate in the laboratory and certain aspects of its biology and the ecology have been noted. Besides, C. avicola, C. bovis, C. clavopapillata and C. genitalis, this paper highlights the occurrence of another new species of the genus Caenorhabditis (Ösche, Abteilung Systematik 81: 190–280, 1952; Dougherty, The genera of the subfamily Rhabditinae Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda): 69–76, 1953) in association with a vertebrate host.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Cephaline Gregarines of Purulia District, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract On way of survey in the Jhalda block of Purulia district, altogether 44 insect species belonging to 3 orders have been examined. Of these 14 species of insects have been found with cephaline gregarine infection. It is revealed that, most of the recorded cephaline gregarine parasites belonged to Gregarina, Hirmocystis, Stylocephalus, Quadruspinospora, Phleobum, Retractocephalus, Odonaticola, Pileocephalus, Steinina and Laterospora genera. Though infestation is species specific, occurrence of two species of gregarines in the same host at the same time is well documented.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Evaluation of Enzymatic Activities in Liver of Three Teleostean Fishes
           Exposed to Commercial Herbicide, Almix 20 WP
    • Abstract: Abstract Activities of three enzymes in liver viz., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in three Indian teleosts, Anabas testudineus, Heteropneustes fossilis, and Oreochromis niloticus exposed to a dose of 66.67 mg/l Almix 20 WP herbicide for a period of 30 days are reported here. The study revealed that the total protein content in liver was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in H. fossilis (Mean ± SEM, 63.82 ± 4.33 to 34.50 ± 0.83 mg/g) but minimum in A. testudineus (53.29 ± 3.33 to 42.11 ± 1.83 mg/g). AST and ALT activities were significantly (p < 0.05) increased and highest in O. niloticus (154.99 ± 2.51 to 716.99 ± 4.09 and 97.67 ± 1.22 to 144.64 ± 6.84 unit/mg protein respectively), while minimum activity was noted in H. fossilis (88.44 ± 1.97 to 147.55 ± 2.72 unit/mg protein) and A. testudineus (87.51 ± 2.98 to 129.31 ± 2.87 unit/mg protein) respectively. ALP activity showed significant (p < 0.05) increment in H. fossilis (12.66 ± 1.26 to 18.24 ± 1.05 unit/mg protein), while less in O. niloticus (31.68 ± 1.41 to 38.01 ± 0.93 unit/mg protein) and moderate in A. testudineus. Enhanced levels of both aminotranferases and ALP indicated that liver was damaged excessively by almix exposure. The results also disclosed that O. niloticus was more sensitive than other two fishes and from these alterations it can be inferred that hepatic AST, ALT and ALP activity could be a diagnostic tool and considered as the indicators of herbicide toxicity in an aquatic environment.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Immunohistochemical Localization of Gastrin Cells (G-Cells) in the
           Alimentary Canal of a Skipper Frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Schiedner,
           (Anura; Ranidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract The present investigation deals with the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin secreting cells in different parts of the alimentary canal of an insectivorous skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schiedner). The gastrin immunoreactive (G IR) cells have been observed in stomach and in duodenal regions of the gut only. Three different morphological types of G IR cells have been recorded. The first type was with long protoplasmic extension projecting towards the lumen indicating lumone nature of secretion. The second type were rounded or oval in shape present towards basal region adjacent to gastric gland suggesting a non-secretory or parahormone or notch signal property of secretory molecule. The third type of cell was with multiple protoplasmic projections related to the secretory behaviour of gastrin cell. In stomach the G IR cells were more in pyloric region and less in fundic region. In stomach, the first type dominates in its number and the two latter types were less. In the duodenal region, the majority of G IR cells were of second type with scanty first type. It is concluded that the three different morphotypes of G IR cells are in fact different secretory stages of gastrin cells (G cells). The existence of different morphotypes of G cells is also linked with their strategic location and requirement to act as either hormone or parahormone or neurohormone or lumone.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Diversity of Rotifers in Shallow Lake of Sultanpur National Park, Gurgaon
    • Abstract: Abstract Community composition, diversity and density of rotifers were analyzed in shallow lake of Sultanpur National Park, Gurgaon, Haryana (India) from February, 2011 to January, 2012. 32 species of rotifer were encountered belonging to 11 genera, 7 families and 3 orders. Order Monogononta had maximum species richness (27, 85 %) belonging to five families, namely, Brachionidae, Mytilinidae, Trichocercidae, Lecanidae and Gastropodidae. The most diversified genera was Brachionus, represented by eight species, namely, B. bidentata; B. quadridentatus; B. caudatus; B. diversicornis; B. forficula; B. patulus; B. plicatilis and B. calyciflorus. The least dominanted genera which were represented by single species includes Anuraeopsis sp., Gastropus sp. and Mytlina sp.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Stomach Contents of Olive Ridley Turtles ( Lepidochelys Olivacea )
           Occurring in Gahirmatha, Odisha Coast of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Stomach contents of olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) occurring along the Gahirmatha coast of Odisha, India have been studied between October 2008 and May 2010. We obtained 76 stomach contents from olive ridley turtles that were stranded freshly, of which 12 were males and 64 were females. Among food items, molluscs dominated with 34.5 % in volume while crustaceans were next in order of volume (27.6 %). Occurrence of fish and other invertebrate and algae fragments though were less in amount have been noted almost in all specimens.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Toxicological Evaluation of Antimicrobially Potent Sulfur Nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract Toxicological properties of orthorhombic (~10 nm) and monoclinic (~50 nm) allotropes of sulfur nanoparticles (SNPs) of antimicrobial importance have been evaluated against mice (Mus musculus) model. The present study investigates possible bio-adverse properties of SNP-allotropes on hematological (haemoglobin, total count, differential count), biochemical (hepatic enzymes, renal physiology, blood lipids, blood glucose), and histological parameters in mice. Effects of SNPs were also determined against cognition pattern of mice using the open field assay, and acetylcholine esterase activity assay. In addition, SNPs were tested against fecundity (rate of reproduction), and allergenicity (by monitoring physical symptoms) of the treated animals. Cumulative results of the performed assays suggest that SNPs induce vascular congestion in liver with sinusoidal dilation, and hypersensitive reactions among the targets.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Distribution of Major Sucking Pest, Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae)
           of Cashew in India
    • Abstract: Abstract Surveys were conducted between 2010 and 2013 in west coast and east coast belts of India for major sucking pests, Helopeltis spp. in cashew. It reveals that three species viz., H. antonii Signoret, H. bradyi Waterhouse and H. theivora Waterhouse spread over different host plants. H. antonii was noticed as the predominant species and collected from 14 locations on five different host plants whereas; H.bradyi was collected from five locations on two host plants. The study also highlighted first record of H. antonii from Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Odhisa cashew region. Similarly, H. bradyi was reported for the first time in high altitude Tura region, Meghalaya. H. theivora was predominant species on cashew in North East region. Incidence of Helopeltis spp. was very severe in most of the cashew growing tracts of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra in the west coast region. Pachypeltis maesarum Kirkaldy was observed as a minor pest along with H. antonii on cashew and with H. theivora on Solanum torvum Sw.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
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