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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]
  • Characterization and effect of year at harvest on the nutritional
           properties of three varieties of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.)
    • Authors: Serena Calabrò; Monica I Cutrignelli, Vittorio Lo Presti, Raffaella Tudisco, Vincenzo Chiofalo, Micaela Grossi, Federico Infascelli, Biagina Chiofalo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Three cultivars of Lupinus albus L. (Lutteur, Lublanc, Multitalia) were assessed for proximate analysis, fatty acids, alkaloids and in vitro fermentation characteristics over three harvest years. RESULTS: The chemical composition fairly varied during the harvest years (g kg−1 Dry Matter): Crude Protein content ranged from 353 to 456, Neutral Detergent Fiber from 209 to 321 and lignin from 3.0 to 63.9. The Lublanc showed the highest Crude Protein (417 g kg−1 Dry Matter) and lignin (35 g kg−1 Dry Matter) content. High levels of lipids (89.9 g kg−1 Dry Matter ) and starch (93.3 g kg−1Dry Matter) were found in all samples. Alkaloid content ranged from 3.63 to 165 mg 100 g−1. The Lutteur and Lublanc showed more favorable n‐3/n‐6 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid ratios (from 0.44 to 0.73), and lower values of the anti‐quality factor “erucic acid” (from 5.8 to 20.9 g kg−1 ) than the Multitalia. The Lutteur showed higher degradability (897 g kg−1), gas (330 ml g−1 Organic Matter) and Volatile Fatty Acids (117 mmol g−1 Organic Matter) production compared with the other varieties. CONCLUSION: Data suggest the Lutteur to be a promising crop as food thanks to its high nutritive traits and most constant yield overtime.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:32:35.769502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7049
  • Instrumental and Sensory Analyses of Quality Attributes of Grafted
           Specialty Melons
    • Authors: Wenjing Guan; Xin Zhao, Donald J. Huber, Charles A. Sims
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. Results Galia melon ‘Arava’ (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon ‘Honey Yellow’ (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root‐knot nematode resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of ‘Arava’ fruit. By contrast with grafted ‘Arava’, grafted ‘Honey Yellow’ did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and the rootstock selection. Conclusion The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scions used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on fruit quality need to be considered in selection and use of disease resistant rootstocks.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:32:02.807343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7050
  • Antioxidant and anti‐ageing activities of mycelia zinc
           polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko SW‐03
    • Authors: Lan Zheng; Min Liu, Guo‐Yin Zhai, Zhao Ma, Li‐Qin Wang, Le Jia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Edible fungi polysaccharides usually exhibited antioxidant activity, and zinc has been shown to have antioxidant properties. In the present work, Pholiota nameko SW‐03 was used as a vector of zinc biotransformation in order to obtain mycelia zinc polysaccharide (MZPS), and the structural characterization and anti‐ageing activity of MZPS were investigated. Results P. nameko SW‐03 could accumulate zinc in the form of zinc‐riched polysaccharide, and the zinc content in MZPS was 16.39 ± 0.72 mg g−1. Three fractions (MZPS‐1, MZPS‐2 and MZPS‐3) were successfully isolated. The main fraction (MZPS‐2) with the highest antioxidant activity in vitro was composed of glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid, galactose, galacturonic acid and arabinose in a molar ratio of 172.59:5.29:4.61:4.20:1.01:1.00, with the weight‐average molecular weight of 13.63 kDa. The anti‐ageing capability has been measured by building the D‐galactose‐induced ageing mice, and the results showed that MZPS could improve antioxidant status (SOD, T‐AOC, MDA and LPO), indicating that MZPS had strong anti‐ageing capability in vivo. Conclusion This study suggested that organification of zinc through edible fungi liquid fermentation provided a novel method to produce mycelia zinc polysaccharide, which might be used as natural antioxidant to slow the progression of ageing.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:17:33.057789-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7048
  • Melatonin in Mediterranean diet, a new perspective
    • Authors: Marcello Iriti; Elena Maria Varoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Health‐promoting properties of Mediterranean diet have been attributed, at least in part, to the chemical diversity of plant foods. Among phytochemicals, polyphenols represent the paradigm of the relationship between healthy foods and reduced risk of chronic‐degenerative diseases, even if, in the past few years, a new element enriched this scenario. Melatonin, and possibly other indoleamines recently discovered in some relevant Mediterranean foods, may represent a new factor contributing to the elucidation of the protective effects of diets rich in plant products. Therefore, in synergy with polyphenols and other bioactive phytochemicals (e.g., carotenoids, glucosinolates), melatonin may contribute to maximizing the benefits of healthy dietary styles. This brief survey deals with the occurrence of melatonin in the Mediterranean diet, with an emphasis on grape products, and focuses on the biological significance of dietary melatonin, an emerging and exciting topic in the field of nutritional sciences.
      PubDate: 2014-12-15T01:57:01.079333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7051
  • Composition of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green
           propolis and its phytotoxic activity
    • Authors: Caroline C. Fernandes‐Silva; Carolina A. Lima, Giuseppina Negri, Maria L. F. Salatino, Antonio Salatino, Marco A. S. Mayworm
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Propolis is a resinous material produced by honeybees, containing mainly beeswax and plant material. Despite the wide spectrum of biological activity of propolis, to our knowledge no studies have been carried out about phytotoxic properties of Brazillian propolis and its constituents. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazillian green propolis. Results Main constituents are the phenylpropanoid 3‐prenylcinnamic acid allyl ester (26.3%) and the sesquiterpene spathulenol (23.4%). Several other sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, in addition to linalool and α‐terpineol (monoterpenes), were also detected. The activity of solutions of the volatile fraction at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1% was tested on lettuce seeds and seedlings. The solution at 1% inhibited completely the seed germination and solutions at 0.1 and 0.5% reduced the germination rate index. The solution at 0.5% reduced the growth of the hypocotyl‐radicle axis and the development of the cotyledon leaf. Conclusions The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of this Brazilian green propolis is different from those previously described, and these results may contribute to a better understanding about the chemical variations in propolis. The volatile fraction of Brazilian green propolis influences both germination of seed lettuce and the growth of its seedlings, showing an phytotoxic potential.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:15:38.157646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7045
  • Cloning and functional analysis of Δ6 desaturase gene and its
           upstream region from Mortierella sp. AGED
    • Authors: Li Tan; Shue Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fuying Ma
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Δ6 desaturase belonging to membrane‐bound enzyme is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of PUFAs. This study aimed to clone and characterize Δ6 desaturase gene and its upstream regulatory region of Mortierella sp. AGED. Results Glucose and soybean meal are best for lipid and arachidonic acid accumulation of Mortierella sp. AGED. A 1375‐bp Δ6 desaturase gene AGfad6 which contains 1275‐bp ORF encoding 424 amino acids without signal peptide was cloned. The putative protein contained three conserved histidine‐rich motifs and a conserved HPGG motif, with a mass of 48.3 KDa and isoelectric point of 5.96. AGfad6 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, which exerted the effect on converting linoleic acid to γ‐linolenic acid. The 1712‐bp upstream region contained basic transcriptional elements including TATA, GC and GATA box, putative target‐binding sites for transcription factors such as TATA binding protein, transcription activator, CCAAT‐enhancer‐binding protein, activator protein 1, alcohol dehydrogenase gene regulator 1 and metabolic regulators p40x in fungi, stress‐related elements including GT‐1 (light‐responsive, salicylic acid‐inducible), stress response element (STRE), heat stress‐responsive element (HSE), which might participate in regulation of PUFAs synthesis. Conclusion The present finding could enable us to understand the evolution and regulatory mechanism of Δ6 desaturase gene.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:15:21.775875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7043
  • Water harvesting techniques and supplemental irrigation impact on sorghum
    • Authors: Abubaker B. M. A; Yu Shuang‐En, Panda S.N, Shao Guang‐Cheng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In general, rain‐fed agriculture is practiced in many areas in Western Sudan. Therefore, it is imperative to adopt appropriate rainwater harvesting and reuse technique (s) by promoting soil and water management research to sustain crop productivity. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a primary stable crop of Sudan. Extensive field experiments were conducted to study the effect of water harvesting techniques (WHTs) and supplemental irrigation (SI) on infiltration rate (IR), soil moisture content (SMC), growth and productivity of sorghum during two rainy seasons (2012 and 2013). Results The results showed that the WHTs and SI affected the soil physical properties, growth and productivity parameters of sorghum. The results indicated that the tied‐ridging with SI (TRwSI) produced the highest values of accumulative IR, SMC and sorghum productivity (115 mm, 13% and 4000 kg h−1, in season 2012, respectively. Whereas in season 2013 the values were 145 mm, 10% and 5000 kg h−1, for accumulative IR, SMC and sorghum productivity, respectively. Basin with SI (BwSI) ranked second, next to TRwSI in the both seasons. Conclusion Hence, water harvesting and SI are expected to play a significant role in terms of sustainable agricultural and socio‐economic development in Western Sudan and similar areas.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:15:06.317505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7047
  • Effect from in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on
           oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in yeast Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae and human monocyte‐derived dendritic cells
    • Authors: Karin Larsson; Katja Istenič, Tune Wulff, Rósa Jónsdóttir, Hordur Kristinsson, Jona Freysdottir, Ingrid Undeland, Polona Jamnik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Upon oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in fish oil, either before ingestion or, as recently shown, during the gastrointestinal (GI) passage, a cascade of potentially cytotoxic peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4‐hydroxy‐2‐hexenal (HHE), can form. In this study, we digested fresh and oxidized cod liver oils in vitro, monitored the levels of lipid peroxidation products and evaluated oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses to the two types of digests in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human monocyte‐derived dendritic cells. Results Digests of cod liver oil with 22‐53 μM MDA and 0.26‐3.7 μM HHE increased intracellular oxidation and cell energy metabolic activity compared to a digested blank in yeast cells and the influence of digests on mitochondrial protein expression was more pronounced for oxidized cod liver oil than fresh cod liver oil. The four differentially expressed and identified proteins were related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress response. Maturation of dendritic cells was affected in the presence of digested fresh cod liver oil compared to the digested blank, measured as lower CD86 expression. The ratio of secreted cytokines, IL‐12p40/IL‐10, suggested a pro‐inflammatory effect of the digested oils in relation to the blank (1.47‐1.67 vs 1.07). Conclusion GI digestion of cod liver oil increases the amount of oxidation products and resulting digests affect oxidation in yeast and immunomodulation of dendritic cells.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:14:38.989804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7046
  • Utilization of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipids and
           gamma‐linolenic acid production by oleaginous fungi
    • Authors: Iniya Kumar Muniraj; Liwen Xiao, He Liu, Xinmin Zhan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Microbial lipids are considered as the starting material for production of second generation biofuels and its polyunsaturated fatty acids are rich sources of neutraceuticals. Exploring cheap feedstock for producing microbial lipids is necessary. The present study examined the potential of microbial lipids and gamma linolenic acid (GLA) production by two oleaginous fungi, Aspergillus flavus I16‐3 and Mucor rouxii, with potato processing wastewater as a low‐cost or no‐cost nutrient source. Results Biochemistry and physiology of two oleaginous fungi, Aspergillus flavus I16‐3 and Mucor rouxii, on lipid accumulation showed the two fungi grew well and efficiently utilized the starch in wastewater. On average (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:14:12.191485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7044
  • Caseinate‐gelatin and caseinate‐hydrolyzed gelatin composites
           formed via transglutaminase: Chemical and functional properties
    • Authors: Zhen‐Ling Luo; Xin‐Huai Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Treatment of food proteins by enzymatic crosslinking and other reactions can confer modified properties on the treated proteins. Bovine gelatin and hydrolyzed bovine gelatin were used to generate two caseinate‐based composites via transglutaminase, and potential useful properties to food processing were investigated for both composites. Results Caseinate‐gelatin and caseinate‐hydrolyzed gelatin composites contained 33.4 and 10.3 g kg−1 protein of 4‐hydroxyproline, respectively. Caseinate conjugation with gelatin and hydrolyzed gelatin resulted in two composites with stronger absorption at five wavenumbers during FT‐IR analysis, demonstrating they were rich in hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Both composites exhibited higher viscosity values in aqueous dispersions, lower thermal stability (i.e. higher mass loss) during thermogravimetric analysis, and worse emulsifying properties than original caseinate, due to conjugation and crosslinking via transglutaminase. However, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis revealed that both composites actually had better emulsion stability, upon two weeks of storage. Conclusion The composites generated were different in chemical characteristics and better in viscosity and emulsion stability than original caseinate. They might have potential as protein thickeners and emulsifiers. CLSM is a better technique to assess emulsion stability of food proteins than the classic turbidity method.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T03:21:13.444557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7042
  • An Appraisal of Eighteen Commonly Consumed Edible Plants as Functional
           Food Based on their Antioxidant and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activities
    • Authors: Yian Hoon Lee; Candy Choo, Mindani I. Watawana, Nilakshi Jayawardena, Viduranga Y. Waisundara
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Eighteen edible plants were assessed for their antioxidant potential based on the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, vitamin C contents and various lipophilic antioxidants. The inhibitory activities of the plant extracts against the enzymatic activities of α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase were also evaluated. RESULTS The antioxidant and starch hydrolase activities of the plants varied widely across a single batch of analysis. The ORAC and DPPH radical scavenging EC50 values varied between 298 – 1984 Trolox equivalents per gram fresh weight and 91 – 533 mg per kilogram fresh weight, respectively. The total phenolics and vitamin C contents varied between 32 – 125 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram fresh weight and 96 – 285 µg per gram fresh weight, respectively. All the plants contained neoxanthin, violaxanthin, α‐ and β‐ carotene in varying amounts. Coccinia grandis, Asparagus racemosus, Costus specious, Amaranthus viridis and Annona muricata displayed the highest inhibitory activities against the starch hydrolases. They were the most efficient against the breakdown of seven starches exposed to the two enzymes as well. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the edible plants were observed to display a high antioxidant potential with starch hydrolase inhibitory properties which were beneficial in their being recognized as functional food.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T10:31:24.45685-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7039
  • A rapid and effective approach for on‐site assessment of total
           carotenoid content in wolfberry juice during processing
    • Authors: Xiaodong Zheng; Fengtao Zhu, Maoyu Wu, Xinhuan Yan, Xiaomeng Meng, Ye Song
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We have exploited an effective approach for rapid extracting caratenoid from wolfberry juice and determined TCC (total carotenoid content) by an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. Several mix solvents, adsorption wavelengths of carotenoid extracts and extraction procedure were investigated. The optimal solvent mix with broad spectrum polarity is hexane/ ethanol/ acetone (2/ 1/ 1) and wavelength is 456 nm. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference of TCC in wolfberries juice between direct extraction and saponification extraction. The developed method for assessment of TCC has been successfully employed in quality evaluation of wolfberry juice at different processing condition. This measurement have inherent advantages (simpleness, rapidity, effectiveness) that make it very appropriate to obtain almost on‐site information of TCC in wolfberries juice during processing.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T09:50:48.284934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7038
  • Physico‐chemical properties of caper spp. seed oils collected from
           two different harvest years
    • Authors: Erman Duman; Mehmet Musa Özcan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, physico‐chemical properties, fatty acid composition, sterol and tocopheol contents of caper species seed and seed oils were determined. RESULTS Brightness value (L*) of oils obtained from caper seeds changed between 36.76 and 53.48. Viscosity values of oils of Capparis spinosa species were found between 41.545 mpa and 48.656 mpa. While oleic acid amount was high in Capparis spinosa species, amount of linoleic acid was high in Capparis ovata species. Sterol amounts of crude oils were found to be between 3140 and 3272 in average 3220 mg/kg in Capparis spinosa species and between 3275 and 3312 mg/kg in average 3298 mg/kg in Capparis ovata species. α‐Tocopherol contents Capparis spinosa and Capparis ovata were found between 3.87mg/100g ‐ 2.63mg/100g, respectively. Radical activity values of crude oils were found between 29.78% (Capparis spinosa species) to 26.09% (Capparis ovata species). Total phenolic matter amounts of crude oils were in average 0.642 mg/g in Capparis ovata species (p˂0.01). CONCLUSION It can be thought that caper seed oils are natural potential vegetable oil source in terms of health and resistance against oxidation and stabilization of oils.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:58:40.20668-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7040
  • Maternal exposure to diets containing flaxseed
           flour or flaxseed oil during pregnancy
           and lactation protects
           the aortic remodeling in adult male
           offspring of diabetic rat dams
    • Authors: Gabriela Câmara Vicente; André Manoel Correia‐Santos, Akemi Suzuki, Luis Guillermo Coca Velarde, Maurício Alves Chagas, Gilson Teles Boaventura
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular complications in the fetus and extends into adulthood. Therapeutic applications of flaxseed has been studied in cardiovascular disorders, because it oilseed the best plant source of omega‐3 fatty acid, which are currently considered by researchers, essential protective against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study to evaluate the influence of flaxseed flour and oil upon the cardiovascular biochemical parameters and the histoarchitecture of the aorta in adult rats which were an offspring of diabetic mothers. RESULTS At 100 days of age in offspring was observed that maternal consumption of high fat diet containing flaxseed oil (FOG) and flaxseed flour (FFG) did not affect in the serum concentration of the MCP‐1, VEGF, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL‐c, LDL‐c, and VLDL‐c. But, the thickness of the intima‐media layer of the aorta was significantly smaller in FOG and FFG groups; the lumen area was similar amongst the groups; and, a higher percentage of the elastic fiber was founded in FOG and FFG. CONCLUSION These data suggest that both the use of flaxseed flour as its oil reduce the remodeling of the aorta, however it has not been able to modify the cardiovascular biochemical parameters.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:58:22.023943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7041
  • Polyphenolic profile in cider and antioxidant power
    • Authors: Andoni Zuriarrain; Juan Zuriarrain, Ana I. Puertas, M. Teresa Dueñas, Miren Ostra, Iñaki Berregi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of the work is to find the effect of polyphenolic compounds in Basque ciders on the following five parameters: antioxidant activity, browning, protein precipitating capacity, turbidity and reduction potential. These five parameters are highly important, as they affect the taste, the visual aspect and the preservation of cider, and are mainly related with polyphenolic compounds. Results Procyanidine B1 and procyanidine B2 show significant positive effect on antioxidant activity. p‐Coumaric acid, (−)‐epicatechin and hyperin have significant positive effect on protein precipitating capacity. Tyrosol has a significant negative effect on reduction potential. Conclusions Procyanidine B1 and procyanidine B2 are the most powerful antioxidants in Basque cider, while p‐coumaric acid, (−)‐epicatechin and hyperin are those with greatest capacity to precipitate proteins. Ciders with higher tyrosol concentration will have less reduction potential and higher antioxidant reservoir.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T01:57:49.654925-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7036
  • Carbon Isotope Ratios of Selected Volatiles in C. sinensis and in Orange
           Flavoured Food
    • Authors: Luisa Schipilliti; Ivana Bonaccorsi, Antonella Cotroneo, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Twenty genuine samples of industrially cold‐pressed sweet orange essential oils, were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC‐C‐IRMS) to determine the values of the carbon isotope ratios (δ13CVPDB) of selected volatiles and assess the corresponding range of authenticity. Successively four commercial orange flavoured products were analysed under identical conditions to evaluate the authenticity of the orange flavour. The samples were extracted by Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) under optimized conditions. The evaluation was performed by the use of the internal standard procedure to neglect the contribute due of the environment of origin to the isotopic abundance of 13C. The composition of the volatile fraction of the essential oils and of the flavoured products was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) with linear retention indices and by gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC‐FID). Results The δ13CVPDB values of seven secondary metabolites here determined were successfully used to characterize genuine orange essential oil. These values were used to evaluate the quality of orange flavoured products unveiling the presence of compounds of different origin, not compatible with the values of genuine orange secondary metabolites. Conclusions This study provides the range of authenticity of δ13CVPDB of seven different secondary metabolites in sweet orange genuine essential oil, useful to evaluate the genuineness of orange flavour. In analogy with previous study on different essential oils, the values here determined can be successfully applied for the evaluation of a large number of flavoured food stuff and correlate it with its origin.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T01:57:27.375397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7037
  • Effects of salinity and nitrogen supply on the quality and
           health‐related compounds of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa
           cv. Primoris)
    • Authors: Vanessa Cardeñosa; Evangelina Medrano, Pilar Lorenzo, Mª Cruz Sánchez‐Guerrero, Inmaculada Pradas, José M. Moreno‐Rojas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Different nitrogen inputs and/or development under adverse water conditions (water stress/low quality and/or high salinity/electrical conductivity), such as those prevailing in Almeria (Mediterranean coast, South‐East, Spain), may affect overall fruit and vegetable quality. This study evaluated the influence of salinity and nitrogen reduction in hydroponic nutrient solution (HNS) on strawberry fruit quality and nutritional compounds (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cv. Primoris). Results Strawberries obtained under salinity treatments recorded the highest values for SSC (all samplings); fruit taste was thus enhanced. Additionally, salinity improved fruit nutritional value, with higher contents of antioxidants compounds (first sampling). During first and second sampling, strawberries grown under N reduction and non‐saline conditions showed higher values for firmness compared to fruits developed under other treatments. Regarding health related compounds, few differences were found except for Total Polyphenols Concentration (TPC) and Antioxidant Activity (AA) for the first sampling, where strawberries grown under saline treatments obtained the highest values for both parameters. Conclusion The use of low quality waters, such as the ones found in Almeria (salinity, N9S and N5S) and low nitrogen inputs (N5, avoid environmental impact) for strawberry cultivation, does not exert a negative impact on overall quality. Positive differences could be found in SSC, firmness and health‐related compounds when compared against the control treatment (N9).
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:22:02.921478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7034
  • The relationship of antioxidant components and antioxidant activity of
           Sesame seed oil
    • Authors: Yin Wan; Huixiao Li, Guiming Fu, Xueyang Chen, Feng Chen, Mingyong Xie
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Though sesame seed oil contains high contents of unsaturated fatty acids and even a small amount of free fatty acids in its unrefined flavored oil, it shows remarkable stability than other dietary vegetable oils. The good stability of sesame seed oil against auto‐oxidation was ascribed not only to the inherent lignans and tocopherols, but also to the generated browning reaction products when sesame seeds were roasted. Also, there is an excellent synergistic effect among these three kinds of components. The lignans in sesame seed oil could be categorized into two types: the inherent lignans (sesamin, sesamolin) and the lignans (e.g. sesamol, sesamolinol, etc) that were mainly formed during oil production process. The highest level of tocopherols in sesame seed oil is γ‐tocopherol. This paper reviewed the antioxidant activities of lignans and tocopherols, as well as the browning reaction and its products in the sesame seed and/or its oil. It was indicated that the composition, structure of browning reaction products and their impacts on sesame ingredients need to be further studied to better explain the remaining mysteries of the sesame oil.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:21:38.192226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7035
  • Identification and Characterization of Antigenic site (epitope) on bovine
           β‐lactoglobulin: Common residues in linear and conformational
    • Authors: Xin Li; Shuilin Yuan, Shengfa He, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background β‐lactoglobulin is recognized as one of major allergens in milk and its epitopes include linear and conformational epitopes contributed to milk allergy. RESULTS: In our work, two types of epitopes have been identified. Linear epitopes identified by using SPOTTM peptide arrays approach and three common peptide sequences AA77‐82 (KIPAVF), AA126‐131 (PEVDNE) and AA142‐147 (ALPMHI) were obtained by reacting with specific sera from two rabbits. At the same time, mimotopes were screened by the panning of phage display peptide library and the corresponding conformational epitopes were calculated by web tool of Peptiope server with Mapitope algorithm. Three conformational epitopes against two specific sera were identified, in which there were 15 common residues as well and located in the different position and appeared mainly as α‐helix. Conclusion Common residues on the linear and conformational epitopes were identified in the first time, respectively, which could be regarded as informative epitopes for detection of allergen in dairy products.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T01:44:09.613891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7033
  • Production and characterization of whey protein hydrolysate having
           antioxidant activity from cheese whey
    • Authors: S Athira; Bimlesh Mann, Prerna Saini, Rajan Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, Ashish Kumar Singh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cheese whey is a rich by‐product in nutritional terms: possessing high biological value components, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. So in the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultrafiltrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolyzed with food grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions viz; pH, temperature and time were optimized for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Results Whey protein hydrolyzed for 8 hours at pH 9.00 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg−1 protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultrafiltration through 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides: β‐Lg f(123–131), β‐Lg f(122–131), β‐Lg f(124–131), β‐Lg f(123–134) , β‐Lg f(122–131),β‐Lg f(96–100) and β‐Lg f(94–100) were identified by LC‐MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolyzate. The incorporation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5–10 gl−1) raised their antioxidant activity from 76–90 % as compared to control. Conclusion Hydrolysis of ultrafiltrated retentate of whey can be an energy and cost effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T01:43:50.048208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7032
  • Phenolic content, physical and sensory properties of breads made with
           different types of barley wort
    • Authors: Antonietta Baiano; Ilaria Viggiani, Carmela Terracone, Roberto Romaniello, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Barley wort, an intermediate product of beer brewing, is rich in phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility to increase the antioxidant content of bread by replacing water with three types of wort: two of them withdrawn at the end of the mashing operation during the production of a Pilsner and a Double Malt Pilsner beer, respectively; the other collecteed in an intermediate stage of mashing of the Pilsner beer. The chemical, physical, and sensory properties of the wort‐added breads were compared to those of the control. Results All the worts allowed to increase phenolic content, volume, and specific volume of the breads, and induced significant changes in 11 of the 23 sensory descriptors. The highest phenolic contents were detected in the breads alternatively made with the Pilsner wort withdrawn at an intermediate stage of mashing or with the Double Malt Pilsner wort. The first also allowed the highest increase of volume and specific volume, but significantly reduced the scores of crunchiness, firmness, and cohesiveness. The second allowed lower increases of volume and specific volume but less significant changes of the sensory properties were associated to its use. Conclusion Worts can be conveniently used to increase the bread antioxidant content. Nevertheless, the various types of worts can modify in different extents physical and sensory properties of the products.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:40:57.624795-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7014
  • Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green
    • Authors: David Villanueva Bermejo; Ivan Angelov, Gonzalo Vicente, Roumiana P. Stateva, Mónica Rodriguez García‐Risco, Guillermo Reglero, Elena Ibañez, Tiziana Fornari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Thymol (2‐isopropyl‐5‐methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil. This compound has revealed several biological properties, such as antibacterial, anti‐inflammatory, and antioxidant. In this work, a comparison was made between the performance of different green solvents (ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction(SFE) at different conditions, to extract thymol from three different varieties of Thymus genus (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus citriodorus). Additionally, the new solubility data of thymol in limonene and ethanol at ambient pressure and temperatures in the range (30–43) °C are reported. Results T. vulgaris is the specie for which the highest thymol recoveries were attained (7–11 mg g−1). No thymol could be quantified in the PLE samples of T. citriodorus. The highest concentrations of thymol in the extracts were obtained with limonene. Thymol is very soluble in both solvents, particularly in ethanol (around 90 % wt at ≈ 40 °C). Thymol is the main compound (in terms of peak area) present in the essential oil extracts obtained. Conclusion The three solvents show good capacity to extract thymol from T. vulgaris and T. zygis by PLE. Although PLE proved to be a suitable technology to extract thymol from thyme plants, the highest concentrations of thymol were obtained by SFE with supercritical CO2
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T09:27:27.250235-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7031
  • Composition of fatty acids in virgin olive oils from cross breeding
           segregating populations by gas chromatography separation–flame
           ionization detection
    • Authors: Verónica Sánchez de Medina; Milad El Riachy, Feliciano Priego‐Capote, María Dolores Luque de Castro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Recent technological advances to improve the quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) have been focused on olive breeding programs by selecting outstanding cultivars and target progenies. Fatty acids (FAs) composition, with special emphasis on oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0), is one of the most critical quality factors to be evaluated in VOO. For this reason, the profile of FAs is frequently used as decision tool in olive breeding programs. Results A method based on gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was used to study the influence of genotype in the concentration of ten of the most important FAs in VOOs from target crosses Arbequina × Arbosana, Picual × Koroneiki and Sikitita × Arbosana and their corresponding genitors, Arbequina, Arbosana, Koroneiki, Picual and Sikitita. For this purpose, a targeted approach was selected for determination of esterified FAs (EFAs) and non esterified FAs (NEFAs), in a dual analysis by the same chromatographic method. A Pearson analysis revealed correlation between pairs of FAs, which allowed detecting metabolic connections through desaturation and elongation enzymes. An ANOVA test (with p‐values 
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T09:19:15.197737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7030
  • Quality Attributes of Pistachio Nuts as Affected by Rootstock and Deficit
    • Authors: Ángel A. Carbonell‐Barrachina; Houssem Memmi, Luis Noguera‐Artiaga, María del Carmen Gijón‐López, Rafał Ciapa, David Pérez‐López
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this work, the influence of two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and three different rootstocks on the quality of pistachios was evaluated by analyzing different parameters: morphological analysis, physico‐chemical analysis and sensory analysis. Results The results obtained in terms of the choice of either rootstock, revealed that Pistacia atlantica had increased production yields, nut weight, mineral content, higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes, and a higher degree of consumer satisfaction, than other rootstocks studied. Moreover, the results established that the application of RDI on pistachio cultivation had no significant influence on production yields, weight, size, color, water activity and mineral composition thereof. Furthermore, T1 treatment (stem water potential 
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:50:31.862378-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7027
  • CERES‐Maize model‐based simulation of climate change impacts
           on maize yields and potential adaptive measures in Heilongjiang Province,
    • Authors: Yumei Lin; Wenxiang Wu, Quansheng Ge
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Climate change would cause negative impacts on future agricultural production and food security. Adaptive measures should be taken to mitigate the adverse effects. The objectives of this study were to simulate the potential effects of climate change on maize yields in Heilongjiang Province and to evaluate two selected typical household‐level autonomous adaptive measures, including cultivar changes and planting time adjustments, for mitigating the risks of climate change based on CERES‐Maize model. Results The results showed that flowering duration and maturity duration of maize would be shortened in the future climate and thus the maize yield would reduce 11 ~ 46% during 2011 ~ 2099 relative to 1981 ~ 2010. Increased CO2 concentration would not benefit the maize production significantly. However, substituting local cultivars with later‐maturing ones and delaying the planting date could increase yields as the climate changes. Conclusion Our results provide insight regarding the likely impacts of climate change on maize yields and the efficacy of selected adaptive measures by presenting evidence‐based implications and mitigation strategies for the potential negative impacts of future climate change.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:42:24.316157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7024
  • Physicochemical and crystalline properties of heat‐moisture treated
           rice starch: Combined effects of moisture and length of heating
    • Authors: Xiangli Kong; Dan Qiu, Xiaoting Ye, Jinsong Bao, Zhongquan Sui, Jiewei Fan, Wenzhou Xiang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Nowadays there is a great interest in the application of physical modification techniques, such as heat‐moisture treatment (HMT). The effects of HMT on normal and waxy rice starches, subject to different levels of moisture content and length of heating, were investigated. Results Water solubility index (determined at 90 °C) decreased after HMT for normal and waxy rice starches, while swelling power (determined at 90 °C) showed inconsistent results (decrease for normal type, increase for waxy type) after HMT. Values in pasting parameters of normal and waxy rice starch increased initially, but the extent of increase slowed down with moisture content and length of treatment increasing. Heat moisture treatment decreased gelatinization temperatures with length of treatment as 4 h and 8 h, but when length of treatment was prolonged to 16 h, gelatinization temperature increased. Degree of crystallinity decreased for all treatments, and decreased much more at higher levels of moisture content. Conclusion Variations in levels of moisture content and length of heating had significant effects on physicochemical and crystalline properties to different extents.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:39:46.6434-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7028
  • Effect of edible chitosan/clove oil films and high pressure processing on
           the microbiological shelf life of trout fillets
    • Authors: I. Albertos; D. Rico, A. M. Diez, L. González‐Arnáiz, M. J. García‐Casas, I. Jaime
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The inhibitory effect of chitosan films with clove oil (0 to 50 g Kg−1) was evaluated on a range of ten representative food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. RESULTS: The most sensitive bacteria to the films was Shewanella putrefaciens and the most resistant resulted the Aeromonas hydrophila (inhibition showed only at 50 g Kg−1 clove essential oil ‐ CEO). Films with 20 g Kg−1 CEO inhibited 9 out of 10 of the bacteria tested. Chitosan films with 20 g Kg−1 CEO were combined with high pressure (HPP) processing as treatments for trout fillets and changes in physicochemical parameters and microbial load were evaluated at 4 °C over 22 days of storage. The films reduced the weight loss and water activity compared to fresh and treated samples (HPP and cook). Results showed that microbial load (total aerobic mesophilic, lactic acid bacteria and total coliform) of the trout fillets covered with chitosan films were lower than those for HPP treated samples, and similar to cooked samples, except for coliforms counts. Conclusion The use of 20 g Kg−1 CEO‐chitosan films showed a further improvement in the shelf‐life of trout fillets when compared to that obtained with the HPP and cooking treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:51.889394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7026
  • A real time quality control application for animal production by image
    • Authors: Cemil Sungur; Halil Özkan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The standards of hygiene and health have started to gain importance in the current food production and quality control also become an obligation in this field. Thanks to rapidly developing technologies, it is now possible to automatically and safely check the quality control of food production. For this purpose, image processing based quality control systems used in the industrial applications are being used in order to analyze the quality of food products. In this study, quality control of chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) is achieved by using real time image processing technique. In order to execute the quality control processes, a conveying mechanism is used. The eggs passing on the conveyor was continuously photographed in real‐time through the cameras located on this mechanism. Those photographs are processed through various methods and techniques to process images. By using digital instruments; the volume of the eggs was measured, broken/cracked eggs were separated and dirty eggs were determined. According to the international standards for classifying the quality of eggs, the class of separated eggs was determined through fuzzy implication model. It was observed that quality control process was possible with the accuracy of 98% during the tests carried out on the thousands of eggs.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:35.603446-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7025
  • Maintaining Functional Properties of Shell Eggs by Ultrasound Treatment
    • Authors: Cengiz Caner; Muhammed Yuceer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backround Ultrasonic treatment is one of emerging techniques that could be the alternative to existing thermal processing techniques in foods. Ultrasonic treatments may also be used to extend the shelf life of egg during storage period in ambient temperature. Effectiveness of ultrasound treatment with different power levels (200W, 300W, 450W) and treatment times (2 min and 5 min) were evaluated for enhancing functional properties of eggs during storage at 24 °C for 6 weeks. Results It was found that the ultrasound treatment power and treatment time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter, relative whipping capacity, and albumen viscosity resulting in extended shelf life. Attributes such as yolk index, Haugh unit, pH, whipping capacity, dry matter for 300 W and 450 W treatments were better than control and 200 W treatments. Longer treatment time and power showed a significant influence on functional properties. Conclusion Power levels 300 W and 450 W of ultrasound treatments had improved internal quality of fresh eggs during storage, but negative effect on shell strength. The study showed that ultrasound treatment could be an alternative and effective technique for maintaining the internal qualities of fresh eggs during long‐term storage while FT‐NIR spectroscopy could be used as a new tool for the assessment of freshness.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:17.377931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7029
  • Emulsion stability, thermo‐rheology and quality characteristics of
           ground pork patties prepared with soy protein isolate and carrageenan
    • Authors: Xue‐qin Gao; Wan‐gang Zhang, Guang‐hong Zhou
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plant proteins and polysaccharides are often utilised in ground meat products as meat binders, gelling agents, texture stabilizers or fat substitutes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 5.7% soy protein isolate (SPI), 0.7% carrageenan (CAR) and the incorporation of SPI/CAR mixture on the quality of ground pork patties. Results Ground pork patties with individual SPI and CAR or SPI/CAR mixture showed either retaining or improving emulsion stability, physic‐chemical properties and dynamic rheology compared to control. Though the colour differences were not significantly different among all treatments, samples from SPI/CAR mixture treatment presented higher texture profile values for hardness and chewiness than other treatments (P
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:00.236207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7023
  • Shinzami Korean purple‐fleshed sweet potato extract prevents
           ischemia‐reperfusion‐induced liver damage in rats
    • Authors: Saet‐Byeol Jung; Jae‐Ho Shin, Ji Yeon Kim, Oran Kwon
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of extract from Shinzami, a variety of purple sweet potato, in rats injured by hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R). Results Pretreatment with Shinzami extract decreased the aspirate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels in our hepatic I/R rat model. The glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity level were significantly higher in the rats pretreated with the Shinzami extract compared with the hepatic I/R rats, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px) activity level was higher in pretreated rats. The total anthocyanins extracted from Shinzami, however, only increased the SOD activity level in the hepatic I/R rats. Rats pretreated with the Shinzami extract or anthocyanins demonstrated attenuated hepatic pathological changes, such as hepatic distortion, hemorrhage, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the hepatic I/R control rats. Conclusion Shinzami extract and anthocyanins have a hepatoprotective effect on the liver damage induced by hepatic I/R by improving antioxidant status. Furthermore, the Shinzami extract may have a more potent effect on the antioxidant status compared with the Shinzami anthocyanins alone.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T11:08:51.071383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7021
  • Antifungal effect of essential oil components against aspergillus niger
           when loaded into silica mesoporous supports
    • Authors: Andrea Bernardos; Teresa Marina, Petr Žáček, Édgar Pérez‐Esteve, Ramón Martínez‐Mañez, Miloslav Lhotka, Lenka Kouřimská, Josef Pulkrábek, Pavel Klouček
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Essential oil components (EOCs) are known for their antifungal properties; however, their high volatility limits their application as antimicrobial agents. Strategies used for controlling EOCs volatility include encapsulation or loading into porous materials. This study evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of selected EOCs (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and thymol) against the fungus Aspergillus niger when loaded into MCM‐41 and β‐cyclodextrin (β‐CD). Results It was found that carvacrol and thymol in Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM‐41) display remarkable enhanced antifungal properties in comparison to the pure or β‐CD‐encapsulated EOCs. In fact, carvacrol and thymol were able to maintain antifungal activity and inhibit fungal growth for 30 days, suggesting better applicability of these EOCs as natural preservatives. Conclusions The sustained antifungal effect of EOCs encapsulated into silica mesoporous supports was described.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T11:07:34.061785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7022
  • Lipoic acid mitigates oxidative stress and recovers metabolic distortions
           in salt‐stressed wheat seedlings by modulating ion homeostasis,
           osmoregulator level and antioxidant system
    • Authors: Zeynep Gorcek; Serkan Erdal
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backround Soil salinity is one of the most detrimental environmental factors affecting the growth and limiting the agricultural productivity of plants. This study investigated whether exogenous lipoic acid (LA) pretreatment plays a role in promoting salt tolerance in wheat seedlings. The seedlings were treated with LA (1.75 mM) and salt (100 mM NaCl) separately and their combination. Results Salt stress significantly reduced relative water content (RWC), leaf surface area, ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) expression, and chlorophyll content but increased the content of osmoregulators protein, carbohydrates, and proline. In addition, salinity led to an imbalance in the inorganic composition of wheat leaves. While it elevated Na+ content compared to control, Ca content and K+/Na+ ratio were reduced. Under saline conditions, despite increases in antioxidant enzyme activity and levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbate and glutathione), the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide) and malondialdehyde were higher than in control seedlings. LA significantly promoted osmoregulator level and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to stressed‐seedlings alone. Also, it both increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione and regenerated their oxidized forms, thus contributing to maintaining cellular redox status. Similarly, LA prevented excessive accumulation of Na+ and promoted K+/Na+ ratio and Ca content. ROS content was significantly reduced, and the inhibitions in the above parameters markedly recovered. Conclusion LA reduced salinity‐induced oxidative damage and thus contributed to growth and development of plants in saline soils by modulating ion homeostasis between plant and soil as well as in osmoregulator content and antioxidant system.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T11:06:58.042478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7020
  • Detection of fraudulent addition of bovine whey in Ricotta cheese by
           iso‐electric focusing
    • Authors: Fabio Fuselli; Anna Deluca, Emanuela A. Montepeloso, Giulia Ibba, Flavio Tidona, Lucia Longo, Rosa M. Marianella
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Prevention of food frauds in dairy field is actually an hard issue for researchers, industries and policymakers, both for commercial and health reasons. At the moment no analytical method allows detecting the addition of bovine whey in water buffalo Ricotta, so this fraudulent practice could not be prevented.
      Authors ’ aim was to develop such a method. Results The conditions to extract and purify denatured Ricotta whey proteins, which are unfolded and coagulated by heating during the production process, were optimized. The optimal composition of the polyacrylamide gel (pH range, type and concentration of chemical separator) was firstly evaluated and then the best conditions to perform the separation by Iso‐electric Focusing (IEF) were established. The performance of the method (precision, selectivity, robustness, sensibility) was determined. Conclusions The method was shown to be reliable and robust for detection of the presence of bovine whey added to water buffalo Ricotta at percentage above 5% (v/v). The results suggest that the differences observed between bovine and water buffalo electrophoretic profiles are due to bovine beta (β)‐lactoglobulin, isoform A, which is never detected in water buffalo samples.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T01:56:18.632996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7019
  • Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2
           and its cholesterol‐lowering effects in rats fed a high‐fat
           and high‐cholesterol diet
    • Authors: Se Yeon Jo; Eun A Choi, Jae Joon Lee, Hae Choon Chang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain the functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol‐lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health‐promoting product were explored. Results Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin‐enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high‐fat and high‐cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Conclusion Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol‐lowering effects.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T01:47:32.599428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7018
  • Nanoemulsions as an effective medium for encapsulation and stabilization
           of Cholesterol /β‐cyclodextrin inclusion complex
    • Authors: Khushwinder Kaur
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Inclusion complex formations between β‐cyclodextrin and suitable guest molecules such as cholesterol have regularly been exploited to design self‐assembled structures. In the present study, an effective nanoemulsion medium (Lecithin/Tween 80/ethyl oleate/water) is selected for solubilizing and stabilizing cholesterol and cholesterol/ β‐cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The study is further supported by phase solubility, spectroscopy, thermodynamics, Z‐average diameter and morphological estimations. Phase solubility data analysis demonstrates increase in solubility of cholesterol at low β‐CD concentrations (0.01‐0.35 mmol L−1). TEM and Z‐average diameter data indicates the spherical nature of the droplets and confirms the formation of nanoemulsions with an average size of less than 50 nm. The negative value of ΔG obtained during analysis further indicates that the binding is spontaneous in nature. Primarily, this formulation demonstrates the use of nanoemulsion as a medium in food matrix, instead of the much reported water for hosting cholesterol in β‐cyclodextrin.
      PubDate: 2014-11-22T01:59:36.878454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7012
  • The etiology of oxidative stress in the various species of animals, a
    • Authors: Puppel Kamila; Kapusta Aleksandra, Kuczyńska Beata
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oxidative stress is the consequence of an imbalance of pro‐oxidants and antioxidants leading to cell damage and tissue injury. The exhaustion of antioxidant systems is one of the reasons for the occurrence of oxidative stress, which results in avalanche production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or free radicals. High oxidative stress is common in organs and tissues with high metabolic and energy demands, including skeletal and heart muscle, liver and blood cells. Stress arises in animals in response to unavoidable or adverse environmental conditions. In the external environment, which affects the body of the cow, there are four main groups of stressors: physical, chemical, biological and psychological. Physical stressors include fluctuations in ambient temperature as well as mechanical injuries. High ambient temperature is one of the factors affecting the productivity of cows. Biological stressors are conditioned by errors and irregularities in habits. Both of these phenomena have an adverse impact on both the resistance of animals and fertility and are the etiological agent of oxidative stress. Various mechanisms may be responsible for metal–induced oxidative stress: direct or indirect generation of ROS, depletion of glutathione and the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes are well‐known for all redox active and inactive metals.
      PubDate: 2014-11-22T01:57:30.56303-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7015
  • Analysis of the bacterial community in aged and aging pit mud of Chinese
           Luzhou‐flavour liquor by combined PCR‐DGGE and quantitative
           PCR assay
    • Authors: Liang Huipeng; Li Wenfang, Luo Qingchun, Liu Chaolan, Wu Zhengyun, Zhang Wenxue
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The community structure of bacteria in the aged and aging pit mud, which was judged according to their sensory and physicochemical characteristic, was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction‐denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR‐DGGE) and real‐time PCR (qPCR). Results The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes and Unclassified Bacteria were detected and the fermentative Firmicutes were predominant in both pit mud in the PCR‐DGGE analysis. Among Firmicutes, Clostridiales was dominant in aged pit mud while Bacillales and Lactobacillales were dominant in aging pit mud. The diversity of bacterial communities in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud. In the qPCR analysis, the abundance of Clostridium IV in the aged pit mud was higher than that in the aging and there were significant difference in the quantity of Clostridium IV between the aged and aging pit mud in the same cellar (p
      PubDate: 2014-11-22T01:55:21.86598-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7013
  • Effects of condensed tannin fractions of different molecular weights from
           a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid on in vitro methane production and rumen
    • Authors: Mookiah Saminathan; Chin Chin Sieo, Norhani Abdullah, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Yin Wan Ho
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Molecular weights (MWs) and their chemical structures are the primary factors determining the influence of condensed tannins (CTs) on animal nutrition and methane (CH4) production in ruminants. In this study, the MWs of five CT fractions from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid‐Rendang (LLR) were determined and the CT fractions were investigated for their effects on CH4 production and rumen fermentation. Results The number‐average molecular weights (Mn) of fraction F1 (1265.8 Da), which was eluted first, was the highest, followed by those of fractions F2 (1028.6 Da), F3 (652.2 Da), F4 (562.2 Da) and F5 (469.6 Da), which had the lowest Mn. The total gas (mL g−1 DM) and CH4 production decreased significantly (P 0.05) differences between the CT fractions and control on DM degradation. However, the in vitro N disappearance significantly decreased (P
      PubDate: 2014-11-22T01:55:02.389111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7016
  • Compositional and biochemical changes in Genestoso cheese, a Spanish raw
           cow's milk variety, during ripening
    • Authors: Ricardo Arenas; Leticia González, Noelia Sacristán, María E. Tornadijo, José M. Fresno
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Physico‐chemical characteristics, proteolysis and lipolysis were studied throughout the ripening of eight batches of a traditional Spanish variety made from raw cow's milk, in order to establish basis for its industrial production. Results The main compositional characteristics of this cheese after 60 days of ripening were its high proportion of Total Solids (752 g Kg−1 of cheese), an average content of protein (452.8 g Kg−1 TS) and fat (475.1 g Kg−1 TS), and presence of residual lactose (12.5 g Kg−1 TS). Its pH value (4.04) was extremely low. Phosphorus (5.13 g Kg−1 TS) and sodium (8.29 g Kg−1 TS) were the most abundant mineral elements in cheese, whereas calcium levels (1.92 g Kg−1 TS) were very low. Proteolysis extension and depth were very low, which resulted in almost zero degradation of αs1‐ and β‐casein. Fat acidity increased during ripening, reaching final values of 50.1 mg KOH Kg−1 of fat. The main free fatty acid was C16:0, followed by C18:1 and C14:0. Conclusion These results suggest that this variety undergoes a limited proteolysis and moderate lipolysis during ripening. The low pH, the low calcium content and the limited proteolysis led to a crumbly texture in this cheese variety.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T04:27:23.993171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7011
  • The impact of systemic and copper pesticide applications on the
           phyllosphere microflora of tomatoes
    • Authors: Andrea R. Ottesen; Sasha Gorham, James B. Pettengill, Steven Rideout, Peter Evans, Eric Brown
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Contamination of tomatoes by Salmonella can occur in agricultural settings. Little is currently understood about how agricultural inputs such as pesticide applications may impact epiphytic crop microflora and potentially play a role in contamination events. We examined the impact of two materials commonly used in Virginia tomato agriculture; acibenzolar‐S‐methyl (crop protectant) and copper oxychloride (pesticide) to identify effects these materials may exert on baseline tomato microflora and on the incidence of three specific genera; Salmonella, Xanthomonas and Paenibacillus. Results Approximately 186,441 16S rRNA gene and 39,381 18S rRNA gene sequences per independent replicate were used to analyze the impact of the pesticide applications on tomato microflora. An average of 3,346,677 (634892974 bases) shotgun sequences per replicate were used for metagenomic analyses. Conclusions A significant decrease in the presence of Gammapproteobacteria was observed between controls and copper treated plants, suggesting that copper is effective at suppressing growth of certain taxa in this Class. A higher mean abundance of Salmonella and Paenibacillus in control samples compared to treatments may suggest that both systemic and copper applications diminish the presence of these genera in the phyllosphere, however due to the lack of statistical significance, this could also be due to other factors. The most distinctive separation of shared membership was observed in shotgun data between the two different sampling time‐points, (not between treatments), potentially supporting the hypothesis that environmental pressures may exert more selective pressures on epiphytic microflora than certain agricultural management practices do.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:32:05.626042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7010
  • Raman spectroscopy application on frozen carrot differently cooked and the
           relationship with carotenoids
    • Authors: Paolo Camorani; Emma Chiavaro, Luigi Cristofolini, Maria Paciulli, Maria Zaupa, Attilio Visconti, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Raman spectroscopy, in its confocal micro‐Raman declination, has been recently proposed as a spatially resolved method to identify carotenoids in various food matrices being faster, non‐destructive, and avoiding the sample extraction, but no data are present in literature about its application to the evaluation of carotenoid pattern changes after thermal treatments on carrots. Results The effect of three cooking methods (i.e. boiling, steaming and microwaving) was evaluated on frozen carrot comparing changes on carotenoid profiles measured by means of Raman spectroscopy with their HPLC determinations and colour. A more pronounced detrimental effect on carotenoids was detected in steamed carrots, in accordance with colour data. Differently, the boiling and, to a lesser extent, microwaving caused an increase of carotenoid concentration. Cooking procedures affected the Raman spectral features of carotenoids causing the shift of vibration frequencies toward a higher energy, the increase of the spectral baseline and of the peak intensities as well as the broadening of their width, probably in relation with the thermal degradation of longer carotenoids (i.e., the all trans form) and the isomerisation process. In particular, steamed samples showed a significantly higher increase of centre frequency in accordance with a more pronounced isomerisation and changes of colour parameters. Conclusions This work showed that the evolution of Raman spectral parameters could give information on carotenoid bioaccessibility for carrots differently cooked. This paves the way for a future use of this technique to monitor and optimize the cooking processes aimed at maximize carotenoids bioaccessibility and bioavailability.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:30:46.592698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7009
  • Determination of bioavailability and identification of collagen peptide in
           blood after oral ingestion of gelatin
    • Authors: Lin Wang; Qing Wang, Qiufang Liang, Yuanqing He, Zhenbin Wang, Song He, Junmin Xu, Haile Ma
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gelatin has long been widely used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and others. However, there is little report on its bioavailability and bioavailable forms presently. Results The relative and absolute bioavailability of gelatin were 74.12% and 85.97%, respectively, which was indirectly evaluated by the bioavailability of total Hyp in gelatin using pharmacokinetic method after oral administration to rats. The amino acid profile of plasma indicated that 41.91% of the digested gelatin was absorbed from the intestine in the form of peptide, and there was a good linear correlation between the absorbed amount of an amino acid and its content in gelatin (R2 = 0.9566). Moreover, 17 kinds of collagen peptides were purified by multistep chromatography and identified with UPLC‐ESI‐MS. Conclusion Gelatin had high oral bioavailability. Nearly half of digested gelatin was absorbed from the intestine in the form of various collagen peptides.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:22:58.306948-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7008
  • Soluble and cell wall‐bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid
           dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: Insight into
           mechanisms of improved availability
    • Authors: Wioletta M. Dynkowska; Malgorzata R. Cyran, Alicja Ceglińska
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Bread‐making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol‐soluble (free and ester‐bound) and insoluble phenolics. Results Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three‐stage sourdough method with 12‐h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype‐dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester‐bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester‐bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan‐hydrolyzing enzymes in whole‐meal flour. Conclusion The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread‐making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:11:36.193862-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7007
  • Nutritional values and bioactive components of underutilized vegetables
           consumed by indigenous people in Malaysia
    • Authors: Norsuhaila Abdul Wahab; Rohaina Ahdan, Zabidah Ahmad Aufa, Kin Weng Kong, Mohd Hafizan Johar, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Amin Ismail
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diverse plants species in the forest are remaining underutilized owing to their consumption are only among the local. Additionally, increasing issues in food security has prompted present study to explore the nutritional and antioxidant aspects of Malaysian underutilized vegetables. The studied vegetables were Paku Nyai (Stenochlaena palustris), Cemperai (Champereia manillana), Maman Pasir (Cleome viscose), Dudung (Erechtites valerianifolia) and Semambuk (Ardisia pendula). Results Overall, these vegetables exhibited a low proximal content but they were high in vitamin C [7.07‐1263 mg kg−1 edible fresh sample (EFS)] and β‐carotene content (18.4‐43.9 mg kg−1 kg−1 EFS). Cemperai had the highest calcium content (565 mg kg−1 EFS), whereas Semambuk had the highest total phenolic content [28.21 g GAE kg−1 edible dried sample (EDS)] and antioxidant activity (86.1%) measured using β‐carotene bleaching assay. Maman Pasir contained the highest total flavonoid content (39.99 g CE kg−1 EDS) and 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity (82.2%). The extracts of these vegetables had significantly prevented the oxidation of hemoglobin and LDL, which had given a reduced production of malondialdehyde. Conclusion Semambuk and Maman Pasir are potent to be used as new food and functional food sources as they are rich in nutrients and antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:06:50.791218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7006
  • The fungal‐laccase‐catalyzed oxidation of EGCG and the
           characterization of its products
    • Authors: Yeonhee Lee; Zhi Lin, Guocheng Du, Zhuangmei Deng, Haiquan Yang, Wenxiang Bai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fungal laccase (EC is an important enzyme for catalyzing the oxidation of tea polyphenols during the fermentation of tea. (−)‐Epigallocatechin‐gallate (EGCG) is the main ingredient of tea polyphenols. To a certain extent, the oxidation degree of EGCG reflects the fermentation degree of tea. This study preliminarily optimized the conditions for catalytically oxidizing EGCG by Aspergillus sp. trijbl1112 laccase and systematically analyzed the components and contents of the EGCG oxidation products. Results Aspergillus sp. trijbl1112 laccase oxidized EGCG into free catechins, ester catechins, gallic acid and tea pigments. The reaction conditions had a significant impact on the oxidation rate, types and concentrations of the products. At natural pH, 69.29% of EGCG was oxidized when 1 mL of EGCG (1 mmol L−1) was catalyzed by 10 µg of fungal laccase for 150 min at 70 °C. When the EGCG oxidation rate was 69.27%, free catechins [(+)‐catechin and (−)‐epigallocatechin] and tea pigments (mainly thearubigin and theabrownin) constituted 48.42% and 38.87% of the oxidation products, respectively. Conclusion The results may provide a theoretical basis for the application of EGCG oxidation using laccase and provide a novel technique for obtaining high production of tea pigments.
      PubDate: 2014-11-19T02:00:14.921492-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7003
  • Development and evaluation on an intelligent traceability system for
           frozen tilapia fillet processing
    • Authors: Xinqing Xiao; Zetian Fu, Lin Qi, Mira Trebar, Xiaoshuan Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The main export varieties are brand‐name, high‐quality bred aquatic products in China. Among of them, tilapia has become the most important and fast growing species since extensive consumers market in North America and Europe has evolved due to commodity prices of year round availability and quality of fresh and frozen products. As the biggest tilapia farming country, China has over 1/3 tilapia produce for further processing and meeting foreign market demand. Results Cased by Tilapia fillet processing, this paper introduces the efforts for developing and evaluating the ITS‐TF: an intelligent traceability system integrated statistical process control (SPC) with fault tree analysis (FTA). Observations, literature review and experts’ questionnaires were used for system requirement and knowledge acquisition; scenario simulation was applied to evaluate and validate ITS‐TF’s performance. Conclusion The results shows that traceability requirement is evolved from firefighting model to proactive model for enhancing process management capacity for food safety; ITS‐TF transforms itself as an intelligent system to provide functions on early warnings and process management by integrated SPC and FTA. The valuable suggestion that automatic data acquisition and communication technology should be integrated into ITS‐TF also was achieved for further system optimization, perfection and performance improvement.
      PubDate: 2014-11-19T01:59:57.781156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7005
  • A synergistic effect of pretreatment on cell‐wall structural changes
           in barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) for efficient bioethanol production
    • Authors: Md. Mominul Islam Sheikh; Chul‐Hwan Kim, Ji‐Young Lee, Su‐Jin Yim, Gyeong Sun Lee, Hu Seung Jo, Ji‐Young Lee, Jae Won Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an attractive lignocellulosic material and is one of the most abundant renewable resources for fuel‐ethanol production. Although it contains high cellulose and hemicellulose contents, it has several challenges and limitations in the process of converting barley straw (BS) to fuel‐ethanol. High ash, silica, and lignin contents in barley straw make it an inferior feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment plays an important role for structural and compositional changes in increasing the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and makes the whole process economically viable. Results Saccharification was enhanced using various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0% v/v) of a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and various reaction times (15, 30, and 45 min) during pretreatment at 121 °C. The highest yield of glucose (447 mg g−1) was found by pretreatment consisting of 30 min at 2.0% of NaClO and H2O2 solution and it was increased 65.99% as compared to untreated barley straw (152 mg g−1). During fermentation, the highest amount of ethanol was obtained (207 mg g−1) and it was increased 57.49, 38.16 and 10.14% as compared to untreated sample (88 mg g−1), aerobic (128 mg g−1) and anaerobic (186 mg g−1) conditions, respectively. Under anaerobic conditions, ethanol fermentation was improved by adding low concentrated of 0.4 mmol L−1 benzoic acid. Conclusion The results suggest that pretreatment with a 2.0% of NaClO and H2O2 solution disrupted the recalcitrance structure of barley straw and enhanced the glucose yield and subsequent bioethanol production.
      PubDate: 2014-11-19T01:59:41.80435-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7004
  • In vitro and in vivo evaluation of capsaicin‐loaded microemulsion
           for enhanced oral bioavailability
    • Authors: Yuan Zhu; Jiajia Zhang, Qianfeng Zheng, Miaomiao Wang, Wenwen Deng, Qiang Li, Caleb Kesse Firempong, Shengli Wang, Shanshan Tong, Ximing Xu, Jiangnan Yu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Capsaicin, as a food additive, has attracted worldwide concern owing to its pungency and multiple pharmacologic effects. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability limited its application. This study aims to develop capsaicin‐loaded microemulsion to enhance the oral bioavailability of the anti‐neuropathic‐pain component, capsaicin, which is poorly water soluble. Results In this study, the microemulsion consisting of Cremophor EL, ethanol, medium chain triglycerides (oil phase) and water (external phase) was prepared and characterized (particle size, morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency). The gastric mucosa irritation test of formulated capsaicin was performed in rats to evaluate its oral feasibility, followed by the pharmacokinetic study in vivo. Under these conditions, the encapsulated capsaicin revealed a faster capsaicin release in vitro coupled with a greater absorption in vivo when compared to the free capsaicin. The oral bioavailability of the formulated capsaicin‐loaded microemulsions was 2.64‐fold faster than that of free capsaicin. No significant irritation was observed on the mucosa from the pathological section of capsaicin‐loaded microemulsion treated stomach. Conclusion These results indicate that the developed microemulsion represents a safe and orally effective carrier for poorly soluble substance. And the formulation could be used for clinical trials and expand the application of capsaicin.
      PubDate: 2014-11-14T09:16:45.620442-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7002
  • Geographical provenancing of purple grape juices from different farming
           systems by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using supervised
           statistical techniques
    • Authors: Daniel Granato; Alex Koot, Saskia M. van Ruth
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (PGJ; n = 79) produced in Brazil and Europe were characterized by volatile organic compounds (m/z 20–160) measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR‐MS) and classification models were built using supervised statistical techniques. Results K‐nearest neighbours (KNN) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) models discriminated adequaly the Brazilian from European PGJ (overall efficiency of 81 and 87%, respectively). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) classified 100% European and 96% Brazilian PGJ. Similarly, when samples were grouped as either conventional or organic/biodynamic, the PLSDA model classified 81% conventional and 83% organic/biodynamic juices. Intraregional PLSDA models (juices produced in the same region – either Europe or Brazil) were developed and were deemed accurate in discriminating Brazilian organic from conventional PGJ (81% efficiency) as well as European conventional from organic/biodynamic PGJ (94% efficiency). Conclusions PGJ from Brazil and Europe as well as conventional and organic/biodynamic PGJ were distinguished with a high efficiency, but no statistical model was able to differentiate organic and biodynamic grape juices. These data support the hypothesis that no clear distinction between organic and biodynamic grape juices can be made with respect to VOCs.
      PubDate: 2014-11-14T09:16:13.941804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7001
  • Effect of Colored Shade Nets on Plant Leaf Parameters and Tomato Fruit
    • Authors: Zoran S. Ilić; Lidija Milenković, Ljubomir Šunić, Elazar Fallik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The photoselective netting concept using commercial cultivation practices was studied in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Vedetta’) summer cultivation in south Serbia (under high solar radiation 910 W∙m−2, with a PPFD of 1661 µmol∙m−2∙s−1), under four different colored shade‐nets (pearl, red, blue and black) with 40% relative shading. The aim of the study was to determine how different environmental control technologies (color shade nets as screen house or plastic‐house integrated with color shade nets) could influence plant parameters, production and quality traits in tomato fruits cultivated in south Serbia (Balkan region). Results The leaf area index (LAI) ranged from 4.6 to 5.8 in open field and plastic tunnels plants (control) with maximum LAI values of 7.9 ‐ 8.2 in net houses with red color nets. Shade‐grown leaves generally have larger total chlorophyll and carotenoids content than control leaves. Pericarp thickness was significantly higher in pearl (7.215.82 µm), red (7099.00 µm) and blue nets (6802.29 µm) compared to other treatments and to control (6202.48 µm). The highest concentration of lycopene was detected in tomatoes grown in plastic houses integrated with red color nets (64.9 µg g−1 FW). The plastic house and open field (control) tomato production had a taste index mean value of 1.09‐1.10. This is significantly higher than the values determined for the treatments with different color shade nets. Conclussion These results show that red and pearl photo‐selective nets create optimal growing conditions for the growth of the plant and produces fruits with thicker pericarp, the highest lycopene content, satisfactory level of taste index and can be further implemented within protected cultivation practices.
      PubDate: 2014-11-12T02:35:31.961842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7000
  • Cymbopogon citratus industrial waste as a potential source of bioactive
    • Authors: Filipa Tavares; Gustavo Costa, Vera Francisco, Joana Liberal, Artur Figueirinha, Maria Celeste Lopes, Maria Teresa Cruz, Maria Teresa Batista
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), worldwide known as lemongrass, is a very important crop in the world, being bred in tropical countries. It is widely used for food and pharmaceutical industries, cosmetic and perfumery for its essential oil. Cc aqueous extracts are also commonly used in traditional medicine. They have high levels of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties. From the essential oil hydrodistillation results an aqueous waste (CcHD), which is discarded. Therefore, a comparative study between CcHD and Cc infusion (CcI) was performed to characterize its phytochemical profile and to research its antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory potential. Results HPLC‐PDA‐ESI/MSn analysis showed that CcI and CcHD have similar phenolic profiles, with CcHD presenting a higher amount of polyphenols. Additionally, both CcI and CcHD showed antioxidant activity against DPPH (EC50 of 41.72 ± 0.05 and 42.29 ± 0.05, respectively) and strong anti‐inflammatory properties, by reducing NO production and iNOS expression in macrophages, and through their NO scavenging activity, in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed. Conclusion The data of this study encourages considering the aqueous solution from Cc leaves hydrodistillation as a source of bioactive compounds, which may add great industrial value to this crop.
      PubDate: 2014-11-12T02:35:15.353499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6999
  • Expression of monellin in a food‐grade delivery system in
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Authors: Jun Liu; Da‐zhong Yan, Sheng‐jun Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Genetically modified (GM) foods have caused many controversies. Construction of a food‐grade delivery system is desirable technique with presumptive impact on industrial applications from the perspective of bio‐safety. The aim of this study was to construct a food‐grade delivery system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Meanwhile monellin from the berries of the West African forest plant Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii was expressed in this system. Results A food‐grade system for S. cerevisiae was constructed based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA)‐mediated homologous recombination to enable high‐copy‐number integration of the expression cassette inserted into the rDNA locus. A copper‐resistance gene (CUP1) was used as the selection marker for yeast transformation. Because variants of transformants containing different copy numbers at the CUP1 locus can be readily selected after growth in the presence of elevated copper levels, we suggest that this system would prove useful in the generation of tandemly iterated gene clusters. Using this food‐grade system, a single‐chain monellin gene was heterologously expressed. The yield of monellin reached a maximum of 675 mg l−1. Conclusion This system harbors exclusively S. cerevisiae DNA with no antibiotic‐resistance genes, and it should therefore be appropriate for safe use in the food industry. Meanwhile monellin was expressed in this food grade delivery system. To our knowledge, it is the first report on expression of monellin in the food‐grade expression system in S. cerevisiae so far.
      PubDate: 2014-11-08T04:26:40.374762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6997
  • Microbial Safety and Quality of Fresh Herbs from Los Angeles, Orange
           County, and Seattle Farmers’ Markets
    • Authors: Donna J. Levy; Nicola K. Beck, Alexandra L. Kossik, Taylor Patti, J. Scott Meschke, Melissa Calicchia, Rosalee S. Hellberg
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Farmers’ markets have been growing in popularity in the United States, but the microbial quality and safety of the food sold at these markets is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbial safety and quality of fresh basil, parsley, and cilantro sold at farmers’ markets in the Los Angeles, Orange County, and greater Seattle areas. Results A total of 133 samples (52 basil, 41 cilantro, and 40 parsley) were collected from 13 different farmers’ markets and tested for Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli. One sample (parsley) was confirmed positive for Salmonella and 24.1% of the samples were positive for generic E. coli, with a range of 0.70‐3.15 log CFU/g. Among the herbs tested, basil showed the highest percentage of samples with generic E. coli (26.9%), followed by cilantro (24.4%), and then parsley (20.0%). For 12% of samples, the levels of generic E. coli exceeded guidelines established by the Public Health Laboratory Service for microbiological quality of ready‐to‐eat foods. Conclusion Overall, this study indicates the presence of Salmonella and generic E. coli in fresh herbs sold at farmers’ markets; however, additional studies are needed to determine the sources and extent of contamination.
      PubDate: 2014-11-08T02:06:58.309612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6996
  • Phytase in non‐ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on
           phytase activities in the gastro‐intestinal tract and influencing
    • Authors: Yueming Dersjant‐Li; Ajay Awati, Hagen Schulze, Gary Partridge
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non‐ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the GI tract, and they can be divided into three main groups, i) phytase related, ii) dietary related and iii) animal related. Phytase related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3 or 6 phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, total P, Ca and Na content. Animal related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the anti‐nutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal.
      PubDate: 2014-11-08T01:30:12.978621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6998
  • Removal of Anisakis simplex allergens from infected fish during the
           washing step of surimi production
    • Authors: Fabiola Olivares; Miguel González‐Muñoz, Noelia Carballeda‐Sangiao, Ana Rodríguez‐Mahillo, Mercedes Careche, Cristina de las Heras, Alfonso Navas, Margarita Tejada
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backgound The washing operation of fish muscle is one of the key steps in the production of surimi. The aim of this study was to assess in parasitized minced fish the effect of the washing steps on the allergen removal of Anisakis simplex and on protein yield during surimi processing. Experimentally infected hake (Merluccius merluccius) (50 Anisakis simplex s.s L3 larvae per 100 g of muscle) underwent three successive washing steps with water, phosphate buffer (20 mM), sodium bicarbonate (60 mM), or sodium hypochlorite (0.27 mM) in the surimi processing (4 kg muscle, 1:4 w/v for each solution). Total protein concentration and A. simplex antigens and allergens were evaluated in each waste fraction. Results The highest removal of Ani s 4 and A. simplex antigens was achieved by using phosphate buffer, together with a good protein yield in the raw surimi. Decrease of the concentration of allergens and antigens as a function of the washing steps rendered a linear trend (R2=0.95 and 0.98 for Ani s 4 and A. simplex antigens respectively). Conclusion The conditions for an optimal removal of Anisakis allergens can be established and calculated as a function of the washing steps. This approach opens a line to utilize parasitized fish in a safer way.
      PubDate: 2014-11-07T01:58:49.219003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6994
  • Quality changes during cod (Gadus morhua) desalting at different
    • Authors: Helena Oliveira; Amparo Gonçalves, Maria L Nunes, Paulo Vaz‐Pires, Rui Costa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background To advice consumer and manufacturers to accelerate desalting of salted cod (a time consuming process), there is a need to develop knowledge about quality changes at different desalting temperatures. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality changes and their causes during cod desalting at 5, 10 and 15 °C, using a cod/water ratio of 1:9 without water changes. Influence of slices with different thickness and different desalting times was also evaluated. Results Desalting promoted a loss of TVB‐N, TBARs and FAA‐N levels. The greatest FAA‐N values were found in “thicker” samples desalted at 15 °C due to the higher proteolytic bacteria number observed in these samples, which activity compensated the leaching of soluble components to the desalting solution. The water uptake and the salt leaching out of the muscle found during the processes created conditions for the bacterial growth, contributing to the spoilage at 15 °C. Based on fresh odor and “off”‐flavors results, “thicker” samples desalted at 15 °C after 72 h were close to spoilage and on microbial levels were spoiled. Conclusion In order to extend the shelf life and safety of cod desalted products, desalting at temperatures above 10 °C is not advisable.
      PubDate: 2014-11-07T01:57:23.820069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6995
  • Near‐infrared spectrocopy is suitable for the classification of
           hazelnuts according to protected designation origin
    • Authors: Moscetti R; Radicetti E, Monarca D, Cecchini M, Massantini R
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study investigates the possibility of using Near‐Infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of the ‘Nocciola Romana’ hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cvs. ‘Tonda Gentile Romana’ and ‘Nocchione’) as a protected designation of origin (PDO) hazelnut from Central Italy. Algorithms for the selection of the optimal pretreatments were tested in combination with the following discriminant routines: k‐Nearest Neighbor, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Discriminant Analysis. Results The best results were obtained using a Support Vector Machine Discriminant Analysis routine. Thus, classification performance rates with specificities, sensitivities, and accuracies as high as 96.0%, 95.0% and 95.5%, respectively, were achieved. Various pretreatments, such as Standard Normal Variate, mean centering and a Savitzky‐Golay filter with seven smoothing points, were used. The optimal wavelengths for classification were mainly correlated with lipids, although some contribution from minor constituents, such as proteins and carbohydrates, was also observed. Conclusion From the results obtained, it seems that Near‐Infrared spectroscopy could classify hazelnut according to the PDO ‘Nocciola Romana’ designation. Thus, the experimentation lays the foundations for a rapid, online, authentication system for hazelnut. However, model robustness should be improved taking into account agro‐pedo‐climatic growing conditions.
      PubDate: 2014-11-07T01:57:07.336987-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6992
  • The 9‐point hedonic scale and hedonic ranking in Food Science: some
           reappraisals and alternatives
    • Authors: Sukanya Wichchukit; Michael O'Mahony
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The 9‐point hedonic scale has been used routinely in Food Science, the same way for sixty years. Now with advances in technology, data from the scale are being used for more and more complex programs for statistical analysis and modelling. Accordingly, it is worth reconsidering the presentation protocols and the analyses associated with the scale, as well as some alternatives. How the brain generates numbers and the types of numbers it generates has relevance for the choice of measurement protocols. There are alternatives to the generally used serial monadic protocol, which can be more suitable. Traditionally, the ‘words’ on the 9‐point hedonic scale are reassigned as ‘numbers’, while other ‘9‐point hedonic scales’ are purely numerical; the two are not interchangeable. Parametric statistical analysis of scaling data is examined critically and alternatives discussed. The potential of a promising alternative to scaling itself, simple ranking with a hedonic R‐Index signal detection analysis, is explored in comparison with the 9‐point hedonic scale.
      PubDate: 2014-11-07T01:56:50.100274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6993
  • Influence of carbon monoxide on the colour stability of defrosted
           yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) muscle stored under aerobic and
           anaerobic conditions
    • Authors: Nikki E Neethling; Louwrens C Hoffman, Trevor J Britz, Bernadette O'Neill
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of carbon monoxide (CO) and various packaging types have been suggested to improve/stabilise the colour and oxidative processes of red meats thereby improving the retail value and revenue. The main aim of the study was to investigate the influence of packaging type and CO treatment on the colour and oxidative stability of tuna. Results The addition of CO significantly increased the redness (a*) of the tuna steaks but the redness was no equally stable for all treatments. The aerobically packaged steaks showed a temporal decrease in redness while the redness of anaerobically packaged steaks remained relatively stable. The addition of CO did not significantly affect (P>0.05) the brownness (b*) (with one exception) and lightness (L*) of the steaks. The anaerobically packaged steaks showed a significant difference (P0.05) in lipid or protein oxidation were observed between treatments. The aerobically packaged steaks had a significant temporal increase (P
      PubDate: 2014-11-07T01:52:13.45527-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6991
  • Food Allergy, a summary of 8 cases in the UK criminal and civil courts:
           effective last resort for vulnerable consumers?
    • Authors: M.H. Gowland; M.J. Walker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Food allergy has a forensic context. We describe 8 cases in the UK courts involving fatalities, personal injury, or criminal non‐compliance with food law from mainly ‘grey’ literature sources. Results The potentially severe consequences for people with food allergy of contraventions of labelling law have led to enforcement action up to criminal prosecution for what might otherwise be regarded as ‘trivial’ non‐compliance. Conclusions We suggest there should be central collation of such cases. Non‐compliances should be followed up in a more rapid and robust manner. Evidence of fraud in the catering supply chain supports recent calls for zero tolerance of food fraud. Businesses must guard against gaps in allergen management; there are readily available sources of training and guidance but also against fraudulent substitution in the supply chain, about which training and guidance should be developed. New allergen labelling legislation and case law appear to place responsibility on food businesses even for the forensically problematic area of allergen cross contamination. The courts can be an effective last resort for vulnerable consumers; however there is evidence of knowledge and skills gaps, both in the investigation and prosecution of potentially serious incidents of food allergen mismanagement and mislabelling. Thorough investigation of food allergy deaths is required with a tenacious and skilled approach. Early realisation that samples of the food and/or stomach contents from a post mortem examination should be retained and analysed. The supply chain must be rigorously examined to find out where adulteration or contamination with the fatal allergen occurred.
      PubDate: 2014-11-06T04:56:10.733402-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6988
  • Fortification of instant coffee beverages ‐ influence of functional
           ingredients, packaging material and storage time on physical properties of
           newly formulated, enriched instant coffee powders
    • Authors: Maja Benković; Siniša Srečec, Igor Špoljarić, Gordan Mršić, Ingrid Bauman
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Consumer demands for healthy, functional foods are growing rapidly nowadays. Coffee, as one of the most spread commodities, represents an interesting aspect for enrichment, since it is consumed by millions of people on daily basis. The aim of this study was to formulate enriched instant coffee powders with a purpose of estimating the influence of storage time, functional ingredients and packaging material on physical and sensory properties of the mixtures. Results Storage time of 6 months significantly (p
      PubDate: 2014-11-06T03:08:10.354909-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6989
  • The Effects of Bruising and Temperature on Enzyme Activity and Textural
           Qualities of Tomato Juice
    • Authors: Matthew T. Held; Gordon E. Anthon, Diane M. Barrett
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background During harvest and transportation, processing tomatoes are exposed to elevated temperatures, compression and vibration in the harvester and truck, making them prone to bruising. The objective of this study was to determine how bruising and exposure to high temperature affects pectin methylesterase (PME) activation and the textural quality of tomato juice. Results Tomatoes were both hand and mechanically harvested using current harvest practices. Mechanically harvested fruit were significantly softer, had greater PME activity and greater juice consistency than hand harvested fruit. In a controlled bruising study, whole tomatoes were exposed to various compressive forces at 21 or 40 °C and held for 0 or 4 hrs. Greater bruising force and higher temperatures resulted in a decrease in firmness and an increase in PME activity. Consistency of tomato juice improved when tomatoes were exposed to 40 °C. Tomatoes subjected to a temperature range from 21 °C to 65 °C had activated PME at 40 °C and increased activity as temperature increased. Consistency increased at 35 °C but decreased with increasing temperature. Conclusions Tomatoes harvested using current mechanical techniques are likely to be less firm and have increased PME activity; however increased consistency of processed juice is observed. Tomatoes harvested at higher temperatures are also likely to have better consistency when processed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-06T03:06:54.365578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6990
  • Influence of Cadmium and Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Fatty Acid Profile of
           Flax (Linum usitatissimum) Seeds
    • Authors: Matthew E. Kaplan; Ellen R. Simmons, Jack C. Hawkins, Lauren G. Ruane, Jeffrey M. Carney
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The soil environment can affect not only the quantity of crops produced, but also the nutritional quality of crops. We examined the combined effects of belowground cadmium (0, 5, and 15 ppm) and mycorrhizal fungi (presence and absence) on the concentration of five major fatty acids within flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum). Results Plants grown with mycorrhizal fungi produced seeds that contained higher concentrations of unsaturated (18:1, 18:2, and 18:3), but not saturated (16:0 and 18:0) fatty acids. The effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds were most pronounced when plant roots were exposed to 15 ppm Cd (i.e. the concentrations of 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 increased by 169%, 370%, and 150% respectively). Conclusions The pronounced effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids at 15 ppm Cd may have been due to the presence of elevated levels of Cd within seeds. Our results suggest that once the concentration of cadmium within seeds reaches a certain threshold, this heavy metal may improve the efficiency of enzymes that convert saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T05:31:19.033722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6986
  • Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus‐indica cladode hydrolysate by
           cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus
    • Authors: Gabriel B. Akanni; James C. du Preez, Laurinda Steyn, Stephanus G. Kilian
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The cladodes of Opuntia ficus‐indica (the prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass Results Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun‐dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilised L‐arabinose and D‐galactose more completely than C. utilis, it's biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. Conclusions This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus‐indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T02:27:01.205955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6985
  • IR‐ Metabolomics Approach in Detecting Changes of Andrographis
           paniculata Metabolites due to Different Harvesting Ages and Times
    • Authors: Nur A'thifah Yusof; Azizul Isha, Intan Safinar Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Khozirah Shaari, Faridah Abas, Yaya Rukayadi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz 11265 (H), 11341 (P), 11248 (T) due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)‐Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Square‐Discriminant Analysis (OPLS‐DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR‐FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites, andrographolide and neoandrographolide, functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7.30 am–10.30 am) and evening (2.30 pm–5.30 pm). Results OPLS‐DA successfully discriminated the A. paniculata crude extracts into groups of which the main constituents, andographolide and neoandrographolide, could be mainly observed in the morning session of 120 DAT for P and T, while H gave the highest intensities of these constituents at 150 DAT. Conclusion The information extracted from ATR‐FTIR data through OPLS‐DA could be useful in tailoring this plant harvest stage in relation to its two major diterpene lactones, andographolide and neoandrographolide, contents.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T02:22:02.473076-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6987
  • Long‐term impact of deficit irrigation on the physical quality of
           berries in ‘Crimson Seedless’ table grapes
    • Authors: Maria R. Conesa; Jose M. de la Rosa, Francisco Artés‐Hernández, Ian C. Dodd, Rafael Domingo, Alejandro Pérez‐Pastor
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In table grapes, berry firmness influences consumer acceptance so it is important to avoid berry shattering and dehydration during their postharvest life. Since studies of irrigation effects on table grape quality are comparatively rare, sensory evaluation aimed to identify high‐quality berries obtained under different deficit irrigation (DI) treatments. A three‐year study examined the effects of DI strategies on some physical quality attributes at harvest, after 28 days of cold storage at 0 °C and after an additional shelf‐life period of 3 d at 15 °C. Control vines were irrigated to ensure non‐limiting water conditions (110% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc), while both regulated deficit irrigation treatment (RDI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) treatments applied 35% less water post‐veraison. The null irrigation treatment (NI) only received natural precipitation (72% less water than control vines). Results Total yield and physical quality at harvest were not significantly affected by RDI or PRD. Only severe deficit (NI) decreased berry size, and this treatment had the most dehydrated berries and the worst sensory scores postharvest. After cold storage, increased berry shattering of the PRD treatment was correlated with lower leaf xylem ABA concentration at the time of harvest. Overall quality, especially stem browning, determined the shelf‐life, and longer storage duration tended to diminish treatment differences. Conclusions Only NI clusters showed lower quality than their irrigated counterparts. Neither RDI nor PRD had any noticeable effect on berry quality at the end of cold storage and shelf‐life, with the slight differences detected between these treatments related to stem browning and dehydration. Sensory results were similar in RDI and PRD, which provided grapes more acceptable to consumers than the control. Thus, it is possible to decrease irrigation of table grapes without adversely affecting berry physical quality.
      PubDate: 2014-11-04T05:19:28.75665-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6983
  • Effect of degree of hydrolysis on the bioavailability of corn gluten meal
    • Authors: Jian Jin; Haile Ma, Cunshan Zhou, Min Luo, Wan Liu, Wenjuan Qu, Ronghai He, Lin Luo, Abu El‐Gasim A. Yagoub
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Under the situation that the shortage of proteins and large quantity of corn gluten meal (CGM) which is a superior protein resource was underexploited because of its special amino acid composition, the enzymatic hydrolysis of CGM was employed to improve its bioavailability. Results The apparent faecal digestibility and true faecal digestibility of all corn gluten meal hydrolysates (CGMHs) decreased in varied amount compared with those of CGM. However, the protein efficiency ratio, the net protein ratio, the biological value, and the net protein utilization of the CGMHs with degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 4.94% and with DH of 10.06% increased significantly (p < 0.05). The results of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion showed that the molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition among different DH resulted in variances in bioavailability. Conclusion Partial hydrolysis of CGM can improve its bioavailability, providing a future protein supplement for protein resources.
      PubDate: 2014-11-04T02:21:24.435614-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6982
  • Influence of a direct fed microbial and xylanase enzyme on the dietary
           energy uptake efficiency and performance of broiler chickens
    • Authors: G Raj Murugesan; Michael E Persia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Efficacy of a multi‐strain direct‐fed microbial product (PoultryStar® ME; PS) and a xylanase enzyme product on the dietary energy utilization efficiency and resulting performance in broiler chickens was evaluated. Apart from performance parameters, cecal, and serum metabolites and activities of hepatic enzymes involved in energy metabolism were also determined. Ross 308 chicks were fed one of four experimental diets (control (CON), CON + PS, CON + Xylanase and CON + PS + Xylanase) using a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement from 1–21 d of age. Results Cecal proportions of propionate and butyrate, as well as total short‐chain fatty acid concentration were increased (P < 0.01) by PS suggesting increased fermentation of dietary fiber. Both additives reduced (P < 0.01) serum non‐esterified free fatty acids, while PS reduced (P < 0.01) serum triglyceride. Hepatic glycogen concentration was increased (P < 0.01) by both additives. Changes in these serum metabolites and hepatic glycogen indicate the influence of additives in swiftly transitioning the birds from fasting to feeding metabolism. The activity of hepatic glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased (P < 0.01) by PS. Elevated hepatic glycogen and G6PDH activity indicate increased glucose‐sparing potential. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lowered by both additives, while the magnitude of reduction was higher with the combination. Conclusion The combination worked synergistically, compared to their individual effects, to increase dietary energy uptake and hepatic energy retention. The combination additively increased the FCR, suggesting involvement of synergistic modes of actions.
      PubDate: 2014-11-04T02:21:06.304858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6984
  • Effect of different tumbling marinade treatments on the water status and
           protein properties of prepared pork chops
    • Authors: Tian Gao; Jiaolong Li, Lin Zhang, Yun Jiang, Lei Song, Ruixue Ma, Feng Gao, Guanghong Zhou
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Recently, in consideration of the rapidly increasing demand for meat products and great trend towards fast food consumption, the prepared boneless pork chop, as a new style of value‐added product, is cut from pork loins and welcomed by consumers after marinated or further‐cooked. The effect of different tumbling marinade treatments (Control group, CG; Conventional static marinade, SM; Vacuum continuous tumbling marinade, CT; Vacuum intermittent tumbling marinade, IT) on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results The CT treatment significantly increased T22 peak area ratio than other treatments (P
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T01:03:03.229482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6980
  • Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary
           (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Tomotake; Jun Kayashita, Norihisa Kato
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Buckwheat grain have well‐balanced nutritional value, whereas its digestibility is relatively low. This review summarizes recent advances in the studies on hypolipidemic activity of buckwheat. The most remarkable function is a powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat protein in rats, which is far stronger than that of soy protein. The cholesterol‐lowering effect is mediated by mechanisms involving higher excretion of fecal sterols and lower digestibility of buckwheat protein. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat protein associates with cholesterol and reduces micelle cholesterol uptake in caco‐2 cells. Furthermore, consumption of buckwheat protein suppresses cholesterol‐induced gallstone and body fat in rodents. Buckwheat sprouts also have hypolipidemic activity in rats or type 2 diabetic mice. Tartary buckwheat bran extract reduced the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in hyperlipidemic rats. The consumption of buckwheat seed reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the pastureland Mongolian population. Taken together, buckwheat may be beneficial for preventation of hyperlipidemia.
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T01:02:50.214451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6981
  • Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of beef treated with
           high‐intensity ultrasound and stored at 4 °C
    • Authors: Omaro Caraveo; Alma D Alarcon‐Rojo, Ana Renteria, Eduardo Santellano, Larysa Paniwnyk
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The application of high‐intensity ultrasound causes changes in physical and chemical properties of biological materials including meat. In this study the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of beef after the application of high‐intensity ultrasound for 60 and 90 min and subsequently stored at 4 °C for six varying time periods, namely 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, were evaluated. Results The ultrasound‐treated meat showed higher (P 0.05) between sonication times. The meat redness of ultrasound treated meat was lower than the control meat however no difference (P >0.05) was observed after day 8 of storage. The 90 min ultrasound treated meat was higher (P
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T01:01:55.723647-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6979
  • Changes in olive oil VOCs induced by water status and light environment in
           canopies of Olea europaea L. trees
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Giovanni Caruso, Giulia Giunti, Angela Cuzzola, Alessandro Saba, Andrea Raffaelli, Riccardo Gucci
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over two years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42%, and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit, or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC‐MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Results Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α‐muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α‐muurulene, (E)‐2‐hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans‐β‐ocimene, α‐copaene, (Z)‐2‐penten‐1‐ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. Conclusion This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on VOO sensory quality.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T04:01:04.145391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6977
  • Comparison of starches from five plants of Sect. Stenophora Uline and
           Sect. Lasiophyton Uline of Dioscorea grown in China
    • Authors: Qian‐Qian Jiang; Wen‐Yuan Gao, Yan‐Peng Shi, Xia Li, Hai‐Yang Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Dioscorea resources with vital medicinal and functional values are rich in southwest regions, especially in Sichuan Province. However, the resource in this region received less attention compared with that of the North. D. zingiberensis, D. collettii, D. kamoonensis cv. Emei and Jinfo, and D. melanophyma from Sichuan Province and Chongqing City were studied on one of the most abundant carbohydrate —starch to search for new medicinal and food resource. Results The starches were small round granules or small oval granules and large elongated granules except D. zingiberensis starch granules with disk‐like shape. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher values in total starch content, water‐binding capacity and infrared ratio of absorbance band at 1047/1035 and 1047/1022 cm−1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis demonstrated higher gelatinization temperature required more energy during gelatinization process. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher resistant starch content of 724.0 and 693.2 g kg−1, respectively, with lower hydrolysis index (HI) and estimation of glycemic index (GI). All the starches exhibited A‐type pattern except D. melanophyma starch showing C‐type pattern evaluated by X‐ray diffraction (XRD). Conclusion These results showed that the starches with their low HI values possessed potential values as healthy food.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T01:20:51.019884-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6975
  • Anti‐inflammatory activity of mushroom‐derived hispidin
           through blocking of NF‐κB activation
    • Authors: Hong Jun Shao; Jin Boo Jeong, Kui‐Jin Kim, Seong‐Ho Lee
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Hispidin, a polyphenol compound mainly derived from the valuable medicinal mushroom Phellinus species, has been found to possess distinct biological effects. However, the anti‐inflammatory potential of hispidin still remains uncharacterized. Results In this study, the effects of hispidin on activation of NF‐κB and the subsequent production of iNOS were determined in the LPS‐induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicated that hispidin inhibits transcriptional activity of NF‐κB in a dose‐dependent manner. Hispidin also attenuated LPS‐induced NF‐κB nuclear translocation and associated IκB‐α degradation. Furthermore, hispidin deceased iNOS protein expression and the generation of ROS in the LPS‐induced cells, but did not affect phosphorylation of MAPKs. Conclusion These findings suggest that hispidin exhibits anti‐inflammatory activity through suppressing ROS mediated NF‐κB pathway in mouse macrophage cells.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T01:09:14.650899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6978
  • Suppression of cadmium concentration in wheat grains by silicon is related
           to its application rate and cadmium accumulating abilities of cultivars
    • Authors: Asif Naeem; Saifullah, Abdul Ghafoor, Muhammad Farooq
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cadmium concentration in food grains could be minimized through application of beneficial plant nutrients such as silicon. Therefore, impact of silicon application on immobilization of Cd in soil and its concentration in low and high shoot‐Cd (LSCd and HSCd, respectively) cultivars of wheat were evaluated in a pot experiment. Selected LSCd cultivars (Iqbal‐2000 and Lasani‐2008) and HSCd cultivars (Inqlab‐91 and Sehar‐2006) were grown on artificially Cd contaminated soil at 10 mg Cd kg−1. Three levels of Si (50, 100 and 150 mg kg−1 soil) applied as calcium silicate (CaSiO3) were tested. Results None of the wheat cultivars showed any toxicity symptom or growth retardation against applied Cd stress. Silicon applied to Cd treated plants did not improve root and shoot dry matter however it increased grain yield significantly at the highest rate of application (150 mg kg−1 soil). Similarly, Si application at 150 mg kg−1 decreased plant available soil Cd without affecting soil pH. Silicon application not only caused a linear decrease in Cd contents of shoots and grains but also decreased its translocation from roots to shoots and grains. Decrease in shoot Cd concentration was higher in HSCd than LSCd cultivars whereas reverse was true for Cd concentration in grains. Conclusion It is concluded that Si addition decreased Cd concentration in wheat cultivars by causing a decrease in both in plant available soil Cd and its translocation from roots to shoots. Application of Si at 150 mg kg−1 proved an effective level of Si that could significantly lower Cd concentration in wheat grains.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T01:08:54.707697-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6976
  • Evaluation of a natural methionine source on broiler growth performance
    • Authors: Zafar Hayat; Abd ur Rehman, Kashif Akram, Umar Farooq, Gulbeena Saleem
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, is essential for the health and growth of broilers so its optimum level should be provided in broiler diets. Synthetic methionine sources used by poultry nutritionists may cause health hazards in broilers as during conversion of synthetic methionine to the active form, homocysteine is produced which may be injurious to body tissues when there is a lack of coordination between methyl group donors and acceptors. So the present study evaluates the efficacy of a natural methionine source. Results The comparative growth performances of broilers fed synthetic and/or natural methionine was observed. Results revealed that the basal diet has a lower growth performance (P  0.05) on weight gain, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio. Serum biochemistry values and slaughter data also indicated no effect due to two different methionine sources (P > 0.05). Conclusion The results of the present study show that synthetic methionine may effectively be replaced with a naturally sourced methionine without affecting the health and growth performance of broilers. However, additional research is needed to further explore other natural sources of methionine.
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T21:26:40.770482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6974
  • Beta‐alanine as a factor influencing the content of bioactive
           dipeptides in muscles of Hubbard Flex chickens
    • Authors: Monika Łukasiewicz; Kamila Puppel, Beata Kuczyńska, Maciej Kamaszewski, Jan Niemiec
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various doses of beta‐alanine administered in feed mixtures and of heat treatment on changes in the contents of dipeptides: anserine and carnosine, in meat of fast‐growing Hubbard Flex chickens. Results The study demonstrated a significant effect of dietary administration of beta‐alanine on anserine content in breast muscles and on carnosine content in leg muscles of the chickens. The successive increase of dipeptide content was observed as affected by beta‐alanine content in the feed mixture. As a result of heat treatment, a significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase was observed in the anserine content of both breast and leg muscles – over twofold higher anserine content was determined in the heat‐treated muscles compared to the raw muscles. The study detected that interesting effects might occur during beta‐alanine administration to feed mixtures for chickens, especially including increased contents of anserine and carnosine in skeletal muscles of the birds. Conclusions Taking into account the well‐documented health‐promoting effect of histidine dipeptides and possibilities of increasing their contents in the body by supplementation with beta‐alanine, anserine and carnosine might be considered as potential components of functional food.
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T04:06:38.974955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6970
  • Effect of white wheat bread and white wheat bread added with bioactive
           compounds on hypercholesterolemic and steatotic mice fed a high fat diet
    • Authors: Luisa Pozzo; Laura Pucci, Guglielmo Buonamici, Lucia Giorgetti, Maristella Maltinti, Vincenzo Longo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The effects of white wheat bread and white wheat bread added with a mixture (Cyclantera pedata, Glycine max, Monascus‐fermented red mold rice, Cynaria scolymus and Medicago sativa) were examined on hypercholesterolemic and steatotic mice, divided into 4 groups: control diet (CTR), high fat diet (HFD), high fat diet with white wheat bread added with 1.5 g kg−1 of mixture (HFD+AB) and high fat diet with white wheat bread (HFD+B). Results The total serum cholesterol in the HFD+AB and HFD+B groups and the hepatic triglycerides in the HFD+AB group decreased compared to the HFD group. Liver histology confirmed a lower lipid drops accumulation in HFD+AB group compared to HFD and HFD+B groups. HFD+AB caused a 7.0‐ fold increase and a 3.5‐ fold reduction in the CYP7A1 and SREBP‐1c gene expression, respectively, compared to HFD group. Moreover, HFD+B group showed a 2.2‐, 8.4‐ and 1.5‐ fold increase in the HMG CoA reductase, CYP7A1 and LDLr gene expression compared to HFD group. Conclusions The white wheat bread and added white wheat bread induced a cholesterol reduction by increasing CYP7A1. Moreover, the added white wheat bread improved steatosis decreasing SREBP‐1c gene expression.
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T01:09:51.233239-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6972
  • Carnosic acid attenuates obesity‐induced glucose tolerance and
           hepatic fat accumulation by modulating genes of lipid metabolism in
           C57BL/6J‐ob/ob mice
    • Authors: Mi‐Young Park; Mi‐Kyung Sung
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Carnosic acid (CA), a major bioactive component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves, is known to possess antioxidative and anti‐adipogenic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that CA would ameliorate obesity‐induced glucose tolerance and hepatic fat accumulation, and possible mechanisms are suggested. RESULTS: We observed that 0.02% CA diet effectively decreased body weight, liver weight, and blood triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol levels (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T01:08:23.779999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6973
  • Impact assessment of mechanical harvest on fruit physiology and
           consequences on oil physicochemical and sensorial quality from
           ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ and ‘Manzanilla
           Cacereña’ super‐high density hedgerows. A preliminary
    • Authors: Ana Morales‐Sillero; José M, García
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Super‐intensive cultivation facilitates olive mechanized harvesting, determining a substantial savings in the production cost of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, the number of varieties adapted to this type of cultivation is reduced. This paper explores the impact that harvest with grape straddle harvester of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' olives, grown in a super‐intensive cultivation, has on the physiology of the fruit and the quality of the oil, subsequently extracted. Results In both cultivars, the fruits mechanically harvested presented higher respiration and ethylene production and a lower firmness than the ones harvested by hand. Their oils exhibited lower phenol contents, oxidative stability and lower presence of positive sensory attributes. However, in these oils the values of parameters used to assess the level of quality of the VOO were kept within the limits required for the best commercial category. Conclusion Mechanical harvesting of ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ and ‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ super‐high density hedgerows induced physiological alterations in the fruits and a reduction in the contents of natural antioxidants and flavour components in the oils, although it did not determine a loss of the “Extra” level of quality
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T00:59:30.595988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6971
  • Combined Effect Of High Hydrostatic Pressure And Mild Heat Treatments On
           The Pectin Methylesterase (Pme) Inactivation In Comminuted Orange
    • Authors: Viridiana Tejada‐Ortigoza; Zamantha Escobedo‐Avellaneda, Aurora Valdez‐Fragoso, Hugo Mújica‐Paz, Jorge Welti‐Chanes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Comminuted orange, a product obtained by grinding the juice and peel and used to formulate beverages, has a high pectin methylesterase (PME) activity, thus the inactivation of this enzyme is necessary to avoids quality losses related with the cloud losses. The use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and mild temperature allows inactivate enzymes with minimal quality changes. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of pressure, mild temperature and time of treatment, included come‐up and holding time, on the inactivation of PME in comminuted orange, and to apply kinetic and response surface models (RSM) to predict residual PME activity (A/A0). Results During come‐up time (CUT) in treatments at 68 °C, the higher the pressure, the lower the A/A0 obtained. At 550 MPa/68°C/10 min the lowest residual activity value was obtained (15.6%). A/A0 was well adjusted to the RSM, and a first order kinetic model was applied to describe the inactivation of PME. In general the higher the pressure, the lower the A/A0 reached, as the increasing values of k from 3.5x10−2 to 55.5x10−2 min−1 indicated. Activation volume (Va) values ranging from −9.2 to −17.7 cm3/mol, and activation energies (Ea) between 50.0 and 68.2 kJ/mol were calculated. Conclusion 550 MPa/68°C/10 min, 350 MPa/68°C/10 min and 450 MPa/56°C/10 min treatments were satisfactory (≈84% inactivation) to inactivate PME. A first order kinetic model was applied to describe PME inactivation, and the resulted A/A0 adjusted to the RSM. In addition, linearized Arrhenius and Eyring equations were well fitted in order to obtain Ea and Va, respectively.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27T01:37:21.335809-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6969
  • Bioactives in cactus (Opuntia ficus‐indica) stems possess potent
           antioxidants and pro‐apoptotic activities through COX‐2
    • Authors: Jinhee Kim; Soon Yil Soh, Juha Shin, Chi‐Woung Cho, Young Hee Choi, Sang‐Yong Nam
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Bioactives extracted from cactus (Opuntia ficus‐indica) stems were investigated for their chemopreventive activities using human cancer cells in vitro. The bioactives present in crude extracts were detected and quantified using high‐performance liquid chromatography. Results Among all the extracts, such as hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20), the MeOH extract had the highest amount of polyphenolic compounds and the acetone extract exhibited the most potent effect at scavenging the 2,2,‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′‐azino‐di‐(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline)‐6‐sulfonicacid (ABTS·+) radical. In addition, most of the extracts, with the exception of hexane, exhibited significant cytotoxicity in human SW480 colon and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Overall, the SW480 cells were more sensitive than the MCF7 cells to the cytotoxic effect of the O. ficus‐indica extracts (OFEs). Cell death by OFE treatment caused significant inhibition of cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) and increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in both SW480 and MCF7 cell lines. However, degradation of poly (ADP‐ribose) polymerase (PARP) was significantly increased by OFE only in the MCF7 cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the health‐benefit roles, including anti‐oxidative and anti‐proliferative activities as well as pro‐apoptotic effects, of bioactive compounds in OFEs, suggesting a chemopreventive role in human cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2014-10-24T05:43:30.203758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6968
  • Effect of superfine grinding on the physicochemical, morphological and
           thermogravimetric properties of Lentinus edodes mushroom powders
    • Authors: Jian Ming; Long Chen, Hui Hong, Jinlong Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Lentinus edodes is an edible mushroom commonly known as shiitake, which is the second most produced and consumed edible mushroom in the world and is an important nutrient source in the human diet. To fully use L. edodes, the mushrooms are occasionally ground into powder as a flavorful and functional food additive. This study produces powders from the cap and stipe of Lentinus edodes mushrooms through superfine grinding. These powders are composed of submicron range particles with various size distributions. The superfine grinding process is then compared with shear pulverization to determine the different effects on both the cap and stipe powders in terms of particle size and physicochemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties. Results showed that when average particle size was reduced to 0.54 and 0.46 µm respectively, the moisture and protein content, angles of repose and slide, and water holding capacity of the powders decreased in varied extents. However, soluble dietary fiber, water solubility index, and swelling capacity increased. Scanning electron microscope images suggested that the superfine grinding process effectively changed the original surface structure of the L. edodes powders. The curves of thermogravimetric analysis and those of the derivatives of thermogravimetry indicated that superfine grinding can improve the thermostability of L. edodes powders. Furthermore, superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be used as pharmaceutical or food additives in various fields. The present study suggests that superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be applied in various fields as pharmaceutical or food additives.
      PubDate: 2014-10-24T02:13:28.335995-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6967
  • Resistant Starch in Food: A Review
    • Authors: Pinky Raigond; Rajarathnam Ezekiel, Baswaraj Raigond
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The nutritional property of starch is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. For nutritional purposes, starch is classifi ed as rapidly available, slowly available and resistant starch (RS). The exact underlying mechanism of relative resistance of starch granules is complicated because those factors are often interconnected. The content of RS in food is highly influenced by food preparation manner and processing techniques. Physical or chemical treatments also alter the level of RS in a food. Commercial preparations of RS are now available and can be added to foods as ingredient for lowering caloric value and improving textural and organoleptic characteristics along with increasing the amount of dietary fiber. RS has assumed great importance due to its unique functional properties and health benefits. The beneficial effects of RS include glycemic control, control of fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and absorption of minerals. This review attempts to analyse the information published, especially in the recent past on classification, structure, properties, applications and health benefits of RS.
      PubDate: 2014-10-21T03:14:29.881622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6966
  • Identification and determination of 3‐deoxyglucosone and glucosone
           in carbohydrate‐rich foods
    • Authors: Ana I. Ruiz‐Matute; Lucía Castro Vazquez, Oswaldo Hernández‐Hernández, María L. Sanz, Isabel Martínez‐Castro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background α‐Dicarbonyl compounds (α‐DCs) such as 3‐deoxyglucosone (3‐DG) and glucosone are markers of both the Maillard and degradation reactions of sugars, and of certain enzymatic processes. However, quantitation of these compounds is not straightforward when more abundant carbohydrates are present in real samples. Therefore, in this work, a GC‐MS method was developed to separate monosaccharides, 3‐DG, glucosone and applied to analyze them in carbohydrate rich food products. Difructose anhydrides (DFAs), known markers of sugar degradation, were also determined. Effect of time and temperature in the production and storage of these compounds was also evaluated. Results Under optimized conditions, good separation between monosaccharides and α‐DCs was achieved. Must syrups showed the highest concentrations of 3‐DG and glucosone (average values 9.2 and 5.8 mg g−1, respectively). Coffee substitutes based on carob, chicory and blends showed the highest content of DFAs. Heating and storage assays proved that production of 3‐DG was influenced by temperature, while the glucosone was more affected by the storage time. Conclusions The proposed method allows a rapid quantitation of 3‐DG and glucosone, along with carbohydrates and DFAs, in different food products, which is essential to determine their degradation level. Moreover, α‐DC content in several foods is reported for the first time.
      PubDate: 2014-10-21T03:14:16.385252-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6965
  • Biological and nutritional properties of black currant berries (Ribes
           nigrum L.) under conditions of shading nets
    • Authors: Boban Djordjevic; Katarina Šavikin, Dejan Djurovic, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulič‐Petkovšek, Gordana Zdunić, Todor Vulic
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Changes of environmental factors, created under influence of various shading nets, could significantly affect the biological characteristics of plants grown in such conditions as well as biosynthesis of primary metabolites and ascorbic acid. Five black currant cultivars 'Ben sarek', 'Ben nevis', 'Ben lomond', 'Ometa', and 'Čačanska crna' were cultivated in the shade of two green polyethylene nets and exposed to direct sunlight during two experimental seasons. Results In the control treatment, all cultivars contained the highest amounts of soluble solid content and number of flower buds per shoots in both years of cultivation. The bushes exposed to direct sunlight had the highest sunburn damage of the berries and leaves, and loss of yield. The greatest yield loss caused by berries damage in present study during experimental period had cultivar ‘Ben sarek’, in 2010 year 9.0% and 15.4% in 2011. Growing in shade of light green net contributed the highest content of ascorbic acid. Control bushes and bushes in the shade of light green net had significant higher radical scavenging activity with values between 1.15 to 1.22 mg/ml. Conclusion Plants in shade of nets in both years of cultivation had lower damage of leaves and berries and percentage of loss yield, and the usage of the net economically advantageous for the growers. Fruit of black currant cultivars grown in shading conditions still represent a good source of valuable nutritive and biologically active compounds.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17T03:56:36.285974-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6962
  • A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds
           and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars
    • Authors: Yu Young Lee; Hyang Mi Park, Tae Young Hwang, Sun Lim Kim, Mi Jung Kim, Seuk Ki Lee, Min Jung Seo, Kee Jong Kim, Young‐Up Kwon, Sang Chul Lee, Yul Ho Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Tocopherols are most important lipid‐soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients. There is an increasing interest in the biofortification of crops with vitamin E for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. However, relatively little is known about the development of soybean cultivar with high levels of tocopherol through combined breeding. Result Tocopherol contents of the seeds and germinating seeds of 28 Korean soybean cultivars were analyzed and evaluated their activities for health‐promoting effects. Total tocopherol concentrations ranged from 203.9 µg g−1 to 503.1 µg g−1 in seeds and from 20.1 µg g−1 to 230.1 µg g−1 in germinating seeds. The traditional landraces of HaNagari (HN, 503.1 µg g−1), Orialtae (OL, 486.6 µg g−1), SuMoktae (SM, 476.5 µg g−1), and SoRitae (SR, 475.5 µg g−1) showed high levels of tocopherol content. The contents of the four isomers of tocopherol in seeds and germinating seeds were correlated with the lipid peroxidation. The γ‐ and δ‐tocopherol contents in seeds were related to DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.434; p < 0.01 and 0.373; p < 0.05). Conclusion Total tocopherol content was higher in soybean landraces as compared with modern cultivars developed by cross‐breeding. These results suggested that soybean breeding is necessary to increase tocopherol levels.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17T03:50:38.431624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6963
  • Antioxidant activity and essential oil composition of Satureja hortensis
           L. as influenced by sulfur fertilizer
    • Authors: Sharareh Najafian; Maryam Zahedifar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The quantity/quality of essential‐oils in plants is influenced by different factor such as genetic‐causes, agricultural‐practices and environmental‐conditions like nutrient‐availability. Macronutrients e.g. sulfur (S) are one of the great factors that influence the plant growth/development. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of S‐fertilization on the essential‐oil composition and antioxidant‐activity of Satureja hortensis L. Results Application of 0.05 g S kg−1 soil increased the amount of α‐terpinene, p‐cymene, myrcene, α‐thujene and α‐pinene but decreased γ‐terpinene. Application of 0.05 g S kg−1 soil was the most suitable for higher percentage of α‐terpinene, p‐cymene, myrcene, α‐thujene and α‐pinene, whereas application of 0.1 g S kg−1 soil was preferable for carvacrol. The γ‐terpinene was mainly produced in control. Considerable amounts of inhibitory‐effects observed from 0.720 g L−1 in control to 0.363 g L−1 with application of 0.1 g S kg−1 soil. Maximum antioxidant effect was observed with application of 0.1 g S kg−1 soil. Conclusion Results revealed that addition of chemical‐fertilizers such as S could improve the antioxidant‐activity of plant extract, significantly. Storage of secondary‐plant‐metabolite mainly essential‐oil, is an interesting research area, therefore, further studies is recommended to determine the effect of chemical‐fertilizers on essential‐oil‐composition and antioxidant‐activity of other aromatic‐plants.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T03:05:51.899326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6959
  • Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky
    • Authors: Paulina Wiśniewska; Tomasz Dymerski, Waldemar Wardencki, Jacek Namieśnik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit‐based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least three years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually cause a potential risk of an adulteration. Regarding to that fact the authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authenticity of whisky is based on the comparison of composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. This paper summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The work also presents the various analytical techniques for analyzing whisky such as: gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV–vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods there are also described, namely: PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k‐NN, CA, and preparation techniques such SPME or SPE.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T02:26:09.337624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6960
  • Evaluation of volatile aldehydes as discriminating parameters in quality
           vinegars with protected European geographical indication
    • Authors: Enrique Durán‐Guerrero; Fabio Chinnici, Nadia Natali, Claudio Riponi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Thirty six high quality vinegars with geographical indication belonging to Sherry and Modena areas (vinegars of Jerez, balsamic vinegars of Modena and traditional balsamic vinegars of Modena) with all possible aging periods were analysed to determine the content of volatile aldehydes. A solid‐phase extraction method with in‐cartridge derivatization using O‐(2,3,4,5,6‐pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine followed by GC‐MS was employed. Results Twenty two volatile aldehydes were identified and determined in the samples. Analysis of variance provided significant differences among the samples as a function of the type of vinegar, aging time and raw material. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis demonstrated the possibility of discriminating the samples in terms of aging time and raw material. Linear aldehydes and compounds like furfural, methional, nonenal, hexenal, 2‐methylbutanal and i‐butyraldehyde were the most significant variables able to discriminate the samples. Conclusion Aldehydes content of premium quality vinegars is a function of both ageing time and raw material. Their evaluation could be a useful tool in view to ascertain vinegar origin and genuinity.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T01:20:42.110288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6958
  • Effects of koji‐making with mixed strains on physicochemical and
           sensory properties of Chinese‐type soy sauce
    • Authors: Zhi‐Yao Chen; Yun‐Zi Feng, Chun Cui, Hai‐Feng Zhao, Mou‐Ming Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Two kinds of soy sauces were prepared with A. oryzae koji (SSAO) and mixed koji (SSAOM, A. oryzae mouldstarter: Monascus purpureus mouldstarter = 1:2, w/w) respectively. The effects of mixed koji on the essential indices, oxygen radical absorption capacity, color indices, free amino acids and volatile compounds of soy sauce have been studied, followed by a sensory evaluation between SSAO and SSAOM. Results The contents of non‐salt soluble solid, reducing sugar, total acid, total nitrogen and amino nitrogen in SSAOM increased by 21.50%, 9.88%, 15.35%, 5.98% and 41.43%, respectively, compared with the control SSAO, due to the higher activities of acid protease and glucoamylase in the mixed koji. Moreover, SSAOM showed higher antioxidant activity, higher levels of free amino acids, and much more attractive color. Meanwhile, the flavor groups like esters, aldehydes, pyrazines and sulphur‐containing compounds in SSAOM were also improved. The contents of free amino acids and aroma compounds were consistent with the sensory evaluation. According to descriptive sensory analysis, SSAOM showed higher intensity for sweet and umami attributes, in addition, higher flowery, burnt, fruity and cameral‐like attributes were perceived in SSAOM, while SSAO showed higher ethanolic and sour attributes. Conclusions The investigated soy sauce prepared with mixed koji can be considered as an effective method to accelerate the fermentation process, and improve the flavor of soy sauce.
      PubDate: 2014-10-14T00:41:38.226531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6952
  • Characteristic of β‐glucosidase from oranges during maturation
           and its relationship with the changes of bound volatile compounds
    • Authors: Jing‐Nan Ren; Zi‐Yu Yang, Ya‐Nan Tai, Man Dong, Mang‐Mang He, Gang Fan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The hydrolysis of glycosidically bound volatile compounds can release the potential aromas in oranges during maturation. β‐Glucosidase is the key enzyme that influences the hydrolysis of bound volatiles. In this study, the changes of β‐glucosidase and bound volatile compounds in oranges during maturation were investigated. The relationship between β‐glucosidase activity and bound volatiles in oranges during maturation was analyzed. Results The optimum temperature and pH value of β‐glucosidase from Jincheng oranges were 40 °C and pH 5–6. The Km and Vmax values of β‐glucosidase were 0.61 mM and 0.009 U/mg, respectively. The activity of β‐glucosidase was strongly inhibited by Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Ag+, Hg2+ and Fe3+. The β‐glucosidase activity in pulp increased gradually during maturation, while it increased in peel and then decreased in November. Totally 12 and 14 bound volatiles were found in pulp and peel of this orange during maturation. Conclusion The concentration of bound volatiles in pulp and peel decreased with the rise of the glucosidase activity in pulp and peel during maturation, respectively. And this indicated that the bound volatiles in oranges released during maturation due to the increase of its β‐glucosidase.
      PubDate: 2014-10-13T04:42:08.278445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6956
  • Quality Changes of Fresh‐Cut Pomegranate Arils During Shelf Life as
           Affected by Deficit Irrigation and Postharvest Vapour Treatments
    • Authors: María E. Peña‐Estévez; Perla A. Gómez, Francisco Artés, Encarna Aguayo, Ginés Benito Martínez‐Hernández, Mariano Otón, Alejandro Galindo, Francisco Artés‐Hernández
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The effect of two sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) strategies, compared to a control, on postharvest physicochemical, microbial, sensory quality attributes and anthocyanins content of fresh‐cut pomegranates arils throughout 18 days at 5 °C was studied. Furthermore, the effect of vapour treatments (4 s, 7 s and 10s) compared to a conventional sanitizing treatment with NaClO on such quality parameters in combination with the preharvest treatments was also studied. Results According to sensory analyses, the shelf life of arils from control and SDI irrigated fruit was established in 14 and 18 days at 5 °C, respectively, showing 4 and 7 s vapour treatment time the best sensory quality. No significant change was observed in physicochemical quality attributes, across all treatments during storage while low microbial loads were registered (
      PubDate: 2014-10-13T04:02:09.305779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6954
  • Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of
           mares’ colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin
           C content in mares’ milk.
    • Authors: Maria Markiewicz‐Kęszycka; Grażyna Czyżak‐Runowska, Jacek Wójtowski, Artur Jóźwik, Radosław Pankiewicz, Bogusława Łęska, Józef Krzyżewski, Nina Strzałkowska, Joanna Marchewka, Emilia Bagnicka
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mares’ milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physico‐chemical parameters of mares’ colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares’ milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. Results The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physico‐chemical parameters of mares’ milk. In the successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares’ milk was characterized by low somatic cells count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6‐month storage of lyophilised milk. Conclusion In general, the results confirmed that mares’ milk is a raw material with unique chemical composition different to that produced by other farm animals.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T00:16:39.793997-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6947
  • Quick Method (FT‐NIR) for the Determination of Oil and Major Fatty
           Acids Content in Whole Achenes of Milk Thistle [Silybum marianum (L.)
    • Authors: Pavla Koláčková; Gabriela Růžičková, Tomáš Gregor, Eliška Šišperová
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Calibration models for the FT‐NIR instrument were developed for quick and non‐destructive determination of oil and fatty acids in whole achenes of milk thistle. Samples with a range of oil and fatty acid levels were collected and their transmitance spectra were obtained by the FT‐NIR instrument. Based on these spectra and data gained by the means of reference method – Soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography (GC) – calibration models were created by means of partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Results Precision and accuracy of the calibration models was verified via the cross validation of validation samples whose spectra were not part of the calibration model and also according to the Root‐Mean‐Square error of prediction (RMSEP), Root‐Mean‐Square error of calibration (RMSEC), Root‐Mean‐Square Error of Cross‐Validation (RMSECV) and the validation coefficient of determination (R2). R2 for the whole seeds were 0.96, 0.96, 0.83 and 0.67 and the RMSEP were 0.76, 1.68, 1.24, 0.54 for oil, linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) acids, resp. Conclusion The calibration models are appropriate for the non‐destructive determination of oil and fatty acids levels in whole seeds of milk thistle.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T23:52:36.830312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6945
  • Enhancing crop yield with the use of N‐based fertilizers
           co‐applied with plant hormones or growth regulators
    • Authors: Mohammad Zaman; Leonid V. Kurepin, Warwick Catto, Richard P. Pharis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Crop yield, vegetative or reproductive, depends on access to an adequate supply of essential mineral nutrients. At the same time, a crop plant's growth and development, and thus yield, also depends on in situ production of plant hormones. Thus, optimizing mineral nutrition and providing supplemental hormones are two mechanisms for gaining appreciable yield increases. Optimizing the mineral nutrient supply is a common and accepted agricultural practice, but the co‐application of nitrogen‐based fertilizers with plant hormones or plant growth regulators is relatively uncommon. Our review discusses possible uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and specific growth regulators (glycine betaine and polyamines) to enhance and optimize crop yield when co‐applied with nitrogen‐based fertilizers. We conclude that use of growth‐active gibberellins, together with a nitrogen‐based fertilizer, can result in appreciable and significant additive increases in shoot dry biomass of crops, including forage crops growing under low temperature conditions. There may also be a potential for use of an auxin or cytokinin, together with a nitrogen‐based fertilizer, for obtaining additive increases in dry shoot biomass and/or reproductive yield. Further research, though, is needed to determine the potential of co‐application of nitrogen‐based fertilizers with abscisic acid, ethylene and other growth regulators.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30T02:25:41.679421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6938
  • Selecting desirable micronutrient fortificants for plant‐based
           complementary foods for infants and young children in low‐income
    • Authors: Rosalind S Gibson; Alicia Carriquiry, Michelle M Gibbs
      Pages: 221 - 224
      Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that both breast‐fed and non‐breast‐fed children are fed micronutrient fortified complementary foods designed to meet their high nutrient requirements from aged 6 to 23 months of age. This paper summarises the steps recommended by WHO/FAO to identify the country‐specific micronutrient shortfalls in complementary diets and establish desirable levels of bioavailable fortificants for centrally processed plant‐based complementary foods for infant and young child feeding. The goal of the WHO/FAO guidelines is to achieve a desirably low prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in the target group whilst simultaneously ensuring minimal risk of excessive intakes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-21T03:28:32.402632-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6701
  • Effects of processing sorghum and millets on their phenolic phytochemicals
           and the implications of this to the health‐enhancing properties of
           sorghum and millet food and beverage products
    • Authors: John RN Taylor; Kwaku G Duodu
      Pages: 225 - 237
      Abstract: Sorghum and millet grains are generally rich in phytochemicals, particularly various types of phenolics. However, the types and amounts vary greatly between and within species. The food‐processing operations applied to these grains, i.e. dehulling and decortication, malting, fermentation and thermal processing, dramatically affect the quantity of phenolics present, most generally reducing them. Thus the levels of phytochemicals in sorghum and millet foods and beverages are usually considerably lower than in the grains. Notwithstanding this, there is considerable evidence that sorghum and millet foods and beverages have important functional and health‐promoting effects, specifically antidiabetic, cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention, due to the actions of these phytochemicals. Also their lactic acid bacteria‐fermented products may have probiotic effects related to their unique microflora. However, direct proof of these health‐enhancing effects is lacking as most studies have been carried out on the grains or grain extracts and not the food and beverage products themselves, and also most research work has been in vitro or ex vivo and not in vivo. To provide the required evidence, better designed studies are needed. The sorghum and millet products should be fully characterised, especially their phytochemical composition. Most importantly, well‐controlled human clinical studies and intervention trials are required. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T08:40:50.16866-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6713
  • Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and
           milk quality
    • Authors: Nazir A Khan; Peiqiang Yu, Mubarak Ali, John W Cone, Wouter H Hendriks
      Pages: 238 - 252
      Abstract: Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM) < 250 g kg−1) were particularly low in starch content and starch/neutral detergent fibre (NDF) ratio, and resulted in a lower DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein content. The DMI, milk yield and milk protein content increased with advancing maturity, reaching an optimum level for maize silages ensiled at DM contents of 300–350 g kg−1, and then declined slightly at further maturity beyond 350 g kg−1. The increases in milk (R2 = 0.599) and protein (R2 = 0.605) yields with maturity of maize silages were positively related to the increase in starch/NDF ratio of the maize silages. On average, the inclusion of maize silage in grass silage‐based diets improved the forage DMI by 2 kg d−1, milk yield by 1.9 kg d−1 and milk protein content by 1.2 g kg−1. Further comparisons showed that, in terms of milk and milk constituent yields, the optimum grass/maize silage ratio depends on the quality of both the grass and maize silages. Replacement of grass silage with maize silage in the ration, as well as an increasing maturity of the maize silages, altered the milk FA profile of the dairy cows, notably, the concentration of the cis‐unsaturated FAs, C18:3n‐3 and n‐3/n‐6 ratio decreased in milk fat. Despite variation in nutritive value, maize silage is rich in metabolizable energy and supports higher DMI and milk yield. Harvesting maize silages at a DM content between 300 and 350 g kg−1 and feeding in combination with grass silage results in a higher milk yield of dairy cows. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T08:30:44.258547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6703
  • Development and application of a quantitative loop‐mediated
           isothermal amplification method for detecting genetically modified maize
    • Authors: Sicong Huang; Yuancong Xu, Xinghua Yan, Ying Shang, Pengyu Zhu, Wenying Tian, Wentao Xu
      Pages: 253 - 259
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A SYBR Green I‐based quantitative loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid detection of genetically modified maize MON863. A set of primers was designed based on the integration region of the Cry3Bb1 and tahsp17 genes. RESULTS The qualitative and quantitative reaction conditions (dNTPs, betaine, primers, Mg2+, Bst polymerase, temperature, reaction time) were optimized. The concentrations of Mg2+ and betaine were found to be important to the LAMP assay. The detection limits of both qualitative and quantitative LAMP for MON863 were as low as 4 haploid genomic DNA, and the LAMP reactions can be completed within 1 h at an isothermal temperature of 65 °C. CONCLUSION The results of this study demonstrate that this new SYBR Green I‐based quantitative LAMP assay system is reliable, sensitive and accurate. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T08:43:09.02169-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6707
  • Susceptibility of nine organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk towards
           inoculated lactic acid bacteria and yogurt starters
    • Authors: Xin‐Wei Zhou; Xin‐Huai Zhao
      Pages: 260 - 266
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous research has shown that fresh milk might be polluted by some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). In this study the dissipation of nine OPPs, namely chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos‐methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, phorate, pirimiphos‐methyl and trichlorphon, in skimmed milk was investigated to clarify their susceptibility towards lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yogurt starters. RESULTS Skimmed milk was spiked with nine OPPs, inoculated with five strains of LAB and two commercial yogurt starters at 42 °C for 24 and 5 h respectively and subjected to quantitative OPP analysis by gas chromatography. Degradation kinetic constants of these OPPs were calculated based on a first‐order reaction model. OPP dissipation in the milk was enhanced by the inoculated strains and starters, resulting in OPP concentrations decreasing by 7.0–64.6 and 7.4–19.2% respectively. Totally, the nine OPPs were more susceptible to Lactobacillus bulgaricus, as it enhanced their degradation rate constants by 18.3–133.3%. Higher phosphatase production of the assayed stains was observed to bring about greater OPP degradation in the milk. CONCLUSION Both LAB and yogurt starters could enhance OPP dissipation in skimmed milk, with the nine OPPs studied having different susceptibilities towards them. Phosphatase was a key factor governing OPP dissipation. The LAB of higher phosphatase production have more potential to decrease OPPs in fermented foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-21T03:50:23.642962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6710
  • Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation
           concentrate of Hericium caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on fat
           deposition in broilers
    • Authors: Hong Mei Shang; Hui Song, Si Jie Shen, Xu Yao, Bo Wu, Li Na Wang, Yun Yao Jiang, Guo Dong Ding
      Pages: 267 - 274
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid‐lowering effect of polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFCP) in broilers. A total of 480 female Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, each consisting of six pens as replicates, and fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3 or 5 g kg−1 HFCP. RESULTS The results revealed that the average daily gain of broilers increased (linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01) when the HFCP levels increased. The serum cholesterol, triglyceride and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (Q, P < 0.05) while the high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased (Q, P < 0.05) when the HFCP levels increased. The caecum Escherichia coli count and pH decreased (Q, P < 0.01) while the lactobacilli count and bifidobacteria count increased (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.05) when the HFCP levels increased. The propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations increased (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) while the abdominal fat rate and liver fat content decreased (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.05) when the HFCP levels increased. CONCLUSION Dietary supplementation with HFCP may lead to the development of low abdominal fat of broilers as demanded by health‐conscious consumers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T09:03:30.671536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6711
  • pH shift protein recovery with organic acids on texture and color of
           cooked gels
    • Authors: Ilgin Paker; Sarah Beamer, Jacek Jaczynski, Kristen E Matak
      Pages: 275 - 280
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) processing uses pH shifts to separate protein from fish frames, which may increase commercial interest for silver carp. Texture and color properties of gels made from silver carp protein recovered at different pH strategies and organic acid types were compared. ISP was applied to headed gutted silver carp using 10 mol L−1 sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and either glacial acetic acid (AA) or a (1:1) formic and lactic acid combination (F&L). Protein gels were made with recovered protein and standard functional additives. RESULTS Texture profile analysis and the Kramer shear test showed that protein gels made from protein solubilized at basic pH values were firmer, harder, more cohesive, gummier and chewier (P < 0.05) than proteins solubilized under acidic conditions. Acidic solubilization led to whiter (P < 0.05) gels, and using F&L during ISP yielded whiter gels under all treatments (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Gels made from ISP‐recovered silver carp protein using organic acids show potential for use as a functional ingredient in restructured foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-06T03:34:46.191368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6712
  • Recycling slaughterhouse waste into fertilizer: how do pyrolysis
           temperature and biomass additions affect phosphorus availability and
    • Authors: Marie J Zwetsloot; Johannes Lehmann, Dawit Solomon
      Pages: 281 - 288
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pyrolysis of slaughterhouse waste could promote more sustainable phosphorus (P) usage through the development of alternative P fertilizers. This study investigated how pyrolysis temperature (220, 350, 550 and 750 °C), rendering before pyrolysis, and wood or corn biomass additions affect P chemistry in bone char, plant availability, and its potential as P fertilizer. RESULTS Linear combination fitting of synchrotron‐based X‐ray absorption near edge structure spectra demonstrated that higher pyrolysis temperatures decreased the fit with organic P references, but increased the fit with a hydroxyapatite (HA) reference, used as an indicator of high calcium phosphate (CaP) crystallinity. The fit to the HA reference increased from 0% to 69% in bone with meat residue and from 20% to 95% in rendered bone. Biomass additions to the bone with meat residue reduced the fit to the HA reference by 83% for wood and 95% for corn, and additions to rendered bone by 37% for wood. No detectable aromatic P forms were generated by pyrolysis. High CaP crystallinity was correlated with low water‐extractable P, but high formic acid‐extractable P indicative of high plant availability. Bone char supplied available P which was only 24% lower than Triple Superphosphate fertilizer and two‐ to five‐fold higher than rock phosphate. CONCLUSION Pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions can be used to design P fertilizer characteristics of bone char through changing CaP crystallinity that optimize P availability to plants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-10T10:34:20.497187-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6716
  • Protein gels and emulsions from mixtures of Cape hake and pea proteins
    • Authors: Ana Sofia Tomé; Carla Pires, Irineu Batista, Isabel Sousa, Anabela Raymundo
      Pages: 289 - 298
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Portioning of frozen fish generates by‐products such as fish ‘sawdust’ and cut‐offs which can be further processed into protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of the present work was to produce gels and emulsions using recovered Cape hake protein powder (HPP). In previous works, the structures of the gels produced by HPP were found to be strong, with a high rubbery character. In this work, the addition of commercial pea proteins (PPC) to HPP gels and emulsions was studied. RESULTS Physical properties of gels and emulsions prepared with different proportions of mixtures of PPC and HPP were evaluated. In general, gels and emulsions showed high values for whiteness and, as expected, the higher content of HPP in the protein mixtures led to higher firmness values of the gels. The gel network was rapidly formed upon heating due to the fish protein macromolecules and further reinforced by the pea protein macromolecules when cooled to 5 °C. Both visco‐elastic parameters, storage and loss moduli, of the produced gels increased with the HPP proportion in the protein mixtures, corresponding to more structured systems. For the emulsions, two different pH environments were studied: 3.8 and 7.0. At neutral pH a synergy was found between the vegetable and fish protein, which is not so strong when pH is lowered to 3.8, near the isoelectric point of pea proteins (pI = 4.5). This evidence was supported by the results from the texture measurements, viscosity and visco‐elastic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Gels made from Cape hake proteins showed a softer texture and were less rubbery with the addition of pea proteins. Emulsions stabilised by these mixtures showed slightly different behaviour when produced at pH 7.0 or pH 3.8. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T09:05:20.480728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6717
  • Comparison of techniques for the isolation of volatiles from cashew apple
    • Authors: Karina L Sampaio; Aline C T Biasoto, Maria Aparecida A P Da Silva
      Pages: 299 - 312
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the following techniques on the isolation of volatiles of importance for the aroma/flavor of fresh cashew apple juice: dynamic headspace analysis using PorapakQ® as trap, solvent extraction with and without further concentration of the isolate, and solid‐phase microextraction (fiber DVB/CAR/PDMS). RESULTS A total of 181 compounds were identified, from which 44 were esters, 20 terpenes, 19 alcohols, 17 hydrocarbons, 15 ketones, 14 aldehydes, among others. Sensory evaluation of the gas chromatography effluents revealed esters (n = 24) and terpenes (n = 10) as the most important aroma compounds. CONCLUSION The four techniques were efficient in isolating esters, a chemical class of high impact in the cashew aroma/flavor. However, the dynamic headspace methodology produced an isolate in which the analytes were in greater concentration, which facilitates their identification (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) and sensory evaluation in the chromatographic effluents. Solvent extraction (dichloromethane) without further concentration of the isolate was the most efficient methodology for the isolation of terpenes. Because these two techniques also isolated in greater concentration the volatiles from other chemical classes important to the cashew aroma, such as aldehydes and alcohols, they were considered the most advantageous for the study of cashew aroma/flavor. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T04:28:23.168747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6718
  • Optimization of extraction conditions and fatty acid characterization of
           Lactobacillus pentosus cell‐bound biosurfactant/bioemulsifier
    • Authors: Xanel Vecino; Letricia Barbosa‐Pereira, Rosa Devesa‐Rey, José M Cruz, Ana B Moldes
      Pages: 313 - 320
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There is currently much interest in the use of natural biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, mainly in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. However, there are no studies on the optimization of the extraction conditions of cell‐bound biosurfactants. In this work, a biosurfactant with emulsifier properties was extracted from Lactobacillus pentosus cells, under different extraction conditions, and characterized. RESULTS During extraction, the most influential independent variable, concerning the emulsifying capacity of biosurfactant, was the operation time, followed by temperature and salt concentration. Biosurfactant from L. pentosus was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the composition of fatty acids was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The hydrophobic chain of the biosurfactant from L. pentosus comprises 548 g kg−1 linoelaidic acid (C18:2), 221 g kg−1 oleic or elaidic acid (C18:1), 136 g kg−1 palmitic acid (C16) and 95 g kg−1 stearic acid (C18). In addition, emulsions of water and rosemary oil were stabilized with a biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus and compared with emulsions stabilized with polysorbate 20. CONCLUSION The optimum extraction conditions of biosurfactant were achieved at 45 °C at 120 min and using 9 g kg−1 of salt. In all the assays biosurfactant from L. pentosus yielded more stable emulsions and higher emulsion volumes than polysorbate 20. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T05:23:20.923253-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6720
  • Whole‐genome based validation of the adaptive properties of Indian
           origin probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463
    • Authors: Suja Senan; Jashbhai B Prajapati, Chaitanya G Joshi
      Pages: 321 - 328
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to mine the Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 genome for genetic determinants to validate its ability to adapt to gut transit stresses and translate functionality to the host. RESULTS In silico analysis of the 1 911 350 bp single chromosome of the strain predicted that it had excellent adaptive features like the multisubunit F0F1 ATPase, conjugated bile salt hyrolase, chaperones like hsp33, HtrA, GroEL, GroES, dnaK, grpE, starvation‐inducible proteins and heavy‐metal transporting ATPases. The genome revealed genes for adhesion and aggregation including exopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides sortase, elongation factor Tu, aggregation promoting proteins, fibronectin‐binding proteins, S‐layer and mucus‐binding proteins. We could identify genes conferring physiological benefits like immunostimulation, cholesterol reduction, antibacterial and folate production. Thus, through trait and gene matching, the study established that the strain possessed the genetic arsenal required to adapt to the gut milieu. The predictions of functional genes further validate the experimental evidences of adaptation and probiosis. CONCLUSION This study provides insight into the feasibility of applying probiogenomics to identify genes that could function as pre‐selection criteria for identification of potential probiotic strains. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T05:53:33.324967-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6721
  • Effect of heat treatment on the enzymatic stability of grass carp skin
           collagen and its ability to form fibrils in vitro
    • Authors: Huan Yang; Haibo Wang, Yan Zhao, Haiyin Wang, Hanjun Zhang
      Pages: 329 - 336
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The molecular configuration, molecular weight distribution and thermal transition enthalpy (ΔH) of grass carp skin (GCS) collagens after heat treatment under different conditions were measured using circular dichroism, gel filtration chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The enzymatic stability of collagen was evaluated using different enzymes, while the ability to form fibrils in vitro was assessed by morphological observation of collagen fibrils and turbidity testing. RESULTS The ΔH values, in‐solution molecular aggregation and the stability to enzymatic hydrolysis of GCS collagen decreased irreversibly and progressively with the duration of heat treatment at 33 °C, which was the onset endothermic temperature obtained from the DSC curve. A strong positive linear correlation between the enzymatic sensitivity of collagen and the degree of thermal denaturation was found. A decrease in fibril diameter and D‐periodicity length with denaturation could also be observed in the SEM and TEM images. CONCLUSION The onset endothermic temperature (To) rather than the denaturation temperature (Td) is the threshold temperature for configurational stability of GCS collagen in acidic solution, and the biological properties would obviously change if the collagen was heat treated at this temperature. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T09:03:27.274145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6724
  • Effect of methyl jasmonate on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant
           activity of blueberries during cold storage
    • Authors: Xiaojie Huang; Jing Li, Hongli Shang, Xin Meng
      Pages: 337 - 343
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of postharvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) fumigation on total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs), individual anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of blueberries stored at 1 °C for 28 days were evaluated. Prior to storage, the blueberries were fumigated with 0.05 mmol L−1 MeJA for 12 h. Control blueberries were subjected to the same conditions but were not exposed to MeJA. RESULTS MeJA treatment had no adverse effect on TSS and TA and inhibited the decrease in ascorbic acid during storage. MeJA treatment induced an enhancement in TPC on day 21; TPC decreased thereafter. Similarly, a significant increase in TMAs and individual anthocyanins was observed 21 days after MeJA treatment. TPC, TMAs and individual anthocyanins increased in control fruits on day 7 and decreased thereafter. Moreover, MeJA treatment maintained higher levels of antioxidant activity during the entire storage period. CONCLUSION These results suggest that cold storage enhances TPC, TMAs and individual anthocyanin content during short‐term storage. However, postharvest application of MeJA to blueberries enhances TPC, TMAs and individual anthocyanin content during long‐term storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-03T09:38:51.385359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6725
  • Assessing the immunomodulatory potential of
           high‐molecular‐weight extracts from mushrooms; an assay based
           on THP‐1 macrophages
    • Authors: Jan van de Velde; Ruud HP Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Debbie R van Raaij, Ioanna Stavrakaki, Anton SM Sonnenberg, Jaap Bakker, Arjen Schots
      Pages: 344 - 350
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Food is a potential source of immunomodulating compounds that may be used to steer immune responses towards a desired status such as reducing inflammatory disorders. However, to identify and characterize such bioactive compounds, biologically relevant and standardized assays are required. Macrophages play an important role in immunomodulation and are suited for developing cell‐based assays. An assay was developed based on macrophages, in a homogeneous differentiation state, using the human monocytic cell line THP‐1 previously used to assess immunomodulatory properties of low‐molecular‐weight allergens, hormones, dietary supplements and therapeutic drugs. RESULTS Zymosan and mushroom polysaccharide extracts lead to a heterogeneous differentiation state of THP‐1 monocytes, and these cells secrete low levels of cytokines upon stimulation. Differentiation into macrophages using a low concentration of phorbol 12‐myristate 13‐acetate improved responsiveness. Elevated levels of cytokines were secreted by cells in a homogenous differentiation state. In addition, it was determined that the assay performs best when using cells at a concentration of (2.5–5) × 105 cells mL−1. CONCLUSION An assay was developed suitable to distinguish the immunomodulatory properties of food compounds in a reproducible manner. It was evaluated using eight mushroom species by measuring the secretion of relevant cytokines TNF‐α, IL‐1β, IL‐6 and IL‐10. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-28T06:28:28.542321-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6726
  • Influence of antioxidant compounds, total sugars and genetic background on
           the chilling injury susceptibility of a non‐melting peach (Prunus
           persica (L.) Batsch) progeny
    • Authors: Walid Abidi; Celia M Cantín, Sergio Jiménez, Rosa Giménez, María Ángeles Moreno, Yolanda Gogorcena
      Pages: 351 - 358
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To identify genotypes with good organoleptic properties, antioxidant‐rich content and low susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), fruits from 130 peach cultivars were studied over three consecutive years. Pomological traits, l‐ascorbic acid, flavonoids, total phenolics, relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) and sugars were determined. Major symptoms of CI developed at 5 °C, such as leatheriness, flesh browning, bleeding and loss of flavor, were evaluated. RESULTS The population exhibited wide phenotypic variation in agronomic and biochemical traits. Six genotypes with high total phenolics, RAC, flavonoids and total sugars were selected. The progeny also showed variability for all evaluated CI symptoms, and 16 genotypes showed considerably lower susceptibility to CI. After 2 weeks of cold storage, leatheriness and bleeding were the main CI symptoms observed, whereas flesh browning was predominant after 4 weeks. CONCLUSION It was possible to find varieties with high phenolic concentration and relatively low or intermediate CI susceptibility (22, 33, 68, 80, 81, 96 and 120). However, the correlations observed between CI and phenolic contents highlight their potential influence on susceptibility to internal browning. This relationship should be considered in the current breeding programs to select cultivars with high bioactive compound contents, health‐enhancing properties and good postharvest performance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T08:11:19.733-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6727
  • DNA barcoding detected improper labelling and supersession of crab food
           served by restaurants in India
    • Authors: Vivek Rohidas Vartak; Rajendran Narasimmalu, Pavan Kumar Annam, Dhirendra P Singh, Wazir S Lakra
      Pages: 359 - 366
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Detection of improper labelling of raw and processed seafood is of global importance for reducing commercial fraud and enhancing food safety. Crabs are crustaceans with intricate morphological as well as genetic divergence among species and are popular as seafood in restaurants. Owing to the high number of crab species available, it can be difficult to identify those included in particular food dishes, thus increasing the chance of supersession. DNA barcoding is an advanced technology for detecting improper food labelling and has been used successfully to authenticate seafood. RESULTS This study identified 11 edible crab species from India by classical taxonomy and developed molecular barcodes with the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. These barcodes were used as reference barcodes for detecting any improper labelling of 50 restaurant crab samples. Neighbour‐joining tree analysis with COI barcodes showed distinct clusters of restaurant samples with respective reference species. The study demonstrated 100% improper labelling of restaurant samples to cover up acts of inferior crab supersession. CONCLUSION DNA barcoding successfully identified 11 edible crabs in accordance with classical taxonomy and discerned improper crab food labelling in restaurants of India. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-03T09:38:19.523967-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6728
  • Characterization of nitrogen and water status in oat leaves using optical
           sensing approach
    • Authors: Baoping Zhao; Bao‐Luo Ma, Yuegao Hu, Jinghui Liu
      Pages: 367 - 378
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Optical sensing is a potential tool to estimate plant N status, but soil water deficits may interefere with forming a clear relationship. A greenhouse study was conducted with oat plants treated with three water regimes and four N levels to determine whether optical sensing could be used to estimate leaf N and relative water content (RWC). RESULTS Leaf N was strongly correlated with reflectance at 550 nm and at around 705 nm, and N treatments caused a red‐edge peak shift to lower wavelength. The ratio of the first derivative reflectance at 741–696 nm (FDRE) was identified to be a good estimator of leaf N at jointing (R2 = 0.90) and heading (R2 = 0.86) stages across water treatments. Leaf N also had a stronger association with the red‐edge position (REP) at both stages (R2 = 0.83 and 0.78), or with the ratio R4 (R760/R550) at jointing (R2 = 0.88), than with chlorophyll meter (SPAD) readings. Under water stress, the predictive accuracy of leaf N increased with these reflectance indices, but decreased using SPAD readings. CONCLUSION The results indicate that specific reflectance indices of FDRE, REP and R4 may be used for a rapid and non‐destructive estimation of oat plant N status over a range of water regimes. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T09:12:51.902273-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6729
  • Rice fortification with zinc during parboiling may improve the adequacy of
           zinc intakes in Bangladesh
    • Authors: Christine Hotz; Khandaker A Kabir, Sharifa S Dipti, Joanne E Arsenault, Moniruzzaman Bipul
      Pages: 379 - 385
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Zinc deficiency is prevalent among children and women in Bangladesh and parboiled rice is the major staple food consumed. Parboiling offers an opportunity to increase the zinc and iron content of rice by adding fortificants to the soaking water. RESULTS Rice zinc content increased with increasing amounts of zinc sulfate added to the parboil soaking water. Addition of 1300 mg zinc L−1 increased raw polished rice zinc content from 16.6 to 44.9 mg kg−1 and from 12.6 to 32.9 mg kg−1 in the open and closed parboiling systems, equivalent to 170% and 161% increases, respectively. Retention of zinc after washing and cooking was 70–81% across all concentrations tested. Addition of iron–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and zinc sulfate together increased zinc, but not iron, content of polished rice. The simulated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was reduced by more than half among children and nearly two‐thirds among women if 50% of the population were to consume the 1300 mg zinc L−1 parboiled fortified rice. CONCLUSION Addition of zinc sulfate to soaking water during parboiling increases the zinc content of rice and, if found to be bioavailable, could substantially reduce the prevalence of inadequate zinc intake by children and women in Bangladesh. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T08:55:08.296072-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6730
  • Evalution of DNA extraction methods in order to monitor genetically
           modified materials in soy foodstuffs and feeds commercialised in Turkey by
           multiplex real‐time PCR
    • Authors: Aydin Turkec; Hande Kazan, Aykut Baykut, Stuart J Lucas
      Pages: 386 - 392
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Soybean is one of the most important biotech crops, widely used as an ingredient in both foodstuffs and feed. DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified (GM) materials in soya‐containing food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. RESULTS All extraction methods performed well for the majority of soya foods and feed products analysed. However, the most successful method varied between different products; the Foodproof, Genespin and the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) methods each produced the highest DNA yield and purity for different soya foodstuffs and feeds. Of the samples tested, 20% were positive for the presence of at least two GM elements (35S/NOS) while 11% contained an additional GM element (35S/NOS/FMV). Of the tested products, animal feeds showed a larger prevalence of GM material (50%) than the soya‐containing foodstuffs (13%). CONCLUSION The best performing extraction methods proved to be the Foodproof, Genespin and CTAB methods for soya‐containing food and feed products. The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM soybean in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of soy‐containing food and feed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-03T05:15:57.687697-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6731
  • Development of a point‐of‐use fortification technology for
           delivery of micronutrients in Honduras
    • Authors: Juan E Andrade; Eliana Rosales, Julio R Lopez, E Paola Carrillo, Nicki J Engeseth, William G Helferich
      Pages: 393 - 400
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Micronutrient deficiencies continue to afflict children rural populations around the world. A micronutrient delivery vehicle (MDV) was developed as a point‐of‐use technology for fortification of meals for school‐age children beneficiaries of the Healthy Schools Program (HSP) in Honduras. RESULTS MDV combines micronutrient powder through a traditional dough‐making process, using staple flours (wheat and nixtamalized corn), oil and water as ingredients. After mixing the ingredients and kneading, dough is extruded through a specially designed hand press into noodles. After drying (overnight, 23°C), noodles are broken into small pieces, mixed (1:100 w/w) with rice and cooked as customary. Dispersion studies with NaFeEDTA showed adequate distribution (90%) in white rice. Color changes in MDV due to addition of vitamin A and iron (NaFeEDTA) carried forward into cooked rice. In Honduras, children from two rural schools (N = 47, 6–12 years) were not able to differentiate (triangle test) between control and unfortified MDV mixed (1:100 w/w) with white rice. Children from four schools (N = 83, 7–12 years) accepted control and iron fortified rice (3 mg Fe per serving) based on color and flavor similarly. CONCLUSION This is a feasible point‐of‐use fortification technology for improvement of meals provided by the HSP in Honduras. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T08:07:16.114383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6736
  • Anti‐diabetic effects of the ethanol extract of a functional formula
           diet in mice fed with a fructose/fat‐rich combination diet
    • Authors: Qian Cheng; Xiaofeng Zhang, Ou Wang, Jia Liu, Shengbao Cai, Ruojun Wang, Feng Zhou, Baoping Ji
      Pages: 401 - 408
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rhizoma dioscorea, Lycium barbarum, Prunella vulgaris and hawthorn are well known in both traditional food and folk medicine. Each of these plants reportedly possesses beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes. In this study an anti‐diabetic health‐promoting diet was formulated by mixing the herbs in a ratio of 6:4:2:3, and the anti‐diabetic effect and underlying mechanism were elucidated in vivo. RESULTS Compared with the model control group, the formula, especially its ethanol extract (EF), could improve glucose intolerance and normalize the lipid profile. The mechanisms responsible for the amelioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in mice were an increase in peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, a decrease in serum free fatty acid level, enhanced hepatic glucokinase activity and glycogen content and improved serum antioxidant activity. Hepatic histopathological examination also showed that EF administration markedly decreased fatty deposits in the liver of mice. CONCLUSION The results of the present study demonstrated that the prepared functional formula diet is a potent alternative as an anti‐diabetic health‐promoting diet. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T09:21:28.196114-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6737
  • Effects of UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic composition of
           leaves and berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano
    • Authors: María‐Ángeles Del‐Castillo‐Alonso; María P Diago, Laura Monforte, Javier Tardaguila, Javier Martínez‐Abaigar, Encarnación Núñez‐Olivera
      Pages: 409 - 416
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces adaptive responses that can be used for plant production improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of solar UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic compounds of leaves and berry skins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano under field conditions. Phenolic compounds were analyzed globally and individually in both the vacuolar fraction and, for the first time in grapevine, the cell wall‐bound fraction. These different locations may represent diverse modalities of phenolic response to and protection against UV. RESULTS UV exclusion led to a decrease in Fv/Fm in leaves, revealing that solar UV is needed for adequate photoprotection. Only p‐caffeoyl‐tartaric acid from the soluble fraction of leaves and myricetin‐3‐O‐glucoside from the soluble fraction of berry skins were significantly higher in the presence of UV radiation, and thus they could play a role in UV protection. Other hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, flavanols and stilbenes did not respond to UV exclusion. CONCLUSION UV exclusion led to subtle changes in leaves and berry skins of Graciano cultivar, which would be well adapted to current UV levels. This may help support decision‐making on viticultural practices modifying UV exposure of leaves and berries, which could improve grape and wine quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-10T05:51:41.277688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6738
  • Effect of sorghum type and malting on production of free amino nitrogen in
           conjunction with exogenous protease enzymes
    • Authors: Bhekisisa C Dlamini; Elna M Buys, John RN Taylor
      Pages: 417 - 422
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sorghum types suitable for brewing and bioethanol production are required. The effect of sorghum type (white non‐tannin versus white type II tannin) on free amino nitrogen (FAN) production from sorghum grain and malt using exogenous protease enzymes was investigated over extended incubation at moderate temperature (45 °C). RESULTS With grain in the absence of exogenous proteases, white non‐tannin sorghum produced substantially higher levels of FAN than white type II tannin sorghum, due to the tannins in the latter. Incubating sorghum grain with neutral proteinase and amino‐peptidase in combination improved FAN production. The two sorghum types produced similar FAN levels when malted and incubated in the absence of the exogenous proteases. When both sorghums were malted and incubated with neutral proteinase alone substantially more FAN yield (124–126 mg 100 g−1) occurred than with grains (61–84 mg 100 g−1). The combination of amino‐peptidase and proteinase did not improve FAN further. Neither, did malting influence wort free amino acid profile. Group B amino acids constituted the highest percentage (42–47%). CONCLUSION With grain, white non‐tannin sorghum plus proteinase and amino‐peptidase yields the highest FAN, with malt both white non‐tannin and white type II tannin sorghums plus proteinase yield the highest FAN. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-09T05:05:23.44369-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6739
  • Identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of hydrocarbons in
           commercial fish oil supplements
    • Authors: Anna‐Jean M Reid; Suzanne M Budge
      Pages: 423 - 428
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Heightened awareness of the health benefits of fish oil consumption has led to a great increase in the number of fish oil supplements available to the consumer. Therefore manufacturers are continually looking for ways to distinguish their products from those of competitors. Minimally refined or virgin fish oils provide a unique feature; however, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills is a reality in the world's oceans. The question arises whether oil produced from fish species caught in these polluted areas is free of petroleum hydrocarbons, with particular interest in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). This study investigates the presence of UCMs in commercially available fish oil supplements advertised as being virgin, as well as refined. RESULTS Weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the form of a UCM were found at 523 µg g−1 in a virgin Alaskan salmon oil supplement. Supplements that were refined were free of this contamination. CONCLUSION Fish used in the production of fish oil supplements appear to have accumulated petrogenic hydrocarbons in their tissues which were not removed by minimal oil refining. Further study is required to determine if there are any health implications associated with long‐term consumption of these contaminated supplements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-10T10:33:48.368691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6741
  • Constant heat stress reduces skeletal muscle protein deposition in
    • Authors: Jianjun Zuo; Mei Xu, Yusuf Auwalu Abdullahi, Limei Ma, Zhongyue Zhang, Dingyuan Feng
      Pages: 429 - 436
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of constant heat stress on growth performance and protein metabolism in skeletal muscle of Arbor Acres broilers. RESULTS Two hundred and seventy 21‐day‐old Arbor Acres broilers with similar body weight (1298 ± 28 g) were selected for a 3‐week trial (29–49 days of age). The broilers were randomly assigned to three groups including the control group, constant heat stress group and pair‐fed group. Up‐regulation of the rectal temperature and the mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 in liver indicate that the model for constant heat stress was success. The average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, breast and thigh muscle weight, percentage of breast muscle, crude protein content in breast and thigh muscle in constant heat stress group were significantly lower than in control group and pair‐fed group. Serum uric acid content and the glutamic‐oxaloacetic transaminase activity were significantly higher, while protein content and glutamic‐pyruvate transaminase activity were significantly lower in liver of heat stress group than of the control and pair‐fed groups. The expression of insulin‐like growth factor 1, phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase and p70S6 kinase associated with protein synthesis were lower in breast muscle but higher in thigh muscle in heat stress group compared to the control or fed‐pair groups. In thigh muscles, the expression of muscle ring‐finger protein‐1 and MAFbx associated with protein degradation were higher in the heat stress group than in the control and pair‐fed groups. CONCLUSION Poor performance of the birds under heat stress may be due to lower synthesis and increased degradation of proteins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-04T04:46:43.788529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6749
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