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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]
  • Biological and nutritional properties of black currant berries (Ribes
           nigrum L.) under conditions of shading nets
    • Authors: Boban Djordjevic; Katarina Šavikin, Dejan Djurovic, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulič‐Petkovšek, Gordana Zdunić, Todor Vulic
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Changes of environmental factors, created under influence of various shading nets, could significantly affect the biological characteristics of plants grown in such conditions as well as biosynthesis of primary metabolites and ascorbic acid. Five black currant cultivars 'Ben sarek', 'Ben nevis', 'Ben lomond', 'Ometa', and 'Čačanska crna' were cultivated in the shade of two green polyethylene nets and exposed to direct sunlight during two experimental seasons. Results In the control treatment, all cultivars contained the highest amounts of soluble solid content and number of flower buds per shoots in both years of cultivation. The bushes exposed to direct sunlight had the highest sunburn damage of the berries and leaves, and loss of yield. The greatest yield loss caused by berries damage in present study during experimental period had cultivar ‘Ben sarek’, in 2010 year 9.0% and 15.4% in 2011. Growing in shade of light green net contributed the highest content of ascorbic acid. Control bushes and bushes in the shade of light green net had significant higher radical scavenging activity with values between 1.15 to 1.22 mg/ml. Conclusion Plants in shade of nets in both years of cultivation had lower damage of leaves and berries and percentage of loss yield, and the usage of the net economically advantageous for the growers. Fruit of black currant cultivars grown in shading conditions still represent a good source of valuable nutritive and biologically active compounds.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17T03:56:36.285974-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6962
  • A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds
           and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars
    • Authors: Yu Young Lee; Hyang Mi Park, Tae Young Hwang, Sun Lim Kim, Mi Jung Kim, Seuk Ki Lee, Min Jung Seo, Kee Jong Kim, Young‐Up Kwon, Sang Chul Lee, Yul Ho Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Tocopherols are most important lipid‐soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients. There is an increasing interest in the biofortification of crops with vitamin E for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. However, relatively little is known about the development of soybean cultivar with high levels of tocopherol through combined breeding. Result Tocopherol contents of the seeds and germinating seeds of 28 Korean soybean cultivars were analyzed and evaluated their activities for health‐promoting effects. Total tocopherol concentrations ranged from 203.9 µg g−1 to 503.1 µg g−1 in seeds and from 20.1 µg g−1 to 230.1 µg g−1 in germinating seeds. The traditional landraces of HaNagari (HN, 503.1 µg g−1), Orialtae (OL, 486.6 µg g−1), SuMoktae (SM, 476.5 µg g−1), and SoRitae (SR, 475.5 µg g−1) showed high levels of tocopherol content. The contents of the four isomers of tocopherol in seeds and germinating seeds were correlated with the lipid peroxidation. The γ‐ and δ‐tocopherol contents in seeds were related to DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.434; p < 0.01 and 0.373; p < 0.05). Conclusion Total tocopherol content was higher in soybean landraces as compared with modern cultivars developed by cross‐breeding. These results suggested that soybean breeding is necessary to increase tocopherol levels.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17T03:50:38.431624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6963
  • Effect of high hydrostatic pressure extract of fresh ginseng on
           adipogenesis in 3 t3‐l1 adipocytes
    • Authors: Mak‐Soon Lee; Sunyoon Jung, Soojung Oh, Yoonjin Shin, Chong‐Tai Kim, In‐Hwan Kim, Yangha Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Red ginseng is produced by steaming and drying fresh ginseng. Through this processing, chemical compounds are modified, and then biological activities are changed. In the food processing industry, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has become an alternative to heat processing to make maximum use of bioactive compounds in food materials. This study comparatively investigated the anti‐adipogenic effects of water extract of red ginseng (WRG) and high hydrostatic pressure extract of fresh ginseng (HPG) in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. RESULTS: Both WRG and HPG inhibited the accumulation of intracellular lipids and triglycerides, and the activity of GPDH, a key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. Intracellular lipid content and GPDH activity were significantly lower in the HPG group compared to the WRG group. In addition, mRNA expression of adipogenic genes, including CEBP‐α, SREBP‐1c and aP2, were lower in HPG‐treated cells compared to WRG‐treated cells. HPG significantly increased the activity of AMPK, and WRG did not. CONCLUSION: Results suggested that HPG may have superior beneficial effects on the inhibition of adipogenesis than WRG. The anti‐adipogenic effects of HPG were partially associated with the inhibition of GPDH activity, suppression of adipogenic gene expression, and activation of AMPK in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17T00:57:45.79126-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6961
  • Antioxidant activity and essential oil composition of Satureja hortensis
           L. as influenced by sulfur fertilizer
    • Authors: Sharareh Najafian; Maryam Zahedifar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The quantity/quality of essential‐oils in plants is influenced by different factor such as genetic‐causes, agricultural‐practices and environmental‐conditions like nutrient‐availability. Macronutrients e.g. sulfur (S) are one of the great factors that influence the plant growth/development. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of S‐fertilization on the essential‐oil composition and antioxidant‐activity of Satureja hortensis L. Results Application of 0.05 g S kg−1 soil increased the amount of α‐terpinene, p‐cymene, myrcene, α‐thujene and α‐pinene but decreased γ‐terpinene. Application of 0.05 g S kg−1 soil was the most suitable for higher percentage of α‐terpinene, p‐cymene, myrcene, α‐thujene and α‐pinene, whereas application of 0.1 g S kg−1 soil was preferable for carvacrol. The γ‐terpinene was mainly produced in control. Considerable amounts of inhibitory‐effects observed from 0.720 g L−1 in control to 0.363 g L−1 with application of 0.1 g S kg−1 soil. Maximum antioxidant effect was observed with application of 0.1 g S kg−1 soil. Conclusion Results revealed that addition of chemical‐fertilizers such as S could improve the antioxidant‐activity of plant extract, significantly. Storage of secondary‐plant‐metabolite mainly essential‐oil, is an interesting research area, therefore, further studies is recommended to determine the effect of chemical‐fertilizers on essential‐oil‐composition and antioxidant‐activity of other aromatic‐plants.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T03:05:51.899326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6959
  • Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky
    • Authors: Paulina Wiśniewska; Tomasz Dymerski, Waldemar Wardencki, Jacek Namieśnik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit‐based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least three years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually cause a potential risk of an adulteration. Regarding to that fact the authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authenticity of whisky is based on the comparison of composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. This paper summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The work also presents the various analytical techniques for analyzing whisky such as: gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV–vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods there are also described, namely: PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k‐NN, CA, and preparation techniques such SPME or SPE.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T02:26:09.337624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6960
  • Evaluation of volatile aldehydes as discriminating parameters in quality
           vinegars with protected European geographical indication
    • Authors: Enrique Durán‐Guerrero; Fabio Chinnici, Nadia Natali, Claudio Riponi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Thirty six high quality vinegars with geographical indication belonging to Sherry and Modena areas (vinegars of Jerez, balsamic vinegars of Modena and traditional balsamic vinegars of Modena) with all possible aging periods were analysed to determine the content of volatile aldehydes. A solid‐phase extraction method with in‐cartridge derivatization using O‐(2,3,4,5,6‐pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine followed by GC‐MS was employed. Results Twenty two volatile aldehydes were identified and determined in the samples. Analysis of variance provided significant differences among the samples as a function of the type of vinegar, aging time and raw material. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis demonstrated the possibility of discriminating the samples in terms of aging time and raw material. Linear aldehydes and compounds like furfural, methional, nonenal, hexenal, 2‐methylbutanal and i‐butyraldehyde were the most significant variables able to discriminate the samples. Conclusion Aldehydes content of premium quality vinegars is a function of both ageing time and raw material. Their evaluation could be a useful tool in view to ascertain vinegar origin and genuinity.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T01:20:42.110288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6958
  • Microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and
           spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions
           using 16S rRNA genes analysis
    • Authors: Foteini F. Parlapani; Konstantinos Ar. Kormas, Ioannis S. Boziaris
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sea bream fillets is one of the most important value‐added product of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly due to bacterial action. Exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere package (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Results Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 d, while under MAP was 20 and 8 d respectively. Initial microbiota was dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life different phylotypes of Pseudomonas, closely related to Pseudomonas fragi was found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii, dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Conclusions The different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored at various conditions, providing us with valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage.
      PubDate: 2014-10-14T02:21:16.17519-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6957
  • Effects of koji‐making with mixed strains on physicochemical and
           sensory properties of Chinese‐type soy sauce
    • Authors: Zhi‐Yao Chen; Yun‐Zi Feng, Chun Cui, Hai‐Feng Zhao, Mou‐Ming Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Two kinds of soy sauces were prepared with A. oryzae koji (SSAO) and mixed koji (SSAOM, A. oryzae mouldstarter: Monascus purpureus mouldstarter = 1:2, w/w) respectively. The effects of mixed koji on the essential indices, oxygen radical absorption capacity, color indices, free amino acids and volatile compounds of soy sauce have been studied, followed by a sensory evaluation between SSAO and SSAOM. Results The contents of non‐salt soluble solid, reducing sugar, total acid, total nitrogen and amino nitrogen in SSAOM increased by 21.50%, 9.88%, 15.35%, 5.98% and 41.43%, respectively, compared with the control SSAO, due to the higher activities of acid protease and glucoamylase in the mixed koji. Moreover, SSAOM showed higher antioxidant activity, higher levels of free amino acids, and much more attractive color. Meanwhile, the flavor groups like esters, aldehydes, pyrazines and sulphur‐containing compounds in SSAOM were also improved. The contents of free amino acids and aroma compounds were consistent with the sensory evaluation. According to descriptive sensory analysis, SSAOM showed higher intensity for sweet and umami attributes, in addition, higher flowery, burnt, fruity and cameral‐like attributes were perceived in SSAOM, while SSAO showed higher ethanolic and sour attributes. Conclusions The investigated soy sauce prepared with mixed koji can be considered as an effective method to accelerate the fermentation process, and improve the flavor of soy sauce.
      PubDate: 2014-10-14T00:41:38.226531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6952
  • Characteristic of β‐glucosidase from oranges during maturation
           and its relationship with the changes of bound volatile compounds
    • Authors: Jing‐Nan Ren; Zi‐Yu Yang, Ya‐Nan Tai, Man Dong, Mang‐Mang He, Gang Fan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The hydrolysis of glycosidically bound volatile compounds can release the potential aromas in oranges during maturation. β‐Glucosidase is the key enzyme that influences the hydrolysis of bound volatiles. In this study, the changes of β‐glucosidase and bound volatile compounds in oranges during maturation were investigated. The relationship between β‐glucosidase activity and bound volatiles in oranges during maturation was analyzed. Results The optimum temperature and pH value of β‐glucosidase from Jincheng oranges were 40 °C and pH 5–6. The Km and Vmax values of β‐glucosidase were 0.61 mM and 0.009 U/mg, respectively. The activity of β‐glucosidase was strongly inhibited by Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Ag+, Hg2+ and Fe3+. The β‐glucosidase activity in pulp increased gradually during maturation, while it increased in peel and then decreased in November. Totally 12 and 14 bound volatiles were found in pulp and peel of this orange during maturation. Conclusion The concentration of bound volatiles in pulp and peel decreased with the rise of the glucosidase activity in pulp and peel during maturation, respectively. And this indicated that the bound volatiles in oranges released during maturation due to the increase of its β‐glucosidase.
      PubDate: 2014-10-13T04:42:08.278445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6956
  • The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats
           exposed to high‐fructose diet in period from weaning to adulthood
    • Authors: Alhadi M Glban; Ana Vasiljević, Nataša Veličković, Aleksandra Nikolić‐Kokić, Duško Blagojević, Gordana Matić, Jelena Nestorov
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Increased fructose consumption correlates with rising prevalence of various metabolic disorders, some of which were linked to oxidative stress. The relationship between fructose consumption and oxidative stress is complex and effects of fructose rich‐diet on young population have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high‐fructose diet applied in the period from weaning to adulthood induces oxidative stress in the liver, thus contributing to induction or aggravation of metabolic disturbances in later adulthood. To that end we examined the effects of high‐fructose diet on expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage in the liver as the main fructose metabolizing tissue. Results High‐fructose diet increased only SOD2 activity, with no effect on other antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of damaged proteins in the liver. Conclusion The results show that fructose‐induced metabolic disturbances could not be attributed to oxidative stress, at least not at young age. The absence of oxidative stress in the liver observed herein implies that young organisms are capable of maintaining redox homeostasis when challenged by fructose‐derived energy overload.
      PubDate: 2014-10-13T04:25:07.308558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6953
  • Quality Changes of Fresh‐Cut Pomegranate Arils During Shelf Life as
           Affected by Deficit Irrigation and Postharvest Vapour Treatments
    • Authors: María E. Peña‐Estévez; Perla A. Gómez, Francisco Artés, Encarna Aguayo, Ginés Benito Martínez‐Hernández, Mariano Otón, Alejandro Galindo, Francisco Artés‐Hernández
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The effect of two sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) strategies, compared to a control, on postharvest physicochemical, microbial, sensory quality attributes and anthocyanins content of fresh‐cut pomegranates arils throughout 18 days at 5 °C was studied. Furthermore, the effect of vapour treatments (4 s, 7 s and 10s) compared to a conventional sanitizing treatment with NaClO on such quality parameters in combination with the preharvest treatments was also studied. Results According to sensory analyses, the shelf life of arils from control and SDI irrigated fruit was established in 14 and 18 days at 5 °C, respectively, showing 4 and 7 s vapour treatment time the best sensory quality. No significant change was observed in physicochemical quality attributes, across all treatments during storage while low microbial loads were registered (
      PubDate: 2014-10-13T04:02:09.305779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6954
  • Biotransformation of catechin and extraction of active polysaccharide from
           green tea leaves via simultaneous treatment with tannase and pectinase
    • Authors: Joo Hyun Baik; Kwang‐Soon Shin, Yooheon Park, Kwang‐Won Yu, Hyung Joo Suh, Hyeon‐Son Choi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Green tea is dietary source of bioactive compounds for human health. Enzymatic treatments induce the bioconversion of bioactive components, which can improve the biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous treatment with tannase and rapidase on biotransformation of catechins and extraction of polysaccharide from green tea extract (GTE). Results Tannase and pectinase treatments induced the biotransformation of catechins and altered the tea polysaccharide (TPS) content. The addition of GTE to enzyme reaction resulted in a significant increase in degallated catechins, including gallic acid, a product of the tannase reaction (314.5 µg/mL to 4076.0 µg/mL) and a reduction in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Biotransformation of catechins improved the radical scavenging activity of GTE. Pectinase treatment led to change of TPS compositions in GTE by hydrolyzing polysaccharides. In addition, pectinase‐driven hydrolysis on polysaccharides significantly increased TPS‐induced Interleukin 6 (IL‐6) production in macrophages. In particular, treatments of rapidase (TPS‐Ra) led to the highest IL‐6 production among TPS samples, similar to treatment of highly‐purified pectinase (TPS‐GTE), a positive control. Conclusion Simultaneous processing with tannase and rapidase can be an efficient method for the extraction of bioactive polysaccharides and biotransformation of catechins with enhanced radical scavenging activity from green tea.
      PubDate: 2014-10-11T17:23:37.597668-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6955
  • Modelling Sustainable Salt Water Management Under Deficit Irrigation
           Conditions for Melon in Spain and Brazil
    • Authors: Kelly N Leite; María J Cabello, Manuel Valnir Júnior, José M Tarjuelo, Alfonso Domínguez
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In water scarcity areas, the use of saline water for irrigation is a common practice. Experimental data from two, two‐year melon tests were collected for the calibration (2004 “Yellow Melon” (YeMe) type) and validation (2002 YeMe, 2005, and 2006 “Piel de Sapo” (PiSa) type) processes in melon crop simulation under deficit irrigation conditions using salt water. The simulations were carried out for Castilla‐La Mancha (Spain) and Ceará (Brazil), using the MOPECO model. This model includes the optimized regulated deficit irrigation (ORDI) methodology. The objective was determining the most suitable irrigation strategy for both areas. Results Under fresh water conditions, ORDI may increase yield up to 20% (PiSa) and 7% (YeMe) compared with a constant deficit irrigation. Higher water deficit should be induced during the vegetative development and ripening stages. The rainfall between irrigation periods is able to leach the salts supplied by the irrigation water. Conclusions The combination of ORDI with different strategies for managing saline water may increase water use efficiency. In these areas, it may be of interest not to apply the leaching fraction (saving up to 67% of irrigation water). However, leaching of the soluble salts accumulated before starting the most sensitive periods may be suitable.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:54:09.577038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6951
  • Quality attributes and composition of meat from red deer (Cervus elaphus),
           fallow deer (Dama dama), and Aberdeen Angus and Holstein cattle (Bos
    • Authors: Daniel Bureš; Luděk Bartoň, Radim Kotrba, Josef Hakl
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The consumption of venison from deer species has increased in recent years due to presumably positive health effects. Therefore, a comparison was made of the physical characteristics, chemical composition and sensory attributes of meat obtained from red deer, fallow deer, and Aberdeen Angus and Holstein cattle raised under conditions typical for commercial farming practice and slaughtered at similar ages. Results Venison had one‐quarter the crude fat content, lower total collagen, and a higher proportion of heat soluble collagen. It was darker and less yellow than beef. Deer species provided meat with a higher PUFA/SFA ratio and lower atherogenic indices. In addition, the venison of red deer contained five times as much n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as did the beef. Steaks prepared from venison were scored higher compared to beef for flavour and aroma intensity, they were tenderer and more easily chewable. Conclusion Compared to beef, venison from two widely farmed deer species was superior in nutrient composition, thus offering potential benefits for human consumption, and it received higher scores for most of those sensory attributes examined.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:23:18.005042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6950
  • Measuring the Damage of Heavy Metal Cadmium in Rice Seedlings by SRAP
           analysis Combined with Physiological and Biochemical Parameters
    • Authors: Xiaoqin Zhang; Huinan Chen, Hua Jiang, Wenyi Lu, Jiangjie Pan, Qian Qian, Dawei Xue
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most poisonous pollutants. Cd pollution has become the limiting factor of rice production and rice quality improvement. Therefore, it is of significant importance to monitor Cd toxicity by the detection of Cd contamination in rice with biomarkers. In the present research, sequence‐related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and physiological and biochemical methods were applied to determine the toxicological effects of cadmium stress on rice. Results With the extension of Cd concentration and duration, the content of chlorophyll in the two rice varieties, W7 and M63, decreased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased. This tendency was more apparent in M63. The anti‐oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) both increased significantly compared with their control. SRAP‐Polymerase Chain Reaction (SRAP‐PCR) results indicated significant difference between the Cd treatments and the control in terms of SRAP profiles, as well as the genotypic difference. The genomic template stability (GTS) decreased as the Cd concentration and exposure time increased. Under the same treatment conditions, GTS of W7 was higher than that of M63. Comparison analysis revealed that the changes of physiological and biochemical parameters of rice seedlings under Cd stress had good correlation with the changes of SRAP profile. Furthermore, the changes of SRAP profile had enhanced sensitivity in the roots of rice seedlings. Conclusion SRAP profile with physiological and biochemical parameters could act as appropriate biomarkers for the measurement of Cd contamination during rice production.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:11:20.643161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6949
  • Acceptability and Characterization of Extruded Pinto, Navy and Black Beans
    • Authors: Courtney W. Simons; Clifford Hall, Mehmet Tulbek, Mihiri Mendis, Taylor Heck, Samuel Ogunyemi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. Pinto, navy, and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The composition of raw flour and extrudates were characterized. Results Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198 to 217 g kg−1) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg−1 and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipids and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. Conclusion The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs supports using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. Kewords: extrusion; beans; sensory; starch; protein; fiber
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T00:21:18.974671-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6948
  • Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of
           mares’ colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin
           C content in mares’ milk.
    • Authors: Maria Markiewicz‐Kęszycka; Grażyna Czyżak‐Runowska, Jacek Wójtowski, Artur Jóźwik, Radosław Pankiewicz, Bogusława Łęska, Józef Krzyżewski, Nina Strzałkowska, Joanna Marchewka, Emilia Bagnicka
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mares’ milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physico‐chemical parameters of mares’ colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares’ milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. Results The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physico‐chemical parameters of mares’ milk. In the successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares’ milk was characterized by low somatic cells count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6‐month storage of lyophilised milk. Conclusion In general, the results confirmed that mares’ milk is a raw material with unique chemical composition different to that produced by other farm animals.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T00:16:39.793997-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6947
  • Elemental Composition of Edible Nuts‐ Fast Optimization and
           Validation Procedure of an Icp‐Oes Method
    • Authors: Snežana B. Tošić; Snežana S. Mitić, Dragan S. Velimirović, Gordana S. Stojanović, Aleksandra N. Pavlović, Emilija T. Pecev‐Marinković
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background An Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP‐OES) method for the speedy simultaneous detection of 19 elements in edible nuts (walnuts‐Juglans nigra, almonds‐ Prunus dulcis, hazelnuts‐Corylus avellana, Brazil nuts‐Bertholletia excelsa, cashews‐ Anacardium occidentalle, pistachios‐Pistacia vera and peanuts‐Arachis hypogaea) available on the Serbian markets, was optimized and validated through the selection of instrumental parameters and analytical lines free from spectral interferences and with the lowest matrix effects. Results The analyzed macroelements were present in the following descending order Na > Mg > Ca > K. Of all the trace elements, the tested samples showed the highest content of Fe. The micro element Se was detected in all the samples of nuts. The toxic elements As, Cd and Pb were either not detected or the contents were below the limit of detection. One‐way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t‐test, Tukey's HSD post‐hoc test and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (CA) were applied in the statistical analysis of the results. Conclusion Based on the detected content of analyzed elements it can be concluded that nuts may be a good additional source of minerals as micronutrients.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T23:54:11.164038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6946
  • Quick Method (FT‐NIR) for the Determination of Oil and Major Fatty
           Acids Content in Whole Achenes of Milk Thistle [Silybum marianum (L.)
    • Authors: Pavla Koláčková; Gabriela Růžičková, Tomáš Gregor, Eliška Šišperová
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Calibration models for the FT‐NIR instrument were developed for quick and non‐destructive determination of oil and fatty acids in whole achenes of milk thistle. Samples with a range of oil and fatty acid levels were collected and their transmitance spectra were obtained by the FT‐NIR instrument. Based on these spectra and data gained by the means of reference method – Soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography (GC) – calibration models were created by means of partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Results Precision and accuracy of the calibration models was verified via the cross validation of validation samples whose spectra were not part of the calibration model and also according to the Root‐Mean‐Square error of prediction (RMSEP), Root‐Mean‐Square error of calibration (RMSEC), Root‐Mean‐Square Error of Cross‐Validation (RMSECV) and the validation coefficient of determination (R2). R2 for the whole seeds were 0.96, 0.96, 0.83 and 0.67 and the RMSEP were 0.76, 1.68, 1.24, 0.54 for oil, linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) acids, resp. Conclusion The calibration models are appropriate for the non‐destructive determination of oil and fatty acids levels in whole seeds of milk thistle.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T23:52:36.830312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6945
  • Effect of high temperature on grain filling period, yield, amylose content
           and activity of starch biosynthesis enzymes in endosperm of basmati rice
    • Authors: Nisar Ahmed; Ian J. Tetlow, Sehar Nawaz, Ahsan Iqbal, Muhammad Mubin, Shahnawaz ul Rehman, Aisha Butt, David A Lightfoot, Masahiko Maekawa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background High temperature during grain filling affects yield, starch amylose content and activity of starch biosynthesis enzymes in basmati rice. To investigate the physiological mechanisms underpinning the effects of high temperature on rice grain, basmati rice was grown under two temperature conditions, 32 °C and 22 °C during grain filling. Results High temperature decreased the grain filling period from 32 to 26 days, reducing yield by 6% and caused a reduction in total starch (3.1%) and amylose content (22%). Measurable activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose to starch connversion; sucrose synthase, ADP‐glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch phosphorylase, and soluble starch synthase in endosperms developed at 32 °C were lower than those at 22 °C compared with similar ripening stage on an endosperm basis. In particular, granule‐bound starch synthase (GBSS) activity was significantly lower than corresponding activity in endosperms developing at 22 °C during all developmental stages analyzed. Conclusion Results suggest changes in amylose/amylopectin ratio observed in plants grown at 32 °C was attributable to a reduction in activity of GBSS, the sole enzyme responsible for amylose biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2014-10-06T00:46:49.178603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6941
  • In vitro metabolic conversion of the organic breakdown products of
           glucosinolate to goitrogenic thiocyanate anion
    • Authors: Juyoung Lee; Hoonjeong Kwon
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Glucosinolates are abundant in Brassicaceae vegetables, and they are degraded into various organic breakdown products (BPs) (R‐CN, −NCS and –SCN) by myrosinase when plant tissues are damaged. This study was designed to investigate whether these BPs could be broken further into goitrogenic thiocyanate anions (SCN−) metabolically and/or spontaneously. Ten glucosinolates were chosen for this study based on the various structures of their side chains. SCN− and cyanide anions (CN−) liberated from the BPs of these glucosinolates were quantified after incubation with human liver S9 and rhodanese. Results Upon treatment with metabolic enzymes, CN− was produced from all the organic thiocyanates, aliphatic and benzyl nitriles, then a substantial amount of produced CN− was further metabolized to SCN− by rhodanese. All of the organic thiocyanates and allyl isothiocyanate were metabolized to produce SCN−, without involving CN− ion production. Spontaneous degradation to SCN− in an aqueous environment was observed only in 4‐(methylthio)butyl thiocyanate, though the enzymatic reaction rate exceeds the spontaneous one. Among these BPs, the major source of SCN− was organic thiocyanates. Conclusion The results show that some organic nitriles, organic thiocyanates and allyl isothiocyanate may be regarded as potential sources of SCN− through metabolism when people ingest glucosinolate‐containing vegetables.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01T00:26:02.332676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6943
  • Influence of pig rennet on fatty acid composition, volatile molecule
           profiles, texture and sensory properties of “Pecorino di
           Farindola” cheese
    • Authors: Giovanna Suzzi; Giampiero Sacchetti, Francesca Patrignani, Aldo Corsetti, Rosanna Tofalo, Maria Schirone, Giuseppe Fasoli, Fausto Gardini, Giorgia Perpetuini, Rosalba Lanciotti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pig rennet is traditionally used in Pecorino di Farindola cheese. Different Pecorino cheeses, obtained using calf, kid and pig rennet, were compared in terms of fatty acids, volatile molecules profiles, texture, and sensory properties during ripening. Results The rennet influenced the fatty acid composition of cheeses although palmitic, myristic and oleic acids were always predominant. The analysis of volatiles by GC/MS/SPME showed that Pecorino from calf rennet, at the end of ripening, was the least ‘evolved’ in terms of volatiles profile. The GC/MS/SPME analysis revealed that cheeses from calf rennet showed the slowest accumulation of free fatty acids over ripening time. Volatiles data permitted to differentiate cheese samples ripened from 30 to 180 days according to the rennet used. The textural analysis differentiated the cheeses made with pig and calf rennet from those made with kid one, which resulted less hard and more elastic. Sensory analysis differentiated the cheeses on the basis of rennet type and cheeses made with pig rennet showed the lowest elasticity, bitter taste, fruity and hay flavour intensity. Conclusions Pig rennet is fundamental to determine the quality parameters of Pecorino di Farindola cheese and could be used to impair peculiar quality features to ewes’ cheeses.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01T00:15:54.345315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6944
  • Beta‐cryptoxanthin as a Source of Vitamin A*
    • Authors: Betty J. Burri
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Beta‐cryptoxanthin is a common carotenoid that is found in fruit, and in human blood and tissues. Foods that are rich in beta‐cryptoxanthin include tangerines, persimmons, and oranges. Beta‐cryptoxanthin has several functions that are important for human health, including roles in antioxidant defense and cell‐to‐cell communications. Most importantly, beta‐cryptoxanthin is a precursor of vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient needed for eyesight, growth, development, and immune response. We evaluate the evidence for beta‐cryptoxanthin as a vitamin A‐forming carotenoid in this paper. Observational, in vitro, animal model and human studies suggest that beta‐cryptoxanthin has greater bioavailability from its common food sources then do alpha‐ and beta‐carotene from theirs. Although beta‐cryptoxanthin appears to be a poorer substrate for 15, 15’ beta‐carotene oxygenase than beta‐carotene is, animal model and human studies suggest that the comparatively high bioavailability of beta‐cryptoxanthin from foods make beta‐cryptoxanthin‐rich foods equivalent to beta‐carotene‐rich foods as sources of vitamin A. These results mean that beta‐cryptoxanthin‐rich foods are probably better sources of vitamin A, and more important for human health in general, than previously assumed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30T22:56:10.026056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6942
  • Oligosaccharides composition in eight Food Legumes species as detected by
           high resolution mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Pei‐Hong Fan; Mei‐Tong Zang, Jie Xing
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background As probiotics, soy oligosaccharides become popular as healthy foods to reduce disease risk. However, comprehensive information about oligosaccharides in different food legumes is limited. Results In this study, eight oligosaccharides were well‐detected and quantified in different varieties of eight legume species using high resolution mass spectrometry. It was determined that species could be distinguished by total content of oligosaccharides and their distribution modes. Among the studied species, V. unguiculata is a better resource of non‐digestible oligosaccharides, V. faba and Black soybean (G. max) are at a disadvantage. Normally, stachyose predominates in non‐digestible oligosaccharides, except in Mung bean and Broad bean where verbascose predominates. For Mung bean and green soybean, seed coat should be accounted for oligosaccharide consuming. The developed high resolution mass spectrometry method simplified sample preparation process greatly and permitted the identification of oligosaccharides without references. Conclusion This work involved extensive sample collecting and provided useful information for consumers. The developed method may be useful for rapid quantification of oligosaccharides in related foods.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30T22:31:16.958822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6940
  • Production of 4‐ethylphenol in alperujo by Lactobacillus pentosus
    • Authors: Antonio de Castro; Emilio Asencio, Mª Victoria Ruiz‐Méndez, Concepción Romero, Manuel Brenes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Alperujo is the paste generated from the two‐phase extraction system of olive oil. This wet pomace must be stored for months and during this period, the formation of 4‐ethyphenol provokes a strong off‐odour. The aim of this work was to identify the microorganisms able to produce this volatile phenol. Results Yeast and bacterial strains were isolated from stored alperujo and tested for their ability to metabolize p‐coumaric acid and form 4‐ethylphenol. Among them, Lactobacillus pentosus was the microorganism that both in synthetic medium and alperujo gave rise to 4‐ethylphenol formation. This microorganism did not grow in alperujo acidified up to pH 2, thereby confirming the acidification as the best method to control odour emissions during alperujo storage. Conclusion Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus pentosus, can be responsible for the formation of the off‐odour caused by 4‐ethylphenol during the storage of alperujo, stink that can be prevented by acidifying the alperujo.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30T05:07:39.318591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6939
  • Enhancing crop yield with the use of N‐based fertilizers
           co‐applied with plant hormones or growth regulators
    • Authors: Mohammad Zaman; Leonid V. Kurepin, Warwick Catto, Richard P. Pharis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Crop yield, vegetative or reproductive, depends on access to an adequate supply of essential mineral nutrients. At the same time, a crop plant's growth and development, and thus yield, also depends on in situ production of plant hormones. Thus, optimizing mineral nutrition and providing supplemental hormones are two mechanisms for gaining appreciable yield increases. Optimizing the mineral nutrient supply is a common and accepted agricultural practice, but the co‐application of nitrogen‐based fertilizers with plant hormones or plant growth regulators is relatively uncommon. Our review discusses possible uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and specific growth regulators (glycine betaine and polyamines) to enhance and optimize crop yield when co‐applied with nitrogen‐based fertilizers. We conclude that use of growth‐active gibberellins, together with a nitrogen‐based fertilizer, can result in appreciable and significant additive increases in shoot dry biomass of crops, including forage crops growing under low temperature conditions. There may also be a potential for use of an auxin or cytokinin, together with a nitrogen‐based fertilizer, for obtaining additive increases in dry shoot biomass and/or reproductive yield. Further research, though, is needed to determine the potential of co‐application of nitrogen‐based fertilizers with abscisic acid, ethylene and other growth regulators.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30T02:25:41.679421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6938
  • Suppression Of The Formation Of Biogenic Amines In Mackerel Mince By
           Microbial Transglutaminase
    • Authors: Pinar Yerlikaya; Nalan Gokoglu, Ilknur Ucak, Hanife Aydan Yatmaz, Soottawat Benjakul
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) is an enzyme utilized in the food industry in many areas. In this study, the suppression effect of MTGase at various levels (0, 2, 5, 10 g kg−1) on the formation of biogenic amines in mackerel was determined during refrigerated storage of 8 days. Result Mince added with 2 g kg−1 MTGase showed the lowest formation of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine throughout the storage. Histamine exceeded the consumable limit (500 mg kg−1) after the 4th day, except for that containing 2 g kg−1 MTGase. The formation of TVB‐N and total free amino acid contents were retarded and the pH value was remained with the addition of MTGase. With increasing MTGase levels, the growth of total psychrophilic bacteria, mould and yeast and coliform bacteria was retarded. The sensory scores of mackerel mince increased concentration as MTGase concentrations increased. Conclusion MTGase played a role in maintaining the quality of mackerel mince during refrigerated storage. As a result of the study, a new usage of MTGase will reveal in the food industry. It will contribute especially in the field of the production of the products for consumers who has allergic sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27T04:22:26.452691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6937
  • High level extracellular expression of inulin fructotransferase in Pichia
           pastoris for DFA III production
    • Authors: Rongrong Zhan; Wanmeng Mu, Bo Jiang, Yungao Li, Liuming Zhou, Tao Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) catalyses inulin conversion to difructose anhydride (DFA III), which is a natural low‐calorie sweetener. Although heterologous expression of IFTase was achieved in Escherichia coli, the extracellular enzyme activity was very low which limited the commercialization of IFTase. Results Active IFTase of about 43 kDa molecular mass of subunit was extracellularly expressed by P. pastoris, and was greatly regulated by IFTase gene copy number integrated into the P. pastoris genome and methanol concentration in the induction phase. Under the optimized culture conditions, the multicopy P. pastoris exhibited a maximum extracellular IFTase activity of 105.4 U mL−1 in a 5 L fermenter, which was 8.9‐fold higher than in shake flasks, and 5.3‐fold of that obtained with wild‐type strain. Conclusion IFTase was expressed in eukaryotic Pichia pastoris system for the first time and achieved high level extracellular expression using high cell density fed‐batch cultivation strategy. It demonstrated that P. pastoris was a good candidate for potential DFA III production as a novel IFTase expression system.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T05:11:00.852494-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6931
  • Molecular strategies for detection and quantification of
           mycotoxin‐producing Fusarium species: a review
    • Authors: Liang Gong; Yueming Jiang, Feng Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fusarium contamination is considered one of major agricultural problems, which could not only significantly reduce yield and quality of agricultural products, but produce mycotoxins that are virulence factors responsible for many diseases of humans and farm animals. One of strategies to identify toxigenic Fusarium species is to use modern molecular methods that include the analysis of DNA target regions for differentiation of the Fusarium species, particularly the mycotoxin‐producing Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides and F. graminearum, and the PCR assays for genes involved in the toxin biosynthesis in order to facilitate a qualitative and quantitative detection of Fusariums‐producing mycotoxins. Also, it is worthy to be mentioned that some factors modulating the biosynthesis of mycotoxins are not only determined by their biosynthetic gene clusters, but also by environmental conditions. Therefore, all of the aforementioned factors which may affect the molecular diagnosis of mycotoxins will be reviewed and discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T05:51:26.645875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6935
  • Evaluation of fruit quality, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant
           activity of flat peach cultivars
    • Authors: Claudio Di Vaio; Nadia Marallo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Matteo Antonio Di
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fruit quality traits (i.e fresh weight, dry weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness), the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics compounds) as well as the total antioxidant activity were evaluated in four commercial cultivars of peaches (Greta, Ufo 4, Rome Star and Ufo 6) and four of nectarines (Neve, Planet 1, Maria Carla and Mesembrina) that differ in fruit shape (standard or flat) and flesh colour (white or yellow), important cultivar of the Italian and foreigner market. The higher fruit organoleptic quality and nutritional profile of flat peach and nectarine cultivars make them candidates for exploiting new market opportunity and the chance to improve profits of farmers. Results Results showed that assayed quality parameters differed largely among cultivars. In particular, flesh color and fruit shape accounted for most of variation in traits underlying organoleptic and nutritional quality. Conclusion Overall data suggested that the flat white‐fleshed nectarine Planet 1, the yellow‐fleshed nectarine Mesembrina and yellow‐fleshed peach Ufo 6, because of their profiles in term of soluble solids content, titratable acidity and bioactive compounds have the greatest potential to meet consumer current requirements.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T05:42:40.536639-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6929
  • Trichoderma harzianum T‐78 supplementation of compost stimulates the
           antioxidant defense system in melon plants
    • Authors: Agustina Bernal‐Vicente; José A Pascual, Fabio Tittarelli, José A Hernández, Pedro Diaz‐Vivancos
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing media in efforts to achieve a more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T‐78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Results Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (MDHAR, monodehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase (POX). Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Conclusion Based on the long‐established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T‐78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T04:57:59.176544-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6936
  • Application of melanin‐free ink as a new antioxidative gel enhancer
           in sardine surimi gel
    • Authors: Naveen Kumar Vate; Soottawat Benjakul, Tri Winarni Agustini
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The squid ink which is discarded as waste during processing can be effectively utilised as gel enhancer in surimi gels, especially those prepared from dark fleshed fish which has poor gel properties. It also acts as an antioxidant inhibiting lipid oxidation. This study aimed to study the effect of melanin‐free ink (MFI) from splendid squid (Loligo formosana) on properties and oxidative stability of surimi gel from sardine (Sardinella albella). Results MFI (0‐0.1 g kg−1 surimi) increased breaking force and deformation of sardine surimi gel in a dose‐dependent manner (P < 0.05). The addition of MFI had no effect on whiteness of surimi gels (P > 0.05). The expressible moisture content of gels decreased as the levels of MFI increased (P < 0.05). Based on microstructure study, gel added with MFI at a level of 0.08 g kg−1 surimi was denser and finer than that of the control (without MFI). Surimi gels with MFI had lower peroxide values (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nonanal and 2‐decenal. Conclusion MFI could improve the properties of sardine surimi gel. Additionally, it was able to prevent lipid oxidation in surimi gels during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T04:50:21.552535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6934
  • Effect of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and different
           aging techniques on the polysaccharide and polyphenolic composition and
           sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines
    • Authors: Rubén del Barrio‐Galán; Alejandro Cáceres‐Mella, Marcela Medel‐Marabolí, Álvaro Peña‐Neira
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of this work was to study the effect of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with different capabilities of polysaccharide liberation during alcoholic fermentation in addition to the subsequent aging on lees with or without oak wood chips as well as aging with commercial inactive dry yeast on the physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Results The high levels of polysaccharides (HPS) yeast strain released higher amounts of polysaccharides (429 g L−1) than EC1118 (390 g L−1) during alcoholic fermentation, but this concentration equalized during the aging period (424 g L−1 and 417 g L−1 respectively). All the aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration, but the increase was dependent on the technique applied. A higher liberation of polysaccharides reduced the concentration of most of the phenolic families analyzed. Moreover, there was no clear effect of the different aging techniques used in this study on the color stabilization was found. The HPS wines were better valued than EC1118 wines by the panel taster after alcoholic fermentation. Conclusions In general, the HPS wines showed better physico‐chemical and sensorial characteristics than the EC1118 wines. According to the results obtained during the aging period, all the aging techniques contributed to improve quality of wine but it was difficult to establish the technique that allowed to obtained the best wine because depended on the aging technique used and the period of aging.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T04:45:07.049368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6932
  • Washed Arabica, Natural Arabica and Robusta Coffees discrimination using
           NIR spectroscopy, Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue analysis
    • Authors: Susanna Buratti; Nicoletta Sinelli, Elisa Bertone, Alberto Venturello, Ernestina Casiraghi, Francesco Geobaldo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a “holistic” approach, using NIR spectroscopy and electronic devices (electronic nose and electronic tongue), as instrumental tools for the classification of different coffee varieties. Analysis were performed on green coffee, on ground roasted coffee and on coffee beverage. Principal Component Analysis was applied on spectral and sensory data to uncover correlations between samples and variables; after variable selection, Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to classify the samples on the basis of the three coffee classes: Robusta, Natural Arabica and Washed Arabica. Results LDA demonstrates the practicability of this approach: the external test set validation performed with NIR data showed 100% of correctly classified samples; moreover a satisfying percentage of correct classification in cross validation was obtained for electronic devices: the average value of correctly classified samples was 81.83% and 78.76% for electronic nose and electronic tongue respectively. Conclusion NIR spectroscopy demonstrated to be a very reliable and useful tool to classify coffee samples in a fast, clean and inexpensive way respect to classical analysis, while electronic devices could assume the role of an investigating techniques to depict the aroma and taste of coffee samples.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T03:26:47.718783-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6933
  • Reduction of energy usage in postharvest horticulture through management
           of ethylene
    • Authors: Ron B.H. Wills; John B. Golding
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cool chain management is the preferred technology to extend the postharvest life of horticultural produce but with rising energy costs and community pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is a need to use less energy intensive technologies. Minimising the level of ethylene around horticultural produce inhibits ripening and senescence and therefore has the potential to reduce the use of refrigeration. The long distance transport of bananas within Australia and from Central America to Europe is used as a case study to show the need for refrigeration could be reduced if the appropriate concentrations of ethylene were maintained around fruit during transit. Data are also presented to show a similar benefit of ethylene control with green beans, and another study showing apples treated with the ethylene‐action inhibitor, 1‐methylcyclopropene could be stored at a higher temperature without loss of quality to the consumer. The range of technologies available to manage ethylene levels is discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T02:42:26.513251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6930
  • Rutin upregulates neurotrophic factors resulting in attenuation of
    • Authors: Kibbeum Song; Ji‐Young Na, Sokho Kim, Jungkee Kwon
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Alcoholism, which refers to the excessive consumption of alcohol, has deleterious effects on personal and social health worldwide. Oxidative stress evoked by ethanol plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Rutin is a bioflavonoid that has been demonstrated to scavenge superoxide radicals. However, the effects of rutin on neuronal toxicity following ethanol‐induced oxidative stress have not previously been investigated. Thus, we investigated the anti‐oxidant effect of rutin in hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22 cells) exposed to ethanol. Results We found that rutin pretreatment prevented the ethanol‐induced decrease in protein level expression of nerve growth factor 1, glial cell line‐derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in HT22 cells. Cell viability as analyzed by the MTT method revealed a significant increase in cell viability in the rutin‐treated group compared with the ethanol‐only treated group. Antioxidant effect of rutin was confirmed to be due to reduction of intracellular reactive oxidative species production in ethanol‐treated HT22 cells. Moreover, rutin significantly increased the level of the antioxidant glutathione, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase.. Conclusion These findings indicate that rutin has potential as a therapeutic agent to treat alcohol‐related neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:40:24.972877-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6927
  • Oxalate synthesis in leaves is associated with root uptake of nitrate and
           its assimilation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants
    • Authors: Xiao Xia Liu; Kai Zhou, Yan Hu, Rong Jin, Ling Li Lu, Chong Wei Jin, Xian Yong Lin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Excessive accumulation of oxalate in numerous vegetables adversely affect their quality as food. While it is known that nitrate could effectively stimulate oxalate accumulation in many vegetables, little information is available about the mechanism of nitrate‐induced oxalate accumulation. In this study, we examined the association of oxalate synthesis with nitrate uptake and assimilation in two genotypes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Heizhenzhu and Weilv. Results Increasing nitrate levels resulted in enhanced synthesis of oxalate, as well as increased root uptake of nitrate and leaf activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) for both genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed that oxalate accumulation in spinach leaves was positively related with rate of nitrate uptake by roots, as well as leaf activities of NR and GS. Addition of plasmalemma H+‐ATPase‐inhibitor sodium vanadate (Na3VO4) significantly decreased leaf oxalate accumulation in both genotypes. Presence of NR or GS inhibitors led to reduction of leaf oxalate contents, GS/NR activities, and decreased nitrate uptake rate. Significantly higher levels of nitrate root uptake, leaf NR and GS activities were observed in the high‐oxalate genotype Heizhenzhu than in Weilv. Conclusion Oxalate synthesis in leaves of spinach is not only positively associated with root uptake of nitrate, but also with its assimilation within the plants.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T04:37:29.599663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6926
  • Effect of low temperature on flavonoids, oxygen radical absorbance
           capacity values, and major components of winter sweet spinach (Spinacia
           oleracea, L).
    • Authors: Mitsuru Watanabe; Jun Ayugase
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Winter sweet treatment (WST) has been established for cultivating high‐quality leafy vegetables during the winter. Although it is known that chilling stress during cold acclimation induces oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species in plant tissues, knowledge about changes in antioxidant activity and compounds during WST in spinach is superficial. We investigated changes in flavonoids, total ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H‐ORAC) along with components in three spinach varieties during low‐temperature treatment by exposure to cold air in winter. Results The H‐ORAC values increased substantially together with total flavonoids and total ascorbic acid concentrations. In addition, WST increased mono‐ and di‐glucosylated flavonoid derivatives with an ortho‐dihydroxy (catechol) structure of lower molecular weight in spinach. These results suggest that WST contributes to the prevention of low‐temperature‐induced oxidative damage by increasing the level of antioxidant compounds, thereby improving the antioxidant activity. Although sucrose concentrations were increased by WST, nitrate and oxalate concentrations did not increase in any variety. Conclusion WST can contribute to the increase in antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids and ascorbic acids, antioxidant activity, and sucrose without increasing in nitrate and oxalate of spinach.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T04:37:05.315942-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6925
  • Enhancement of the bioactive compound content in strawberry fruits grown
           under iron and phosphorus deficiency
    • Authors: Fabio Valentinuzzi; Marco Mason, Matteo Scampicchio, Carlo Andreotti, Stefano Cesco, Tanja Mimmo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Among berries strawberry fruits are one of the richest natural sources of health beneficial components as micronutrients, antioxidants and phytochemicals. Strawberry quality varies greatly upon genotype, environmental factors, cultivation techniques and nutrient supply. The study aimed to assess the influence of phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency on the bioactive compound content in strawberry fruits grown in hydroponic conditions. Results Different nutrient supply clearly influenced the qualitative parameters of strawberry fruits. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that three homogeneous clusters could be identified. The three treatments (control, iron deficiency and phosphorus deficiency) differed especially because of their phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential, being the strawberry fruits grown under Fe and P deficiency richer in pelargonidin‐3‐glucoside, benzoic acids and flavonols than the control fruits. Conclusion Nutrient deficiency had a positive effect on nutritional and health parameters of strawberry fruits without impairing fruit yield and quality parameters as acidity, firmness and total soluble solid content. This effect is strongly correlated with the specific nutrient missing in the growth medium, e.g. either iron or phosphorus. The shaping of nutrient availability in the growing medium could thus be of help in producing edible yield with desired qualitative aspects and nutritional value.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T02:26:34.208623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6924
  • Nutritive quality and protein production from grain legumes in a boreal
    • Authors: Clara I. Lizarazo; Anna‐Maija Lampi, Jingwei Liu, Tuula Sontag‐Strohm, Vieno Piironen, Frederick L. Stoddard
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Boreal cropping systems are heavily focused on the production of small‐grain cereals, to improve their resilience to climate change and to achieve food and feed security, diversification is needed. We investigated the potential of faba bean, narrow‐leafed lupin and lentil as protein crops in southern Finland, where faba bean is traditional but the latter are novel. Results Early cultivars of narrow‐leafed lupin and lentil matured adequately. Protein concentration in faba bean was, at 32%, higher than the world average of 29%, while those of narrow‐leafed lupin and lentil were close to their world averages. Protein yields decreased in the order faba bean, narrow‐leafed lupin and lentil. Lipid content of faba bean and lentil was about 1.2% and that of narrow‐leafed lupin was 5.5%, and fatty acid composition was largely oleic and linoleic in all three species. Conclusions Both lentil and narrow‐leafed lupin can be added to the range of feed and food crops produced at high latitudes in Europe. While faba bean produces the greatest protein yield and lysine concentration, the higher sulphur amino acid concentration in the lupin, its oil content, and its adaptation to acid, sandy soils not suitable for faba bean, make it an attractive alternative.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T07:27:02.701511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6920
  • Influence of Grape Maturity on the Foaming Properties of Base Wines and
           Sparkling Wines (Cava)
    • Authors: Mireia Esteruelas; Elena González‐Royo, Nikolaos Kontoudakis, Antonio Orte, Antoni Cantos, Joan Miquel Canals, Fernando Zamora
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of this paper is to determine the main factors that influence the foaming properties of base wines and sparkling wines and, in particular, the role played by the maturity of the grapes in the AOC cava. Macabeo, Xarel.lo, Parellada and Chardonnay grapes were harvested at two different maturity levels in two vintages. The first harvest was selected because of its desirable titratable acidity and the second because of its optimal sugar concentration. The monovarietal base wines and standard blends were transformed into sparkling wines and aged for 14 months. Results The results indicate that the main factors affecting foam properties are ethanol content, high molecular weight polysaccharides and gluconic acid (which have a negative effect), and proteins (which have a positive effect). Conclusion The main conclusion of this study is that the foaming properties of wines can be improved if harvest dates are advanced.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T07:26:48.078892-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6922
  • In vitro antioxidant and mineral‐chelating properties of natural and
           autocleaved ovotransferrin
    • Authors: Sun Hee Moon; Jae Hoon Lee, Dong Uk Ahn, Hyun‐Dong Paik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Egg white proteins can be excellent substrates for the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. In this study, several in vitro antioxidant methods, such as the β‐carotene linoleate model system, the ferric thiocyanate method, the 2‐thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances method, and copper/calcium ion chelation have been used to determine the antioxidant capacity of natural and autocleaved ovotransferrin. Results Autocleaved ovotransferrin was prepared by reducing natural ovotransferrin with tris(2‐carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) for 6 h at 37 °C. Autocleaved ovotransferrin suppressed the discoloration of β‐carotene effectively and prevented oxidation of linoleic acid during 5 d storage at 4 °C. However, the concentration of autocleaved ovotransferrin had no effect on the its antioxidant effect. Similarly, the highest TBARS values were obtained from the autocleaved ovotransferrin (>90%) and the lowest value in natural ovotransferrin (24%) during incubation at 37 °C for 48 h. The ovotransferrin hydrolysates obtained from autocleaved ovotranferrin showed better Cu/Ca‐solublilizing activity than those from natural ovotransferrin. Conclusion These results indicated that autocleaved ovotransferrin has a potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in foods.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T07:26:27.140737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6921
  • Use of Backslopping method for accelerated and nutritionally enriched Idli
    • Authors: Neha Shrivastava; Laxmi Ananthanarayan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Idli is a cereal‐legume based fermented food, widely consumed in India. It is popular for its nutritional content, sour taste and appetizing aroma. Fermentation time of idli batter varies from 12–14 h. Reduction in fermentation time of idli batter is of great significance for large scale idli production units since it will reduce the batch time and will lead to a greater output. Accelerated fermentation can be potentially achieved by using the backslopping method. The inoculum for backslopping was optimally fermented (12 h) idli batter, dried at room temperature. Results Backslopping reduced the fermentation time of idli batter from the conventional 12 h to 3 h while successfully maintaining sensory attributes of the product. In the idlis prepared by backslopped expedited batter, thiamine was found to be 50 % higher; while reduction of anti‐nutrients phytate (11 %) and trypsin inhibitor (16 % ) were higher than the conventionally fermented (12 h) idli batter. Conclusion Backslopping not only accelerated idli batter fermentation but also enhanced its nutritional value. Similar process can be designed for other fermented foods, to expedite fermentation thus reducing the time requirement.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T07:26:12.179794-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6923
  • Influence of Low‐molecular‐weight glutenin subunit genes at
           Glu‐A3 locus on wheat sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation volume
           and solvent retention capacity value
    • Authors: Zhixia Li; Hongqi Si, Yunxiang Xia, Chuanxi Ma
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background To understand the effect of low‐molecular‐weight (LMW) glutenin alleles at Glu‐A3 locus on the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume and solvent retention capacity (SRC) values, 244 accessions of Chinese wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mini core collections were investigated. In this study, we explained the significant differences in wholemeal flour SDS sedimentation volume and SRC values associated with specific glutenin alleles at Glu‐A3 locus. Results Seven glutenin alleles at Glu‐A3 locus were confirmed by locus‐specific PCR. SDS sedimentation volume and lactic acid SRC value were significantly affected by both the alleles Glu‐A3b and Glu‐A3g. Based on the total average values, 28 varieties carrying Glu‐A3b had significantly higher means of SDS sedimentation volume and lactic acid SRC value, whereas 19 varieties carrying Glu‐A3g had significantly lower means. The alleles Glu‐A3d and Glu‐A3f only significantly increased SDS sedimentation volume and sucrose SRC value, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that SDS sedimentation volume was uncorrelated with lactic acid SRC and sucrose SRC values. Conclusion Glu‐A3 LMW glutenin subunit could predict 12.8% of the variance in SDS sedimentation volume, 4.7% in lactic acid SRC and 6.4% in sucrose SRC.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T07:23:01.814836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6918
  • Housing experimental rats in solid‐based cages with digestible
           bedding may confound outcomes of nutritional studies
    • Authors: Richard K Le Leu; Michael A Conlon, Anthony R Bird, Julie M Clarke
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Rats used in nutritional studies are often kept in wire‐based cages to prevent ingestion of bedding and minimise ingestion of faeces. However wire‐based cages are criticised because of potential negative animal welfare implications. This study investigated the effects of wire or solid‐based cages with corncob bedding on large bowel fermentation and microbiota. Rats were group housed in wire or solid‐based cages and fed a low fibre (LF) and a high fibre (HF) diet composed of resistant starch for 4‐wks. Results Bedding material was observed in faeces of rats housed in solid‐based cages. Caging type and diet altered large bowel fermentation variables and bacterial populations. Caecal digesta weight was lower in rats fed HF diet and maintained on bedding than in HF‐fed rats maintained on wire, bacteria abundance associated with fibre fermentation was higher in LF‐diet fed rats maintained on bedding compared to LF‐fed rats housed on wire. Conclusion Maintaining rats in solid‐based cages with corncob bedding alters large bowel fermentation and bacterial communities due to ingestion of bedding. These changes may confound outcomes of nutritional studies particularly those investigating the health effects of fibres. The use of wire‐based caging may be justified in research of this type.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T07:22:43.927931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6919
  • Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Based Compost As Substrate For Potted Basil
    • Authors: Carlo Mininni; Francesco Grassi, Andreina Traversa, Claudio Cocozza, Angelo Parente, Teodoro Miano, Pietro Santamaria
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Peat is the main component of growing media but is also a non‐renewable resource, therefore the European policy strongly encourages the use of peat alternatives such as compost. Posidonia is a Mediterranean seagrass that produces very conspicuous onshore deposits that can be composted. In this study, a commercial green compost and a posidonia residues based compost were tested in order to assess their potential use as substitutes or complements to peat. Results All macro and micro‐element concentrations of the substrates were positively and significantly related to the percentage of composts in the growing media. Plant grown on peat showed higher content of P, Ca, K, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe, and a slightly higher biomass production in comparison to compost based growing media. In contrast, plants grown on compost based substrates showed lower uptake of Cd and Cr than peat. Conclusion The results indicate that both composts can be used as a complement to the peat for the substrates preparation, especially at a rate of 30%. The posidonia based compost showed better productive results in comparison to the green one. The basil grown on the two composts based media showed reduced absorption level of potentially toxic metals in comparison to peat.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T12:01:03.675996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6917
  • Firmness prediction in Prunus persica ‘Calrico’ peaches by
           Visible/short wave near infrared spectroscopy and acoustic measurements
           using optimized linear and non‐linear chemometric models
    • Authors: Victoria Lafuente; Luis Javier Herrera, María del Mar Pérez, Jesús Val, Ignacio Negueruela
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this work, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and an acoustic measure (AWETA) (two non‐destructive methods) were applied in Prunus persica fruit ‘Calrico’ (n = 260) to predict Magness‐Taylor (MT) firmness. Separate and combined use of these measures was evaluated and compared using PLS and LS‐SVM regression methods. Also, a Mutual Information (MI)‐based variable selection method, seeking to find the most significant variables to produce optimal accuracy of the regression models, was applied to a joint set of variables (NIR wavelengths and AWETA measure). The newly proposed combined NIR‐AWETA model gave good values of the determination coefficient (R2) for PLS and LS‐SVM methods (0.77 and 0.78, respectively), improving the reliability of MT firmness prediction in comparison with separate NIR and AWETA predictions. The three variables selected by the variable selection method (AWETA measure plus NIR wavelengths 675 and 697 nm) achieved R2 values 0.76 and 0.77, PLS and LS‐SVM. These results indicated that the proposed MI‐based variable selection algorithm was a powerful tool for the selection of the most relevant variables.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T09:59:26.936765-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6916
  • Nut traits and nutritional compositions of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.)
           as influenced by zinc fertilization
    • Authors: Nedim Özenç; Damla Bender Özenç
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread phenomenon throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. The effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and nutritional compositions of ‘Tombul’ hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated and the contributions of these nuts on human nutrition were determined. The trials were carried out at ‘Tombul’ hazelnut orchards and zinc fertilizers were applied with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg ha−1 zinc between the three consecutive years. Results Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral compositions were observed in terms of the protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkle nuts, copper (Cu), boron (B), manganese (Mn) and molybdenum (Mo) in zinc fertilizer applications. According to daily nutrition element requirements, the quantity of 100 g hazelnut provided about 44.74% for P, 13.39% for K, 19.32% for Ca, 37.49% for Mg, 0.19% for Na, 51.63% for Fe, 25.73% for Zn and 14.05% for B of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Cu, Mn and Mo contents of 100 g hazelnuts were higher than the respective daily requirements. Conclusion In order to improve some nut traits and mineral compositions of hazelnut, 0.8 kg ha−1 and 1.6 kg ha−1 Zn fertilizations could be recommended for practice.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T09:58:08.823439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6911
  • Characterization And Comparison Of Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant
           Capacity And Instrumental Taste Profile Of Juices From Different Botanical
    • Authors: Daniel Granato; Ariadne Roberto Karnopp, Saskia M. van Ruth
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The European Union registered a consumption of about 10.7 million liters of juices in 2011 and great part of this amount is imported from other countries, which makes the monitoring of their quality essential. This work was aimed to map the quality of various juices from different botanical origins from instrumental taste, chemical markers and antioxidant capacity perspectives. We also characterized the individual phenolic composition of juices previously classified according to their antioxidant activity and total phenolic materials level. Results Overall, by using correlation analysis and chemometrics (HCA and PCA), data showed that total phenolics, specifically gallic acid, p‐coumaric acid, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols are the main contributors to the antioxidant activity. Elderberry and pomegranate juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, orange, apple, and cranberry juices had the lowest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, DPPH, and CUPRAC. Conclusion The use of chemometrics coupled to ANOVA seems to be a suitable approach to evaluate the quality of fruit juices from different botanical origins. Additionally, the instrumental taste profile correlated well to the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity, showing its potential application in assessing the functionality of juices.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:31:21.881168-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6910
  • Triacylglycerols and aliphatic alcohols from fruits of three tunisian
           Pistacia lentiscus populations
    • Authors: Hajer Trabelsi; Justin Renaud, Wahid Herchi, Sadok Boukhchina, Paul Mayer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The search for other sources of vegetable oils by the exploitation and the enhancement of other oil plants will be needed to meet the demands of the international market. This study aims to determine the triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species and aliphatic alcohol (AA) compositions of unexploited fruits of three Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus (lentisc) populations. Results Results show that the content of total TAG varies from 738.32 mg/g of total lipid (LT) in the TB population to 981.15 mg/g of LT in the KO. Furthermore, fourteen species of TAG were detected in the three studied populations. In addition, thirteen aliphatic compounds were identified and classified into two groups: the first group is aliphatic alcohols with a number of carbon atoms less than 20 (hexadecanol, heptadecanol, (Z)‐octadec‐9‐en‐1‐ol, octadecanol and nonadécanol) and the second is that policosanol group (eicosenol, docosenol, docosanol tetracosanol, hexacosanol octacosanol and triacontanol). The Tebaba population showed a distinct composition compared to Korbous and Rimel where heptadecanol is the major compound. Conclusion Quantitatively, the most abundant TAG species are those constituted by palmitic, oleic and/or linoleic acid. Furthermore, the significant difference observed at the oil composition is associated with a remarkable station effect.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:19:49.219883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6915
  • Assessment of the bacterial and fungal diversity in home‐made
           yoghurts of Xinjiang of China by pyrosequencing
    • Authors: Haiyan Xu; Wenjun Liu, Qimu Gesudu, Zhihong Sun, Jiachao Zhang, Zhuang Guo, Yi Zheng, Qiangchuan Hou, Jie Yu, Yanting Qing, Lai‐Yu Kwok, Bilige Menhe, Heping Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background To gain a deeper knowledge to the bacterial and fungal community diversity of home‐made yoghurt from Zhaosu and Tekesi counties of Xinjiang in China, where relatively high proportion of ethnic minority population resides and their local home‐made yoghurt are well‐known. Results The bacterial and fungal community diversity of 22 home‐made yoghurt samples from Zhaosu and Tekesi counties of Xinjiang in China were analyzed with pyrosequencing. Using the approach, this study revealed the presence of six bacterial and two fungal phyla, respective to 69 bacterial and 20 fungal genera from all the samples. Firmicutes and Ascomycota were the dominate phyla, while Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces were the predominant genera of bacteria and fungi, respectively. Based on redundancy analysis (RDA), the bacterial diversity of two counties were different mainly because of 8 responsive operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Lactobacillus. However, no obvious difference existed in the fungal population of the samples from the two counties. Conclusion Our results may indicate that the microbial community of home‐made yoghurt varies with their geographic regions and manufacturing process. The study demonstrated that pyrosequencing could provide a better understanding of microbiology diversity as well as useful information for future studies on starter culture of yoghurt selection.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:12:59.143187-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6912
  • The effect of water stress on super‐high density
           ‘Koroneiki’ olive oil quality
    • Authors: Arnon Dag; Amos Naor, Alon Ben‐Gal, Guy Harlev, Isaac Zipori, Doron Schneider, Reuven Birger, Moti Peres, Yoni Gal, Zohar Kerem
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super‐high density olive orchards has rapidly increased. Water stress is an important tool in super‐high density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability to overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super‐high density orchards on oil quality parameters. In the current study, the effect of irrigation rates on oil quality parameters was studied in a six‐year‐old super‐high density ‘Koreneiki’ olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain varied midday stem water potential threshold values (−1.5, −2, −2.5, −3 and −4 Mpa) were applied during the oil accumulation stage. Results The ratio of MUFA/PUFA increased and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increased tree water stress. In most of the seasons, a reduction in polyphenols was found with reduction of irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in super‐high density, lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction of polyphenol content which were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:08:51.503099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6913
  • Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts on the oxidative
           stability and sensory acceptability of soybean oil
    • Authors: Liara S Dias; Michele E C Menis, Neuza Jorge
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plant extracts have been used as an alternative to the use of synthetic antioxidants in order to preserve oils from oxidative degradation. Besides that, these extracts add special flavors and aromas to the food. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and freeze dried rosemary in the oxidative stability of soybean oil under accelerated storage in oven. Results The application of the extracts in the oil showed that that freeze dried extract was better in reducing the formation of oxidation products, evidencing 8.6 meq kg −1 of peroxides after 20 days of storage. On the other hand, the mixture of the natural extract with TBHQ conferred better oxidative stability index until the 20th day, 9.7 h. Both extracts prevented the tocopherol loss, do not differing between each other (p > 0.05), presenting approximately 505 mg kg −1 of residual tocoferols. The sensory evaluation revealed that the consumer accepted equally the oils added and not added of the rosemary extracts. Conclusion The extracts are therefore potential sources of natural antioxidants and they would be well accepted by consumers if applied by the food industry to replace synthetic antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:08:20.495415-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6914
  • Influence of pH, Concentration, and Light on Stability Allicin in Garlic
           (Allium sativum L.) Aqueous Extract as Measured by UPLC
    • Authors: Haiping Wang; Xixiang Li, Xinyan Liu, Di Shen, Yang Qiu, Xiaohui Zhang, Jiangping Song
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Garlic as one of the most important bulb vegetables was mainly used as spice or flavoring agent for foods, and also cultivated for its medicinal properties attributable to sulfur compounds, of which, the allicin is the most important. However the stability of allicin in garlic extract was not understood well yet. In this study, using UPLC, the stability of allicin extracted in water from garlic was evaluated in phosphate buffer,under different temperatures, and in light and dark. Results At room temperature, allicin extract was most stable with pH 5.0 to 6.0, but degraded quickly at lower or higher pH. It began degrading in 0.5 h and was not detectable after 2 h when the pH was higher than 11.0 or lower than 1.5. It degraded quickly when temperature was higher than 40 °C, and especially higher than 70 °C. At room temperature, allicin in water could be stored for 5 d without obvious degradation. Higher the concentrations of allicin in solution were somewhat more stable than low concentrations. Conclusion Allicin extract was sensitive to pH and temperature of storage, but not to light. Higher concentration allicin in solution was more stable.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:07:30.26958-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6884
  • New Trends in Beer Flavour Compound Analysis
    • Authors: Cristina Andrés‐Iglesias; Olimpio Montero, Daniel Sancho, Carlos A. Blanco
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:04:40.85371-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6905
  • The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the
           physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Akkawi cheese
    • Authors: Rabih Kamleh; Ammar Olabi, Imad Toufeili, Hamza Daroub, Tarek Younis, Rola Ajib
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Studies have shown a direct relationship between increased dietary sodium intake and chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Potassium chloride is the most widely used salt substitute for sodium chloride in different processed foods. Akkawi cheese, commonly consumed as fresh cheese, has a semi‐hard curd, chalky color, firm texture and salty flavor. The effect of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on the chemical, textural, microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and mature Akkawi cheese was investigated. Results Salt treatment (NaCl reduction) had a significant effect on pH, lactic acid, sodium and potassium contents of cheeses. Texture profile analysis revealed a significant effect of salt treatment on adhesiveness, chewiness and hardness of cheese. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between salt treatments, specifically between control (100% NaCl) and (70% NaCl, 30% KCl) samples. Descriptive analysis showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on bitterness, crumbliness and hardness, whereas the age of cheese was significant for color and fermented flavor. Salt treatment had no effect on acceptability variables for all experimental 2‐wk Akkawi samples. Conclusion The above results suggest that a 30% substitution of NaCl by KCl (70% NaCl, 30% KCl brine) is acceptable.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:03:02.107816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6906
  • Extraction optimization of polysaccharides from Chinese rice wine from the
           Shaoxing region and evaluation of its immunity activities
    • Authors: Chi Shen; Jian Mao, Yongquan Chen, Xiangyong Meng, Zhongwei Ji
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Chinese rice wine is commonly famous for its unique flavor and high nutritional value, it is interesting to investigate the functional components of Chinese rice wine and their health benefits. Results Response surface design of three‐factors, pH, ethanol concentration and precipitation time at the three levels was utilized to optimize the extraction of Chinese rice wine polysaccharide (CRWP). The results indicated that the CRWP yield was 77.287% at the optimal levels for pH 8.4, ethanol concentration 88 %, precipitation time 23 h. In addition, immunity activity of CRWP was investigated by measuring body weight, spleen index and thymus index. Furthermore, immunity activity of CRWP was investigated by measuring lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytic index and phagocytic percentage of immunosuppressed mice. Compared with the control mice and model mice, it was found that CRWP has beneficial immunity activities) in vivo. Conclusion These findings indicate that CRWP has immunity activities in vivo by modulating the immune response, and implies full development and utilization of the nutritional value of Chinese rice wine the nutritive value of Chinese rice wine. However, furtherwork will be conducted to elucidate the structure/bioactivity relationship for CRWP in the future.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:02:45.467406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6909
  • Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does
           viscosity have an impact?
    • Authors: Cai V S Brandenstein; Mechthild Busch‐Stockfisch, Markus Fischer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol, and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPas). The range of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. Results An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess, and perceived viscosity (p values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. Conclusion The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T02:39:05.717807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6907
  • Mutation breeding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content
    • Authors: Ming‐Hua Liang; Ying‐Jie Liang, Xiao‐Na Wu, Shi‐Shui Zhou, Jian‐Guo Jiang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: With the mutation conditions of 0.4% diethyl sulfate (DES, lethality 84.81%) for 60 min and an ultraviolet (UV) irradiation time of 240 s (lethality 85.92%), 15 W at a distance of 30 cm, a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae DU9 with low production of methanol (97.3 ± 1.7 mg/L) was selected, with a 12.3% decrease of that of S. cerevisiae D4 only with DES treatment, and with a 27.8% reduction of that of the strain without any treatment. Meanwhile, the effects of the additions of pectinase, cellulase and glycine on the production of methanol in sugar cane spirits were evaluated. Pectinase and cellulase significantly increased the methanol levels of the sugar cane spirits. With the additions of 56 U of pectinase and 24 U of cellulase, respectively, the methanol contents were almost the maxima and subsequently no significant change. In addition, the relations between the glycine content in the fermentation medium and the production of methanol in sugar cane spirits were studied. The results showed that there was linear relationship between glycine (concentration within 0 ~ 0.9 g/L) and methanol in sugar cane sprits and the linear equation was y = 104.7x‐4.79 with the conversion rate of glycine conversion to methanol as 24.56%. So it is necessary to control the addition of pectinase, cellulase and glycine in the fermentation medium, and other unknown ways to generate methanol metabolic pathway in yeasts may need further study.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T02:37:52.733428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6908
  • Protective effects of Cholestin on ethanol induced oxidative stress in
    • Authors: You‐Liang Hsieh; Yen‐Hung Yeh, Ya‐Ting Lee, Chih‐Yang Huang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, Group A: basal diet, Group B: basal diet containing cholestin for 0.1667 g kg−1, Groups C‐F the rats were orally received ethanol for 7.9 g kg−1. Groups D‐F the Cholestin in diet for 0.1667 g kg−1, 0.3333 g kg−1, 0.5 g kg−1, Group G was given silymarin in diet for 2 mg kg−1. Results Our results showed treatment with Cholestin for 8‐weeks reduce the impact of ethanol toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Antioxidant system was significantly enhanced in the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were lowered while the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px), ethanol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities and non‐enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) were elevated. Conclusion Cholestin has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity indices in ethanol fed rats to comparable of silymarin and supported by the evaluation of the liver histopathology. Our data suggest that Cholestin its hepatoprotective effect by decreased the lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidants status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant in ethanol induced oxidative damage in rats.
      PubDate: 2014-09-09T03:25:35.982904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6904
  • Effect of Rye Bread Enriched with Tomato Pomace on Fat Absorption and
           Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High‐Fat Diet
    • Authors: Joanna Bajerska; Agata Chmurzynska, Sylwia Mildner‐Szkudlarz, Sławomira Drzymała‐Czyż
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Tomato pomace (TP), obtained as a residue of tomato processing, was used to enriched rye bread (RB). The sensory profile of this functional bread (RB+TP) was characterized, and its fat‐absorption and lipid metabolism properties in high‐fat‐fed rats were studied. Results Intake of the HF diet containing RB, RB+TP, or TP alone increased fecal energy and fat excretion, but did not affect animal growth or visceral fat weight. Both RB and RB+TP diminished the negative impact of the HF diet, lowering the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and the total liver lipid contents by 31.6% and 24%, respectively. The experimental diets had no effect on liver S‐adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations, or on the S‐adenosylmethionine (SAM) to SAH ratio, though the lowest SAM levels were observed in the HF+TP group. No significant differences were detected in blood homocysteine, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels. Conclusions Although RB+TP incorporated into a HF diet may lead to a decrease in AIP and total liver lipid content, this effect does not depend on the components of TP, but rather on the RB ingredients. However, pure TP, in the doses used in this study, may potentially play a role in the energy balance via fecal loss of lipids
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T07:11:12.952556-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6899
  • New food from potato somatic hybrid: nutritional equivalence and safety
           assessment by a feeding study on rats
    • Authors: Oumèma Nouri‐Ellouz; Najiba Zeghal, Saloua Makni, Fatma Makni‐Ayadi, Mouhanad Trigui, Raoudha Ellouz‐Ghorbel, Noureddine Drira, Tahya Sellami‐Boudawara, Radhia Gargouri‐Bouzid
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Potato tubers from the STBd somatic hybrid line that exhibited improved tolerance to salinity and resistance to fungal and PVY infections were characterized. They were compared for their chemical composition to the Spunta variety produced by conventional agronomic practices. This study aimed to compare nutritional value and safety by feeding rats with STBd or commercial tubers added to the standard diet (20/80 w/w). Results The analysis of soluble sugar, fat, fiber and ash contents of tubers did not reveal any significant differences between the hybrid line and the control Spunta variety. Small differences were observed in dry matter, starch and protein contents of hybrid potatoes in comparison to controls. However, all values were within normal ranges reported in the literature. The feeding study on rats showed that overall health, weight gain, food consumption, morphological aspects and weights of organs were comparable between rat groups fed the STBd hybrid and the Spunta variety. Conclusion Taken together, 28 days of consumption of STBd hybrid potato did not exert any adverse effect on rats compared with commercial Spunta potato. The STBd potato line was therefore considered to be as safe for food utilization as the commercial variety.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T07:10:48.428449-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6898
  • Deglycosylation of Isoflavone C‐Glycosides by Newly Isolated Human
           Intestinal Bacteria
    • Authors: Mihyang Kim; Jaekwan Lee, Jaehong Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plant isoflavones are mostly present in the glycoside form. Isoflavone aglycones produced by intestinal microflora are reported to be more bioactive than the glycoside form. However, the deglycosylation of isoflavone C‐glycosides is known to be rare, and is less studied. Results Three new bacteria were isolated from human fecal samples, two of which hydrolyzed the C‐glycosidic bond of puerarin, daidzein‐8‐C‐glucoside. They were identified as two Lactococcus species, herein designated as MRG‐IFC‐1 and MRG‐IFC‐3, and an Enterococcus species, herein designated MRG‐IFC‐2, based on their 16S rDNA sequences. From reactivity study, it was found that Lactococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐1 and Enterococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐2 hydrolyzed isoflavone C‐ and O‐glycosides, as well as the flavone O‐glycoside apigetrin, but could not hydrolyze the flavone C‐glycosidic bond of vitexin. The other Lactococcus sp., MRG‐IF‐3, could not hydrolyze the C‐glycosidic linkage of puerarin, while it showed a broad substrate spectrum of O‐glycosidase activity similar to the other two bacteria. Puerarin was completely converted to daidzein within 100 min by Lactococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐1 and Enterococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐2, which is the fastest conversion among the reported human intestinal bacteria. Conclusion Two new puerarin‐metabolizing human intestinal bacteria were isolated and identified, and the deglycosylation activity for various flavonoid glycosides was investigated. The results could facilitate the study of C‐glycosidase reaction mechanisms, as well as the pharmacokinetics of bioactive C‐glycoside natural products.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:45:55.831184-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6900
  • Efficiency of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp essential oil as a
           mycotoxicant against postharvest mycobiota of table grapes
    • Authors: Nivedita Sonker; Abhay K. Pandey, Pooja Singh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In order to get a potent botanical fungicide for the management of fungal decay of table grapes, an experiment was conducted in which 20 essential oils of higher plants were screened at 0.33 μL mL−1 against three dominant fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. ochraceus causing decay of table grapes. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentration, fungitoxic spectrum and mycotoxin inhibition activity of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of most potent oil in preservation of table grapes along with organoleptic evaluation was also carried out by storing 1 kg of grapes in the oil vapor. Results Artemisia nilagirica oil was found to most toxic exhibiting 100 % mycelia inhibition of all the test fungi. Moreover, 0.29 μL mL−1 of A. nilagirica oil was fungistatic and 0.57 μL mL−1 was fungicidal for all the tested species of Aspergillus. Oil exhibited broad range of fungitoxicity against other grape berries rotting fungi. A. nilagirica oil absolutely repressed the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus at 1.6 μL mL−1. During in vivo experiment, fumigation of 1 kg of table grapes by 200 and 300 μL dosage of A. nilagirica oil enhanced the shelf life for 9 days. The oil did not show phytotoxic effect. Besides, the oil application did not substantively change the sensory properties of the fruits. Conclusion Thus, A. nilagirica oil can be used as an alternative botanical fungicide for control of fruit rotting fungi of stored grapes.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:45:25.39981-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6901
  • Phytochemical profile, anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory
           potentials of Gynura bicolor DC.
    • Authors: Che‐yi Chao; Wen‐hu Liu, Jia‐jiuan Wu, Mei‐chin Yin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Phytochemical composition of aqueous and ethanol extracts from Gynura bicolor DC., a vegetable, was determined. Human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells were used to examine the anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory potentials of these extracts at 1, 2 or 4% against high glucose‐induced injury. Resulrs Both aqueous and ethanol extracts contained phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, and anthocyanins in the range of 1428–1569, 1934–2175, 921–1007 and 2135–2407 mg 100 g dry weight−1. Both extracts were rich in quercetin, lutein, malvidin and pelargonidin. Addition of these extracts at test doses decreased reactive oxygen species formation, reserved glutathione content, and retained glutathione peroxide and catalase activities in high glucose‐treated HUVE cells (P
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:42:47.598745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6902
  • Phytochemical Screening, Anticancer and Antioxidant Activities of Origanum
           vulgare L. subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek: A Plant of Traditional Usage
    • Authors: Serkan Koldaş; Ibrahim Demirtas, Tevfik Ozen, Mehmet Ali Demirci
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of its five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). Results The differences between essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were also shown. Main component of the essential oil was found as caryophyllene oxide. On the other hand, main components of volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol determined by Head Space‐GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC‐TOF/MS. Ten phenolic compounds were determined from Origanum vulgare and Origanum acutidens in the extracts: Rosmarinic acid (RA) ‐ with the highest abundance ‐, chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p‐coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin‐7‐glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4‐hydroxybenzaldehyde. Conclusion This study can be shown as the first one on antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of Origanum vulgare subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:42:34.985831-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6903
  • A comparison of fruit quality parameters of wild bilberry (Vaccinium
           myrtillus L.) growing at different locations
    • Authors: Maja Mikulic‐Petkovsek; Valentina Schmitzer, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background As a part of the ongoing interest in nutritional and nutraceutical properties of locally produced fruits, the aim of the article was to determine sugars, organic acids, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of wild bilberries grown in Slovenia. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of bilberry fruit was compared among six phyto‐climatic conditions, differing in photosynthetic active radiation and light intensity. Results Three sugars were quantified in bilberry fruit, the predominant fructose and glucose, along with five organic acids. Bilberry fruit contained high levels of anthocyanins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, petunidin and peonidin glycosides), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and low levels of flavonol glycosides (mainly quercetin and myricetin glycosides), flavan‐3‐ols, proanthocyanidins, and iridoids. The results of the study indicate that bilberries growing in sites with high PAR contained higher levels of total sugars, anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids and lower levels of organic acids compared with bilberry fruit from low‐light locations. Consequently, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of the fruit from high PAR locations were significantly increased. Conclusion Bilberries from different natural habitats differ significantly in the quantity of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds. Our results contribute to a fuller understanding of the relationships between environmental factors and primary and secondary metabolites accumulation in bilberry fruits.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T03:34:59.214662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6897
  • Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal
    • Authors: Joanna Rychlik; Anna Olejnik, Mariola Olkowicz, Katarzyna Kowalska, Wojciech Juzwa, Kamila Myszka, Radosław Dembczyński, Mary Pat Moyer, Włodzimierz Grajek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the broccoli sprouts protective effects against oxidative stress in human colon cells. Results Obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in broccoli sprouts, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, whereas phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar or higher than determined for non‐digested broccoli sprouts. Gastrointestinal digested broccoli sprouts extract exhibited reactive oxygen species inhibitory capacity in colon NCM460 cells, with 1 mg mL−1 showing a ROS clearance of 76.59%. The 57.33% reduction of oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells, caused by treatment with digested broccoli sprouts extract, was observed. Conclusion Results lent support to application the broccoli sprouts as rich source of antioxidants to improve defensive system against oxidative stress in colon mucosa.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T06:10:21.444321-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6895
  • 5‐Caffeoylquinic Acid Decreases Diet‐Induced Obesity in Rats
           by Modulating PPARα and LXRα Transcription
    • Authors: Kang Huang; Xiu‐ci Liang, Ying‐li Zhong, Wan‐yan He, Zheng Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are widely distributed in plant material, including foods and beverages. 5‐Caffeoylquinic acid (5‐CQA) is the most studied CGA, but the mechanism of its hypolipidemic effect remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of 5‐CQA on lipid metabolism in the liver of Sprague–Dawley rats fed a high‐fat diet (HFD). RESULTS 5‐CQA suppressed HFD‐induced increases in body weight and visceral fat‐pad weight, serum lipid levels, and serum and hepatic free fatty acids in a dose‐dependent manner. Real‐time PCR revealed that 5‐CQA altered the mRNA expression of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor α (PPARα) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) and target genes involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake, β‐oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, hepatic tissue sections from HFD‐fed rats showed many empty vacuoles, suggesting that liver cells were filled with more fat droplets. However, 5‐CQA significantly ameliorated this effect. CONCLUSION 5‐CQA may improve lipid metabolism disorders by altering the expression of PPARα and LXRα, which are involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T06:07:04.29455-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6896
  • Eating Quality Of Meat From Six Lamb Breed Types Raised In Brazil
    • Authors: Carla Alves Monaco; Maria T Alvarenga Freire, Lauro Melo, Alessandra Fernandes Rosa, Celso da Costa Carrer, Marco A Trindade
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Breed or genotype is important to consider for developing appropriate eating quality in lamb. The objectives of this study were to compare physical and chemical parameters and sensory acceptance of Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle from six lamb breed types economically important to Brazilian sheep raising chain. Results No difference (P > 0.05) among samples was found in relation to L*, a* and b* parameters. However, differences were detected in shear force for the LL muscle produced by different breeds (P  0.05) was detected in aroma attribute for all breed types tested. For the attributes texture, juiciness, flavor and overall quality, differences were detected (P 
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T04:21:45.894899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6894
  • Cross‐Cultural Acceptance Of A Traditional Yoghurt‐Like
           Product Made From Fermented Cereal
    • Authors: H.N Akissoe; C. Sacca, A‐L. Declemy, A. Bechoff, V. Anihouvi, G. Dalode, D. Pallet, G. Fliedel, C. Mestres, D.J. Hounhouigan, K.I. Tomlins
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Akpan is a traditional ready‐to‐drink fermented yoghurt‐like cereal beverage consumed in urban and rural areas in Benin. With the aim of adapting the product to new local and export markets, this work maps African and European consumer preferences for different types of Akpan. Results A sensory profile of Akpan was created and consumer tests were conducted with 103 consumers of African origin and 74 consumers of European origin. Consumer acceptance was significantly correlated with fermented odour (r = − 0.94) and milky taste attributes (r = 0.92 to 0.97). Cluster analysis revealed different behaviour by African and European consumers with respect to acceptability of Akpan; European consumers did not like the sour taste and African consumers liked an intense sweet milky taste. Conclusion This study provides information on how Akpan, and other fermented yoghurt‐type cereal products, could be adapted to African and European consumer preferences.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T06:57:00.383063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6892
  • Effect of Grape and Other Berries on Cardiovascular Health
    • Authors: JoLynne D. Wightman; Roschelle A. Heuberger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. Many cardiovascular risk factors can be modified through lifestyle modification, including dietary patterns that emphasize daily consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Recent observational and clinical studies suggest that flavonoids, especially those abundant in grapes and other berries, may be associated with health benefits and in particular, cardiovascular benefits. Human clinical data supports cardioprotective benefits of grapes through inhibition of platelet aggregation, decreased LDL oxidation, reduction in oxidative stress, and improvements in endothelial function. Emerging evidence suggests that grapes may also have a favorable effect on blood lipids, decrease inflammation, and reduce blood pressure in certain populations. Studies to date have shown berries can have a beneficial effect on reducing LDL oxidation. Limited data suggests that berries may have a favorable effect on endothelial health and blood pressure. This review summarizes the current literature on human clinical studies examining the cardioprotective benefits of grapes and berries. Collectively, these data support the recommendation to incorporate products made with grapes and other berries into a heart‐healthy diet.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T04:50:36.226519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6890
  • Optimization of pulsed electric field pre‐treatments to enhance
           health‐promoting glucosinolates in broccoli flowers and stalk.
    • Authors: I Aguiló‐Aguayo; M. Suarez, L. Plaza, M.B. Hossain, N. Brunton, J.G. Lyng, D.K. Rai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment variables (electric field strength and treatment time) on the glucosinolate content of broccoli flowers and stalks were evaluated. Samples were subjected to electric field strength from 1 to 4 kV/cm and treatment times from 50 to 1000 µs, at 5 Hz. Results Data fitted significantly (p< 0.0014) the proposed second‐order response functions. The results showed that PEF combined treatment conditions at 4 kV/cm for 525 µs and 4 kV/cm for 1000 µs were optimal to maximize glucosinolates levels in broccoli flowers (ranging 187.1 to 212.5%) and stalks (ranging 110.6 to 203.0%), respectively. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.59 to 8.80%. Conclusion The use of PEF processing at moderate conditions could be a suitable process to stimulate production of broccoli with high health‐promoting glucosinolate content.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T04:37:32.599048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6891
  • Development of New Reference Material Neohesperidin for Quality Control of
           Dietary Supplements
    • Authors: Ningbo Gong; Baoxi Zhang, Dezhi Yang, Zhaolin Gao, Guanhua Du, Yang Lu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Neohesperidin is an important natural flavanone glycoside distributed in several citrus species. This compound is widely used as a raw material for food additives in the food industry. The request for certified reference materials (CRMs) in dietary supplements was stipulated by the National Administrative Committee for CRMs and was underpinned by the need to improve the accuracy and comparability of measurement data and to establish metrological traceability of analytical results. Results This paper reports the sample preparation methodology, homogeneity and stability studies, value assignment, and uncertainty estimation of a new certified reference material of neohesperidin (GBW09522). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), coulometric titration (CT) and mass balance methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of neohesperidin CRM is 994 g kg−1 with an expanded uncertainty of 4 g kg−1 (k=2). The reference material described above was homogeneous and stable for 12 months at a storage temperature of 25 °C. Conclusion The new CRM of neohesperidin can be used to validate analytical methods, improve the accuracy of measurement data as well as quality control of neohesperidin‐related dietary supplements, foods, traditional herbs and pharmaceutical formulations.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T04:36:13.351057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6893
  • Effect Of Different New Packaging Materials On Biscuit Quality During
           Accelerated Storage
    • Authors: Santina Romani; Silvia Tappi, Federica Balestra, Maria Teresa Rodriguez Estrada, Valentina Siracusa, Pietro Rocculi, Marco Dalla Rosa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The effect of innovative multilayer packaging materials vs standard one on biscuit quality was studied during accelerated storage at 25, 35, 45 °C and 50% RH for 92 days. Three different packaging materials were used: metalized Orientated PolyPropylene (OPP)/paper (control); metalized Poly‐Lactic Acid (PLA)/paper; metalized OPP with Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Pro‐Oxidant Additive (EVA‐POA)/paper. EVA‐POA additive is used to make the plastic layer biodegradable. Various quality sample parameters (moisture, water activity, texture, peroxide value, hexanal) were analysed during storage. Rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) of hydration reactions and hexanal formation were calculated. Results No remarkable differences in the evolution of primary and secondary lipid oxidation were observed among differently packed biscuits during storage. All samples maintained PV levels between 4 and 14 meq O2 kg oil−1. The product in flexible packaging with PLA reached the highest moisture and aw levels, but they did not significantly and adversely affect the other quality characteristics. Conclusions The obtained results demonstrate that the new tested packaging materials were suitable for commercial biscuits storage, having similar performances and preservation effects on the overall product quality to those of the standard one. Furthermore, these results could give a contribution to food industry, encouraging the use of packaging materials with a negligible environmental impact as an alternative to petroleum‐based ones.
      PubDate: 2014-08-25T05:28:17.839929-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6888
  • Labrador tea ‐ the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin,
           processing and safety.
    • Authors: Anna Dampc; Maria Luczkiewicz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the native to North America beverage, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe of making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 minutes. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for the pests controlling.
      PubDate: 2014-08-25T05:27:50.266102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6889
  • The effect of salt replacers and flavor enhancer on the processing
           characteristics and consumer acceptance of turkey sausages
    • Authors: Z. Pietrasik; N. J. Gaudette
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Producing high quality processed meats that contain reduced amounts of sodium chloride is a major challenge facing industry due to the importance of sodium chloride towards the functional, microbial stability and sensory properties of these products. In order to create reduced sodium alternatives, a number of commercial salt replacers and flavor enhancers have entered the market; however, their ability to be applied in processed meats requires investigation. Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor – OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of turkey sausages. Functionality via instrumental measures (yield, purge loss, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture), safety (microbiological assessment), and consumer acceptability were obtained on all samples. Results All non‐control treatments resulted in products with sodium chloride contents below Canada's Health Check™ Program target for processed meats. There was no detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with OF60 sea salt replacers. Sodium reduction had no negative effect on the shelf life of the turkey sausages with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer acceptability for all attributes did not significantly differ, except for aftertaste, which scored lowest for OF45 compared to control (regular NaCl content). Conclusion This work demonstrated that salt replacers could potentially substitute NaCl in smoked turkey sausages; however, further flavor optimization may be required to suppress undesirable levels of bitterness elicited by some of these ingredients.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T05:17:36.803304-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6885
  • Efficiency of Irrigation Water Application to Sugarcane Cultivation in
    • Authors: Muhammad Arif Watto; Amin Mugera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The diminishing irrigation water supplies are threatening the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. Within the context of dwindling water resources and low agricultural water productivity, it is imperative to improve efficiency in agricultural production and to make efficient use available water resources. This study employs a nonparametric approach to estimate the extent of technical and irrigation water efficiency in sugarcane cultivation in Pakistan. Results The mean technical efficiency (TE) score is 0.96 for tube‐well owners whereas the mean TE score is 0.94 for water buyers. The mean irrigation water efficiency (IWE) score is 0.86 for tube‐well owners whereas the mean IWE score is 0.72 for water buyers. We find that across all farms, 59% of the tube‐well owners and 45% of the water buyers are fully technically efficient, whereas only 36% of the tube‐well owners and 30% of the water buyer are fully efficient in irrigation water use. Conclusions This study finds that sugarcane growers are operating at fairly high technical efficiency levels. But, there is considerable potential to improve irrigation water efficiency. This study proposes expanding the role of agricultural extension services from merely agronomic grounds to guide farmers to undertake cost benefit analysis of the available production technology, would help achieving higher efficiency levels.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T05:15:01.586844-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6887
  • Culinary preparation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.): The impact on sensory
           quality and appropriateness
    • Authors: Vibe Bach; Lærke Mikkelsen, Ulla Kidmose, Merete Edelenbos
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Beetroot is a diverse vegetable available in different shapes and colours. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sensory qualities, and sugar and dry matter content of five beetroot varieties in relationship to the appropriateness for raw, boiled, and pan‐fried preparation. Results Sensory evaluation by descriptive sensory analysis and consumer tests showed clear distinctions between red varieties Taunus, Rocket, and Pablo, and the pink‐white striped Chioggia, and yellow Burpee's Golden in raw preparations. However, variety delimination was more difficult after boiling and pan‐frying. Different sensory qualities were important for beetroot appropriateness in raw, boiled, and pan‐fried preparations. Appropriateness of raw beetroots was associated with high sensory scores in beetroot flavour, crispness, and juiciness and low scores in bitterness. Appropriateness of boiled beetroots was related to high scores in beetroot and earthy flavours. Pan‐fried beetroot appropriateness was associated with high scores in beetroot flavour, colour intensity, and crispness. Conclusion This study showed the quality of raw materials is integral in culinary preparations. These results can be used to guide consumers in the use of beetroots in culinary preparations, and thereby increase consumption.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T05:03:04.478679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6886
  • Meat quality and the histological structure of breast and leg muscles in
           Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani x Sussex hybrids and slow‐growing
           Hubbard JA 957 chickens
    • Authors: Monika Łukasiewicz; Jan Niemiec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Natalia Mroczek‐Sosnowska
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The purpose of the study was to determine the quality of the meat and the histological structure of muscles Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani x Sussex (hybrids) and slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957; and examine whether the Sussex chickens generally available with little available Ayam Cemani give a good quality product which can be interesting in the poultry industry and food technology. Results The size of breast and leg muscle fibers varied among genotypes. The breast and leg muscles of slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens had the largest fiber diameter. The histological and biochemical properties of muscles, including the type, number, proportions, diameter and metabolic profile of fibers, had a significant effect on the pH and water‐binding capacity of meat, thus affecting its quality. The muscle fibers of Ayam Cemani chickens were approximately half the size of the muscle fibers of Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Ayam Cemani and Ayam Cemani x Sussex give the product as good quality as chickens Hubard JA 957. Conclusions Meat from Ayam Cemani chickens is a rich source of protein and it could be highly valued by gourmet consumers, connoisseurs and dieticians for its rarity and originality. The results of this study show that genotype (Ayam Cemani, Ayam Cemani x Sussex, Hubbard JA 957) affected the quality and color of meat and the histological profile of chicken breast and leg muscles.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T04:38:41.764376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6883
  • Endogenous functional compounds in Korean native chicken meat are
           dependent on sex, thermal processing, and the meat cut
    • Authors: Dinesh D. Jayasena; Samooel Jung, Sun Hyo Kim, Hyun Joo Kim, Amali U. Alahakoon, Jun Heon Lee, Cheorun Jo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this study, we determined the effects of sex, meat cut, and thermal processing on the carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine contents of the Korean native chicken (KNC) meat. A total of 40 one‐day‐old chicks (20 chicks of each sex), from a commercial KNC strain (WoorimatdagTM) were reared under similar standard commercial conditions with similar diets, and a total of 10 birds of each sex were randomly selected and slaughtered at 14 weeks of age. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared from both breast and leg meats and analyzed for the aforementioned functional compounds. Results Female KNCs had significantly higher betaine and creatine contents. The breast meat showed significantly higher carnosine and anserine contents, whereas the leg meat had a greater betaine and carnitine content. The content of all functional compounds was significantly depleted by thermal processing. Conclusion This study confirms that KNC meat is a good source of above‐mentioned functional compounds, which can be considered attractive nutritional quality factors. However, their concentrations were significantly affected by thermal processing conditions, meat cut, and sex. Further experiments are needed to select the best thermal processing method to preserve these functional compounds.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T04:38:29.169457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6882
  • 6,6’‐bieckol inhibits adipocyte differentiation through
           down‐regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3‐L1
    • Authors: Tae‐Hyung Kwon; Yong‐Xiang Wu, Jong‐Shik Kim, Jung‐Hee Woo, Kyu Tae Park, O Jun Kwon, Hyun‐Ju Seo, Taewan Kim, Nyun‐Ho Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Brown alga, have been used for their nutritional value as well as a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti‐obesity effects. Obesity is an important condition implicated in various diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. However, anti‐obesity effects of the Eisenia bicyclis remain unknown. Results we investigated the anti‐obesity effects of the 6,6’‐bieckol, 6,8’‐bieckol, 8,8’‐bieckol, dieckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol‐A that were isolated from E. bicyclis. The anti‐obesity activity was evaluated by examining the inhibition of differentiation of 3T3‐L1 adipocytes and the expression of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCATT/enhancer‐binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein‐1c (SREBP‐1c) in the mRNA and protein level. Differentiated 3T3‐L1 cells were treated with the purified phlorotannins at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 µg mL−1 for 8 d. The results indicated that, the purified phlorotannins suppressed the differentiation of 3T3‐L1 adipocytes in a dose–dependent manner, without toxic effects. Among the five compounds, 6,6’‐bieckol markedly decreased lipid accumulation and expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP‐1c (mRNA and protein), and fatty acid synthase and acyl‐coA carboxylase (mRNA). Conclusion These findings suggest that E. bicyclis suppressed differentiation of 3T3‐L1 adipocyte through down‐regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis.
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T04:29:52.455826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6881
  • High‐ but not low‐intensity light leads to oxidative stress
           and quality loss of cold‐stored baby leaf spinach
    • Authors: Marcin Glowacz; Lars M. Mogren, John P.H. Reade, Andrew H. Cobb, James M. Monaghan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Quality management in the fresh produce industry is an important issue. Spinach is exposed to various adverse conditions (e.g. temp, light, etc.) within the supply chain. The experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of light conditions (dark, low intensity light (LL) and high intensity light (HL)) and photoperiod (6 h HL and 18 h dark) on the quality changes of cold‐stored spinach. Results HL exposure resulted in oxidative stress, causing tissue damage and quality loss evidenced by increased membrane damage and water loss. The content of total ascorbic acid was reduced under HL conditions. On the other hand, storage of spinach under LL conditions gave promising results, as nutritional quality was not reduced, while texture maintenance was improved. No significant differences, with an exception of nutritional quality, were found between spinach leaves stored under continuous (24 h) low intensity light (30–35 µmol m−2 s−1) when compared with their counterparts stored under the same light integral over 6 h (130–140 µmol m−2 s−1). Conclusion LL extended the shelf‐life of spinach. The amount of light received by the leaves was the key factor affecting produce quality. Light intensity, however, has to be low enough not to cause excess oxidative stress and lead to accelerated senescence.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20T02:51:46.206817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6880
  • Effect of different drying methods on chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and
           antioxidant compounds retention of leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
    • Authors: Sravan Kumar S; Manoj P, Nandini P Shetty, P Giridhar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of indigenous, easily accessible leafy vegetable‐ roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) for value addition is gaining impetus, as it's nutritive and nutraceutical compounds are exposed through investigations. Being a perishable, storage is challenging, hence different methods of drying have been an attractive alternative for its post‐harvest usage in foods without much compromising its quality and antioxidant potential. Result Room dried and freeze dried samples were found to have best quality in terms of color, total flavonoid content (18.53 ± 2.39 and 18.66 ± 1.06 g kg−1), total phenolic content (17.76 ± 1.93 and 18.91 ± 0.48 g kg−1), chlorophyll (1.59 ± 0.001 and 1.55 ± 0.001 g kg−1), and ascorbic acid content (11.11 ± 1.04 and 8.92 ± 0.94 g kg−1) respectively, compared to infrared, cross‐flow, microwave, oven and sun drying. Samples treated by room and freeze dried methods retained maximum antioxidant potential as demonstrated by phosphomolybdate method, 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Similarly the cold water extract and hot water extracts showed significantly stronger TPC and TAA due to greater solubility of phenolics and destruction of cellular components in polar solvents rather than organic solvents. Conclusion The data obtained shows the potential for retaining quality parameters of roselle leaf under suitable drying methods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20T02:51:32.930115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6879
  • Use of lyophilized and powdered Gentiana lutea root in fresh beef patties
           stored under different atmospheres
    • Authors: Nurul A. M. Azman; Michael H. Gordon, Monika Skowyra, Francisco Segovia, MaríaPilar Almajano
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gentiana lutea root is a medicinal herb that contains many active compounds which contribute to physiological effects, and it has recently attracted much attention as a natural source of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the colour, pH, microbial activities, sensory quality and resistance to lipid oxidation (through the thiobarbituric acid method, TBARS) during storage of beef patties containing different concentrations of Gentiana lutea. Fresh beef patties were formulated with 0 – 5 g kg^‐1 of Gentiana lutea and 0 or 0.5 g kg^‐1 of ascorbic acid (AA) and packed in two different atmospheres, Modified Atmosphere 1 (MAP1) and Modified Atmosphere 2 (MAP2), and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. MAP1 contained 20:80 (v/v) O2:CO2 and MAP2 contained 80:20 (v/v) O2:CO2. Results Gentiana lutea extracts possessed antioxidant activity measured by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. Beef patties containing 2 g kg^‐1 of lyophilized Gentiana lutea were stable towards lipid oxidation in both atmospheres (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T04:05:50.754641-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6878
  • Phenolic compounds in grains, sprouts and wheatgrass of hulled and
           non‐hulled wheat species
    • Authors: Paolo Benincasa; Angelica Galieni, Anna Chiara Manetta, Roberta Pace, Marcello Guiducci, Michele Pisante, Fabio Stagnari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of sprouts and young plantlets in human nutrition is increasing because they often contain phytochemicals and other high value nutrients. This stands also for wheat, while there is no literature for hulled wheat species. Thus we determined total polyphenols, phenolic acids (PAs), fiber and minerals in grains, 5‐day old sprouts and 12‐day‐old wheatgrass of einkorn (cv. Monlis), emmer (cvs. Augeo, Rosso Rubino, Zefiro), spelt (cvs. Pietro, Giuseppe), durum wheat (cv. Creso) and soft wheat (cv. Orso). Results Grains of einkorn and emmer contained twice bound PAs as compared to soft and durum wheat and spelt, with p‐coumaric acid accounting for about 50% of total bound PAs. In wheatgrass, differences between species for bound PAs decreased due to a decrease in einkorn and emmer and an increase in soft and durum wheat. In all species, total phenols and free PAs increased passing from grains to sprouts and wheatgrass. Neutral and acid detergent fiber content increased with sprouting only in einkorn and emmer. Conclusion Our evidences suggest that the grains of einkorn and emmer and the sprouts and wheatgrass of all Triticum species might potentially be valuable for the development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-18T04:35:06.137924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6877
  • Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) in
           Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation,
           intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response
    • Authors: Lipismita Samal; Vishwa Bandhu Chaturvedi, Guttula Saikumar, Ramesh Somvanshi, Ashok Kumar Pattanaik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics like inulin or fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS like Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Results Seventy‐two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tuber at 0, 20, 40 and 60 g kg−1 levels. Enhanced cell‐mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P=0.082) and CD4+ T‐lymphocyte population (P=0.002) was observed in JA‐supplemented groups as compared to control. Blood haemoglobin (P=0.017), glucose (P=0.001), urea (P=0.004) and calcium (P=0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P=0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA‐fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P=0.069) and colon (P=0.003) was increased in JA groups accompanying higher (P=0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and that of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA‐supplemented groups. Conclusion The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T06:12:25.008198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6873
  • Lipase‐mediated lipid removal from propolis extract and its
           antiradical and antimicrobial activity
    • Authors: Hyein Park; Song Hwan Bae, Yooheon Park, Hyeon‐Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Propolis contains many antioxidants such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, propolis–derived lipid components interrupt an efficient isolation of antioxidants from propolis extract. We examined the effectiveness of various lipase treatments for the removal of lipids from propolis extract, and evaluated the biological features of the extract. Result Lipase OF and Novozyme 435 treatments did not reduce fatty acid level in propolis extract. However, the Lipozyme TL IM‐treated propolis extract showed a significant decrease of fatty acid level, suggesting the removal of lipids. Lipozyme RM IM also significantly decreased the fatty acid level of the extract, but the reduction of polyphenols and flavonoids, which are antioxidants, was accompanied. In Lipozyme TL IM treatment, an increase of active flavonoids, such as Artepillin C and kaempferide, was observed with a slight increase of ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) radical scavenging activity. In addition, antimicrobial activity toward skin health‐related bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes was enhanced by Lipozyme TL IM treatment. Conclusion Lipozyme TL IM treatment effectively removes lipids from propolis extract and enhances antibacterial activity. Therefore, we suggest that Lipozyme TL IM is a useful lipase for lipid removal of propolis extract.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T04:59:44.728468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6874
  • The effect of hazelnut roasted skin from different cultivars on the
           quality attributes, polyphenol content and texture of fresh egg pasta
    • Authors: Giuseppe Zeppa; Simona Belviso, Marta Bertolino, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Barbara Dal Bello, Daniela Ghirardello, Manuela Giordano, Marta Giorgis, Arianna Grosso, Luca Rolle, Vincenzo Gerbi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Hazelnut skin is the perisperm of the hazelnut kernel. Hazelnut skin is separated from the kernel during the roasting process and is normally discarded. Recent studies have reported that hazelnut skin is a rich source of dietary fibre, as well as of natural antioxidants, due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the use of hazelnut skins obtained from different cultivars for enhancing the nutritional value of fresh egg pasta. Results Skins obtained from roasted hazelnuts of four different varieties were used at three concentrations as a flour replacement in fresh egg pasta. Hazelnut skin concentration significantly influenced all evaluated physicochemical parameters, as well as consumers’ appreciation for the pasta, but significant differences were also observed between the four varieties. Although pasta produced with 10% and 15% hazelnut skin displayed the highest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in vitro, pasta containing 5% Tombul hazelnut skin showed maximum consumer preference. Conclusions The results obtained in the present study highlighted that it is possible to use hazelnut skin in fresh pasta production to obtain a fortified food with high fibre content and antioxidant activity. The characteristics of the resulting pasta were strictly correlated with the hazelnut varieties used for skin production and, of course, to the percentage of skin that was added.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T04:56:33.401702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6871
  • Techniques to measure sorption and migration between small molecules and
           packaging. A critical review
    • Authors: Ashish A. Kadam; Thomas Karbowiak, Andrée Voilley, Frédéric Debeaufort
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The mass transfer parameters, diffusion and sorption, in food and packaging or between them, are the key parameters for assessing the food product's shelf‐life in reference to consumers’ safety. This has become of paramount importance due to the legislations set by the regulated markets. The technical capabilities have been growing rapidly, that can be exploited for analyzing product‐package interactions. Different techniques, categorized according to the state of the diffusant (gas or liquid) in contact with a packaging material are emphasized in this review. Depending on the diffusant and on the analytical question under review, the different ways to study sorption and/or migration are presented and compared. Some examples have been suggested to reach the best possible choice consisting of a single technique or a combination of different approaches.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T03:00:30.169637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6872
  • Co‐inoculation of Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma atroviride
           acts as a biostimulant to promote growth, yield and nutrient uptake of
           vegetable crops
    • Authors: Giuseppe Colla; Youssef Rouphael, Elena Di Mattia, Christophe El‐Nakhel, Mariateresa Cardarelli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The application of beneficial microorganisms at transplanting can promote rapid transplant establishment (starter effect) for achieving early and high yields. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant effects of Glomus intraradices BEG72 (G) and Trichoderma atroviride MUCL 45632 (T) alone or in combination on plant growth parameters, yield, chlorophyll index (SPAD), chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral composition of several vegetable crops. Results The T. atroviride strain was capable of producing siderophores and auxin‐like compounds under a wide range of substrate pH conditions (5.5‐8.0). The highest shoot, root dry weight, SPAD, and chlorophyll fluorescence in lettuce, tomato, and zucchini was observed in the G + T combination, followed by a single inoculation of G or T, whereas the lowest values were recorded in the uninoculated plants. Under greenhouse conditions, the shoot dry weight was significantly increased by 167%, 56%, 115%, 68%, and 58% in lettuce, melon, pepper, tomato, and zucchini, respectively, when supplied with both beneficial microorganisms in comparison with the control. This increase in root and shoot weight was associated with an increased level of nutrient uptake (e.g., P, Mg, Fe, Zn and B). Under open field conditions, the lettuce shoot and root dry weight increased by 61% and 57%, respectively, with biostimulant microorganism application in field conditions. For zucchini, early and total yields were significantly increased by 59% and 15%, respectively, when plants were inoculated with both microorganisms. Conclusions The application of the biostimulant tablet containing both G and T can promote transplant establishment and vegetable crop productivity in a sustainable way.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T02:53:44.007882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6875
  • Fungal diversity, incidence and mycotoxin contamination in grapes from two
           agro‐climatic Spanish regions with emphasis on Aspergillus species
    • Authors: E. García‐Cela; A. Crespo‐Sempere, J. Gil‐Serna, A. Porqueres, S. Marin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fourteen vineyards from two different agro‐climatic regions in Spain were sampled in two consecutive years in order to determinate the grape mycobiota and diversity indexes with the final aim to define the potential mycotoxigenic species from both regions and their relationship. Results The most common fungal Genera encountered were Aspergillus (30.0%), Alternaria (53.2%), Cladosporium (11.9%) and Penicillium (2.9%). Black aspergilli presence in the hotter region (South) was significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T02:51:34.657121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6876
  • Stage specific metabolization of triacylglycerides during seed germination
           of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.)
    • Authors: Umashankar Chandrasekaran; Aizhong Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A detailed study was carried out in Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) to investigate the mobilization of storage lipids during seed germination. The TLC analysis of total lipids showed a rapid decline in the TAG and DAG contents after the early stages (3–10 DAI) followed by a steady breakdown during the later stages (20, 30 DAI) of germination. Trace amount of MAG content was identified during the final stage (30 DAI). Further, gas chromatography analysis showed an increase in the major unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic and linolenic acid) content from 3 to 10 DAI followed by a slow decline. In addition, the major saturated fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acid) showed a decrease during the early stages (3–10 DAI) and an increase in their contents during the later stages (20, 30 DAI). The present study, therefore, provides the first report on the metaboilization of triacylglycerols along with fatty acid changes during the seed germination of Sacha Inchi.
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T10:50:32.350628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6855
  • Analytical phenolic composition and sensory assessment of selected rare
           Greek cultivars after extended bottle ageing
    • Authors: Kallithraka Stamatina; Kotseridis Yorgos, Kyraleou Maria, Proxenia Niki, Tsakiris Argirios, Karapetrou Garifalia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The Hellenic vineyard embraces a large number of native cultivars, which are mostly unexploited for their ageing potential. Therefore, it was thought that analyzing some quality parameters of fourteen red wines produced by rare native varieties would be of great importance in obtaining a general picture of their potential for commercial use. Various analytical methods were applied to the selected wines, at bottling and after eight years of ageing period, in an attempt to provide reliable answers to this issue. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the alteration of the phenolic content and color parameters of the wines after the extended bottle storage and to evaluate the overall changes with respect to their sensory properties. Results Most of the oligomeric phenolic compounds identified in the wines studied diminished after eight years of bottle storage, while significant correlations were obtained between wine chemical composition and sensory data. Conclusions After eight years of bottle storage some of the unexploited varieties (v. Vinifera) were found to be worthy of further study and use for the production of quality wines. The wines with the best sensory characteristics were those made by limniona, mavrotragano, bakouri, thraspa and mavrothiriko in accordance more or less with the results of the chemical analyses.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:47.073374-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6865
  • Characterization of enzymatically prepared sugar medium‐chain fatty
           acid monoesters
    • Authors: Xi Zhang; Wei Wei, Xi Cao, Fengqin Feng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sugar medium chain fatty acid esters, a new type of biodegradable, nontoxic, nonirritant, and nonionic surfactant with proven antimicrobial activity. Various sugar medium‐chain fatty monoesters were prepared enzymatically using Lipozyme TLIM in organic solvent. The properties such as surface tension, antimicrobial activity, and ability to foam, emulsify, and stabilize emulsions at room temperature were evaluated to conduct systematic studies on the structure‐function relationships of these compounds. Results Results showed that all monoesters displayed good surface‐activity properties. In particular, sucrose monolaurate was the most excellent surfactant among 12 monoesters. The sugar monoesters containing C8 to C12 alkyl chains showed a broad spectrum of increasing antimicrobial activity. All tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram‐positive bacterium) than Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram‐negative bacterium). Methyl α‐D‐glycoside monoesters were the most effective, whereas raffinose monoesters possessed poor antimicrobial activity. Conclusions Generally, the length of fatty acid chain (hydrophobic group) and sugar groups (hydrophilic group) for sugar medium chain fatty acid monoesters both affected the surface properties and antimicrobial activities.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:45.235917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6863
  • Release of Bisphenols from Can Coatings into canned beer in China market
    • Authors: Yunfei Xie; Yang Bao, Heya Wang, Yuliang Cheng, He Qian, Weirong Yao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This research was to understand the migrations of bisphenols from can coatings into foods in China market. The migrations of bisphenols were studied filled in commercial cans from China market with four types of food simulants (FS) which were experienced at 121 °C for 30 min and be stored at 40 °C for 30 day, only BPA and BADGE were found in the linings, and SimC (10% ethanol) was the most suitable food stimulant for their release. The levels of the bisphenols in 24 kinds of canned beers from China market were further investigated, and the mean concentrations were 2.85 ± 0.79 and 0.38 ± 0.19 µg · L−1 for BPA and BADGE, respectively, which were both lower than the European Union regulations, as their daily intakes were estimated at 0.015 and 0.0020 µg · kg−1 of body weight · day−1. Besides, rising storage temperature and time could accelerate the release of bisphenols into FSs. Our results showed some guidance to reduce the migrations of bisphenols during transport or storage of the canned foods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T05:58:14.919903-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6862
  • Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of
           ginseng adulteration
    • Authors: Shaoqing Cui; Liangcheng Yang, Jun Wang, Xinlei Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng was common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their difference but subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but time‐consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method was required. A taste‐sensing system, which combined both advantages of above two technologies, might be a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. Results It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R2=0.92) with mixed ratios. Bioplot of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a good performance in classing samples with first two PCs of 89.7%, and it was noticed that bitterness, astringent, and their aftertastes and saltiness were significant drivers. After factor screening, bitterness, astringent and aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringent and aftertaste‐bitterness taste were demonstrated to explain adulteration ratios prediction most; bitterness and aftertaste‐bitterness contributing to ginsenoside contents prediction most. Conclusion Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considering as taste finger‐print, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T04:18:19.17697-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6858
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis optimization of Paphia undulata and lymphocyte
           proliferation activity of the isolated peptide fractions
    • Authors: Xiao Qing He; Guang Kun Pan, Wen Hong Cao, Zi Ke Zhao, Chao Hua Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Immune system is important to prevent and control various infectious diseases. Immunoactive peptides derived from food proteins could exert immunomodulatory without side effects. Paphia undulata with high‐protein is suitable for the production of immunoactive peptides. The objective of this study was to optimise the hydrolysis parameters to maximise the immune activity of the hydrolysates from Paphia undulata. Results Hydrolysis parameters, including temperature, time and the ratio of alkaline protease to Paphia undulata meat (E/S), were optimised by response surface methodology with a central composite design. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: temperature, 51 °C; time, 3.14 h; E/S, 4,321 U g−1(Paphia undulata meat). Furthermore, the hydrolysates obtained under the optimum conditions were fractionated by ultrafiltration and gel filtration on a Sephadex G‐25 column. After two‐step isolation, the isolated fractions (P2 and P3) including the peptides Pro‐His‐Thr‐Cys, Val‐Gly‐Try‐Thr, Glu‐Phe, Leu‐Phe, and Glu‐Gly‐Ala‐Lys, Trp‐Ile or Trp‐Leu, respectively, could significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation ability. Conclusion These results showed that response surface methodology and two‐step separation were efficient for recovery of low molecular weight peptides with high spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity and the isolated fractions of Paphia undulata hydrolysates are potential ingredients for development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T03:47:42.228389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6859
  • Biocontrol of postharvest Alternaria alternata decay of cherry tomatoes
           with rhamnolipids and possible mechanisms of action
    • Authors: Fujie Yan; Shixiang Xu, Jun Guo, Qianru Chen, Qin Meng, Xiaodong Zheng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Rhamnolipids were reported to have evident antifungal activity. The efficacy of rhamnolipids against Alternaria alternata and their possible mechanisms involved were investigated. Result The decay incidences of A. alternata of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) treated by rhamnolipids were significantly reduced. The in vitro assays showed that rhamnolipids inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented spore germination and mycelium growth in liquid medium. In addition, the combination of rhamnolipids and essential oil had a synergistic effect leading to the decrease of fungicidal concentrations of laurel oil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological and cell structural alterations in the hyphae. Compared to the control, content of nucleic acid in supernatant of the suspension of A. alternata increased, while content of DNA and protein of mycelium decreased, which was in agreement with electrolyte leakage experiment. Conclusion Rhamnolipids could be an alternative to chemicals for controlling postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits and vegetables.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T05:40:16.577225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6845
  • Ptr‐Tof‐Ms Analysis Of Volatile Compounds In Olive Fruits.
    • Authors: Elisa Masi; Annalisa Romani, Camilla Pandolfi, Daniela Heimler, Stefano Mancuso
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Volatile compounds of Cellina di Nardò and Ogliarola Barese, two typical Italian olive varieties, have been characterized at different ripening stages. PTR‐TOF‐MS (proton‐transfer‐reaction mass spectrometry) was used for the first time on these fruits with the aim to characterize volatile profile and, in the case of Ogliarola, the changes which may occur during the maturation process. Results PTR‐TOF‐MS technique does not involve any samples pre‐treatment, and allows high resolution measurements, large spectra and small fragmentation of the volatiles. Therefore it allows both compounds identification and data statistical treatments. In the present work, about 40 compounds that contribute to the discrimination between samples of the two varieties have been identified. Conclusions Three groups of compounds were identified: compounds that are typical of mature fruits of Ogliarola, compounds that tend to decrease changing from green to mature fruits and compounds that increase during the maturation process.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:08:41.185822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6837
  • Quality determination of wheat: genetic determination, biochemical
           markers, seed storage proteins – bread and durum wheat germplasm
    • Authors: Theo Varzakas; Natalia Kozub, Ioannis N Xynias
      Pages: 2819 - 2829
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Quality is an important determinant in wheat breeding since its genetic background is less affected by the environment and sufficiently influences the commercial value of a cultivar. Thus, if a certain cultivar possesses some specific allele combination at crucial loci, then it appears quite possible to exhibit valuable qualitative traits in terms of end‐product quality. This is also true if either durum or bread wheat germplasm is involved. RESULTS Biochemical investigation of the wheat germplasm gives important information on the allele constitution of a cultivar, with reference to either the quality or its resistance to stressing factors. The last is crucial since it affects the safe use of this cultivar. The Hellenic wheat germplasm possesses valuable allele combination or chromosome constitution (presence of the 1BL.1RS translocation, which is verified by the presence of a certain allele) with reference to quality. Genotypes having the aforementioned translocation exhibit excellent resistance to various stressing factors, but have a serious handicap, i.e. inferior bread‐making quality. This negative effect on quality, although influenced by the genotype, can be overcome if some other alleles are present in a cultivar. CONCLUSION The Hellenic cultivar Acheron is a good example since, despite the presence of the translocation, it also has very good bread‐making quality and high yielding ability. It must be also mentioned that most of the Hellenic durum germplasm carries the gene locus Gli‐B1 component, similar to γ45, which can be considered as an index of good end‐product quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-14T12:03:49.327423-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6601
  • Concept of double salt fortification; a tool to curtail micronutrient
           deficiencies and improve human health status
    • Authors: Saira Sultan; Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Masood Sadiq Butt, Nuzhat Huma, Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
      Pages: 2830 - 2838
      Abstract: Fortification of food with micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals is one of the main strategies used to combat micronutrient deficiencies. Fortification in common salt is a fruitful strategy because of the daily consumption of 5–12 g salt per person globally. Therefore double fortification of salt with iodine and iron could be a reasonable approach to prevent both iodine and iron deficiencies. It is reckoned that about two billion people are iodine‐deficient worldwide. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may affect the health status of both mother and fetus and increase infant mortality. Deficiencies of both these micronutrients during childhood affect somatic growth and cognitive and neurological function. Thyroid metabolism is negatively affected by iron deficiency and reduced effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in areas of endemic goiter. High prevalence of iron deficiency among children may be reduced by the application of effective iodized salt programs. However, ensuring the stability and bioavailability of both iron and iodine as double‐fortified salt is difficult. Iodine present in iodide or iodate form in dual‐fortified salt is oxidized to free iodine in the presence of ferrous ions and oxygen and consequently loses its characteristics. Moreover, ferrous iron is more bioavailable but is readily oxidized to the less bioavailable ferric form. However, both forms of iron may lead to discoloration of the final product, which can be reduced by providing a physical barrier around the iron. Salt encapsulation is one of the best tools to provide a physical barrier for undesirable reactions and interactions during storage. In this review the concept of dual salt fortification, the impact of fortification on curing various life‐threatening maladies, latest assessments of mineral deficiencies and the choice of fortificants are discussed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T10:30:51.009562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6634
  • Application and bioactive properties of proteins and peptides derived from
           hen eggs: opportunities and challenges
    • Authors: Zhipeng Yu; Yongguang Yin, Wenzhu Zhao, Feng Chen, Jingbo Liu
      Pages: 2839 - 2845
      Abstract: Several proteins and peptides that are released in vitro and/or in vivo from hen eggs are biologically active and have a variety of functional properties in humans beyond normal nutrition, for which extensive studies have been performed. This review focuses on their biological activities, including antihypertensive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiadhesive, immunomodulatory and antithrombotic activities and enhancement of mineral absorption. These proteins and peptides have been shown to regulate the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system and gastrointestinal system. The potential application and future directions of research on these bioactive peptides and proteins in the food industry are also addressed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-22T07:36:22.31752-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6670
  • Influence of productivity and processing method on physicochemical
           characteristics of white button mushrooms in Brazil
    • Authors: Diego Cunha Zied; Sara Maciel Penachio, Eustáquio Souza Dias, Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni, Rafael Augusto Ferraz, Rogério Lopes Vieites
      Pages: 2850 - 2855
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The white button mushroom is the edible fungus most commonly cultivated and commercialized in Brazil and worldwide. This work assesses the productivity of the different strains ABI 07/06 and ABI 06/05 of Agaricus bisporus grown under the conditions normally employed by growers in the southeast of Brazil, and the influence of four different chemical conservation methods on the physicochemical characteristics and storage properties of the fruit bodies. RESULTS The productivities of strains ABI 07/06 and ABI 06/05 of white button mushrooms were found to be comparable. The colorimetric characteristics and chemical compositions (fat, fiber and protein contents) of the mushroom strains were similar, and these parameters were not influenced significantly by the conservation processes. Texture was negatively affected by all processing methods employed. CONCLUSION It was concluded that chemical methods of processing mushrooms were not fully effective and novel alternative technologies should be considered by mushroom processors in Brazil. Some methods of mushroom storage using chemicals such as sodium metabisulfite are harmful to the human organism, so processing using autoclaving may be the best form of conservation of canned mushrooms. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-12T10:51:40.779779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6624
  • Screening DNA chip and event‐specific multiplex PCR detection
           methods for biotech crops
    • Authors: Seong‐Hun Lee
      Pages: 2856 - 2862
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There are about 80 biotech crop events that have been approved by safety assessment in Korea. They have been controlled by genetically modified organism (GMO) and living modified organism (LMO) labeling systems. The DNA‐based detection method has been used as an efficient scientific management tool. Recently, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA chip have been developed as simultaneous detection methods for several biotech crops' events. RESULTS The event‐specific multiplex PCR method was developed to detect five biotech maize events: MIR604, Event 3272, LY 038, MON 88017 and DAS‐59122‐7. The specificity was confirmed and the sensitivity was 0.5%. The screening DNA chip was developed from four endogenous genes of soybean, maize, cotton and canola respectively along with two regulatory elements and seven genes: P35S, tNOS, pat, bar, epsps1, epsps2, pmi, cry1Ac and cry3B. The specificity was confirmed and the sensitivity was 0.5% for four crops' 12 events: one soybean, six maize, three cotton and two canola events. CONCLUSION The multiplex PCR and DNA chip can be available for screening, gene‐specific and event‐specific analysis of biotech crops as efficient detection methods by saving on workload and time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-14T12:02:45.042769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6625
  • Castanea spp. buds as a phytochemical source for herbal preparations:
           botanical fingerprint for nutraceutical identification and functional food
    • Authors: Dario Donno; Gabriele Loris Beccaro, Maria Gabriella Mellano, Luca Bonvegna, Giancarlo Bounous
      Pages: 2863 - 2873
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Many plant species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory capacities and health benefits: Castanea spp. is among the most commonly used herbal medicines. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of chestnut bud preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main bioactive compounds, and to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint to evaluate the single class contribution to the herbal preparation phytocomplex. The analyses were performed using a high‐performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a diode array detector. RESULTS Castanea spp. was identified as a rich source of anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: the observed analytical fingerprint demonstrated that these bud preparations represent a rich source of bioactive compounds (104.77 ± 1.14 g kg−1 FW) in relation to different genotypes, specific sampling sites and several phenological stages. CONCLUSION This study showed that the observed analytical fingerprint can be considered an important tool for assessing the chemical composition and bioactivities of the chestnut‐derived products, considering the Castanea genus as a new source of natural health‐promoting compounds. This study allowed the development of an effective tool for quality control by fingerprinting the bud preparation in order to develop a new generation of standardised preparations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T06:40:57.68585-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6627
  • Volatile profiles of flavedo, pulp and seeds in Poncirus trifoliata fruits
    • Authors: Fabrizio Papa; Filippo Maggi, Kevin Cianfaglione, Gianni Sagratini, Giovanni Caprioli, Sauro Vittori
      Pages: 2874 - 2887
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Poncirus trifoliata, also known as trifoliate orange, is a tree native to China and Korea and widely used all over the world as a rootstock breeding material. In this study the differences among the volatile profiles of flavedo, pulp and seeds from two cultivars (var. trifoliata and var. monstrosa) grown in Italy (Marche, Abruzzo and Sicily) were determined. Headspace solid phase microextraction and hydrodistillation techniques were used in combination with GC/FID and GC/MS to obtain the volatile profiles of the samples. RESULTS Both techniques permitted the differentiation of fruit parts based on the main volatile components: the flavedo was characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons such as limonene and myrcene, the seeds were characterized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as (E)‐caryophyllene and germacrene D, while the pulp showed an intermediate composition. The main differences in volatile profiles obtained by the two techniques were analyzed by chemometric techniques such as principal component analysis. CONCLUSION The study did not highlight significant differences in volatiles between the two cultivars of trifoliate orange, while few differences in the number of volatiles in the fruit parts were revealed by the two techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-21T07:53:57.324619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6628
  • The role of traditional varieties of tomato as sources of functional
    • Authors: Carles Cortés‐Olmos; Miguel Leiva‐Brondo, José Roselló, María D Raigón, Jaime Cebolla‐Cornejo
      Pages: 2888 - 2904
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Traditional varieties of tomato, usually associated with excellent organoleptic quality, are increasingly appreciated in European quality markets. A collection of 126 populations of 16 traditional varieties from the east of Spain (a secondary diversity center for tomato) have been evaluated over 2 years in order to determine their potential value as sources of functional compounds, including ascorbic acid, lycopene, β‐carotene and total phenolic content. RESULTS Population and population × year interaction significantly affected lycopene and ascorbic acid contents, while year effect was also significant for β‐carotene. Despite finding some global trends in certain varieties concerning their functional value, high levels of variation have been found at the intra‐varietal level. Populations with high levels of the compounds analysed have been found, as well as different levels of intra‐population and inter‐year variation. Maximum mean contents for both years have reached 308 mg kg−1 ascorbic acid, 130 mg kg−1 lycopene, 30 mg kg−1 β‐carotene and 89 mg caffeic acid 100 g−1 total phenolic contents, though it is difficult to identify accessions with joint high values of the three compounds. CONCLUSION These results open the possibility to promote traditional materials as sources of functional compounds, thus strengthening their quality niches and consolidating their price premium. Additionally, these materials could also be used in breeding programs for quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-09T03:39:42.0402-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6629
  • Esterification of fatty acids by Penicillium crustosum lipase in a
           membrane reactor
    • Authors: Gessica Possebom; Nádia LD Nyari, Jamile Zeni, Juliana Steffens, Elisandra Rigo, Marco Di Luccio
      Pages: 2905 - 2911
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study investigated the performance of a membrane reactor system for esterification of oleic acid and butyric acid with ethanol by Penicillium crustosum lipase using polyethersulfone membranes with molecular weight cut‐offs of 30, 60 and 100 kDa at pressures up to 200 kPa. RESULTS The confinement of lipase with 60 and 100 kDa membranes showed the best results. The esterification of butyric acid in the membrane reactor and with free lipase showed higher conversions than those obtained with oleic acid, since the system operated with oleic acid was more subject to fouling and thus could not be run for repeated cycles. CONCLUSION The confinement of lipase from P. crustosum in a membrane reactor was possible, resulting in the satisfactory conversion of butyric acid to ethyl butyrate with the possibility of reuse of the immobilized enzyme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-03T04:56:32.087206-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6630
  • Red pericarp introgression lines derived from interspecific crosses of
           rice: physicochemical characteristics, antioxidative properties and
           phenolic content
    • Authors: Neerja Sharma; Rimaljeet Kaur, Gurjit S Mangat, Kuldeep Singh
      Pages: 2912 - 2920
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antioxidative properties and physicochemical characteristics of introgression lines (ILs) and their recurrent parents were analyzed. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and free radical‐scavenging capacity were evaluated, since these are important antioxidative properties for developing nutraceutical and functional foods. RESULTS Comparative analysis of the brown and milled rice fractions of ILs with their respective recurrent parents revealed 2.26‐ and 1.22‐fold increase in total phenolics, 1.95‐ and 2.09‐fold increase in flavonoids, 8.38‐ and 6.80‐fold increase in proanthocyanidins and 1.55‐ and 1.20‐fold increase in tannins in brown and milled rice fractions respectively. Higher CAT (1.36‐ and 1.89‐fold) and SOD (1.71‐ and 2.02‐fold) activities and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 7.13‐ and 1.98‐fold) were observed in brown and milled rice fractions respectively of ILs compared with their respective recurrent parents. A high and positive correlation was obtained between TEAC and total phenols (0.73, P ≤ 0.01), flavonoids (0.66, P ≤ 0.05) and proanthocyanidins (0.69, P ≤ 0.05). The yield parameters and physicochemical characteristics of the grains, in general, were comparable in the ILs and their respective recurrent parents. CONCLUSION The ILs of rice reported in the present study exhibited significant positive differences in the content of phenolic constituents and antioxidant properties with good grain quality characteristics over their recurrent parents, indicating their potential as a natural source of phytochemicals for nutraceutical and functional food development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-03T04:49:00.219702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6632
  • Catechin concentrates of garden tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.):
           extraction/isolation and evaluation of chemical composition
    • Authors: Pravin Vasantrao Gadkari; Udaya Sankar Kadimi, Manohar Balaraman
      Pages: 2921 - 2928
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Solid–liquid (SLE) and liquid–liquid (LLE) extraction techniques were applied to extract catechins and caffeine from quick mechanically expelled tea leaf juice (QMETLJ) and freeze‐dried (FD)‐QMETLJ of Camellia sinensis L. The concentrates obtained were analyzed for total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• inhibition, FRAP and phosphomolybdenum assay). Catechins were identified and quantified using HPLC. RESULTS Overall, 95% (v/v) ethanol was the best solvent system for extracting total polyphenols (355.26 ± 23.68 to 457.89 ± 28.94 g GAE kg−1 extractable solid yield (ESY)) and antioxidants (DPPH• inhibition, 16.97 ± 0.52 to 20.83 ± 3.11%; FRAP, 4.15 ± 0.32 to 6.38 ± 0.57 mmol TE g−1 ESY; Mo(V) reduction, 2.47 ± 0.19 to 3.84 ± 0.39 mmol AAE g−1 ESY) from FD‐QMETLJ. Similarly, in LLE, ethyl acetate showed the best results for recovering polyphenols (960.52 ± 7.89 g GAE kg−1 ESY) and antioxidants (DPPH• inhibition, 42.39 ± 0.91%; FRAP, 11.39 ± 0.83 mmol TE g−1 ESY; Mo(V) reduction, 6.71 ± 1.14 mmol AAE g−1 ESY) from QMETLJ. CONCLUSION It was found that 95% ethanol can be used to increase the total polyphenols and antioxidants in extracts from FD‐QMETLJ, while ethyl acetate can be effectively employed for concentrating catechins from QMETLJ. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T04:10:38.705981-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6633
  • Different‐frequency ultrasonic effects on properties and structure
           of corn starch
    • Authors: Aijun Hu; Li Li, Jie Zheng, Jing Lu, Xin Meng, Yan Liu, Rizwan‐ur‐ Rehman
      Pages: 2929 - 2934
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ultrasound is widely used to accelerate many reactions and unit operations, but few studies have reported its effects on starch properties and structure. RESULTS Corn starch suspended in ethanol solution was treated by dual‐frequency ultrasound (DFU) and single‐frequency ultrasound (SFU). Results showed that the transparency of the starch treated under 20 + 25 kHz DFU improved by 26.94% and 31.70%, respectively, compared to 20 kHz and 25 kHz SFU. Hardness, brittleness, elasticity, adhesiveness, conglutination degree, chewiness and recoverability of starch was reduced after ultrasonic treatment, and with increasing ultrasonic frequency these properties decreased. Its enthalpy value also decreased with ultrasound. Compared with each SFU treatment, enthalpy value decreased by 1.41% and 0.82%, respectively, by DFU. The freeze–thaw stability of starch was also weakened by ultrasound, which was obviously changed by DFU. Under ultrasound, the crystal structure of starch was not damaged, characteristic diffraction peak intensity was significantly reduced and diffuse diffraction features increased, exhibiting a decline in crystal lattice ordering degree. In comparison to SFU, DFU caused a pronounced reduction in starch crystallinity. CONCLUSION After ultrasonic treatment, the transparency of corn starch paste improved, but its hardness, brittleness, elasticity, adhesiveness, conglutination degree, chewiness and recoverability decreased, as well as starch crystallinity and enthalpy values. DFU was found to be more effective than SFU. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-15T06:13:58.473036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6636
  • Characterization of olive mill wastewater fractions treatment by
           integrated membrane process
    • Authors: Giuseppe Di Lecce; Alfredo Cassano, Alessandra Bendini, Carmela Conidi, Lidietta Giorno, Tullia Gallina Toschi
      Pages: 2935 - 2942
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Up to now, the management of olive mill wastewaters, a three‐phase mill by‐product, remains an unsolved problem, in particular for those regions where huge quantities of vegetable water are produced. Olive mill wastewaters were therefore treated to evaluate the characteristics of permeate and retentate fractions produced by an integrated membrane system working at two different volume concentration factors. RESULTS The effect of two membrane‐based filtration steps (microfiltration and nanofiltration) on the content of chemical oxygen demand, dry matter, sensory quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of permeate and retentate samples was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of two different volume concentration factors (VCF), in the nanofiltration step, were investigated. At high VCF values, the total phenolic content in the retentate fraction was found to be 3.7‐fold higher than the starting one, while the reduction of chemical oxygen demand in the permeate fraction was greater than 97% also at lower VCF values. CONCLUSION Each filtration step has provided useful information concerning the utility and appropriateness of the processes chosen, suggesting a sustainable hypothesis of ‘normal industrial practice’ that can be included in current processes of oil extraction, in order to purify water and recover phenolic compounds with high added value. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-09T03:27:25.484716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6637
  • Effect of lycopene‐enriched olive and argan oils upon lipid serum
           parameters in Wistar rats
    • Authors: Aziouz Aidoud; Ali Ammouche, María Garrido, Ana B Rodriguez
      Pages: 2943 - 2950
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lycopene has the highest antioxidant activity within carotenoids and is an effective free radical scavenger. Virgin olive oil (VOO) and argan oil (AO) contain trace amounts of a wide variety of phytochemicals which have desirable nutritional properties. The present study intended to assess the effect of various dietary VOO and AO in combination with lycopene consumption on serum biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol (LDL‐C), high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol (HDL‐C), triglycerides (TGs) and phospholipids, as well as on hepatosomatic index (HSI) of rats. RESULTS Results showed that ingestion of VOO and AO diminished TC, LDL‐C, TGs and phospholipid levels, whereas the HDL‐C levels augmented in all the groups assayed. The enrichment of VOO and AO with lycopene improved the beneficial effects derived from the consumption of both oils on serum biochemical parameters. A decrease in body weight gain and HSI was detected after the consumption of lycopene‐enriched oils. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that the inclusion of lycopene in VOO and AO may be used as a natural tool to fight against hyperlipidaemic and hypercholesterolaemic‐derived disorders. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T06:11:20.485205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6638
  • Evolution of polyphenols and organic acids during the fermentation of
           apple cider
    • Authors: Mengqi Ye; Tianli Yue, Yahong Yuan
      Pages: 2951 - 2957
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Polyphenols and organic acids are important constitutes in the cider because they greatly contribute to organoleptic quality. The determination of their changes is important for monitoring the fermentation process for purposes of quality control. In this study, the evolution of polyphenols and organic acids was monitored throughout the cider fermentation process. The samples were taken periodically and the polyphenols and organic acids contents were determined using HPLC methods. RESULTS The contents of polyphenols and organic acids were in constant change. After fermentation, the content of (+)‐catechin, (−)‐epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, p‐coumaric acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and phloridzin decreased by different degrees, while protocatechuic acid increased after fermentation. The content of organic acids was also affected by fermentation. Malic acid, lactic acid, quinic acid, pyruvic acid and citric acid showed different levels of increase, but succinic acid content decreased. CONCLUSIONS The contents of polyphenols and organic acids were affected by fermentation. Their changing profiles during fermentation process were dependent on the type of phenolic compounds and organic acids studied. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-03T04:54:13.865999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6639
  • Survival and growth of foodborne pathogens in pesticide solutions
           routinely used in leafy green vegetables and tomato production
    • Authors: Shefali Dobhal; Guodong Zhang, Tom Royer, John Damicone, Li Maria Ma
      Pages: 2958 - 2964
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The consumption of fresh produce has increased tremendously in the past few years as have outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with these commodities. Pesticides routinely used in crop production could influence the outcomes of foodborne pathogen contamination of fresh produce. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of pesticides on the survival and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Eight commercial fungicides and insecticides commonly used for disease and insect pest control on leafy green vegetables and tomatoes were evaluated. RESULTS Among the pesticides tested, copper hydroxide, acetamiprid, cypermethrin and permethrin were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibitory to pathogens while no effect was observed for chlorothalonil, flonicamid and methoxyfenozide. At the highest concentration tested (2.66%), azoxystrobin had a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory effect on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 after 24 h incubation. The results indicated that some pesticides can stimulate the growth of human pathogens if contaminated water is used in their preparation, whereas others were likely to inhibit or reduce pathogen populations. CONCLUSION This information is helpful in mitigating the risk of microbial contamination in fresh produce, which is critical to public health and safety. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T06:00:23.271615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6640
  • Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Glossogyne tenuifolia
           against selected pathogens
    • Authors: Tsung‐Shi Yang; Louis Kuo‐Ping Chao, Tai‐Ti Liu
      Pages: 2965 - 2971
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) is a perennial herb widely distributed in the areas from south Asia to Australia. Many biological effects of G. tenuifolia have been reported; however, the information about antimicrobial activity of the essential oil (EO) of the herb remains unavailable. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the GT‐EO in vitro and food systems, the antimicrobial impact (AI) of its individual compounds, and interactive effects of major active compounds (linalool, 4‐terpineol, α‐terpineol, ρ‐cymene) on selected Gram‐positive (S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. mutans and S. sanguinis) and Gram‐negative (E. coli O157:H7, V. parahaemolyticus and S. enterica) pathogens. RESULTS The minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) of the GT‐EO ranged from 0.75 to 12 mg mL−1 against the test bacteria in vitro. Except for L. monocytogenes, the GT‐EO exhibited more inhibitory effect on the selected Gram positive than against the Gram negative bacteria at the GT‐EO concentrations ≤ 12 mg mL−1. The interactive effects of major active compounds (linalool, 4‐terpineol, α‐terpineol, ρ‐cymene) are additive instead of synergistic via the checkerboard analysis. The bacteria with a microbial load of ca. 102 CFU mL−1 in the milk tea could be completely inactivated by the GT‐EO with the MMC of 1.5 mg mL−1. CONCLUSION ρ‐Cymene is the largest component in the GT‐EO; however, it is not the compound predominantly affecting the entire antimicrobial activity of the EO. Instead, 4‐terpineol is the most influential among the test compounds that contribute to the antimicrobial activity of the GT‐EO. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-04T09:24:45.785399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6641
  • Anti‐obesity action of gingerol: effect on lipid profile, insulin,
           leptin, amylase and lipase in male obese rats induced by a high‐fat
    • Authors: Ganapathy Saravanan; Ponnusamy Ponmurugan, Machampalayam Arumugam Deepa, Balasubramanian Senthilkumar
      Pages: 2972 - 2977
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Obesity represents a rapidly growing threat to the health of populations and diet intervention has been proposed as one of the strategies for weight loss. Ginger and its constituents have been used for their anti‐flatulent, expectorant and appetising properties and they are reported to possess gastro‐protective and cholesterol‐lowering properties. The present study investigated the effects of gingerol on the changes in body weight, serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance and lipid profile in plasma and liver as well as on the activity of amylase, lipase and leptin in high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese rats. RESULTS HFD‐induced obese rats were treated orally with gingerol (25, 50 and 75 mg kg−1) once daily for 30 days. A lorcaserin‐treated group (10 mg kg−1) was included for comparison. The levels of body weight, glucose, lipid profile and insulin, insulin resistance, leptin, amylase and lipase were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in HFD rats. Rats treated with gingerol and fed a HFD showed significantly (P < 0.05) decreased glucose level, body weight, leptin, insulin, amylase, lipase plasma and tissue lipids when compared to normal control. The effect at a dose of 75 mg kg−1 of gingerol was more pronounced than that of the dose 25 mg kg−1 and 50 mg kg−1. The lorcaserin‐treated group also manifested similar effects to those of gingerol. CONCLUSION These findings suggested that ginger supplementation suppresses obesity induced by a high fat diet and it might be a promising adjuvant therapy for the treatment of obesity and its complications. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T06:04:34.077647-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6642
  • Volatile compounds of Celta dry‐cured ‘lacón’ as
           affected by cross‐breeding with Duroc and Landrace genotypes
    • Authors: José M Lorenzo; Sonia Fonseca
      Pages: 2978 - 2985
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Dry‐cured ‘lacón’ is a traditional cured meat product made in the north‐west of Spain from the pigs' foreleg, with similar manufacturing process to that used in dry‐cured ham. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cross‐breeding of Celta pig with Landrace or Duroc breeds on the formation of volatile compounds through the manufacture of ‘lacón’. RESULTS ‘Lacón’ from the crosses with Duroc presented lower final moisture (534 g kg−1) and higher intra‐muscular fat content [144 g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] than ‘lacón’ from Celta pure breed (587 g kg−1 and 36 g kg−1 DM, respectively). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid‐phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds from ‘lacón’ were affected by cross‐breeding. The total amount of volatile compounds significantly (P < 0.001) increased during the manufacturing process, this increase being more marked in samples from the Landrace cross‐breed. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was esters in the three batches, followed by aldehydes, hydrocarbons and alcohols. The most abundant ester at the end of the process was hexanoic acid methyl ester, while the aldehyde found in a higher amount was hexanal. CONCLUSIONS The profile of volatile compounds was affected by cross‐breed, especially at the end of the ‘lacón’ dry‐curing process. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-04T09:23:31.462276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6643
  • Effect of Maillard reaction products on the physical and antimicrobial
           properties of edible films based on ε‐polylysine and chitosan
    • Authors: Yingying Wang; Fuguo Liu, Chunxuan Liang, Fang Yuan, Yanxiang Gao
      Pages: 2986 - 2991
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Edible films based on Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of ε‐polylysine and chitosan, without the use of any plasticiser, were prepared by solution casting. The effect of Maillard reaction parameters (reaction time and the ratio of polylysine/chitosan) of ε‐polylysine and chitosan on the structure, moisture content, water solubility, total colour difference and mechanical properties of edible films formed by MRPs were systematically evaluated. RESULTS Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that edible films prepared by the MRPs of ε‐polylysine and chitosan through the Maillard reaction exhibited a more compact and dense structure than those from the mixture of biopolymers without the presence of MRPs. The tensile strength and % elongation values of films from the mixture were decreased significantly with the rise of ε‐polylysine (P < 0.05). The moisture content of the films was not significantly affected by Maillard reaction, whereas water solubility was decreased and total colour difference was increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the extension of Maillard reaction time. In addition, antimicrobial activity of chitosan films against E. coli and S. aureus. could be achieved by incorporating ε‐polylysine into chitosan. CONCLUSION These films can ensure food quality and safety, especially for coating highly perishable foods, such as meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-04T04:33:05.776582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6644
  • Impacts of changing cropping pattern on virtual water flows related to
           crops transfer: a case study for the Hetao irrigation district, China
    • Authors: Jing Liu; Pute Wu, Yubao Wang, Xining Zhao, Shikun Sun, Xinchun Cao
      Pages: 2992 - 3000
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Analysis of cropping patterns is a prerequisite for their optimisation, and evaluation of virtual water flows could shed new light on water resources management. This study is intended to explore the effects of cropping pattern changes between 1960 and 2008 on virtual water flows related to crops transfer in the Hetao irrigation district, China. RESULTS (1) The sown area of crops increased at an average rate of 3.57 × 103 ha year−1 while the proportion of sown grain crops decreased from 92.83% in the 1960s to 50.22% in the 2000s. (2) Virtual water content decreased during the study period while net virtual water exports increased since the 1980s. (3) Assuming that the cropping pattern was constant and was equal to the average 1960s value, accumulated net virtual water export in 1980–2008 would have been 4.76 × 109 m3 greater than that in the actual cropping pattern scenario. CONCLUSION Cropping pattern changes in the Hetao irrigation district could not only be seen as resulting from the pursuit for higher economic returns, but also as a feedback response to limited water resources. A systematic framework is still needed for future cropping pattern planning by taking food security, continued agricultural expansion and other constraints into consideration. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T06:04:40.898698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6645
  • Factors affecting distribution and abundance of Aspergillus section Nigri
           in vineyard soils from grapevine growing regions of Argentina
    • Authors: Mauricio G Barberis; Guillermo Giaj Merlera, Maria M Reynoso, Sofia N Chulze, Adriana M Torres
      Pages: 3001 - 3007
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aspergillus species belonging to section Nigri are the main fungi responsible for ochratoxin (OTA) contamination in grapes and wine. These species live as saprophytes in the superficial layer of the vineyard soil. We evaluated the biodiversity of potentially ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from vineyard soils from different grapevine growing regions of Argentina. The isolates were characterized by classical and molecular methods. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed to identify the overall correlation of the Aspergillus group distribution with environmental conditions, geographical characteristics and vineyard practices. RESULTS Aspergillus niger aggregate was the prevalent group (71%) and A. carbonarius made up only 2%. Species discrimination by species‐specific primers showed that in A. niger aggregate 89% were A. tubingensis; 97% of the uniseriate were A. japonicus/A. aculeatus. Isolates belonging to these groups were unable to produce OTA. Our results clearly demonstrate a strong association between presence of A. carbonarius, high average temperatures and drip irrigation. Precipitation levels appear as a secondary factor, and altitude, vineyard age, predominant species, grape variety or total fungal count showed no association with A. carbonarius. CONCLUSION We demonstrated a low prevalence of ochratoxigenic species in vineyard soil from the grape‐growing regions of Argentina. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-22T07:31:14.678104-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6647
  • Effects of co‐products from the corn‐ethanol industry on body
           composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net
           energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs
    • Authors: Nestor A Gutierrez; Dong Yong Kil, Yanhong Liu, James E Pettigrew, Hans H Stein
      Pages: 3008 - 3016
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Conventional distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS‐CV), uncooked distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS‐BPX) and high‐protein distillers dried grains (HP‐DDG) are used in diets for pigs to provide protein and energy. These ingredients may have different effects on body composition and energy retention. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine effects of DDGS‐CV, DDGS‐BPX and HP‐DDG on body composition and on retention of protein, lipids, and energy when fed to growing or finishing pigs. RESULTS The total organ weight was greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs fed the HP‐DDG diet than for finishing pigs fed the basal diet or the DDGS‐CV diet. Finishing pigs fed the DDGS‐CV diet had greater (P < 0.05) lipid gain than pigs fed the other diets, and the net energy (NE) for DDGS‐CV was greater (P < 0.05) than for DDGS‐BPX, but the NE value of HP‐DDG was not different from that of DDGS‐CV or DDGS‐BPX. CONCLUSION Inclusion of up to 30% DDGS or HP‐DDG in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs will not affect body composition or the retention of energy, protein and lipids, regardless of the stage of growth of pigs. The NE value of DDGS‐BPX and HP‐DDG is not affected by the stage of growth of pigs, but the NE value of DDGS‐CV is greater in finishing than in growing pigs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-11T04:13:14.56454-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6648
  • Evaluation of toxicological impacts on Sprague–Dawley rat by
           successively low dose of aflatoxin B1
    • Authors: Wei Wei; Rui Li, Liang He, Xu Wang, Xiaofeng Ji, Yu Zhou
      Pages: 3017 - 3022
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of potent mycotoxins that frequently pollute agro‐products and animal feeds. For complex reasons, the regulatory limits of AFs differ from nation to nation. In this study, feedstuffs contaminated with various concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) corresponding to AF regulatory limits of major agro‐product importing and exporting nations were tested in Sprague–Dawley rats, and the toxicological results were evaluated. RESULTS During the trial period, no poisoning behavior was observed and no animals died. No significant differences in body weight were observed between AFB1‐contaminated and control rats. However, various negative impacts on liver and kidney functions were observed in AFB1‐contaminated groups, and these negative impacts were positively correlated with AFB1 concentrations. At concentrations of 4–50 µg kg−1, AFB1 tolerance was observed for the liver after 15 days of testing, but this tolerance was not observed for the kidney. CONCLUSION Low concentrations of AFB1 still induced obvious toxicological impacts on Sprague–Dawley rats, and the negative effects were aggravated by increasing the AFB1 dose and feeding time. Therefore strict AF regulatory limits are suggested for food safety administration, especially for the low‐income nations with higher hepatitis B virus prevalence. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T06:11:33.006276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6649
  • Effects of the dietary incorporation of olive leaves on growth
           performance, digestibility, blood parameters and meat quality of growing
    • Authors: Fátima Paiva‐Martins; Teresa Ribeirinha, Aníbal Silva, Rita Gonçalves, Victor Pinheiro, José L Mourão, Divanildo Outor‐Monteiro
      Pages: 3023 - 3029
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In a preliminary study the oxidative stability and tocopherol content of pork meat were shown to be improved by olive leaf (OL) feed supplementation at 50 and 100 g kg−1. However, growth performance was affected negatively. Therefore the objective of the present study was to assess the influence of OL supplementation at a lower level on feed digestibility, growth performance and meat quality. RESULTS Pigs were fed a basal diet (control), a basal diet with 25 g OL kg−1 (OL2.5) or a basal diet with 50 g OL kg−1 (OL5). The incorporation of OL significantly decreased growth rates (P = 0.010) and backfat thickness (P = 0.035) and increased feed/gain ratio (P = 0.032) in the OL5 group. Feed/gain ratio increased more for females (P = 0.001). The incorporation of OL decreased the crude fat (P = 0.006) and protein (P = 0.037) digestibility of both OL diets. Nevertheless, OL was effective in increasing the tocopherol content of meat (P = 0.009). However, meat from pigs fed the OL diets showed similar conjugated diene content, pH and colour parameters to that from pigs fed the control diet, even after 6 days of storage at 4 °C. CONCLUSION The data indicate that olive leaves may be included in pig diets at 25 g kg−1 in order to improve the tocopherol content of meat without excessively compromising growth performance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T10:30:57.817728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6650
  • Composted organic wastes from the pharmaceutical and agro‐food
           industries induce soil bioactivity and nodulation in alfalfa
    • Authors: Fernando Fornes; Claudia X Jaramillo, Rosana García‐de‐la‐Fuente, Rosa M Belda, Antonio Lidón
      Pages: 3030 - 3037
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Environmentally friendly agriculture needs to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers and to reclaim nutrients from organic wastes. In this study the effect of five doses (0, 12, 24, 48 and 96 t ha−1) of two two‐phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)‐based composts on the bioactivity and chemical characteristics of an agricultural soil and their potential to fertilize alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and stimulate nodulation were assessed during a two‐year incubation experiment. The two composts were prepared either with the olive mill waste alone (compost A), which served as control, or mixed with a liquid fatty‐proteinaceous hydrolyzate waste (FPH) from the pharmaceutical industry (compost AH). RESULTS Compost AH resulted in greater N immobilization than compost A because the former supplied the soil with easily degradable C and N, which increased microbial biomass and activity. Both compost mineralizations during the first year of incubation supplied the soil with more nutrients (mainly N), more so with A than with AH. Nevertheless, plant growth was similar in soils amended with either A or AH. Both composts induced nodulation similarly and the highest dose (96 t ha−1) increased the formation of nodules by a factor of 11 compared with the four lower doses. CONCLUSION TPOMW serves as an effective ground material for co‐composting with liquid wastes such as FPH. TPOMW supplies key nutrients and stimulates nodulation in alfalfa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-16T03:05:17.478985-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6651
  • Measuring efficiency of cotton cultivation in Pakistan: a restricted
           production frontier study
    • Authors: Muhammad Arif Watto; Amin Mugera
      Pages: 3038 - 3045
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Massive groundwater pumping for irrigation has started lowering water tables rapidly in different regions of Pakistan. Declining water tables have thus prompted research efforts to improve agricultural productivity and efficiency to make efficient use of scarce water resources. This study employs a restricted stochastic production frontier to estimate the level of, and factors affecting, technical efficiency of groundwater‐irrigated cotton farms in the Punjab province of Pakistan. RESULTS The mean technical efficiency estimates indicate substantial technical inefficiencies among cotton growers. On average, tube‐well owners and water buyers can potentially increase cotton production by 19% and 28%, respectively, without increasing the existing input level. The most influential factors affecting technical efficiency positively are the use of improved quality seed, consultation with extension field staff and farmers' perceptions concerning the availability of groundwater resources for irrigation in the future. CONCLUSIONS This study proposes that adopting improved seed for new cotton varieties and providing better extension services regarding cotton production technology would help to achieve higher efficiency in cotton farming. Within the context of falling water tables, educating farmers about the actual crop water requirements and guiding them about groundwater resource availability may also help to achieve higher efficiencies. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T08:21:17.241444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6652
  • Active actinidin retains function upon gastro‐intestinal digestion
           and is more thermostable than the E‐64‐inhibited counterpart
    • Authors: Milica M Grozdanovic; Sanja Ostojic, Ivana Aleksic, Uros Andjelkovic, Arnd Petersen, Marija Gavrovic‐Jankulovic
      Pages: 3046 - 3052
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Actinidin is a cysteine protease and major allergen from kiwi fruit. When purified under specific native conditions, actinidin preparations from fresh kiwi fruit contain both an active and inactive form of this enzyme. In this study, biochemical and immunological properties upon simulated gastro‐intestinal digestion, as well as thermal stability, were investigated for both active and E‐64‐inhibited actinidin. RESULTS Active actinidin retained its primary structure and proteolytic activity after 2 h of simulated gastric digestion, followed by 2 h of intestinal digestion, as assessed by SDS‐PAGE, zymography and mass spectroscopy. Immunological reactivity of active actinidin was also preserved, as tested by immunoelectrophoresis. The E‐64 inhibited actinidin was fully degraded after 1 h of pepsin treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that active actinidin has one transition maximum temperature (Tm) at 73.9°C, whereas in the E‐64–actinidin complex the two actinidin domains unfolded independently, with the first domain having a Tm value of only 61°C. CONCLUSION Active actinidin is capable of reaching the intestinal mucosa in a proteolytically active and immunogenic state. Inhibitor binding induces changes in the actinidin molecule that go beyond inhibition of proteolytic activity, also influencing the digestion stability and Tm values of actinidin, features important in the characterisation of food allergens. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T10:30:44.944068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6656
  • Biofortification of soybean sprouts with zinc and bioaccessibility of zinc
           in the sprouts
    • Authors: Tao Zou; Na Xu, Guanglin Hu, Jinwei Pang, Hangdan Xu
      Pages: 3053 - 3060
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Soybean sprouts are a very popular vegetable in Southeast Asian countries and regions. Zinc‐rich soybean sprouts can help to improve Zn deficiency in humans. The aim of this study was to prepare Zn‐enriched soybean sprouts through agronomic biofortification (germination with ZnSO4 solution) in order to provide consumers with a dietary material for Zn supplementation. RESULTS A suitable Zn concentration in ZnSO4 solution used for cultivation of Zn‐enriched soybean sprouts was found to be less than or equal to 20 µg mL−1. Upon biofortification with 10 and 20 µg Zn mL−1 ZnSO4 solutions, Zn content (102 and 163 vs 32 mg kg−1 dry weight (DW)), bioaccessible Zn content (3.86 and 8.53 vs 1.11 mg kg−1 DW) and Zn bioaccessibility (3.8 and 5.2 vs 3.5%) in edible portions of Zn‐enriched soybean sprouts were significantly enhanced compared with those of water‐germinated soybean sprouts. Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed in Fe, Mn and Cu contents of edible portions of soybean sprouts between ZnSO4 solution and water germinations, although soaking leakages of minerals (Fe, Mn and Cu) from soybean seeds to steeping media occurred to some degree. CONCLUSION Soybean sprouts biofortified with ZnSO4 solution at 10 or 20 µg Zn mL−1 contained appreciable quantities of Zn and had good Zn bioaccessibility, indicating that Zn‐enriched soybean sprouts may serve as a suitable dietary Zn source to improve the Zn intake of Zn‐deficient populations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-15T05:58:04.484129-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6658
  • The quality of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultured in various Polish
    • Authors: Joanna Tkaczewska; Władysław Migdał, Piotr Kulawik
      Pages: 3061 - 3067
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Although environmental factors greatly affect the quality of carp meat, no regulations impose labelling the place of cultivation of freshwater fish. That is why the purpose of this study was to determine the quality of carp meat cultivated in several regions of Poland as well as to assess the necessity of implementing such regulations. RESULTS The influence of the cultivation region on colour, nutrition value, health safety and sensory quality of carp meat was assessed. The analysis included colour measurement, determination of fatty acid profile and sensory evaluation of carp muscle. Moreover, microbiological analysis of the fish surface was performed. The results show that the place of cultivation does not influence the lightness (L*) of fillet, but has an impact on other colour parameters (a*, b*). The microbiological quality of fish from all studied farms was satisfactory, since no pathogenic microorganisms were observed on the fish surface. The fatty acid profile was fairly varied (P < 0.01), depending on the place of cultivation. CONCLUSION Since final results seem ambiguous, further analyses of quality features of carp from various regions and cultures should be performed, before any recommendation for the necessity of labelling the place and method of cultivation should be suggested. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-22T07:30:44.800343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6661
  • Effect of controlled lactic acid fermentation on selected bioactive and
           nutritional parameters of tempeh obtained from unhulled common bean
           (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds
    • Authors: Anna Starzyńska‐Janiszewska; Bożena Stodolak, Barbara Mickowska
      Pages: 3068 - 3068
      PubDate: 2014-10-01T04:12:20.038013-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6851
  • Comparison of postmortem proteolysis between Pekin and Muscovy duck breast
    • Authors: Chien‐Chang Liao; Rong‐Ghi R Chou
      Pages: 2846 - 2849
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Duck muscle is a popular source of red meat in Asia. However, information regarding the postmortem proteolysis of skeletal muscle between duck species is very limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the postmortem calpain and desmin degradations between Pekin (PD) and Muscovy (MD) duck breast muscles stored at 5°C. RESULTS The pH and μ/m‐calpain activity were not different (P > 0.05) between PD and MD postmortem muscles. However, μ‐calpain activity and desmin content decreased more rapidly (P < 0.05) in PD than in MD samples. CONCLUSION Therefore, our results suggest that the postmortem proteolysis is more rapid and extensive in breast muscle from PD compared to MD. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T06:53:22.783432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6416
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