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Journal Cover   Proceedings of the Zoological Society
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0974-6919 - ISSN (Online) 0373-5893
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2276 journals]
  • Enhancement of Resistance vis-à-vis Defence-Enzyme Activity in Tea
           Mosquito Bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Hemiptera: Miridae) Selected
           Through Exposure to Sub-lethal Dose of Monochrotophos
    • Abstract: Abstract Tea industry is the back bone of agro-economy of the tea producing regions. Tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse is one of the most devastating sucking pests of tea and is a menace to tea plantations of North Bengal and other states of NE India. Insecticide forms the mainstay of pest management programme in tea plantations. Insecticide stress and selection have led to the development of high tolerance or resistance in many pests including the sucking bug H. theivora. LC50 value of an organophosphate insecticide, monochrotophos (SL 36 %) to this species increased about 105 fold when selected by exposure to sub-lethal dose for three generations. Generation-wise relative tolerance level when selected by sub-lethal dose of monochrotophos showed a significant increase in 1st and 2nd filial generations as compared to the parental generation (P < F1 < F2). General esterases (GE) activity got enhanced by 5.32 and 16.4 fold, and the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) increased by 1.96 and 9.50 fold in F1 and F2 generations respectively as compared to parental generation. The generation-wise increase in relative resistance and the activity of defence enzymes were found to have high positive correlation; r = 0.999 for GE and r = 0.994 for CYP. The study suggests that the titres of GE and CYP in H. theivora can be used as the markers of relative tolerance to insecticides in general, with mode of action similar to monochrotophos. Such defence-enzyme based detection technique for tolerance levels may help early identification of resistant population of H. theivora; hence its management.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Observations on Yellow-Wattled Lapwing, Vanellus malabaricus (Boddaert,
           1783) in South West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The present note highlights the geographical distribution of Yellow-Wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus, which is rarest among the four Vanellus species found in south West Bengal. Perhaps, due to low encounter of V. malabaricus, the distribution of this species in south West Bengal remains obscured till now. Recent field observations in eight patches in the Gangetic plains of (Hooghly and Nadia) West Bengal, India, support their consistent availability in habitats characteristically different from the described ones. In the Indian subcontinent, including peninsular India, V. malabaricus is reported to prefer dry and arid lands, whereas the same species was located in rice fields and adjacent bushes in the Gangetic plains. As possible adaptive features, some characteristic behaviour is discussed that make them compatible with the local climatic condition of Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Drosophila curviceps S pecies-Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from India,
           with Description of a New Species and Redescription of a Known Species
    • Abstract: Abstract The Drosophila curviceps species subgroup is upgraded to a species-group independent from the Drosophila immigrans species group to which it has belonged, but its subgeneric assignment is still undetermined, i.e., incertae sedis. A new species, Drosophila teresae Pradhan & Sati, sp. nov., collected from Darjeeling and Uttarakhand in the Himalaya region, India is described, and supplementary and revised description for Drosophila mukteshwarensis Joshi et al. (Entomon (India) 30:75–84, 2005) is provided.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Ethotoxicological Role of Melatonin as an Anti-Stressor Agent in Heavy
           Metal Intoxicated Fish Channa punctatus
    • Abstract: Abstract Sublethal effects of arsenic trioxide, cadmium chloride, lead nitrate and mercuric chloride, were investigated on chromatophore morphology and behaviour of Channa punctatus. The protective role of melatonin was investigated. Changes were observed in the chromatophore pattern of fish scales and in fish behaviour after administration of the heavy metals. Heavy metal exposure caused restlessness in fishes and increased the dispersal of pigments in the chromatophores. Melatonin administration counteracted both these effects. The melatonin treatment did not modify metal concentration in scales, but it caused the aggregation of pigments in chromatophores of the fish. It also reduced the aggression observed in the fishes caused by the heavy metal administration. Toxicopathological alterations include statistically significant variations in the number, size and shape of the melanophores. The heavy metal-induced morphological changes in the melanophores indicate protective role against toxic insult of heavy metals.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Excretory–Secretory Protein of Wallago attu -Infesting Isoparorchis
           hypselobagri (Billet, 1898)
    • Abstract: Abstract Wallago attu swim bladder-infesting digenetic trematode Isoparorchis hypselobagri were kept in PBS media without glucose (control) and with glucose (treated) up to 300 h to note the amount of excretory–secretory protein (ES) through the collection of samples at an interval of 12 h. The quantitative estimation of ES protein revealed less in amount in the control incubation media than that of treated incubation media. The highest amount of ES protein in control media was 0.475 mg/ml at 84 h and in treated condition 1.905 mg/ml after 96 h of incubation. The lowest amount of ES protein was 0.038 mg/ml in control media after 180 and 192 h of incubation and 0.545 mg/ml in treated media after 168 and 180 h of incubation. The rate of excretion-secretion of protein in treated condition after every 12 h of incubation was much higher than the control. Significant amount of ES protein have also been recorded in the swim bladder washings. It is apparent that the amount of ES protein depends on the number and weight of the parasites involved with the interaction process.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • First Record of Rama Rao’s Scorpionfish, Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi
           Randall and Eschmeyer, 2001 (Family: Scorpaenidae) from Indian Waters
    • Abstract: Abstract The first record of Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi from Indian coast is reported based on three specimens ranging from 137 to 148 mm standard length. Specimens were collected from Digha coast, West Bengal state, northern most part of east coast of India on the bank of Bay of Bengal. This species is distinguished from its closest relatives by having no extra spine anterior to each tympanic spine; well-developed supraocular tentacle; occipital pit shallow, not quadrangular and 18 pectoral fin.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Prevalence and Age Grading of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae),
           Potent Vectors of Bluetongue Disease of Farm Animals in Bikaner, Rajasthan
    • Abstract: Abstract The biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides are of great concern worldwide because of their medico-veterinary importance and potential vectors of several diseases including the bluetongue disease among cattle and sheep population. Presently 71 species and 21 bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes prevailing in India and of which serotype 1 is reported from Rajasthan. The U.V. light traps were operated in farms (cattle and sheep) in Bikaner city, to assess the prevalence of Culicoides sp. during post monsoon months October and November for consecutive 2 years (2011 and 2012) respectively. The light trap catch data revealed the occurrence of two potent BTV vector species viz., Culicoides imicola Kieffer and Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer. C. oxystoma predominantly occurred within the vicinity of cattle while C. imicola was chiefly associated with that of sheep. Age grading of the species revealed significant proportion of parous females which may play an important role in transmission of BT disease.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Ultrastructure of Thyroid Gland in Hipposiderid Bat Hipposideros lankadiva
    • Abstract: Abstract In chiropterans, thyroid gland plays vital role during initial growth phase of life and in mobilizing the energy to overcome stress of puberty, pregnancy and lactation. Ultrastructural observation of the thyroid gland of hipposiderid bat Hipposideros lankadiva which undergoes the phenomenon of embryonic diapauses confirms the important role played by thyroid gland during diapause. The cuboidal follicular cells with well developed cell organelle and small follicular lumen during estrous, arousal and lactation period show active state of gland in nonpregnant female bat while flattened follicular cells with less developed cell organelle and large follicular lumen show hypothyroid condition in pregnant bat H. lankadiva undergoing diapause. Probably this maternal hypothyroid condition in pregnant animal regulates the embryonic diapause.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Diversity and Species Composition of Odonates in Southern Rajasthan, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The study was conducted in south Rajasthan to explore diversity and species composition of Odonata from January 2013 to June 2013. Odonates were sampled from 13 localities i.e., Pichola lake, Udaisagar lake, Badi lake, Ghasa lake, Menar lake, Badwai lake, Rup sagar lake, Roli todgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary, Karmoi river stream in Sitamata WLS, College campus, Rajsmand lake and Meja dam. During the study period, a total of 1,290 individuals from 8 families and 54 species were recorded. 4 families and 28 species were related to Anisoptera, while 4 families and 26 species belonged to Zygoptera. Suborder Zygoptera were represented by the families Chlorocyphidae, Coenagrionidae, Lestidae and Platycnemididae, and suborder Anisoptera by the Aeshnidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae and Macromiidae. Libellulidae was the largest family with 24 species, while the most dominant species was Brachythemis contaminata (21.80 %). Orthetrum chrysis and Lestes sp. were found randomly distributed in the study area, while other were aggregated and showed habitat preference.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Judicious Foraging by the Ants Pheidole roberti Forel
    • Abstract: Abstract The ants Pheidole roberti were offered five kinds of food out of the six kinds viz. freshly dead mosquito, sugar cubes, biscuit, dry fish, papad and nut in 10 trials to note the foraging behavior and food preferences, if any. Mosquitoes were supplied as such while the remaining five types of food were provided as fragmented particles each weighing from 40 to 60 mg. Irrespective of offering hours i.e. day or night times the ants were seen to come in contact of the supplied food within 2–17 min. Because of weight of the food piece the ants were unable to carry the same individually to the nest. Therefore, the pull and push food carrying mechanism was not initiated until required number partners were assembled at the site. Irrespective of trials the ants carried all the mosquitoes while sugar cubes in 9 trials, biscuit and dry fish in 4 trials and, papad and nut in 2 trials were taken to the nest by the ants within 12 h after supplying of the same. In some trials though certain amount of food particles were taken away by the ants, the sugar cubes, dry fish, biscuit and nut particles were left as such in 1–3 trials at the site. Thus, food preference in P. roberti is well marked but the reasons for such preference are matter for further studies.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Survival and Growth Rate of Larval Ompok pabda (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822)
           of Tripura, India: Related to Efficient Feed
    • Abstract: Abstract Mass larval population of the captive bred stock of Ompok pabda was reared successfully for the first time in India. In order to evaluate the increase of survival and growth rate of the larvae, an ex-situ experiment was continued for about 28 days with the supply of different types of food by maintaining the water quality at standard level (water velocity = 1.01 − 1.26 m/s, temperature = 24.0 − 29.5 °C, DO2 = 4.8 − 6.4 ppm, CO2 = 1.2 − 2.9 ppm, pH = 7.3 − 8.5, DOM = 0.94 − 2.23 ppm and HCO3 = 120 − 176 ppm) under a specific cycling water-flow system to the larvae. The experiment revealed significantly higher (91.72 %, r = 0.987, P < 0.01) survival and growth rate of the larvae, when zooplankton along with tubifex were offered as feed. The impact of other feeds such as tubifex (72.28 %, r = 0.822, P < 0.05), zooplankton (73.42 %, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), egg custard (56.80 %) and compound feed (34.28 %) were gradually less. Specific growth rate (SGR = 6.39 ± 0.58) was also highest in the larvae fed with zooplankton plus tubifex as feed. The said feed was also effective to increase the body weight at a maximum level. Therefore, the feed prepared through the use of mass cultured zooplankton and tubifex seems to be suitable under specific rearing system to promote aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Modified Flame Drying Technique to Study Chromosomes of
           Grasshopper’s Testis
    • Abstract: Abstract A modified technique for the preparation of chromosomes from the different stages of meiosis from male grasshopper (Gesonula punctifrons) has been standardized. This technique is simpler and quicker method in comparison to squash technique. Moreover, this technique is inexpensive with low maintenance cost. With this method, a large number of dividing cells from testis of one animal can be accumulated. This technique will be of immense value in cytogenetic monitoring of grasshopper chromosomes for clear morphology and banding profiles.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Study of Histopathological Changes in Experimental Trypanosoma evansi
           Infected Rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Wistar albino rats (N:30) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each animal was infected with 5 × 105 trypanosomes intraperitoneally. The animals were examined daily for the development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the tail veins. The infected rats were dull and depressed from 3 DPI onwards. Postmortem examination from 5 to 8 DPI (the maximum period of observation) revealed splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, marked congestion of lungs, presence of fluid in peritoneal cavity. Histopathologically, heart muscles showed hyaline degenerative changes and haemorrhages. Liver parenchyma revealed congestion of central vein and sinusoids, binucleated hepatocytes and fatty degeneration (lipid accumulation) of hepatic cells. Thickening of interstitial space with mononuclear infiltration, areas of collapse, areas of emphysema, edema and dilated and congested blood vessels were the histopathological changes noticed in the lungs of the infected rats. In spleen giant cells aggregation, hyperplasia, thickening of capsule and trabecule were the observed changes which indicate irreversible degeneration. The affected kidney showed inter tubular hemorrhages in the cortex, medullary hemorrhages, congested glomerulus, atrophied glomerulus, desquamated tubular epithelium and disruption of renal tubules at some places.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Differential Effect of Fruit Availability on Avian Frugivore Guilds in a
           Moist Deciduous Forest of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Frugivores provide a critical ecosystem service by dispersing seeds and therefore play a major role in the survival and maintenance of trees in tropical forests. Avian frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests whose activities are significantly governed by the availability of fruits across space and time. In our current study we examined the effects of the spatial and temporal pattern of food availability on avian frugivores and various avian frugivore functional groups in particular. We found a differential effect of fruit density and number of tree species in fruiting on different functional groups of avian frugivores along both spatial and temporal scales. Total frugivore density was best explained by ‘number of tree species in fruiting’ at both special and temporal scale. The variation in large frugivore density was best explained both by ‘fruit density’ and ‘fruit density’ and ‘number of tree species in fruiting’ together. This pattern was observed at a spatial scale but not along temporal scale. Along temporal scale large frugivore density was best explained only by ‘number of tree species in fruiting’. The medium sized frugivore density was not significantly explained by either ‘fruit density’ or ‘number of tree species in fruiting’. The medium sized frugivores are dependent both on insects and fruits and variation in insect density may determine spatial and temporal variation in medium sized frugivore density. The mixed diet frugivore group with a smaller gape width is limited by the variety of fruit they consume and thus their population was significantly controlled by the number of fleshy fruited tree species in fruiting along spatial scale. We observed breeding synchronization during the time of fruiting peak and we suggest that this could be a strategy for effective seed dispersal. Our study indicated very strong dependability of the large frugivore (dependent only on fruit) population on fruit availability unlike the mixed diet frugivore guild (fruit as secondary diet).
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Breeding and Rearing of an Exotic Ornamental Catfish, Corydorus aeneus
           (Gill, 1858) in Kolkata, West Bengal and Its Economics
    • Abstract: Abstract Cory cat, Corydorus aeneus (Gill, 1858) are popular among the hobbyists all over the world. They were reared successfully in glass aquaria and small cemented tanks in Kolkata, India. The females attained sexual maturity at the age of 12.2 ± 1.8 SD months while the males took 24.0 ± 1.6 SD months to take part in reproduction. Females are larger and more rounded than the males while males are attractive because of the dorsal fin. At a temperature range 14–22 °C breeding was continued during November to March period in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Cooling of egg laying substratum stimulated spawning to a great extent. Under favourable thermal condition breeding took place at an interval of 10.4 ± 2.1 SD days. Brood size varied from 175–225 and on average 80 % eggs were fertile. Water quality management and supply of proper food proved successful to establish an economically viable farm through the spread of indoor aqua business.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Ethno Veterinary Practices Prevalent Among Livestock Rearers at Arbe Gona
           And Loka Abaya Woredas of Sidama Zone of Southern Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of ethno veterinary medicine as practiced among the residents of Arbe Gona and Loka Abaya woredas has been discussed. The study was conducted using semi structured questioner, focus group discussion and personal interviews. The respondents were identified by stepwise purposive sampling procedures. The study indicates that ethno veterinary medicine has been practiced among the agrarian community in the region since time immemorial. The results indicate that the practice is mostly a family affair with the knowledge transferred from the elders to the youngsters within a family. Thirty seven different types of medicinal herbs/plants used in ethno veterinary drug preparation were identified, the most commonly used plant part was the leaf followed by other plant parts viz. xylem, roots, barks etc. Mostly the drugs were used through oral route. Though topical application, fumigation and intravenous route of administration of the drugs too are on record. Twenty two commonly occurring diseases were identified by the respondents and their treatments too have been discussed. Use of different parts of several plants in unison is the common practice. The results also indicated that the medicinal plants are mostly collected from the wild and are under threat due to both ecological and anthropogenic factors and hence need conservation. The study also revealed that the millennia old practice is under threat due to lack of enthusiasm from the younger generations to take up the baton from the elder generation.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Relation Between Water Quality and Protein Content of Chironomid Larvae
    • Abstract: Abstract Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) are considered as a good protein source for fish culture. In this communication an assessment of the protein content of the chironomid larvae occurring in ponds has been made with reference to the limnological parameters. The total body protein (TBP) of chironomid larvae was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with soil organic carbon as well as soil organic matter. Moreover TBP also found to be positively correlated with alkalinity, indicating a wide tolerance of this insect in relation to the pH ranged between 5.5–8.4. Result indicates nutrient rich fresh water body along with high productivity stimulate increasing body protein in chironomid larvae.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Acute Toxicity of Cadmium to Benthic Oligochaete Worm, Branchiura sowerbyi
           Beddard, 1982 and Juvenile Catfish, Clarias batrachus Linnaeus, 1758
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was done to determine the toxicity of cadmium to Branchiura sowerbyi and juvenile Clarias batrachus. The 96 h median lethal concentrations (with 95 % confidence limit) of cadmium for B. sowerbyi and juvenile C. batrachus were 15.98 (10.78–20.82) and 29.39 (23.70–33.42) mg/l respectively. It indicates that B. sowerbyi was more susceptible to cadmium toxicity than C. batrachus. A significant relationship (p < 0.05) was recorded between mortality rate and all the exposure times at 15, 25, 30 and 35 mg/l of the toxicant for B. sowerbyi and at 26, 30, 36, 48 and 50 mg/l for C. batrachus. Similarly, significant variation was also observed between mortality rate and all the exposure concentrations at all the exposure times (p < 0.01) for both the worm and fish. Excessive mucous secretion, loss of balance and reduced movement were observed in both the worms and fish at higher concentrations during 72 and 96 h of exposure. With progress of time and increasing concentration fish showed behavioural changes like erratic fin movement, hyperactivity, suffocation and increased surface attachment followed by death. The findings of the work can be used in ecological risk assessment and in the determination of safe disposal level of cadmium.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in Captive Sloth Bears ( Melursus ursinus
           ) by Polymerase Chain reaction
    • Abstract: Abstract Diagnosis of mycobacterial infection is paramount important from the public health perspective since treatment and control measures are very significant, particularly in captive animals. In this diagnostic study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had been used with the primer sequence of pncA-8 (5′-GGTTGGGTGGCCGCCGGTCAG-3′) and pncA-11 (5′-GCTTTGCGGCGAGCGCTCCA-3′) that were specific for M. bovis pncA gene. Forty-two fresh faecal samples were collected randomly from the apparently healthy sloth bears maintained in captive conditions. The DNA extraction procedure was done as per the manufacturer’s protocol and further subjected to amplification. The amplification profile includes respectively: initial heating of the samples for 5 min at 94 °C, annealing at 55 °C for 1 min, primer extension at 72 °C for 1 min and final elongation step for 10 min at 72 °C. Out of 57 samples, 5 samples were yielded on expected amplified PCR product size of 744 bp when electrophoresed in 1.5 % agarose gel. A positive control of M. bovis DNA procured from Tuberculosis Research Centre and a negative control from a healthy bovine sample were used. These results demonstrated that PCR test will increase the effectiveness of laboratory diagnosis to detect and identifying the M. bovis in captive wild animals.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Causes, Consequences and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Conflicts Caused by
           Tiger Straying Incidents in Sundarban, India
    • Abstract: Abstract An increasing number of tigers are leaving natural mangrove habitats and straying into the surrounding villages in the Indian Sundarban. This creates a serious hazard for humans, livestock and tigers. Household surveys in villages adjacent to the mangroves found 237 incidents of tigers straying during 1995–2010. An average of 14 tigers strays into villages per year. Consequences of tigers straying include, villagers killed (N = 7) or injured (N = 73), tiger predation on livestock (N = 242), and villagers killing tigers (N = 12). Most (68 %) of tigers leaving the mangroves were male. Of female tigers, most (65 %) had litters and were accompanied by their cubs. Confusing riverside plantations with jungles or confusing paddy fields with wild grasses (31.12 % combined) and predation of domestic livestock (26.96 %) are two main reasons for tigers straying. Tigers may also prefer domestic livestock over wild boar and deer as hunting livestock is easier than hunting natural prey in mangroves. Benefit, cost ratios for human–tiger conflicts were calculated at 0.81–0.92: 1. Appropriate compensation and a strategy of prey population increase might provide solutions to existing problems.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
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