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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (209 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Phytogenic pigments in animal nutrition: potentials and risks
    • Authors: Bettina Faehnrich; Brigitte Lukas, Elke Humer, Qendrim Zebeli
      Abstract: Phytogenic pigments are secondary plant compounds responsible for coloring effects in plant tissues. In particular, phenolic flavonoids and terpenoid carotenoids, but also rare compounds like curcumin and betalain form this group of bio‐chemical agents used in animal nutrition. From the perspective of ecological mutuality between plants and animals, these compounds are of crucial importance because they serve as visual attraction for herbivores but also signal nutritional and/or health‐promoting values. This review focuses on the properties of phytogenic pigments which are likely to impact feed intake and preferences of livestock. Also natural prophylactic and/or therapeutic properties and in particular potential of pigments to enhance quality and health value of animal products for human consumption are important issues. Nevertheless, reasonable limits of use due to possible adverse indications have been suggested recently. Pathways of digestion, metabolism and excretion in animal play a crucial role not only in the evaluation of effectiveness but also in the prediction of potential risks for human consumption. The popularity of natural feed additives is growing; therefore more research work is needed to better understand metabolic pathways in the animal's body and to better estimate the potentials and risks of pigmenting plant compounds used in animal nutrition.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:50:27.847596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7478
  • Nutrition recommendations and science – next parallel steps
    • Authors: Mikael Fogelholm
      Abstract: This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population‐based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in getting more benefits out of nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance, and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies, such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to get more insight on how to change eating behaviour for better health on population level.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:49:50.052205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7479
  • Emu oil decreases atherogenic plaque formation in cafeteria diet induced
           obese rats
    • Authors: Soundararajan Kamalakkannan; P.B.Tirupathi Pichiah, Seenivasan Kalaiselvi, Arunachalam Sankarganesh, Shanmugam Achiraman
      Abstract: Background Atherosclerosis induced coronary heart disease—caused by elevated levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and inflammation—is one of the most prevalent diseases. Monounsaturated fatty acids are reported to prevent atherosclerosis; emu oil being a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acid, we hypothesize that emu oil supplementation could lower inflammation and prevent atherosclerosis in Diet Induced Obese (DIO) animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=6), and fed with Normal Diet (chow pellet)‐ND, or with Cafeteria Diet‐ CD, or with Cafeteria Diet–CD along with emu oil supplementation at three different doses of ED1 (2ml), ED2 (4ml) and ED3 (8ml) kg−1 BW respectively. Results After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and serum was analyzed for measuring lipid profile, C–reactive proteins, testosterone and LH. Histopathological studies were performed to observe atherogenic changes in thoracic aorta. Restoration of altered lipid and hormonal profiles, and inhibition of atherognic changes in thoracic aorta were observed with supplementation of emu oil, confirming its anti‐atherosclerotic activity. Conclusion High content of oleic acid in emu oil could have orchestrated—either solely or in combinations with linoleic and linolenic acids—in up regulating testosterone biosynthesis and inhibiting atheromatous plaque formation in diet induced obese animals.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:49:21.439917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7480
  • Developing a Carob‐Based Milk Beverage Using Different Varieties of
           Carob Pods and Two Roasting Treatments and Assessing Their Effect on
           Quality Characteristics
    • Authors: Nadine Srour; Hamza Daroub, Imad Toufeili, Ammar Olabi
      Abstract: Background This work aimed at formulating a carob‐based milk beverage and assessing its chemical and sensory properties. Six varieties of carob pods, each processed into roasted and unroasted powders, were used to develop twelve prototypes of the beverage. Chemical and physicochemical analyses (moisture, ash, fiber, protein, sugars, total‐phenolics, total‐antioxidants, water activity and color) and sensory tests were conducted. Results Variety of carob pod had a significant effect on all chemical variables in carob powders(p
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:48:59.384319-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7476
  • In ovo administration of copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate
           positively influences chicken performance
    • Abstract: Background Copper (Cu) is a key trace mineral involved in a variety of physiological processes, and is commonly used in poultry production. However, regardless of the inclusion level the majority of Cu is excreted with poultry faeces. We hypothesize that in ovo administration will allow for better utilisation of Cu during embryo development than when supplied postnatally with feed to growing chickens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of in ovo administration of NanoCu and copper sulphate (CuSO4) on broiler chicken performance Results The study showed the positive influences of Cu nanoparticles and CuSO4 on broiler chickens performance. Body weight, at the end of the rearing period (day 42) was significantly higher in NanoCu (2206 g) and CuSO4 (2402 g) groups compared to the control group (2000 g). Both treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion rate and mortality, and higher percentage of breast and leg muscles in the carcass versus control. Conclusion The in ovo application of Cu colloids may ensure an efficient penetration of Cu into the embryonic tissue with long lasting effects on postnatal growth. The method may provide a successful alternative to using Cu as a feed additive.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:48:30.932562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7477
  • Metabolomic analysis can detect the composition of pasta enriched with
           fibre after cooking
    • Authors: Romina Beleggia; Valeria Menga, Cristiano Platani, Franca Nigro, Mariagiovanna Fragasso, Clara Fares
      Abstract: Background Several studies have demonstrated that metabolomics has a definite place in food quality, nutritional value, and safety issues. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the metabolites in different pasta samples with fibre, and to investigate the modifications induced in these different kinds of pasta during cooking, using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS)‐based metabolomics approach. Results Differences were seen for some of the amino acids, which were absent in control pasta, while were present both in the commercial available high‐fibre pasta (A‐C) and the enriched pasta (D‐F). The highest content in reducing sugars was observed in enriched samples in comparison with high fibre ‐ pasta. The presence of stigmasterol in sample enriched with wheat bran was relevant. Cooking decreased all of the metabolites: the high‐fibre pasta (A‐C) and Control showed losses of amino acids and tocopherols, while for sugars and organic acids, the decrease depended on the pasta sample. The enriched pasta samples (D‐F) showed the same decreases with the exception of phytosterols, and in pasta with barley the decrease of SFAs was not significant as for tocopherols in pasta with oat. The PCA of the metabolites and the pasta discrimination was effective in the differentiation of the enriched pasta from the commercial pasta, both uncooked and cooked. Conclusions The study has established that such metabolomic analyses provide useful tools in the evaluation of the changes in nutritional compounds in high‐fibre and enriched pasta, both before and after cooking.
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T03:48:59.352251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7473
  • Iron migration from undamaged and dented juice tinplate cans
    • Abstract: Background Iron migration from tinplate cans to pineapple drink was studied along time by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), having in consideration, storage temperature, sell‐by date, and can condition (dented/undamaged). An organoleptic test, at the sell‐by date, was also performed. Result Analysis of iron in drinks from tinplate cans, glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were performed till the sell‐by date. For undamaged canned drinks stored at room temperature, iron was found to remain constant at 0.23±0.01 mg L−1, since the 24th day till one year after production. Iron found in glass and PET bottles, also remained constant till the sell‐by date, at 0.15±0.04 and 0.12±0.04 mg L−1, respectively. However, migration of iron from dented cans was found to be significant. Twelve months after production, iron content in dented cans, stored at room temperature (22°C), and in a refrigerator chamber (4°C), was 14.4±1.0 mg L−1 and 5.5±0.4 mg L−1, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that for a 35 kg child, the intake of 3 damaged canned drinks may contribute with more that 50% of the iron Provisional Maximum Tolerance Daily Intake (PMTDI).
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T07:13:16.704259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7474
  • How the variance of some extraction variables may affect the quality of
           espresso coffees served at coffee shop?
    • Authors: Severini C; Derossi A, Fiore A.G, De Pilli T, Alessandrino O, Del Mastro A.
      Abstract: Background To improve the quality of espresso coffee, the variables under the control of barista, such as grinding grades, coffee quantities and pressure applied on coffee cake as well as their variance are of great importance. A nonlinear mixed effect modeling was used to obtain information on the changes in chemical attributes of espresso coffee (EC) as a function of the variability of extraction conditions. Results During extraction, the changes in volume were well described by a logistic model while the chemical attributes were better fit by a first order kinetic. The major source of information was contained into the grinding grade which accounted for the 87‐96% of the variance of experimental data. The variability of the grinding produced changes in caffeine content in the range of 80.03 mg and 130.36 mg when using a constant grinding grade of 6.5. Conclusion The variability in volume and chemical attributes of EC is large. The grinding had the most important effect showing as the variability in particle size distribution observed for each grinding level had a profound effect on the quality of EC. The standardization of the grinding would be of crucial importance for obtaining all espresso coffees with a high quality standard.
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T07:08:03.673136-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7472
  • Estimation of total soluble solids in grape berries using a hand held NIR
           spectrometer under field conditions
    • Abstract: Background Recent studies have reported the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectral analyzers for monitoring the ripeness of grape berries alternatively to wet chemistry methods. This study covers various aspects regarding the calibration and implementation of predictive models of total soluble solids (TSS) in grape berries using laboratory and in‐field collected NIR spectra. Results The performance of the calibration models obtained under laboratory conditions indicated that at least 700 berry samples are required to assure enough prediction accuracy. A statistically significant error reduction (Δ RMSECV=0.1 °Brix) with p
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:46:55.778291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7470
  • Production of the natural iron chelator deferriferrichrysin from
    • Authors: Takehiko Todokoro; Katsuharu Fukuda, Kengo Matsumura, Motoko Irie, Yoji Hata
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Deferriferrichrysin (Dfcy) is a siderophore found in foods fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and is a promising candidate for an antioxidant food additive because of its high binding constant toward iron. However, the Dfcy concentration is typically low in foods and cultures. RESULTS We optimized culture conditions to improve Dfcy production to 2800 mg L−1 from 22.5 mg L−1 under typical conditions. Then, we evaluated the potential of Dfcy as a food additive by measuring its safety, stability, and antioxidant activity. Dfcy was sufficiently stable that over 90% remained after pasteurization at 63°C for 30 min at pH 3–11, or after sterilization at 120°C for 4 min at pH 4–6. Dfcy showed high antioxidant activity in an oil‐in‐water model, where inhibition of lipid oxidation was measured by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. Dfcy decreased PV and TBARS by 83% and 75%, respectively. Antioxidant activity of Dfcy was equal to or higher than that of the synthetic chelator EDTA. CONCLUSION Our study provides the first practical method for production of Dfcy. Dfcy can be a novel food‐grade antioxidant and the first natural alternative to the synthesized iron chelator EDTA.
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:46:05.188811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7469
  • Impacts of degree of milling on the appearance and aroma characteristics
           of raw rice
    • Abstract: Background Little has been reported about the sensory impact of degree of milling (DOM) on raw, uncooked rice. This study focuses on the effects of DOM, which was measured by surface lipid content (SLC), on appearance and aroma attributes of raw rice, as well as the appearance of cooked rice; greater DOM leads to lesser SLC levels. Results Milled‐rice samples with SLCs of 0.64, 0.59, 0.42, and 0.25%, as well as brown rice (2.27% total lipid content), were evaluated by trained panelists on three appearance‐ and five aroma‐related attributes of raw rice, as well as four appearance‐related attributes of the resultant cooked rice. All milled‐rice samples, varying in SLC level from 0.64 to 0.25%, differed from brown rice with respect to raw‐rice and cooked‐rice appearance and aroma attributes. A significant sensory difference among the four raw‐rice samples was present only in the degree of whiteness; however, such a difference was absent once the samples were cooked. When cooked, highly‐milled rice (0.25% SLC) was rated glossier than either lightly‐milled rice (0.64% SLC) or brown rice. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that sensory impacts of DOM on raw rice were present between brown rice and milled‐rice samples, but not among the milled‐rice samples varying in SLC level from 0.64 to 0.25%. The overall findings indicate that consumers may not detect appearance‐ or aroma‐related differences among raw‐rice samples ranging in SLC from 0.64 to 0.25%.
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:44:35.955106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7471
  • Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of
           camel meat emulsion sausages
    • Authors: Hussein M. H. Mohamed; Mohamed M. T. Emara, Taha M. Nouman
      Abstract: Background The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Results Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85°C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105°C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilization of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Conclusion Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries.
      PubDate: 2015-09-22T06:44:26.557842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7468
  • Properties of a novel polydatin‐β‐D‐glucosidase
           from Aspergillus niger SK34.002 and its application in enzymatic
           preparation of resveratrol
    • Authors: Linfang Zhou; Shuhua Li, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Bo Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Resveratrol and its glucoside polydatin are the main stilbenes in Polygonum cuspidatum. Resveratrol has become the subject of intensive research over the past two decades owing to its outstanding pharmacological properties. However, its lower concentration in plants compared to polydatin limits its application. In this study, the polydatin‐β‐D‐glucosidase (PBG) that hydrolyzes β‐D‐glucosyl residue of polydatin with release of resveratrol was purified to homogeneity and characterized. RESULTS The molecular weight of PBG was estimated to be 125 kDa by SDS‐PAGE and 128 kDa by SEC‐MALLS/UV/RI. The optimal PBG activity was observed at 70 °C and pH 4.5. The enzyme showed around 50% stability at 60 °C for 12 h and residual activity was over 80% at pH 3.0‐5.0. Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ba2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions had no significant affect on the enzyme activity. The PBG presented higher affinity to polydatin (Km = 0.74 mmol L−1) than p‐nitrophenyl‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (Km = 2.9 mmol L−1) and cellobiose (Km = 8.9 mmol L−1). CONCLUSION With this enzyme, nearly all polydatin in P. cuspidatum was converted to resveratrol. Although several β‐D‐glucosidases (BGLs) have been obtained from other sources, the PBG is distinguished from other BGLs by its outstanding thermal stability and high catalytic efficiency.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:39:07.781078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7465
  • Moderate water stress prevents the postharvest decline of ascorbic acid in
    • Authors: Lars M Mogren; Andrew M Beacham, John P H Reade, James M Monaghan
      Abstract: Background Babyleaf salads such as Spinach (S. oleracea L.) and spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla var. cicla) are an important dietary source of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Such compounds may be important in disease prevention in consumers but the level of these compounds in leaves frequently declines after harvest. As such, methods to maintain antioxidant levels in fresh produce are being sought. Results Irrigation deficits were used to apply water stress to S. oleracea and B. vulgaris plants. This treatment prevented postharvest decline of leaf ascorbic acid content in S. oleracea but not in B. vulgaris. Ascorbic acid levels in leaves at harvest were unaffected by the treatment in both species compared to well‐watered controls. Conclusion We have shown that restricted irrigation provides a viable means to maintain leaf vitamin content after harvest in S. oleracea, an important finding for producers, retailers and consumers alike.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:38:43.853257-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7464
  • Synthesis and characterization of a stable humic‐urease complex:
           application to barley seed encapsulation for improving N uptake
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Most of the N fertilizers added to the soil are not efficiently used by plants and are lost to the atmosphere or leached from the soil, causing environmental pollution and increasing cost. The barley seed encapsulation in calcium alginate gels containing free or immobilized urease was investigated to enhance plant utilization of soil N. RESULTS Urease was immobilized with soil humic acids (HA). A central composite face‐centered design was applied to optimize the immobilization process, reaching an immobilization yield of 127%. Soil stability of urease was enhanced after the immobilization. The seed encapsulation with free urease (FU) and humic‐urease complex (HUC) resulted in an urease activity retention in the coating layer of 46 and 24%, and in germination rates of 87 and 92%, respectively. Under pot culture conditions, the pots planted with seeds encapsulated with FU and HUC showed higher ammonium N (NH4+‐N) (26 and 64%, respectively) than the control soil at 28 days after planting (DAP). Moreover, the seed encapsulation with FU and HUC increased the N uptake 83 and 97%, respectively, at 35 DAP. CONCLUSION The seed encapsulation with urease could substantially contribute to enhance the plant N nutrition in the early stages of seedling establishment.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:37:54.288106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7466
  • Within‐season yield prediction with different nitrogen inputs under
           rain‐fed condition using CERES‐Wheat model in northwest of
    • Authors: Zhengpeng Li; Mingdan Song, Hao Feng, Ying Zhao
      Abstract: Background Yield prediction within season is of great use to improve agricultural risk management and decision making. The objectives of this study were to access the yield forecast performance with increasing nitrogen inputs and to determine when the acceptable predicted yield can be achieved using CERES‐Wheat model. Results the calibrated model simulated wheat yield very well under various water and nitrogen conditions. Long‐term simulation demonstrated nitrogen input enlarged the annual variability of wheat yield generally. Within‐season yield prediction showed that: regardless of nitrogen inputs yield forecasts in later growing season improved the accuracy and reduced the uncertainty of yield prediction. In low‐yielding year (2011–2012) /high‐yielding year (1991–1992), the date of acceptable predicted yield was achieved 62 and 65 days prior to wheat maturity, respectively. In normal‐yielding year (1983–1984), Inadequate precipitation after jointing stage in most historical years led to the under‐estimation of wheat yield and the date of accurate yield prediction was delayed to 235–250 day after simulation (7–22 days prior to maturity) for different N inputs. Conclusion Yield prediction was highly influenced by the distribution of meteorological elements during growing season and it may have a great improvement that the provided reliable future weather can be forecasted early.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:36:43.327622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7467
  • Physico‐chemical and microbiological characterization of Italian
           fermented sausages in relation to their size
    • Authors: Giulia Tabanelli; Eleonora Bargossi, Aldo Gardini, Rosalba Lanciotti, Rudy Magnani, Fausto Gardini, Chiara Montanari
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to study the physico‐chemical and microbiological parameters of 10 Italian fermented sausages industrially produced in order to highlight the differences in relation to their size. The sausages were classified as small, medium and large and the data concerning every feature considered were analyzed with some statistical explorative tools: ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). RESULTS Significant differences in relation to the sausage size were found regarding microbial populations (regarding in particular enterobacteria and staphylococci). The pH was higher in the small sausages, and consequently the presence of lactate and acetate was higher in the bigger one. Also the biogenic amine content (particularly tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine) was influenced by the size. CONCLUSIONS In spite of the extreme variability of the sausage types at the end of ripening, this work evidenced that it was possible to find a strict relationship between sausages diameter and some essential physico‐chemical parameters. Thus, the cross‐sectional size of the product is an essential parameter, which can drive the biochemical processes during ripening, not only by affecting the kinetics of water losses, but also by influencing the microbiota enzymatic activity.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:40:30.868059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7442
  • "Laba" garlic processed by Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: the relation
           between green color generation and cellular structure, alliin consumption
           and alliinase activity
    • Authors: Dandan Tao; Bing Zhou, Luyao Zhang, Xiaosong Hu, Xiaojun Liao, Yan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND “Laba” garlic is usually processed by soaking garlic in vinegar for more than one week during winter, it is popular for its unique green color and tasty flavor. Greening is desirable and required for this product as its characteristic. Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide (DPCD) had a significant effect on the greening of intact garlic (Allium sativum L) cloves. The relation between green color generation and alliin consumption, alliinase activity and the cellular structure of garlic were respectively investigated in this work. The effects of treatment time, pressure and temperature of DPCD were also analyzed and discussed. RESULTS DPCD had a significant effect on the cellular structure of garlic cells. Garlic protoplast underwent greater morphological change after DPCD treatments at higher temperatures while the amount of precipitate increased with greater treatment time and temperature. Common trends on garlic greening and alliin consumption were observed except for DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 65 °C. The alliinase activity decreased with increasing treatment time, pressure and temperature. It reached the lowest level at 13 MPa and 55 °C. CONCLUSION The green color formation was a comprehensive result of DPCD on changing cellular structure, alliin consumption and alliinase activity. DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 55 °C was the optimum condition for the greening of “Laba” garlic. This work further facilitated the application of DPCD in the industrial production of “Laba” garlic.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:47:23.782782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7463
  • Cinnamon intake reduces serum T3 level and modulates tissue‐specific
           expression of thyroid hormone receptor and target genes in rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Cinnamon has several effects on energy metabolism. However, no data exist on the impact of cinnamon intake on thyroid hormone serum concentrations and action, since thyroid hormones (TH) play a major role in metabolism. RESULTS Male rats were treated with cinnamon water extract (400 mg kg−1 body weight, 25 days). Cinnamon supplementation resulted in a lower serum total T3 level accompanied by normal serum T4 and TSH levels. The cinnamon‐treated rats did not exhibit significant differences in TSHβ subunit, TRβ or deiodinase type 2 mRNA expression in the pituitary. In the liver, cinnamon did not change the TRβ protein expression or the deiodinase type 1 mRNA expression, suggesting that there were no changes in T3 signaling or metabolism in this organ. However, mitochondrial GPDH, a target gene for T3 in the liver, exhibited no changes in mRNA expression, although its activity level was reduced by cinnamon. In the cardiac ventricle, T3 action was markedly reduced by cinnamon, as demonstrated by the lower TRα mRNA and protein levels, reduced SERCA2a and RyR2 and increased phospholamban mRNA expression. CONCLUSION This study has revealed that TH action is a novel target of cinnamon, demonstrating impairment of T3 signaling in the cardiac ventricles.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:45:53.299389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7460
  • Chemical composition, nutritional value and in vitro starch digestibility
           of roasted chickpeas
    • Abstract: Background Chickpea is considered a wholesome and nutritious food due to its nutritional properties and glycemic response. Such properties can be influenced by the thermal treatment used to cook this legume and produce a snack named leblebi. From the consumers’ point of view, it is desirable to improve texture and palatability of the chickpea by the processing steps used to make leblebi. However, consumers are increasingly concerned with the nutritional value of snack foods. Results Nutritional components and digestibility properties of single and double heat‐treated chickpea, single and double roasted leblebi and white leblebi were studied. High sodium, starch damage and soluble dietary fiber content were observed in white leblebi; while the other samples showed significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:45:04.11199-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7461
  • Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose
           severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage
    • Authors: Babak Madani; Amin Mirshekari, Elhadi Yahia
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Therehave been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. RESULTS Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium‐treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to thecontrol, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after six days in storage, for the 2%calcium treatment compared to thecontrol. Calcium‐treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. CONCLUSION Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintainingpapaya fruit quality during ambient storage.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:44:43.157882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7462
  • Simultaneous decontamination and drying of rough rice using combined
           pulsed light and holding treatment
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Pulsed light (PL) technology has been proven effective in food disinfection. However, increasing the light intensity or treatment time could swiftly increase the temperature of the food product. Using the thermal effect in a proper way may achieve a simultaneous disinfection and drying effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous disinfection and drying of rough rice using PL and holding treatment. RESULTS Freshly harvested rice samples were inoculated by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and treated using PL under different intensities and durations followed by holding treatment. The PL treatment under intensity of 1.08 W cm−2 for 21 s led to a reduction of 0.29 log cfu g−1 on population size of A. flavus spores. After holding treatment, a 5.2 log cfu g−1 reduction was achieved. The corresponding total moisture removal reached to 3.3% points. No adverse effect on milling quality was detected after the treatment. CONCLUSION The obtained results revealed that the combined PL and holding treatment had a good potential for successful application in the rice industry to simultaneously achieve disinfection and drying.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T04:44:06.099205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7458
  • Quality changes of cuttlefish stored under various atmosphere
           modifications and vacuum packaging
    • Authors: Achilleas D. Bouletis; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Christos Neofitou, Parlapani Foteini, Dimitrios C. Gkagtzis
      Abstract: Backround Seafood preservation and its self‐life prolongation are two of the main issues placing obstacles to the seafood industry. As a result, and in view of the market globalization, research has been triggered in this direction by applying several techniques such as Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP), Vacuum Packaging (VP) and Active Packaging (AP) among others. However, there is seafood such as octopus, cuttlefish and others that have not been thoroughly investigated up to now. The aim of this research was to determine the optimal conditions of modified atmosphere under which the cuttlefish storage time and consequently shelf‐life time could be prolonged without endangering the consumers’ safety. Results It was found that cuttlefish shelf‐life reached 2, 2, 4, 8 and 8 days for control, vacuum, MAP 1, MAP 2 and MAP 3 treated samples, respectively judging by their sensorial attributes. Elevated CO2 levels had a strong microbiostatic effect, whereas storage under vacuum did not offer significant advantages. All physicochemical attributes of MAP treated samples were better preserved compared to control. Conclusion Application of high CO2 atmospheres such as MAP 2 and MAP 3 proved to be an effective strategy toward preserving the characteristics and prolonging the shelf life of fresh cuttlefish and thereby improving its potential in the market.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T04:42:53.142479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7459
  • Rapid and sensitive screening of some acidic micronutrients in infant
           foods by HPLC with fluorescent detector
    • Authors: Guoliang Li; Weiheng Kong, Guangsen Fan, Wenli Wang, Na Hu, Guang Chen, Xianen Zhao, Jinmao You
      Abstract: Background Currently, commercially prepared complementary foods have become an important part of the diet of many infants and toddlers. But the method for simultaneous analysis of different types micronutrient remain poorly investigated, which hinders the rapid and comprehensive quality control of infant foods. In the presented study, we first tried to employ the fluorescence labeling strategy combining with HPLC‐FLD for simultaneous determination of some acidic micronutrients including biotin, nicotinic acid, linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in infant foods. Results 2‐(5‐Benzoacridine) ethyl‐p‐toluenesulfonate (BAETS) was used as the fluorescence labeling reagent for simultaneous labeling of the seven components. The labeling conditions were optimized systematically by response surface methodology. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves of the tested compounds ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9998. Limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 1.99 ‐ 3.05 nmol/L. RSD values of retention time and peak area of seven compounds were less than 0.05 % and 0.75 %, respectively. The intra‐ and inter‐day precisions were in the range of 1.81‐ 3.80 % and 3.21‐ 4.30 %, respectively. When applied to analyze several infant foods, it showed good applicability. Conclusion The developed method has been proven to be simple, inexpensive, selective, sensitive, accurate and reliable for analysis of some acidic micronutrients in infant foodstuffs. Furthermore, this developed method also has powerful potential in the analysis of many other complementary foodstuffs.
      PubDate: 2015-09-12T01:43:51.848212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7457
  • Authentication of the origin of sucrose‐based sugar products using
           quantitative natural abundance 13C NMR
    • Authors: Yulia B. Monakhova; Bernd W.K. Diehl
      Abstract: Background Due to possible falsification of sugar cane products with cheaper alternative (sugar beet) on the market, a simple analytical methodology has to be developed to control the authenticity of sugar products. Results A direct 13C NMR method has been validated to differentiate between sucrose‐based sugar products produced from sugar beet (C3 plant) and sugar cane (C4 plant). The method based on calculating relative 13C content of the C1, C2, C5, and the C1, C4, C5, C6 positions of the glycosyl and fructosyl moieties of the sucrose molecule, respectively. NMR acquisition parameters and data processing have been optimized to reach a high level of intraday and interday precision (
      PubDate: 2015-09-12T01:43:27.393195-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7456
  • Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut
           (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by
    • Authors: Suellen Gomes; Alexandre G Torres
      Abstract: Background The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by‐product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. Results The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved with the following conditions: ethanol:water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization with Ultra‐turrax®; and one hour extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by HPLC‐PDA. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4‐dihydroxybenzoic acid, p‐hydroxybenzoic acid, p‐coumaric acid, and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)‐catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg−1. Conclusion Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T01:24:24.876394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7448
  • Extraction, partial purification and characterization of vanillic acid
           decarboxylase from Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3923
    • Authors: Rui Cai; Dongyu Li, Yahong Yuan, Zhouli Wang, Chunfeng Guo, Bin Liu, Tianli Yue
      Abstract: Background Vanillic acid decarboxylase (VAD) is the key enzyme responsible for guaiacol production in Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris; however, information related to this enzyme is currently unavailable. The aim of this study is to characterize the VAD from A. acidoterrestris. Results Specific activity of VAD in vanillic acid‐induced A. acidoterrestris DSM 3923 cells was highest in the early stage of log phase, and almost could not be detectable in stationary and death phases. Of the four techniques used to extract VAD, sonication was found to be the most effective and recovered 3.23 U mg−1 of VAD. Through optimization of the crucial parameters for sonication, the recovery of VAD had more than doubled (6.81 U mg−1). The crude enzyme extract was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a 9.87‐fold purification was obtained. The partially purified VAD exhibited optimum activity at pH 6.0‐6.5, 45°C and was stable at pH 5.0‐7.5, 20‐45°C. The Km and Vmax values of the VAD were 0.53 mmol L−1 and 96 U mg−1 protein, respectively. VAD activity was stimulated by Co2+ and Mn2+, but was inhibited by Ni2+, Cu2+, Ba2+ and Fe3+. Cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin and rutin at the concentration of 1 mmol L−1 could completely inhibit the activity of VAD. Conclusion The present study provides the first report on the characteristics of the VAD from A. acidoterrestris, which will contribute to the development of more effective control methods to minimize A. acidoterrestris‐related spoilage in fruit juices.
      PubDate: 2015-09-09T04:39:53.846378-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7455
  • Effect of postharvest Ultraviolet‐C treatment on the proteome
           changes in fresh cut mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan)
    • Authors: Dominic Soloman George; Zuliana Razali, Vicknesha Santhirasegaram, Chandran Somasundram
      Abstract: Background Postharvest treatments of fruits such as ultraviolet‐C have been linked with maintenance of the fruits quality as well as shelf‐life extension. However, the effects of this treatment on the quality of fruits on a proteomic level remain unclear. This study was conducted in order to understand the response of mango fruit to postharvest UV‐C irradiation. Results Approximately 380 reproducible spots were detected following two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Through gel analysis, 24 spots were observed to be differentially expressed in UV‐C treated fruits and 20 were successfully identified via LCMS/MS. Postharvest UV‐C treatment resulted in degradative effects on these identified proteins of which 40% were related to stress response, 45% to energy and metabolism and 15% to ripening and senescence. In addition, quality and shelf‐life analysis of control and irradiated mangoes was evaluated. UV‐C was found to be successful in retention of quality and extension of shelf‐life up to 15 days. Furthermore, UV‐C was also successful in increasing antioxidants (total flavonoid, reducing power and ABTS scavenging activity) in mangoes. Conclusion This study provides an overview of the effects of UV‐C treatment on the quality of mango on a proteomic level as well as the potential of this treatment in shelf‐life extension of fresh‐cut fruits.
      PubDate: 2015-09-09T04:16:40.415305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7454
  • Sugar and phenol content in apple with or without watercore
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Watercore is a physiological disorder affecting fruit of some apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars. Intercellular spaces are filled with fluid, which reduces intercellular air space volume. In this study individual phenolic content, sugars and organic acids in watercore affected flesh have been identified and quantified. Peroxidase activity was also measured, as a potential stress indicator. The study was performed on three cultivars prone to watercore development ‘Delicious’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Fuji’. RESULTS Total phenolic content was higher in flesh of fruit without watercore in all three cultivars, which was mainly due to higher individual and total flavanol content. In contrast, total and individual dihydrochalcone content was higher in watercore flesh, where it was up to 2.4 times higher from the flesh of fruit without watercore. Also, peroxidase activity was higher in watercore flesh. CONCLUSION Higher peroxidase activity and total and individual dihydrochalcone content leads us to believe that oxidative stress occurred. These results show that watercore has an influence on apple fruit sugar and phenol content even before any visual signs of internal breakdown and browning. With the development of non‐destructive techniques for phenol content determination, the knowledge about phenolic changes in watercore affected fruits could aid with apple fruit sorting.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T03:16:13.058198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7453
  • Isolation of cytotoxic diterpenoids from the Chilean medicinal
           plant Azorella compacta Phil from the Atacama Desert by
           high‐speed counter‐current chromatography
    • Abstract: Background Azorella compacta (Apiaceae) is a native Chilean cushion shrub which produces a resin containing mulinane and azorellane diterpenoids. This plant is used since precolombian times to treat inflammation and dental neuralgias. In this work the first preparative fractionation of diterpenoids present in this plant by means of high‐speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was applied, and cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated for the first time against a panel of MCF7 cells. Results The mayor compounds isolated were identified by means of spectroscopy as azorellanol, 13α, 14α‐dihydroxymulin‐11‐en‐20‐oic acid, mulinolic acid, mulin‐11,13‐dien‐20‐oic acid, 17‐acetoxy‐mulin‐11,13 dien‐20 oic acid, and 17‐acetoxy‐mulinic acid (compounds 7, 9–11 and 13, respectively), and four minor diterpenoids (7‐deacetyl‐azorellanol (6), 13‐epi‐azorellanol, 7‐acetoxy‐mulin‐9,12‐diene, and 17‐acetoxy‐mulin‐11,13 dien‐20 oic acid (compounds 4, 8 and 12), together with three new minor diterpenoids: 13β,14β‐dihydroxymulin‐11‐en‐20‐oic acid (1), 13‐epiazorellanone (2) and 13‐epi‐7‐deacetyl‐azorellanol (3) were identified. Besides, compounds 4, 6, 7, 8 and 11 displayed good cytotoxic activity (less than 50% cell viability at 100 μM). Among them, compound 7, an acetylated azorellane, was the most active. Conclusions HSCCC allowed the isolation of 12 diterpenoids present in A. compacta. Three compounds are reported for the first time. Isolated azorellanes are more potent cytotoxic than mulinanes.
      PubDate: 2015-09-07T02:32:22.031725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7451
  • The Effect of Ferrous‐Chelating Hairtail Peptides on Iron Deficiency
           and Intestinal Flora in Rats
    • Abstract: Background Chelating agents, such as small peptide, can decrease free iron content and increase iron bioavailability may have promising therapeutic potential and may prevent the pro‐oxidant effects of low molecular weight iron. Hairtail is a species of fish that is rich in easily digestible proteins. we extended this strategy for iron delivery by using an enzymatic hydrolysate of hairtail as the chelating agent and found that the ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides have antianemic activity in SD rats with anemia. Results The antianemic activity of ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of the hairtail and ferrous chelation was studied in rat models of iron deficiency anemia. After the end of the 35 d experiment, we noted significant differences in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin distribution width, and ferritin concentrations between those animals supplemented with ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides and FeSO4 and healthy animals. There were no negative side effects on the animals’ growth or behavior. There was no obvious inflammation in the intestinal mucosa lamina propria and no unbalance of intestinal flora. Conclusion The novel ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides may be a suitable fortificant for improving iron‐deficiency status. Our findings demonstrated that this multi‐tracer technique has many applications in nutritional research.
      PubDate: 2015-09-07T02:26:44.081145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7452
  • Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape
    • Authors: Kenneth J. Olejar; Sudip Ray, Paul A. Kilmartin
      Abstract: Background A natural antioxidant derived from an agro‐waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high‐density polyethylene, linear low‐density polyethylene, and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Results Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusions in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to steadily increase with a greater concentration of grape tannins, with the highest increases seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin‐grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Conclusion Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro‐waste.
      PubDate: 2015-09-04T01:38:33.959886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7450
  • Drying of re‐structured chips made from the old stalks of Asparagus
           officinalis: Impact of different drying methods
    • Authors: Zhenbin Liu; Min Zhang, Yuchuan Wang
      Abstract: Background The old stalks of Asparagus officinalis which account for one third of the total length of each spear are always discarded as wastes. To make fully use of the resource, a kind of re‐structured Asparagus officinalis chip was made. Then the effects of pulse‐spouted microwave‐assisted vacuum drying (PSMVD), microwave‐assisted vacuum drying (MVD) and vacuum drying (VD) on texture, color and other quality parameters of re‐structured chips were studied to obtain high‐quality dried chips. Results Results indicated that the drying time significantly affected by drying methods and PSMVD had much better drying uniformity than MVD. The expansion ratio and crispness of chips increased with increasing microwave power and vacuum degree. The browning reaction of samples in VD was more serious, which confirmed by the results of color test and electronic nose. Conclusions Drying method of PSMVD had much better drying uniformity than MVD. The dried chips obtained by PSMVD showed optimal quality and more readily accepted by consumers.
      PubDate: 2015-09-04T01:37:48.484055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7449
  • Strain selection and medium optimization for glucoamylase production from
           industrial potato waste by Aspergillus niger
    • Authors: Gulten Izmirlioglu; Ali Demirci
      Abstract: Background Glucoamylase is one of the most common enzymes used in food industry to break down the starch into its monomers. Glucoamylase production and its activity are highly dependent on medium composition. Starch is well known as glucoamylase inducer, and utilization of industrial starchy potato waste is an inexpensive way of improving the glucoamylase production. Since glucoamylase production is highly dependent on medium composition, in this study, medium optimization for glucoamylase production was considered to enhance the glucoamylase activity.. Results Among the evaluated microbial species, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was found to be the best glucoamylase‐producing fungus. The Plackett‐Burman design was used to screen various medium ingredients and malt extract, FeSO4·7H2O, and CaCl2 2H2O were found to have significant effects on the glucoamylase production. Finally, malt extract, FeSO4 7H2O, and CaCl2 2H2O were optimized by using a central composite design of the response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal medium composition for A. niger van Tieghem was 50 g/L of industrial waste potato mash supplemented with 51.82 g/L of malt extract, 9.27 g/L of CaCl2 2H2O, and 0.50 g/L of FeSO4 7H2O . Conclusion At the end of the optimization, glucoamylase activity and glucose production were improved 126 and 98% compared to only industrial waste potato mash basal medium and 274.4 U/ml glucoamylase activity and 41.7 g/L glucose levels were achieved, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T05:37:20.352183-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7445
  • Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic
           compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects
    • Authors: Carla Pereira; Lillian Barros, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
      Abstract: The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role on the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases, such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis, are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, due to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited in what concerns their extracts and fractions composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants on in vitro and in vivo systems. In a general way, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty‐five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions, and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T05:36:59.680175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7446
  • Effects of soaking and acidification on physicochemical properties of
           calcium fortified rice
    • Authors: Porntip Sirisoontaralak; Pailin Limboon, Sujitra Jatuwong, Arusa Chavanalikit
      Abstract: Background Calcium fortified rice was prepared by soaking milled rice in calcium lactate solution, steaming and drying and physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate effects of calcium concentration (0, 30, 50 g L−1), soaking temperature (ambient temperature, 40°C, 60°C) and acidification. Results Calcium fortified rice had less lightness. More total solid loss was observed, especially at high soaking temperature. Harder texture was detected with increased calcium concentration. Calcium fortification lowered pasting viscosity of milled rice. Panelists accepted all fortified rice however only rice soaked at 50 g L−1 concentration could be claimed as good source of calcium. Increasing of soaking temperatures induced more penetration of calcium to rice kernels but calcium was lost easier after washing. With addition of acetic acid in soaking solution, enriched calcium content was comparable to those of high soaking temperature but with better retention after washing and calcium solubility was improved. Acid induced reduction of lightness and cooked rice hardness whereas increasing of total solid loss and pasting viscosity. Although taste of acetic acid remained, panelists still accepted the fortified rice. Conclusion Calcium fortified rice (190.47‐194.3 mg/100g) could be successfully produced by soaking milled rice in 50 g L−1 calcium lactate solution at 40°C or at ambient temperature with acidification.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T05:30:09.851208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7447
  • Current and potential uses of bioactive molecules from marine processing
    • Authors: Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria; Paul Masci, Glenda Gobe, Simone Osborne
      Abstract: Food industries produce huge amounts of processing waste that are often disposed of incurring expenses and impacting upon the environment. For these and other reasons, food processing waste streams, in particular marine processing waste streams, are gaining popularity amongst pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical industries as sources of bioactive molecules. In the last 30 years, there has been a gradual increase in processed marine products with a concomitant increase in waste streams that include viscera, heads, skins, fins, bones, trimmings and shellfish waste. In 2010, these waste streams equated to approximately 24 million tonnes of mostly unused resources. Marine processing waste streams not only represent an abundant resource, they are also enriched with structurally diverse molecules that possess a broad panel of bioactivities including anti‐oxidant, anti‐coagulant, anti‐thrombotic, anti‐cancer and immune‐stimulatory activities. Retrieval and characterisation of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste also contributes valuable information to the vast field of marine natural product discovery. This review summarises the current use of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste in different products and industries. Moreover, this review summarises new research into processing waste streams and the potential for adoption by industries in the creation of new products containing marine processing waste bioactives.
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T04:37:29.72703-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7444
  • Antioxidant properties of salmon (Salmo salar L.) protein fraction
           hydrolysates revealed following their ex vivo digestion and
           in vitro hydrolysis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Salmon (Salmo salar L.) myofibryllar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins were digested with human gastric and duodenal juices and in vitro hydrolysed with commercial pepsin and Corolase PP. RESULTS The digestion after duodenal juice/Corolase PP caused almost complete breakdown of peptide bonds in MP and SP. The DPPH• scavenging activity of proteins decreased during both ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis. The highest value of DPPH• scavenging activity was shown for the gastric digest of SP (8.88 ± 0.87%). The ABTS+• scavenging activity of MP and SP increased during digestion/hydrolysis. The duodenal digest of SP was characterized by the highest value of ABTS+• scavenging activity (72.7 ± 1.2%). In turn, the highest value of ferric‐reducing power was determined for the gastric digest of SP (84.8 ± 0.2%). Salmon antioxidant peptides Phe‐Ile‐Lys‐Lys, His‐Leu, Ile‐Tyr, Pro‐His‐Leu, Pro‐Trp, Val‐Pro‐Trp were identified in both ex vivo digested and in vitro hydrolysed MP and SP. An antioxidant peptide Val‐Tyr was additionally detected in the in vitro hydrolysate of SP. CONCLUSION The results indicate the salmon myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions as potential sources of antioxidant peptides that could be released in the gastrointestinal tract but their amino acid sequence and quantification vary.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T04:45:56.52099-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7441
  • Flavored phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts stability during
           storage as affected by different packaging materials
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different packaging materials on storage stability of flavored phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts. White vanilla (WV) and blood orange (BO) phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts conditioned in mono‐ layer and triple‐ layer co‐extruded plastic bottles were stored at +6 ± 1 °C for 35 days (under alternating 12 h light and 12 h darkness) to simulate shelf‐life conditions. Samples were collected at three different storage times and subjected to determination of total sterol content (TSC), peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). RESULTS TSC was not significantly affected by packaging material or storage time and met the quantity declared on the label. PV was significantly influenced by yogurt type x packaging material x storage time interaction and TBARs by packaging material x storage time interaction. CONCLUSION Between the two packaging materials, the triple‐ layer plastic mini bottle with black colored and completely opaque intermediate layer offered the best protection against lipid oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T04:45:30.38499-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7443
  • Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance
           shelf life during storage
    • Abstract: Backround Eggs have long been recognized as a source of high‐quality proteins. There are many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment. Ozone treatment is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces to food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2,4,and 6ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 minutes 6 weeks at 24°C. Effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs were also reported. Results Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh Unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity(RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 minutes can be applied to fresh eggs that extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24°C storage period. Conclusion Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg's quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at the 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results to maintain internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) resulted a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone‐treatments 2, especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T22:11:39.475386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7440
  • In ovo trace element supplementation enhances expression of growth genes
           in embryo and immune genes in post‐hatch broiler chickens
    • Authors: Akshat Goel; Subrat K. Bhanja, Manish Mehra, Asitbaran Mandal, Veena Pande
      Abstract: Background Differential expression of growth‐ and immunity‐ related genes and post‐hatch performances were evaluated in in ovo zinc (Zn), iodine (I) or selenium (Se) supplemented chicken embryos. Result There was about 9‐18% reduction in hatchability of Zn, I or Se supplemented eggs. In ovo trace element supplementation did not improve post‐hatch growth. Two‐way analysis of data revealed significant effect (P>0.01) of period, trace elements and their interactions. Expression of hepatic somatotropin, IGF‐II and mucin gene was highest at 20th embryonic day but decreased during post‐hatch periods. In ovo Zn or I supplemented embryos had higher expression of growth related genes compared to Se or un‐injected control group. Expression of IL‐6 was higher (P
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T06:21:25.644032-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7438
  • Effect of drought stress on the development of endosperm starch granules
           and the composition and physicochemical properties of starches from soft
           and hard wheat
    • Authors: Xurun Yu; Bo Li, Leilei Wang, Xinyu Chen, Wenjun Wang, Yunjie Gu, Zhong Wang, Fei Xiong
      Abstract: Background The objectives of this study were: (i) to observe effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (ii) to investigate effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; (iii) to compared the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. Results DS resulted in large A‐type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B‐type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000‐grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose‐to‐amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B‐type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A‐type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α‐amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starches. Conclusion Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products.
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T06:20:32.677957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7439
  • Physicochemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile
           of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits
    • Abstract: Background Jujube fruit is eaten mostly fresh, but may be dried (Chinese dates and tea) or processed into confectionary recipes in bread, cakes, compotes, and candy. Given that the quality of jujube available on the market differs on account of various factors such as geographical environment, cultivar, processing conditions, and storage conditions and that for consumers, flavour and nutrition properties of jujube represent the major parameters in determining the quality of jujube, the main goal of this study were to determine the main physicochemical properties of jujube fruits, sugars and organic acids profiles, protein, mineral constituents, volatile composition and sensory profile of jujube fruits. This would allow breeders to select cultivars with higher levels of nutrients and also enable increasing dietary intake by consumers. Results Investigations showed that jujube fruit weight ranged from 4.8 to 29.3 g/fruit. Four sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and 4 organic acids (citric, malic, ascorbic, and succinic acids) were identified and quantified by high‐performance liquid chromatography in jujube fruits. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. Fifteen volatiles compounds were found in the aroma profile of jujube fruits (9 were aldehydes, 3 terpenes, 1 ester, 1 ketone and 1 linear hydrocarbon). Conclusion The results showed that Spanish jujube cultivars studied are a good source of vitamin C, besides they have low content in Na. The jujube cultivar with the most appreciated quality by consumers was “GAL”; the “GAL” fruits were sweet, crunchy, and had high intensities of jujube ID and apple flavor a long aftertaste. Therefore, jujube grown in Spain has a great potential to be exploited for functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:25:40.928808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7386
  • Characterization of Cu/Zn‐SOD enzyme activities and gene expression
           in soybean under low nitrogen stress
    • Authors: Xiaobo Wang; Haowei Zhang, Yali Gao, Wenming Zhang
      Abstract: Background Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays important roles in the antioxidant defense in nearly all cells, is speculated to be closely related to plant resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, salt, heavy metal and pathogen attack. However, little is known about the effects of SOD activity and its isoenzymes on low nitrogen stress tolerance and its effects on adaptability of plant to nitrogen limitation. Results Ten SOD isoenzymes were identified in soybean root, stem, leaf and mature seed, and were classified into three families (α.1, β.1‐4 and γ.1‐5). The SOD activity was significantly elevated in soybean leaf and root. Whereas, under low nitrogen conditions, only β.2 isoenzyme activity, belonged to Cu/Zn‐SOD family, in the root of soybean cultivar cv. WS01‐15 was induced obviously. Moreover, the expression of three Cu/Zn‐SOD genes were analysis under low nitrogen stress. GmCZ‐SOD1 gene was induced significantly in soybean root under low nitrogen stress. Interestingly, evolutionary analysis showed that this gene has undergone a strong artificial selection during soybean domestication, which implies Cu/Zn‐SOD gene would play an essential role in the adaptive evolution of soybean nitrogen limitation resistance. Conclusions GmCZ‐SOD is important for adaptability of soybean to nitrogen limitation and these results provides useful information to unravel their biological roles in plant low nitrogen resistance.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:25:14.938963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7387
  • Morpho‐Physiological Evaluation of Tomato Genotypes under High
           Temperature Stress Condition
    • Authors: Muhammad R. Shaheen; Choudhary M. Ayyub, Muhammad Amjad, Ejaz A. Waraich
      Abstract: Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important but heat sensitive vegetable crop. The losses in tomato production associated with heat stress are aggravating further under global warming scenario. The present study was designed to investigate the comparative performance of tomato genotypes under high temperature stress. Tomato genotypes (191) were exposed to the controlled conditions of high temperature (40/32 °C day/night temperature). Different morphological (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root dry weight and number of leaves), physiological (photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance to water, sub‐stomatal CO2 and leaf temperature) and SPAD value (chlorophyll contents) were recorded to check the diversity among the genotypes against heat stress. Results All the genotypes showed significantly variable response in almost all the attributes under high temperature conditions. Correlation among the variables gave clear understanding of the phenomena involved. Based on all the attributes studies, the genotypes L00090 and L00091 were found most heat tolerant as compared to other genotypes while CLN1462A and CLN 1466E were found comparatively sensitive. Conclusion It was concluded from the study that the studied attributes were genotype dependent and significant diverse performance was noted. The findings of this study pave the way towards the selection of tolerant genotypes, not only for use under high temperature conditions, but also to employ them in breeding programs to produce heat tolerant hybrids.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:15:00.4573-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7388
  • Load dissipation by corn residue on tilled soil in laboratory and
           field‐wheeling conditions
    • Abstract: Crop residues may partially dissipate applied loads and reduce soil compaction. We evaluated the effect of corn residue on energy‐applied dissipation during wheeling. The experiment consisted in a preliminary laboratory test and a confirmatory field test on a Paleaudalf. In laboratory, an adapted Proctor test was performed with three energy levels, with and without corn residue. Field treatments consisted of three 5.1‐Mg tractor wheeling intensities (0, 2, and 6), with and without 12 Mg ha−1 corn residue on soil surface. Corn residue on soil surface reduced soil bulk density in the adapted Proctor test. By applying energy of 52.6 kN m m−3, soil dissipated 2.98% of applied energy, whereas with 175.4 kN m m−3 a dissipation of 8.60% was obtained. This result confirms the hypothesis that surface mulch absorbs part of the compaction effort. Residue effects on soil compaction observed in the adapted Proctor test did not replicate in subsoiled soil field conditions, because of differences in applied pressure and soil conditions (structure, moisture, and volume confinement). Nevertheless, this negative result does not mean straw has no effect in the field. Such effects should be measured via stress transmission and compared to soil load bearing capacity, rather than on bulk deformations. Wheeling by heavy tractor on subsoiled soil increased compaction, independently of surface residue. Two wheelings produced a significantly increase, but six wheelings did not further increase compaction. Reduced traffic intensity on recently tilled soil is necessary to minimize soil compaction, since traffic intensity show a greater effect than surface mulch on soil protection from excessive compaction.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:13:12.373761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7389
  • Influence of phosphorus management on melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit
    • Authors: Martuscelli M; Di Mattia C, Speca S, Mastrocola D, Stagnari F, Pisante M.
      Abstract: Background At harvest time, melon quality is related to internal and external parameters, which are very important for consumer attractiveness and marketable yield too. Several agronomic factors can affect the quality of melon fruits and among them mineral availability may play a significant role. Therefore the aim of the work is to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertigation on melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) qualitative characteristics, as fruit size and yield, pulp color and firmness, aroma and taste, as well as the accumulation of bioactive antioxidant compounds, namely phenols and carotenoids, and their antiradical properties. Results Results allowed to extrapolate the optimal P doses to be used for melon fertigation, to achieve high yield and fruit quality characteristics. From modelling the optimal P dose which allowed to maximize yield resulted around 257 kg P2O5 ha−1, even if the quality indices related to the carotenoids content, texture and color of the flesh melon were not significantly different between samples fertigated with the two highest levels tested. Conclusion It can be assumed that the level of 200 kg P2O5 ha−1 would be a good compromise between optimization of the agronomic performance and the melon fruit quality.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:12:45.724972-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7390
  • Anti‐adhesion activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract, thyme
           post‐distillation waste, and olive (Olea europea L.) leaf extract
           against Campylobacter jejuni on polystyrene and intestine epithelial cells
    • Abstract: Background In order to survive in food processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. Results Phytochemical analysis of thyme ethanolic extract (TE), thyme post‐hydrodistillation residue (TE‐R), and olive leaf extract (OE) using HPLC‐PDA indicates that the major compounds in TE and TE‐R are flavone glucuronides and rosmarinic acid derivatives, and in OE verbascoside, luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside and oleuroside. TE and TE‐R reduced Campylobacter jejuni adhesion to abiotic surfaces by up to 30% at 0.2 µg mL−1 to 12.5 µg mL−1, with TE‐R showing a greater effect. OE from 3.125 µg mL−1 to 200 µg mL−1 reduced C. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene by 10% to 23%. On the other hand, C. jejuni adhesion to PSI cl1 cells was inhibited by almost 30% over a large concentration range of these extracts. Conclusion Our findings suggest that TE, the agro‐food waste material TE‐R, and the by‐product OE represent sources of bioactive phytochemicals that are effective at low concentrations and can be used as therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial adhesion.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:12:19.940249-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7391
  • Looseness in bovine leather: microstructural characterization
    • Authors: H.C. Wells; G. Holmes, R.G. Haverkamp
      Abstract: Background A substantial proportion of bovine leather production may be of poor quality, with the leather suffering from a characteristic known as looseness. This defect results in a poor visual appearance and greatly reduced value. The structural mechanism of looseness is not well understood. Results Samples of loose and tight bovine leather are characterized using small angle X‐ray scattering, ultrasonic imaging, and electron microscopy. The density of fibre packing and the orientation of the fibrils are analysed. Tensile strength is also measured. Loose leather is characterized by more highly aligned collagen fibrils. This results in a weaker connection between the layers. There is a looser packing of the fibres in loose leather than in tight leather, with more gaps between fibre bundles, particularly in a region in the lower grain. This region is visible with in‐situ ultrasonic imaging. Loose leather has a higher tensile strength than tight leather. Conclusion While a high degree of collagen fibril alignment is normally associated with strong leather, it has been shown that too much alignment results in loose leather. Understanding the physical basis of looseness is the first step in identifying looseness in hides and learning how to prevent looseness from developing during leather manufacture.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:10:46.985256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7392
  • Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the underutilized
           Prunus mahaleb L. fruit
    • Authors: Federica Blando; Clara Albano, Yazheng Liu, Isabella Nicoletti, Danilo Corradini, Noemi Tommasi, Carmela Gerardi, Giovanni Mita, David D. Kitts
      Abstract: Background The identification of novel plant‐based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). Results We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg−1 fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so‐called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol TE kg−1 FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:15:51.085859-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7381
  • Contributions of long‐term tillage systems on crop production and
           soil properties in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China
    • Authors: Yining Niu; Renzhi Zhang, Zhuzhu Luo, Lingling Li, Liqun Cai, Guang Li, Junhong Xie
      Abstract: Background This study determined the long‐term effect of tillage systems on soil properties and crop yields in a semiarid environment. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were alternately grown in six tillage systems at Dingxi (35°28′N, 104°44′E), northwest China starting in 2001. Results After the first 6 years of experiments, conventional tillage with stubble incorporating (TS) and no‐till with stubble cover (NTS) increased soil organic matter by 9.9% and 13.0%, respectively, compared to the conventional tillage with stubble removed (T); both TS and NTS also increased soil microbial counts, available K and P, and total N. No‐till with stubble removed (NT), NTS, and NTP (no‐till with plastic mulching) had 20.7%, 62.6% and 43.7% greater alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the T treatment. Soil catalase, urease and invertase activities were all greater in the no‐till treatments than in the T treatment. Averaged across 6 years, both wheat and pea achieved highest grain yields under NTS treatment. Conclusion No‐till with stubble retention is the most promising system for improving soil physical, biological and chemical properties, and increasing crop yields, and thus, this system can be adopted in areas with conditions similar to the semiarid northwest China.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:14:08.315259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7382
  • Preparation and evaluation of a sustained‐release buckwheat noodle
    • Abstract: Background Different carbohydrates elicit various effects on the digestibility and the glucose release rate, so it is of interest to develop a sustained‐release noodle based on the combination of different carbohydrates and reveal the sustained‐release mechanism. Results The obtained data suggest that xanthan and konjac gum exhibited excellent and synergistic sustained‐release properties, whereas cornstarch showed the lowest average digestion rate. The sustained release was particularly evident when the noodle consisted of the following components: 50 g of 25 g kg−1 hydrophilic colloid mixture solution composed of a 1:1 mass ratio of xanthan:konjac gum and 100 g of reconstructed flour consisting of 200 g kg−1 buckwheat flour, 400 g kg−1 cornstarch, and 400 g kg−1 plain flour. The morphological structure of noodles revealed that the composite hydrophilic colloids strengthened the interaction between the gluten network and starch granules. This buried starch within the three‐dimensional structure thereby releasing glucose in a slow and sustained way. The most suitable model to describe glucose release from noodles was the Ritger‐Peppas equation, which revealed that matrix erosion contributed to the release mechanism. Conclusion These findings indicate that the controlled use of hydrophilic colloids and starches in manufacturing noodles could modulate the glucose sustained‐release.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:13:00.429226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7383
  • Decontamination of poultry feed from ochratoxin A by UV and sunlight
    • Authors: G. A. Sumbal; Z.H. Shar, S. T. H. Sherazi, Siraj Uddin, S. M. Nizamani, S. A. Mahesar
      Abstract: Background Mycotoxin contaminated feed is very dangerous for the growth and even life of poultry. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet irradiation for decontamination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in spiked and naturally contaminated poultry feed samples. Spiked and naturally contaminated feed samples were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV) at distance of 25 cm over the feed samples. In vitro, the effect of UV intensity (0.1mW cm−2 at 254nm UV‐C) on different types of poultry feeds contaminating with OTA was evaluated. Same samples were also irradiated with sunlight and analyzed for OTA by Indirect Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Results Poultry feed samples containing 500 µg kg−1 were 100 % decontaminated in 180 minutes with UV radiation while ochratoxin A was decreased to 70–95 µg kg−1 using same poultry feed samples after 8 hours sunlight irradiation. Therefore, UV light was found to be more effective. Only one hour UV irradiation was found to be sufficient to bring OTA level to maximum regulatory limit (MRL) suggested for poultry feeds (100 µg kg−1), while eight hours were needed to obtain this level using sunlight radiations. Conclusion Proposed approach is a viable option to reduce level OTA from contaminated poultry feeds.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:10:37.662285-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7384
  • Evaluation of alginate‐whey protein microcapsules for intestinal
           delivery of lipophilic compounds in pigs
    • Authors: Yonggang Zhang; Qi C. Wang, Hai Yu, Julia Zhu, C.F.M. de Lange, Yulong Yin, Qi Wang, Joshua Gong
      Abstract: Background In animal care and management, there is an increasing demand for convenient methods of oral delivery of bioactive compounds to specific segments of animal's gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The objective of this study was to test the suitability of microcapsules made with alginate and whey proteins of two different sizes (250 and 800 µm; containing 71 g kg−1 of carvacrol) for intestinal delivery of carvacrol in pigs. Results Encapsulated carvacrol was completely released from the microcapsules after 5 h incubation in simulated intestinal fluids or 6 h in (ex vivo) ileal digesta, whereas release in simulated gastric fluid was minimal. Tests with growing pigs showed over 95% of unencapsulated carvacrol was absorbed or metabolized in the stomach and the duodenum. Encapsulation effectively minimised carvacrol absorption in the stomach (p
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:09:22.173781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7385
  • Ingenane‐type diterpene compounds from Euphorbia kansui modulate
           IFN‐γ production through NF‐kB activation
    • Abstract: Background Euphorbia kansui (E. kansui), a traditional medical herb, has been shown to have anti‐tumor and anti‐viral activities. Previously, we have reported that E. kansui increases interferon‐gamma (IFN‐γ) production in natural killer (NK) cells. However, it is not clear how E. kansui regulates IFN‐γ secretion by NK cells. Results In this study, E. kansui was separated into six individual compounds from the same chloroform fraction so that the activity of each compound could be compared. E. kansui compounds induced IFN‐γ secretion through the phosphorylation of PKD and IKK pathways. Furthermore, E. kansui compounds activated the translocation of p65, a subunit of nuclear factor kappa‐light‐chain‐enhancer of activated B cells (NF‐κB), to the nucleus and induced NF‐κB at the transcriptional level. Conclusion These findings suggest that E. kansui enhances IFN‐γ secretion through the NF‐κB pathway in NK cells.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T04:07:35.093283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7380
  • Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and antihypertensive
           effects of walnut protein and its hydrolysates
    • Authors: Xiuming Wang; Haixia Chen, Shuqin Li, Jiangchao Zhou, Jiangtao Xu
      Abstract: Background Some food proteins hydrolysates are found to possess multiple healthy effects. In this study, walnut protein (WP) was enzymatic hydrolyzed by alcalase and trypsin under optimal conditions. The physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and ACE inhibitory activities of walnut protein (WP), alcalase‐generated walnut protein hydrolysates (AWPH) and trypsin‐generated walnut protein hydrolysates (TWPH) were comparatively studied. Stabilities properties of the walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) and the antihypertensive activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were also investigated. Results The walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) showed higher physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, ACE inhibitory activity and stability against thermal treatment and gastrointestinal digestion than walnut protein (WP). The results of antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) showed that the most potent decrease of AWPH and TWPH in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) occurred at 4 h (−26 mmHg) and 6 h (−30 mmHg) after administration. The study indicated that the walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) could significantly decrease the systolic blood pressure (p 
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T02:56:49.393328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7379
  • Natural antimicrobials and high pressure treatments on the inactivation of
           Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cold‐smoked
    • Abstract: Background High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) combined with reuterin and lactoperoxidase system (LPS) has exerted antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes in cold‐smoked salmon at chilled temperatures. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of HHP combined with reuterin, LPS and lactoferrin (LF) on the survival of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cold‐smoked salmon stored at 4 °C and 10 °C. Results S. Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7 were reduced more than 3 log CFU g−1 by the pressure treatment (450 MPa/5 min). LPS slightly diminished pathogen levels throughout storage, whereas no effect was recorded when reuterin or LF was added. Salmonella population was below the detection limit (
      PubDate: 2015-08-13T02:39:28.8873-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7378
  • Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main
           health‐promoting compounds and antioxidant and
           anti‐inflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
    • Abstract: Background This paper presents the study on changes in the main phytochemical levels and antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity of lettuce caused by different doses and times of application of yeast extracts. Results Elicitation with yeast extract caused an increase in the total phenolic compounds and chlorophylls content, which varied according to the dose and time of spraying, but it did not have a positive impact on the vitamin C, flavonoids and carotenoids content in lettuce. The best effect was achieved by double spraying with 1% yeast extract and by single spraying with 0.1% yeast extract. The increase of phytochemical contents was positively correlated with the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity of the studied lettuce leaves. Chicoric acid seems to be the major contributor to these antioxidant activities. Conclusion Therefore, yeast extract may be used as a natural, environmentally friendly and safe elicitor for improving the health‐promoting qualities of lettuce.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T01:44:15.442555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7377
  • Formation and elimination of pyrraline in the Maillard reaction in a
           saccharide‐lysine model system
    • Authors: Zhili Liang; Lin Li, Quanyi Fu, Xia Zhang, Zhenbo Xu, Bing Li
      Abstract: Background pyrraline, a causative factor for various kinds of diseases, is also used as a food contaminant to evaluate the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diet foods. In this study, model systems consisting of lysine and different saccharides were heated at different times, temperatures and initial molar ratios of saccharide to lysine under microwave heating conditions in order to investigate the formation of pyrraline. Results increasing in initial molar ratios of saccharide to lysine could significantly promote the formation of pyrraline. Specifically, the pyrraline formation rate was influenced by the structure of saccharides involved in the reaction, the formation rate decreased in the following order: lactose > fructose > glucose > sucrose, the highest pyrraline was generated in lactose‐lysine models. The maximum pyrraline was formed at 140 °C. Moreover, saccharides and lysine had different effects on the stability of pyrraline. Among the reactants, lysine was the major factor for the unstability of pyrraline, a dipyrraline and a crosslink by pyrraline reacting with lysine could be formed. Conclusion the pyrraline formation by saccharide‐lysine model system was a dynamic reaction, it consisted of not only the pyrraline formation, but also the pyrraline elimination with some crosslinks formed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-11T00:46:20.335504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7376
  • Relationship between pulp structure breakdown and nutritional value of
           papaya (Carica papaya) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) nectars using
           alternative thermal and non‐thermal processing techniques
    • Authors: Jeffrey G. Swada; Christopher J. Keeley, Mohammad A. Ghane, Nicki J. Engeseth
      Abstract: Background Papaya and strawberry contain a wide array of nutrients that contribute to human health; however, availability of these fruits is limited due to their short shelf lives and seasonal nature. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques including ultra high termperature (UHT, 20‐135 °C, 1–3 s) and irradiation (0–10 kGy) on carotenoid concentration, antioxidant capacity and changes to pulp structure using TEM were determined for papaya and strawberry nectars. Results UHT had moderate effects on antioxidant capacity, but the greatest overall release of carotenoids from the pulp matrix (34.2%, 6.26%, 8.31%; β‐cryptoxanthin, β‐carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Irradiation resulted in the greatest increase in antioxidant capacity (1.92 to 2.43 µmol TE/g (papaya), 19.05 to 28.77 µmol TE/g (strawberry)), with moderate effects on carotenoid concentration. Conclusion This research demonstrates that decreases in nutrient value and antioxidant capacity can result from processing, but that regeneration of these losses can be seen corresponding to the apparent breakdown of pulp structure.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:06:58.738474-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7372
  • Effects of different strains Penicillium nalgiovense in the Nalžovy
           cheese during ripening
    • Abstract: Background The present study examined influence of eight selected strains of Penicillium nalgiovense as secondary culture on the ripening of soft mould cheese. Ion‐exchange chromatography, SDS‐PAGE and sensory analysis were used for comparison of P. nalgiovense with common secondary mould culture (Penicillium camemberti). Results Proteolytic activity was more intensive in the case of the strains of P. nalgiovense in comparison with the control strains of P. camemberti. Some differences in the proportion and amount of free amino acids were observed between the strains of P. nalgiovense during ripening. Lower proteolytic activity of P. nalgiovense was more desirable for sensory properties of cheese, especially in case sample N2. Conclusion This study provides information on usability of selected strains of Penicillium nalgiovense that could support the development of sensory properties of mould‐ripened soft cheese. The cheese with the culture N2 had the best flavour after 35th day of storage. Moreover, this strain showed the lowest bitterness in comparison with the other used P. nalgiovense cultures. The intensity of bitterness of sample N2 was comparable to that of the control sample with P. camemberti.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:06:35.878518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7375
  • Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high
           levels of damaged starch in starch‐gluten systems
    • Abstract: During wheat milling, the starch granules can experience mechanical‐damage, producing damaged‐starch. High levels of damaged‐starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat‐flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the α‐amylase, maltogenic‐amylase and amyloglucosidase on the dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged‐starch. The dough with high level of damaged‐starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged‐starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged‐starch. The rheological behavior of dough with higher damaged‐starch content were related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged‐starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged‐starch content changed positively as a result of enzymatic action, particularly α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. A little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α‐amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged‐starch on product's quality, particularly more research need to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:06:12.889736-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7374
  • In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main
           Lebanese olive germplasm
    • Authors: Ali Chehade; Ahmad El Bittar, Aline Kadri, Elia Choueiri, Rania Nabbout, Hiyam Youssef, Maha Smeha, Ali Awada, Ziad Al Chami, Eustachio Dubla, Antonio Trani, Donato Mondelli, Franco Famiani
      Abstract: Background Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010–2011). Results All of the genotypes had medium‐high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard (IOC‐TS) for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of ∆‐7‐stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. Conclusion The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:05:48.664694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7373
  • Nitrogen losses, uptake and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in soil under
           mineral and organo‐mineral fertilization regimes
    • Authors: Alessandro Florio; Barbara Felici, Melania Migliore, Maria Teresa Dell'Abate, Anna Benedetti
      Abstract: Background A laboratory incubation experiment and greenhouse studies investigated the impact of organo‐mineral fertilizer (OM) as an alternative practice to conventional mineral fertilization (M) on nitrogen (N) uptake and losses in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) as well as on soil microbial biomass and ammonia oxidizers. Results While no significant difference in plant productivity and ammonia emissions between treatments could be detected, an increase in soil total N content and an average 17.9% decrease in N losses from nitrates leached was observed in OM fertilization when compared to M. Microbial community responded differentially to treatments, suggesting that the organic matter fraction of the OM fertilizer might have influenced N immobilization in microbial biomass in the short‐medium period. Furthermore, nitrates content in fertilized soils were significantly related to bacterial but not archaeal amoA gene copies, whereas in non‐fertilized soils a significant relationship between soil nitrates and archaeal but not bacterial amoA copies was found. Conclusion The application of OM fertilizer to soil maintained sufficient productivity, and in turn increased N use efficiency and noticeably reduced N losses. Furthermore, in our experiment ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria drove nitrification when a N source was added to the soil, whereas ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria were responsible for ammonia oxidation in non‐fertilized soil.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:23:52.269138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7364
  • Consumer Peach Preferences and Purchasing Behavior: a mixed methods study
    • Authors: Kathy Kelley; Rachel Primrose, Robert Crassweller, John E Hayes, Richard Marini
      Abstract: Background Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the U.S., are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value‐added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid‐Atlantic consumers’ fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory‐based sensory testing used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid‐Atlantic region. Results Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value‐added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Conclusion Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:23:27.72776-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7365
  • Comparison of bioactivities and phenolic composition of Choerospondias
           axillaris peels and fleshes
    • Authors: Qian Li; Jun Chen, Ti Li, Chengmei Liu, Wei Liu, Jiyan Liu
      Abstract: Background Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects. While the comprehensive information on chemical composition and bioactivity of fruits is still lacking. Therefore, this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris. Results The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than that of flesh. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and Ultra performance liquid chromatography‐electrospray ionization/quadrupole time‐of‐flight‐mass spectrometer (UPLC‐ESI‐QTOF‐MS2) analysis revealed that (+)‐catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging ability on DPPH•. PP exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco‐2 cells in a dose and time‐dependent manners, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49 µg mL−1 to HepG2 cells, 101.90 and 102.61 µg mL−1 to Caco‐2 cells, respectively. Conclusion This is the first detailed report on chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:21:32.703179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7366
  • Effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene,
           ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange‐fleshed sweet
           potato for production of amala in Nigeria
    • Authors: Abbas Bazata Yusuf; Richard Fuchs, Linda Nicolaides
      Abstract: The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange‐fleshed sweet potato amala. In fact, the most common sweetpotato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange fleshed sweetpotato to improve provitamin A intake.Orange‐fleshed sweet potato slices were traditional processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold water fermentation and a decrease following the hot water fermentation compared to raw orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange‐fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:49:43.414185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7367
  • Films based on protein isolated from croaker (Micropogonias Furnieri) and
           palm oil
    • Abstract: Background The microstructure and the physical, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties of films based on different concentrations of protein isolated from croaker waste (CPI) and palm oil (PO) were analyzed. Films were elaborated by a casting technique using 2, 3 and 4 g CPI/100 g of a filmogenic solution and 0, 10 and 20 g of PO/100 g CPI. Result The microstructures of the films' surfaces of the CPI with PO showed no presence of lipid droplets dispersed in the filmogenic matrix, although a rough surface was present. Films with 3% and 4% CPI and 20% PO had the lowest rates of water vapor permeability. When there was an addition of PO to the reduced tensile strength of the films, regardless of the concentration of CPI, this addition reduced the elongation of the films with 3% and 4% CPI; however, it did not influence the films with 2% CPI, which did not differ from the control film (0% OP). Thermal analysis revealed that films with the highest PO percentage had a lower initial weight loss when compared with other films, due to higher hydrophobicity. Conclusion The use of protein isolate obtained from fish residues of low commercial value and palm oil is viable for the production of biodegradable films because the latter constitute good barrier properties and thermal stability.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:46:01.954489-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7368
  • The effects of muffins enriched with sour cherry pomace on acceptability,
           glycemic response, satiety and energy intake: A randomized crossover trial
    • Abstract: Background Sour cherry pomace (CP), a by‐product obtained during fruit processing, was used to replace the wheat flour in a muffin formula. The influence of the most sensory acceptable muffins on glycemic response, appetite sensation, and energy intake during subsequent meal in a randomized crossover trial was studied. Results It is acceptable to incorporate up to 30% CP into muffin formulas. With the CP‐treatment muffins, glucose responses were significantly lower at 30, 45, and 60 min intervals, and the incremental peak glucose was 0.40 mmol L−1 and 0.60 mmol L−1 lower than for the PM. The CP‐enriched muffins showed the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) values lower than that of the PM. 20% CP and 30% CP resulted in improved satiety and induced a lower energy intake at a test meal ingested 3 h later (−13.7%; −15.1%) as compared to PM, respectively. Conclusion CP may be a good functional ingredient for bakery products that assists in managing glucose levels, satiety, and subsequent energy intake in healthy individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:44:46.24435-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7369
  • Anthocyanin‐rich extracts from blackberry, wild blueberry,
           strawberry, and chokeberry: Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on
           oleic acid‐induced hepatic steatosis in vitro
    • Authors: Yong Wang; Liang Zhao, Dan Wang, Yazhen Huo, Baoping Ji
      Abstract: Background Limited information is available regarding the relationship between the chemical structures and inhibitory effects of anthocyanin (ACN) on triglyceride (TG) overaccumulation. Thus, this study investigated the antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of blackberry, wild blueberry, strawberry, and chokeberry ACN‐rich extracts, with different structural characteristics, on oleic acid‐induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Four major ACNs from these berries, with different aglycones, namely, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside (Cy‐3‐glu), delphinidin‐3‐glucoside, pelargonidin‐3‐glucoside, and malvidin‐3‐glucoside, were also investigated. Results The blackberry ACN‐rich extract exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on TG clearance (30.5% ± 3.4%) and reactive oxygen species generation. TG clearance was significantly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.991, p 
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:42:57.62283-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7370
  • Emulsion stability and properties of fish gelatin‐based films as
           affected by palm oil and surfactants
    • Authors: Krisana Nilsuwan; Soottawat Benjakul, Thummanoon Prodpran
      Abstract: Background Gelatin films exhibit the poor water vapour barrier property. The use of palm oil, which is abundant and available in Thailand, can be a means to lower water vapour migration. To disperse oil in film‐forming dispersion (FFD), the surfactant along with appropriate homogenisation is required. The study aimed to investigate the influences of palm oil levels and surfactants in the absence or presence of glycerol on characteristics of FFD and resulting gelatin films. Results Similar oil droplet sizes, both d32 and d43 values, of FFD containing soy lecithin were observed, regardless of palm oil levels used (P > 0.05). FFD having Tween‐20 had larger droplet size as the levels of oil increased (P < 0.05). After 12 h of storage, the slight increases in d32 and d43 were noticeable in all FFD samples. When the films were determined, lower water vapour permeability (WVP) and tensile strength (TS) but higher elongation at break (EAB) were obtained as palm oil levels increased (P < 0.05), regardless of glycerol and surfactant used. Films without glycerol had lower WVP and EAB with higher TS than those containing 300 g kg‐1 glycerol (P < 0.05). No differences in WVP and mechanical properties were found between films containing both surfactants (P > 0.05). Conclusions The incorporation of 500 or 750 g kg−1 palm oil using soy lecithin in the presence of 300 g kg−1 glycerol could enhance homogeneity and stability of oil droplets in FFD and effectively improved water vapour barrier property of gelatin films.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:41:00.719167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7371
  • Authenticity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Geographical Origin based on
           Analysis of C, N, O, and S Stable Isotope Ratios: A preliminary case
           report in Korea, China, and Philippine
    • Abstract: Background Although rice (Oryza Sativa L.) is the third largest food crop, relatively fewer studies have been reported to the rice geographical origin based on light element isotope ratios in comparison with other foods like wine, beef, juice, oil, or milk. Therefore, this study tries to discriminate the geographical origin of same rice cultivars grown at different Asian countries using the analysis of C, N, O, and S stable isotope ratios and chemometrics. Results The δ15NAIR, δ18OVSMOW, and δ34SVCDT values of brown rice were more markedly influenced by geographical origin than was the δ13CVPDB value. In particular, the combination of δ18OVSMOW and δ34SVCDT more efficiently discriminated rice geographical origin than did the remaining combinations. Principal component analysis revealed a clear discrimination between different rice geographical origins but not between rice genotypes. In particular, the first components of PCA discriminated rice cultivated in the Philippines from rice cultivated in China and Korea. Conclusion Our findings suggest that analysis of the light element isotope composition combined with chemometrics can be potentially applicable to discriminate rice geographical origin and also may provide a valuable insight into the control of improper or fraudulent labeling regarding the geographical origin of rice worldwide.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T02:32:52.248201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7363
  • Carbon monoxide as stunning/killing method on farmed Atlantic salmon
           (Salmo salar): effects on lipid and cholesterol oxidation
    • Authors: Giulia Secci; Andrea Serra, Anna Concollato, Giuseppe Conte, Marcello Mele, Rolf E Olsen, Giuliana Parisi
      Abstract: Background Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recently utilized as a new stunning/killing procedure for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Its effect on lipid and cholesterol oxidation of farmed A. salmon fillets were evaluated at two times of refrigerated (2.5°C) storage, T0 (64h after death) and T14 (14 days from T0). The use of CO was compared with the commonly utilized percussive method (P). Results Fatty acid profile, primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary oxidation products (TBARS), cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and carotenoids were unaffected by killing method. Despite the low oxidative status of lipid (0.66 and 0.60 mg malondialdehyde kg−1 muscle in P and CO, respectively), cholesterol was found highly oxidized (0.17 and 0.13 mg COPs kg−1). Storage significantly affected oxidative stability of fish muscle by increasing oxidation products. Interestingly, TBARS content doubled while the increase for COPs was not homogeneous: α‐ and β‐epoxycholesterol increased by 25%, whereas triol and 7‐ketocholesterol increased by 48 and 62%, respectively. Conclusion The quality of salmon fillets just after slaughtering and after 14 days of refrigerated storage at 2.5°C did not change, irrespective to the killing method adopted, suggesting that CO method may be applied without any detrimental effect on the quality of fish fillets.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T02:28:53.48558-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7362
  • Pre‐deamidation of soy protein isolate exerts impacts on
           transglutaminase‐induced glucosamine glycation and crosslinking as
           well as properties of the products
    • Abstract: Background Transglutaminase (TGase) induces protein glycation and crosslinking, but results in lower solubility and digestibility due to excessive crosslinking. Deamidation of soy protein isolate (SPI) by HCl converts glutamine residues, and provides less opportunity for the two reactions. Two deamidated SPI products (DSPI1 and DSPI2) were thus glucosamine‐glycated and crosslinked, to clarify the effects of pre‐deamidation on the two reactions and properties of the products. Results DSPI1 and DSPI2 had respective degrees of deamidation of 12.2% and 27.4%. They and SPI were used to generate three glycated and crosslinked products (GC‐DSPI1, GC‐DSPI2 and GC‐SPI) containing glucosamine of 12.0, 4.4, and 19.7 g kg−1 protein, respectively, which were reflected in their infrared spectra at two regions. They three (especially GC‐SPI) had higher water‐binding than SPI (8.2‐12.6 versus 6.2 g g−1 protein). GC‐DSPI1 and GC‐DSPI2 showed better enzymatic digestion than GC‐SPI. Thermogravimetric and circular dichroism analyses verified that GC‐DSPI1 and GC‐DSPI2 had maximum degradation rates at temperatures 12−14 °C lower than GC‐SPI, and possessed more open secondary structure. Conclusion SPI deamidation decreases forthcoming glycation and crosslinking, and give the products higher digestibility, less increased hydration, lower thermal stability, and more open secondary structure. Pre‐deamidation is applicable to control the properties of GC‐proteins.
      PubDate: 2015-08-03T05:02:03.51685-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7361
  • Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review
    • Authors: Adina C. Bosch; Bernadette O'Neill, Gunnar O. Sigge, Sven E. Kerwath, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Abstract: The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmfuleffects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers.
      PubDate: 2015-08-03T05:01:41.292763-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7360
  • An overview of available crop growth and yield models for studies and
           assessments in agriculture
    • Authors: Arianna Di Paola; Riccardo Valentini, Monia Santini
      Abstract: The scientific community offers numerous crop models with different sophistication levels. In such a wide range of crop models, a user should have the possibility to choose the most suitable, in terms of detail, scale and representativeness, to his objectives. However, even when an appropriate choice is made, model limitations should be clarified such that modelling studies are put in the proper perspective and robust applications are achieved. This work is an overview of available models to simulate crop growth and yield. A summary matrix with more than 70 crop models is provided, storing the main model characteristics that can help users to choose the proper tool according to their purposes. Overall, we found that two main aspects of models, despite their importance, are not always clear from the published references, i.e. the versatility of the models, in terms of reliable transferability to different conditions, and the degree of complexity. Hence, models’ developers should be encouraged to pay more attention to clarifying the model limitations and limits of applicability, and users should make an effort in proper model selection, to save time often devoted to iteration of tuning steps to force an inappropriate model to be adapted to their own purpose.
      PubDate: 2015-07-31T01:46:48.244157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7359
  • An Overview On The Current Plant Biostimulant Legislations In Different
           European Member States
    • Authors: Anna La Torre; Valerio Battaglia, Federica Caradonia
      Abstract: Plant biostimulants are borderline substances that play an intermediate role between plant protection products and fertilizers. At present, such substances are regulated by national laws and have different names in the various European member states. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the activity of these substances and on the national laws that regulate them, as they vary considerably from one member state to another. The greatest difficulty in terms of the correct regulatory framework for these substances is related to their heterogeneity. This situation creates uncertainties for operators, control authorities and bodies that certify and control the organic production, and strongly limits the growth of these substances. This problem will be overcome with the amendment of Regulation EC No 2003/2003 which will shortly extend its scope to the category of plant biostimulants included within the fertilising additives.
      PubDate: 2015-07-31T01:25:35.774888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7358
  • Configuration of watermelon fruit quality in response to
           rootstock‐mediated harvest maturity and postharvest storage
    • Authors: Marios C. Kyriacou; Georgios A. Soteriou, Youssef Rouphael, Anastasios S. Siomos, Dimitrios Gerasopoulos
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The configuration of watermelon fruit quality was analysed in a multi‐factorial approach accounting for the effects of grafting, harvest maturity and postharvest storage. Diploid, seeded, hybrid cv. Pegasus, cultivated as scion on interspecific hybrid squash rootstock TZ148 and as non‐grafted control, was stored at 25 °C following sequential harvests from the onset of ripening to over‐maturity. RESULTS Delayed rootstock‐mediated climax in pulp lycopene and chroma was observed, while both were heightened by postharvest storage when harvest preceded full maturity. Pulp firmness was increased by 46.5% on TZ148, while postharvest decrease in firmness was non‐significant. Non‐grafted fruit attained their peak in pulp carbohydrate content earlier during ripening. Monosaccharide content declined and sucrose content increased both preharvest and postharvest; overall sugar content declined by 4.3% during storage. Pulp acidity decreased steadily with ripening but was moderately increased by grafting. Citrulline content increased by 12.5% on TZ148; moreover it climaxed with ripening and declined with storage only in grafted fruit. CONCLUSIONS Grafting enhances pulp texture and bioactive composition. Potential suppression of sugar content as a result of grafting is minimized at full commercial maturity. Brief postharvest ambient storage enhances pulp lycopene and chroma, especially in early‐picked fruit, notwithstanding the depletion of monosaccharides and citrulline and a limited deterioration of texture.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T01:24:53.003526-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7356
  • Characterization of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells
           immobilized in a loofa sponge matrix, and application of this biopolymer
           in the development of functional yogurt
    • Authors: Camila O. Martinez; Suelen P. Ruiz, Vanderson C. Fenelon, Gutierrez R. Morais, Mauro L. Baesso, Graciette Matioli
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells were immobilized on a loofa sponge and used to produce curdlan over five successive cycles. The interaction between microbial cells and the loofa sponge as well as the produced curdlan were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared‐Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR‐ATR) spectrometry. The purity of the curdlan was also evaluated. The storage stability of the immobilized cells was assessed. And the produced curdlan was used in a functional yogurt formulation. RESULTS The average curdlan production by immobilized cells was 17.84 g/L. The presence of the microorganism in the sponge was confirmed and did not cause alterations in the matrix, and the chemical structure of the curdlan was the same of the commercial curdlan structure. The purity of both was similar. The immobilized cells remained active after 300 days of storage at −18 °C. The use of produced curdlan in a functional yogurt resulted in a product with lower syneresis. CONCLUSION A large number of cells physically adhered to the surface of loofa sponge fibers, and its use as an immobilization matrix to produce curdlan was effective. The use of the produced curdlan in yogurt allowed the development of a more stable product.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T01:24:03.174604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7357
  • Monitoring the sensorial quality of the canned white asparagus through
           cluster analysis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND White asparagus is one of the 30 vegetables most consumed in the world. This paper unifies the stages of their sensory quality control. The aims of this work were to describe the sensorial properties of canned white asparagus and their quality control, and to evaluate the applicability of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for classifying and monitoring the sensory quality of manufacturers. RESULTS Sixteen sensory descriptors and their evaluation technique were defined. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was high flavor characteristic, little acidity and bitterness, medium firmness and very light fibrosity, among other characteristics. The dendrogram established groups of manufacturers that had similar scores in the same set of descriptors and each cluster grouped the manufacturers that had a similar quality profile. CONCLUSIONS The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was clearly defined through the intensity evaluation of 16 descriptors and the sensory quality report provided to the manufacturers is in detail and of easy interpretation. The agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) grouped the manufacturers according to the highest quality scores in certain descriptors and is a useful tool because it is very visual.
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T02:03:07.204787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7355
  • Proximate Composition and Nutritional Quality of Deep Sea Growth Sea
           Cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from Different Origins
    • Authors: Yue Gao; Zhibo Li, Yanxia Qi, Zhenyu Guo, Yantong Lin, Wei Li, Yucai Hu, Qiancheng Zhao
      Abstract: Background Deep sea growth sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas) (DSG‐SC) has been considered as the most nutritious and luxurious seafood for Asians. This study investigated comparatively the proximate composition and nutritional quality of collagen, polysaccharides, amino acids (AA) and fatty acids (FA) in sea cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from different origins. Results The contents of protein, ash, carbohydrate, fat, collagen, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) , total amino acid (TAA), essential amino acids (EAA), fucose and uronic acid were different among the origins. Sea cucumber of Dalian origin had lower contents of ash, fat, uronic acid, TAA and EAA, but it showed higher contents of protein, collagen, PUFA, EPA, DHA and fucose compared with the other origins. The DSG‐SC had higher proportion of PUFA and richer polysaccharides than other seafood, and it demonstrated that Glutamate and Glycine were the dominant AA, and Leucine and Threonine were the abundant EAA. Conclusion DSG‐SC were a good source of collagen, polysaccharides (especially, fucose), EAA (especially, Leucine and Threonine) and PUFA (especially, EPA and DHA). Dalian seems to be a promising origin to produce high value sea cucumber with high PUFA, fucose, collagen and protein.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:38:16.922555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7353
  • Assessment of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and pesticide residues in domestic
           and imported Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fish in India
    • Authors: Niladri Sekhar Chatterjee; Kaushik Banerjee, Sagar Utture, Narayan Kamble, B. Madhusudana Rao, Satyen Kumar Panda, Suseela Mathew
      Abstract: Background The Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a ubiquitous item of seafood in global markets. However, pesticide residues in aquaculture fish, arising from agricultural runoff and/or direct application during pond preparation, pest control and harvest is a potential food safety concern. This study assessed the level of chemical hazard in domestic and imported pangasius fish in India. Results A total of 119 contaminants including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines (OCs) and other groups of pesticides were screened in 148 samples during 2014–2015 as the first endeavour of its kind in Indian context, employing a validated GC‐MS/MS method. Apart from the low level incidence of OCs, pesticides like quinalphos, malathion, methyl parathion, etc. were detected in 38% of the samples. In comparison to the Indian pangasius, less number of contaminants at low residue level was detected in pangasius fillets imported from Vietnam. Conclusion The human dietary exposures of the residue concentrations detected were less than the maximum permissible intakes and hence appeared safe. However, detection of commonly used pesticides indicated their direct application in aquaculture and contamination from agricultural runoff. This emphasizes the need of continual residue monitoring in aquaculture fish.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:37:28.409663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7352
  • Aroma volatiles obtained at harvest by HS‐SPME/GC‐MS and
           INDEX/MS‐E‐nose fingerprint discriminate climacteric behavior
           in melon fruit
    • Abstract: Background Melon aroma volatiles were extracted at harvest from juice of a climacteric near‐isogenic line (NIL) SC3‐5‐1 with two QTLs introgressed which produced climacteric behavior and its non‐climacteric parental (PS) using two methodologies of analysis: static headspace solid phase micro‐extraction (HS‐SPME) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and inside needle dynamic extraction (INDEX) by MS‐based electronic nose (MS‐E‐nose). Results Of the 137 volatiles compounds identified most of them found at significantly higher concentrations in SC3‐5‐1 than in PS in both seasons. These volatiles were mostly esters, alcohols, sulfur‐derived esters and even some aldehydes and others. The number of variables with high correlation values was reduced by using correlation network analysis. Partial least squares‐discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) achieved the correct classification of PS and SC3‐5‐1. The ions m/z 74, 91, 104, 105, 106 and 108, mainly volatile derivatives precursor phenylalanine, were the most discriminant in SC3‐5‐1 and PS. As many as 104 QTLs were mapped in season 1 and at least 78 QTLs in each season with an effect above the PS mean. Conclusion GC‐MS gave better discrimination than E‐nose. Most of the QTLs that mapped in both seasons enhanced aroma volatiles associated with climacteric behavior.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T03:02:02.922097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7350
  • Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic
    • Authors: Xinyan Zhang; Ningyang Li, Xiaoming Lu, Pengli Liu, Xuguang Qiao
      Abstract: Background Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristic of quality formation of black garlic during processing of varied temperatures. Results In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5‐Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavor of black garlic was various at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. Sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) than those with other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavor of black garlic during processing. Conclusion Temperatures had remarkable impacts on the quality and flavor of black garlic.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T03:01:02.961206-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7351
  • Effect of spinach aqueous extract on wound healing in experimental model
           diabetic rats with streptozotocin
    • Authors: Sara Rahati; Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Abdolali Ebrahimi, Hamideh Pishva
      Abstract: Background Chronic ulcer is still a serious issue for diabetic patients. Diabetes is a prevalent cause of ulcer regeneration delay and (or) disruption. Since Spinacia oleracea extract contains compounds with anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory effects, this may be effective in accelerating the healing process of ulcers; especially, diabetic ulcers. Hence, this study examined the effect of Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract on ulcer regeneration in an experimental‐animal model. Results Macroscopic examination of the wounds of the control group and spinach aqueous extract group between 7 to 21 days compared with diabetic group, significant changes were observed (P˂0.05). On microscopic examination, the epithelial tissue formation, formation of granulation tissue and new blood vessels in the spinach aqueous extract group and non diabetic group than in the diabetic group showed significant improvements (P˂0.05). Also, VEGF were observed significant differences between groups on the Third and seventh day(P˂0.05). Conclusion the Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract can be effective in regenerating diabetic ulcers. It affects the speed and structure of the ulcer.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23T01:27:25.796735-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7349
  • The effect of raw materials on thermo‐oxidative stability and
           glycidyl esters content of palm oil during frying
    • Abstract: Background The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the water content of food incorporated into the frying oil on oil degradation and the content of glycidyl esters. Potato chips, French fries and snacks were fried intermittently in palm oil, which was heated at 180 °C for 8 h per day over five consecutive days. Thermo‐oxidative and physical alterations, changes in fatty acid composition, total polar components, polar fraction composition, and water contentwere analysed. The content of glycidyl esters was measured by liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Results More polar compounds were formed in the oil used for frying chips (252 g kg−1) than for French fries (229 g kg−1) or snacks (196 g kg−1). Reductions in glycidyl esters were found in oils used for frying – greater for frying snacks and French fries (95% and 93%) than for potato chips (87%). The rate of decrease of glycidyl esters was correlated with frying parameters, most strongly with the concentrations of diacylglycerols (r = 0.98) and total polar components (r = −0.98). Conclusion The raw material had a greater influence on polymerisation conversion and glycidyl esters content than on hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the frying oil.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:09:30.268923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7345
  • The effect of spray drying on sucrose‐glycine caramel powder
    • Abstract: Background aramel is used as food colorant in many parts of the world. However, there have been no studies investigating the effects of spray drying on sucrose and glycine solutions. In this study, model sucrose and glycine solutions at different pH levels (pH 4, 3, 2 and 1) were treated with different inlet air temperatures (160, 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C) for durations of 50 s in the spray drying process. Results With increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH, the morphology of the caramel agglomerates tended to be more scattered; however, the solubility of the caramel decreased. With increasing inlet temperature, the glycine and sucrose contents decreased but the fructose and glucose contents increased. Conclusion The content of the intermediate products, the browning intensity and the amount of 5‐hydroxymethyl‐2‐furaldehyde (HMF) increased with increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH. Therefore, the amount of sucrose degradation and the change in pH can be used to evaluate caramel properties in the spray drying process.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:06:36.146128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7347
  • Casein/natamycin edible films efficiency for controlling mould growth and
           on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties during the ripening of
           Kashar cheese
    • Abstract: Background The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the dipping coating application of coated materials as casein (Cas), casein/natamycin (Cas/N) and natamycin (N) solutions of the chemical (e.g. the rates of pH, dry matter, fat, acidity, salt, protein, water soluble nitrogen, ripening index, 12% trichloroacetic acid‐soluble nitrogen and pH 4.6 soluble‐nitrogen), microbial (e.g. total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria in MRS, lactic acid bacteria in M17, coliform and mould) and organoleptic properties of samples during ripening time (3rd, 30th, 60th and 90th days). Results The difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples were found to be significant (P
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:04:40.529761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7348
  • Effect of supplementation of cows diet with linseed and fish oil and
           different variants of ß–lactoglobulin on fatty acid composition
           and antioxidant capacity of milk
    • Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to determine the influence of polymorphic variants of ß–lactoglobulin in cows supplemented with linseed and fish oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk. From the herd of 320 Polish Holstein Friesian cows three groups of cows were selected according to the variants of β–LG (β–LGAA, β–LGBB, β–LGAB). During the first 7 days (the initial period) all the cows were fed the same TMR diet. From day 8 to 28,150 g fish oil and 250 g linseed (FOL) was added to the TMR diet of each cow. Results The results showed that the diet supplemented with FOL was effective in reducing atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Introducing supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity: higher concentration of C18:2cis‐9trans‐11, C20:5 n‐3, C22:6n‐3, bioactive whey proteins and vitamin soluble in fat has been recorded. The results showed that ß–LGAA was associated with lower levels of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and higher concentration of C22:5n‐6, phospholipids and β‐carotene. ß–LGBB favours a higher content of C18:1trans‐11, C18:2cis‐9trans‐11 and lactoferrin. ß–LGAB was associated with higher concentrations of C20:5n‐3, Lysozyme, α–retinol, α–tocopherol and total antioxidant status. Conclusion Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of milk. The effect of β‐LG phenotype on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk is variable, which could partly be the result of a β‐LG phenotype × diet interaction.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T00:21:27.007224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7341
  • Effects of poplar buds as an alternative to propolis on postharvest
           diseases control of strawberry fruits
    • Authors: Shuzhen Yang; Yefeng Zhou, Junli Ye, Gang Fan, Litao Peng, Siyi Pan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, two main postharvest pathogens, cause great loss of strawberry fruits. Here, the effects of poplar buds extracts, a main plant source for Chinese propolis, on disease control were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS HPLC profile of poplar buds ethanol extract(PBEE) was almost identical to that of propolis ethanol extract(PEE), with the active flavonoids identified as pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. PBEE exhibited similar inhibitory activities on spore germination of both pathogens compared with PEE, and PBEE also strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. In vivo, PBEE could effectively reduce decay of strawberry fruits stored at 13 °C. Although the weight loss was slightly increased, the contents of total soluble solid, titritable acid,vitamin C and total anthocynins were significantly higher in PBEE treated fruits than those of the control. CONCLUSION PBEE had the similar antifungal activity with propolis and had great potential as propolis alternative to control strawberry fruits diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T05:05:12.938007-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7329
  • The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a
           cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in
           marine food model systems
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in hemoglobin fortified washed cod mince and iron containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. Progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and TBA‐reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as redness loss and protein carbonyls in the cod system. RESULTS The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and high ORAC‐value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. CONCLUSION The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro‐oxidants present.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T00:38:48.888112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7328
  • Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and anticancer activities of
           chestnut inner shell extracts prepared with various solvents
    • Abstract: Background The chestnut inner shell (CIS) has long been used as a medicinal herb for strengthening the antioxidant in cosmetic industry. However, little is known about the antioxidant and anticancer effects of the CIS. Results The antioxidant and anticancer effects of CIS extracts (CISEs) were investigated by the use of various methods and cancer cell lines, respectively. The total polyphenol content of CISEs using ethanol, methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate and water were 53.30, 43.98, 32.16, 26.79 and 11.53 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1, respectively. The CISEs using ethanol and methanol exhibited high antioxidant activities in the 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, β‐carotene bleaching and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays; the effects were equivalent to them of butylated hydroxyltoluene. All CISEs at 2.5 mg mL−1 were shown to have a cytotoxic effect over 50%, and the CISE using ethyl acetate at 0.6 mg mL−1 was proved to have 90% cytotoxic effect against the tested cancer cells. Conclusion The ethanol and methanol CISEs had potent antioxidant effects, and the ethyl acetate CISE had the highest cytotoxicity. These results suggest that CISEs could be used as functional ingredients for antioxidant and anticancer effects in foods as extraction solvents.
      PubDate: 2015-06-27T03:47:27.511567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7324
  • Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain – are we prepared to
           tackle it?
    • Authors: Premanandh Jagadeesan; Samara Bin Salem
      Pages: 2779 - 2782
      Abstract: Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T05:44:35.958346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7205
  • Beef flavor: a review from chemistry to consumer
    • Authors: Chris R Kerth; Rhonda K Miller
      Pages: 2783 - 2798
      Abstract: This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally, trigeminal senses such as metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavities and can have an effect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor, and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and therefore the flavor generated. A low‐heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high‐heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses and drawing relationships among all flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking, and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T02:56:49.027622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7204
  • Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation
           of fresh foods
    • Authors: Seung Yuan Lee; Seung Jae Lee, Dong Soo Choi, Sun Jin Hur
      Pages: 2799 - 2810
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high‐quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-11T05:05:30.168606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7218
  • Identification and characterization of the antigenic site (epitope) on
           bovine β‐lactoglobulin: common residues in linear and
           conformational epitopes
    • Authors: Xin Li; Shuilin Yuan, Shengfa He, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen
      Pages: 2916 - 2923
      Abstract: BACKGROUND β‐Lactoglobulin is recognised as one of major allergens in milk and its epitopes include linear and conformational epitopes contributed to milk allergy. RESULTS In our work, two types of epitopes have been identified. Linear epitopes identified by using SPOT™ peptide arrays approach and three common peptide sequences AA77–82 (KIPAVF), AA126–131 (PEVDNE) and AA142–147 (ALPMHI) were obtained by reacting with specific sera from two rabbits. At the same time, mimotopes were screened by the panning of a phage display peptide library and the corresponding conformational epitopes were calculated by the web tool of Peptiope server with Mapitope algorithm. Three conformational epitopes against two specific sera were identified, in which there were 15 common residues as well and located in the different position and appeared mainly as an α‐helix. CONCLUSION Common residues on the linear and conformational epitopes were identified in the first time, respectively, which could be regarded as informative epitopes for detection of allergen in dairy products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:41:10.325193-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7033
  • Effects of salinity and nitrogen supply on the quality and
           health‐related compounds of strawberry fruits (Fragaria ×
           ananassa cv. Primoris)
    • Pages: 2924 - 2930
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Different nitrogen inputs and/or development under adverse water conditions (water stress/low quality and/or high salinity/electrical conductivity), such as those prevailing in Almeria (Mediterranean coast, south‐east Spain), may affect overall fruit and vegetable quality. This study evaluated the influence of salinity and nitrogen reduction in hydroponic nutrient solution on strawberry fruit quality and nutritional compounds (Fragaria × ananassa Duch., cv. Primoris). RESULTS Strawberries obtained under salinity treatments recorded the highest values for soluble solids content (SSC; all samplings); fruit taste was thus enhanced. Additionally, salinity improved fruit nutritional value, with higher contents of antioxidants compounds (first sampling). During first and second samplings, strawberries grown under N reduction and non‐saline conditions showed higher values for firmness compared to fruits developed under other treatments. Regarding health‐related compounds, few differences were found except for total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity for the first sampling, where strawberries grown under saline treatments obtained the highest values for both parameters. CONCLUSION The use of low‐quality waters, such as those found in Almeria (salinity, N9S and N5S) and low nitrogen inputs (N5, avoid environmental impact) for strawberry cultivation does not exert a negative impact on overall quality. Positive differences could be found in SSC, firmness and health‐related compounds when compared against the control treatment (N9). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-08T05:42:08.347515-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7034
  • Physicochemical properties of caper species seed oils collected from two
           different harvest years
    • Pages: 2965 - 2972
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study the physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and sterol and tocopheol contents of caper species seed oils were determined. RESULTS Brightness (L*) values of oils obtained from caper seeds ranged between 36.76 and 53.48. Viscosity values of oils of Capparis spinosa species were between 41.1 and 48.6 mPa. While oleic acid levels were high in C. spinosa species oils, linoleic acid levels were high in Capparis ovata species oils. Sterol contents of crude oils were between 3140 and 3272 mg kg−1 (mean 3220 mg kg−1) for C. spinosa species and between 3275 and 3312 mg kg−1 (mean 3298 mg kg−1) for C. ovata species. α‐Tocopherol contents of C. spinosa and C. ovata oils averaged 3.87 and 2.63 mg per 100 g respectively. Radical‐scavenging activities of crude oils averaged 29.78% (C. spinosa species) and 26.09% (C. ovata species). Total phenolic concentrations in crude oils averaged 0.642 mg g−1 for C. ovata species (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Caper seeds are a natural source of vegetable oils that are beneficial in terms of health, oil stability and resistance to oxidation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-05T04:30:01.741097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7040
  • Maternal exposure to diets containing flaxseed flour or flaxseed oil
           during pregnancy and lactation protects the aortic remodeling in adult
           male offspring of diabetic rat dams
    • Pages: 2973 - 2980
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular complications in the fetus and extends into adulthood. Therapeutic applications of flaxseed have been studied in cardiovascular disorders, because its oilseed is the best plant source of omega‐3 fatty acid, which is currently considered by researchers to be an essential protective against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of flaxseed flour and oil on cardiovascular biochemical parameters and the histoarchitecture of the aorta in adult rats which were offspring of diabetic mothers. RESULTS At 100 days of age in offspring it was observed that maternal consumption of a high‐fat diet containing flaxseed oil (FOG) and flaxseed flour (FFG) did not affect the serum concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1, vascular endothelial growth factor, cholesterol, triglycerides, high‐density‐, low‐density‐ or very‐low‐density‐lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the thickness of the intima media layer of the aorta was significantly smaller in FOG and FFG groups; the lumen area was similar among the groups; and a higher percentage of elastic fiber was found in FOG and FFG groups. CONCLUSION These data suggest that the use of both flaxseed flour and its oil reduces the remodeling of the aorta; however; it has not been possible to modify the cardiovascular biochemical parameters. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-05T04:30:20.857147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7041
  • Instrumental and sensory analyses of quality attributes of grafted
           specialty melons
    • Authors: Wenjing Guan; Xin Zhao, Donald J Huber, Charles A Sims
      Pages: 2989 - 2995
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. RESULTS Galia melon ‘Arava’ (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon ‘Honey Yellow’ (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root‐knot nematode‐resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of ‘Arava’ fruit. By contrast with grafted ‘Arava’, grafted ‘Honey Yellow’ did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and rootstock selection. CONCLUSION The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scion used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on melon fruit quality need to be considered in the selection and use of disease‐resistant rootstocks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-29T04:58:20.249251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7050
  • Effects of preharvest ultraviolet‐C irradiation on fruit
           phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity in three strawberry
           (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars
    • Pages: 2996 - 3002
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ultraviolet‐C (UV‐C) has proven effective in extending shelf‐life, reducing disease incidence and increasing the levels of health‐promoting compounds in several crops. While most studies were conducted at the postharvest stage, our study examined the effect of preharvest UV‐C application in three strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. 'Albion', 'Charlotte' and 'Seascape'). UV‐C treatment was applied from the onset of flowering until the fruits reached commercial maturity on plants grown for two consecutive seasons under greenhouse conditions. The phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of the fruits were assessed at harvest. RESULTS The ellagic acid and kaempferol‐3‐glucuronide contents were significantly increased only in fruits of the cultivar 'Albion' collected from UV‐C‐treated plants in season 1. UV‐C did not consistently affect the other phenolic compounds that were measured. Based on the results of the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total phenolic content assays, the antioxidant capacity of the three strawberry cultivars was not affected by UV‐C. Season and cultivar had a decisive impact on these parameters. CONCLUSION The effect of preharvest UV‐C on the levels of bioactive compounds in strawberry fruits appears to be cultivar‐ dependent, with season or growing conditions having a significant impact. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T09:27:55.034282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7064
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