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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 300 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)

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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from selected cereal grains and legumes as
           influenced by food acidulants
    • Authors: Gavirangappa Hithamani; Krishnapura Srinivasan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Polyphenols in food are valued for their health beneficial influences. Food acidulants lime juice and amchur, used in Indian culinary were evaluated for their influence on polyphenol bioaccessibility from food grains. RESULTS Lime juice increased bioaccessible flavonoids by 25% in roasted finger millet, while there was no change in total bioaccessible polyphenols in pressure‐cooked, open‐pan boiled and roasted finger millet in presence of food acidulants. Addition of amchur to pressure‐cooked and microwave‐heated pearl millet increased the bioaccessible flavonoids by 30% and 53%, while lime juice increased the same by 46% in pressure‐cooked millet. Increased bioaccessibility of specific phenolic acids from finger millet and pearl millet was observed upon addition of these food acidulants. Presence of either lime juice or amchur increased bioaccessible flavonoids from both the legumes. Addition of lime juice and amchur however exerted a negative effect on the bioaccessibility of several phenolic compounds from food grains in native and under certain processing conditions. CONCLUSIONS Thus, food acidulants ̶ lime juice and amchur had significant influence on the bioaccessibility of health beneficial phenolic compounds from food grains. Use of food acidulants in food preparations could be a strategy to enhance the bioavailability of polyphenols, especially flavonoids from grains.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T23:25:41.85355-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7776
       
  • Recent developments in biochar as an effective tool for agricultural soil
           management ‐ a review
    • Authors: Mahmood Laghari; Ravi Naidu, Bo Xiao, Zhiquan Hu, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat, Mian Hu, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zhihua Chen, Dabin Guo, Qamardudin Jogi, Zaidun Naji Abudi, Saima Fazal
      Abstract: In recent years biochar has been demonstrated to be a useful amendment to sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emission from the soil to atmosphere. Hence, it can help to mitigate global environment change. Some studies have shown that biochar addition to agricultural soils increases crop production. The mechanisms involved are: increased soil aeration and water‐holding capacity (WHC), enhanced microbial activity and plant nutrient status in soil, and alteration of some important soil chemical properties. This review provides an in‐depth consideration of the production, characterization and agricultural use of different biochars. Biochar is a complex organic material and its characteristics vary with production conditions and the feedstock used. The agronomic benefits of biochar solely depend upon the use of particular types of biochar with proper field application rate under appropriate soil types and conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:50:40.518567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7753
       
  • Sequence characterization and in silico structure prediction of fatty acid
           
    • Authors: Ashwini V. Rajwade; Rakesh S. Joshi, Narendra Y. Kadoo, Vidya S. Gupta
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Linseed is the richest agricultural source of alpha‐linolenic acid (ALA), an omega‐3 fatty acid, which offers several nutritional benefits. In the present study, we performed sequence characterization of six desaturase genes (SAD1, SAD2, FAD2, FAD2‐2, FAD3A and FAD3B) and 3D structure prediction of their proteins from ten Indian linseed varieties differing in ALA contents, to determine whether the nucleotide and amino acid (AA) sequence variants have any functional implications in differential accumulation of ALA or other fatty acids in linseed. RESULTS The SAD and FAD2 genes exhibited few sequence variations among the ten varieties, forming only one or two protein isoforms. Alternatively, FAD3A and FAD3B genes showed more sequence variations and three or four protein isoforms. Interestingly, the two high ALA varieties ‘NL260’ and ‘Padmini’ had the same FAD3B nucleotide and protein isoforms, which were different from all the other varieties. Surprisingly, no AA changes altered the 3D structures of the desaturase proteins. CONCLUSIONS We observed several nucleotide and AA sequence variations in desaturase genes; however, they did not alter the 3D structure of any desaturase protein and were not correlated with fatty acid levels among the ten linseed varieties, which had different ALA contents. This suggests complex regulatory process of biosynthesis of fatty acids in linseed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25T02:05:49.522272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7775
       
  • Seed oil extraction from red prickly pear using hexane and supercritical
           CO2: Assessment of phenolic compound composition, antioxidant and
           antibacterial activities
    • Abstract: Background Investigating Opuntia species for their seed oil contents is of high importance due to its potential use for food and cosmetic applications. These oils have an important content in unsaturated fatty acids as well as antioxidant compounds (e.g. polyphenols, vitamin E), which have been associated with the prevention of some chronic diseases. Moreover, Opuntia stricta oils possess important antimicrobial activities. For instance, the main focus of this study was to compare the effectiveness of conventional (hexane extraction) and novel (supercritical CO2) extraction methods for oil and phenolic compounds recovery from O. stricta seeds. The oil yield of both extracts was then compared and the polyphenol content and composition of both extracts was determined by liquid chromatography‐high resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, the antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antimicrobial activities (disc diffusion's method) of O. stricta seed oils were determined. Results The oil yield (based on Soxhlet's method) of O.stricta seeds was determined using SC‐CO2 (49.9 ± 2.2%), and hexane (49.0 ± 1.5%). Although obtaining similar oil extraction yields using the two methods, the extracted oil using SC‐CO2 was more enriched in polyphenols (172.2 ± 11.9 µg GAE g−1 of oil) than that extracted using hexane (76.0 ± 6.9 µg GAE g−1 of oil). Polyphenol profiles showed that SC‐CO2 process led to yield more compounds (45) than that using hexane extraction (11). Moreover, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of SC‐CO2 extract showed high percentage of inhibitions. Conclusion SC‐CO2 extraction of Opuntia stricta seed oil lead to extract oil with similar yield than that with hexane extraction, but with higher polyphenol content. The extract containing polyphenols exhibited high antioxidant and antibacterial properties demonstrating their great potential as feedstock for high oil quality.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23T01:51:05.807555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7774
       
  • Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on
           acetylated starch and cellulose from barley
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. RESULT The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. CONCLUSION The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapour permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23T01:50:43.276986-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7773
       
  • Implications of climate change predictions for uk cropping and prospects
           for possible mitigation: A review of challenges and potential responses
    • Abstract: The UK, like the rest of the world, is confronting the impacts of climate change. Further changes are expected and they will have a profound effect on agriculture. Future crop production is going to be taking place against increasing CO2 levels and temperatures; decreasing water availability, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events. This review contributes to research on agricultural practices for climate change, but with a more regional perspective. The present study explores climate change impacts on UK agriculture, particularly food crop production, and how to mitigate and build resilience to climate change by adopting and/or changing soil management practices, including fertilisation and tillage systems; new crop adoption and variety choice. Some mitigation can be adopted in the shorter‐term, such as changes in crop type and reduction in fertiliser‐use, but in other cases the options will need greater investment and longer adaptation period. This is the case for new crop variety development and deployment, and possible changes to soil cultivations. Uncertainty of future weather conditions, particularly extreme weather, also affect decision‐making for adoption of practices by farmers to ensure more stable and sustainable production. Even when there is real potential for climate change mitigation, it can sometimes be more difficult to accomplish with certainty on‐farm. Better future climate projections and long‐term investments will be required to create more resilient agricultural systems in the UK in the face of climate change challenges.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22T03:40:45.195258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7767
       
  • Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on 137Cs
           concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima
           Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident
    • Authors: Keiko Tagami; Shigeo Uchida, Nobuyoshi Ishii
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in mushrooms have been of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set the guideline level of radiocesium concentration in bed‐logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear at the time. RESULTS The effects of indoor and out door cultivations to the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for analysis. No statistical 137Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137Cs data in shiitake, geometric means from each prefecture were less than 1/4 of the standard limit (100 Bq kg−1) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. CONCLUSIONS It was suspected that re‐suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or radiocesium might have been absorbed from soil to the mushrooms in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:36:04.216082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7771
       
  • Effect of different lignocellulosic wastes on Hericium americanum yield
           and nutritional characteristics
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using cottonseed hulls (CSH) and olive press cake (OPC) as new supplement materials for substrate preparation in Hericium americanum cultivation. Some chemical properties of the substrates prepared by mixtures of oak sawdust (OS) with wheat bran (WB), CSH and OPC in different ratios were determined. In addition, the effect of mixtures of OS:CSH and OS:OPC on spawn run time, yield and biological efficiency (BE), average mushroom weight and nutrition content of the fruit body were compared with the control substrate (8OS:2WB). RESULTS The yield, BE and average mushroom weight of substrates containing CSH and OPC were higher than the control substrate and increased with an increase in the rate of CSH and OPC in the mixtures. H. americanum showed (on a dry weight basis) 8.5‐23.7% protein, 9.9‐21.2 g kg−1 P, 26.6‐35.8 g kg−1 K, 0.63‐1.33 g kg−1 Mg, 0.19‐0.23 g kg−1 Ca, 1.34‐1.78 g kg−1 Na, 49.5‐72.2 mg kg−1 Fe, 6.22‐10.11 mg kg−1 Mn, 32.8‐82.8 mg kg−1 Zn and 8.6‐11.2 mg kg−1 Cu on different growing substrates. The nutritional value of mushrooms was greatly affected by the growing media. CONCLUSION The results revealed that CSH and OPC could be used as new supplement materials for substrate preparation in H. americanum cultivation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:35:42.330726-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7772
       
  • Delayed post‐harvest ripening‐associated changes in Manilkara
           zapota L. var. Kalipatti with composite edible coating
    • Authors: Vishwasrao Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan Laxmi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There has been limited research on extension of shelf‐life of sapota (Manilkara zapota L. var. Kalipatti) fruit. Edible coating made up of methyl cellulose (MC) and palm oil (PO) was applied to study extension in shelf‐life. Changes in physical and chemical properties of fruit were studied along with peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and pectin methylesterase (PME) enzyme activities during post‐harvest ripening of sapota. RESULTS The fruits coated with 15 g l−1 MC and 11.25 g l−1 PO showed significant (p 
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:25:45.524883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7758
       
  • Viticultural and chemical characteristics of muscat hamburg preselected
           clones grown for table grapes
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Clonal selection is one of the tools used for grapevine improvement and therefore is very important for obtaining the clones with better characteristics than the variety population. The aim of this study was to select superior grapevines of Vitis vinifera L. cv Muscat Hamburg grown for fresh consumption. RESULTS The viticultural parameters and fruit composition of thirty‐five selected vines were determined during a 5‐year period. The evaluated parameters showed high variability among selected vines. The significant effect of vintage was observed for all descriptors with the exception of the number of seeds per berry and sugar concentration. Additionally, all vines were examined for their tolerance to low temperatures and the results showed 73% and 90% of primary bud injury at −20 °C and −25 °C, respectively. In relation to berry classification, the percent of the first class grapes ranged from 60% to 69% for all selected grapevines. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to classify grapevines based on their performances. CONCLUSION Fourteen grapevines were identified as the most promising among the 35 vines initially planted based on the high yield, bunch and berry weight, sugar content and the percentage of the first grade grapes. Those grapevines were selected for the next phase of the clonal selection. This study highlighted the importance of clonal selection for improvement of the variety population.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:35:42.077414-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7769
       
  • Effects on Functional Groups and Zeta Potential of SAP1       Treated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Technology
    • Authors: Rong Liang; Xuenan Li, Songyi Lin, Jia Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND SAP1
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:25:38.956622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7768
       
  • Induction of Antroquinonol Production by Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide in
           the Fermentation of Antrodia camphorata S‐29
    • Authors: Yongjun Xia; Xuan Zhou, Guangqiang Wang, Bobo Zhang, Ganrong Xu, Lianzhong Ai
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antroquinonol have significantly anti‐tumor effects on various cancer cells. There is still lack of reports on regulation of environmental factors on antroquinonol production by Antrodia camphorata. RESULTS An effective submerged fermentation method was employed to induce antroquinonol with adding H2O2. The production of antroquinonol was 57.81 mg L−1 after fermentation for 10 days when adding 25 mM H2O2 at day four of the fermentation process. Then, antroquinonol was further increased to 80.10 mg L−1 with cell productivity of 14.94 mg g−1 dry mycelium when the feeding rate of H2O2 was adjusted to 0.2 mM h−1 in the 7 L fermentation bioreactor. After inhibiting ROS generation with the inhibitor DPI, the synthesis of antroquinonol from A. camphorata was significantly reduced, and the yield was only 3.3 mg L−1. CONCLUSION The results demonstrated that addition of H2O2 was a very effective strategy to induce and regulate the synthesis of antroquinonol in submerged fermentation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by H2O2 during fermentation caused oxidative stress, which induced the synthesis of antroquinonol and other chemical compounds. Moreover, it is very beneficial process to improve production and diversity of the active compounds during liquid fermentation of A. camphorata mycelium.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:48.961569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7770
       
  • Physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous
           series of antioxidants in emulsions are due to differences in their
           distribution
    • Abstract: Background The relationships between the hydrophilic‐lipophilic balance (HLB) of antioxidants (AOs) and their distributions and efficiencies in emulsions are not fully understood. Recent reports indicate that, for series of homologous antioxidants (AOs) of different hydrophobicity, the variation of their efficiency with the HLB of the AO increases with the alkyl chain length up to a maximum (C3 – C8 ester) followed by a decrease (cut‐off effect). Results We determined the distributions of a series of caffeic acid derivatives in intact soybean emulsions by employing a specifically designed chemical probe located in the interfacial region of the emulsion. We also determined the AO efficiencies in the very same emulsions. We demonstrate that the variation of the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of soybean oil‐in‐water emulsions with the AO HLB parallels that of their antioxidant efficiency. Conclusions Results provide physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous series of antioxidants in emulsions are due to differences in their distribution. Results confirm that, other things being equal, there is a direct relationship between the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of the emulsions and their efficiency, providing a natural explanation, based on molecular properties, to the cut‐off effect.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:47.995045-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7765
       
  • Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of gluten‐free pasta
           enriched with resistant starch
    • Authors: Martina Foschia; Paola Beraldo, Donatella Peressini
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective was to examine the potential use of resistant starch (RS) as a fibre‐enriching ingredient in gluten‐free pasta. Pasta was enriched with commercial RS type II (Hi‐MaizeTM 260) at 100–200 g kg−1 substitution of rice flour. The effects on the rheological properties of dough and pasta quality as a result of RS addition and the loss in RS due to the process were evaluated. RESULTS Dough water‐absorption was not influenced by the addition of RS. The cooking loss (CL) of RS‐enriched samples was 30% lower than reference without fibre. The addition of RS significantly increased firmness of cooked pasta and above 100 g kg−1 RS level of substitution, samples showed a lower stickiness value. Dynamic rheological tests on pasta dough showed higher storage modulus for fibre samples indicating a higher number of elastically physical interactions. Loss in RS in uncooked pasta was about 31% compared with the initial amount added to the product. CONCLUSIONS The addition of RS improved the quality of gluten‐free pasta due to its ability to increase the firmness and decrease the CL and stickiness of cooked pasta. The product enriched with 200 g kg−1 RS can be considered a source of DF.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:06.118386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7766
       
  • The practicality of using ozone with fruit and vegetables
    • Authors: Marcin Glowacz; Deborah Rees
      Abstract: The fresh produce industry is constantly growing, due to increasing consumer demand. The food quality and safety management are still the major issue for the supply chain. The use of ozone has been identified as a feasible solution to reduce microorganisms present in food, and in this way extending the shelf‐life of fresh produce. A number of factors that may affect efficiency of ozone treatment have been identified, e.g. microbial populations, ozone concentration and time of exposure, type of produce, temperature, relative humidity, and packaging material, and they are briefly discussed. Furthermore, the practical information coming from the studies with ozone conducted by the authors and from their knowledge of the subject, directs the reader's attention to the key aspects of ozone use under commercial conditions, i.e. from the practical point of view. Finally, one of the possible directions for the future research with the postharvest use of ozone, i.e. the important role of fruit cuticle in response to this postharvest treatment, is given.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:01:28.965407-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7763
       
  • Short‐ and Long‐term Antihypertensive Effect of egg
           protein‐derived Peptide QIGLF
    • Authors: Zhipeng Yu; Wenzhu Zhao, Ding Long, Yaqi Wang, Feng Chen, Jingbo Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The purpose of this research work was to investigate in vivo antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) induced by egg protein‐derived peptide QIGLF, which has been previously characterized in vitro as a potent ACE inhibitor. RESULTS In vivo antihypertensive effect of QIGLF orally administered was evaluated by the tail‐cuff method. The systolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure of rats were measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 h after the administration every day. Subsequently, effect of QIGLF on ACE mRNA expression of the kidney of SHRs was evaluated by PCR. It was found that systolic blood pressure was reduced markedly in the SHRs after a single oral administration. CONCLUSION The results showed that QIGLF (50 mg/kg bw) exhibited a similar effect as Captopril (10 mg/kg bw) in lowering SBP in SHRs. Therefore, egg white protein‐derived peptide QIGLF may be useful to prevent or treat hypertension.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:01:04.960651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7762
       
  • Effect of prebiotics of Agave salmiana fed to healthy Wistar rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Inulin and other fructans are synthesized and stored in mezcal agave (Agave salmiana). Fructans provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. RESULTS Here, we studied the physiological effects of fructans obtained from A. salmiana when added in the diet of Wistar rats. Results evidence favorable changes on Wistar rats when the fructans was added to their diet, including the decrease of the pH in the faeces and the increase of the number of lactic acid bacteria (CFU g−1) (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.), even these changes were enhanced with the synbiotic diet (fructans plus B. animalis spp. lactis). Synbiotic diet, developed changes in the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum, with statistical differences (p 
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:00:42.828214-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7764
       
  • Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical,
           and sensory properties of winter melon juice
    • Authors: Xiuxiu Sun; Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Anne Plotto, John A. Manthey, Yongping Duan, Jinhe Bai
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. RESULTS The juices had low sugars (
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:55:44.030752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7761
       
  • Optimization of Process Parameters for Supercritical Fluid Extraction of
           Cholesterol from Whole Milk Powder using Ethanol as Co‐solvent
    • Authors: Indira DeyPaul; Chitra Jayakumar, Hari Niwas Mishra
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In spite of being highly nutritious, the consumption of milk is hindered owing to its high cholesterol content which is responsible for numerous cardiac diseases. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using ethanol as co‐solvent was employed to extract cholesterol from whole milk powder (WMP). This study was undertaken to optimize the process parameters of supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) viz., extraction temperature, pressure and volume of ethanol. RESULTS The cholesterol content of WMP was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The impact of the extraction conditions on the fat content (FC), solubility index (SI) and lightness (L*) of the SCFE treated WMP were also investigated. The process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). About 46% reduction in cholesterol was achieved at the optimized condition of 48 °C, 17 MPa and 31 mL of co‐solvent; flow rate of expanded CO2, static time and dynamic time of extraction were 6 L min−1, 10 min and 80 min respectively. The treated WMP retained its FC, SI, and L* at moderate limits of 183.67 g kg−1, 96.3% and 96.90 respectively. CONCLUSION This study pointed at the feasibility of ethanol modified SCFE of cholesterol from WMP with negligible changes in its physico‐chemical properties.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:53:11.631905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7760
       
  • Changes in volatile composition and sensory attributes of wines during
           alcohol content reduction
    • Authors: Rocco Longo; Peter J. Torley, Suzy Y. Rogiers, John W. Blackman, Leigh M. Schmidtke
      Abstract: A desirable sensory profile is a major consumer driver for wine acceptability and should be considered during the production of reduced alcohol wines. Although various viticultural practices and microbiological approaches show promising results, separation technologies such as membrane filtration, in particular reverse osmosis, evaporative perstraction, and vacuum distillation represent the most common methods employed at the commercial scale to produce this wine. However, ethanol removal from wine can result in a significant loss of compounds such as esters that contribute positively to the overall perceived aroma. Such losses can reduce the acceptability of the wine to consumers and decrease their willingness to purchase wines that have had their alcohol level reduced. The change in aroma as a result of the ethanol removal processes is influenced by a number of factors: the type of alcohol reduction process, the chemical‐physical properties (volatility, hydrophobicity, steric hindrance) of the aroma compounds, the composition of the non‐volatile matrix (through π‐π stacking), and the ethanol level. This review identifies and summarises possible deleterious influences of the dealcoholisation process and describes best practice strategies to facilitate the minimisation of the modifications to the original wine composition.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:52:53.15986-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7757
       
  • Glycolipid Biosurfactants; Main Properties and Potential Applications in
           Agriculture and Food Industry
    • Abstract: Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol‐lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They are receiving much practical attention as biopesticides to control plant diseases and to protect stored products. Owing their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit to preserve plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, owing their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. As well, valorization of food by‐products through the production of glycolipid biosurfactant received much attention as it permits the bioconversion of by‐products on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from the fermentation media. In this aim, different strategies were developed to extract and purify glycolipids.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:52:23.646499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7759
       
  • Physicochemical variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) from a
           same orchard, from different locations and at different ripening stages
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study evaluated the variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) cultivated in São Paulo State in the towns of Mogi das Cruzes, Paraibuna, Paranapiacaba, and Rio Grande da Serra, and characterized it at different maturity stages regarding size, firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, phenolic content, ethylene production, respiration rate, and in vitro antioxidant capacity. RESULTS Ripe fruit from the same locality, Paraibuna, showed large variations in size and acidity. Ripe fruit from different towns showed significant variation of total phenolics and, consequently, variation in antioxidant capacity. During maturation, the phenolic content and firmness decreased from unripe to ripe stages. The TSS/TA ratio can be a parameter to differentiate cambuci at different maturity stages. The decrease in firmness combined with the absence of an ethylene climacteric peak does not allow us to conclude if cambuci is climacteric or non‐climacteric though. CONCLUSION Genetic and soil composition studies are needed to assess the reasons for the differences found among fruit from the same location, and the variability among fruit harvested in four localities. The best parameters to assess cambuci's maturity stages of are the rounding of its corners and its firmness, as the more mature the pulp, the softer the fruit.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:45:57.135551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7756
       
  • Determination of four different purines and their changing rules in
           seafood by high performance liquid chromatography
    • Authors: Xin Qu; Jianxin Sui, Nasha Mi, Hong Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seafood is regarded as a high purine food that may induce gout, which has attracted extensive attentions about its safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method to determine the purine content in seafood and its changing rules during storage to guide consumers with referenced content at different freshness. RESULTS Chromatographic separation was carried out using Waters Atlantis dC18 column, and potassium phosphate monobasic solution (0.02 mol/L, pH=3.6) as a mobile phase. The average recovery yields of 4 purines were 91.5 % ~ 105.0 %, and RSD values were around 1.8 % ~ 6.5 %. Shrimp and snail contained higher amounts of purine than fish and bivalve; the livers and skins of fish contained higher amounts of purine than muscles; and main purine varied depending on the type of seafood. Besides, purine content of seafood was changing during storage. CONCLUSION The purine content of seafood was different depending on species, body parts and fresh degrees, which could recommend consumers a healthy diet, especially for people with hyperuricemia and gout.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:50:41.887004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7755
       
  • Planting seeds for the future of food
    • PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:26:52.664502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7734
       
  • Species identification of bivalve molluscs by Pyrosequencing ™
    • Authors: Miriam Abbadi; Sabrina Marciano, Federica Tosi, Cristian De Battisti, Valentina Panzarin, Giuseppe Arcangeli, Giovanni Cattoli
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The increase in seafood consumption and the presence of different species of bivalves on the global markets has given rise to several commercial frauds based on species substitution. To prevent and detect wilful or unintentional frauds, reliable and rapid techniques are required to identify seafood species in different products. In the present work, a pyrosequencing‐based technology has been used for the molecular identification of bivalve species. RESULTS Processed and unprocessed samples of 15 species belonging to the bivalve families Pectinidae, Mytilidae, Donacidae, Ostreidae, Pharide and Veneridae were analysed and correctly identified by the developed pyrosequencing‐based method according to the homology between query sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes and their correspondent reference libraries. This technique exhibits a great potential in automated and high‐throughput processing systems, allowing the simultaneous analysis of 96 samples in shorter execution and turnaround times. CONCLUSIONS The correct identification of all the species shows how useful this technique may prove to differentiate species from different products, providing an alternative, simple, rapid and economical tool to detect seafood substitution frauds.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T04:41:08.420207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7754
       
  • Nitrogen removal in Myriophyllum aquaticum wetland microcosms for swine
           wastewater treatment: 15N‐labelled nitrogen mass balance analysis
    • Authors: Shunan Zhang; Feng Liu, Runlin Xiao, Yang He, Jinshui Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ecological treatments are effective for treating agricultural wastewater. In this study, the wetland microcosms vegetated with Myriophyllum aquaticum were designed for nitrogen (N) removal from two strengths swine wastewater, and 15N‐labeled ammonium (NH4+‐N) was added to evaluate the dominant NH4+‐N removal pathway. RESULTS The results showed 98.8% of NH4+‐N and 88.3% of TN (TN: 248.6 mg L−1) were removed from low strength swine wastewater (SW1) after an incubation of 21 days, with corresponding values for high strength swine wastewater (SW2) being 99.2% of NH4+‐N and 87.8% of TN (TN: 494.9 mg L−1). Plant uptake and soil adsorption respectively accounted for 24.0% and 15.6% of the added 15N. Meanwhile, the aboveground tissues of M. aquaticum had significantly higher biomass and TN content than belowground (p
      PubDate: 2016-04-11T03:55:40.43214-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7752
       
  • Rich Haplotypes of Viviparous‐1 in T. aestivum ssp. spelta with
           Different Abscisic Acid Sensitivities
    • Authors: Yumei Feng; Ruoduan Qu, Simeng Liu, Yan Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Viviparous‐1 (Vp‐1) is a major gene affecting pre‐harvest sprouting (PHS) in common wheat, and improving PHS tolerance is a crucial factor for wheat breeding. Spelt wheat is always used as the donor parent to improve resistance and quality in wheat breeding: however, the roles of the Vp‐1 genes in spelt wheat and their relationship to common wheat remain uncertain. The current study aimed to isolate and characterize Vp‐1 haplotypes in spelt wheat (T. aestivum ssp. spelta). RESULTS In spelt wheat, a total of 8 new Vp‐1 haplotypes were identified: TaVp‐1Ap, TaVp‐1Aq and TaVp‐1Ar in the A genome; TaVp‐1Bj, TaVp‐1Bh and TaVp‐1Bi in the B genome; and TaVp‐1Da and TaVp‐1Db in the D genome. According to RT‐PCR results, correctly spliced transcripts were more highly expressed in some haplotypes than in others, and their expression was highly associated with their distinct responsiveness to abscisic acid (ABA) exposure. The mis‐splicing of Vp‐1 transcripts and several indel variations detected in spelt wheat appear to have been retained through the hybridization process. CONCLUSION Certain haplotypes detected in spelt wheat might be valuable in the breeding and selection of germplasm to improve PHS issues in wheat.
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T01:45:48.118872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7751
       
  • Phytochemical composition and in vitro antitumor activities of selected
           tomato varieties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous studies indicated that tomato is a rich source of phytochemicals that act on different tumors. In this research, the phytochemical composition of selected tomato varieties was assessed by GLC and UHPLC/HPLC‐MS, as well as their antitumor activities on HT‐29 colorectal cancer cells. RESULTS Significant differences were found among tomato varieties; lycopene was high in Racimo; phenolics in Pera; sterols in Cherry; and linoleic acid predominated in all varieties. The MTT and LDH assays showed significant time‐ and concentration‐dependent inhibitory/cytotoxic effects of all tomato varieties on HT‐29 cells. Furthermore, the joint addition of tomato carotenoids and olive oil to HT‐29 cell cultures induced inhibitory effects significantly higher than those obtained from each of them acting separately, while no actions were exercised in CCD‐18 normal cells. CONCLUSION Tomato fruits constitute a healthy source of phytochemicals, although differences exist among varieties. In vitro, all of them inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation with Racimo variety in the top, and exercising a selective action on cancer cells by considering the lack of effects on CCD‐18 cells. Furthermore, synergy was observed between olive oil and tomato carotenoids in inhibiting HT‐29 cancer cell proliferation; conversely, phenolics showed no significant effects and hindered carotenoids actions.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T09:21:18.988148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7750
       
  • Spatial accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature
           and mature watermelon fruits
    • Authors: Kinya Akashi; Yuki Mifune, Kaori Morita, Souichi Ishitsuka, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki Ishihara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) originates from arid regions of southern Africa, and its fruit contains a large amount of the amino acid citrulline, an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger. Citrulline is implicated in the production of nitric oxide in human endothelium, and potential health benefits including vasodilatation and antioxidant functions have been suggested. However, citrulline metabolism in watermelon fruits is poorly understood. RESULTS This study examined the accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits. In mature fruits, highest citrulline concentration was observed in the outer peel, followed by the central portion of the flesh and inner rinds, whereas the level was lower in the peripheral portion of the flesh. Citrulline content was generally low in immature fruits. Spatial and developmental patterns of citrulline accumulation were largely different from those of the antioxidant lycopene, total proteins, and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Principal component analysis suggested a clear distinction of the central flesh and outer peels in mature fruits from other tissues in terms of the levels of major nutrients. CONCLUSION These observations suggested that citrulline accumulation may be regulated in a distinct manner from other nutrients during watermelon fruit maturation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:38:29.356394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7749
       
  • Fungal bioremediation of olive mill wastewater: Using a multi‐step
           approach to model inhibition or stimulation
    • Authors: Antonio Bevilacqua; Francesca Cibelli, Maria Luisa Raimondo, Antonia Carlucci, Francesco Lops, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) possess a strong environmental impact; the use of fungi as tools for bioremediation could be a promising way. RESULTS Twenty‐nine fungi were grown on minimal media supplemented with 5 different kinds of OMWW (5‐15%). Radial growth was assessed for 21 days and the data were modeled through the Dantigny‐logistic like function to estimate τ, i.e. the time to attain ½ of the maximum diameter. Growth on Potato Dextrose Agar and WA (Water Agar, minimal medium without supplementation) was used as reference. The differences in τ between PDA/WA and minimal media with OMWW were modeled through a multi‐factorial ANOVA, using the concentration of OMWW, the kind of wastes and fungi as categorical predictors. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis was run to group and divide resistant and sensitive fungi. Some fungi experienced a positive Δτ, thus suggesting an inhibition by OMWW, whereas other isolates were enhanced. CONLUSIONS Some isolates (for example Aspergillus ochraceus) showed a promising trend and could be possible candidates for a validation on a real scale.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:36:02.555875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7747
       
  • Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye
           blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensorial attributes in not‐from‐concentrate (NFC) ‘Tifblue’ rabbiteye blueberry juices. RESULTS Processing prior to pasteurization generally resulted in increased L* and hue angle color, while a*, b*, and C* decreased. After 4 months pasteurized storage, non‐clarified juice (NCP) lost 73.8% of total volatiles compared with 70.9% in clarified juice (CJP). There was a total anthocyanidin decrease of 84.5% and 85.5% after 4 mo. storage in NCP and CJP, respectively. Storage itself resulted in only 14.2% and 7.2% anthocyanidin loss after pasteurization in NCP and CJP. Storage significantly affected nine flavor properties in juices, however, there were no significant differences in the blueberry, strawberry, purple grape, floral, sweet aroma, or sweet tastes between processed and stored juices. CONCLUSIONS NFC pasteurized blueberry juices maintained desirable flavors even though highly significant volatile and anthocyanidin losses occurred through processing. Maintenance of color and flavor indicate that NFC juices could have an advantage over more abusive methods often used in commercial juice operations.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:33:31.402083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7748
       
  • Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory
           analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation
    • Abstract: Background The influence of 3 irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers’ acceptance of table olives, cv. “Manzanilla”, was evaluated. Results A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green color, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. Conclusion The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmental‐friendly and simultaneously maintains or even improves the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:23:39.220036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7744
       
  • Edible coating composed of chitosan and Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract for
           the control of gray mold of table grapes
    • Authors: Loukas Kanetis; Vassiliki Exarchou, Zinovia Charalambous, Vlasios Goulas
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Consumer concerns regarding high quality produce, free of pesticide residues, direct research towards disease management strategies that minimize or even exclude the use of synthetic chemistries in crop production. The efficacy of a chitosan‐based edible coating combined with the acetonic extract of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (ASF) was assessed against the gray mold of table grapes. RESULTS HPLC‐SPE‐NMR and q‐NMR analyses defined major constituents of ASF to be the flavonoids hispidulin, salvigenin, and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol, and 12‐methoxycarnosic acid. The extract was found to be efficacious in reducing spore germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro at 10 and 25 °C. However, the combination of the ASF with chitosan 1% (w/v; CHIT) significantly improved fungal inhibition. Similarly, in fruit inoculation trials at 10 °C, the efficacy of the combined application of the ASF at 500 mg L−1 with CHIT against gray mold was statistically equal to the synthetic fungicide thiabendazole, ranging from 98.4 to 92.7% at 12 and 21 days post‐inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, chitosan coating alone and in combination with ASF decreased the rate of weight loss during cold storage, while preserved soluble solids content and titratable acidity. Chitosan‐based coatings did not affect quality attributes and the bioactive compounds in table grapes. CONCLUSION The combined application of the ASF in the form of an edible coating with chitosan could effectively control B. cinerea without deteriorating quality and physicochemical properties of grapes.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:23:11.510361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7745
       
  • Improving the emulsifying properties of
           β‐lactoglobulin‐wild almond gum (Amygdalus scoparia
           Spach) exudate complexes by heat
    • Authors: Abdolkhalegh Golkar; Ali Nasirpour, Javad Keramat
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study aims to investigate the advantageous effects of wet heating, BLG (β‐lactoglobulin)/Ang (Angum gum) ratio, and pH (normal pH of mixed BLG and Ang solutions, pHc>pH>pHΦ1) on the emulsifying properties of wet‐heated β‐lactoglobulin‐wild almond gum exudate (Amygdalus scoparia Spach) mixture over those of electrostatic counterparts. RESULTS Covalent linkage of BLG‐Ang conjugates was confirmed by SDS‐PAGE and FT‐IR analysis. Emulsion activity (EA), emulsion stability (ES), and droplet size characteristics of emulsions were significantly (P pHΦ1 exhibited higher EA and ES values for all the biopolymer ratios investigated than their electrostatic counterparts with pH after mixing. However, these values for the wet‐heated samples at pH after mixing were found to be higher than those of the samples subjected to heat treatment at pHc>pH>pHΦ1. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that E/1:2/3.80 and W/1:2/6.69 were the two complexes with finer droplet size distributions after preparation (26.72 ± 3.71and15.27 ± 1.01 µm, respectively) and after one week of storage at 4 °C (30.71 ± 1.57and28.79 ± 0.56 µm, respectively) than others. Apparent viscosities of electrostatic and wet‐heated complexes and emulsions made with the complexes were measured. CONCLUSION Protein‐polysaccharide interactions can be used as an efficient way for producing novel emulsifiers/stabilizers after heat treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:12:05.297842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7741
       
  • Identification and Safety Evaluation of a Product from Biodegradation of
           Ochratoxin A by an Aspergillus Strain
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Ochratoxin A (OTA)poses a serious health hazard throughout the worldand is often reported in food commodities.At present, biological approaches to detoxifyingOTA are now widely consideredto be the most promising methods. RESULTS: In thisstudy, a strain that was identified as Aspergillus niger (A.niger) was isolated, and it has a strong ability to detoxify OTA. The degradation product(compound 1) of OTA was treated with crude enzyme. Theproduct has been isolated and identified asC11H9O5Cl (Ochratoxin α), which is a weak lipophilic molecule, in contrast to fat‐soluble OTA. The cytotoxic response of compound 1 was revealed to be different from that of OTA. Compound 1 does not induce cellular oxidative damage in comparison with OTA, which may cause lipid peroxidation (MDA), reduce SOD activity and induce DNA damage. CONCLUSION: This study indicates thatA.nigerhas the ability to detoxify OTA.The OTA degradation product,Ochratoxin α, does not exertcytotoxic effects on cell metabolism. A.nigerhas prospective uses for theOTA decontaminationof food and agricultural fields.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:11:14.956912-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7742
       
  • Protection of sunflower seed and sunflower meal protein with malic acid
           
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Combined malic acid‐heat treatments of protein supplements have been shown to reduce the ruminal protein degradation, but there is no information on their possible influence on ruminal fermentation and methane emissions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) with malic acid and subsequent drying at 150 °C for 1 (MAL1) or 3 h (MAL3) on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane emission using ruminal fluid from sheep as inoculum. RESULTS Compared with untreated samples, the MAL3 treatment reduced (P  0.05) total volatile fatty acid production for any feed. This treatment also increased (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:10:44.268682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7743
       
  • Electrospun nanofibers in agriculture and food industry: A review
    • Authors: Masumeh Noruzi
      Abstract: The interesting characteristics of electrospun nanofibers such as high surface‐to‐volume ratio, nanoporosity, and high safety make them suitable candidates for use in a variety of applications. In the recent decade, electrospun nanofibers have been applied to different potential fields such as filtration, wound dressing, drug delivery, etc. and a significant number of review papers have been published in these fields. However, the use of electrospun nanofibers in agriculture is comparatively novel and is still in its infancy. In this paper, the specific applications of electrospun nanofibers in agriculture and food science, including plant protection using pheromone‐loaded nanofibers, plant protection using encapsulation of biocontrol agents, preparation of protective clothes for farm workers, encapsulation of agrochemical materials, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction in agricultural research studies, preconcentration and measurement of pesticides in crops and environmental samples, preparation of nanobiosensors for pesticide detection, encapsulation of food materials, fabrication of food packaging materials, and filtration of beverage products are reviewed and discussed. This paper may help researchers develop the use of electrospun nanofibers in agriculture and food science to address some serious problems like the intensive use of pesticides.
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T00:01:13.311449-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7737
       
  • Cell Wall Chemical Characteristics of Whole‐Crop Cereal Silages
           Harvested At Three Maturity Stages
    • Authors: Johanna Wallsten; Ronald Hatfield
      Abstract: Background In cooler climates such as found in Scandinavian countries cereals are important feedstuffs for ruminants often ensiled as whole‐crop cereal silages (WCCS) to preserve nutrients. Animal performance varies with the type of cereal forage and stage of cereal development being ensiled. Cell wall isolation and analysis was undertaken to determine differences among cereal silages harvested at different stages of maturity. Results A set of 27 WCCS samples of barley, wheat and oats harvested at heading, early milk, and dough stages of maturity were analyzed for cell wall (CW) composition and compared to previous NDF analyses. Total CW concentrations of the WCCS were higher than the NDF concentration. The lignin concentration was higher (P 
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T00:00:49.345102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7736
       
  • Safety assessment of selected medicinal food plants used in Ayurveda
           through CYP450 enzyme inhibition study
    • Authors: Amit Kar; Subrata Pandit, Kakali Mukherjee, Shiv Bahadur, Pulok K. Mukherjee
      Abstract: Background Andrographis paniculata, Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica are mentioned in Ayurveda for the management of neurodegenerative disorders. These plants and their phytomolecules like andrographolide, bacoside A and asiaticoside were studied for their inhibition potential on pooled CYP450 as well as human CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2 by CYP‐CO Complex assay and Fluorogenic assay respectively followed by IC50 determination. Quantification of bioactive compounds present in the extracts was done by RP‐HPLC. Heavy metal content in the selected medicinal plants was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Result CYP‐CO Complex assay indicate significantly lesser inhibition potential than standard inhibitor (p 
      PubDate: 2016-03-30T23:56:12.972404-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7739
       
  • Oxidation‐reduction potential and lipid oxidation in
           ready‐to‐eat blue mussels in red sauce: Criteria for Package
           Design
    • Authors: Kanishka Bhunia; Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Barbara Rasco, Juming Tang, Shyam S. Sablani
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ready‐to‐eat in‐package pasteurized blue mussels in red sauce requires refrigerated storage or in combination with aerobic environment to prevent the growth of anaerobes. A low barrier packaging may create aerobic environment, however, it causes lipid oxidation in mussels. Thus, evaluation of oxidation‐reduction potential (Eh) (aerobic/anaerobic nature of food) and lipid oxidation is essential. Three packaging materials with oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 62 (F‐62), 40 (F‐40) and 3 (F‐3) cc/m2‐day were selected for this study. Lipid oxidation was measured by color changes in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 532 (TBARS@532) and 450 nm (TBARS@450). RESULTS Significantly higher (P0.05) by OTR and remained negative (
      PubDate: 2016-03-30T23:55:55.125012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7738
       
  • Detection of Aflatoxin and Surface Mould Contaminated Figs by Using
           Fourier‐Transform Near‐Infrared (FT‐NIR) Reflectance
           Spectroscopy
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites that are mainly produced by members of the Aspergillus section Flavi on many agricultural products. Certain agricultural products such as figs are known to be high risk products for aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contaminated figs may show a bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 365 nm. Traditionally, BGYF positive figs are manually selected by workers. However, manual selection depends on the expertise level of the workers and it may cause them skin‐related health problems due to UV radiation. RESULTS In this study, we propose a non‐invasive approach to detect aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier‐Transform Near‐Infrared (FT‐NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. A classification accuracy of 100% is achieved for classifying the figs into aflatoxin contaminated/uncontaminated and surface mould contaminated/uncontaminated categories. In addition, a strong correlation has been found between aflatoxin and surface mould. CONCLUSION Combined with pattern classification methods, the NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect aflatoxin contaminated figs non‐invasively. Furthermore, a positive correlation between surface mould and aflatoxin contamination leads to a promising alternative indicator for the detection of aflatoxin‐contaminated figs.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T03:20:45.103778-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7735
       
  • Novel Technologies for Monitoring the In‐Line Quality of Virgin
           Olive Oil during Manufacturing and Storage
    • Abstract: The quality of Virgin Olive Oil is related to the agronomic conditions of the olive fruits and the process variables of the production process. Nowadays food markets demand better products in terms of safety, health and organoleptic properties with competitive prices. Innovative techniques for process control, inspection and classification have been developed in order to to achieve these requirements. This paper presents a review of the most significant sensing technologies which are increasingly used in the olive oil industry to supervise and control the virgin olive oil production process. Throughout the present work, the main research studies in the literature that employ non‐invasive technologies such as infrared spectroscopy, computer vision, machine olfaction technology, electronic tongues and dielectric spectroscopy are analysed and their main results and conclusions are presented. These technologies are used on olive fruit, olive slurry and olive oil to determine parameters such as acidity, peroxide indexes, ripening indexes, organoleptic properties and minor components, among others.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:40:43.217615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7733
       
  • Influence of gas–liquid two‐phase flow on angiotensin‐I
           
    • Authors: Narin Charoenphun; Wirote Youravong
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Membrane fouling is a major problem in ultrafiltration system which two‐phase flow is a promising technique for permeate flux enhancement. The objective of this research was to study the use of ultrafiltration (UF) system enrich ACE inhibitory peptides from tilapia protein hydrolysate. To select the most appropriate membrane and operating condition, the effects of membrane molecular weight cut off (MWCO), transmembrane pressure (TMP) and cross flow velocity (CFV) on permeate flux and ACE inhibitory peptide separation were studied. Additionally, gas–liquid two‐phase flow technique was also applied to investigate its effect on the process capability. RESULTS The results showed that the highest ACE inhibitory activity was obtained from permeate of the 1 kDa membrane. In term of TMP and CFV, the permeate flux tended to increase with TMP and CFV. The use of gas–liquid two‐phase flow as indicated by shear stress number could reduce membrane fouling and increase the permeate flux up to 42 %, depending on shear stress number. Moreover, the use of shear stress number of 0.039 led to an augmentation in ACE inhibitory activity of permeates. CONCLUSIONS Thus operating conditions using shear stress number of 0.039 was recommended for enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:31:06.393233-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7732
       
  • Functional, bioactive and antigenicity properties of blue whiting protein
           hydrolysates: Effect of enzymatic treatment and degree of hydrolysis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish discards represent an important underutilization of marine resources. This study evaluated the up‐grading of the protein fraction of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) discards by the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) exhibiting functional, antioxidant, angiotensin‐I converting enzyme (ACE)‐inhibitory and antigenicity properties. RESULTS FPH with low DH (4%) showed better emulsifying, foaming and oil binding capacities, particularly those obtained using only trypsin. FPH with DH 4% exhibited also the stronger antioxidant activity, especially the one obtained using only subtilisin (IC50=1.36 mg protein mL−1). The presence of hydrophobic residues at the C‐terminal of the FPH produced using subtilisin also led to the stronger ACE‐inhibitory activity. However, FPH with high DH (12%), which implies a higher proportion of short peptides, was required to enhance ACE‐inhibition (IC50=172 µg protein mL−1). The antigenic levels of the FPH were also reduced with DH independently of the enzymatic treatment. Nevertheless, the highest degradation of fish allergens (e.g. parvalbumin) was also obtained when using only subtilisin. CONCLUSION These results suggest that added‐value products for food applications can be produced from the protein fraction of discards.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:30:44.003812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7731
       
  • Shelf‐life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts
           during refrigerated storage
    • Authors: Yingchang Li; Zhongyan Yang, Jiangrong Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Shrimp is a low‐fat, high‐protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L−1 polyphenols, and 8 g L−1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), K‐value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation. RESULTS The results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K‐value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf‐life of shrimp by three to four days compared with the control group. CONCLUSION PP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf‐life during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:26:06.680244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7730
       
  • Biological and therapeutic properties of bee pollen. A review
    • Abstract: Natural goods, including bee products, are particularly appreciated by consumers and are used for therapeutic purposes as alternative drugs. However, it is not known whether treatments with bee products are safe and how to minimize the health risks of such products. Among others, bee pollen is a natural honeybee product promoted as a valuable source of nourishing substances and energy. Health‐enhancing value of bee pollen is expected due to the wide range of secondary plant metabolites (tocopherol, niacin, thiamine, biotin and folic acid, polyphenols, carotenoid pigments, phytosterols), besides enzymes and coenzymes, contained in bee pollen. The promising reports on the anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐cariogenic anti‐bacterial, anti‐fungicidal, hepatoprotective, anti‐atherosclerotic, immune enhancing potential require long‐term and large cohort clinical studies. The main difficulty in application of bee pollen in modern phytomedicine is related to the wide species‐specific variation in its composition. Therefore, the variations may differently contribute to bee‐pollen properties and biological activity and thus in therapeutic effects. In principle, we can unequivocally recommend bee pollen as a valuable dietary supplement. Although the bee‐pollen components have potential bioactive and therapeutic properties, extensive research is required before bee pollen can be used in therapy.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:25:43.59832-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7729
       
  • Comparative Study on Fermentation Performance in the Genome Shuffled
           Candida versatilis and Wil‐type Salt Tolerant Yeast Strain
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The fermentation performance of genome‐shuffled strain of Candida versatilis S3‐5, isolated for improved tolerance to salt, and wild type strain were analyzed. The fermentation parameter such as growth, reducing sugar, ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds were detected during soy sauce fermentation process. RESULTS The results showed that ethanol produced by the genome shuffled strain S3‐5 was increasing at a faster rate and to a greater extent than WT. At the end of the fermentation, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid formed in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) after S3‐5 treatment elevated by 39.20%, 6.85% and 17.09% compared to WT, respectively. Moreover, flavour compounds such as phenethyl acetate, ethyl vanillate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl myristate, ethyl pentadecanoate, ethyl palmitate and phenylacetaldehyde produced by S3‐5 were 2.26, 2.12, 2.87, 34.41, 6.32, 13.64, 2.23 and 78.85 times as compared to WT. CONCLUSIONS S3‐5 exhibited enhanced metabolic ability as compared to the wild type strain, improved conversion of sugars to ethanol, metabolism of organic acid and formation of volatile compounds, especially esters, Moreover, S3‐5 might be ester‐flavour type salt‐tolerant yeast.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:20:43.446767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7728
       
  • Contrasting effects EDTA applications on the fluxes of methane and nitrous
           oxide emissions from straw‐treated rice paddy soils
    • Authors: Prabhat Pramanik; Pil Joo Kim
      Abstract: Submerged rice paddy soils are the major anthropogenic source of methane (CH4) emission to the atmosphere. Straw incorporation for sustaining soil organic C pool increases CH4 emission flux from rice paddy soils. Though the rate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission is much less than CH4, the former has 298 times higher global warming potential (GWP) than equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide. Effect of chelating agent like EDTA on N2O emission and on GWP due to CH4 and N2O emissions was not evaluated before. The emission of CH4 gas from submerged soil may be mitigated by EDTA application; however, it also increases concentration of nitrate‐N in soil, the precursor of N2O gas formation under anaerobic condition. In this experiment, irrespective of straw application, EDTA treated soils emitted less CH4 to the atmosphere than corresponding control. Though N2O emission was increased from soil due to EDTA applications, total GWP was at least 15% reduced in EDTA treated soils during rice cultivation. The plant growth and rice grain yield was not affected by EDTA application. Therefore, EDTA application at 5.0 ppm might be used to reduce total global warming potential during rice cultivation.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24T02:20:44.9787-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7727
       
  • Field‐based Experimental Water Footprint Study of Sunflower Growth
           in a Semiarid Region of China
    • Authors: Lijie Qin; Yinghua Jin, Peili Duan, Hongshi He
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Field‐scale changes in the water footprint during crop growth play an important role in formulating sustainable water utilization strategies. This study aimed to explore field‐scale variation in the water footprint of growing sunflowers in the western Jilin Province, China, during a 3‐year field experiment. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the components of the “blue” and “green” water footprints for sunflowers sown with water and (2) analyse variations in water footprints and soil water balance under different combinations of temperature and precipitation. Specific actions could be adopted to maintain sustainable agricultural water utilization in the semiarid region based on this study. RESULTS The green, blue, and grey water footprints accounted for 93.7–94.7%, 0.4–0.5%, and 4.9–5.8%, respectively, of the water footprint of growing sunflowers. The green water footprint for effective precipitation during the growing season accounted for 58.8% in a normal drought year but 48.2% in an extreme drought year. When the effective precipitation during the growing season could not meet the green water use, a moisture deficit arose. This increase in the moisture deficit can have a significant impact on soil water balance. CONCLUSION Green water was the primary water source for sunflower growth in the study area, where a scarcity of irrigation water during sunflower growth damaged the soil water balance, particularly in years with continuous drought. The combination of temperature and precipitation effected the growing environment, leading to differences in yield and water footprint. The field experiments in this area may benefit from further water footprint studies at the global, national and regional scale.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T01:51:51.221153-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7726
       
  • Prediction of methane emission from lactating dairy cows using milk fatty
           acids and mid‐infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: Sanne van Gastelen; Jan Dijkstra
      Abstract: Enteric methane (CH4) production is among the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A simple, robust and inexpensive measurement technique applicable on large scale to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cattle would therefore be valuable. Milk fatty acids (MFA) are related to CH4 production because of the common biochemical pathway among CH4 and fatty acids in the rumen. A summary of studies that investigated the predictive power of MFA composition for CH4 emission indicated good potential, with predictive power ranging between 47 and 95%. Until recently, gas chromatography (GC) was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but GC is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of mid‐infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The major advantages of using MIR spectroscopy to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application at large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for CH4 prediction, and the moderate predictive power for CH4 emission. It may not be sufficient to predict CH4 emission based on MIR alone. Integration with other factors, like feed intake, nutrient composition of the feed, parity, and lactation stage may improve the prediction of CH4 emission using MIR spectra.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:40:41.642608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7718
       
  • Chromium VI bioremediate by probiotics
    • Abstract: Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent state, chromium (VI), through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and it is one commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to this metal, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species such as Lactobacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Bacillus spp and Bifidobacterium spp present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods, have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to chromium (VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics, as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by chromium (VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganism that may lead to discoveries that will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to chromium (VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by oral route.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:22:27.109459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7725
       
  • Effects of pulsed light treatments and pectin edible coatings on the
           quality of fresh‐cut apples: a hurdle technology approach
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Pulsed light treatments (PL) stand as an alternative for the shelf‐life extension of fresh‐cut products. The antimicrobial effects of pulsed light are well known; however, influence on quality attributes needs to be assessed. This study was aimed at evaluating the application of PL treatments in combination with pectin‐based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber for the preservation of fresh‐cut apples. RESULTS Dipping of fresh‐cut apples in ascorbic acid/chloride calcium solution, prior to pectin coating and PL treatments, was effective to minimize browning and softening in apple surfaces. Incorporation of fiber in the pectin coating did not cause any change in microbial loads and sensory acceptability of apple cubes. Pectin‐coated PL‐treated apple pieces exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity values than fresh and PL‐control samples. At the end of storage, the combination of both treatments resulted into almost a 2 log CFU g−1 reduction of microbial counts. Sensory attribute scores did not fall below the rejection limit throughout 14 days, although the presence of off‐odors limited the acceptability of the pectin‐coated samples. CONCLUSIONS Results demonstrate that PL treatments applied to pectin‐coated fresh‐cut apples may be used to maintain quality attributes, thus conferring prebiotic potential and extending the shelf‐life of the product.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:22:02.7634-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7723
       
  • Integration of antimicrobial pectin‐based edible coating and active
           modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety
           of fresh‐cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh‐cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin‐based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh‐cut ‘Rojo Brillante’ persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh‐cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL−1 nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg−1 citric acid and 10 g kg−1 calcium chloride as antibrowning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. RESULTS Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective to reduce browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. CONCLUSION The combination of the pectin‐based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:21:40.02716-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7722
       
  • Effect of Different Production Techniques on Bioactive Compounds and
           Antioxidant Capacity of Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) and Durum
           (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Bulgur
    • Abstract: Background Influence of cooking (traditional, microwave, autoclave) and drying techniques (microwave and hot air) on bioactive compounds in production of einkorn and durum bulgur were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC), total yellow pigment (TYP), total antioxidant capacity (DPPH., ABTS.+, FRAP), soluble free (SF), soluble conjugated (SC) and insoluble bound (IB) phenolic acid contents of the samples were determined. Results For both wheats, significant amount of antioxidant capacity preserved after bulgur production. TPC was found higher in einkorn but it was exposed to more loss during bulgur production than durum. TYP was found twice more in einkorn than durum. Ferulic was recorded the most, chlorogenic was the least phenolic acid in both wheats. The maximum loss during bulgur production was determined in SC fraction for einkorn and SF fraction for durum. Conclusıon In respect to the results of the analysis, microwave cooking + hot air drying treatment could be favorable for bulgur production for both wheats.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:21:16.348455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7724
       
  • Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in
           combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus
           
    • Authors: Hanne Damgaard Poulsen; Karoline Blaabjerg
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To increase self‐supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilisation of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a RSM/SBM/FB combination. RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB>RSM/SFM/FB>SFM>RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB>RSM>SFM>FB) was greatest from day 0 to 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB>RSM/SFM/FB>SFM>RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. CONCLUSION Fermentation of RSM, FB, SFM and RSM/FB/SFM without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:05:41.940826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7721
       
  • Recent developments in identifying and quantifying emotions during food
           consumption
    • Authors: Erica Kenney; Koushik Adhikari
      Abstract: Emotions and the consumption of food and beverages are inextricably intertwined. As the fields of sensory and consumer science seek to better conceptualize the consumer experience, interest in emotion measurement is growing. Emotions can provide key information to differentiate between products and predict consumer choice as well as give more detail about product perception. There are several emotion measurement instruments, including physiological methods and facial‐recognition, self‐reported verbal emotion measurement, and self‐reported visual emotion measurement. This review discusses the purpose of measuring emotions, what is the definition of an emotion, what different instruments are available, and touches upon some promising research to deepen the connection between food and emotions.
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T04:51:29.642501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7717
       
  • Iodide and Iodate Effects on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Strawberry
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Iodine deficiency is an environmental health problem affecting one‐third of the global population. An iodine biofortification hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the iodide and iodate uptake characteristics of strawberry plants, to measure the dosage effects of iodine on plant growth, and to evaluate the influence of I− or IO3− application on fruit quality. RESULTS After biofortification,the iodine contents of the fresh strawberry fruits were 600–4000 µg · kg−1, covering the WHO dietary iodine allowance of 150 µg · d−1 for adults. The iodine uptake of the strawberry plants increased with increasing I− or IO3− concentration of the culture solution. At the same iodine concentration, the iodate uptakes of various plant organs under I− treatments were apparently more than that under IO3− treatments. Low‐level exogenous iodine (I− ≤ 0.25 mg · L−1, or IO3− ≤ 0.50 mg · L−1) not only promoted plant growth and increased biomass per plant, but also improved fruit quality by enhancing vitamin C and soluble sugar content of the strawberry fruits. Nevertheless, excessive exogenous iodine inhibited plant growth and reduced biomass per plant. IO3− uptake apparently increased the total acidity and nitrate content of the fruits, reducing the quality of the strawberry fruits. Conversely, I− uptake obviously decreased the total acidity and nitrate content of the strawberry fruits, improving the fruit quality. CONCLUSION The strawberry can be used as a target crop for iodine biofortification. Furthermore, applying appropriate dose of KI can improve fruit quality of the strawberry plants.
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T04:51:06.912545-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7719
       
  • Influence of genetic and vintage factors in flavan‐3‐ol
           composition of grape seeds of a segregating Vitis vinifera population
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Flavan‐3‐ol compounds are important secondary metabolites which show high antioxidant activity and are responsible for bitterness and astringency of food products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential for selecting grape materials with higher seed flavanol content from a breeding population. The composition and content of flavan‐3‐ols from 151 genotypes obtained from crossing wine grape varieties was evaluated by UPLC in three consecutive years. RESULTS Chromatograms of flavan‐3‐ol compounds showed the same 12 compounds for all samples, but quantitative differences were observed between genotypes as well as parental varieties. The most abundant compounds were (−)‐epicatechin and (+)‐catechin followed by proanthocyanidins A2 and B2. Progeny showed higher values than the parental genotypes for every detected compound indicating directional transgressive segregation. With these results genotypes with as much as 5 times more flavanols than their parents could be identified. The year effect was significant, however high correlations between years for each compound indicated that there is a strong genetic component in the determination of flavanol content. CONCLUSION Higher contents of seed flavan‐3‐ols can be obtained by hybridization, and those genotypes could be used for extracting healthy phytochemicals, adding value to seeds as a sub‐product in wine elaboration.
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T04:50:43.807061-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7720
       
  • Valorization of untreated cane molasses for enhanced phytase production by
           Bacillus subtilis K46b and its potential role in dephytinization
    • Abstract: BACKGROUNDS High cost of phytase production is the most limiting factor in its application in animal feeds. Present study aimed to develop a low‐cost medium for production of a novel phytase in submerged fermentation using inexpensive agro‐industrial by‐products. The applicability of phytase in dephytinization of commonly used food/feed ingredients i.e. soybean meal and wheat bran was also investigated. RESULTS Using one‐factor‐at‐a‐time approach, soybean meal and cane molasses were identified as significant agro‐industrial by‐products and these factors were subsequently optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was employed to further enhance phytase yield. Under optimum conditions of soybean meal 22.3 g L−1, cane molasses 100 g L−1 and 39 h fermentation, phytase production increased to 56.562 U/mL, indicating more than 27‐fold enhancement. The enzyme efficiently dephytinized wheat bran and soybean meal after 24 h incubation at 56.5 °C and increased inorganic phosphate content by 240% and 155%, respectively. CONCLUSION Soybean meal and cane molasses were successfully used for enhancement of phytase production as economical carbon, nitrogen and phytic acid sources using RSM. The phytase showed a good capability to dephytinize wheat bran and soybean meal demonstrating that the enzyme can be considered as a potential candidate for industrial food and feed applications.
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T03:16:31.170248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7716
       
  • Actein protects against methylglyoxal‐induced oxidative damage in
           osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 cells
    • Authors: Kwang Sik Suh; Suk Chon, Eun Mi Choi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Methylglyoxal (MG) is an endogenous product of glucose metabolism known to be toxic to cells and to be present in elevated concentrations under certain pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effect of actein isolated from black cohosh on MG‐induced cytotoxicity was investigated in MC3T3‐E1 osteoblastic cells. RESULTS Treatment of MC3T3‐E1 osteoblastic cells with actein prevented MG‐induced cell death and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, inflammatory cytokines, and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). In addition, actein increased the activity of glyoxalase I and levels of reduced glutathione and of the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2). These findings suggest that actein protects against MG‐induced cell damage by reducing oxidative stress and by increasing MG detoxification. Treatment with actein prior to MG exposure reduced MG‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and ATP loss. Additionally, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 α (PGC‐1α), nuclear respiratory factor‐1 (NRF‐1), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased by actein, suggesting that actein may induce mitochondrial biogenesis. CONCLUSION Our studies demonstrate that actein reduces MG‐induced damage in osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 cells by enhancing antioxidant defenses, the glyoxalase system, and mitochondrial biogenesis.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:22:25.867651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7713
       
  • Evolution and perspectives of cultivar identification and traceability
           from tree to oil and table olives by means of DNA markers
    • Authors: Antonella Pasqualone; Cinzia Montemurro, Valentina di Rienzo, Carmine Summo, Vito Paradiso, Francesco Caponio
      Abstract: In recent years an increasing number of typicality marks has been awarded to high quality olive oils produced from local cultivars. In this case, quality control requires effective varietal checks of the starting materials. Moreover, accurate cultivar identification is essential in vegetative‐propagated plants distributed by nurseries, and is a pre‐requisite to register new cultivars. Food genomics provides many tools for cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives. The results of the application of different classes of DNA markers to olive with the purpose of checking cultivar identity and variability of plant material are extensively discussed in this review, with special regard to repeatibiliy issues and polymorphism degree. The characterization of olive germplasm from all countries of the Mediterranean basin and from less studied geographic areas is described, and innovative high‐throughput molecular tools to manage reference collections are reviewed. Then, the transferability of DNA markers to processed products ‐ virgin olive oils and table olives ‐ is overviewed to point out strengths and weaknesses, with special regard to: i) the influence of processing steps and storage time on quantity and quality of residual DNA; ii) recent advances to overcome the bottle‐neck of DNA extraction from processed products; iii) factors affecting whole comparability of DNA profiles between fresh plant materials and end‐products; iv) drawbacks in the analysis of multi‐cultivar vs single‐cultivar end‐products; v) potential of quantitative PCR‐based techniques.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:22:03.697419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7711
       
  • Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction
           residues in the stabilization of sesame seed paste (tahini)
    • Authors: Anthi Evlogimenou; Adamantini Paraskevopoulou, Vassilios Kiosseoglou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which tends to exhibit upon long time storage undesirable phenomena of oiling off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich‐in‐fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated. RESULTS The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilizers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilizing ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. Instead, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilizing the sesame paste. Shear stress ‐ rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilizing behaviour of the three powders. CONCLUSION The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling off upon long time storage.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:21:40.006841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7714
       
  • Enzymatic characterization of the immobilized Alcalase to hydrolyze egg
           white protein for potential allergenicity reduction
    • Authors: Anshu Yang; Caiyun Long, Jiaheng Xia, Ping Tong, Youfei Cheng, Yan Wang, Hongbing Chen
      Abstract: Background This study examined technique characteristics of the immobilized Alcalase to hydrolyze egg white protein for potential allergenicity reduction. Alcalase was immobilized covalently on carboxyl‐functionalized magnetic beads by carbodiimide activation. The technique characteristics of the immobilized Alcalase were investigated, followed by determining the degrees of hydrolysis (DH), IgG binding, and IgE binding of the digested egg white protein by immobilized Alcalase. Results Enzymatic activity, enzyme loading, and immobilization yield of the prepared immobilized Alcalase were 20.55 U mg−1, 925 mg g−1, and 45%, respectively. Immobilized Alcalase showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 60 °C. Compared with free Alcalase, immobilized Alcalase exhibited better thermal and storage stability. Moreover, immobilized Alcalase can be reused 10 times and still maintained 55% of its initial activity. Partial hydrolysis of egg white protein by immobilized Alcalase can effectively reduce IgG and IgE binding of the hydrolysates. Conclusion This study indicates that the immobilized Alcalase can be used to hydrolyze continuously egg white protein for potential allergenicity reduction.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:21:18.550841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7712
       
  • Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood products from
           hypermarkets in Shanghai
    • Authors: Zhaohuan Zhang; Yang Lou, Suping Du, LiLi Xiao, Ben Niu, Yingjie Pan, Yong Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important gastroenteritis pathogen contaminating seafood in China. In this study, a total of 992 seafood samples from major hypermarkets in Shanghai were monitored for prevalence and burden of V. parahaemolyticus from January 2011 to December 2012. Additionally, appropriate probability distribution for describing V. parahaemolyticus concentrations was investigated based on these surveillance data. RESULTS Seventeen of 992 samples were positive for V. parahaemolyticus and the geometric mean was 0.1581 Most Probable Number per gram (MPN g−1). The variation in prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was seasonal and the burden of contamination in August (0.1942 MPN g−1) was significant (p < 0.01) between 2011 and 2012. And the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was higher in shellfish and cephalopods than that in other seafood (p < 0.05). By comparison, the lognormal distribution and integrated distribution had no obvious difference for characterizing V. parahaemolyticus contamination. CONCLUSION The low prevalence and burden indicated that seafood from hypermarkets may not be an important risk source for V. parahaemolyticus infection in Shanghai, P. R. China, and more attention should be paid on other areas for selling seafood, such as farmlands or farmers markets. The simple and effective lognormal distribution was recommended as a better choice for describing V. parahaemolyticus contamination in future risk assessment researches.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:21:09.890445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7715
       
  • Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli
           strains from a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 78 genetically different Escherichia coli recovered from the air and exudate samples of a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings in Spain, in order to gain insight into the flow of antimicrobial resistance through the environment and food supply. RESULTS Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 21.8% of the 78 E. coli isolates analyzed (resistance for at least one of the 14 agents tested). The highest resistance rates were recorded for ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. The resistance genes detected were as follows [antibiotic (number of resistant strains), gene (number of strains)]: ampicillin (9), blaTEM‐1(6); tetracycline (15), tet(A) (7), tet(B) (4), tet(A)+ tet(B) (1); chloramphenicol (5), cmlA (2), floR(2); trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10), sul2 (4), sul1 (3), sul3 (2), sul1+ sul2 (1); gentamicin‐tobramycin (1), ant(2”) (1). About 14% of strains showed a multidrug‐resistant phenotype and, of them, 7 strains carried class 1 integrons containing predominantly the dfrA1‐aadA1 array. One multidrug‐resistant strain was found in both inside and outside air, suggesting that the airborne spread of multidrug‐resistant bacteria from the animal housing facilities to the surroundings is feasible. CONCLUSIONS This study gives a genetic background of the antimicrobial resistance problem in a dairy cattle farm and shows that air can act as a source for dissemination of antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:24:47.018873-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7709
       
  • Screening of the anthocyanin profile and in vitro pancreatic lipase
           inhibition by anthocyanin‐containing extracts of fruits, vegetables,
           legumes and cereals
    • Authors: Simona Fabroni; Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Flora V. Romeo, Paolo Rapisarda
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The phytotherapic treatment of overweight and/or moderate obesity is largely growing, thus there is a great interest towards the phenolic compounds of fruits and vegetables which may inhibit pancreatic lipase enzyme. In this study, we report the chemical composition and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of 13 freeze‐dried anthocyanin‐containing extracts of different Mediterranean plants: fruits (blood orange, pomegranate, blackberry, mulberry and sumac), citrus by‐products (blood orange peel), citrus vegetative tissues (young lemon shoots); vegetables (red cabbage and violet cauliflower), legume seeds (black bean), cereals (black rice), and cereal processing by‐products (black rice hull). Total phenols and anthocyanins were determined. Individual anthocyanins were identified by UHPLC‐PDA‐ESI/MSn. RESULTS Results revealed a wide variation in the distribution of anthocyanin compounds. Blood orange and pomegranate juice extracts had the highest total anthocyanin content and exhibited the strongest inhibition of pancreatic lipase in vitro. CONCLUSION Inhibitory activity was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. In appropriate formulations, anthocyanin‐containing extracts could find use as anti‐obesity agents.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:24:35.811484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7708
       
  • Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen yeast‐dough with
           added wheat fiber
    • Abstract: BACKGROUN DFrozen dough rheological characteristics are of great importance in bread making quality. The effect of addition of commercial wheat aleurone and bran on rheological properties and final bread quality of frozen dough was studied. Wheat aleurone (A) and bran (B) containing 240 g kg‐1 and 200 g kg‐1 arabinoxylan (AX) respectively were incorporated into refined wheat flour at 150 g kg‐1 substitution level (composite A & B, respectively). Dough samples of composite A and B in addition to two reference dough samples, refined flour (ref A) and whole wheat flour (ref B) were stored at ‐18 °C for 9 weeks. RESULT Frozen stored composite dough samples contained higher amounts of bound water, less freezable water and exhibited fewer modifications in gluten network during frozen storage based on data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bread made from composite frozen dough had higher loaf volume compared to ref A or B throughout the storage period. CONCLUSION The incorporation of wheat fiber into refined wheat flour produced dough with minimum alterations in its rheological properties during 9 weeks of frozen storage compared to refined and 100% wheat flour dough samples.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:24:02.83031-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7710
       
  • Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch‐aroma
           compound inclusion complexes
    • Authors: Shu Zhang; Yibin Zhou, Shanshan Jin, Xin Meng, Liping Yang, Haisong Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. RESULTS The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2, and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol, and menthol, respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures, and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of C = O at 1,771 cm‐1 and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. XRD analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch‐polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on CP‐MAS 13CNMR results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. CONCLUSION Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:23:45.229589-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7707
       
  • The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on
           the color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model
           wine solution and red wine
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. RESULTS The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. And the second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. CONCLUSION It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:23:30.597099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7706
       
  • A new genotype of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with decreased
           susceptibility to fat oxidation: consequences to hematological and
           biochemical profiles of blood indices
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Flaxseed is an alternative to marine products that provide the traditional dietary sources of ω‐fatty acids. A new genotype of flax (W92) is rich in natural antioxidants, as well as reduced amounts of alpha‐linolenic acid, and therefore has decreased susceptibility to fat oxidation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a diet supplemented with W92 flaxseed on hematological and biochemical blood indices. RESULTS A positive impact of diet with the addition of flaxseed was observed on erythrocyte indices, including RBC, HCT, MCH and MCHC values. There were no significant differences for WBC, total protein and glucose values. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase estimations in serum were also carried out and no obvious toxicity to the liver was shown. Moreover, a lipid profile was performed in serum samples and a decrease in total and LDL‐C, accompanied by an increase in HDL‐C content, was observed in rabbits fed flaxseed diets. CONCLUSION Based on the results obtained, it appeared that the inclusion of a new genetically‐modified type of flaxseed into the diet altered cholesterol metabolism and could reduce the possibility of cardiovascular diseases. Diet enrichment with W92 flaxseed may be a solution to the health issues that are a result of improper diet in humans and animals.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T03:51:40.643745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7705
       
  • Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climate has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers’ expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost‐effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. RESULTS With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. CONCLUSIONS The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost‐effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T03:30:38.125866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7704
       
  • Rapid screening of Alternaria mycotoxins using MALDI‐TOF mass
           spectrometry
    • Abstract: BACKROUND Members of the Alternaria genus produce various toxins and their occurrence in agricultural commodities is a major concern for humans and the environment. The present study developed a simple and efficient MALDI‐TOF MS method for the rapid detection of Alternaria toxins. RESULTS A new method for the detection of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tentoxin (TEN) was developed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight (MALDI‐TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Different solid phase extraction (SPE) clean‐up method were tried to optimize the purification of wheat matrix and an optimum extraction method was designed to recover the three Alternaria toxins. In addition, various MALDI matrices were examined and α‐cyano‐4‐hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix gave a good repeatability for all three Alternaria toxins. CONCLUSION This is the first study to report the detection of three important Alternaria toxins concurrently using MALDI‐TOF MS and this study opens up the possibility of rapid screening of Alternaria toxins in several other cereals and food products.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T03:26:31.155881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7703
       
  • Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the amino acid digestibility of
           different triticale genotypes in caecectomised laying hens
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The influence of nitrogen fertilisation and genotype on the amino acid (AA) digestibility of triticale grain was investigated in cecectomised laying hens. Three genotypes: Grenado, EAW6002, and Lasko, were cultivated with and without nitrogen fertilisation at the end of the heading stage. The six triticale variants as well as a basal diet were each used to feed 7 laying hens in a 7°7 Latin square design. RESULTS Nitrogen fertilisation influenced the digestibility of Cys, Glu, Phe, and Ser in some triticale genotypes, and reduced Ala, Ile, Lys, Met, and Val digestibility in all genotypes (P < 0.05). Nitrogen fertilisation increased the concentration of all AAs in the grain. Consequently, the concentration of digestible AAs in the grains was increased for most AAs upon nitrogen fertilisation. Overall, Lys had the lowest digestibility, whereas that of Glu and Pro was the highest. For the triticale genotypes, the level of AA digestibility was highest for EAW6002 followed by Lasko and Grenado, with significant differences (P < 0.05) between genotypes for some but not all AA. CONCLUSION The results indicated that the accuracy of the digestible AA supply for hen feeding might benefit from considering fertilisation and genotype‐specific digestibility data in feed formulation.
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T01:30:45.970796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7701
       
  • Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein
           isolate and comparison of its physicochemical properties with commercial
           animal and plant protein isolates
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. RESULTS BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has got a well conserved protein arrangement and lower thermo stability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mildly and neutral pH. CONCLUSION BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or to development of new products of its own.
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T01:30:23.087246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7702
       
  • Changes in volatile profile of soybean residue (okara) upon
           solid‐state fermentation by yeasts
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Soybean residue (okara), a by‐product of soymilk, is produced in large volumes by the soy food industry and is often discarded due to its undesirable flavour. As it contains a considerable amount of protein and fats, biotransformation of okara to improve its flavour presents an opportunity for alternative utilisation. This paper evaluated ten yeasts in the solid‐state fermentation of okara based on their volatile profiles as analysed with HS‐SPME GC‐MS/FID. Four “dairy yeasts” (Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces lactis) and six “wine yeasts” (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Williopsis saturnus) were studied. RESULTS The main off‐odourants in okara, hexanal and trans‐2‐hexenal, significantly decreased after fermentation due to their bioconversion into methyl ketones and/or esters. The okara fermented by dairy yeasts contained greater proportions of methyl ketones, while that by wine yeasts contained more ethyl and acetyl esters. Notably, the okara fermented by W. saturnus contained 13 esters and the total GC‐FID peak area of esters was about 380 times of that in fresh okara, leading to a perceptible fruity note. CONCLUSION Okara can be exploited as an inexpensive substrate for bioflavour extraction and/or a more pleasant food ingredient via yeast fermentation.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:40:42.651771-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7700
       
  • Mechanisation of large‐scale agricultural fields in developing
           countries‐a review
    • Authors: Daniel I. Onwude; Rafia Abdulstter, Chandima Gomes, Norhashila Hashim
      Abstract: Mechanisation of large scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production amongst others. Thus, this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanization, present day technology, its management and application to large scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/ gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary, and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large scale‐agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large‐ scale farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:40:20.868889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7699
       
  • Food‐derived immunomodulatory peptides
    • Abstract: Food proteins contain specific amino acid sequences within their structures that may positively impact bodily functions and have multiple immunomodulatory effects. The functional properties of these specific sequences, also referred to as bioactive peptides, are revealed only after the degradation of native proteins during digestion processes. Currently, milk proteins have been the most explored source of bioactive peptides, which presents an interesting opportunity for the dairy industry. However, plant‐ and animal‐ derived proteins have also been shown to be important sources of bioactive peptides. Hence, in this review we summarize the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the role of various food proteins as sources of immunomodulatory peptides and discuss the possible pathways involving these properties.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:39:27.505851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7697
       
  • Physiologically Induced Changes in Bound Phenolics and Antioxidant,
           DNA/Cytoprotective Potentials in Pectic poly/oligosaccharides of Tomato
           (Solanum lycopersicum)
    • Authors: Sabeeta Kapoor; Shylaja M Dharmesh
      Abstract: Background Antioxidant, cyto/DNA protective potentials are known to offer significant protection against free radical induced injury to cells or tissues and cellular damages that are envisaged in various diseases including chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, etc, while galectin‐3 inhibitory potentials are known to block or delay the process of metastasis in cancer. Antioxidnat, cyto/DNA protection and galectin‐3 inhibitory potentials were examined in pectic polysaccharides (PPs) and pectic oligosaccharides (POs) from four types of two varieties of tomatoes such as Sour (Mallika local vr.) raw (SrRT– SrRTPP, SrRTPO), Sour ripen (SrRIT‐ SrRITPP, SrRITPO), Sweet (Rashmi local vr.) raw (SwRT‐ SwRTPP, SwRTPO) and Sweet ripen (SwRIT– SwRITPP and SwRITPO) Results Results indicate that unripen PPs and POs show ~ 4–5 folds better galectin‐3 inhibitory property than ripe ones. ~9‐10 folds increase in galectin‐3 inhibitory activity in sour vr. was observed. IC50 as determined by Free Radical Scavenging (FRS), Red Blood Cells (RBC) and DNA protection assays revealed reduction in FRS and RBC protective potencies in POs than PPs, supporting the fact that phenolics contribute towards these activities. Loss of activity could be attributed to the hydrolysis of certain phenolics during ripening process as well during conversion of PPs to POs. Conclusion This study, for the first time showed changes in bioactivity profiling in unripened and ripened conditions in tomato. Precise alterations in biomolecular components such as bound cinnamyl/ ferulyl and vanillic acid derivatives along with alterations in sugar composition that reflect changes in antioxidant, cyto/DNA protective and antimetastatic potentials have been delineated.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:39:20.610753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7696
       
  • Effect of corona discharge plasma jet on surface‐borne
           microorganisms and sprouting of broccoli seeds
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Different pathogenic microorganisms have been reported to cause sprouts‐associated outbreaks. In order to sterilize and enhance the germination of seeds, non‐thermal plasma has been increasingly investigated in the field of agricultural science as an alternative to the traditional pre‐sowing seed treatments. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) on disinfection of the natural bio‐contaminants of broccoli seed and also studied the plasma effect on sprout seed germination rate and physicochemical properties of sprouts. RESULTS Aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts, B. cereus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. were detected on the broccoli seed surface. After 0–3 min treatment using CDPJ, the detected microorganisms were reduced in the range of 1.2‐2.3 log units. Inactivation patterns were better explained using pseudo‐first‐order kinetics. The plasma treatment of seeds up to 2 min exhibited positive effect on germination rate, seedling growth. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of sprouts were unaffected due to the CDPJ treatment of their respective seeds. CONCLUSION Corona discharge plasma jet can potentially be used for microbial decontamination of broccoli seeds. In addition, the plasma treatment of broccoli sprout seeds has enabled a significant enhancement in their germination rate and seedling growth without compromising physicochemical and sensory characteristics of their corresponding sprouts.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:39:15.648119-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7698
       
  • Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato
    • Authors: Shelley Jansky; Diego Fajardo
      Abstract: Background Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately three to one ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing “baby” potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across three years. Results We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from −0.17 in 2012 to −0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). Conclusions This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates.
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T01:52:20.394619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7673
       
  • Over‐expression of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucanase
           isoenzymes EII gene Results in decreased
           (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucan content and increased starch
           level in barley grains
    • Authors: Ning Han; Chenglong Na, Yuqiong Chai, Jianshu Chen, Zhongbo Zhang, Bin Bai, Hongwu Bian, Yuhong Zhang, Muyuan Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND High content of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucan of barley grains is regarded as an undesirable factor affecting malting potential, brewing yield and feed utilization. Production of thermostable bacterial (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase in transgenic barley grain or the supplementation exogenous bacterial (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase have been used to improve malt and feed quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of over‐expression of an endogenous (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase on β‐glucan content and grain composition in barley. RESULTS A construct containing full‐length of HvGlb2 cDNA encoding barley (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase isoenzymes EII under the control of a promoter of barley D‐Hordein gene Hor3‐1 was introduced into Barley cultivar Golden Promise via Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation, and transgenic plants were regenerated after hygromycin selection. T2 generation of proHor3:HvGlb2 transgenic lines showed increased activity of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase in grains. Total β‐glucan content was reduced by more than 95.73% in transgenic grains compared to that of wild‐type control. Meanwhile, over‐expression of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase led to an increase in the thousand grain weight, which might be due to elevated amounts of starch in grain. CONCLUSION Manipulating the expression of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase EII can control the β‐glucan content in grain with no apparent harmful effects on grain quality of transgenic plants.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T01:35:33.261895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7695
       
  • Specification of a new de‐stoner machine: evaluation of machining
           effects on olive paste's rheology and olive oil yield and quality
    • Authors: Roberto Romaniello; Alessandro Leone, Antonia Tamborrino
      Abstract: BACKGROUND An industrial prototype of partial de‐stoner machine was specified, built and implemented in an industrial olive oil extraction plant. The partial de‐stoner machine was compared to the traditional mechanical crusher to assess its quantitative e qualitative performance. The extraction efficiency of the olive oil extraction plant, olive oil quality, sensory evaluation and rheological aspects were investigated. RESULTS The results indicate that by using the partial de‐stoner machine the extraction plant did not shown statistical differences respect to the traditional mechanical crushing. Moreover, the partial de‐stoner machine allowed the 60% of olive pits recovery and the obtained oils were characterised by more marked green fruitiness, flavour and aroma then the oils produced using the traditional processing systems. CONCLUSION The partial de‐stoner machine removes the limitations of the traditional total de‐stoner machine, opening new frontiers for the pits recovery to be used as biomass. Moreover, the partial de‐stoner machine permitted a significant reduction of the olive paste's viscosity.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T01:35:10.297617-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7694
       
  • Crystalline, thermal and swelling properties of starches from
           single‐segment substitution lines with different Wx alleles in rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)
    • Authors: Bin Teng; Ying Zhang, Shiyun Du, Jingde Wu, Zefu Li, Zhixiang Luo, Jianbo Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In rice, five common Wx alleles, wx, Wxt, Wxg1, Wxg2, and Wxg3, had been identified according to their apparent amylose content (AAC) phenotypes. Previous studies revealed that this Wx allelic variation may also affects other starch properties. However, so far, to what extent the five Wx alleles influence the crystalline structure, thermal and swelling properties of rice starch is still unclear. For this purpose, a set of single‐segment substitution lines (SSSLs) harboring five different Wx alleles, varying widely in AAC, were used for comparative studies. RESULTS Of this study, crystalline structure, thermal properties, and swelling behaviors of starches from the SSSLs varied widely depending on Wx genotypes. Effects of different Wx alleles on relative crystallinity followed the order: wx > Wxt > Wxg1 = Wxg2 > Wxg3. The glutinous and Wxt genotype starches showed higher gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy compared to other Wx genotypes. The order for swelling powers was wx > Wxt > Wxg1 > Wxg2 > Wxg3, while the degree of solubilities was Wxg3 > Wxg1 > Wxg2 > Wxt = wx. Correlation analysis results indicate that AAC is significantly and negatively correlated with relative crystallinity (r = −0.996, P < 0.01) and swelling power (r = −0.982, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION The present results might provide new knowledge about the influence of different Wx alleles on structural and physicochemical properties of rice starch.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T01:30:16.92197-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7693
       
  • Advances in genomics for the improvement of quality in Coffee
    • Authors: Hue T.M. Tran; L. Slade Lee, Agnelo Furtado, Heather Smyth, Robert Henry
      Abstract: Coffee is an important crop that provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Production of genotypes with improved coffee quality attributes is a primary target of coffee genetic improvement programs. Advances in genomics are providing new tools for analysis of coffee quality at the molecular level. The recent report of a genomic sequence for robusta coffee, Coffea canephora, is a major development. However, a reference genome sequence for the genetically more complex arabica coffee (C. arabica) will also be required to fully define the molecular determinants controlling quality in coffee produced from this high quality coffee species. Genes responsible for control of the levels of the major biochemical components in the coffee bean that are known to be important in determining coffee quality can now be identified by association analysis. However, the narrow genetic base of arabica coffee suggests that genomics analysis of the wild relatives of coffee (Coffea spp.) may be required to find the phenotypic diversity required for effective association genetic analysis. The genomic resources available for the study of coffee quality are described and the potential for the application of next generation sequencing and association genetic analysis to advance coffee quality research are explored.
      PubDate: 2016-02-27T03:37:28.425038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7692
       
  • Encapsulation of (−)‐epigallocatechin gallate into liposomes
           and into alginate or chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND (−)‐Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was encapsulated into liposomes that were further incorporated into alginate and chitosan microparticles. Stability of free and encapsulated EGCG in all the three systems was evaluated at different pH and in fruit nectar. Furthermore, the interactions between EGCG and the compounds of the microparticles were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. RESULTS All the three encapsulation systems showed high encapsulation efficiency (>97%) and sustained release; in 14 days no more than 15% of EGCG was released. The encapsulation systems successfully protected EGCG against degradation at alkaline pH. For non‐encapsulated EGCG, >70% was degraded after 14 days, while there was no significant degradation of the encapsulated EGCG in these three systems. In fruit nectar, >30% of non‐encapsulated EGCG was degraded in 14 days, while only 6% of EGCG encapsulated into liposomes or chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes was degraded at the same time. The DSC and FTIR analyses showed that the main interactions occurred between the liposomes and the EGCG. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that liposomes as well as alginate and chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes have the potential to enhance EGCG stability in food products during storage.
      PubDate: 2016-02-27T03:26:52.710906-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7691
       
  • Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in sunflower
           oil
    • Authors: Elisabetta Bravi; Giuseppe Perretti, Caterina Falconi, Ombretta Marconi, Paolo Fantozzi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation causes changes in quality attributes of vegetable oils. Synthetic antioxidants have been used to preserve oils, however there is interest in replacing them with natural ones. Garlic and its thiosulfinate compound allicin are known for their antioxidant activities. This study assesses a novel formulation, the supercritical fluid extract of garlic, on sunflower oil oxidation during an accelerated shelf‐life test. RESULTS Three quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide values, and p‐anisidine values) were evaluated in each of the six oil samples. The samples included sunflower oil alone, sunflower oil supplemented with BHT, the undiluted supercritical fluid extract of garlic, and sunflower oils supplemented with three levels of garlic extract. The oils were also investigated for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH and the FRAP assays. The results were compared with the effect of the synthetic BHT. Our results underlined that the highest level of garlic extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving sunflower oil. CONCLUSION The oxidative degradation of oily samples can be limited by using supercritical fluid extract of garlic as it is a safe and an effective natural antioxidant formulation.
      PubDate: 2016-02-27T03:26:29.833982-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7690
       
  • Increasing Anti‐Aβ‐induced Neurotoxicity Ability of
           Antrodia camphorata‐fermented Product with Deep Ocean Water
           Supplementary
    • Authors: Yeuching Shi; Shuyuan Yang, David Yuewei Lee, Chunlin Lee
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antrodia camphorata is proven to probably inhibit the neurotoxicity of amyloid β‐protein (Aβ) known as the risk factor toward the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Deep ocean water (DOW), drawn from an ocean depth of more than 200 meters, has proven to stimulate the growth and metabolite biosynthesis of fungi due to its rich minerals and trace elements. Based on the advantages of DOW, this study used statistical response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the effects of DOW on the growth and anti‐Aβ‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability of A. camphorata. RESULTS The results shown that DOW was useful for A. camphorata biomass raising and the neuro‐protection capability enhancing. The anti‐Aβ40‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability of filtrate was increased via raising the mycelium‐secreted components. Furthermore, the anti‐Aβ40‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability of mycelium was also raised by the DOW‐stimulated intracellular antioxidants. However, using suitable DOW concentration at 80%, initial pH at 3.3 and inoculum size at 20% as the optimal culture condition of A. camphorata significantly stimulated the biomass and mycelium‐mediated Aβ40‐induced cell viability (%) from 302 ‐±14 mg/100 mL and 49.2 ± 2.2% to 452 ± 33 mg/100 mL and 65.0 ± 7.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION This study indicated that DOW was used as a promising supplementary for A. camphorata secondary metabolites production, due to those strong antioxidant activity to perform anti‐Aβ40‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T02:07:45.718224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7687
       
  • Glucosinolate composition of Colombian accessions of mashua (tropaeolum
           tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón), structural elucidation of the
           predominant glucosinolate and assessment of its antifungal activity
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The content of individual and total glucosinolates in 65 mashua tuber accessions (Tropaeolum tuberosum) from the germplasm bank at Universidad Nacional de Colombia was determined by RP‐HPLC on enzymatically desulphated extracts. The predominant glucosinolate was identified and the possible structure of the glucosinolate present in lower proportion was postulated from the evidence obtained by HPLC‐MS, 1H and 13C NMR and bidimensional experiments. The biological action of the hydrolysis products generated from the glucosinolates in the accessions that showed a higher content of these compounds was assessed in the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora infestans. RESULTS The total content of glucosinolates ranged between >3.00x10−1 and 25.8 µmol g−1 dry matter. p‐methoxybenzylglucosinolate was identified as the predominant glucosinolate in Colombian mashua accessions and besides, the possible presence of p‐hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was postulated. In vitro assays allowed to establish an important fungal growth inhibition of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. CONCLUSIONS The biological action from p‐methoxybenzylglucosinolate and p‐hydroxybenzylglucosinolate found in Colombian mashua accessions depends on their concentration, being Tt30 accession, characterized for showing the highest content of glucosinolates, the most promising to control the assessed pathogens.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T02:07:14.027478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7689
       
  • Heterologous expression and characterization of the Aspergillus aspartic
           protease involved in the hydrolysis and decolorization of
           red‐pigmented proteins
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Aspergillus repens strain MK82 produces an aspartic protease (PepA_MK82) that efficiently decolorizes red‐pigmented proteins during dried bonito fermentation. However, further expansion of the industrial applications of PepA_MK82 requires the high‐level production and efficient preparation of the recombinant enzyme. RESULTS The genomic DNA and cDNA fragments encoding the protease were cloned from strain MK82 and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of PepA_MK82 and comparisons with previously reported fungal aspartic proteases showed that PepA_MK 82 clusters with different groups of these enzymes. Heterologous expression of PepA_MK82 in Pichia pastoris yielded preparations of higher purity than obtained with an Escherichia coli expression system. Total protease activity in a 100‐mL culture of the P. pastoris transformant was 14 times higher than that from an equivalent culture of A. repense MK82. The recombinant PepA_MK82 was easily obtained via acetone precipitation; the final recovery was 83%. PepA_MK82 and its recombinant had similar characteristics in terms of their optimal pH, thermostability, and decolorization activity. The recombinant was also able to decolorize flaked, dried bonito and to bleach a blood‐stained cloth. CONCLUSION Given its ability to hydrolyze and decolorize red‐pigmented proteins, recombinant PepA_MK8 can be exploited in the food industry and as a stain‐removal agent in laundry applications.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T02:06:39.683806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7688
       
  • Meat batter production in an extended vane pump‐grinder injecting
           curing salt solutions to reduce energy requirements: Variation of curing
           salt amount injected with the solution
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump‐grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0 – 100 %) on protein solubilization, water‐binding, structure, color and texture of emulsion‐type sausages. RESULTS Amount of myofibrillar protein solubilized during homogenization varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg−1. Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L* ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a* from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b* from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two‐thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump‐grinder system by up to 23 %. CONCLUSION The injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and color negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an “ice‐free” meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T02:07:06.519826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7684
       
  • Elicitation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cell
           suspension culture for enhancement of inulin production and altered degree
           of polymerization
    • Authors: Chunquan Ma; Dong Zhou, Haitao Wang, Dongming Han, Yang Wang, Xiufeng Yan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Plant cell suspension cultures have emerged as apotential source of secondary metabolites for food additives and pharmaceuticals. In this study inulin accumulation and degree of polymerization (DP) of the treated cells in the same medium were investigated after treatment with six types of elicitors. RESULTS An in vitro cell suspension culture of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was optimized through adding extra nitrogen source. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 5.48 g L^‐1 was obtained from the optimal cell suspension medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog basic medium (MS) + 1.0 mg L^‐1 α‐naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg L^‐1 6‐benzylamino purine (6‐BA) + 0.5 mg L^‐1 proline + 1.0 mg L^‐1 glutamine. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 µmol L^‐1) treatment for 15 days led to the highest levels of inulin (2955.27 ± 9.81 mg L^‐1 compared to control of 1217.46 ± 0.26 mg L^‐1). The elicited effect of five elicitors to the suspension cells of Jerusalem artichoke is as follow: AgNO3 (Ag, 10 µmol L^‐1), salicylic acid (SA, 75 µmol L^‐1), chitosan (KJT, 40 mg L^‐1), Trichoderma viride (Tv, 90 mg L^‐1), yeast extract (YE, 0.25 mg L^‐1), and the corresponding content of inulin is increased by 2.05, 1.93, 1.76, 1.44, 1.18 fold compared to control respectively. The obvious effect on the percentage of lower DP in inulin was observed in cells treated with 40 mg L^‐1 KJT, 0.25 mg L^‐1 YE and 10 µmol L^‐1 Ag. CONCLUSIONS Among the six types of elicitors, the descending order of inulin content is MeJA > Ag > SA > KJT > Tv > YE. For the purpose of lower DP inulin and application to prebiotic food, three elicitors, including KJT, YE and Ag, can be used for the elicitation.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T02:06:42.825567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7686
       
  • The effect of oregano essential oil on microbial load and sensory
           atributes of dried meat
    • Abstract: Background Microbial load can be controlled using either synthetic or natural preservatives. Particular interest has been focused on the potential application of plant essential oils as safer additives for meat. However, there is no applied research about the use of essential oils during the meat drying process. This study is focused on enhancing the meat drying process, a value‐added dried meat product by using oregano essential oil (OEO) to inhibit the growth of bacteria, and the sensorial response from assessors are presented. Results It was found that the application of the OEO in meat is effective in inhibiting Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. After 6 hours of drying at 55 °C, 2 ml (0.038 ml l−1 air vapours) and 1.5 ml (0.028 ml l−1 air vapours) of OEO are considered the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. enteritidis and E. coli, respectively. The samples treated with 0.75 ml of OEO are more attractive for consuming compare to the original one and with a higher concentration of OEO the sensory quality of the food is affected. Conclusions A value‐added meat product by using oregano essential oil for enhancement the food safety and an acceptable sensorial response from consumers is presented.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T02:06:21.794368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7685
       
  • Health‐promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit
           peels (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton and Rose) as affected
           bycarbohydrate encapsulation
    • Authors: Evelyn B. Rodriguez; Mark Louis P. Vidallon, David Joram R. Mendoza, Charisse T. Reyes
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Betalains, which are red‐purple and yellow pigments, are ideal alternatives to synthetic colorants as they possess strong coloring potential and excellent health‐contributing properties. However, the instability of betalains toward normal storage and biological conditions, in addition to the limited number of betalain sources, impedes their food application and diminishes their bioactivities. This study aimed to evaluate the health‐promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit peels (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton and Rose) as affected by encapsulation in maltodextrin‐gum Arabic and maltodextrin‐pectin matrices. RESULTS Encapsulation in maltodextrin‐gum Arabic and maltodextrin‐pectin matrices afforded dry betalain powders after lyophilization. Optical microscopy imaging showed that the betalain powders consisted of matrix‐type and shard‐like microparticles. ABTS antioxidant assay revealed that maltodextrin‐gum Arabic‐betalain (MGB) and maltodextrin‐pectin‐betalain (MPB) microparticles possessed higher antioxidant capacities (195.39 ± 8.63 and 201.76 ± 4.06 µmol Trolox per g microparticles, respectively) compared with the non‐encapsulated betalain extract (151.07 ± 2.57 µmol Trolox per g extract). Duck embryo CAM vascular irritation assay showed that the anti‐inflammatory activity of encapsulated betalains was five‐ to six‐ fold higher than non‐encapsulated betalains (P ≤ 0.05). Anti‐angiogenic activity, as evaluated by duck embryo CAM assay, was enhanced two‐ to four‐fold by carbohydrate encapsulation. Glutathione‐S‐transferase‐inducing activity of betalains was likewise improved four‐ to five‐fold. CONCLUSION The study showed that the anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐angiogenic and glutathione‐S‐transferase‐inducing activities of betalains from red dragon fruit peels were enhanced through carbohydrate encapsulation.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:59:53.913177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7681
       
  • Gelation Properties of Myofibrillar Protein under Malondialdehyde Induced
           Oxidative Stress
    • Authors: Lin Wang; Min Zhang, Zhongxiang Fang, Bhesh Bhandari
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Structure of myofibrillar protein (MP) can be readily altered by oxidation, leading to the unfolding of MP structure, which further promote protein‐protein interactions, and thus influence the MP gelling properties. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of malondialdehyde induced oxidative stress on the gelation properties of myofibrillar protein (MP). Structural changes of the oxidized myofibrillar proteins were evaluated by the contents of carbonyl and total sulfhydryls, surface hydrophobicity, SDS‐PAGE and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidative stability of the MP gels as indicated by lipid hydroperoxide was also determined. RESULTS With the addition of MDA concentration less than 10 mM, the MP gels showed an improved elasticity, gel strength, water holding capacity, and oxidative stability. Nevertheless, higher MDA concentration (25–50 mM) significantly reduced the gel quality, probably due to the formation of excessive covalent bonds in the system. CONCLUSION Results suggested that protein aggregation was occurred in the oxidized system. Myosin was involved in gel formation through non‐disulfide covalent bond.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:59:31.060037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7680
       
  • Optimization of microwave‐assisted extraction (MAE) of coriander
           phenolic antioxidants ‐ Response surface methodology approach
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Microwave‐assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenols from coriander seeds was optimized by simultaneous maximization of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) yields, as well as maximized antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and reducing power assay. Box‐Behnken experimental design (BBD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of MAE. Extraction time (X1: 15 – 35 min), ethanol concentration (X2: 50 – 90%) and irradiation power (X3: 400 – 800 W) were investigated as independent variables. Experimentally obtained values of investigated responses were fitted to a second‐order polynomial model, and multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine fitness of the model and optimal conditions. RESULTS The optimal MAE conditions for simultaneous maximization of polyphenols yield and increased antioxidant activity were extraction time of 19 min, ethanol concentration of 63% and irradiation power of 570 W, while predicted values of TP, TF, IC50 and EC50 at optimal MAE conditions were 311.23 mg GAE/100 g DW, 213.66 mg CE/100 g DW, 0.0315 mg/mL and 0.1311 mg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION RSM was successfully used for multi‐response optimization of coriander seeds polyphenols. Comparison of optimized MAE with conventional extraction techniques confirmed that MAE provides significantly higher polyphenols yield and extracts with increased antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:59:08.2201-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7679
       
  • Optimization of Pre‐drying and Deep‐Fat‐Frying
           Conditions for Production of Low Fat Fried Carrot Slices
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Main objective of the current study was to reduce the fat content of fried carrot slices with hot air pre‐drying step before frying. In this regard the effects of hot air drying and deep‐fat‐frying conditions on moisture and oil contents, breaking force and color parameters of pre‐dried and fried carrot slices were investigated. RESULTS Statistical analysis with response surface methodology showed that there was a significant correlation between investigated responses and process variables (p ≤ 0.05). Based on the optimal conditions (63.4 °C for drying temperature, 16% for weight loss, 152 °C for frying temperature, and 207 s for frying time) produced by the optimization of process conditions, more than 50% reduction in fat content of fried carrot slices was achieved by hot air pre‐drying before frying. CONCLUSION Presented results indicated that the proposed cooking method is useful to control final oil content of fried carrot slices, so indirectly limited the daily calorie intake by consumer without spectacular losses in quality attributes.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:58:46.256676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7678
       
  • Grape and environmental mycoflora monitoring in old,
           traditionally‐cultivated vineyards on Mount Etna, southern Italy
    • Authors: Cinzia Oliveri; Patrizia Bella, Matilde Tessitori, Vittoria Catara, Rosa La Rosa
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Grape contamination by several fungal species occurs during a vineyard's pre‐harvest and harvest. The agronomic management and microclimatic conditions can affect fungi occurrence and epidemiology thus explaining the qualitative differences in the mycoflora composition, including the presence of phytopathogenic or mycotoxigenic fungi. A two‐year grape and air and soil mycoflora monitoring programme was undertaken in vineyards on Mount Etna (eastern Sicily, Italy). The mycoflora composition was investigated at pea berry and veraison phenological phases from air and soil, and at ripening from sample grapes. RESULTS Mycoflora in air and soil varied according to the phenological stages. In the air samples, Penicillia were dominant over Aspergillia at the pea berry phase however the proportion was inverted at early veraison. Black Aspergilli (BA) were isolated from the vine environment and grape samples where BA were represented mainly by Aspergillus niger aggregate, which showed no or low OTA production. A. carbonarius was either not identified or with a low frequency, although most of the isolates produced OTA. CONCLUSION Monitoring focused on the environmental mycoflora composition and highlighted the good health profile of various Sicilian autochthonous grape cultivars. In addition, data suggest that the lower relative humidity occurring at the highest altitudes reduces BA incidence.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:57:44.759216-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7683
       
  • Assessing the production and economic benefits from preventing cows
           grazing on wet soils in New Zealand
    • Authors: Seth Laurenson; David J. Houlbrooke, Pierre C. Beukes
      Abstract: Background Intensive grazing by cattle on wet pasture can have a negative effect on soil physical quality and future pasture production. On a North Otago dairy farm in New Zealand, experimental plots were monitored for four years to assess whether preventing cow grazing of wet pastures during the milking season would improve soil structure and pasture production compared to unrestricted access to pastures. The DairyNZ Whole Farm Model was used to scale‐up results to a farm system level and ascertain the cost‐benefit of deferred grazing management. Results Soils under deferred grazing management had significantly higher total porosity yet no significant improvement in macroporosity (values ranging between 0.112 and 0.146 m3/m3). Annual pasture production did not differ between the control and deferred grazing treatments, averaging 17.0 ± 3.8 and 17.9 ± 4.1 t DM/ha/yr, respectively (P > 0.05). Furthermore, whole farm modelling indicated that farm operating profit was reduced by NZ$1,683/ha/yr (4 year average) under deferred grazing management. Conclusion Deferring dairy cow grazing from wet Pallic soils in North Otago was effective in improving soil structure (measured as total soil porosity), yet did not lead to a significant increase in pasture production. Whole farm modelling indicated no economic benefit of removing cows from wet soils during the milking season.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22T23:44:58.163394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7676
       
  • Effect of preceding crop on Fusarium species and mycotoxin contamination
           of wheat grains
    • Authors: Jianbo Qiu; Fei Dong, Mingzheng Yu, Jianhong Xu, Jianrong Shi
      Abstract: Background Fusarium graminearum species complex infects several cereals and cause the reduction of grain yield and quality. Many factors influence the extent of Fusarium infection and mycotoxins levels, such factors include crop rotation. In the present study, we explored the effect of rice or maize as former crops on mycotoxin accumulation in wheat grains. Results More than 97% of samples were contaminated with Deoxynivalenol (DON) .DON concentrations in wheat grains from rice and maize rotation fields were 884.37 and 235.78 µg·kg−1. Zearalenone (ZEN) was detected in 45% of samples which were mainly collected from maize‐wheat rotation systems. Fusarium strains were isolated and more F. graminearum sensu stricto(s. str.) isolates were cultured from wheat samples obtained from maize rotation fields. DON levels produced by Fusarium isolates from rice rotation fields were higher than those of samples from maize rotation fields. Conclusions Rice‐wheat rotation favors DON accumulation, while more ZEN contamination may occur in maize‐wheat rotation model. Appropriate crop rotation may help to reduce toxin levels in wheat grains.
      PubDate: 2016-02-12T03:42:09.837691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7670
       
  • Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of
           biopolymer‐oregano essential oil coatings
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film‐forming‐dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro‐Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre‐harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. RESULTS The application of the FFDs at “3 Leaves” stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer‐EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the “Fruit” stage the pre‐harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer‐EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non‐treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. CONCLUSION The application of biopolymer‐oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit.
      PubDate: 2016-02-12T01:27:20.602581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7666
       
  • Vulnerability of maize production under future climate change: possible
           adaptation strategies
    • Authors: Bannayan Mohammad; Paymard Parisa, Ashraf Batoul
      Abstract: Background Climate change can affect the productivity and geographic distribution of crops. Therefore, evaluation of adaptive management options is very crucial in dealing with negative impacts of climate change. The objectives of this study were to simulate the impacts of climate change on maize production in the northeast of Iran. Moreover, vulnerability index which indicated that how much of the crop yield loss is related to the drought was computed for each location to identify where adaptation and mitigation strategies are effective. Different sowing dates were also applied as an adaptation approach to decrease the negative impacts of climate change in study area. Results The results showed that the maize yield would decline during 21st century from −2.6% to −82% at all study locations in comparison with the baseline. The result of vulnerability index also indicated that using the adaptation strategies could be effective in all of the study areas. Using different sowing dates as an adaptation approach showed that delaying the sowing date will be advantageous in order to obtain higher yield in all study locations in future. Conclusion This study provided insight regarding the climate change impacts on maize production and the efficacy of adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T01:45:56.996921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7659
       
  • Oil Quality parameters and Quantitative Measurement of Major Secoiridoid
           Derivatives in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins using qNMR
           
    • Authors: Amir Ben Mansour; Boutheina Gargouri, Eleni Melliou, Prokopios Magiatis, Mohamed Bouaziz
      Abstract: Background Olive oil contains compounds with interesting biological activities which are influenced by the cultivar, the geographic origin and other factors. The aim of this work was to investigate these factors in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins. The aim of this work was to attest the influence of geographic conditions on phenolic composition of Neb Jmel olive oil and consequently on the antioxidant compounds, and to verify if it is permit to discriminate the geographical origin. Results The characterization of extra‐virgin Neb Jmel olive oil produced in their original place has been conducted. Owing to the effect of the genotype and environmental, agronomic and technological factors on the chemical composition of olive oil and its quality, all studied olives were collected at the same season, and their oil obtained under the same processing technique. Many analyses were carried out to characterize the different olive oils: free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Rancimat assay, pigments content and phenolic compounds by 1H NMR. A recently developed method for the direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative 1H NMR was applied. The method was applied to the study of four Neb Jmel olive oils samples, and a broad variation of concentrations of all four secoiridoids was recorded. The concentration of each one ranged from 55 to 529 mg/kg and the sum of the four major secoiridoids (known as D3) ranged from 436 to 1063 mg/kg. Conclusion The quantification of major phenolic compounds of olive oil by NMR method indicated that environmental conditions influence the production of qualitative phenolic fractions. All these compounds can be used as base '' markers' to characterize and differentiate these olive oil on geographic origin.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T00:28:44.988752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7654
       
  • The damage of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea grains is dependent of
           the plant genotype
    • Abstract: Background Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilised with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defence mechanisms against pests. In this study, the population growth of C. maculatus reared on beans from four cowpea cultivars fertilised with different nitrogen sources was evaluated. The factors tested were beans from four cowpea cultivars and seven different nitrogen sources: mineral N fertilisation, inoculation with symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria, and soil nitrogen (absolute control). Results BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars had lower cumulative emergence and instantaneous rate of population growth of the insects compared with other cultivars, indicating antixenosis resistance against C. maculatus. Inoculation of BRS Acauã cultivar with the diazotrophic bacteria strain BR 3299 resulted in higher mortality of C. maculatus. For BRS Tapaihum cultivar, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria strains BR3267, BR 3262 and BR 3299, and nitrogen fertilisation resulted in higher mortality among C. maculatus. Conclusion BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars showed the lowest cumulative insect emergence and instantaneous rates of population growth, and the higest insect mortality, mainly when the grains were obtained from plants inoculated with rhizobial strains.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T12:05:54.210315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7639
       
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 2269 - 2269
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T10:19:57.409296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7411
       
  • Issue Information ‐ Info Page
    • Pages: 2270 - 2270
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T10:19:47.026897-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7412
       
  • Issue Information ‐ Table of Contents
    • Pages: 2271 - 2273
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T10:19:59.742013-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7413
       
  • Human digestion – a processing perspective
    • Authors: Mike Boland
      Pages: 2275 - 2283
      Abstract: The human digestive system is reviewed in the context of a process with four major unit operations: oral processing to reduce particle size and produce a bolus; gastric processing to initiate chemical and enzymatic breakdown; small intestinal processing to break down macromolecules and absorb nutrients; and fermentation and water removal in the colon. Topics are highlighted about which we need to know more, including effects of aging and dentition on particle size in the bolus, effects of different patterns of food and beverage intake on nutrition, changes in saliva production and composition, mechanical effects of gastric processing, distribution of pH in the stomach, physicochemical and enzymatic effects on nutrient availability and uptake in the small intestine, and the composition, effects of and changes in the microbiota of the colon. Current topics of interest including food synergy, gut–brain interactions, nutritional phenotype and digestion in the elderly are considered. Finally, opportunities for food design based on an understanding of digestive processing are discussed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T08:36:51.44017-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7601
       
  • Occurrence, prevention and remediation of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins
           in silage: a review
    • Authors: Eva Wambacq; Ilse Vanhoutte, Kris Audenaert, Leen De Gelder, Geert Haesaert
      Pages: 2284 - 2302
      Abstract: Ruminants are considered to be less sensitive towards mycotoxins than monogastric animals because rumen microbiota have mycotoxin‐detoxifying capacities. Therefore the effect of mycotoxins towards ruminants has been studied to a lesser extent compared with monogastric animals. Worldwide, a high proportion of the ruminant diet consists of silages made of forage crops (i.e. all parts of the crop above the stubble are harvested). In practice, silages are often contaminated with multiple mycotoxins. Exposure to a cocktail of mycotoxins can hamper animal production and have severe health consequences. In this article the different aspects associated with mycotoxin contamination of silage are reviewed ‘from seed to feed’. An overview is given on the occurrence of toxigenic fungal species and their concomitant mycotoxins in forage crops before and after ensiling. The mycotoxin load of visually non‐mouldy samples and mouldy hot spots within the same silo is also compared. Subsequently, this review delves into different problem‐solving strategies. A logical first step is prevention of mould growth and mycotoxin production in the field, during harvest and during ensiling. If prevention should fail, several remediation strategies are available. These are listed, mainly focusing on the possibilities of microbial degradation of mycotoxins in vivo in silage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T05:44:00.22855-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7565
       
  • The potential of food protein‐derived anti‐inflammatory
           peptides against various chronic inflammatory diseases
    • Authors: Kaustav Majumder; Yoshinori Mine, Jianping Wu
      Pages: 2303 - 2311
      Abstract: Inflammation is considered as one of the major causes for the initiation of various chronic diseases such as asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis and neurological diseases like Parkinson's disease. Increasing scientific evidence has delineated that inflammatory markers such as TNF‐α, IL‐1, IL‐6, IL‐8 and CRP and different transcription factors such as NF‐κB and STAT are the major key factors that regulate these inflammatory diseases. Food protein‐derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exhibit anti‐inflammatory activity by inhibiting or reducing the expression of these inflammatory biomarkers and/or by modulating the activity of these transcription factors. This review aims to discuss various molecular targets and underlying mechanisms of food protein‐derived anti‐inflammatory peptides and to explore their potential against various chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-18T01:21:59.456822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7600
       
  • Azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract stimulates the phosphorylation of
           AMP‐activated protein kinase in HepG2 cells and diabetic rat liver
    • Authors: Shin Sato; Yuuka Mukai, Saori Kataoka, Masaaki Kurasaki
      Pages: 2312 - 2318
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The activation of AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a beneficial effect on hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to examine whether an azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract (ABE) stimulates the AMPK or insulin signalling pathways in a liver cell line in response to hyperglycaemia, as well as in a diabetic rat liver. RESULTS HepG2 cells were incubated with 5 or 20 mmol L−1 glucose and then treated with ABE. Streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats received 0, 10, or 40 mg kg−1 ABE orally. Blood chemistry and phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt (a serine/threonine kinase) in the livers were examined. There was a significant increase in the levels of AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in ABE‐treated HepG2 cells. AMPK phosphorylation increased significantly in glucose‐stimulated HepG2 cells that were treated with ABE. In the 40 mg kg−1 ABE‐treated diabetic rats, the glucose levels were lower than in the control. Phosphorylation of AMPK in ABE‐untreated diabetic rat livers decreased significantly. Conversely, ABE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in the diabetic rat liver. CONCLUSION ABE treatment upregulated AMPK phosphorylation in HepG2 cells, and upregulated AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in the diabetic rat liver. These data suggest that ABE can potentially improve glucose intolerance. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-13T08:37:15.551982-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7346
       
  • The effect of spray drying on sucrose–glycine caramel powder
           preparation
    • Pages: 2319 - 2327
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Caramel is used as food colorant in many parts of the world. However, there have been no studies investigating the effects of spray drying on sucrose and glycine solutions. In this study, model sucrose and glycine solutions at different pH levels (pH 4, 3, 2 and 1) were treated with different inlet air temperatures (160, 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C) for durations of 50 s in the spray drying process. RESULTS With increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH, the morphology of the caramel agglomerates tended to be more scattered; however, the solubility of the caramel decreased. With increasing inlet temperature, the glycine and sucrose contents decreased but the fructose and glucose contents increased. CONCLUSION The content of the intermediate products, browning intensity and amount of 5‐hydroxymethyl‐2‐furaldehyde (HMF) increased with increasing inlet temperature and decreasing pH. Therefore, the amount of sucrose degradation and the change in pH can be used to evaluate caramel properties in the spray drying process. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-21T03:15:50.766878-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7347
       
  • Casein/natamycin edible films efficiency for controlling mould growth and
           on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties during the ripening of
           Kashar cheese
    • Pages: 2328 - 2336
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of the dipping application of coating materials such as casein (Cas), casein/natamycin (Cas/N) and natamycin (N) solutions on chemical (e.g. pH, dry matter, fat, acidity, salt, protein, water‐soluble nitrogen, ripening index, 12% trichloroacetic acid‐soluble nitrogen and pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen), microbial (e.g. total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria in MRS, lactic acid bacteria in M17, coliforms and mould) and organoleptic properties of Kashar cheese samples during ripening (3, 30, 60 and 90 days). RESULTS The difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples were found to be significant (P < 0.05) during the ripening period. The highest and lowest mould counts were determined for the control (2.87 log cfu g−1) and the Cas/N (
      PubDate: 2015-08-21T03:10:21.129296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7348
       
  • Effect of spinach aqueous extract on wound healing in experimental model
           diabetic rats with streptozotocin
    • Authors: Sara Rahati; Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Abdolali Ebrahimi, Hamideh Pishva
      Pages: 2337 - 2343
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chronic ulcer is still a serious issue for diabetic patients. Diabetes is a prevalent cause of ulcer regeneration delay and (or) disruption. Since Spinacia oleracea extract contains compounds with anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory effects, this may be effective in accelerating the healing process of ulcers, especially diabetic ulcers. Hence, this study examined the effect of Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract on ulcer regeneration in an experimental animal model. RESULTS Macroscopic examination of the wounds of the control group and spinach aqueous extract group between 7 and 21 days compared with diabetic group, significant changes were observed (P < 0.05). On microscopic examination, epithelial tissue formation, formation of granulation tissue and new blood vessels in the spinach aqueous extract group and non‐diabetic group compared to the diabetic group showed significant improvements (P < 0.05). Also, significant differences in vascular endothelial growth factor were observed between groups on days 3 and 7 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract can be effective in regenerating diabetic ulcers. It affects the speed and structure of the ulcer. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T04:54:39.598068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7349
       
  • Modification of gelatin–DNA interaction for optimised DNA extraction
           from gelatin and gelatin capsule
    • Authors: Nurhidayatul Asma Mohamad; Shuhaimi Mustafa, Aly Farag El Sheikha, Nur Fadhilah Khairil Mokhtar, Amin Ismail, Md Eaqub Ali
      Pages: 2344 - 2351
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Poor quality and quantity of DNA extracted from gelatin and gelatin capsules often causes failure in the determination of animal species using PCR. Gelatin, which is mainly derived from porcine and bovine, has been a matter of concern among customers in order to fulfill religious obligation and safety precaution against several transmissible infectious diseases associated with bovine species. Thus, optimised DNA extraction from gelatin is very important for successful real‐time PCR detection of gelatin species. In this work, the DNA extraction method was optimised in terms of lysis incubation period and inclusion of pre‐treatment pH modification of samples. RESULTS The yield of DNA extracted from porcine gelatin was significantly increased when the pH of the samples was adjusted to pH 8.5 prior to DNA precipitation with isopropanol. The optimal pH for DNA precipitation from bovine gelatin solution was then determined at the original pH range of solution: pH 7.6 to 8. A DNA fragment of approximately 300 base pairs was available for PCR amplification. CONCLUSION DNA extracted from gelatin and commercially available capsules has been successfully utilised for species detection using real‐time PCR assay. However, significant adulterations of porcine and bovine in pure gelatin and capsules have been detected, which require further analytical techniques for validation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-11-19T06:50:30.978269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7482
       
  • Aroma volatiles obtained at harvest by HS‐SPME/GC‐MS and
           INDEX/MS‐E‐nose fingerprint discriminate climacteric behaviour
           in melon fruit
    • Pages: 2352 - 2365
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Melon aroma volatiles were extracted at harvest from juice of a climacteric near‐isogenic line (NIL) SC3‐5‐1 with two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) introgressed which produced climacteric behaviour and its non‐climacteric parental (PS) using two methodologies of analysis: static headspace solid phase micro‐extraction (HS‐SPME) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and inside needle dynamic extraction (INDEX) by MS‐based electronic nose (MS‐E‐nose). RESULTS Of the 137 volatiles compounds identified, most were found at significantly higher concentrations in SC3‐5‐1 than in PS in both seasons. These volatiles were mostly esters, alcohols, sulfur‐derived esters and even some aldehydes and others. The number of variables with high correlation values was reduced by using correlation network analysis. Partial least squares‐discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) achieved the correct classification of PS and SC3‐5‐1. The ions m/z 74, 91, 104, 105, 106 and 108, mainly volatile derivatives precursor phenylalanine, were the most discriminant in SC3‐5‐1 and PS. As many as 104 QTLs were mapped in season 1 and at least 78 QTLs in each season with an effect above the PS mean. CONCLUSION GC‐MS gave better discrimination than E‐nose. Most of the QTLs that mapped in both seasons enhanced aroma volatiles associated with climacteric behaviour. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T03:33:22.026366-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7350
       
  • Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic
    • Authors: Xinyan Zhang; Ningyang Li, Xiaoming Lu, Pengli Liu, Xuguang Qiao
      Pages: 2366 - 2372
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on the market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristics of quality formation of black garlic during processing at various temperatures. RESULTS In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural, total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavour of black garlic varied at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. The sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) compared with that at other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavour of black garlic during processing. CONCLUSION Temperature had a remarkable impact on the quality and flavour of black garlic. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T03:35:47.266926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7351
       
  • Assessment of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and pesticide residues in domestic
           and imported pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fish in India
    • Authors: Niladri Sekhar Chatterjee; Kaushik Banerjee, Sagar Utture, Narayan Kamble, B Madhusudana Rao, Satyen Kumar Panda, Suseela Mathew
      Pages: 2373 - 2377
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a ubiquitous item of seafood in global markets. However, pesticide residues in aquaculture fish, arising from agricultural run‐off and/or direct application during pond preparation, pest control and harvest, are a potential food safety concern. This study assessed the level of chemical hazard in domestic and imported pangasius fish in India. RESULTS A total of 119 contaminants, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines (OCs) and other groups of pesticides, were screened in 148 samples during 2014–2015 as the first endeavour of its kind in an Indian context, employing a validated gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) method. Apart from the low‐level incidence of OCs, pesticides such as quinalphos, malathion, parathion‐methyl, etc. were detected in 38% of the samples. In comparison with Indian pangasius, fewer contaminants at low residue level were detected in pangasius fillets imported from Vietnam. CONCLUSION The human dietary exposures of the residue concentrations detected were less than the maximum permissible intakes and hence appeared safe. However, detection of commonly used pesticides indicated their direct application in aquaculture and contamination from agricultural run‐off. This emphasizes the need for continual residue monitoring in aquaculture fish. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T05:20:07.574387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7352
       
  • Proximate composition and nutritional quality of deep sea growth sea
           cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from different origins
    • Authors: Yue Gao; Zhibo Li, Yanxia Qi, Zhenyu Guo, Yantong Lin, Wei Li, Yucai Hu, Qiancheng Zhao
      Pages: 2378 - 2383
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Deep sea growth sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) (DSG‐SC) is considered a most nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia. This study compared the proximate composition and nutritional quality of collagen, polysaccharides, amino acids (AAs) and fatty acids (FAs) in DSG‐SCs from different origins. RESULTS The contents of protein, ash, carbohydrate, fat, collagen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), total amino acids (TAAs), essential amino acids (EAAs), fucose and uronic acid differed among the origins. DSG‐SC of Dalian origin had lower contents of ash, fat, uronic acid, TAAs and EAAs but higher contents of protein, collagen, PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fucose compared with the other origins. DSG‐SCs had a higher proportion of PUFAs and were richer in polysaccharides than other seafood. Glutamate and glycine were the dominant AAs, while leucine and threonine were the most abundant EAAs. CONCLUSION DSG‐SCs are a good source of collagen, polysaccharides (especially fucose), EAAs (especially leucine and threonine) and PUFAs (especially EPA and DHA). Dalian seems to be a promising origin to produce high‐value sea cucumber with high PUFA, fucose, collagen and protein contents. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-21T03:09:25.599377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7353
       
  • Preharvest temperature affects chilling injury in dessert bananas during
           storage
    • Pages: 2384 - 2390
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of temperature on chilling injury during fruit growth was studied in a new banana hybrid CIRAD925 in which seasonal variability in chilling susceptibility was observed when fruits were stored at 13 °C. RESULTS The relationship between the response to chilling (presence/absence) and the temperature during banana fruit growth was examined with a logistic regression model. An explanatory variable XN,P was defined as the mean temperature during a period, expressed in weeks, which began N week(s) after flowering and lasted P week(s). The model was calibrated with 143 bunches with a green life of 30 ± 5 days and validated with 156 bunches grown in six plots under different growing conditions. Chilling injury was best predicted by the mean temperature during the period beginning 1 week after flowering and lasting 5 weeks (X1,5). Above a mean temperature of 24.1 °C in the period concerned, banana fruits had a 95% probability of chilling injury at 13 °C. Below a temperature of 23.4 °C, banana fruits only had a 5% probability of chilling injury. CONCLUSION The results provide a tool to predict chilling susceptibility in banana fruit whatever the thermal conditions in tropical regions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-13T04:32:58.41739-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7354
       
  • Monitoring the sensory quality of canned white asparagus through cluster
           analysis
    • Pages: 2391 - 2399
      Abstract: BACKGROUND White asparagus is one of the 30 vegetables most consumed in the world. This paper unifies the stages of their sensory quality control. The aims of this work were to describe the sensory properties of canned white asparagus and their quality control and to evaluate the applicability of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for classifying and monitoring the sensory quality of manufacturers. RESULTS Sixteen sensory descriptors and their evaluation technique were defined. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was high flavor characteristic, little acidity and bitterness, medium firmness and very light fibrosity, among other characteristics. The dendrogram established groups of manufacturers that had similar scores in the same set of descriptors, and each cluster grouped the manufacturers that had a similar quality profile. CONCLUSION The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was clearly defined through the intensity evaluation of 16 descriptors, and the sensory quality report provided to the manufacturers is in detail and of easy interpretation. AHC grouped the manufacturers according to the highest quality scores in certain descriptors and is a useful tool because it is very visual. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T05:37:08.084827-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7355
       
  • Configuration of watermelon fruit quality in response to
           rootstock‐mediated harvest maturity and postharvest storage
    • Authors: Marios C Kyriacou; Georgios A Soteriou, Youssef Rouphael, Anastasios S Siomos, Dimitrios Gerasopoulos
      Pages: 2400 - 2409
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The configuration of watermelon fruit quality was analysed in a multi‐factorial approach accounting for the effects of grafting, harvest maturity and postharvest storage. Diploid, seeded, hybrid cv. Pegasus, cultivated as scion on interspecific hybrid squash rootstock TZ148 and as non‐grafted control, was stored at 25 °C following sequential harvests from the onset of ripening to over‐maturity. RESULTS Delayed rootstock‐mediated climax in pulp lycopene and chroma was observed, while both were heightened by postharvest storage when harvest preceded full maturity. Pulp firmness was increased by 46.5% on TZ148, while postharvest decrease in firmness was non‐significant. Non‐grafted fruits attained their peak in pulp carbohydrate content earlier during ripening. Monosaccharide content declined and sucrose content increased both preharvest and postharvest; overall sugar content declined by 4.3% during storage. Pulp acidity decreased steadily with ripening but was moderately increased by grafting. Citrulline content increased by 12.5% on TZ148; moreover, it climaxed with ripening and declined with storage only in grafted fruit. CONCLUSION Grafting enhances pulp texture and bioactive composition. Potential suppression of sugar content as a result of grafting is minimized at full commercial maturity. Brief postharvest ambient storage enhances pulp lycopene and chroma, especially in early‐picked fruit, notwithstanding the depletion of monosaccharides and citrulline and a limited deterioration of texture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T05:32:52.687254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7356
       
  • Characterization of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells
           immobilized in a loofa sponge matrix, and application of this biopolymer
           in the development of functional yogurt
    • Authors: Camila Ortiz Martinez; Suelen Pereira Ruiz, Vanderson Carvalho Fenelon, Gutierrez Rodrigues de Morais, Mauro Luciano Baesso, Graciette Matioli
      Pages: 2410 - 2417
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells were immobilized on a loofa sponge and used to produce curdlan over five successive cycles. The interaction between microbial cells and the loofa sponge as well as the produced curdlan were characterized by Fourier transform infrared‐attenuated total reflectance (FTIR‐ATR) spectrometry. The purity of the curdlan was also evaluated. The storage stability of the immobilized cells was assessed and the produced curdlan was used in a functional yogurt formulation. RESULTS The average curdlan production by immobilized cells was 17.84 g L−1. The presence of the microorganism in the sponge was confirmed and did not cause alterations in the matrix, and the chemical structure of the curdlan was the same as that of commercial curdlan. The purity of both was similar. The immobilized cells remained active after 300 days of storage at −18 °C. The use of the produced curdlan in a functional yogurt resulted in a product with lower syneresis. CONCLUSION A large number of cells physically adhered to the surface of loofa sponge fibers, and its use as an immobilization matrix to produce curdlan was effective. The use of the produced curdlan in yogurt allowed the development of a more stable product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T02:42:34.580141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7357
       
  • Pre‐deamidation of soy protein isolate exerts impacts on
           transglutaminase‐induced glucosamine glycation and
           cross‐linking as well as properties of the products
    • Pages: 2418 - 2425
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Transglutaminase (TGase) induces protein glycation and cross‐linking, but results in lower solubility and digestibility due to excessive cross‐linking. Deamidation of soy protein isolate (SPI) by HCl converts glutamine residues, and provides less opportunity for the two reactions. Two deamidated SPI products (DSPI1 and DSPI2) were thus glucosamine‐glycated and cross‐linked, to clarify the effects of pre‐deamidation on the two reactions and properties of the products. RESULTS DSPI1 and DSPI2 had respective degrees of deamidation of 12.2% and 27.4%. They and SPI were used to generate three glycated and cross‐linked products (GC‐DSPI1, GC‐DSPI2 and GC‐SPI) containing glucosamine of 12.0, 4.4 and 19.7 g kg−1 protein, respectively, which were reflected in their infrared spectra at two regions. These three (especially GC‐SPI) had higher water‐binding than SPI (8.2–12.6 versus 6.2 g g−1 protein). GC‐DSPI1 and GC‐DSPI2 showed better enzymatic digestion than GC‐SPI. Thermogravimetric and circular dichroism analyses verified that GC‐DSPI1 and GC‐DSPI2 had maximum degradation rates at temperatures 12–14 °C lower than GC‐SPI, and possessed a more open secondary structure. CONCLUSION SPI deamidation decreases forthcoming glycation and cross‐linking, and gives the products higher digestibility, less increased hydration, lower thermal stability, and a more open secondary structure. Pre‐deamidation is applicable to control the properties of GC‐proteins. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T02:50:58.79199-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7361
       
  • Carbon monoxide as stunning/killing method on farmed Atlantic salmon
           (Salmo salar): effects on lipid and cholesterol oxidation
    • Authors: Giulia Secci; Andrea Serra, Anna Concollato, Giuseppe Conte, Marcello Mele, Rolf E Olsen, Giuliana Parisi
      Pages: 2426 - 2432
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recently utilized as a new stunning/killing procedure for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Its effects on lipid and cholesterol oxidation of farmed Atlantic salmon fillets were evaluated at two times of refrigerated (2.5 °C) storage, T0 (64 h after death) and T14 (14 days from T0). The use of CO was compared with the commonly utilized percussion (P) method. RESULTS Fatty acid profile, primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary (TBARS) oxidation products, cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and carotenoids were unaffected by the killing method. Despite the low oxidative status of lipid (0.66 and 0.60 mg malondialdehyde kg−1 muscle in P and CO fish respectively), cholesterol was found to be highly oxidized (0.17 and 0.13 mg COPs kg−1). Storage significantly affected oxidative stability of fish muscle by increasing oxidation products. Interestingly, TBARS content doubled while the increase for COPs was not homogeneous: α‐ and β‐epoxycholesterol increased by 25%, whereas triol and 7‐ketocholesterol increased by 48 and 62% respectively. CONCLUSION The quality of salmon fillets just after slaughtering and after 14 days of refrigerated storage at 2.5 °C did not change, irrespective of the killing method adopted, suggesting that the CO method may be applied without any detrimental effect on the quality of fish fillets. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T02:43:05.4526-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7362
       
  • Authenticity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) geographical origin based on
           analysis of C, N, O and S stable isotope ratios: a preliminary case report
           in Korea, China and Philippine
    • Pages: 2433 - 2439
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Although rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the third largest food crop, relatively fewer studies have been reported on rice geographical origin based on light element isotope ratios in comparison with other foods such as wine, beef, juice, oil and milk. Therefore this study tries to discriminate the geographical origin of the same rice cultivars grown in different Asian countries using the analysis of C, N, O and S stable isotope ratios and chemometrics. RESULTS The δ15NAIR, δ18OVSMOW and δ34SVCDT values of brown rice were more markedly influenced by geographical origin than was the δ13CVPDB value. In particular, the combination of δ18OVSMOW and δ34SVCDT more efficiently discriminated rice geographical origin than did the remaining combinations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a clear discrimination between different rice geographical origins but not between rice genotypes. In particular, the first components of PCA discriminated rice cultivated in the Philippines from rice cultivated in China and Korea. CONCLUSION The present findings suggest that analysis of the light element isotope composition combined with chemometrics can be potentially applicable to discriminate rice geographical origin and also may provide a valuable insight into the control of improper or fraudulent labeling regarding the geographical origin of rice worldwide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-21T05:19:19.82428-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7363
       
  • Nitrogen losses, uptake and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in soil under
           mineral and organo‐mineral fertilization regimes
    • Authors: Alessandro Florio; Barbara Felici, Melania Migliore, Maria Teresa Dell'Abate, Anna Benedetti
      Pages: 2440 - 2450
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A laboratory incubation experiment and greenhouse studies investigated the impact of organo‐mineral (OM) fertilization as an alternative practice to conventional mineral (M) fertilization on nitrogen (N) uptake and losses in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) as well as on soil microbial biomass and ammonia oxidizers. RESULTS While no significant difference in plant productivity and ammonia emissions between treatments could be detected, an increase in soil total N content and an average 17.9% decrease in nitrates leached were observed in OM fertilization compared with M fertilization. The microbial community responded differentially to treatments, suggesting that the organic matter fraction of the OM fertilizer might have influenced N immobilization in the microbial biomass in the short–medium term. Furthermore, nitrate contents in fertilized soils were significantly related to bacterial but not archaeal amoA gene copies, whereas in non‐fertilized soils a significant relationship between soil nitrates and archaeal but not bacterial amoA copies was found. CONCLUSION The application of OM fertilizer to soil maintained sufficient productivity and in turn increased N use efficiency and noticeably reduced N losses. Furthermore, in this experiment, ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria drove nitrification when an N source was added to the soil, whereas ammonia‐oxidizing archaea were responsible for ammonia oxidation in non‐fertilized soil. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T05:27:22.64946-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7364
       
  • Consumer peach preferences and purchasing behavior: a mixed methods study
    • Authors: Kathleen M Kelley; Rachel Primrose, Robert Crassweller, John E Hayes, Richard Marini
      Pages: 2451 - 2461
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value‐added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid‐Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory‐based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid‐Atlantic region. RESULTS Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value‐added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. CONCLUSION Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T04:39:30.558336-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7365
       
  • Comparison of bioactivities and phenolic composition of Choerospondias
           axillaris peels and fleshes
    • Authors: Qian Li; Jun Chen, Ti Li, Chengmei Liu, Wei Liu, Jiyan Liu
      Pages: 2462 - 2471
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects, but comprehensive information on the chemical composition and bioactivity of its fruits is still lacking. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris. RESULTS The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than those of flesh. Ultra‐performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ultra‐performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time‐of‐flight‐mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI‐QTOF‐MS2) analysis revealed that (+)‐catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric‐reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•)‐scavenging ability. PP showed a significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco‐2 cells in a dose‐ and time‐dependent manner, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49 µg mL−1 to HepG2 cells and 101.90 and 102.61 µg mL−1 to Caco‐2 cells respectively. CONCLUSION This is the first detailed report on the chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-20T05:14:17.42223-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7366
       
  • Effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene,
           ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange‐fleshed sweet
           potato for production of amala in Nigeria
    • Authors: Abbas Bazata Yusuf; Richard Fuchs, Linda Nicolaides
      Pages: 2472 - 2477
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange‐fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange‐fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange‐fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. RESULTS The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold‐water fermentation and a decrease following the hot‐water fermentation compared to raw orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. CONCLUSION The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange‐fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T10:54:20.128555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7367
       
  • Films based on protein isolated from croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and
           palm oil
    • Pages: 2478 - 2485
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The microstructure and the physical, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties of films based on different concentrations of protein isolated from croaker waste (CPI) and palm oil (PO) were analyzed. Films were elaborated by a casting technique using 2, 3 and 4 g CPI 100 g−1 of a filmogenic solution and 0, 10 and 20 g of PO 100 g−1 CPI. RESULT Microstructure of the film surfaces of CPI with PO showed no presence of lipid droplets dispersed in the filmogenic matrix, although a rough surface was present. Films with 3% and 4% CPI and 20% PO had the lowest rates of water vapor permeability. When there was an addition of PO to the reduced tensile strength of the films, regardless of the concentration of CPI, this addition reduced the elongation of films with 3% and 4% CPI; however, it did not influence films with 2% CPI, which did not differ from the control film (0% OP). Thermal analysis revealed that films with the highest PO percentage had a lower initial weight loss when compared with other films, due to higher hydrophobicity. CONCLUSION The use of protein isolate obtained from fish residues of low commercial value and palm oil is viable for the production of biodegradable films because the latter constitute good barrier properties and thermal stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T10:35:02.359995-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7368
       
  • The effects of muffins enriched with sour cherry pomace on acceptability,
           glycemic response, satiety and energy intake: a randomized crossover trial
           
    • Pages: 2486 - 2493
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sour cherry pomace (CP), a by‐product obtained during fruit processing, was used to replace wheat flour in a muffin formula. The influence of the most sensory acceptable muffins on glycemic response, appetite sensation, and energy intake during subsequent meal in a randomized crossover trial was studied. RESULTS It is acceptable to incorporate up to 30% CP into muffin formulas. With CP‐treated muffins glucose responses were significantly lower at 30, 45, and 60 min intervals, and the incremental peak glucose was 0.40 and 0.60 mmol L−1 lower than for plain muffins (PM). The CP‐enriched muffins showed an incremental area under the blood glucose response curve values lower than that of PM. 20% CP and 30% CP resulted in improved satiety and induced a lower energy intake at a test meal ingested 3 h later (−13.7%; −15.1%) as compared to PM, respectively. CONCLUSION CP may be a good functional ingredient for bakery products that assists in managing glucose levels, satiety, and subsequent energy intake in healthy individuals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T10:30:13.535781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7369
       
  • Anthocyanin‐rich extracts from blackberry, wild blueberry,
           strawberry, and chokeberry: antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on
           oleic acid‐induced hepatic steatosis in vitro
    • Authors: Yong Wang; Liang Zhao, Dan Wang, Yazhen Huo, Baoping Ji
      Pages: 2494 - 2503
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Limited information is available regarding the relationship between the chemical structures and inhibitory effects of anthocyanin (ACN) on triglyceride (TG) overaccumulation. Thus this study investigated the antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of blackberry, wild blueberry, strawberry, and chokeberry ACN‐rich extracts, with different structural characteristics, on oleic acid‐induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Four major ACNs from these berries, with different aglycones, namely cyanidin‐3‐glucoside (Cy‐3‐glu), delphinidin‐3‐glucoside, pelargonidin‐3‐glucoside, and malvidin‐3‐glucoside, were also investigated. RESULTS Blackberry ACN‐rich extract exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on TG clearance (30.5% ± 3.4%) and reactive oxygen species generation. TG clearance was significantly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.991, P 
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T04:41:57.19131-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7370
       
  • Emulsion stability and properties of fish gelatin‐based films as
           affected by palm oil and surfactants
    • Authors: Krisana Nilsuwan; Soottawat Benjakul, Thummanoon Prodpran
      Pages: 2504 - 2513
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Gelatin films exhibit the poor water vapour barrier properties. The use of palm oil, which is abundant and available in Thailand, can be a means to lower water vapour migration. To disperse oil in film‐forming dispersion (FFD), a surfactant along with appropriate homogenization is required. The study aimed to investigate the influence of palm oil level and surfactants in the absence or presence of glycerol on characteristics of FFD and resulting gelatin films. RESULTS Similar oil droplet sizes, both d32 and d43 values, of FFD containing soy lecithin were observed, regardless of palm oil level used (P > 0.05). FFD with Tween‐20 had larger droplet size as the levels of oil increased (P < 0.05). After 12 h storage, slight increases in d32 and d43 were noticeable in all FFD samples. When the films were determined, lower water vapour permeability (WVP) and tensile strength (TS) but higher elongation at break (EAB) were obtained as palm oil level increased (P < 0.05), regardless of glycerol and surfactant used. Films without glycerol had lower WVP and EAB with higher TS than those containing 300 g kg−1 glycerol (P < 0.05). No differences in WVP and mechanical properties were found between films containing both surfactants (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION FFD containing 500 or 750 g kg−1 palm oil using soy lecithin as a surfactant in the presence of 300 g kg−1 glycerol had the enhanced homogeneity and stability of oil droplets. The resulting gelatin film had the improved water vapour barrier properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-07T05:47:34.324725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7371
       
  • Relationship between pulp structure breakdown and nutritional value of
           papaya (Carica papaya) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) nectars using
           alternative thermal and non‐thermal processing techniques
    • Authors: Jeffrey G Swada; Christopher J Keeley, Mohammad A Ghane, Nicki J Engeseth
      Pages: 2514 - 2523
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Papaya and strawberry contain a wide array of nutrients that contribute to human health; however, availability of these fruits is limited due to their short shelf lives and seasonal nature. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques including ultra high temperature (UHT, 20–135 °C, 1–3 s) and irradiation (0–10 kGy) on carotenoid concentration, antioxidant capacity and changes to pulp structure using transmission electron microscopy were determined for papaya and strawberry nectars. RESULTS UHT had moderate effects on antioxidant capacity, but the greatest overall release of carotenoids from the pulp matrix (34.2%, 6.26%, 8.31%; β‐cryptoxanthin, β‐carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Irradiation resulted in the greatest increase in antioxidant capacity [19.22 to 24.32 µmol Trolox equivalents kg−1 (papaya), 190.51 to 287.68 µmol Trolox equivalents kg−1 (strawberry)], with moderate effects on carotenoid concentration. CONCLUSION This research demonstrates that decreases in nutrient value and antioxidant capacity can result from processing, but that regeneration of these losses can be seen corresponding to the apparent breakdown of pulp structure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-21T05:02:01.325053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7372
       
  • Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat‐treated porcine blood
    • Authors: Raja Mohd Hafidz Raja Nhari; Muhajir Hamid, Nurmunirah Mohamad Rasli, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aly Farag El Sheikha, Shuhaimi Mustafa
      Pages: 2524 - 2531
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat‐treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non‐blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non‐competitive enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. RESULTS Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat‐treated and raw porcine blood and not cross‐reacted with other animal blood and non‐blood proteins (meat and non‐meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross‐reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85–100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. CONCLUSION Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T06:36:39.904236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7547
       
  • In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main
           Lebanese olive germplasm
    • Authors: Ali Chehade; Ahmad El Bitar, Aline Kadri, Elia Choueiri, Rania Nabbout, Hiyam Youssef, Maha Smeha, Ali Awada, Ziad Al Chami, Eustachio Dubla, Antonio Trani, Donato Mondelli, Franco Famiani
      Pages: 2532 - 2538
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010–2011). RESULTS All of the genotypes had medium–high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ‐7‐stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. CONCLUSION The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-09T11:06:48.257387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7373
       
  • Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high
           levels of damaged starch in starch–gluten systems
    • Pages: 2539 - 2546
      Abstract: BACKGROUND During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α‐amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. RESULTS The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged‐starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. CONCLUSION We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α‐amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T04:38:06.759669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7374
       
  • Effects of different strains Penicillium nalgiovense in the Nalžovy
           cheese during ripening
    • Pages: 2547 - 2554
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study examined the influence of eight selected strains of Penicillium nalgiovense as secondary culture on the ripening of soft mould cheese. Ion‐exchange chromatography, SDS‐PAGE and sensory analysis were used for comparison of P. nalgiovense with common secondary mould culture (Penicillium camemberti). RESULTS Proteolytic activity was more intensive in the case of the strains of P. nalgiovense in comparison with the control strains of P. camemberti. Some differences in the proportion and amount of free amino acids were observed between the strains of P. nalgiovense during ripening. Lower proteolytic activity of P. nalgiovense was more desirable for sensory properties of cheese, especially in case sample N2. CONCLUSION This study provides information on the usability of selected strains of P. nalgiovense that could support the development of sensory properties of mould‐ripened soft cheese. The cheese with the culture N2 had the best flavour after 35 days of storage. Moreover, this strain showed the lowest bitterness in comparison with the other used P. nalgiovense cultures. The intensity of bitterness of sample N2 was comparable to that of the control sample with P. camemberti. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-11T05:21:17.848323-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7375
       
  • Formation and elimination of pyrraline in the Maillard reaction in a
           saccharide–lysine model system
    • Authors: Zhili Liang; Lin Li, Quanyi Fu, Xia Zhang, Zhenbo Xu, Bing Li
      Pages: 2555 - 2564
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pyrraline, a causative factor for various kinds of disease, is also used as a food contaminant to evaluate the formation of advanced glycation end‐products (AGEs) in diet foods. In this study, model systems consisting of lysine and different saccharides were heated at different times, temperatures and initial molar ratios of saccharide to lysine under microwave heating conditions in order to investigate the formation of pyrraline. RESULTS Increase in initial molar ratio of saccharide to lysine could significantly promote the formation of pyrraline. Specifically, the pyrraline formation rate was influenced by the structure of saccharides involved in the reaction, and decreased in the following order: lactose > fructose > glucose > sucrose; the highest pyrraline was generated in lactose–lysine models. The maximum pyrraline was formed at 140 °C. Moreover, saccharides and lysine had different effects on the stability of pyrraline. Among the reactants, lysine was the major factor for the instability of pyrraline; a dipyrraline and a crosslink by pyrraline reacting with lysine could be formed. CONCLUSION Pyrraline formation by the saccharide–lysine model system was a dynamic reaction, consisting not only of the pyrraline formation, but also pyrraline elimination with some formation of crosslinks. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-28T08:28:01.427728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7376
       
  • Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main
           health‐promoting compounds and antioxidant and
           anti‐inflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
    • Pages: 2565 - 2572
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This paper presents a study on changes in the main phytochemical levels and antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity of lettuce caused by different doses and times of application of yeast extracts. RESULTS Elicitation with yeast extract caused an increase in the total phenolic compounds and chlorophyll content, which varied according to the dose and time of spraying, but it did not have a positive impact on vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid content in lettuce. The best effect was achieved by double spraying with 1% yeast extract and by single spraying with 0.1% yeast extract. The increase in phytochemical content was positively correlated with the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity of the studied lettuce leaves. Chicoric acid seems to be the major contributor to these antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION Yeast extract may be used as a natural, environmentally friendly and safe elicitor for improving the health‐promoting qualities of lettuce. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T10:51:43.735625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7377
       
  • Natural antimicrobials and high‐pressure treatments on the
           inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in
           cold‐smoked salmon
    • Pages: 2573 - 2578
      Abstract: BACKGROUND High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) combined with reuterin and lactoperoxidase system (LPS) has exerted antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes in cold‐smoked salmon at chilled temperatures. Therefore the purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of HHP combined with reuterin, LPS and lactoferrin (LF) on the survival of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cold‐smoked salmon stored at 4 and 10 °C. RESULTS Salmonella Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7 were reduced more than 3 log colony‐forming units (CFU) g−1 by the pressure treatment (450 MPa/5 min). LPS slightly diminished pathogen levels throughout storage, whereas no effect was recorded when reuterin or LF was added. The Salmonella population was below the detection limit (
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T04:38:38.416714-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7378
       
  • Physico‐chemical properties, antioxidant activities and
           antihypertensive effects of walnut protein and its hydrolysate
    • Authors: Xiuming Wang; Haixia Chen, Shuqin Li, Jiangchao Zhou, Jiangtao Xu
      Pages: 2579 - 2587
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Some food proteins hydrolysates are found to possess multiple health effects. In this study, walnut protein (WP) was enzymatically hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin under optimal conditions. The physico‐chemical properties, antioxidant and angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of WP, alcalase‐generated walnut protein hydrolysate (AWPH) and trypsin‐generated walnut protein hydrolysate (TWPH) were comparatively studied. Stability properties of the walnut protein hydrolysate (WPH) and the antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were also investigated. RESULTS The WPH showed higher physico‐chemical properties, antioxidant activities, ACE inhibitory activity and stability against thermal treatment and gastrointestinal digestion than WP. The results of antihypertensive effects in SHRs showed that the most potent decrease of AWPH and TWPH in the systolic blood pressure occurred at 4 h (−26 mmHg) and 6 h (−30 mmHg) after administration. The study indicated that the WPH could significantly decrease the systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The WPH exhibited high physico‐chemical properties, potent inhibitory activities and high stability. TWPH was more effective than AWPH in the detected properties. The results would be helpful for the comprehensive utilisation of the walnut resources. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T07:48:33.866465-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7379
       
  • Properties of a novel polydatin‐β‐d‐glucosidase
           from Aspergillus niger SK34.002 and its application in enzymatic
           preparation of resveratrol
    • Authors: Linfang Zhou; Shuhua Li, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Bo Jiang
      Pages: 2588 - 2595
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Resveratrol and its glucoside polydatin are the main stilbenes in Polygonum cuspidatum. Resveratrol has become the subject of intensive research over the past two decades owing to its outstanding pharmacological properties. However, its lower concentration in plants compared to polydatin limits its application. In this study, the polydatin‐β‐d‐glucosidase (PBG) that hydrolyzes the β‐d‐glucosyl residue of polydatin with release of resveratrol was purified to homogeneity and characterized. RESULTS The molecular weight of PBG was estimated to be 125 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 128 kDa by size‐exclusion chromatography– multi‐angle laser light scattering/ultraviolet/refractive index. The optimal PBG activity was observed at 70 °C and pH 4.5. The enzyme showed around 50% stability at 60 °C for 12 h and residual activity was over 80% at pH 3.0–5.0. Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ba2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions had no significant effect on the enzyme activity. The PBG presented higher affinity to polydatin (Km = 0.74 mmol L−1) than p‐nitrophenyl‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (Km = 2.9 mmol L−1) and cellobiose (Km = 8.9 mmol L−1). CONCLUSION With this enzyme, nearly all polydatin in P. cuspidatum was converted to resveratrol. Although several β‐D‐glucosidases (BGLs) have been obtained from other sources, PBG is distinguished from other BGLs by its outstanding thermal stability and high catalytic efficiency. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T09:39:28.03839-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7465
       
 
 
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