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Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1608 journals]
  • Fecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed
           rations with different levels of phosphorus
    • Authors: M. Nordqvist; R. Spörndly, K. Holtenius
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. RESULTS The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:43:11.828395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7235
  • Effects of dietary oat proteins on cholesterol metabolism of
           hypercholesterolemic hamsters
    • Authors: Li‐Tao Tong; Lina Guo, Xianrong Zhou, Ju Qiu, Liya Liu, Kui Zhong, Sumei Zhou
      Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of oat proteins (OP) in hamsters fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 5 groups and fed with the experimental diets containing oat, OP, oat β‐glucan (OG), or OP+OG for 30 days. As the results, the OP,as the same as OG, significantly lowered the concentrations of plasma LDL‐ cholesterol and liver total cholesterol (TC), meanwhile, increased the excretions of fecal bile acid and TC. The plasma and liver TC in OP+OG group were significantly lower than those in OP or OG group. Both OP and OG increased the activity of liver cholesterol 7‐α hydroxylase (CYP7A1), while its activity in OP+OG group was strongly increased compared with OP or OG group. These results indicated that dietary OP could improve hypercholesterolemia, while dietary OP and OG together would have better hypocholesterolemic effects.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:27:35.049573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7236
  • Plant architecture, plasticity, and adaptation strategies of two oat
           genotypes under different competition intensities
    • Authors: Pu‐Fang Li; B. L. Ma, Weikai Yan, Zheng‐Guo Cheng, Feng‐Min Li, You‐Cai Xiong
      Abstract: Background A hypothesis that positive and negative interactions account for adaptive strategies was tested in a controlled study with two oat (Avena sativa) genotypes: ‘Manotick’ with erect leaves and ‘Oa1316‐1’ with prostrate leaves. An increasing competition pattern was designed by varying the number of seeds planted in each container and the space between containers, thus creating different planting density regimes (i.e. alternative and solid treatments). Results Total biomass of individual plants tended to decrease exponentially with increasing density in both genotypes. Under high density stress, Manotick allocated more biomass to the roots and produced 50% more tillers, leading to more non‐productive tillers and lower harvest index in the alternative than in the solid treatment. In contrast, Oa1316‐1 allocated more biomass to panicles and stems, and less to the roots, with fewer tillers. Conclusions With increasing density and strengthening intraspecific competition, Manotick reduced aboveground biomass allocation, leading to lower yield, while Oa1316‐1 decreased allocation to the roots, but increased allocation to the panicles under increasingly competitive environment. These adjustments were mechanically derived from negative and positive interactions, ensuring greater yield in the prostrate type. Our findings provided a novel rationale for a planting strategy based on plant type selections.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:27:19.066087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7237
  • Hypolipidemic and Anti‐Oxidative Potential of Encapsulated Herb
           (Terminalia arjuna) Added Vanilla Chocolate Milk in High Cholesterol Fed
    • Authors: Pravin D Sawale; Ramesh Pothuraju, Shaik Hussain Abdul, Anuj Kumar, Suman Kapila, G. R. Patil
      Abstract: Background Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurred in the developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidemic and anti‐oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna‐1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. Results At the end of experimental period, a significant decreased in the body weight gain by encapsulated herb extract as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in the organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in the serum lipids such as TG, TC, LDL‐C, VLDL‐C levels and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. The increased in reduced glutathione and decreased in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and RBC lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulation of Terminalia arjuna not only withstand during processing conditions but also effectively release in intestine and showed their effects such as hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities for better in treating cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:24:47.522797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7234
  • Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets
           obtained from Pangasius sutchi and Nile tilapia exported to European
    • Authors: Piotr Kulawik; Władysław MigdaŁ, Florian GambuŚ, Ewa CieŚlik, Fatih ÖzoĞul, Joanna Tkaczewska, Katarzyna Szczurowska, Izabela WaŁkowska
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets from Pangasius catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) exported to Poland, Germany and Ukraine and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exported to Poland and Germany were investigated by analyzing the heavy metal residues, microbiological hazards, biogenic amines, TBA and TVB‐N content. RESULTS The heavy metal residues from all studied samples were far lower than the limits established by authorities. The most abundant biogenic amine found was histamine with the maximum content of 9.6 mg/100 g found in pangasius exported to Poland. The total viable counts were from 2.8 log cfu/g in pangasius exported to Ukraine to 4.3 log cfu/g in pangasius exported to Germany. Vibrio spp. was present in 70‐80% of all studied pangasius groups while there was no Vibrio spp. found on none of the studied tilapia samples. 30% of Pangasius fillets exported to Poland were contaminated with coagulase‐positive staphylococci. No E. coli was found in any of the studied samples. Although the results of TBA analysis differed significantly between studied groups, the malonic aldehyde content in all studied groups was still very low. The TVB‐N content in frozen fillets from pangasius was significantly lower than in frozen tilapia fillets. CONCLUSIONS We reported that Pangasius catfish frozen fillets were widely contaminated with Vibrio spp. which could prove hazardous for the final consumer if the fish is eaten raw or undercooked. The rest of analysis showed no other reason for concern associated with Nile tilapia and Pangasius catfish frozen fillets consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T07:17:24.65883-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7233
  • Age and gender differences in the influence of extrinsic product
           information on acceptability for RTD green tea beverages
    • Authors: Ye‐Won Bae; Soh Min Lee, Kwang‐Ok Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The introduction of ready‐to‐drink (RTD) green tea beverage has allowed diverse consumers to consume green teas and related products. Green tea that has been traditionally consumed for its delicate flavor characteristics is also widely consumed for its recognition as a healthy product. Because it is reported that age difference exists in consideration of health related information, the study was objected to investigate the how sensory and non‐sensory factors, in particular health related information, price and packaging, would affect the flavor acceptability of green tea beverages depending on consumers’ age and gender. RESULTS Regardless of the product information, the old consumers preferred products that provided an indication of health beneficial effect. On the other hand, the young consumers tended to get influenced by the extrinsic product information such as packaging, brand/manufacturer and/or price, though these consumers were not much influenced by health beneficial information as the old. CONCLUSION The findings of the study implied that the influence of non‐sensory information such as health beneficial information in flavor liking differed depending on consumers’ age mostly, and little on gender for RTD green tea beverages.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T07:08:03.799066-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7232
  • Selenium (Se)improves drought tolerance in crop plants ‐ a myth or
    • Authors: Rashid Ahmad; Ejaz Ahmad Waraich, Fahim Nawaz, M.Y. Ashraf, Muhammad Khalid
      Abstract: Climate change has emerged as one of the most complex challenges of the 21st century and has become an area of interest in the past few decades. Many countries of the world have become extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The scarcity of water is the serious concern for food security of these countries and climate change has aggravated the risks of extreme events like drought. Oxidative stress caused by a variety of active oxygen species formed under drought stress, damage many cellular constituents such as, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, which ultimately reduces plant growth, respiration and photosynthesis. Se has become an element of interest to many biologists due to its physiological and toxicological importance. It plays beneficial role in plants by enhancing growth of plants, reducing damage caused by oxidative stress, enhancing chlorophyll contents under light stress, stimulating the senesce to produce antioxidants, and improving plant tolerance to drought stress by regulating water status. The researchers have adopted different strategies to evaluate the role of selenium in plants under drought stress. Some of the relevant work available regarding the role of Se in alleviating adverse effect of drought stress is discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T06:39:31.651633-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7231
  • Heterologous strategy enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence
           polarization immunoassay of clinafloxacin in goat milk
    • Authors: Jiahong Chen; Ilya A. Shanin, Shuwei Lv, Qiang Wang, Chuanbin Mao, Zhenlin Xu, Yuanming Sun, Qing Wu, Sergei A. Eremin, Hongtao Lei
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Clinafloxacin is used for the treatment of disease in food‐producing animals, e.g., Brucella melitensis, which often occurs in goats; however, the clinafloxacin residue in goat milk may harm human health and result in the development of drug‐resistant bacterial strains or allergies. Despite this, there is not a rapid, sensitive and accurate analytical method in goat milk for a rapid screening or monitoring purpose. RESULTS One homologous and five heterologous tracers were designed and compared for fluorescence polarization immunoassay(FPIA) optimization. Based on the combination of a heterologous tracer (PAZ‐FITC, synthesized with pazufloxacin and FITC) and the antibody against clinafloxacin, a highly sensitive FPIA was established for the detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk for the first time. The IC50 value was 29.3 µg/L for clinafloxacin in the heterologous format, 6 times lower than that of the combination of the homologous tracers and the antibody. The recoveries ranged from 86.8% to 104.5%, with the relative standard deviation ranging from 4.1% to 7.2%. Validation by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed that the results obtained from the proposed FPIA were in agreement with those of HPLC. CONCLUSION This proposed heterologous strategy for enhanced FPIA is sensitive and rapid enough for the high‐throughput detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:57:33.312315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7228
  • In vitro functional properties of crude extracts and isolated compounds
           from banana pseudostem and rhizome
    • Authors: Saravanan Kandasamy; Sasikala Ramu, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna Ardhya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pseudostem and rhizome are the significant bio‐waste generated (43.48%) from the banana plant post fruit harvest, which are usually left in the plantation or incinerated and wasted. Very negligible production of these is used for consumption. Further, it has an important part in indigenous systems of medicine. Based on the huge volume of bio‐waste generated and its traditional medicinal use, it is worth exploiting it as a source of natural bioactive compounds. Current study, sequential extracts from banana pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), and isolated compounds including chlorogenic acid, 4‐epicyclomusalenone, and cycloeucalenol acetate were tested for their antimicrobial activity, antiplatelet aggregation and cytotoxicity. RESULTS Isolated compounds and crude extracts exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, platelet aggregation induced by collagen and cytotoxicity towards human liver cancer (HepG2) cells. CONCLUSION Banana plant bio‐waste, pseudostem and rhizome may serve as a potential source of multifunctional bioactive compounds and functional ingredient in food and other allied industries.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:57:15.337727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7229
  • Provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu, a
           non‐alcoholic cereal‐based beverage made with provitamin
           A‐biofortified maize
    • Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi; Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, Unathi Kolanisi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in sub‐Saharan Africa. Amahewu is a popular southern African lactic acid fermented non‐alcoholic maize‐based beverage, which is deficient in vitamin A. In this study, provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu processed using provitamin A‐biofortified maize and three types of inoculums during fermentation (malted maize, wheat bran and Lactobacillus starter culture) were investigated. RESULTS The total provitamin A contents of amahewu samples, estimated as β‐carotene, β‐cryptoxanthin and α‐carotene content ranged from 3.3 ‐ 3.8 g kg−1 (DW). Provitamin A was substantially retained (79% ‐ 90% β carotene equivalent) in amahewu after fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared with added starter cultures had the lowest retention of provitamin A. Consumers (Approx. 69%) liked provitamin A‐biofortified amahewu either moderately or very much. Principal component analysis (PCA) of Amahewu sensory data showed that 71% of variation was due to maize types and 18% of variation could be due to the inoculum used during fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared using provitamin A‐biofortified maize were slightly more liked (Mean score: 7.0 ± 1.2) compared to those of white maize reference samples. The use of starter culture combined with either malted maize or wheat bran as inoculums during fermentation improved the taste and aroma of amahewu and hence their acceptability. CONCLUSION Provitamin A is substantially retained in amahewu after fermentation. The slightly high acceptability of amahewu prepared using provitamin A biofortified maize compared to that of white maize, thus suggests that fermented product like amahewu can potentially be used to deliver provitamin A to vulnerable individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:56:58.181646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7230
  • Evaluation of iron and zinc bioavailability of beans targeted for
           biofortification using in vitro and in vivo models and their effect on the
           nutritional status of preschool children
    • Authors: Maria das Graças Vaz‐Tostes; Thaisa Agrizzi Verediano, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa
      Abstract: Background Biofortified beans have been produced with higher nutrient concentrations. The objective was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo iron and zinc bioavailability of common beans Pontal (PO, targeted for biofortification) compared with conventional Perola (PE) and their effects on the iron and zinc nutritional status of preschool children. Results In Caco‐2 cells, PO and PE beans did not show differences in ferritin (PO, 13.1 ± 1.4; PE, 13.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg protein) or zinc uptake (PO, 15.9 ± 1.5; PE, 15.5 ± 3.5 μM/mg protein). In the rat, PO and PE beans presented high iron bioavailability (PO, 109.6 ± 29.5%; PE, 110.7 ± 13.9%). In preschool children no changes were observed in iron and zinc nutritional status comparing before and after PO consumption (ferritin: 41.2 ± 23.2 µg/L, 28.9 ± 40.4 µg/L; hemoglobin: 13.7 ± 2.2 g/dL, 13.1 ± 3.2 g/dL; plasma zinc: 119.2 ± 24.5 µg/dL, 133.9 ± 57.7 µg/dL and erythrocyte zinc: 53.5 ± 13.8 µg/gHb, 59.4 ± 17.1 µg/gHb). Conclusion Iron and zinc bioavailability in PO and PE beans was not statistically different using either cell culture, animal, or human models. Efforts should focus on increasing mineral bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T01:27:18.291272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7226
  • Giberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from maize and wheat in Iran:
           distribution, molecular identification and fumonisin B1 in vitro
    • Authors: Abdelnasser Mohammadi; Masoomeh Shams‐Ghahfarokhi, Farhad Nazarian‐Firouzabadi, Reza Kachuei, Mohammadhassan Gholami‐Shabani, Mehdi Razzaghi‐Abyaneh
      Abstract: Background Contamination of food and agricultural crops by Fusarium species is a major concern of food spoilage and a potential public health hazard. In the present study, natural contamination of maize and wheat samples from main cultivation areas of Iran by Fusarium species belonging to the G. fujikuroi species complex was evaluated with special attention to the ability of the isolates to produce Fumonisin B1 (FB1). Results A total of 55 Fusarium isolates were obtained from 27/32 maize samples (84.4%) and 11/15 wheat samples (73.3%). They were identified as F. verticillioides (47.3%), F. proliferatum (47.3%), F. fujikuroi (1.8%), F. nygamai (1.8%) and F. redolens (1.8%) by sequence analysis of translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1‐α). Twenty‐two of 55 Fusarium isolates belonging to F. proliferatum (23.6%), F. verticillioides (14.5%) and F. fujikuroi (1.8%) produced FB1 in a total range of 230.4 to 9565.0 µg mL−1. Resulting dendrogram from TEF1‐α profile showed that the genotypes were divided into clusters I, II and III of which cluster III contained only F. redolens as the first report from Iran. Conclusion On the base of in vitro FB1 biosynthesis of the analyzed strains, high degree of contamination of maize and wheat with Fusarium strains reported here should be considered as a potential public health threat as a meaningful number of the isolates were reported to produce hazardous levels of carcinogenic FB1.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T01:26:44.055686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7227
  • Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic
           acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of
           'Kinnow' mandarin juice
    • Authors: Samina Khalid; Aman U Malik, Ahmad S Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Shafique
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regards to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35‐years‐old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during seven days at ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60‐65% RH) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75‐80% RH) conditions. RESULTS During ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18‐year‐old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µ−1) and TAA (93.68 mg.µl−1), as compared to 6 and 35‐years‐old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35‐year‐old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35‐year‐old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18‐year‐old tree maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg.100 ml−1) concentrations; while, fruit from 6‐year‐old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg.µl−1) and TPC (115.1 µ−1). Large sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg.100 ml−1) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg.µl−1). CONCLUSIONS Fruit from 18‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions; while, fruit from 6‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage; whereas large fruit size had higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold storage.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T03:06:23.149704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7225
  • Sensory and nutritional attributes of pomegranate juices extracted from
           separated arils and pressed whole fruits
    • Authors: Lina Mayuoni Kirshenbaum; Ofir Benjamin, Ron Porat
      Abstract: Background The present study aimed to compare the sensory and nutritional attributes of 'Wonderful' pomegranate juices extracted from separated arils with those from pressed whole fruits. Results Five different sensory tests were conducted to evaluate the flavor quality of 'Wonderful' pomegranate juices. Consumer acceptance tests revealed that juice from separated arils achieved significantly higher likability scores than that from whole pressed fruits. Furthermore, preference tests revealed that 84% of the tasters preferred the juice extracted from separated arils whereas only 16% preferred the juice from whole pressed fruits. Sensory discrimination tests (triangle tests) revealed that tasters significantly distinguished between the two juices at p ≤ 0.01. Descriptive tests by a trained panel and sensory analysis with an electronic tongue demonstrated that juice from whole pressed fruits was more astringent and had a stronger after‐taste than juice from separated arils. Juice from pressed whole fruits contained significantly higher levels of phenols and hydrolysable tannins, which led to higher astringency. Conclusions Pomegranate juice extracted from separated arils was less astringent and more preferred by tasters than juice from whole pressed fruits. Nonetheless, juice from separated arils has lower nutritional benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T02:49:33.951693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7224
  • Control of citrus molds using bioactive coatings incorporated with fungal
           chitosan/plant extracts composite
    • Authors: Ahmed A. Tayel; Shaaban H. Moussa, Mohammed F. Salem, Khaled E. Mazrou, Wael F. El‐Tras
      Abstract: Background The ongoing postharvest loss in citrus fruits, due to fungal infection, is a chronic economic and agricultural problem. Most of citrus damages are caused by Penicillium spp., e.g. green mold by P. digitatum and blue mold by P. italicum. Fungal chitosan, from Mucor rouxii, and plant extracts from cress seeds, olive leaves, pomegranate peels and senna pods, were evaluated as antifungal agents against the phytopathogenic fungi, P. digitatum and P. italicum, using in vitro qualitative and quantitative assays. Results The entire natural agents exhibited potent antifungal activity; the most powerful agent was cress (Lepidium sativum) seed extract and the following was pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract. Fungal chitosan had also a remarkable fungicidal potentiality using both evaluation assays. P. digitatum was generally more resistant than P. italicum toward all examined agents. The incorporation of each individual natural agent in coating material resulted in great reduction in fungal growth and viability. The addition of chitosan combined with cress and pomegranate extracts, to the coating materials, prevented coated citrus fruit from decay by green and blue mold for two weeks storage period. Conclusion Natural derivatives, however, could be recommended as powerful antifungal alternatives to protect citrus fruits from postharvest fungal decay.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T02:48:03.456432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7223
  • Change in soil organic carbon between 1981 and 2011 in croplands of
           Heilongjiang Province, northeast China
    • Authors: Lu‐Jun Li; Martin Burger, Shu‐Li Du, Wen‐Xiu Zou, Meng‐Yang You, Xiang‐Xiang Hao, Xin‐Chun Lu, Lin Zheng, Xiao‐Zeng Han
      Abstract: Background Soil organic carbon (SOC) is fundamental for mitigating climate change as well as improving soil fertility. Databases of SOC obtained from soil surveys in 1981 and 2011 were used to assess SOC change (0–20 cm) in croplands of Heilongjiang Province in northeast China. Three counties (Lindian, Hailun, and Baoqing) were selected as typical croplands representing major soil types and land‐use types in the region. Results The changes in SOC density (SOCD) between 1981 and 2001 were −6.6, −14.7, and 5.7 Mg C ha−1 in Lindian, Hailun, and Baoqing Counties, respectively. The total SOC storage (SOCS) changes were estimated to be −11.2, −19.1, and 16.2% of those in 1981 in the three counties, respectively. We found 22‐550% increases in SOCS in rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddies in the three counties, but 28‐33% decreases in dry cropland in Lindian and Hailun. In addition, an increase of 11.4 Mg C ha−1 in SOCD was observed in state‐owned farms (P
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T05:20:22.775482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7219
  • Determination of Florfenicol Residues in Broiler's Meat and Liver Samples
           using RP‐HPLC with UV‐visible detector
    • Authors: Asma Nasim; Bilal Aslam, Ijaz Javed, Asghar Ali, Faqir Muhammad, Ahmad Raza, Zia‐ud‐Din Sindhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Broilers are vulnerable to various types of the micro‐organisms including Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in multiple infections. The broad spectrum antibacterial drugs like Florfenicol (FF) are widely used in the treatment of such type of infections. Suspected residues of these drugs in body tissues of treated animals get access to the humans through the meat consumption and thus lead to serious ill effects on human health. The present study was designed to estimate the presence of FF residues in the broiler's meat and liver samples. RESULTS The Mean residual concentrations of FF in meat and liver samples were 311.42 ± 186.56 µg kg−1 and 2585.44 ± 1759.71 µg kg−1 respectively which were higher than their respective maximum residual limits (MRLs). The results indicate that 126 and 32 samples were FF positive and negative respectively. From the positive samples 84 and 42 samples were above and below MRL respectively. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the presence of residues whereas the usage of this contaminated meat causes resistance in consumers and seems to be public health threat. So there is a need to educate the farmers about the ill effects of residual drugs on human health and withdrawal time in poultry birds.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:27:07.891237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7220
  • Introgression of blast resistance genes into the elite variety mr263
           through marker‐assisted backcrossing
    • Authors: Muhammad M. Hasan; Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohd Razi Ismail, Maziah Mahmood, Md. Amirul Alam, Harun Abdul Rahim, Mohammad A. Malek, Mohammad Abdul Latif
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early maturing, high‐yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as a donor of the blast resistance Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d (t)1, Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL. Our objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker‐assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection. RESULTS The improved MR263‐BR‐3‐2, MR263‐BR‐4‐3, MR263‐BR‐13‐1 and MR263‐BR‐26‐4 lines carrying the Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d (t), Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL were developed using the SSR markers RM5961 and RM263 (linked to the blast resistance genes and QTL) for foreground selection and a collection of 65 polymorphic SSR markers for background selection in backcrossed and selfed generations. A background analysis revealed that the highest rate of recurrent parent genome recovery was 96.0% in MR263‐BR‐4‐3 and 94.1% in MR263‐BR‐3‐2. CONCLUSION The addition of blast resistance genes can be used to improve several Malaysian rice varieties to combat this major disease.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:25:53.023802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7222
  • High molecular weight glutenin subunits deficient mutants induced by ion
           beam and the effects of Glu‐1 loci deletion on wheat quality
    • Authors: Lujun Zhang; Qiufang Chen, Mingjie Su, Biao Yan, Xiangqi Zhang, Zhen Jiao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW‐GSs) play a critical role in determining the visco‐elastic properties of wheat. Mutations induced by ion beam radiation have been applied to improve the yield and quality of crop. HMW‐GSs deficient mutant lines were selected and the effect of Glu‐1 loci deletion on wheat quality properties were illustrated according to analyze dry seeds of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Xiaoyan 81 treated with nitrogen ion beam in this study. RESULTS Three HMW‐GSs deficient mutant lines were obtained and then detected by SDS‐PAGE. Large chromosome fragment deletion resulted in specific deficiencies and the deleted region sizes were determined using molecular markers. Agronomic characters, quantity and proportion of glutenins and dough microstructure of the deletion lines all proved to be quite different from that of the wild type Xiaoyan 81. Quality properties analysis suggested that GluA1ˉ had superior property parameters, while GluB1ˉ and GluD1ˉ both showed a significant decrease in quality properties compared with Xiaoyan 81. CONCLUSION The effects of three Glu‐1 loci on flour and dough quality‐related parameters should be Glu‐D1>Glu‐B1>Glu‐A1. Ion beam radiation can be used as a mutagen to create new crop mutants.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:25:35.954681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7221
  • Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation
           of fresh foods
    • Authors: Seung Yuan Lee; Seung Jae Lee, Dong Soo Choi, Sun Jin Hur
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g., active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified active packaging (MAP) systems extends shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high‐quality product as well as reduced economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, active packaging should be considered several variables, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing, and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging plays facilitating data access and information exchange by altering conditions of the inside or outside packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, a few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations, or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore, more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable or effective packaging systems for various foods.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:16:26.900655-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7218
  • Effect of fermented medicinal plants on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions, and diarrhea score in weanling
    • Authors: Pinyao Zhao; Hanlin Li, Yan Lei, Tianshui Li, Sunki Kim, Inho Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock has been banned in European Union since 2006. Alternatives of antibiotics have focused on phytogenic plants, such as herb and medicinal plant. No studies have evaluated use of fermented medicinal plants (FMP) made up of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Scutellaria baicalensis in weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of FMP on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions, and diarrhea score in weanling pigs. RUSULTS FMP supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, gain:feed, apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and gross energy compared with NC treatment, while a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on those criteria. Ammonia, total mercaptans, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) by the supplementation of FMP compared with NC. Additionally, diarrhea score was lower (P < 0.05) by FMP addition compared with NC during d 0 to 7 and d 8 to 14. CONCLUSION These results suggested that FMP could be used as alternative of antibiotics by enhancing growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and decreasing fecal noxious gas emission and early diarrhea score of weanling pigs.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:56:56.192037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7217
  • The genetic aspects of berries: from field to health
    • Authors: Luca Mazzoni; Patricia Perez‐Lopez, Francesca Giampieri, Jose M Alvarez‐Suarez, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes‐Hernandez, Jose L Quiles, Bruno Mezzetti, Maurizio Battino
      Abstract: Berries are a relevant source of micronutrients and nonessential phytochemicals such as polyphenol compounds, that play a synergistic and cumulative role in human health promotion. Several systematic analyses showed that berry phenolics are able to detoxify ROS/RNS blocking their production, to intervene in the cell cycle, participating in the transduction and expression of genes involved in apoptosis, and to repair oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the improvement of the nutritional quality of berries has become a new quality target of breeding and biotechnological strategies, to control or to increase the content of specific health‐related compounds in fruits. This work reviews, on the basis of the in vitro and in vivo evidences, the main berries phytochemical compounds and their possible mechanisms of action on pathways involved in several type of diseases, with particular attention to cancer, inflammation, neurodegeneration, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:56:06.879709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7216
  • Gamma‐irradiated β‐glucan induces the immunomodulation
           and anticancer activity through MAPK and NF‐κB pathways
    • Authors: Eui‐Baek Byun; Sang‐Hyun Park, Beom‐Su Jang, Nak‐Yun Sung, Eui‐Hong Byun
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor activity of low‐molecular‐weight β‐glucan (LMBG) produced by gamma irradiation (50 kGy), using in vivo and in vitro models. RESULTS The results indicate that treatment with LMBG increased the proliferation of murine peritoneal macrophages, and their production of tumor necrosis factor α and nitric oxide, to a greater extent than treatment with high‐molecular‐weight β‐glucan (HMBG). The activation of peritoneal macrophages by LMBG was mediated by both mitogen‐activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‐κB signaling. Interestingly, when administered prophylactically, LMBG significantly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in mice injected with B16BL6 melanoma cells compared with the HMBG‐treated group. In comparison with HMBG treatment, LMBG treatment also elevated cell proliferation, cytokine (interferon‐γ and interleukin‐2) production, and CD8+ T cell populations in splenocytes from tumor‐bearing mice. CONCLUSION These data indicate that LMBG is important in eliciting antitumor activity through a non‐specific immune response and may play a major role as a value‐added product in the medical industry.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:46:04.012198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7215
  • Polyphenol‐rich grape pomace extracts protect against dextran
           sulfate sodium‐induced colitis in rats
    • Authors: Ahlem Boussenna; Juliette Cholet, Nicolas Goncalves‐Mendes, Juliette Joubert‐Zakeyh, Didier Fraisse, Marie‐Paule Vasson, Odile Texier, Catherine Felgines
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Several studies have reported that polyphenols may exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preventive consumption of polyphenol‐rich red grape pomace extracts (GPEs) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)‐induced colitis in rats. Rats were fed for 21 days with a semi‐synthetic diet enriched with a GPE (Alicante‐S, Alicante‐P and Pinot‐S) and colitis was induced by DSS administration in drinking water (40 g L−1) during the last 7 days of experimentation. RESULTS GPEs attenuated clinical signs and colon shortening and Alicante GPEs limited histological lesions induced by DSS. GPEs curbed the increase in myeloperoxidase activity and modulated antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, GPEs prevented the DSS‐induced increase of pro‐inflammatory cytokine levels and the upregulation of various genes implicated in colitis such as intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (ICAM‐1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP‐9). CONCLUSION These results suggest that polyphenol‐rich red GPEs could provide prevention against colon inflammation.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T23:23:32.079658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7214
  • Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride
           in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle
    • Authors: Magnus Åsli; Ragni Ofstad, Ulrike Böcker, Flemming Jessen, Olai Einen, Turid Mørkøre
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake has increased the demand for tasty, low Na products (
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T23:23:15.137044-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7213
  • Chemical profile of major taste‐ and health‐related compounds
           of (Oblačinska) sour cherry
    • Authors: Hassan Omran S. Alrgei; Dragana Č. Dabić, Maja M. Natić, Vera S. Rakonjac, Dušanka Milojković‐Opsenica, Živoslav Lj. Tešić, Milica M. Fotirić Akšić
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oblačinska sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian commercial orchards. Due to its long cultivation in different agro‐ecological condition it is a mixture of different clones. To give the most comprehensive information of Oblačinska sour cherry's fruit, total carbohydrate composition, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, and polyphenolic profiles of 39 clones were investigated. RESULTS Fructose was found to be the dominant sugar followed by glucose, sorbitol and sucrose. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant polyphenols. Some clones contained pinobanksin, hesperetin, and galangin which were, to our knowledge, for the first time found in sour cherry fruits and reported in present study. CONCLUSION Information overview helps us perceive the huge variation within germplasm studied and contribute to the fact that the Oblačinska sour cherry is not a cultivar but a population.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:28:04.538311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7212
  • Investigating the biometric and physicochemical characteristics of freshly
           harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): A comparative
    • Authors: Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala; Gioacchino Bono
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The practicality of biometrics of seafood cannot be overemphasized particularly for competent authorities of shrimp industry. However, there is paucity of relevant literature about relationship between biometric and physicochemical indices of freshly harvested shrimp. This work therefore investigated the relationship between biometric (standard length [SL], total weight [TW], and condition factor [CF]) and physicochemical (moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, water activity, water retention index (WRI), color values [L*, a*, b*, whiteness], and fracturability) characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) obtained from three different farms. The relationship between these parameters was determined using correlation and regression analyses. RESULT No significant correlation (p > 0.05) was found between the biometric and physicochemical indices of the sampled L. vannamei specimens. Possibly, the lack of post‐mortem and physical change(s) at day of harvest together with the absence of temporal variable may have collectively limited the degree to warrant any significant correlation between biometric and physicochemical data points measured at this study. Although the TWs of freshly harvested L. vannamei shrimp resembled (p > 0.05), SL and CF significantly differed (p 
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:27:03.036528-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7211
  • Phosphatase activities and its relationship with physical and chemical
           parameters during vermicomposting of filter cake and cattle manure
    • Authors: Jader Galba Busato; Gabriella Papa, Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas, Fabrizio Adani, Aline Lima de Oliveira, Tairone Paiva Leão
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recycling of phosphorus (P) from organic residues (OR) is important to develop environmentally friendly agriculture. The use of this P source depends on phosphatase enzymes, which can be affected by a chain of parameters during maturation of OR. In this study, the phosphatase activity levels throughout vermicomposting of filter cake (FC) and cattle manure (CM) were correlated with different physical and chemical parameters in an effort to increase the knowledge about recycling of P from OR. RESULTS Filter cake presented higher total nitrogen content (TNC), total organic carbon (TOC), humic acids content (HA), water soluble P (WSP), phosphatase activities and nanopores volume than CM during vermicomposting. Decreases of TOC in CM resulted from carbohydrate mineralization, which was not observed for FC. Cattle manure showed increased hydrophobic index during vermicomposting while FC a slight decreased. CONCLUSION Phosphatases positively correlated with TOC, pH and WSP; and negatively with HA content for both vermicomposting. The nanopore volume was negatively correlated with phosphatase activities for FC, but not for CM. No evidences between hydrophobicity and phosphatases activities were observed for FC. Increased hydrophobicity throughout vermicomposting of CM could be partially associated with decreases in phosphatase levels.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:25:50.997702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7210
  • Bioactive compounds in pindo palm (Butia capitata) juice and in pomace
           resulting of the extraction process
    • Authors: Tiphaine J. Jachna; Vanessa S. Hermes, Simone H. Flôres, Alessandro O. Rios
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pindo palm (Butia capitata, Becc. 1916) is a tropical fruit native from South America relatively rich in bioactive compounds. It is often consumed as juice. The aim of this study was firstly to identify the degradation of these compounds by pasteurization and by cold storage (4 °C) of pindo palm juice. Physicochemical properties and concentrations of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C have been evaluated on fresh and pasteurized juices. Moreover, another objective was to characterize the nutritional composition and the bioactive compounds of pindo palm pomace, the by‐product of juice processing. RESULTS The results demonstrated a degradation of carotenoids with pasteurization and a degradation of vitamin C with both pasteurization and cold storage of juices. Furthermore, the evaluation of pindo palm pomace showed that it is relatively rich in total phenols (20.06 g GAE kg−1 dry matter) and in β‐carotene (0.22 g kg−1 dm). CONCLUSION Thus, from the nutrition viewpoint, it does not seem interesting to pasteurize juice. On the other hand, extraction of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from the pomace looks like a relevant process.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:25:39.502248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7209
  • Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed–fish waste
    • Authors: Marta Illera‐Vives; Adolfo López‐Fabal, M. Elvira López‐Mosquera, Henrique M. Ribeiro
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. RESULTS C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first‐order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N was mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant‐available) with the higher rate. CONCLUSION C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:34:50.730736-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7207
  • DNA damage protection against free radicals of two antioxidant neolignan
           glucosides from sugarcane molasses
    • Authors: Yonathan Asikin; Makoto Takahashi, Masami Mizu, Kensaku Takara, Hirosuke Oku, Koji Wada
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sugarcane molasses is a potential by‐product of the sugarcane manufacturing industry that is rich in antioxidant materials. The present study aimed to obtain antioxidative compounds from sugarcane molasses and to evaluate their ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. RESULTS Two neolignan glucosides were isolated from sugarcane molasses using bioassay and UV spectra monitoring‐guided fractionation. The compounds were elucidated as (7R,8S)‐dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol‐4‐O‐β‐d‐glucoside (1) and (7S,8R)‐simulanol‐9′‐O‐β‐d‐glucoside (2). Neolignan glucoside 2 protected against DNA damage caused by free radicals more effectively than did neolignan glucoside 1 (13.62 and 9.08 µmol L−1 for peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, compared to 48.07 and 14.42 µmol L−1). Additionally, neolignan glucoside 2 exhibited superior DNA protection against free radicals than did various known antioxidative compounds, including p‐coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate. CONCLUSION The isolated neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses are able to protect DNA from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This is the first identification of these two compounds in sugarcane molasses. The sugarcane molasses, thus, can be used as potential nutraceutical preventative agents, and the findings may foster the utilization of this by‐product as a bioresource‐based product.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:34:25.921539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7208
  • Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain – Are we prepared to
           tackle it?
    • Authors: Premanandh Jagadeesan; Samara bin Salem
      Abstract: Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes is increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions has been presented. Although substantial equivalence concept satisfies the technical and nutritional requirement of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animal in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as it is going to be a valuable tool incase if global consensus is not reached on policy regulation.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:26:05.162177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7205
  • Contribution of portal‐drained viscera to heat production in Iberian
           gilts fed a low protein diet: comparison to Landrace‡
    • Authors: Lucrecia González‐Valero; José M Rodríguez‐López, Manuel Lachica, Ignacio Fernández‐Fígares
      Abstract: BRACKGROUND In terms of whole‐body metabolism, visceral tissues have a disproportionate influence with respect to their masses and under certain circumstances their high metabolic rate may compromise nutrient availability to the tissues of productive/economic interest. The low energy efficiency of Iberian compared to modern breeds could partially be explained by the contribution of portal‐drained viscera to heat production. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of portal‐drained viscera heat production (PDVHP) to total heat production (THP) in Iberian and Landrace gilts fed a diet with low protein content. RESULTS Compared to Landrace, Iberian gilts (29 ± 0.9 kg body weight (BW)) had lower pre and postprandial portal vein blood flow (PBF; 654 vs. 965, and 746 vs. 1133 mL min−1, respectively; P 
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:25:29.940314-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7206
  • Beef flavor: A review from chemistry to consumer†
    • Authors: C.R. Kerth; R.K. Miller
      Abstract: This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally trigeminal senses like metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavity and can have an affect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses, and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus, and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and, therefore, the flavor generated. A low‐heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high‐heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses, and drawing relationships among all of the flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:18:27.157144-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7204
  • Farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) volatile metabolites. A
           comparative study by SPME‐GC/MS
    • Authors: Natalia P. Vidal; María J. Manzanos, Encarnación Goicoechea, María D. Guillén
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) could be distinguished by its volatile metabolites, an issue not addressed until now. The aim of this work was to study these metabolites by Solid Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). RESULTS Both farmed and wild sea bass have a great number of volatile metabolites being most of them in low concentrations. These include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkylfurans, acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, sulphur and nitrogen derivatives, 2,6‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐methylphenol (BHT) and one derived compound, as well as 2,4,7,9‐tetramethyl‐5‐decyne‐4,7‐diol (TMDD), this latter presumably resulting from environmental contamination. Important differences have been detected between both kinds of sea bass, and also among individuals inside each group. Farmed specimens are richer in volatile metabolites than its wild counterparts; however these latter, in general, contain high number and abundances of metabolites resulting from microbial and enzymatic non‐oxidative activity than the former. CONCLUSIONS Clear differences in the volatile metabolites of wild and farmed sea bass have been evidenced. A great deal of valuable information on sea bass volatile metabolites has been obtained, which can be useful to understand certain aspects of raw and processed sea bass quality and safety.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:11:48.974823-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7201
  • Effects of dietary protease on nitrogen emissions from broiler production:
           a holistic comparison using life cycle assessment†
    • Authors: Ilkka Leinonen; Adrian G Williams
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to quantify the effects of the use of a protease “RONOZYME® ProAct” in broiler feed on the environmental impacts of broiler and broiler feed production chains. This was done by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) modelling approach with data from trials using both standard soya‐based broiler diets and reduced protein diets with added protease. RESULTS The results for the feed production chain showed that there was a reduction in all environmental impact categories, when protease was used in the diets. The biggest reduction occurred in the category of Global Warming Potential, mainly as a result of decreased CO2 emissions from land use changes related to soya production. In the results for the broiler production chain, there were relatively bigger reductions in Eutrophication Potential and especially in Acidification Potential, mainly as a result of reduced feed protein content and subsequent nitrogen emissions from housing and manure management. CONCLUSIONS The use of protease in the broiler diets reduced the environmental impacts of both the feed production and broiler production. The latter is mainly through reduced ammonia emissions, which has substantial benefit per se in poultry industry.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:11:33.64236-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7202
  • Effect of commercial starter cultures on volatile compound profile and
           sensory characteristics of dry‐cured foal sausage
    • Authors: José M. Lorenzo; María Gómez, Laura Purriños, Sonia Fonseca
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present work deals with the evaluation of the effect of three different commercial starter cultures (Chr. Hansen, Denmark) on the volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, as well as some important physico‐chemical parameters, of dry‐fermented foal sausages at the end of the ripening in order to select the most suitable starter culture for this elaboration. The sausage batches were named as follows: CO (non‐inoculated control), FS (L. sakei + S. carnosus), SM (L. sakei + S. carnosus + S. xylosus + P. pentosaceus + D. hansenii) and TR (L. sakei + S. carnosus + S. xylosus). RESULTS The pH values differed significantly among batches, with highest values corresponding to CO followed by TR, SM, FS. The highest amounts of volatile compounds were found in FS batch. Hexanal was the most abundant compound, especially in FS and SM batches. These batches also showed a higher amount of compounds derived from carbohydrate fermentation and amino acid catabolism. Sensory results showed that acid taste in CO batch was significantly lower than the inoculated batches. CONCLUSION According to most parameters, batches inoculated with FS and SM starters showed a marked acidity compared to TR and CO batches, as expected from the manufacturer's indications. Therefore, the most suitable starter culture for the manufacturing of foal sausages in a Mediterranean country as Spain, with preference for low‐acidity products, as the ones obtained when inoculating TR culture.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:10:46.43426-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7203
  • Changes in nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of total
           mixed ration silage stored at different temperatures and periods
    • Authors: Makoto Kondo; Kazuma Shimizu, Anuraga Jayanegara, Takashi Mishima, Hiroki Matsui, Shuichi Karita, Masakazu Goto, Tsutomu Fujihara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Total mixed ration (TMR) is widely used for dairy cattle and needs to be prepared daily because of rapid deterioration. Ensiling TMR allows preservation and saves labour at the farm; however, silage fermentation may influence various nutritional components. The objectives of this study were to evaluate nutritional changes and in vitro rumen fermentation of TMR silage that was stored at different temperatures and durations on a laboratory scale in comparison with those of typical TMR before ensiling. RESULTS No distinct changes in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre and non‐fibrous carbohydrate contents were observed during silage fermentation. However, clear changes were observed in the soluble CP and soluble sugar fractions; solubilisation of the CP fraction in TMR silage was enhanced by prolonged storage and higher storage temperatures, and most soluble sugars were lost during ensiling. Short‐chain fatty acid concentrations in the in vitro rumen from TMRs before and after ensiling were not significantly different; however, throughout incubation, NH3‐N concentrations from TMR silages were significantly higher than those from TMR before ensiling. CONCLUSION A higher ruminal NH3‐N concentration from TMR silage may be a result of a shortage of fermentable sugars and enhanced deamination of CP. Feeding TMR ensiled under a high temperature must be investigated to balance proteins and carbohydrates for rumen fermentation.
      PubDate: 2015-04-07T02:15:17.065491-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7200
  • Fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental assessment of the sensory
           quality of tomato juices
    • Authors: Vipavee Trivittayasil; Mizuki Tsuta, Yoshinori Imamura, Tsuneo Sato, Yuji Otagiri, Akio Obata, Hiroe Otomo, Mito Kokawa, Junichi Sugiyama, Kaori Fujita, Masatoshi Yoshimura
      Abstract: Background Sensory analysis is an important standard for evaluating food products. However, as trained panelists and time are required for the process, the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as a rapid instrumental method to approximate sensory characteristics is explored in this study. Results Thirty‐five out of 44 descriptive sensory attributes were found to show a significant difference between samples (analysis of variance test). Principal component analysis reveals that principal component 1 could capture 73.84 % and 75.28 % variance for aroma category and combined flavor and taste category, respectively. Fluorescence fingerprint of tomato juices consisted of two visible peaks at excitation/emission wavelength of 290/350 nm and 315/425 nm and a long narrow emission peak at 680 nm. The 680‐nm peak was only clearly observed in tomato juices obtained from tomatoes cultivated to be eaten raw. The ability to predict overall sensory profiles was investigated by using principal component 1 as a regression target. Fluorescence fingerprint could predict principal component 1 of both aroma and combined flavor and taste with a coefficient of determination above 0.8. Conclusion The results obtained in this study indicate the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental method for assessing sensory characteristics of tomato juices.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:47.068994-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7199
  • Effects of ditch‐buried straw return on water percolation, nitrogen
           leaching and crop yields in a rice‐wheat rotation system
    • Authors: Haishui Yang; Mingmin Xu, Roger T. Koide, Qian Liu, Yajun Dai, Ling Liu, Xinmin Bian
      Abstract: Backgrounds Crop residue management and nitrogen loss are two important environmental problems in the rice‐wheat rotation system in China. This study investigated the effects of burial of straw on water percolation, nitrogen loss by leaching, crop growth and yield. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments were conducted over the course of three simulated cropping seasons in a rice1‐wheat‐rice2 rotation. Results Greater amounts of straw resulted in more water percolation, irrespective of crop season. Burial at 20 and 35 cm significantly reduced, but burial at 50 cm increased nitrogen leaching. Straw at 500 kg ha−1 reduced, but at 1000 kg ha−1 and at 1500 kg ha−1 straw increased nitrogen leaching in three consecutive crop rotations. In addition, straw at 500 kg ha−1 buried at 35 cm significantly increased yield and its components for both crops. Conclusions This study suggests that N losses via leaching from the rice‐wheat rotation may be reduced by the burial of the appropriate amount of straw at the appropriate depth. Greater amounts of buried straw, however, may promote nitrogen leaching and negatively affect crop growth and yields. Complementary field experiments must be performed to make specific agronomic recommendations.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:45.251719-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7196
  • Anti‐influenza virus effects of cocoa
    • Authors: Masanori Kamei; Hiroshi Nishimura, Toshio Takahashi, Nobuaki Takahashi, Koichi Inokuchi, Takashi Mato, Kazuo Takahashi
      Abstract: Background Cocoa contains biologically active ingredients that have broad‐spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes an inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection. Results We prepared a cocoa extract (CE) by treating defatted cocoa powder with boiling water. The extract demonstrated dose‐dependent inhibition of infection in Madin‐Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with human influenza virus A (H1N1, H3N2), human influenza virus B, and avian influenza viruses (H5N1, H5N9). CE inhibited viral adsorption to MDCK cells. Animal experiments showed that CE significantly improved survival in mice after intra‐nasal administration of a lethal dose of influenza virus. In human intervention trials, participants were allocated to two groups: one in which the participants ingested cocoa for 3 weeks before and after vaccination against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus and another in which the participants did not ingest cocoa. Neutralizing antibody titers against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus increased significantly in both groups; however, the extent of the increase was not significantly different between the two groups. Although natural killer cell activity was also elevated in both groups, the increase was more substantial in the cocoa intake group. Conclusion Drinking cocoa activates natural immunity and enhances vaccination‐induced immune response, providing stronger protection against influenza virus infection and disease onset.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:39.770051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7197
  • Effects and mechanism of ultrasound pretreatment on rapeseed protein
    • Authors: Jian Jin; Haile Ma, Weiwei Wang, Min Luo, Bei Wang, Wenjuan Qu, Ronghai He, John Owusu, Yunliang Li
      Abstract: Background Under the situation that traditional enzymolysis of protein has many disadvantages, the sweeping frequency and pulsed ultrasound (SFPU) was employed to pretreat rapeseed protein (RP) before proteolysis for the purpose of improving the efficiency of enzymolysis. In order further to state the mechanism of ultrasound accelerated enzymolysis of RP, the effects of SFPU on the kinetics, thermodynamics, molecular conformation and microstructure of RP were investigated. Results The kinetic studies indicated that SFPU pretreatment on RP improved enzymolysis by decreasing the value of apparent constant (KM) significantly (p < 0.05) by 32.8% and by reducing the thermodynamic parameters Ea, ▵H, and ▵S by 16.6%, 17.7% and 9.2%, respectively. Results of fluorescence spectra revealed that SFPU pretreatment induced molecular unfolding, causing more hydrophobic groups and regions inside the molecules to be exposed to the outside. Circular dichroism analysis showed that SFPU pretreatment decreased α‐helix content by 16.1% and increased random coil by 3.6%. In addition, scanning electron microscope showed that this pretreatment increased the specific surface area of RP. Conclusion Ultrasound pretreatment is an efficient method in RP proteolysis to produce peptides through its impact on the molecular conformation and microstructure of proteins. Keywords: Rapeseed protein; Ultrasound; Kinetics; Thermodynamics; Circular dichroism; Scanning electron microscope
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:38.259614-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7198
  • Projected future distribution of date palms and its potential use in
           alleviating micronutrient deficiency
    • Authors: Farzin Shabani; Lalit Kumar, Amir Hadi Nojoumian, Atefeh Esmaeili, Mehdi Toghyani
      Abstract: Background Micronutrient deficiency develops when nutrient intake does not match nutritional requirements for maintaining healthy tissue and organ functions which may have long‐ranging effects on health, learning ability and productivity. Inadequacy of iron, zinc and vitamin A are the most important micronutrient deficiencies. Consumption of a 100g portion of date flesh from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) has been reported to meet approximately half the daily dietary recommended intake of these micronutrients. This study investigated the potential distribution of P. dactylifera under future climates to address its potential long term use as a food commodity to tackle micronutrient deficiencies in some developing countries. Results Modelling outputs indicated large shifts in areas conducive to date palm cultivation, based on global scale alteration over the next sixty years. Most of the regions suffering from micronutrient deficiencies were projected to become highly conducive for date palm cultivation. Conclusions These results could inform strategic planning by government and agricultural organizations by identifying areas to cultivate this nutritionally important crop in the future to support the alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:31.159437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7195
  • Purification and characterization of a ~43 kDa antioxidant protein with
           antitumor activity from Pholiota nameko
    • Authors: Lei Qian; Yeni Zhang, Fang Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pholiota nameko water soluble protein (PNWSP), isolated from the dried fruiting bodies of Pholiota nameko, was purified by successive chromatographic process using Q anion exchange column, SP cation exchange column and Superdex 200 gel filtration column. PNWSP was assessed for antioxidant activities in different assay systems, and the effect on cell proliferation of human breast cancer MCF7 cells was investigated. RESULTS SDS‐PAGE and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) analysis revealed the homogeneity of PNWSP with apparent molecular weight of ~43 kDa, and the identification was confirmed by peptide mass fingerprint analysis. It showed potential antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals, reducing power and chelating effect on Fe2+, and had a protective effect against DNA damage. Moreover, it inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells by inducing apoptosis, in which the change of cell cycle distribution and the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential were observed by flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS The results showed that PNWSP could be a natural antioxidant and developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against human breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01T02:47:56.818984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7194
  • Development of a gluten‐free rice noodle by utilizing
           protein‐polyphenol interaction between soy protein isolate and
           extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus
    • Authors: Da‐Som Lee; Yang Kim, Youngwoon Song, Ji‐Hye Lee, Suyong Lee, Sang‐Ho Yoo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Potential of protein‐polyphenol interaction was applied to crosslink the reinforced protein networks in gluten‐free rice noodle. Specifically, inter‐component interaction between soy protein isolate and extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruit (ogaja), was examined to improve its quality. RESULTS In a components‐interacting model system, mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and ogaja extract (OE) induced drastic increase in absorbance at 660 nm by haze formation, while the major anthocyanin of ogaja, cyanidin‐3‐O‐sambubioside, sparsely interacted with SPI or gelatin. Individual or combined treatment of SPI and OE on rice dough decreased all the viscosity parameters in RVA analysis. However, SPI‐OE treatment significantly increased all the texture parameters of rice dough derived from Mixolab® analysis (P 
      PubDate: 2015-04-01T02:44:15.007677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7193
  • Diversity among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups in aroma
           volatiles compositions
    • Authors: Livnat Goldenberg; Yossi Yaniv, Adi Doron‐Faigenboim, Nir Carmi, Ron Porat
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mandarins constitute a large, diverse and important group within the Citrus family. Hereby, we analyzed the aroma volatiles compositions of 13 mandarin varieties belonging to seven genetically different natural subgroups that included common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). RESULTS We found that mandarin varieties among tangors (‘Temple’, ‘Ortanique’), tangelos (‘Orlando’, ‘Minneola’) and King (‘King’) had more volatiles, at higher levels, and were richer in sesquiterpene and ester volatiles, than other varieties belonging to the subgroups common mandarin (‘Ora’, ‘Ponkan’), clementine (‘Oroval’, ‘Caffin’), satsuma (‘Okitsu’, ‘Owari’) and Mediterranean mandarin (‘Avana’, ‘Yusuf Efendi’). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis accurately differentiated between mandarin varieties and natural subgroups according to their aroma‐volatile profiles. CONCLUSIONS Although we found wide differences in aroma‐volatiles compositions among varieties belonging to different natural subgroups, we detected only minor differences among varieties within any natural subgroup. These findings suggest that selecting appropriate parents would enable manipulation of aroma‐volatile compositions in future mandarin breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-30T05:00:48.690462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7191
  • A Comparison of Juice Extraction Methods in the Pungency Measurement of
           Onion Bulbs
    • Authors: Kil Sun Yoo; Eun Jin Lee, Brian K. Hamilton, Bhimanagouda S. Patil
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Onion pungency is estimated by measuring the pyruvic acid content in juice extracted from fresh tissues. We compared pyruvic acid content and its variation in the juices extracted by the pressing, maceration, blending with no water, or blending with water (blend/water) methods. RESULTS There were considerable differences in the pyruvic acid content and coefficient of variation (CV) among these methods, and there was an interaction between the onion cultivars and the juice extraction methods. The pressing method showed over 30% CV in the quartered or composite samples. The blend/water method showed the greatest pyruvic acid content in the shortday‐type (‘TG1015Y’ and ‘Texas Early White’) onions, while the pressing method showed the greatest pyruvic acid content in the longday‐type onions. The blend/water method, which gave ratios between 1:1 and 1:4 (w/w), showed the same pyruvic acid content. The blending (no water) method had the highest correlation, followed by the maceration method. The lowest correlations were found with the pressing method and the blend/water method. CONCLUSIONS Complete homogenation of tissues with 1:1 or greater ratios of water was necessary for the maximum consistency and full development of the pyruvic acid reaction for onion pungency measurement.
      PubDate: 2015-03-30T04:55:11.089445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7192
  • Effect of borojo (Borojoa patinoi Cuatrecasas) three‐phase
           composition and gum arabic on the glass transition temperature
    • Authors: Rodríguez‐Bernal J. M; Tello E, Flores‐Andrade E, Perea‐Flores M. J, Vallejo‐Cardona A. A, Gutiérrez‐López G, y Quintanilla‐Carvajal M. X.
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Searching natural novel, high‐quality‐stable food ingredients is an ongoing food industry practice. Pulp of borojo (Borojoa patinoi. Cuatrecasas) which is a fruit of the Colombian Pacific region can be separated into three phases: liquid (LP), medium (MP) and solid (SP) phases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the three‐phase composition and gum arabic on their glass transitions temperatures (Tg). The best mixture, LP‐MP, MP‐SP and LP‐SP and gum arabic (GA) was identified by response‐surface methodology. RESULTS When adding GA to SP borojo phase in a 1:1 proportion, the resulting Tg of the mixture was 132.27 °C whereas Tg for GA and SP‐phase were 154.89 °C and 79.86 °C respectively, which supported this combination as attractive from a processing perspective and supports an industrial advantage of using borojo as food ingredient. Phases were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and Mass Spectrometry. Low molecular weight compounds such as fructose for MP lowered Tg whereas presence of lignin increased Tg of mixtures as with the SP. CONCLUSIONS The addition of GA significantly increased Tg of borojo phases so leading to propose them as novel food processing materials.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T01:21:07.399018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7190
  • Levels of potential bioactive compounds including carotenoids, vitamin C
           and phenolic compounds, and expression of their cognate biosynthetic genes
           vary significantly in different varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
           grown under uniform cultural conditions
    • Authors: Jesus Valcarcel; Kim Reilly, Michael Gaffney, Nora M. O'Brien
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In addition to their high carbohydrate content, potatoes are also an important dietary source of vitamin C and bioactive secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which have been suggested to play a role in human health. The expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in the synthesis of these compounds were assessed by qPCR (reverse transcription – quantitative PCR) and compared to the accumulation of the corresponding product in seven potato varieties showing contrasting levels of metabolite accumulation. RESULTS Strong positive correlations were found between phenolic content in the flesh of tubers and transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The expression of PAL and CHS was also related to that of AN1, a transcription factor involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, which suggest that these genes are regulated in a coordinated manner. No clear relationship was found between transcript levels of phytoene synthase (PSY) or L‐galactono‐1,4‐lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) genes and total carotenoid or vitamin C accumulation respectively. CONCLUSIONS Data indicate that levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds in potato are controlled primarily by PAL and CHS gene expression. Transcript levels of PSY and GLDH did not control accumulation of carotenoids or vitamin C.
      PubDate: 2015-03-26T03:25:41.297656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7189
  • Structural characteristics of pineapple pulp polysaccharides and their
           antitumor cell proliferation activities
    • Authors: Ling Wang; De‐Qiang Tang, Yu Kuang, Feng‐Jiao Lin, Yu Su
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pineapple has decilious taste and good health benefits. Bioactive polysaccharides are important components of pineapple, which might contribute to its health benefits. However, the structural information of these polysaccharides remains unknown till now. It is worthy to investigate the structural characteristics and bioactivities of them. RESULTS The polysaccharides of pineapple pulp were fractionated into three fractions (PAPs 1–3) by anion exchange chromatography. Their structural characteristics were firstly identified, including molecular weight and glycosidic linkages. The monosaccharide compositions were revealed as PAP 1 (Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal), PAP 2 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal) and PAP 3 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man and Gal). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested that PAP 2 had a backbone of → 4)‐α‐D‐Manp‐(1 → 2,4)‐α‐D‐Manp‐(1 → with branches attached to O‐4 of Manp. The NMR data of α‐L‐Araf‐(1→, →3)‐α‐L‐Araf‐(1→, →4)‐β‐D‐Galp‐(1 → and → 4)‐α‐D‐GalpAMe‐(1 → were assigned. PAPs 1 and 2 had significant antitumor cell proliferation activities against breast carcinoma cell line and strong antioxidant activities. CONCLUSIONS The above findings indicated that PAPs 1–3 contributed much to the health benefits of pineapple. They could be used as health‐beneficial food additives in functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:12:29.058497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7185
  • Effects of different maturity stages and growing locations on changes in
           chemical, biochemical and aroma volatile composition of
           ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate juice
    • Authors: Rebogile R. Mphahlele; Oluwafemi J. Caleb, Olaniyi A. Fawole, Umezuruike Linus Opara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study investigated the changes in chemical attributes of pomegranate fruit such as total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS:TA ratio, pH, individual compounds (organic acids and sugars) and volatile composition as affected by fruit maturity status and growing locations (Kakams, Koedoeshoek, and Worcester in South Africa). Headspace solid phase micro‐extraction (HS‐SPME) technique coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) was used for volatile analysis. RESULTS A significant increase in TSS (14.7 ± 0.6 ‐ 17.5 ± 0.6 °Brix) were observed with advancement in fruit maturity, while TA decreased from 2.1 ± 0.7 to 1.1 ± 0.3 (g citric acid (CA) 100 mL−1) across all agro‐climatic locations investigated. Fruit TSS:TA ratio and pH increased from approximately 7.8 ± 2.6 to 16.6 ± 2.8 and 3.3 ± 0.1 to 3.6 ± 0.2, respectively, during fruit maturation and across all the agro‐climatic locations. Fructose and glucose concentration increased continually with fruit maturity from 69.4 ± 4.9 to 91.1 ± 4.9 g kg−1and 57.1 ± 4.7 to 84.3 ± 5.2 g kg−1, respectively. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected and identified, belonging to five chemical classes. The most abundant volatile in unripe and mid ripe fruit was 1‐hexanol, while 3‐hexen‐1‐ol was the highest at commercial maturity. CONCLUSION Knowledge on the impact of fruit maturity and agro‐climatic locations (with different altitudes) on biochemical and aroma volatile attributes of pomegranate fruit, provides a useful guide for selecting farm location towards improving fruit quality and the maturity stage best for juice processing.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:12:14.176875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7186
  • Effect of synthetic and natural water absorbing soil amendments on
           photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality of potato in
           a semi‐arid region
    • Authors: Shengtao Xu; Lei Zhang, Neil B. McLaughlin, Junzhen Mi, Qin Chen, Jinghui Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Effect of water absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality was investigated in a field experiment in a semi‐arid region in northern China in 2010–2012. Treatments included two synthetic water absorbing amendments (potassium polyacrylate‐PAA, polyacrylamide‐PAM) and one natural amendment (humic acid‐HA), both as single amendments, and compound amendments (natural combined with a synthetic) and a no amendment control. RESULTS Soil amendments had a highly significant effect (P ≤0.01) on photosynthesis characteristics, dry biomass, crop root/shoot (R/S) ratio and tuber nutritional quality. Soil amendments improved both dry biomass above ground (DB‐AG) and dry biomass underground (DB‐UG) in the whole growing season by 4.6‐31.2% and 1.1‐83.1% respectively in all three years. Crop R/S ratio was reduced in the early growing season by 2.0‐29.4% and increased in the later growing season by 2.3‐32.6%. Soil amendments improved leaf soil plant analysis development value (SPAD), net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration (Tr) rates respectively by 1.4‐17.0%, 5.1‐45.9%, 2.4‐90.6% and 2.0‐22.6%, and reduced intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) by 2.1‐19.5% in all three years. CONCLUSION Amendment treatment with PAM + HA always achieved the greatest effect on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality among six amendment treatments, and deserves further research.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:10:59.093518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7188
  • Biochemical characterization of a D‐psicose 3‐epimerase from
           Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 and its application on enzymatic production
           of D‐psicose
    • Authors: Wenli Zhang; Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The rare sugar D‐psicose is a hexoketose monosaccharide and the epimer of D‐fructose at the C‐3 position. D‐Psicose is a novel functional sweetener, having 70% relative sweetness but only 0.3% sucrose energy content. Generally, the industrial production of D‐psicose involves a bioconversion from D‐fructose induced by ketose 3‐epimerases. RESULTS The D‐psicose 3‐epimerase (DPEase) gene from Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 (Trpr‐DPEase) was cloned, and overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was purified with the molecular mass of 33 kDa. Trpr‐DPEase exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 70 °C, and was sensitive to temperature, with a relative thermal stability below 50 °C. It was strictly metal‐dependent, and displayed maximum catalytic activity with 450 µmol L−1 Co2+. The Km of the enzyme for D‐psicose and D‐fructose were 209 and 279 mmol L−1, respectively. The equilibrium ratio of Trpr‐DPEase was 28:72 for D‐psicose and D‐fructose. CONCLUSION A novel DPEase from Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 was characterized, which could catalyze the formation of D‐psicose from D‐fructose. D‐Psicose was produced at a yield of 137.5 g L−1 from 500 g L−1 of D‐fructose, suggesting that Trpr‐DPEase might be appropriate for the industrial production of D‐psicose.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:10:43.464156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7187
  • Thermal aggregation behavior of soy protein: characteristics of different
           polypeptides and subunits
    • Authors: Xiu‐Ting He; De‐Bao Yuan, Jin‐Mei Wang, Xiao‐Quan Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to the differences in structure and composition of glycinin and β‐conglycinin, they exhibited different characteristics during heat treatment. In present study, thermal aggregation behaviors of glycinin, β‐conglycinin and their isolated subunits were investigated at pH 7.0. RESULTS Acidic polypeptides, basic polypeptides, αα' and β subunits of soy protein were denatured during isolation process. The order of aggregation degree of protein fractions after heat treatment was: denatured basic polypeptides > native glycinin > denatured β subunit > native β‐conglycinin > denatured acidic polypeptides > denatured αα' subunits. Glycinin, β‐conglycinin, acidic polypeptides and αα'/β subunits exhibited different changing trends of surface hydrophobicity with increasing temperature. The αα' subunits showed higher ability to suppress thermal aggregation of basic polypeptides than β subunits during heat treatment. The β subunits were identified to form soluble aggregates with glycinin after heating. CONCLUSION The interaction mechanism of αα' and β subunits heated with basic polypeptides was proposed. For β subunits‐basic polypeptides mixed system, more hydrophobic chains were binding together and buried inside during heat treatment, which resulted in lower surface hydrophobicity. The αα' subunits‐basic polypeptides mixed system was supposed to be a stable system with higher surface hydrophobicity after being heated.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T11:31:00.199284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7184
  • Identifying inhibitors/enhancers of quantitative real‐time PCR in
           food samples using a newly developed synthetic plasmid
    • Authors: Tereza Sovová; Barbora Křížová, Jan Hodek, Jaroslava Ovesná
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a common technique offering fast and sensitive analysis of DNA in food/feed samples. However, many substances, either already present in the sample or introduced during sample processing, inhibit the PCR and thus underestimate the DNA content. It is therefore necessary to identify the PCR inhibition in order to correctly evaluate the sample. RESULTS We designed and validated a synthetic plasmid DNA that can be used to detect and quantify PCR inhibition. The DNA sequence, appropriate primers and probe, were designed in silico, synthesized and the sequence was inserted in a plasmid vector. The performance of the plasmid was verified via calibration curves and by performing the assay in presence of various DNAs (crops, fungus, bacterium). The detection of PCR inhibition was assessed using six inhibiting substances with different modes of action; substances used in sample processing (EDTA, ethanol, NaCl, SDS) and food additives (sodium glutamate, tartrazine). The plasmid performance proved to be reproducible and there were no interactions with other DNAs. The plasmid was able to identify the presence of the inhibitors in a wide range of concentrations. CONCLUSION The presented plasmid DNA is a suitable and inexpensive possibility for evaluating PCR inhibition.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T11:24:45.687709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7178
  • Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from
           grazed pastures
    • Authors: Stewart F. Ledgard; Brendon Welten, Keith Betteridge
      Abstract: Background The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late‐summer and early‐winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking‐water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine‐N concentration and urine‐N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases; a cattle metabolism‐stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine‐N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g heifer−1 day−1) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine‐N rate on N leaching. Results Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine‐N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine‐N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per‐hectare N leaching by 10‐22%. Conclusions Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine‐N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine‐N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early‐winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:52:43.55815-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7179
  • Production of novel vinegar having antioxidant and anti‐fatigue
           activities from Salicornia herbacea L.
    • Authors: Hyun‐Dong Cho; Ju‐Hye Lee, Ji‐Hye Jeong, Jae‐Yong Kim, Sung‐Tae Yee, Seok‐Kyu Park, Mi‐Kyung Lee, Kwon‐Il Seo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salicornia herbacea L. is a halophyte that grows in salt marshes and which contains significant amounts of salts and minerals. Because it is known as a folk medication to treat diseases, various processed products such as powder, globular type of powder, laver, and extract have been developed. However, it is difficult to process as a drink due to its high salinity. In the present study, glasswort vinegar (GV) containing high contents of organic acids and minerals was developed via two‐step fermentation with unpolished rice substrates and investigated its antioxidant and anti‐fatigue activities. RESULTS GV showed various free radical scavenging effects, reducing power, oxidized‐LDL inhibition and SOD‐like activities. Compared with the control group (orally administered 7 g kg−1 distilled water), GV supplementation group showed increased running endurance and had higher glycogen accumulation in liver and muscles of rats exhausted by exercise. Furthermore, GV administrated group significantly elevated lactate and ATP metabolism promoting enzyme activities such as muscle creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, whereas serum fatigue biomarkers such as ammonia, lactate, and inorganic acid were markedly decreased. CONCLUSION These results indicate that GV can be used as a functional food for the development of a dietary beverage to alleviate fatigue.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:46.60253-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7180
  • Identifying N fertilizer regime and vegetable production system in
           tropical Brazil using 15 N natural abundance
    • Authors: Caio T Inácio; Segundo Urquiaga, Phillip M Chalk, Maria Gabriela F Mata, Paulo O Souza
      Abstract: Background This study was conducted in areas of vegetable production in tropical Brazil, with the objectives of (i) to measure the variation in δ15N in soils, organic N‐fertilizer sources and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from different farming systems, (ii) to test whether plant δ15N can differentiate organic vs. conventional lettuce and (iii) to identify the factors affecting the lettuce δ15N. Results Samples of soil, lettuce and organic inputs were taken from two organic, one conventional and one hydroponic farm. The two organic farms had different N‐sources with δ15N values ranging from 0.0 to +14.9 ‰ (e.g. legume‐green manure and animal manure compost, respectively), and differed significantly (p < 0.05) in lettuce δ15N (+9.2 ± 1.1 ‰ and +14.3 ± 1.0 ‰). The conventional lettuce δ15N (+8.5 ± 2.7 ‰) differed from the hydroponic lettuce δ15N (+4.5 ± 0.2 ‰) due to manure inputs. The N from legume‐green manure had a small contribution to the N nutrition of lettuce in the multi‐N‐source organic farm. Conclusion To differentiate organic vs. conventional farms using δ15N the several subsets of mode of fertilization should be considered. Comparisons of δ15N of soil, organic inputs and lettuce allowed a qualitative analysis of the relative importance of different N inputs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:25.105527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7177
  • Novel chelating agents for iron, manganese, zinc, and copper mixed
           fertilization in high pH soil‐less cultures
    • Authors: Sandra López‐Rayo; Paloma Nadal, Juan J. Lucena
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies about simultaneous fertilization with several micronutrients have increased in the last years, as Fe, Mn, and Zn deficiencies may appear in the same culture conditions. In fertigation, the replacement of sulfates by synthetic chelates is mandatory in areas with high pH irrigation water and substrates. The ethylenediamine‐N‐(2‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid)‐ N'‐(4‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid), o,p‐EDDHA, and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, EDDS are novel chelating agents which efficacy in simultaneous fertilization of Zn, Mn and Cu is unknown. This work evaluates the effectiveness of both ligands compared to traditional ligands (EDTA, HEEDTA and DTPA) applied as micronutrient chelate mixtures to soybean and navy bean plants grown in soil‐less cultures at high pH by analyzing the SPAD and micronutrient nutritional status, including the Composition Nutritional Diagnosis (CND) analysis tool. RESULTS The micronutrients application using o,p‐EDDHA was more effective in providing Mn and Zn than traditional ligands or sulfates. The application using EDDS increased the Zn nutrition. The results are well correlated with the chemical stability of the formulations. CONCLUSION The combined application of Mn and Zn as o,p‐EDDHA chelates can represent a more effective source than traditional chelates in micronutrient fertilizer mixtures in soil‐less cultures at a high pH.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:01.251004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7183
  • Rice bran protein hydrolysates exhibit strong in vitro
           α‐amylase, β‐glucosidase and ACE‐inhibition
    • Authors: Chatchaporn Uraipong; Jian Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to systematically examine the in vitro health‐promotion activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates. Rice bran proteins were fractioned into albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin, which were subjected to hydrolysis by four protease preparations, namely Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme and Protamax, and the inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates against α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were monitored over a hydrolysis period of 240 min. Active peptides in the hydrolysates were isolated by ultrafiltration and ion‐exchange chromatography and the peptide sequences of the active fractions were identified by LC‐MS/MS. RESULTS Hydrolysis of the proteins resulted in significant increases in these bioactivities, which were generally correlated with the degree of protein hydrolysis. In general, highest bioactivities were found with albumin and glutelin hydrolysates, followed by globulin hydrolysates, while prolamin hydrolysates showed the lowest activities. Of the four enzymes used, Alcalase and Protamax‐catalysed hydrolysates generally had the highest activities while Flavourzyme‐produced hydrolysates had the lowest activity. The MW < 3 KDa fraction of the Alcalase‐catalysed glutelin hydrolysates had the highest β‐glucosidase inhibition activity, which was identified to contain 13 peptides with 6–32 amino acid residues. CONCLUSION The α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activities of albumin and glutelin hydrolysates produced by Alcalase and Protamax were comparable in magnitude to those of the standard antidiabetic drug, acarbose, and had the potential to be developed into a dietary or nutraceutical supplement for diabetic management.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:47:36.627264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7182
  • In vitro study of biological activities of anthocyanin‐rich berry
           extracts on porcine intestinal epithelial cells
    • Authors: Petra Kšonžeková; Ruslan Mariychuk, Adriana Eliašová, Dagmar Mudroňová, Tomáš Csank, Ján Király, Dana Marcinčáková, Juraj Pistl, Ľudmila Tkáčiková
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins, compounds that represent the major group of flavonoids in berries, are one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological activities and comparison of anthocyanin‐rich extracts prepared from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and blueberry (V. corymbosum) on porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC‐1 cell line. RESULTS The IC50 values calculated in antioxidant cell‐based dichlorofluorescein assay (DCF assay) were 1.129 mg L−1 for chokeberry, 1.081 mg L−1 for elderberry, 2.561 mg L−1 for bilberry and 2.965 mg L−1 for blueberry, respectively. We found significant negative correlation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:47:14.709799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7181
  • Properties and stability of blueberry anthocyanin – bovine
           serum albumin nanoparticles
    • Authors: Jian Chen; Xiaoyun Tao, Meng Zhang, Aidong Sun, Liyi Zhao
      Abstract: This article corrects: Retracted: Properties and stability of blueberry anthocyanin – bovine serum albumin nanoparticles
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:38:44.698597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7170
  • From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step
    • Authors: Sicignano A; Di Monaco R, Masi P, Cavella S.
      Abstract: Background Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal‐based food, worldwide popular, because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this paper is to present a step‐by‐step guide to facilitate the understanding of all the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Results Due to its unique flavor, color, composition and its rheological properties durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for the pasta production. Although pasta is made traditionally from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical‐physical characteristics of the final product may largely vary. Starting from the same ingredients, during pasta production there are a lot of different events in each step that could develop a variety of pasta with different characteristics. Conclusion Moreover illustrative purposes, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of the temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance in the choice of the raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T01:55:31.884536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7176
  • Aspergillus oryzae fermented germinated soybeans extract alleviate
           perimenopausal symptoms in ovariectomized rats
    • Authors: Mingeum Jeong; Dong Sung Lee, Hyung Joo Suh, Yooheon Park
      Abstract: Background Soybeans have been widely used to alleviate climacteric symptoms. In this study, we investigated the estrogenic activities of isoflavones extracted from Aspergillus oryzae‐challenged germinated soybeans (AO‐GS). Methods Eight‐week‐old virgin Sprague–Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX). The rats were orally administrated 0.1 mg/kg 17α‐ethinyl estradiol or 3 different doses of AO‐GS (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g//kg/day) in distilled water for 6 weeks, while control rats were administered vehicle alone. Uterine weights and levels of estradiol and testosterone in serum were measured. Other than serum parameters, bone parameters were also acquired by using micro‐computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results Treatments of OVX rats with AO‐GS changed the secretory profile of serum estradiol and testosterone. Serum estradiol levels were significantly increased in OVX rats treated with and AO‐GS (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg/day), while serum testosterone levels were not significantly increased in OVX rats treated with 1.0 g/kg/day of AO‐GS Furthermore, AO‐GS (2.0 g/kg/day) significantly attenuated bone loss, increased BV/TV,and Tb.Th, and significantly decreased, Conclusion AO‐GS treatments exhibits moderate estrogenic activity in OVX rats, than the ones treated with estradiol, suggesting the potential for its use in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:55:57.701147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7174
  • Effect of irrigation regime on anthocyanin content and antioxidant
           activity of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions
    • Authors: Maria Kyraleou; Stefanos Koundouras, Stamatina Kallithraka, Nikolaos Theodorou, Niki Proxenia, Yorgos Kotseridis
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Irrigation management is a powerful technique to control grape and wine colour. However, water deficit effects on anthocyanins are often contrasting depending on the severity of water restriction. In addition, the effect of irrigation on the antiradical capacity of grapes has not been extensively studied. In this work, the effect of water availability on anthocyanin profile and content, as well as on the antioxidant activity of Syrah grapes was investigated in an irrigation trial under semiarid climate conditions. RESULTS Three irrigation treatments were applied in a 15 year‐old Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah vineyard, starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% of ETc and non‐irrigated (NI). NI grapes were characterized by increased individual anthocyanin content. However, differences among irrigation treatments were significant only around 18–24 days after veraison, when anthocyanin accumulation was maximum. The antioxidant activity of the skin extracts was not affected by irrigation. CONLUSIONS Irrigation proved to be an effective technique to control anthocyanin content in Syrah grapes, under semiarid conditions. However, anthocyanin accumulation pattern should be considered by winemakers to appropriately select harvest time for improved wine color.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:39:04.296667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7175
  • Trypsin from unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) pyloric caeca:
           Purification and its use for preparation of fish protein hydrolysate with
           antioxidative activity
    • Authors: Abbas Zamani; Soottawat Benjakul
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish proteases, especially trypsin could be used to prepare fish protein hydrolysate with antioxidative activities. In this study, trypsin from the pyloric caeca of unicorn leatherjacket was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and SBTI‐Sepharose 4B column. Hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs) (20, 30 and 40%) was prepared using the purified trypsin and antioxidative activities of hydrolysate including DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous chelating activity were determined. RESULTS Trypsin was purified with the purity of 26.43 fold and the yield of 13.43%. It had the molecular weight (MW) of 23.5 kDa with the optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C. It displayed high stability in the pH range of 6.0‐11.0 and was stable up to 50 °C. SBTI (0.05 mmol L−1) and TLCK (5 mmol L−1) completely inhibited trypsin activity. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (DH) up to 40% (P< 0.05). Based on SDS‐PAGE, hydrolysate with 40% DH showed MW lower than 6.5 kDa. CONCLUSION The purified protease from unicorn leatherjacket pyloric caeca was identified as trypsin based on its ability to hydrolyse specific synthetic substrate and the response to specific trypsin inhibitor. The purified trypsin could hydrolyze Indian mackerel protein isolate and the resulting hydrolysate exhibited antioxidative activity, depending upon DHs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:38:47.377134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7172
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of anchovy fine powder at high and ambient pressure,
           and characterization of the hydrolyzates
    • Authors: Namsoo Kim; So‐Hee Son, Jin‐Soo Maeng, Yong‐Jin Cho, Chong‐Tai Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND At specific condition of high pressure, the stability and activity of some enzymes have been reportedly known to increase. The aim of this study is to apply pressure‐tolerant proteases to hydrolyzing anchovy fine powder (AFP) and to determine product characteristics of the resultant hydrolyzates. RESULTS Anchovy fine powder enzyme hydrolyzates (AFPEHs) were produced at 300 MPa and ambient pressure using combinations of Flavourzyme 500MG, Alcalase 2.4L, Marugoto E and Protamex. When the same protease combination was used for hydrolysis, the contents of total soluble solid, total water‐soluble nitrogen and trichloroacetic acid‐soluble nitrogen in the AFPEHs produced at 300 MPa were conspicuously higher than those in the AFPEHs produced at ambient pressure. This result and electrophoretic characteristics indicated that the high‐pressure process of this study accelerates protein hydrolysis compared to the ambient‐pressure counterpart. Most peptides in the hydrolyzates obtained at 300 MPa had molecular masses less than 5 kDa. Functionality, sensory characteristics and the content of total free amino acids for the selected hydrolyzates were also determined. CONCLUSION The high‐pressure hydrolytic process, utilizing pressure‐tolerant proteases, was found to be an efficient method for producing protein hydrolyzates with good product characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:38:31.072268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7173
  • Optimisation of α‐terpineol production by limonene
           biotransformation using Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840
    • Authors: Ya‐Nan Tai; Min Xu, Jing‐Nan Ren, Man Dong, Zi‐Yu Yang, Si‐yi Pan, Gang Fan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, R‐(+)‐limonene biotransformation using three fungal strains was compared. Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840 was distinguished for its capacity to transform limonene into α‐terpineol with high regioselectivity. Growth kinetics in submerged liquid culture and the effects of growth phase and contact time on biotransformation were studied using this strain. Substrate concentration, co‐solvent selection, and cultivation conditions were subsequently optimised. RESULTS The maximum concentration of α‐terpineol (833.93 mg/L) was obtained when the preculture medium was in medium log‐phase by adding 840 mg/L substrate dissolved in ethanol and cultivation was performed at 24 °C, 150 rpm, and pH 6.0 for 12 h. Addition of small amounts of R‐(+)‐limonene (84 mg/L) at the start of fungal log‐phase growth obtained 1.5‐fold yield of α‐terpineol, indicating that the enzyme was inducible. CONCLUSION Among these three strains tested, P. digitatum DSM 62840 was proved to be an efficient biocatalyst to transform R‐(+)‐limonene to α‐terpineol. Further studies revealed that the optimal growth phase for biotransformation was in the medium log phase of this strain. The biotransformation represented a wide tolerance of temperature; α‐terpineol concentration underwent no significant change at 8–32 °C. The biotransformation could also be performed using resting cells.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T02:24:23.723543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7171
  • Cell wall metabolism of peaches and nectarines treated with UV‐B
           radiation: a biochemical and molecular approach
    • Authors: Claudia Scattino; Noemi Negrini, Silvia Morgutti, Maurizio Cocucci, Carlos H. Crisosto, Pietro Tonutti, Antonella Castagna, Annamaria Ranieri
      Abstract: Background UV‐B radiation has been shown to improve, at least in selected genotypes, both the health‐promoting potential and the aesthetic properties of tomato and peach fruits during their postharvest period. The effects of postharvest UV‐B treatment on the cell wall metabolism of peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica L. Batsch) was assessed in this study. Three cultivars, Suncrest’ (Melting Flesh, MF) and ‘Babygold 7’(Non‐Melting Flesh, NMF) peaches and ‘Big Top’ (Slow Melting, SM) nectarine, differing for the characteristics of textural changes and softening during ripening, were analysed. Results UV‐B effects differ in relation to the cultivar considered. In MF ‘Suncrest’ fruit, UV‐B treatment significantly reduced the flesh firmness loss despite the slight increase in Endo‐PG presence and activity. Exo‐PG activity increased as well, while EGase, β‐Gal and PME were substantially unaffected by the treatment. The UV‐B‐induced reduction of flesh softening was paralleled by the inhibition of PpExp gene transcription and expansin protein accumulation. The UV‐B treatment did not induce differences in flesh firmness between control and UV‐B‐treated NMF ‘Babygold 7’ and SM ‘Big Top’ fruit. Conclusion Based on these results, postharvest UV‐B treatment may be considered a promising tool to improve shelf‐life and quality of peach fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13T02:04:17.58017-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7168
  • Compound specific stable carbon isotopic signature of carbohydrate
           pyrolysis products from C3 and C4 plants (Py‐CSIA)
    • Authors: José A. González‐Pérez; Nicasio T. Jiménez‐Morillo, José M. de la Rosa, Gonzalo Almendros, Francisco‐J. González‐Vila
      Abstract: Background Pyrolysis‐compound specific isotopic analysis (Py‐CSIA: Py‐GC‐(FID)‐C‐IRMS) is a relatively novel technique that allows on‐line quantitation of stable isotope proportions in chromatographically separated products released by pyrolysis. Validation of Py‐CSIA technique is compulsory for molecular traceability in basic and applied research. In this work, commercial sucrose from C4‐ (sugarcane) and C3‐ (sugar beet) photosystem plants and admixtures, were studied using analytical pyrolysis (Py‐GC/MS), bulk δ13C IRMS and δ13C Py‐CSIA. Results Major pyrolysis compounds were furfural (F), furfural‐5‐hydroxymethyl (HMF) and levoglucosan (LV). Bulk and main pyrolysis compound δ13C (‰) were dependent on plant origin: C3 (F: −24.65 ± 0.89; HMF: −22.07 ± 0.41 ‰; LV: −21.74 ± 0.17 ‰.) and C4 (F: −14.35 ± 0.89 ‰; HMF: −11.22 ± 0.54 ‰; LV −11.44 ± 1.26 ‰). Significant regressions were obtained for δ13C of bulk and pyrolysis compounds in C3‐ and C4 admixtures. Furfural (F) was found 13C depleted with respect to bulk and HMF and LV indicating the incorporation of the light carbon atom in position 6 of carbohydrates in the furan ring after pyrolysis. Conclusion This is the first detailed report on δ13C signature of major pyrolytically‐generated carbohydrate‐derived molecules. The information provided by Py‐CSIA is valuable to identify source marker compounds of use in food science/fraud detection or in environmental research.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13T02:03:45.039818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7169
  • Chemical quality assessment of traditional salt‐fermented shrimp
           paste from Northern Mindanao, Philippines
    • Authors: Anna R. Pilapil; Ellen Neyrinck, Daphne Deloof, Karen Bekaert, Johan Robbens, Katleen Raes
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Shrimp paste is an important fermented commodity in the Philippines, but so far their quality parameters are hardly characterized. Paste samples were procured in the province Agusan del Norte, Philippines from three different traditional manufacturers and one from a commercial supermarket. All samples were analyzed for their chemical composition. RESULTS Both traditional and commercial shrimp pastes ranged in content of protein (12.9‐15.3 g/100 g), fat (0.50‐1.94 g/100 g), SAFA (32.6‐39.1 g/100 g FAME), MUFA (15.1‐18.7 g/100 g FAME), and PUFA (30.7‐40.8 g/100 g FAME). The pH value ranged between 6.8‐7.7. The samples were microbiological stable due to the low aw‐value and high NaCl content, ranging between 0.70‐0.74 and 4.04‐5.15 g/100 g respectively. Although samples were processed in the same country and under similar conditions, differences were observed for the following parameters: TBARS (2.32‐5.03 μgMDA/g), total NPN (3.07‐5.15 gN/100 g), free NPN (1.17‐2.39 gN/100 g), biogenic amines and mineral content. The Biogenic Amine Index varied between 0 and 976 for the different samples, resulting that only one sample could be considered as class 1 quality. CONCLUSIONS Results showed that there is a high variation in the quality of the product which could be linked to differences in the fermentation process and hygienic quality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12T00:58:03.203479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7167
  • Leaf Proteome Comparison of Two GM Common Bean Varieties and Their
           Non‐GM Counterparts by Principal Component Analysis
    • Authors: Pedro A. Valentim‐Neto; Gabriela B. Rossi, Kelly B. Anacleto, Carla S. de Mello, Geisi M. Balsamo, Ana Carolina M. Arisi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, was approved for commercialization in Brazil. The present work aimed to use principal component analysis (PCA) to compare the proteomic profile of this GM common bean and its non‐GM counterpart. RESULTS Seedlings from four Brazilian common bean varieties were grown under controlled environmental conditions. Leaf proteomic profiles were analyzed by two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Firstly, a comparison among 12 gels from four common bean varieties was performed by PCA using volume percentage of 198 matched spots, presented in all gels. The first two principal components (PC) accounted for 46.8% of total variation. Two groups were clearly separated by the first component: Pérola and GM Pérola from Pontal and GM Pontal. Secondly, another comparison among six gels from the same variety GM and its non‐GM counterpart was performed by PCA, in this case it was possible to distinguish GM and non‐GM. CONCLUSION Separation between leaf proteomic profile of GM common bean variety and its counterpart was observed only when they were compared in pairs. These results showed higher similarity between GM variety and its counterpart than between two common bean varieties. PCA is a useful tool to compare proteomes of GM and non‐GM plant varieties.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11T10:31:51.863744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7166
  • Clonal differences and impact of defoliation on Sauvignon blanc (Vitis
           vinifera L.) wines: a chemical and sensory investigation
    • Authors: Katja Šuklje; Guillaume Antalick, Astrid Buica, Jennifer Langlois, Zelmari A Coetzee, Julia Gouot, Leigh M Schmidtke, Alain Deloire
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study, performed on Sauvignon blanc clones SB11 and SB316, grafted on the same rootstock 101–14 Mgt (V. riparia x V. ruperstris) and grown at two adjacent vineyards, was twofold; i) to study wine chemical and sensory composition of both clones within an unaltered canopy and ii) to determine the effect of defoliation (e.g. bunch microclimate) on wine chemical and sensory composition. Results Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminate Analysis (OPLS‐DA) was applied to the concentration profiles of volatile compounds derived from GC‐MS data. The loadings directions inferred that 3‐isobutyl‐2‐methoxypyrazine (IBMP) discriminated control treatments (shaded fruit zone) of both clones from defoliation treatments (exposed fruit zone), whereas 3‐sulfanyl‐hexan‐1‐ol (3SH), 3‐sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), hexanol, hexyl hexanoate and some other esters discriminated defoliated treatments from the controls. The OPLS‐DA indicated the importance of IBMP, higher alcohol acetates and phenylethyl esters, for discrimination of clone SB11 from clone SB316 irrespective of the treatment. Defoliation in the fruit zone significantly decreased perceived greenness in clone SB11 and elevated fruitier aromas, whereas in clone SB316 the effect of defoliation on wine sensory perception was less noticeable regardless the decrease in IBMP concentrations. Conclusion These findings highlight the importance of clone selection and bunch microclimate to diversify produced wine styles.
      PubDate: 2015-03-09T01:54:55.857218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7165
  • Cinnamaldehyde promotes root branching by regulating endogenous hydrogen
    • Authors: Yan‐Feng Xue; Meng Zhang, Zhong‐Qiang Qi, You‐Qin Li, Zhiqi Shi, Jian Chen
      Abstract: Background Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been widely applied in medicine and food preservation. However, whether and how CA regulates plant physiology is largely unknown. To address these gaps, the present study investigated the beneficial effect of CA on root branching and its possible biochemical mechanism. Results The lateral root (LR) formation of pepper seedlings could be remarkably induced by CA at specific concentrations without showing any inhibitory effect on the growth of primary root (PR). CA could induce the generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by increasing the activity of L‐cysteine desulfhydrase (DES) in roots. By fluorescently tracking endogenous H2S in situ, it could be observed that H2S accumulated clearly in the outer layer cells in PR where LR emerges. NaHS (H2S donor) treatment induced LR formation while HT (H2S scavenger) showed adverse effect. The addition of HT could mitigate CA‐induced increase in endogenous H2S level, which in turn counteracted the inducible effect of CA on LR formation. Conclusion CA showed great potential in promoting LR formation, which was mediated by endogenous H2S. These results not only shed new light on the application of CA in agriculture, but also extend the knowledge of H2S signaling in the regulation of root branching.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06T01:47:06.677034-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7164
  • Double emulsions to improve frankfurters lipid content: impact of perilla
           oil and pork backfat
    • Authors: María Freire; Ricard Bou, Susana Cofrades, María Teresa Solas, Francisco Jiménez‐Colmenero
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The technology involving the use of water‐in‐oil‐in‐water emulsions (DE) offers an interesting approach to improve the fat content of foods. With this aim, the effect on frankfurter properties of replacing pork backfat with two different DE prepared using perilla oil and pork backfat as lipid phases was assessed. This strategy was compared with straightforward addition of the lipid source and addition by means of an oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsion. RESULTS As compared with all‐pork‐fat frankfurters, the ones with perilla oil had a higher proportion of n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Reduced‐fat frankfurters had similar water and fat binding properties irrespective of the lipid source or the technological strategy used to incorporate them. Moreover, the oil source but not its mode of incorporation determined the oxidation levels of frankfurters. In reduced‐fat samples, except in the case of frankfurters formulated with a perilla oil‐in‐water emulsion, hardness was unaffected either by the type of fat or by its mode of incorporation. The replacement of pork backfat by perilla oil reduced the overall acceptability of products when perilla oil was added by means of the O/W emulsion and DE approaches. CONCLUSION This technology is suitable for labelling meat products with specific nutritional and health claims.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06T01:46:36.196723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7163
  • Generation and identification of anti‐inflammatory peptides from
           bovine β‐casein using enzyme preparations from cod and hog
    • Authors: Karina Altmann; Adam Wutkowski, Martin Klempt, Ingrid Clawin‐Rädecker, Hans Meisel, Peter Chr. Lorenzen
      Abstract: Background The aim of the present study was to generate and identify potential anti‐inflammatory peptides from bovine β‐casein with enzyme preparations from cod and hog. Furthermore, the potential of Cod Trypsin, derived from fishery by‐products, to produce these bioactive peptides for replacement of non‐food grade TPCK treated porcine Trypsin enzyme preparation was evaluated. Results Potential anti‐inflammatory peptides were obtained by hydrolysis of β‐casein with the tryptic enzyme preparations cod trypsin, porcine trypsin (tosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK)‐treated) and a porcine trypsin and chymotrypsin preparation (PTN 6.0 S). Proteolysates generated with enzyme preparations containing mainly chymotryptic activity (Cryotin, Cryotin F) did not exhibit any effect. Conclusion The more chymotryptic enzyme activity is present, the lower is the potential anti‐inflammatory activity of the hydrolysates in HEKnfκb‐RE‐cells. Comparable peptides were produced by application of porcine Trypsin (TPCK) and Cod Trypsin. Therefore, the enzyme preparation Cod Trypsin can replace the non‐food grade porcine enzyme preparation Trypsin (TPCK) for the generation of potential anti‐inflammatory peptides from β‐casein.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:34:31.060738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7159
  • Authentication of commercial candy ingredients using DNA PCR‐cloning
    • Authors: Marta Muñoz‐Colmenero; Jose Luis Martínez, Agustín Roca, Eva García‐Vázquez
      Abstract: Background Commercial candies are consumed by all population age sectors worldwide, thus methods for quality control and composition authentication are needed for best compliance of consumer's preferences. In this study the applications of DNA‐based methodology for candy quality control have been tested. Eighteen samples of commercial candies (marshmallows, gumdrops, jelly, sherbet, gelatin‐based desserts) produced by five countries were analyzed to identify the component species by Polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA and ribulose ‐1,5‐diphosphate carboxylase oxygenase genes, and the species determined from BLAST comparison with universal databases and phylogenetic analysis. Results Positive DNA extraction and amplification of the target genes was obtained for 94% of candies assayed, even those containing as little as
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:33:17.550501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7158
  • Effect of garlic powder on acrylamide formation in a low‐moisture
           model system and bread baking
    • Authors: Jinwang Li; Jie Zuo, Xuguang Qiao, Yongju Zhang, Zhixiang Xu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Acrylamide (AA) is of concern worldwide because of its neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and reproductive‐developmental toxicity. Consequently, methods for minimizing AA formation during food processing are vital. RESULTS In this paper, the formation and elimination of AA in an asparagine/glucose low‐moisture model system were studied by response surface methodology. The effect of garlic powder on the kinetics of AA formation/elimination was also evaluated. The AA content reached a maximum level (674.0 nmol) with 1.2 mmol of glucose and 1.2 mmol of asparagine after heating at 200 °C for 6.0 min. The AA content was greatly reduced with the addition of garlic powder. Compared to without garlic powder, an AA reduction rate of 43 % was obtained with addition of garlic powder at a mass fraction of 0.05 g. Garlic powder inhibited formation of AA during the generation‐predominant kinetic stage, and had no effect on the degradation‐predominant kinetic stage. The effect of garlic powder on AA formation in bread and bread quality was also investigated. Adding a garlic powder mass fraction of 15 g to 500 g dough significantly (P
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:29:58.732542-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7162
  • Microbial bioconversion and processing methods enhanced the phenolic acid
           and flavonoids and the radical scavenging capacity of Smilax china L. leaf
    • Authors: Ju‐Hyeong Kim; Tae‐Sik Park, Seung‐Hwan Yang, Joo‐Won Suh, Soon‐Mi Shim
      Abstract: Background It has been reported that Smilax china L. leaf (SCL) provided various biological functions owing to polyphenols. The objective of the current study was to assess enhancing effect of processing methods and microbial conversions on phenolic acid and flavonoids contents and radical scavenging capacity of SCL for potential applications of diverse food products. Results Targeted phenolic acid (chlorogenic acid) and flavonoids (piceid and quercetin) were identified in fresh SCL by using liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS). The total amount of identified phenolic acid and flavonoids was the highest in steamed SCL (12.70 ± 0.12 mg g−1 on a dry matter basis, dmb). A substantial amount of chlorogenic acid (5.81 ± 0.16 mg g−1 dmb), piceid (3.96 ± 0.04 mg g−1 dmb), and quercetin (6.06 ± 0.12 mg g−1 dmb) were quantified in SCL fermented by the Bacillus species, roasted, and steamed, respectively (p 
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:25:55.071543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7160
  • UV‐B‐induced anthocyanin accumulation in hypocotyls of radish
           sprouts continues in the dark after irradiation
    • Authors: Nana Su; Yanwu Lu, Qi Wu, Yuanyuan Liu, Yan Xia, Kai Xia, Jin Cui
      Abstract: Background Raphanus sativus L. cv. Yanghua sprouts are rich in health‐promoting anthocyanins; thus the hypocotyls show red‐color under light. In this study, effects of UV‐B irradiation at 5 W m−2 on the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts were investigated. Results Anthocyanins began to accumulate rapidly from 24 h irradiation and increased continuously till 48 h, which showed a similar pattern with PAL activity with the correlation coefficient of 0.804. The expression of DFR and ANS paralleled the upward trend in anthocyanin accumulation, while CHS, CHI and F3H were up‐regulated before the accumulation. When the sprouts were moved into the dark from UV‐B, the anthocyanin accumulation did not stop immediately. By contrast, anthocyanin accumulated continuously for more than 12 h in the dark, which was further supported by the significantly higher PAL activity monitored at 24 h after irradiation. Similarly, the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis‐related genes were much higher over 6 h after 12 h UV‐B irradiation. Conclusion UV‐B‐induced anthocyanin accumulation continues in the dark after irradiation, which was supported by unfading PAL activity and high levels of biosynthesis‐related genes. This will provide evidence to produce high‐quality sprouts with more anthocyanins but less energy wastage in practice.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:24:36.222962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7161
  • Volatile composition and sensory properties of
           Vanilla × tahitensis bring new insights for vanilla
           quality control
    • Authors: Christel Brunschwig; Sophie Rochard, Alexandre Pierrat, Anne Rouger, Perrine Senger‐Emonnot, Gérard George, Phila Raharivelomanana
      Abstract: Background Vanilla × tahitensis produced in French Polynesia has a unique flavour among vanilla species. However data on volatiles and sensory properties remain limited. In this study, the volatile composition and sensory properties of V. ×tahitensis from three Polynesian cultivars and two origins (French Polynesia/Papua New Guinea) were determined by GC‐MS and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis respectively and compared to Vanilla planifolia. Results Vanilla species, origins and cultivars were differentiated by their volatile and sensory profiles using Principal Component Analysis. The V. ×tahitensis flavour from French Polynesia was characterized by a well‐balanced sensory profile, having strong anise and caramel notes due to high levels of anisyl compounds. V. ×tahitensis from Papua New Guinea was distinct from that of French Polynesia, having strong spicy, fruity, brown rum notes due to p‐vinylguaiacol, p‐cresol and esters. V. planifolia showed stronger phenolic, woody, smoky notes, due to guaiacol, creosol and phenol which were found to be biomarkers of the species. Vanilla sensory properties were linked by Partial Least Squares Regression to key volatile compounds like guaiacol or creosol, which are indicators of lower quality. Conclusion This study brings new insights for vanilla quality control, with a focus on key volatile compounds, irrespective of origin.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:24:30.256-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7157
  • Techno‐Functional Characterization of Salad Dressing Emulsions
           Supplemented with Pea, Lentil and Chickpea Flours
    • Authors: Zhen MA; Joyce I. Boye, Kevin Swallow, Linda Malcolmson, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Abstract: Background Salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours are novel products. A three‐factor face‐centered central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effect of pulse flour concentration (3.5%, 7%, 10.5% w/w), egg yolk concentration (3%, 5%, 7% w/w) and oil concentration (20%, 35%, 50% w/w) on the rheological and color characteristics of salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours. RESULTS: The consistency coefficient m, plateau modulusGN0, recoverable strain Q(t) and color values were all affected by the concentrations of pulse flours used. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dressings with lower oil and egg yolk contents had a less densely packed network compared with dressings with higher oil and egg yolk contents. Sensory results were most promising for salad dressings supplemented with the whole green lentil, yellow pea with low flour content, and chickpea with high oil content. CONCLUSION: This study should be useful for designing novel types of salad dressings to meet market requirements as well as helping to increase pulse consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T05:40:24.484679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7156
  • Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Origanum
           majorana and investigation of antiproliferative and antioxidant activities
    • Authors: Ramazan Erenler; Ozkan Sen, Huseyin Aksit, Ibrahim Demirtas, Ayse Sahin Yaglioglu, Mahfuz Elmastas, İsa Telci
      Abstract: Background The Origanum majorana L. belonging to the Lamiaceae family has a great potential and used as folk medicine against asthma, indigestion, headache, and rheumatism; in addition, the essential oils of this plant have been used widely in food industries. The plant materials have been harvested from the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Field of Gaziosmanpasa University. Air‐dried plant materials were boiled in water, filtered then solvent part was extracted subsequently with hexane and ethyl acetate. The chromatographic method was applied for ethyl acetate extract to isolate bioactive secondary metabolites of which the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, basically 1D‐NMR, 2D‐NMR and LC‐QTOF. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities were carried out of isolated secondary metabolites. Results 5,6,3'‐trihydroxy‐7,8,4'‐trimethoxyflavone, hesperetin, hydroquinone, arbutin and rosmarinic acid were isolated from the water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts of Origanum majorana. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds and water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract were investigated using the assays of DPPH•, ABTS·+, reducing power and total phenolic contents. The antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds and plant extracts were investigated against C6 and HeLa cell lines using BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA and xCELLigence assays, respectively. Both hesperetin and hydroquinone were determined to have stronger antiproliferative activities against C6 and HeLa cells than the other isolated compounds and 5‐FU. Conclusion The results showed that the extract and isolated compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Hence, this plant has a potential to be a natural antioxidant in food industries and an anticancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T01:01:21.615588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7155
  • Bioactive quinone derivatives from marine brown algae Sargassum thunbergii
           induce anti‐adipogenic and pro‐osteoblastogenic activities
    • Authors: Jung‐Ae Kim; Fatih Karadeniz, Byul‐Nim Ahn, Myeong Sook Kwon, Ok‐Ju Mun, Min Joo Bae, Youngwan Seo, Mihyang Kim, Sang‐Hyeon Lee, Yuck Yong Kim, Chang‐Suk Kong
      Abstract: Lack of bone formation‐related health problems is a major problem for aging population in modern world. As a part of ongoing trend to develop natural substances that attenuate osteoporotic bone loss conditions, the effect of edible brown algae, Sargassum thunbergii and its active contents on adipogenic differentiation in 3T3‐L1 fibroblasts and osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3‐E1 pre‐osteoblasts were evaluated. Sargassum thunbergii treatment significantly reduced the lipid accumulation and the expression of adipogenic differentiation markers such as peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c. In addition, S. thunbergii successfully enhanced the osteoblast differentiation as indicated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity along raised levels of osteoblastogenesis indicators, namely bone morphogenetic protein‐2, osteocalcin and collagen type I. Two compounds, sargaquinoic and sargahydroquinoic acid, were isolated from active extract and shown to be active by means of osteogenesis inducement. In conclusion, S. thunbergii could be a source for functional food ingredients for improved osteoporosis and obesity.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T21:46:05.480274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7148
  • Comparative study on acid‐soluble and pepsin‐soluble collagens
           from skin and swim bladder of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: Xiaosa Wu; Luyun Cai, Ailing Cao, Yanbo Wang, Tingting Li, Jianrong Li
      Abstract: Background Collagen has a wide range of applications in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical products. Results The collagens in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin and swim bladder were extracted using acetic acid and pepsin, respectively. Higher yield (178 g kg−1) was obtained for pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from fish skin than that PSC from swim bladder (114 g kg−1). Not surprisingly, yields of PSC from fish skin and swim bladder were also higher than that of acid soluble collagen (ASC) from the same organs (89 and 51 g kg−1). The SDS‐PAGE profile showed that ASC and PSC belonged to type I collagen, and PSC contained higher α‐components than ASC. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that those collagens were almost similar in their protein secondary structures. The micrographs showed collagens had a spongy structure, and more pores were obtained in swim bladder than skin. Collagens showed high solubilities in acidic pH ranges. However, the solubilities decreased in the presence of NaCl at concentrations over 20 g kg−1. Conclusion Collagens were successfully extracted from the skin and swim bladder of grass carp. These byproducts could serve as an alternative source of collagens for a wide variety of applications in food and nutraceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T03:42:34.350419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7154
  • Metabolomic changes in grains of well‐watered and
           drought‐stressed transgenic rice
    • Authors: Kyong‐Hee Nam; Hee Jae Shin, In‐Soon Pack, Jung‐Ho Park, Ho Bang Kim, Chang‐Gi Kim
      Abstract: Background Drought induces a number of physiological and biochemical responses in cereals. This study was designed to examine the metabolite changes in grains of drought‐tolerant transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) that over‐expresses AtCYP78A7 encoding cytochrome P450 protein using 1H‐NMR and GC‐MS. Results Principal component analysis showed that 1H‐NMR‐based profile was definitely separated by soil‐water status of well‐watered and water‐deficit. A discrimination of metabolites between transgenic and non‐transgenic grains appeared under both watering regimes. Variations in the levels of amino acids and sugars led to the discrimination of metabolites among genotypes. In particular, drought significantly enhanced the levels of γ–aminobutyric acid (244.6%), fructose (155.7%), glucose (211.0%), glycerol (57.2%), glycine (65.8%), and aminoethanol (192.4%) in the transgenic grains compared with the non‐transgenic control grains. Conclusion These changes in amounts of metabolites may assist in improving drought tolerance in transgenic rice by playing crucial roles in stress‐responsive pathways including GABA biosynthesis, sucrose metabolism, and antioxidant defenses.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:57.238389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7152
  • Hepatoprotective effects of soluble rice protein in primary hepatocytes
           and in mice
    • Authors: Bok Kyung Han; Yooheon Park, Hyeon‐Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh
      Abstract: Background The production of rice‐derived by‐products has increased due to the growing use of processed rice products. The objective of this study was to isolate highly‐purified proteins from a rice by‐product—rice syrup meal—and to examine their hepatoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Result Soluble rice protein (SRP70) was obtained via enzymatic processing of rice syrup meal using Termamyl SC and Alcalase. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that SRP70 contained low molecular‐weight (
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:25.812918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7153
  • Fermented sorghum/millet based beverage, Obiolor, extenuates high fat
           diet‐induced dyslipidemia and redox imbalance in the liver of rats
    • Authors: Ajiboye T.O; Iliasu G. A, Adeleye A. O, Ojewuyi O. B, Kolawole F. L, Bello S. A, Mohammed A. O.
      Abstract: Background Obiolor, a nonalcoholic beverage produced from fermented sorghum and millet malts, is widely consumed on the daily basis by the Igala tribe in Nigeria and highly associated with good health. This effect of Obiolor on dyslipidemia, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in the liver of high fat diet fed rats was investigated. Results High fat diet mediated alterations in liver and serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, low‐density cholesterol, very low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, were significantly (P
      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:17:51.847849-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7150
  • Agronomic and environmental consequences of using liquid mineral
           concentrates on arable farms
    • Authors: René LM Schils; Romke Postma, Debby van Rotterdam, Kor B Zwart
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In regions with intensive livestock systems, the processing of manure into liquid mineral concentrates is seen as an option to increase the nutrient use efficiency of manures. The agricultural sector anticipates that these products may in future be regarded as regular mineral fertilizers. We assessed the agronomic suitability and impact on GHG and ammonia emissions of using liquid mineral concentrates on arable farms. RESULTS The phosphate requirements on arable farms were largely met by raw pig slurry, given its large regional availability. After the initial nutrient input by means of pig slurry, the nitrogen/phosphate ratio of the remaining nutrient crop requirements determined the additional amount of liquid mineral concentrates that can be used. For sandy soils, liquid mineral concentrates could supply 50% of the nitrogen requirement, whereas for clay soils the concentrates did not meet the required nitrogen/phosphate ratio. The total GHG emissions per kg of plant available nitrogen ranged from −65 to 33 kg CO2‐equivalents. It increased in the order digestates 
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:33.321923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7146
  • Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Regional Emission Information in
           Agricultural Systems
    • Authors: Junbeum Kim; Albina Yalaltdinova, Natalia Sirina, Natalia Baranovskaya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a compilation and evaluation of the input energy and materials, output emissions and the potential environmental impacts of a product, service or system throughout its life cycle. While methodological issues of LCA are still being developed and much research is being conducted worldwide in order to improve them. One of the important advances in LCA is a regionalized LCA, meaning the development of regionalized databases, inventories, and impact assessment methods and models. RESULTS Regional emission information (REI) was developed and integrated with the characterization results in LCA of an agricultural product in the study area. Comparison of obtained outcomes with LCA characterization results that did not include REI shows that the characterization results taking REI into account are much higher as regards human toxicity, from 0.02% to 0.18%, freshwater ecotoxicity from 89% to 99% and terrestrial ecotoxicity from 8.006 % to 26.177%. CONCLUSION Results of current LCA studies on agricultural products and systems that do not include REI are underestimating the life cycle environmental impact. For the LCA of agricultural products and systems, the REI as well as regionalized life cycle inventory (LCI) data should be developed and integrated into the current LCA approach.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:18.519573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7149
  • Evaluation of the in vitro alpha‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of
           green tea polyphenols and different tea types
    • Authors: Xiaoping Yang; Fanbin Kong
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea, and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α‐glucosidase and whether they can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS Green tea polyphenols (TP) strongly inhibited α‐glucosidase activity by non‐competitive inhibition with the IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL−1 and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea also had dose‐dependent inhibitory potential with the IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25, and 1.38 µg mL−1 (µg polyphenol mL−1), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TP changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TP during enzymatic hydrolysis. CONCLUSION Green TP, green tea, black tea, and oolong tea are excellent α‐glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TP. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea, and oolong tea can be potentially used to the control of postprandial hyperglycemia.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:37:45.290842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7147
  • Anti‐hyperglycemic and anti‐hyperlipidemic effects of
           Vaccinium myrtillus fruit in experimentally‐induced diabetes
           (antidiabetic effect of Vaccinium myrtillus fruit)
    • Authors: Sedigheh Asgary; Mahmood RafieianKopaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Fatemeh shamsi, Najmeh Goli‐malekabadi
      Abstract: Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) is a useful plant with anti‐diabetic properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bilberry against DM. Diabetes was induced using intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight (bw)). Bilberry powder (2g/day) and glibenclamide (positive control; 0.6 mg/kgbw) were administered for 4 weeks following alloxan injection. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C), very low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL‐C), triglycerides (TG) and C‐reactive protein (CRP) were determined at baseline and at 2nd and 4th week of the study. Results Bilberry supplementation resulted in a significant reduction of glucose compared with the diabetic control as well as glibenclamide treatment. Bilberry elevated insulin, reduced TC, LDL‐C, VLDL‐C and TG levels, and prevented HDL‐C decline. Serum insulin, TC and LDL‐C levels were not affected by glibenclamide, and CRP did not significantly change with either bilberry or glibenclamide. Histological examinations revealed a significant elevation of islet size in the bilberry and glibenclamide‐treated. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with bilberry fruits may protect against impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in DM.
      PubDate: 2015-02-19T02:03:47.618078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7144
  • Tea Waste: an Effective and Economic Substrate for Oyster Mushroom
    • Authors: Doudou Yang; Jin Liang, Yunsheng Wang, Feng Sun, Hong Tao, Qiang Xu, Liang Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Chi‐Tang Ho, Xiaochun Wan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tea waste was left after tea leaves were extracted by hot water to obtain water‐soluble components. But it still contains reusable energy substrate and nutrients which may pollute environment if it is dealt in inappropriate ways. Other agricultural wastes have been widely studied in cultivating of mushroom on various agricultural wastes. In the present study, we cultivated oyster mushroom using tea waste as substrate. To study the feasibility of reusing it, tea waste was added in substrate at different ratios in different experiment groups. Three mushroom strains (39, 71 and YOU) were compared and evaluated. Mycelia growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and growth duration were measured. RESULTS Substrate with different tea waste ratios showed different growth and yield performance. Substrate containing 40%‐60% of tea waste obtained the highest yield. CONCLUSION Tea waste could be used as an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. This study also provided an available way dealing with massive tea waste.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T02:40:27.80245-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7140
  • Evaluation of Different Drying Temperatures on Physico‐chemical and
           Antioxidant Properties of Water Soluble Tomato Powders and on Their Use in
           Pork Patties
    • Authors: Hyeong Sang Kim; Koo Bok Chin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato and tomato products provide various antioxidant activities, which could be changed by the processing method. This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of water soluble tomato powder (WSTP) as affected by different oven temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C), and to evaluate the physicochemical property and antioxidative activity of pork patties containing these powders. RESULTS The contents of total phenolic compounds of WSTP ranged from 22.2 to 69.6g kg−1 dry matter. The antioxidant activities increased significantly with increasing drying temperatures (p < 0.05). The physicochemical properties of pork patties containing tomato powders were also evaluated. WSTP at 100 °C showed the highest redness value compared to those dried at 60 and 80 °C. Lipid oxidation of pork patties was retarded by 7 days with the addition of WSTP. Especially, pork patties containing WSTP showed antimicrobial activity at 14 days of refrigerated storage, regardless of drying temperatures. CONCLUSION WSTP, especially prepared at 100 °C, could be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in meat products.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17T01:38:03.177606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7141
  • Silicon biofortification of leafy vegetables and its bioaccessibility in
           the edible parts
    • Authors: Massimiliano D'Imperio; Massimiliano Renna, Angela Cardinali, Donato Buttaro, Pietro Santamaria, Francesco Serio
      Abstract: Background The mineral silicon (Si) is an essential element for humans and a general component of the diet found mainly in plant‐based foods. The aim of this study was to obtain Si biofortificated leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, basil, swiss chard, and chicory) to use for the IV gamma products (ready to use). For the biofortified plants production, a floating system with 0, 50, and 100 mg L−1 of Si in nutrient solution, was used. In addition, the assessment of bioaccessibility of biofortified plants, by in vitro gastro‐digestion process, was performed. Results The added silicon in nutrient solution did not influence yield and colour of vegetables but a species‐related accumulation of Si was found: from 18 to 69 mg kg−1 fresh weight (FW) in tatsoi, from 19 to 106 mg kg−1 FW in mizuna, from 15 to 93 mg kg−1 FW in purslane, from 41 to 294 mg kg−1 FW in basil, from 17 to 76 mg kg−1 FW in Swiss chard, and from 23 to 76 mg kg−1 FW in chicory. The Si resulted bioaccessible in all species considered in a range from 23% (basil) to 64% (chicory). Conclusion The application of Si to the nutrient solution in the range 50–100 mg L−1 allows to obtain biofortified leafy vegetables. In addition, the biofortificated vegetables have showed, on average, much bioaccessible Si, respect to unbiofortified.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17T01:36:52.335629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7142
  • Identification and molecular characterization of 48 kDa calcium binding
           protein as calreticulin from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) using
           peptide mass fingerprinting and transcript profiling
    • Authors: Manoj Singh; Mamta Metwal, Vandana A. Kumar, Anil Kumar
      Abstract: Background Attempts were made to identify and characterize the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in grain filling stages of finger millet using different omics approaches. Results A distinctly observed blue color band of 48 kDa stained by Stains‐all was eluted and analyzed as calreticulin (CRT) using Nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Nano LC–MS). Based on the top hits of peptide mass fingerprinting results, conserved primers were designed for isolation of the CRT gene from finger millet using calreticulin sequences of different cereals. The deduced nucleotide sequence analysis of 600 bp amplicon showed upto 91% similarity with CRT gene(s) of rice and other plant species and designated as EcCRT1. Transcript profiling of EcCRT1 showed different level of relative expression at different stages of developing spikes. The higher expression of EcCRT1 transcripts and protein were observed in later stages of developing spikes which might be due to greater translational synthesis of EcCRT1 protein during seed maturation in finger millet. Conclusions Preferentially higher synthesis of this CaBP during later stages of grain filling may be responsible for the sequestration of calcium in endoplasmic reticulum of finger millet grains.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T04:38:09.372053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7139
  • Grape skin extracts from winemaking by‐products as a source of
           trapping agents for reactive carbonyl species
    • Authors: P.S.C. Sri Harsha; M. Mesias, V. Lavelli, F. J. Morales
      Abstract: Background Clinical evidences support the relationship between carbonyl stress and type II diabetes and its related pathologies. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is the major dicarbonyl compound involved in carbonyl stress. Therefore, efforts are being made to find dietary compounds from natural sources that could exert a MGO trapping response. Results The in vitro MGO trapping capacity of six red and seven white grape skin extracts (GSE) obtained from winemaking by‐products was investigated. Methanolic GSE exhibited a promising MGO trapping capacity that was higher in red GSE (IC50 2.8 mg mL−1) when compared with white GSE (IC50 3.2 mg mL−1). The trapping ability for red GSE correlated significantly with total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. However, no correlations were observed for white GSE, which suggests that other compounds were involved in the trapping activity. Conclusion GSE may be considered a natural source of carbonyl stress inhibitors, thus opening up its possible utilization as a nutraceutical ingredient. Further investigations are required to understand the mechanism involved in the carbonyl trapping ability of red and white grape skin samples and their relationship with glycation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:47:33.319852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7137
  • Optimization of a cheap and residential small‐scale production of
           edible crickets with local by‐products as an alternative
           protein‐rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
    • Authors: Rudy Caparros Megido; Taofic Alabi, Clément Nieus, Christophe Blecker, Sabine Danthine, Jan Bogaert, Éric Haubruge, Frédéric Francis
      Abstract: Background Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew‐based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:34:21.779734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7133
  • Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial
           sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to
           physicochemical characteristics
    • Authors: Brittany Graf; Leonel E. Rojo, Jose Delatorre‐Herrera, Alexander Poulev, Camila Calfio, Ilya Raskin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100‐seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4‐fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 µg/g to 570 ± 124 µg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 µg/g to 804 ±#x2009;91 µg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 µg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 µg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t‐test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:29:31.554269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7134
  • Shelf life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa
           protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film
    • Authors: Abugoch L; Tapia C, Plasencia D, Pastor A, Castro‐Mandujano O, López L, Escalona V.
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating to extend the shelf‐life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75 % RH, this condition was used to simulate the storage condition of supermarkets and have adverse conditions to test the effect of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by the changes of weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. RESULTS The tensile strength and elongation at break of edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa, and 117.2 ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3•10−12 ± 4.0•10−13 g s−1 m−1 Pa−1. In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher TA (0.3‐0.5 g citric acid 100 g−1) and lower pH (3.4 to 3.6) than control during storage, however it showed reduced firmness (until 38 %). CONCLUSION The use of Q/CH/SO as coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 d of storage, instead, the control showed an increasing between 1.8 to 3.1 log cycles (between 20–35 d).
      PubDate: 2015-02-11T06:25:52.202028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7132
  • Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of
           Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical
           origin, cultivar and ripening stage
    • Authors: Nalda Romero; Jorge Saavedra, Francisco Tapia, Betsabet Sepúlveda, Ramón Aparicio
      Abstract: Background This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Results Varieties of Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T02:40:14.904408-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7127
  • Assessment of probiotic, antifungal, cholesterol lowering properties of
           Pediococcus pentosaceus ‐KCC‐23 isolated from Italian ryegrass
    • Authors: Soundarrajan Ilavenil; Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar, Da Hye Kim, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Hyung Su Park, Sivanesan Ravikumar, Ki Choon Choi
      Abstract: Background The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important for processing of various food products. The genetically modified organisms have been contributed to improve the various food products. However, it has some limitation. Thus, discovery of wild strains from natural sources must be considered as the most suitable approach for identifying the new LAB. Therefore, we plan to isolate and characterize the LAB from Italian rye‐grass forage and evaluate their biological potentials. Results Totally 28 strains were isolated and screened their anti‐fungal and probiotic properties. Single strain was selected due to its antifungal and probiotic efficiency. The strain was identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus KCC‐23. The KCC‐23 showed effective inhibition against A. fumigatus, P.chrysogenum, P. roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica and F. oxysporum. Further, it survives against low pH, bile salts and gastric juice. It exhibited a significant aggregation and hydrophobicity property. The KCC‐23 effectively assimilated the cholesterol and it had ability to utilize the pre‐biotic such as raffinose and inulin. Finally, KCC‐23 exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity. Conclusion The P. pentosaceus‐KCC‐23 showed effective anti‐fungal, probiotic and anti‐oxidant properties would be promising isolate for exploitation in the formulation of food for ruminant and human.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T02:30:23.993266-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7128
  • Expression of recombinant Arabian Camel lactoferricin‐related
           peptide in pichia pastoris and its antimicrobial identification
    • Authors: Mahmood Chahardooli; Ali Niazi, Farzaneh Aram, Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi Sohrabi
      Abstract: Background Lactoferricin (LFcin) is a strong cationic peptide released from the N‐terminus of Lactoferrin by gastric pepsin digestion. LFcin has some important properties including high antimicrobial activity. To date lactoferricins have been isolated and characterized from various animal species, but not from camel.The aim of this study was to characterize and express recombinant camel lactoferricin (LFcinC) in pichia pastoris and investigate its antimicrobial activity. Results After methanol induction, LFcinC were expressed and secreted into a culture brothmedium and the results determined byconcentrated supernatant culture mediumshowed high antimicrobial activity against the following microbes ;Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739), Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112(ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 (ATCC 9027),Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 (ATCC 6633) ,Candida albicans PTCC 5027 (ATCC 10231).Thermal‐stability was clarified with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coliPTCC 1330(ATCC 8739). Conclusion Results confirmed that camel lactoferricin had suitable antimicrobial activity and its production by Pichia pastoris can be used for recombinant production.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T05:17:34.668605-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7125
  • Mapping B‐cell epitopes of major and minor peanut allergens and
           identifying residues contributing to IgE binding
    • Authors: Ankita Mishra; Anuja Jain, Naveen Arora
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Epitope identification provides valuable information essential for understanding antigen components involved in food allergic reactions. In the present study, an in‐silico approach is employed to map IgE binding epitopes of major and minor peanut allergens. RESULTS B cell epitopes were identified for peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens namely Ara h 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. A total of 10 web‐servers were used in the study and twenty six linear and eighteen conformational epitopes were predicted by a combination of methods. Majority of the predicted B cell residues were present in the coil regions and the highest percentage of hydrophilic residues were observed for Ara h 6 (70.49%). The absolute solvent accessibility for all the B cell epitopes was > 70% indicating antibody recognition. Property distance index assessed for the predicted epitopes using SDAP showed that six linear epitopes shared similarity with soybean, hazel nut, tomato, maize, apple, banana allergens. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that the identified regions may share cross reactivity with some of the known food allergens or may act as novel antigenic determinants. Further, B‐cell epitopes of Ara h 1, 2 & 3 identified by in silico methods correlated well with the experimentally identified regions.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T09:10:50.125837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7121
  • Exogenous nitric oxide induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus
           fruit to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    • Authors: Yahan Zhou; Shunmin Li, Kaifang Zeng
      Abstract: Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. Results The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol · L−1 sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate‐glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity contents, and delay the increase in the total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. Conclusions The results suggested that the use of exogenous NO was a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:34.539231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7117
  • Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranate
    • Authors: Sunil Pareek; Daniel Valero, María Serrano
      Abstract: Pomegranate is a subtropical and tropical fruit with great importance from the health point of view. Despite the increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of pomegranate, consumption of the fruit is still limited due to poor postharvest handling, storage recommendations, short shelf life, and quality deterioration during transportation, storage and marketing. Occurrence of physiological disorders such as husk scald, splitting, and chilling injury are another challenges which reduces marketability and consumers acceptance. Recently, remarkable work on postharvest biology and technology has been done. Pomegranate is highly sensitive to low‐oxygen atmospheres (
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:54:53.151914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7069
  • Identification of antioxidant peptides of Jinhua ham generated in the
           products and through the simulated gastro‐intestinal digestion
    • Authors: Chao‐Zhi Zhu; Wan‐Gang Zhang, Guang‐Hong Zhou, Xing‐Lian Xu
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to purify and identify antioxidant peptides present in the extract of Chinese dry‐cured Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham extracts were separated into five fractions (A‐E) by size‐exclusion chromatography. Each fraction was subjected to a simulated gastro‐intestinal (GI) digestion system and fractions showing strong antioxidant activities were collected and subjected to liquid chromatography combined with mass/mass‐spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for further purification and identification. Results Using MS/MS analysis, 33 peptides were identified in these fractions. Several key peptides were selected for synthesis and determined their antioxidant activity. The peptide showing strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was GKFNV which showed 92.7% antioxidant activity at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the peptide LPGGGHGDL showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and LPGGGT and HA showed strong inhibition activity against erythrocyte haemolysis (about 45%) before digestion. On the other hand, KEER may contribute to Fe2+‐chelating ability in fraction C after GI digestion. Conclusion In conclusion, Jinhua dry‐cured ham seems to be a potential source of antioxidant peptides generated in the products and GI digestion.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T05:06:58.304896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7065
  • Reduction of energy usage in postharvest horticulture through management
           of ethylene
    • Authors: Ron BH Wills; John B Golding
      Pages: 1379 - 1384
      Abstract: Cool chain management is the preferred technology to extend the postharvest life of horticultural produce, but with rising energy costs and community pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is a need to use less energy‐intensive technologies. Minimising the level of ethylene around horticultural produce inhibits ripening and senescence and therefore has the potential to reduce the use of refrigeration. The long‐distance transport of bananas within Australia and from Central America to Europe is used as a case study to show that the need for refrigeration could be reduced if the appropriate concentrations of ethylene were maintained around fruit during transit. Data are also presented to show a similar benefit of ethylene control with green beans, as well as another study showing that apples treated with the ethylene action inhibitor 1‐methylcyclopropene could be stored at a higher temperature without loss of quality to the consumer. The range of technologies available to manage ethylene levels is discussed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-21T04:35:24.717594-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6930
  • Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using
           supercritical carbon dioxide: a review
    • Authors: Md. Salim Uddin; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker, Sahena Ferdosh, Md. Jahurul Haque Akanda, Mst. Sabina Easmin, Siti Hadijah Bt Shamsudin, Kamaruzzaman Bin Yunus
      Pages: 1385 - 1394
      Abstract: Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC‐CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC‐CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC‐CO2. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:53:19.678781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6833
  • Techniques to measure sorption and migration between small molecules and
           packaging. A critical review
    • Authors: Ashish A Kadam; Thomas Karbowiak, Andrée Voilley, Frédéric Debeaufort
      Pages: 1395 - 1407
      Abstract: The mass transfer parameters diffusion and sorption in food and packaging or between them are the key parameters for assessing a food product's shelf‐life in reference to consumer safety. This has become of paramount importance owing to the legislations set by the regulated markets. The technical capabilities that can be exploited for analyzing product–package interactions have been growing rapidly. Different techniques categorized according to the state of the diffusant (gas or liquid) in contact with the packaging material are emphasized in this review. Depending on the diffusant and on the analytical question under review, the different ways to study sorption and/or migration are presented and compared. Some examples have been suggested to reach the best possible choice, consisting of a single technique or a combination of different approaches. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-13T04:21:57.527298-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6872
  • High‐level extracellular expression of inulin fructotransferase in
           Pichia pastoris for DFA III production
    • Authors: Rongrong Zhan; Wanmeng Mu, Bo Jiang, Yungao Li, Liuming Zhou, Tao Zhang
      Pages: 1408 - 1413
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) catalyzes inulin conversion to difructose anhydride (DFA III), which is a natural low‐calorie sweetener. Although heterologous expression of IFTase was achieved in Escherichia coli, the extracellular enzyme activity was very low, which limited the commercialization of IFTase. RESULTS Active IFTase of about 43 kDa molecular mass of subunit was extracellularly expressed by Pichia pastoris and was greatly regulated by the IFTase gene copy number integrated into the P. pastoris genome and by the methanol concentration in the induction phase. Under optimized culture conditions, multicopy P. pastoris exhibited a maximum extracellular IFTase activity of 105.4 U mL−1 in a 5 L fermenter, which was 8.9‐fold the activity in shake flasks and 5.3‐fold that obtained from wild‐type strain. CONCLUSION IFTase was expressed in a eukaryotic P. pastoris system for the first time and achieved high‐level extracellular expression using a high‐cell‐density fed‐batch cultivation strategy. This demonstrated that P. pastoris was a good candidate for potential DFA III production as a novel IFTase expression system. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T06:38:04.321017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6931
  • Determination of
           acid and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus and Lathyrus cicera by
           capillary zone electrophoresis
    • Authors: Mara Sacristán; Alejandro Varela, Mercedes M Pedrosa, Carmen Burbano, Carmen Cuadrado, M Estrella Legaz, Mercedes Muzquiz
      Pages: 1414 - 1420
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lathyrus species as legumes represent an alternative protein source for human and animal nutrition. Heavy consumption of these species can lead to lathyrism, caused by the non‐protein amino acid β‐N‐oxalyl‐l‐α,β‐diaminopropionic acid (β‐ODAP). Currently, there is no well‐defined level below which β‐ODAP is considered non‐toxic. In this work, the β‐ODAP content was determined in L. sativus and L. cicera samples to assess their potential toxicity. Homoarginine is another non‐protein amino acid found in Lathyrus spp. with interesting implications for human and animal nutrition. RESULTS The level of β‐ODAP found in these two species ranged from 0.79 to 5.05 mg g−1. The homoarginine content of the samples ranged from 7.49 to 12.44 mg g−1. CONCLUSION This paper describes an accurate, fast and sensitive method of simultaneous detection and quantification of β‐ODAP and homoarginine by capillary zone electrophoresis in L. cicera and L. sativus seeds. Moreover, several methods of extraction were compared to determine the highest performance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-22T04:56:35.100511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6792
  • Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and
           viscosity of Brazilian red wines
    • Authors: Flávia SPP Neto; Maurício BM de Castilhos, Vânia RN Telis, Javier Telis‐Romero
      Pages: 1421 - 1427
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 26 °C). RESULTS Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full‐bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. CONCLUSION The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:35:53.746484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6835
  • PTR‐TOF‐MS analysis of volatile compounds in olive fruits
    • Authors: Elisa Masi; Annalisa Romani, Camilla Pandolfi, Daniela Heimler, Stefano Mancuso
      Pages: 1428 - 1434
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Volatile compounds of Cellina di Nardò and Ogliarola Barese, two typical Italian olive varieties, have been characterised at different ripening stages. Proton transfer reaction–time‐of‐flight–mass spectrometry (PTR‐TOF‐MS) was used for the first time on these fruits with the aim of characterising the volatile profile and, in the case of Ogliarola, the changes which may occur during the maturation process. RESULTS PTR‐TOF‐MS does not involve any sample pre‐treatment, and allows high‐resolution measurements, large spectra and small fragmentation of the volatiles. Therefore it allows both compound identification and data statistical treatments. In the present work, about 40 compounds that contribute to the discrimination between samples of the two varieties have been identified. CONCLUSIONS Three groups of compounds were identified: (1) compounds that are typical of mature fruits of Ogliarola, (2) compounds that tend to decrease during the change from green to mature fruits, and (3) compounds that increase during the maturation process. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-13T04:06:26.246535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6837
  • Arsenic toxicity in rice with special reference to speciation in Indian
           grain and its implication on human health
    • Authors: Bishwajit Sinha; Kallol Bhattacharyya
      Pages: 1435 - 1444
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rice is a potentially important route of human exposure to arsenic, especially in populations with rice‐based diets. However, arsenic toxicity varies greatly with species. The initial purpose of the present study was to evaluate arsenic speciation in rice. RESULTS It appeared very clear from the present study that inorganic arsenic shared maximum arsenic load in rice straw while in grains it is considerably low. As species recovered from rice grain and straw are principally As(III) and As(V) with a small amount of dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) and almost non‐detectable monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenobetain (AsB). Discussion of the health risk of As in rice has largely been based on its inorganic arsenic content because these species have generally been considered to be more toxic than MMA and DMA and can be directly compared to As in drinking water, assuming equal bioavailability of inorganic As in the rice matrix and in water. The maximum dietary risk of exposure to inorganic arsenic through transplanted boro paddy in the present experiment was calculated to be almost 1706% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake for an adult of 60 kg body weight. CONCLUSION As species recovered from boro rice grain and straw are principally As(III) and As(V) with a small amount of DMA and almost non‐detectable MMA and AsB. Reductions in total As load through organic amendments in boro rice grain and straw samples were manifested predominately through reduced accumulations of inorganic As species [As(III) and As(V)], between which As(V) accounted for the larger share. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T07:36:02.382419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6839
  • Optimisation of ultrasound‐assisted extraction of natural
           antioxidants from mustard seed cultivars
    • Authors: Aleksandra Szydłowska‐Czerniak; Agnieszka Tułodziecka, György Karlovits, Edward Szłyk
      Pages: 1445 - 1453
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Modified mustard varieties can produce edible oil with reduced amounts of erucic acid and glucosinolates and enhanced antioxidant potential. Therefore, this work focused on the optimisation of the ultrasound‐assisted extraction of compounds with high antioxidant capacity from three white mustard seed cultivars using response surface methodology. RESULTS The predicted optimum solvent polarity (57.2, 56.5 and 57.6) and ultrasound power‐to‐sonication time ratio (4.5, 4.8 and 4.3 W min−1) resulted in antioxidant capacities determined by the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay [54.37, 65.75 and 68.55 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE) kg−1] and the 2,2′‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (141.65, 175.26 and 185.10 mmol TE kg−1) and total phenolics content (23.70, 27.16 and 11.29 mg sinapic acid g−1) for extracts obtained from one traditional and two modified mustard seed varieties. The highest FRAP and DPPH values (69.51 and 197.73 mmol TE kg−1) revealed 50% methanolic extract prepared from modified mustard seed cultivar without erucic acid and glucosinolates treated with ultrasound for 30 min (ultrasound power/ultrasound time = 4 W min−1). CONCLUSION Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was found to be a more rapid, convenient and appropriate extraction method with higher yield of antioxidants, shorter time and lower solvent consumption in comparison to conventional extraction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:07:21.281703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6840
  • Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolated from three pig farms of
           China obtained by acquiring antibiotic resistance genes
    • Authors: Jinhu Huang; Kexin Shang, Jam Kashif, Liping Wang
      Pages: 1454 - 1460
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Acquiring antibiotic resistance genes may change an organism's genetic characteristics and the effect of antibiotics, resulting in a rapid transmission of microbial pathogens. The objectives of this experiment were to identify the features of Streptococcus suis (S. suis) isolated from three pig farms in China which are geographically isolated. RESULTS Among the isolates, 56.52% were sequence type 7 (ST7), followed by ST1 (26.09%), indicating that ST7 prevails in China, as revealed by multi‐locus sequence typing (MLST). Statistical analysis indicated an association between geography, sequence types and antibiotic resistance genotypes. 66.67% of the isolates in Sichuan province presented a (ermB− + mefA− + tetO− + tetM−) + ST7 type. The tetM++ST7 type was the most prevalent in Jiangsu province, whereas the strains from Hebei province had a phenotype ermB++tetO++ST1 (63.64%). Pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis (PGFE) pattern A2 with 100% similarity reflected the clonal dissemination between Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces. Strains carrying or not carrying antibiotic resistance genes presented different PFGE patterns in Hebei province. CONCLUSION ST7 is widespread in many regions of China and a clonal dissemination occurred between Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces in diseased pigs. However, ST1 strains with macrolide and tetracycline resistance (ermB++tetO++ST1) isolated from a farm in Hebei province demonstrated that the genetic diversity was contributed by horizontal acquiring of ermB and tetO carrying elements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:07:39.259636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6841
  • Antioxidant activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates in bulk oil and
           oil‐in‐water emulsion
    • Authors: Nopparat Cheetangdee; Soottawat Benjakul
      Pages: 1461 - 1468
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recently, utilization of natural antioxidants in food processing has been of growing interest, owing to the concerns of health hazards of synthetic agents. Protein hydrolysates are a potent candidate for this purpose. In this work, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) with various degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were prepared, and their antioxidant activities in soybean oil and oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsion were examined. RESULTS With increasing DH, RBPH showed increasing antioxidant activities, as evidenced by the increases in DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and ferrous chelating activity (P 
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T03:16:21.714785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6842
  • Biocontrol of post‐harvest Alternaria alternata decay of cherry
           tomatoes with rhamnolipids and possible mechanisms of action
    • Authors: Fujie Yan; Shixiang Xu, Jun Guo, Qianru Chen, Qin Meng, Xiaodong Zheng
      Pages: 1469 - 1474
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rhamnolipids were reported to have evident antifungal activity. The efficacy of rhamnolipids against Alternaria alternata and their possible mechanisms involved were investigated. RESULT The decay incidences of A. alternata of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) treated by rhamnolipids were significantly reduced. The in vitro assays showed that rhamnolipids inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented spore germination and mycelium growth in liquid medium. In addition, the combination of rhamnolipids and essential oil had a synergistic effect leading to the decrease of fungicidal concentrations of laurel oil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological and cell structural alterations in the hyphae. Compared to the control, the content of nucleic acid in supernatant of the suspension of A. alternata increased, while the content of DNA and protein of mycelium decreased, which was in agreement with electrolyte leakage experiments. CONCLUSION Rhamnolipids could be an alternative to chemicals for controlling post‐harvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits and vegetables. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-13T03:45:18.037171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6845
  • The effect of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films on the
           growth of Penicillium expansum in apples
    • Authors: Dovile Simonaitiene; Ieva Brink, Ausra Sipailiene, Daiva Leskauskaite
      Pages: 1475 - 1481
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Penicillium expansum causes a major post‐harvest disease of apples. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effect of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films containing different amounts of quince and cranberry juice against P. expansum on the simulation medium and on apples. The mechanical properties of films were also evaluated. RESULTS The presence of cranberry and quince juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in elasticity and decrease in tensile strength of films. Chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films with quince and cranberry juice demonstrated a significant (P ≤ 0.05) inhibition effect against P. expansum growth on the simulated medium and apples. The presence of cranberry juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films resulted in a longer lag phase and a lower P. expansum growth rate on the simulation medium in comparison with films made with the addition of quince juice. These differences were not evident when experiment was conducted with apples. CONCLUSION Addition of quince and cranberry juice to the chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films as natural antifungal agents has some potential for prolonging the shelf life of apples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:11:34.743533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6846
  • Identification of predictor parameters to determine agro‐industrial
           compost suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora
           capsici diseases in muskmelon and pepper seedlings
    • Authors: Josefa Blaya; Eva Lloret, Margarita Ros, Jose Antonio Pascual
      Pages: 1482 - 1490
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The lack of reliable prediction tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of compost suppressiveness limits its application. In our study, different chemical, biological and microbiological parameters were used to evaluate their potential use as a predictor parameter for the suppressive effect of composts against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) and Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) in muskmelon and pepper seedlings respectively. Composts were obtained from artichoke sludge, chopped vineyard pruning waste and various agro‐industrial wastes (C1: blanched artichokes; C2: garlic waste; C3: dry olive cake). RESULTS Compost C3 proved to offer the highest level of resistance against FOM, and compost C2 the highest level of resistance against P. capsici. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids isolated from compost revealed that the three composts showed different microbial community structures. Protease, NAGase and chitinase activities were significantly higher in compost C3, as was dehydrogenase activity in compost C2. CONCLUSION The use of specific parameters such as general (dehydrogenase activity) and specific enzymatic activities (protease, NAGase and chitinase activities) may be useful to predict compost suppressiveness against both pathogens. The selection of raw materials for agro‐industrial composts is important in controlling Fusarium wilt and Phytophthora root rot. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:11:15.750337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6847
  • Exploration of novel rhizospheric yeast isolate as fertilizing soil
           inoculant for improvement of maize cultivation
    • Authors: Sayani Mukherjee; Sukanta K Sen
      Pages: 1491 - 1499
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chemical input in agriculture is a common practice but makes a serious impact to the environment. In this context, soil isolates having multiple plant growth‐promoting (PGP) attributes have been studied. The isolates were tested for their PO4 and Zn solubilization, indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation ability. The selected isolate SSm‐39 was characterized to molecular level. The isolate SSm‐39 was applied to maize cultivation in various combinations with chemical fertilizers. Also, the chemical and microbial status of soil, its effect on maize growth and yield were investigated. RESULTS Isolate SSm‐39 found most suitable for its PGP attributes and identified as Candida tropicalis. The inoculant (100%) with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer (T5) application notably increased the growth and yield performance of maize. It has improved grain quality by 85% as indicated by carbohydrate and protein content, in comparison to uninoculated control (T3). Soil nutrient status was found to increase twofold with T5 treatment compared with T3 treatment. Enhanced soil nutrient quality supported microbial growth and diversity, thus accelerating soil enzymatic activities. CONCLUSION The results validate the multiple PGP traits of C. tropicalis SSm‐39, advocating reduction of chemical fertilizer for maize cultivation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:57:46.098102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6848
  • Antioxidants and sensory properties of the infusions of wild passiflora
           from Brazilian savannah: potential as functional beverages
    • Authors: Lívia de L de O Pineli; Juliana da S Q Rodrigues, Ana M Costa, Herbert C de Lima, Marileusa D Chiarello, Lauro Melo
      Pages: 1500 - 1506
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The study of biodiversity for species recovery and sustainable use has encouraged research with plants from Brazilian savannah. We aimed to characterize chemical and sensory properties of infusions of passifloras, due to their potential as functional beverages. Infusions and hydroalcoholic extracts of four species of wild passifloras, three varieties of Passiflora edulis and a commercial passiflora tea were evaluated for total phenolics (TPs), total flavonoids (TFs), condensed tannins (CTs), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP). Free‐choice Profile and acceptance, compared with green tea, were performed for sensory characterization. RESULTS In general, infusions had higher levels of TPs and CTs than hydroalcoholic extracts, which in turn had higher levels of TFs. Infusion of P. nitida showed higher amounts of TPs and antioxidant activity. Acceptance of passiflora infusions was similar or higher than that of green tea, except for P. alata. P. setacea presented a sensory profile similar to other commercial teas and higher acceptance by a group of consumers. CONCLUSION Passiflora infusions showed different degrees of suitability as acceptable functional beverage. Identification of phenolics and other bitter compounds is needed to understand the intense bitterness of P. alata, as it did not present the highest contents of TPs, CTs and TFs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T04:06:21.951837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6852
  • Dairy matrix effect on the transference of rosemary (Rosmarinus
           officinalis) essential oil compounds during cheese making
    • Authors: Armando Moro; Celia M Librán, M Isabel Berruga, Manuel Carmona, Amaya Zalacain
      Pages: 1507 - 1513
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of aromatic plant extracts as ingredients may be compromised owing to low transference and activity lack in food matrixes compared with in vitro trials. Rosemary essential oil (REO) was added to sheep milk to study the transference of its compounds during the cheese‐making process and to determine how cheese antimicrobial activity is modified. RESULTS The volatile characterization of dairy samples was performed using headspace stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS‐SBSE/GC/MS) so that fat matrix interferences were reduced. This method detected a decrease in volatile recovery concentration of 19.33% when REO was added to milk. A total recovery volatile yield of 62.51% was measured from the initial quantification of milk to cheese, with hydrocarbon volatiles being transferred in a higher ratio (64.88%) than oxygenated ones (58.74%). No effects were observed for REO in fortified cheese on the counts of native flora necessary for ripening processes, but the total inhibition of Clostridium spp. was provoked CONCLUSION The study of active compound transference during cheese elaboration was achieved. The antimicrobial results in fortified cheeses with REO showed a preventive effect in the case of clostridial species, which are responsible for late cheese blowing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:22:17.541347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6853
  • In vitro assessment of the multifunctional bioactive potential of Alaska
           pollock skin collagen following simulated gastrointestinal digestion
    • Authors: Lidong Guo; Pádraigín A Harnedy, Li Zhang, Bafang Li, Zhaohui Zhang, Hu Hou, Xue Zhao, Richard J FitzGerald
      Pages: 1514 - 1520
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Dietary mineral deficiency, hypertension and diabetes have become serious human health problems. Dietary approaches are increasingly being investigated to address these issues. Identification of food‐derived biological peptides has become an important approach to control such diseases. Peptides generated from aquatic byproducts have been shown to possess biological activities. RESULTS Significantly higher copper‐chelating activity was observed on simulated hydrolysis of intact collagen. The collagen hydrolysate generated in the gastric stage exhibited moderate angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE)‐inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 2.92 ± 0.22 mg mL−1, which significantly decreased to 0.49 ± 0.02 mg mL−1 after intestinal digestion. The dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV‐inhibitory potency of the collagen hydrolysate generated directly following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) (IC50 2.59 ± 0.04 mg mL−1) was significantly lower than that of the collagen tryptic hydrolysate (CTH) (IC50 1.53 ± 0.01 mg mL−1). The antioxidant activities of collagen and CTH using the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were 0.87 ± 0.10 and 1.27 ± 0.03 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE) g−1 respectively after SGID. CONCLUSION This study identifies collagen as a good and inexpensive substrate for the generation of biologically active peptides with potential applications as functional ingredients in the management of chronic illness and mineral deficiency problems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-28T07:06:36.912679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6854
  • Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape
           varieties (Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Aarón de la Cerda‐Carrasco; Remigio López‐Solís, Hugo Nuñez‐Kalasic, Álvaro Peña‐Neira, Elías Obreque‐Slier
      Pages: 1521 - 1527
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health‐promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By‐products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC‐DAD analysis. RESULTS White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low‐molecular‐weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. CONCLUSION Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:33:27.499283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6856
  • Effect of setting temperature on
           glucono‐δ‐lactone‐induced gelation of silver carp
    • Authors: Wuyin Weng; Wenxiang Zheng
      Pages: 1528 - 1534
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Setting temperature is important for heat‐induced surimi gel formation. However, there is little information concerning setting temperature on the properties of glucono‐δ‐lactone (GDL)‐induced surimi gel, which is considered a new preparation technique. RESULTS The pH of surimi gel induced by 2% GDL was about 4.6, while the breaking force of GDL‐induced surimi gel preheated at a temperature range of 35–50 °C was higher than that of heat‐induced surimi gel. The breaking force, deformation and whiteness of GDL‐induced surimi gel were increased with increasing setting temperature from 30 to 45 °C, but water‐holding capacity was decreased. When setting temperature was further increased to 50 °C, the textural properties were decreased, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) was degraded slightly. The data of protein subunits solubilized in various solvents revealed that MHC participated in the formation of GDL‐induced surimi gel mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, when GDL‐induced surimi gel was preheated at 45 °C, a compact and fine fiber microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSION Setting treatment at the appropriate temperature could promote the formation of a fine, compact GDL‐induced surimi gel network, resulting in improved textural properties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:34:14.599025-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6857
  • Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of
           ginseng adulteration
    • Authors: Shaoqing Cui; Liangcheng Yang, Jun Wang, Xinlei Wang
      Pages: 1535 - 1543
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time‐consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. RESULTS It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R2 = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. CONCLUSION Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-05T03:34:59.095718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6858
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis optimization of Paphia undulata and lymphocyte
           proliferation activity of the isolated peptide fractions
    • Authors: Xiao Qing He; Wen Hong Cao, Guang Kun Pan, Liu Yang, Chao Hua Zhang
      Pages: 1544 - 1553
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The immune system is important in preventing and controlling various infectious diseases. Immunoactive peptides derived from food proteins could exert immunomodulatory activity without side effects. Paphia undulata with high‐protein is suitable for the production of immunoactive peptides. The objective of this study was to optimize the hydrolysis parameters to maximize the immune activity of hydrolysates from Paphia undulata. RESULTS Hydrolysis parameters, including temperature, time and the ratio of alkaline protease to Paphia undulata meat (E/S), were optimized by response surface methodology with a central composite design. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: temperature, 51 °C; time, 3.14 h; E/S, 4,321 U g−1 (Paphia undulata meat). Furthermore, hydrolysates obtained under the optimum conditions were fractionated by ultrafiltration and gel filtration on a Sephadex G‐25 column. After two‐step isolation, the isolated fractions (P2 and P3) including the peptides Pro‐His‐Thr‐Cys, Val‐Gly‐Try‐Thr, Glu‐Phe, Leu‐Phe, and Glu‐Gly‐Ala‐Lys, Trp‐Ile or Trp‐Leu, respectively, could significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation ability. CONCLUSION These results showed that response surface methodology and two‐step separation were efficient for recovery of low‐molecular‐weight peptides with high spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity, and the isolated fractions of Paphia undulata hydrolysates are potential ingredients for development of functional foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-05T03:35:18.468939-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6859
  • A novel pectin‐degrading enzyme complex from Aspergillus sojae ATCC
           20235 mutants
    • Authors: Marco A. Mata‐Gómez; Doreen Heerd, Iñigo Oyanguren‐García, Francis Barbero, Marco Rito‐Palomares, Marcelo Fernández‐Lahore
      Pages: 1554 - 1561
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the food industry, the use of pectinase preparations with high pectin esterase (PE) activity leads to the release of methanol, which is strictly regulated in food products. Herein, a pectin‐degrading enzyme (PDE) complex exhibiting low PE activity of three Aspergillus sojae ATCC 20235 mutants (M3, DH56 and Guserbiot 2.230) was investigated. Production of exo‐/endo‐polygalacturonase (PG), exo‐polymethylgalacturonase (PMG) and pectin lyase (PL) by mutant M3 and A. sojae using two different carbon sources was evaluated in solid‐state fermentation. Finally, experimental preparations obtained from the mutants and commercial pectinases standardized to the same potency were screened for PDEs. RESULTS Mutant M3 grown on sugar beet was found to be the best producer of exo‐PG, endo‐PG, exo‐PMG and PL, with maximum yields of 1111, 449, 130 and 123 U g−1, respectively. All experimental preparations exhibited low PE activity, at least 21.5 times less than commercial pectinases, and higher endo‐PG (40 U mL−1). CONCLUSION Mutant M3 was the best PDE producer using sugar beet. Mutant strains presented a PDE complex featuring high endo‐PG and very low PE activities. This novel complex with low de‐esterifying activity can be exploited in the food industry to degrade pectin without releasing methanol. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-02T05:21:44.671546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6864
  • Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds and
           antioxidant properties in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)
    • Authors: Karent Bravo; Stella Sepulveda‐Ortega, Oscar Lara‐Guzman, Alejandro A Navas‐Arboleda, Edison Osorio
      Pages: 1562 - 1569
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued for its organoleptic properties and bioactive compounds. Considering that the presence of phenolics and ascorbic acid could contribute to its functional capacity, it is important to investigate the quality parameters, bioactive contents and functional properties with respect to genotype and ripening time. In this study the genotype effect was evaluated in 15 cultivars for two different harvest times. Changes during maturation were recorded in two commercial cultivars within seven levels of maturity. RESULTS Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phenolic content and ORAC value were mainly affected by harvest time and that ascorbic acid content and DPPH level were mainly affected by genotype. In addition, acidity, phenolic content, ORAC value and inhibition of LDL oxidation decreased with maturity, but soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, β‐carotene content and DPPH‐scavenging activity were higher in mature fruits. CONCLUSION The phenolic content, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of Cape gooseberry fruit were strongly affected by cultivar, harvest time and maturity state. Consequently, the harvest time must be scheduled carefully to gain the highest proportion of bioactive compounds according to the specific cultivar and the environment where it is grown. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T09:19:19.615219-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6866
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