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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1602 journals]   [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]
  • Exploration of novel rhizospheric yeast isolate as fertilizing soil
           inoculant for improvement of maize cultivation
    • Authors: Sayani Mukherjee; Sukanta K. Sen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Chemical input in agriculture is a common practice, but makes a serious impact to the environment. In this context, the soil isolates, having multiple plant growth promoting attributes have been studied. The isolates were tested for their PO4 and Zn solubilization, IAA production and N2 fixation ability. The selected isolate SSm‐39 was characterized up to molecular level. The isolate SSm‐39 was applied for maize cultivation in different combination with chemical fertilizers. Also, the chemical and microbial status of soil, its effect on maize growth and yield were investigated. Results The isolate SSm‐39 found most suitable for its PGP attributes and identified as Candida tropicalis. The inoculant (100%) with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer (T5) application notably increased the growth and yield performances of maize. It has improved the grain quality by 85% indicated through carbohydrate and protein content, in comparison to uninoculated control (T3). Soil nutrient status, was found to increase by two fold with the T5 treatment than with the T3 treatment. Enhanced soil nutrient quality supported microbial growth and diversity, thus accelerated the soil enzymatic activities. Conclusion The results validate the multiple PGP traits of C. tropicalis SSm‐39, advocating reduction of chemical fertilizer for maize cultivation.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T05:40:25.407754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6848
  • Biocontrol of postharvest Alternaria alternata decay of cherry tomatoes
           with rhamnolipids and possible mechanisms of action
    • Authors: Fujie Yan; Shixiang Xu, Jun Guo, Qianru Chen, Qin Meng, Xiaodong Zheng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Rhamnolipids were reported to have evident antifungal activity. The efficacy of rhamnolipids against Alternaria alternata and their possible mechanisms involved were investigated. Result The decay incidences of A. alternata of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) treated by rhamnolipids were significantly reduced. The in vitro assays showed that rhamnolipids inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented spore germination and mycelium growth in liquid medium. In addition, the combination of rhamnolipids and essential oil had a synergistic effect leading to the decrease of fungicidal concentrations of laurel oil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological and cell structural alterations in the hyphae. Compared to the control, content of nucleic acid in supernatant of the suspension of A. alternata increased, while content of DNA and protein of mycelium decreased, which was in agreement with electrolyte leakage experiment. Conclusion Rhamnolipids could be an alternative to chemicals for controlling postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits and vegetables.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T05:40:16.577225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6845
  • Short‐term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in
           chestnut‐wheat bread
    • Authors: Massimiliano Rinaldi; Maria Paciulli, Chiara Dall'Asta, Martina Cirlini, Emma Chiavaro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data has been previously published about the staling of chestnut‐containing bread. Thus, short term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour supplemented soft‐wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physico‐chemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Results Bread prepared with a 20/80 ratio of chestnut/soft‐wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft‐wheat bread; it did not change during storage, while it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf‐life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf‐life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes with a decrease in the smallest grain classes, and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut‐ flour bread, only. Conclusions Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf‐life.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25T02:25:24.311443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6843
  • Antioxidant Activities of Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates in Bulk Oil and
           Oil‐in‐Water Emulsion
    • Authors: Nopparat Cheetangdee; Soottawat Benjakul
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Recently, utilization of natural antioxidants in food processing has been growing interest, owing to the concerns of health hazards of synthetic agents. Protein hydrolysates are a potent candidate for this purpose. In this work, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) with various degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were prepared, and their antioxidant activities in soybean oil and oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsion were examined. Results With increasing DH, RBPH showed increasing antioxidant activities as evidenced by the increases in DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous chelating activity (p
      PubDate: 2014-07-25T02:24:41.732588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6842
  • Dietary supplementation of Gracilariopsis persica is associated with some
           quality related sera and egg yolk parameters in laying quails
    • Authors: B Abbaspour; S. Davood Sharifi, A. Mohammadi‐Sangcheshmeh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gracilariopsis persica (Gp) is one of the most abundant red algae distributed in Persian Gulf which contains various bioactive components with hypolipedimic, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties. Therefore using laying quails as a model we aimed to investigate effect of dietary Gp on body weight, feed conversion, estradiol, progesterone, calcium, and lipids levels of serum as well as the HDL/LDL ratio. Yolk cholesterol and yolk lipid oxidation was also evaluated. To accomplish this, diets containing 0, 10, 30 and 50 g Kg−1 Gp were fed to 5wk‐old laying quails for 12 weeks. Results Our data revealed that the Gp had no effect on body weight, feed conversion, triglycerides and estradiol levels of serum. Dietary Gp decreased the serum and yolk cholesterol in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the sera progesterone and calcium levels, and HDL/LDL ratios were increased by feeding the diets containing 50 g Kg−1 Gp. Our result relating to the yolk lipid oxidation showed that malondialdehyde content were decreased in Gp fed laying quails. Conclusions The result of present study demonstrates that not only serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels, but also susceptibility of yolk lipids to oxidation can be decreased by feeding Gp to laying quails.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25T02:17:27.197996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6844
  • Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolated from three pig farms of
           China contributed by acquiring of antibiotic resistance genes
    • Authors: Jinhu Huang; Kexin Shang, Jam Kashif, Liping Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Acquiring of antibiotic resistance genes may change the genetic characteristics and be fitness to antibiotics resulting a rapid transmission of microbial pathogens. The objectives of this experiment were to identify the features of Streptococcus suis isolated from three pig farms of China which is geographically isolated. Results Among the isolates, 56.52% were ST7, followed by ST1 (26.09%), indicating ST7 is prevailing in China revealed by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Statistical analysis indicated an association between geography, STs and AR genotypes. 66.67% of the isolates in Sichuan province presented a (ermB−+mefA−+tetO−+tetM−) +ST7 type. The tetM++ST7 type was the most prevalent in Jiangsu province, whereas the strains from Hebei province had a phenotype ermB++tetO++ST1 (63.64%). Pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern A2 with 100% similarity reflected the clonal dissemination between Sichuan and Jiangsu province. Strains carrying or non‐carrying antibiotic resistance genes presented different PFGE patterns in Hebei province. Conclusion ST7 is widespread in many regions of China and a clonal dissemination occurred between Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces in diseased pigs. However, ST1 strains with macrolide resistance (ermB++tetO++ST1) isolated from a farm in Hebei province demonstrated that the genetic diversity was contributed by horizontal acquiring of ermB and tetO carrying elements.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25T02:17:03.008353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6841
  • Optimization of ultrasound‐assisted extraction of natural
           antioxidants from mustard seed cultivars
    • Authors: Aleksandra Szydłowska‐Czerniak; Agnieszka Tułodziecka, György Karlovits, Edward Szłyk
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Modified mustard varieties can produce edible oil with reduced erucic acid and glucosinolates amounts and enhanced antioxidant potential. Therefore, this work is focused on the optimization of the ultrasound‐assisted extraction of compounds with high antioxidant capacity from three white mustard seed cultivars using response surface methodology. Results The predicted optimum solvent polarity (57.2, 56.5 and 57.6) and ultrasound power to sonication time ratio (4.5, 4.8 and 4.3 W min−1) resulted in antioxidant capacities determined by FRAP (54.37, 65.75 and 68.55 mmol TE kg−1) and DPPH (141.65, 175.26 and 185.10 mmol TE kg−1) methods and total phenolics content (23.70, 27.16 and 11.29 mg SA g−1) for extracts obtained from one traditional and two modified mustard seed varieties. The highest FRAP and DPPH values (69.51 and 197.73 mmol TE kg−1) revealed 50% methanolic extract prepared from modiefied mustard seed cultivar without erucic acid and glucosinolates treated with ultrasound for 30 min (ultrasound power/ultrasound time = 4 W min−1). Conclusion The ultrasound‐assisted extraction was found to be a more rapid, convenient and appropriate extraction method with higher yield of antioxidants, shorter time and lower solvent consumption in comparison to the conventional extraction.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25T02:15:40.169316-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6840
  • Differing chemical compositions of three teas may explain their different
           effects on acute blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    • Authors: Shan‐Bing Li; Yi‐Fang Li, Zhong‐Fu Mao, Hui‐Hua Hu, Shu‐Hua Ouyang, Yan‐Ping Wu, Bun Tsoi, Pin Gong, Hiroshi Kurihara, Rong‐Rong He
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Heavy tea consumption is suggested to be unsuitable for hypertensive people. However, the bioactive substances in different varieties of tea leaves are very different. This study compares the effects of three Chinese teas – C. sinensis, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha – on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). RESULTS Intragastric administration of C. sinensis extract led to an acute increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate in SHRs. However, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha exerted no obvious influences on SBP, DBP or heart rate. Similar to the extract of C. sinensis, intragastric administration of caffeine also led to an acute increase in BP and heart rate in SHRs. In contrast, theobromine and theacrine – purine alkaloids predominantly contained in C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha, respectively – had no pressor effects. The effect of caffeine on BP was related to the regulation of plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in SHRs. CONCLUSION The different effects of C. sinensis, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha on BP might be explained, at least partially, by the differences in the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T09:22:52.876003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6811
  • Arsenic toxicity in rice with special reference to speciation in Indian
           grain and its implication on human health
    • Authors: B Sinha; K Bhattacharyya
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Rice is a potentially important route of human exposure to arsenic, especially in populations with rice‐based diets. However, arsenic toxicity varies greatly with species. The initial purpose of the present study was to evaluate arsenic speciation in rice. Results It appeared very clear from the present study that inorganic arsenic shared maximum arsenic load in rice straw while in grains it is considerably low. As species recovered from rice grain and straw are principally As‐III and As‐V with a little share of DMA and almost non‐detectable MMA and As‐B. Discussion of the health risk of As in rice has largely been based on its inorganic arsenic content because these species have generally been considered to be more toxic than MMA and DMA and can be directly compared to As in drinking water, assuming equal bioavailability of inorganic As in the rice matrix and in water. The maximum dietary risk of exposure to inorganic arsenic through transplanted boro paddy in the present experiment was calculated to be almost 1706 % of PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake) for an adult of 60 kg bodyweight. Conclusion As species recovered from boro rice grain and straw are principally As‐III and As‐V with a little share of DMA and almost non‐detectable MMA and As‐B. Reductions in total As load through organic amendments in boro rice grain and straw samples were manifested predominately through reduced accumulations of inorganic As species (As‐III and As‐V) among which As‐V accounted for the largest share.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:48:55.366812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6839
  • Ptr‐Tof‐Ms Analysis Of Volatile Compounds In Olive Fruits.
    • Authors: Elisa Masi; Annalisa Romani, Camilla Pandolfi, Daniela Heimler, Stefano Mancuso
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Volatile compounds of Cellina di Nardò and Ogliarola Barese, two typical Italian olive varieties, have been characterized at different ripening stages. PTR‐TOF‐MS (proton‐transfer‐reaction mass spectrometry) was used for the first time on these fruits with the aim to characterize volatile profile and, in the case of Ogliarola, the changes which may occur during the maturation process. Results PTR‐TOF‐MS technique does not involve any samples pre‐treatment, and allows high resolution measurements, large spectra and small fragmentation of the volatiles. Therefore it allows both compounds identification and data statistical treatments. In the present work, about 40 compounds that contribute to the discrimination between samples of the two varieties have been identified. Conclusions Three groups of compounds were identified: compounds that are typical of mature fruits of Ogliarola, compounds that tend to decrease changing from green to mature fruits and compounds that increase during the maturation process.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:08:41.185822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6837
  • Chitosan coating incorporated with lactoperoxidase system: an active
           edible coating for fish preservation
    • Authors: Mohammad Sedigh Jasour; Ali Ehsani, Laleh Mehryar, Seyedeh Samaneh Naghibi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Due to consumers’ concerns about chemicals, there is a particular interest in food industry to use natural bio‐preservatives such as antimicrobial enzymes for antimicrobial packaging. Based on antimicrobial activity of lactoperoxidase system (LPOS), the present study evaluated the coating effect of LPOS incorporated into chitosan solution (CH) on the quality and shelf life extension of rainbow trout during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C), for a period of 16 days. Results The results indicated that samples of CH+LPOS group had significantly lower number of Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria than the CH and control group during entire storage period. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) level for the CH+LPOS samples (22.07 mg/100 g) did not exceed the limit of consumption (30–35 mg N/100 g), while the CH (31.03 mg/100 g) and control groups (37.78 mg/100 g) reached this level at days 12 and 16, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of the CH and CH+LPOS samples, ranged between 0.49‐0.51 on day 1 and 4.59‐4.66 mg/kg on day 16, were significantly lower (p< 0.05) than the corresponding values of the control samples (0.47 on day 0 to 4.78 mg/kg on day 16 of storage) during the chilled storage period. Conclusion The coating treatments (CH and CH + LPOS) extended the shelf life of trout fillets by at least 4 days as compared to the control samples, so that they showed moderate to high‐acceptability in all investigated sensory attributes even on the 16th day of storage.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:08:25.953661-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6838
  • Production performance, meat composition and oxidative susceptibility in
           broiler chicken fed with different phenolic compounds
    • Authors: Kristina Starčević; Luka Krstulović, Diana Brozić, Maja Maurić, Zvonko Stojević, Željko Mikulec, Miroslav Bajić, Tomislav Mašek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of phenolic compounds on production animals. Supplementation of animal diets with phytogenic compounds, such as different essential oils and polyphenols, could improve animal productivity as well as the chemical composition and oxidative stability of food derived from those animals. RESULTS During the trial, 80 male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were allocated to four dietary groups: control and three groups supplemented with thymol, tannic acid and gallic acid. Feed utilisation was improved in all experimental groups and tannic acid also improved final body weight. Gallic acid significantly increased n‐3 long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. A hypocholesterolaemic effect was noticed in all groups in liver, but not in muscle. The glucose lowering effect in serum was noticed in the tannic acid group in comparison to other experimental groups. Oxidative susceptibility was improved by tannic acid in liver and breast and by gallic acid in breast muscle. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of phenolic compounds enhanced growth performance, decreased lipid oxidation, decreased cholesterol value and increased beneficial fatty acids content. Positive effects varied depending on phenolic compound used and, therefore, it would be interesting to further investigate synergistic effects of investigated phenolic compound. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:04:59.689043-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6805
  • Effects of different concentrations of salt and sugar on biogenic amines
           and quality changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio) during chilled storage
    • Authors: Yuemei Zhang; Na Qin, Yongkang Luo, Huixing Shen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biogenic amines have gained a great deal of attention due to their toxic potential in humans. Carp is one of the most important freshwater fish species in China. Salt and sugar are capable of preserving food. There is a limited amount of information on the changes of biogenic amines in freshwater fish influenced by salt and sugar. This study aimed to detect the changes in biogenic amines, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) and total viable counts (TVC) of carp influenced by different concentrations of salt and sugar stored at 4 °C. RESULTS TVB‐N and TVC increased with storage time, which was in accordance with the changes of sensory scores. The eight biogenic amines were detected in fresh carp. Putrescine and cadaverine were the main biogenic amines found in carp fillets stored at 4 °C; they had a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TVB‐N. CONCLUSION Salt processing was found to inhibit the increase of TVB‐N, TVC, putrescine and cadaverine in carp. High salt concentration had a positive effect on extending the shelf‐life of the carp, compared to low salt concentration. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:04:28.943443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6803
  • Fatty acid profiles and antioxidants of organic and conventional milk from
           low‐ and high‐input systems during outdoor period
    • Authors: Daniel Kusche; Katrin Kuhnt, Karin Ruebesam, Carsten Rohrer, Andreas FM Nierop, Gerhard Jahreis, Ton Baars
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Intensification of organic dairy production leads to the question of whether the implementation of intensive feeding incorporating maize silage and concentrates is altering milk quality. Therefore the fatty acid (FA) and antioxidant (AO) profiles of milk on 24 farms divided into four system groups in three replications (n = 71) during the outdoor period were analyzed. In this system comparison, a differentiation of the system groups and the effects of the main system factors ‘intensification level’ (high‐input versus low‐input) and ‘origin’ (organic versus conventional) were evaluated in a multivariate statistical approach. RESULTS Consistent differentiation of milk from the system groups due to feeding‐related impacts was possible in general and on the basis of 15 markers. The prediction of the main system factors was based on four or five markers. The prediction of ‘intensification level’ was based mainly on CLA c9,t11 and C18:1 t11, whereas that of ‘origin’ was based on n‐3 PUFA. CONCLUSION It was possible to demonstrate consistent differences in the FA and AO profiles of organic and standard conventional milk samples. Highest concentrations of nutritionally beneficial compounds were found in the low‐input organic system. Adapted grass‐based feeding strategies including pasture offer the potential to produce a distinguishable organic milk product quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-23T03:26:40.397973-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6768
  • Chemical profile and antiacetylcholinesterase, antityrosinase, antioxidant
           and alpha‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of Cynometra cauliflora L.
    • Authors: Muhammad Abubakar Ado; Faridah Abas, Intan Safinar Ismail, Hasanah M. Ghazali, Khozirah Shaari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of the current study is (1) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n‐butanol (n‐BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α‐glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (2) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions using LC‐DAD‐ESIMS/MS technique. Results The leaf methanolic extract of C. cauliflora exhibited potent inhibition of all three enzymes and high antioxidant activity. The bioactivity was found to be concentrated in the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions. A total of 18 compounds were identified in these bioactive fractions, comprising a procyanidin trimer, procyanidin tetramer, procyanidin hexamer, taxifolin pentoside, catechin, vitexin, isovitexin, kaempferol hexoside, quercetin pentoside, quercetin hexoside, apigenin‐6‐C‐glucoside‐8‐C‐glucoside, kaempferol–coumaroyl‐hexoside, and isorhamnetin hexoside. Conclusion The results indicated that Cynometra cauliflora, the leaves in particular, is a rich source of bioactive compounds and could be beneficial for further development of high value phytomedicinal preparations and functional food products.
      PubDate: 2014-07-22T03:08:54.07015-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6832
  • Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using
           supercritical carbon dioxide, a review
    • Authors: Md. Salim Uddin; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker, Sahena Ferdosh, Md. Jahurul Haque Akanda, Mst. Sabina Easmin, Siti Hadijah Bt Shamsudin, Kamaruzzaman Bin Yunus
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Phytosterols provide important health benefits especially lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial point of views, the most appropriate technique has been searched to extract the phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC‐CO2) and this technology has clearly offered a potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers the SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterols extraction using SC‐CO2. Moreover, chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC‐CO2.
      PubDate: 2014-07-22T03:03:30.459389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6833

  •        Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Combined with
           Non‐aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis for the
           Determination of Imazalil, Prochloraz and
           Thiabendazole in Apples, Cherry Tomatoes and Grape Juice
    • Authors: Lina Xu; Feng Luan, Huitao Liu, Yuan Gao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fruits and vegetables are frequently treated with fungicides to reduce possible spoilage. As a result, fungicide residues may be accumulated in derived products. This important group of chemical compounds has been heavily regulated due to their potential toxicity. Therefore, a simple and rapid method to determine fungicides is desired. Rusults A simple nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for the determination of imazalil,prochloraz and thiabendazole fungicides in fruits and juice samples. Separation buffer consisted of methanol–acetonitrile mixture (35:65, v/v) containing 30 mmol/L amonium chloride and 0.5% phosphoric acid. The optimum DLLME conditions were 80 μL of trichloromethane as extraction solvent, 0.5 mL of tetrahydrofuran as disperser solvent, sample solution pH at 6.0, 5% (w/v) of NaCl and 10 s of the extraction time. Recoveries obtained for various samples ranged from 72% to 102%, with RSD lower than 6.4%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.47 to 0.72 µg/kg. Conclusion The proposed method takes the advantages of DLLME and NACE. It is rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible for the determination of imazalil,prochloraz and thiabendazole in fruits samples.
      PubDate: 2014-07-22T02:59:42.029039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6834
  • Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and
           viscosity of Brazilian red wines
    • Authors: Flávia S. P. P. Neto; Maurício B. M. de Castilhos, Vânia R. N. Telis, Javier Telis‐Romero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2 ºC, 8 ºC, 14 ºC, 16 ºC, 18 ºC, 20 ºC and 26 ºC). Results Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full‐bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. Conclusion The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments.
      PubDate: 2014-07-21T05:21:33.613533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6835
  • A comparative study of aroma‐active compounds between dark and milk
           chocolate: relationship to sensory perception
    • Authors: Jianbin Liu; Mengya Liu, Congcong He, Huanlu Song, Jia Guo, Ye Wang, Haiying Yang, Xiaoxia Su
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In the first study, the most important aroma‐active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by Gas Chromatography‐Olfactometry‐Mass Spectrometry (GC‐O‐MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. Results A total of 32 major aroma‐active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the FD factor of 27–729 by AEDA, included 7 aldehydes, 6 pyrazines, 3 pyrroles, 4 carboxylic acids, 4 lactones, 2 alcohols, 2 ketones, 1 ester, 1 pyrone, 1 furan and 1 sulfur containing compounds. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acid, alcohol and Strecker aldehyde, whereas the concentration of lactone, ester, long chain aldehyde and ketone were higher in the milk type. Conclusion Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma‐active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified.
      PubDate: 2014-07-18T05:13:41.743291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6831
  • Elucidation of key aroma compounds in traditional dry fermented sausages
           using different extraction techniques
    • Authors: Sara Corral; Ana Salvador, Mónica Flores
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of different extraction techniques; solid phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) technique can deliver different aroma profile and it is essential to determine which is most suitable to extract the aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages. Results Forty five aroma active compounds were detected by SPME and SAFE being 11 of them reported for the first time as aroma compounds in dry fermented sausages; ethyl 3‐hydroxy butanoate, trimethyl pyrazine, D‐pantolactone, isobutyl hexanoate, ethyl benzoate, α‐terpineol, ethyl 3‐pyridinecarboxylate, benzothiazole, 2,3‐dihydrothiophene, methyl eugenol, γ‐nonalactone. The aroma concentration and odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Flavour reconstitution analyses were performed using 20 odorants with OAVs above 1 obtained from the SAFE and SPME extracts to prepare the aroma model. Conclusion SPME and SAFE techniques were complementary and necessary to reproduce the overall dry fermented sausage aroma. The final aroma model included the odorants from both extraction techniques (SPME and SAFE) but it was necessary to incorporate the compounds 2,4‐decadienal (E,E), benzothiazole, methyl eugenol, α‐terpineol, and eugenol to the final aroma model to evoked the fresh sausage aroma although a lowest cured meat aroma note was perceived.
      PubDate: 2014-07-18T05:02:45.527213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6830
  • Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented
           with a diet rich in bioactive compounds
    • Authors: Dorota Cais‐Sokolińska; Jan Pikul, Jacek Wójtowski, Romualda Danków, JoannaTeichert, Grażyna Czyżak‐Runowska, Emilia Bagnicka
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g/day/head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goat diet with false flax cake. Results The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of PUFA, including CLA and n‐3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Conclusion Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA and n‐3 FA and monoenic trans FA) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group.
      PubDate: 2014-07-18T04:07:59.975124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6828
  • Molecular diversity and hypoglycemic Polypeptide‐P Content of
           Momordica Charantia in Different Accessions and Different Seasons
    • Authors: Miao Tian; Xiang‐Qing Zeng, Huan‐Lei Song, Shan‐Xin Hu, Fu‐Jun Wang, Jian Zhao, Zhi‐Bi Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backgroud Momordica charantia (MC) has been used for treating diabetes mellitus from ancient times in Asia, Africa, and South America. There are a lot of MC accessions in local market. Polypeptide‐P as a main hypoglycemic component in MC was first studied in this experiment to illustrate the different contents in MC of different accessions and different harvesting times. Results Nineteen MC accessions collected from different regions were clustered into three groups using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter‐simple‐sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Content of polypeptide‐P in the tested MC accessions was detected by Western Blot (WB) method. The WB results revealed that polypeptide‐P was detected in MC accessions harvested in June and July but not in September and October. Furthermore, Polypeptide‐P content corresponded well with the MC accessions. Conclusion Our results suggest that the MC accessions and the harvesting times or the weather of harvest play significant roles in high content of polypeptide‐P.
      PubDate: 2014-07-17T02:40:19.009293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6826
  • Effects of combined therapy with glipizide and Aralia root bark extract on
           glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: Xiao‐Hong Liu; Xing‐Min Li, Cheng‐Cheng Han, Xiang‐Feng Fang, Le Ma
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The root bark of Aralia is the rich source of bioactive components that may improve glycemic control and lipid status. In this study, 148 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were assigned randomly to receive either glipizide alone or glipizide plus Aralia root bark extract (ARBE) for 8 weeks to test the effects of ARBE plus glipizide therapy on glycemic control and lipid profiles in these patients. Results Levels of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2‐h postprandial plasma glucose (2‐h PPG) in both groups significantly decreased from baseline. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased marginally significantly in participants taking glipizide plus ARBE compared with the glipizide group (P = 0.06). Participants in the combination group had significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C); and the between‐group difference achieved statistical significance for LDL‐C (P = 0.04). Reduction in HbA1c in the combination group was significantly associated with changes in TC (r = 0.32; P = 0.006) and LDL‐C (r = 0.34; P = 0.005); and the change in FPG was inversely correlated with LDL‐C reduction (r = 0.34; P = 0.004). Conclusions In patients with T2DM, combination therapy with glipizide and ARBE resulted in moderately lowering HbA1c and LDL‐C levels compared with glipizide alone.
      PubDate: 2014-07-17T02:39:24.796715-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6829
  • Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the
           nutritional quality of lupine and soybean
    • Authors: Elena Bartkiene; Vita Krungleviciute, Grazina Juodeikiene, Daiva Vidmantiene, Zita Maknickiene
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The ability of bacteriocin‐like inhibitory substances (BLIS) producing lactic acid bacteria to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce L(+) and D(‐)‐lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupine and soybean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. Results Protein digestibility of fermented lupine and soybean was found higher on average by 18.3% and by 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly L‐lactic acid in soybean and lupine (D/L ratio 0.38‐0.42 and 0.35‐0.54, respectively), while the spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (D/L ratio 0.82‐0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were capable to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, while were not supposed to degrade putrescine, histamine and tyramine. Conclusions The SSF improved lupine and soybean protein digestibility. BLIS‐producing LAB in lupine and soybean medium produced mixture of D‐ and L‐lactic acid with a major excess of latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupine and soybean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non‐producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation.
      PubDate: 2014-07-17T02:35:17.725455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6827
  • Fusarium species, chemotype characterisation and trichothecene
           contamination of durum and soft wheat in an area of central Italy
    • Authors: Lorenzo Covarelli; Giovanni Beccari, Antonio Prodi, Silvia Generotti, Federico Etruschi, Cristina Juan, Emilia Ferrer, Jordi Mañes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is an important disease causing yield losses and mycotoxin contamination. The aim of the work was to detect and characterise trichothecene producing Fusarium species in durum and soft wheat cultivated in an area of central Italy in 2009 and 2010 and to determine trichothecene contamination by LC‐MS/MS in the grain. RESULTS F. graminearum s. str. was the most frequent species. In 2009, the occurrence of F. avenaceum and F. poae was higher than in 2010. Among F. graminearum strains, the 15‐acetyl deoxynivalenol (15‐ADON) chemotype could be found more frequently, followed by nivalenol (NIV) and 3‐ADON chemotypes, while all F. culmorum isolates belonged to the 3‐ADON chemotype. All F. poae strains were NIV chemotypes. In vitro trichothecene production confirmed molecular characterisation. Durum wheat was characterised by a higher average DON contamination with respect to soft wheat, NIV was always detected at appreciable levels while type‐A trichothecenes were mostly found in durum wheat samples in 2009 with 6% of samples exceeding the contamination level recently recommended by the European Union. CONCLUSION Climatic conditions were confirmed to be predominant factors influencing mycotoxigenic species composition and mycotoxin contaminations. However, NIV contamination was found to occur irrespective of climatic conditions, suggesting that it may often represent an under‐estimated risk to be further investigated. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-16T08:46:37.592246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6772
  • Seasonal variability of the main components in essential oil of
           Mentha × piperita L.
    • Authors: Daniela Grulova; Laura De Martino, Emilia Mancini, Ivan Salamon, Vincenzo De Feo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mentha x piperita is animportant and commonly used flavoring plant worldwide. Its constituents, primarily menthol and menthone, change in the essential oil depending on internal and external factors, of which environmental conditions appear very important. The experiment was established in 2010 for three vegetation season, in order to observe the quantitative changes of the main components of peppermint. The determination of menthol, menthone, limonene, menthyl acetate, menthofuran and β-caryophyllene was registered. Results In the experimental season 2011 and 2012 it was noted a higher mean temperature than in 2010 and extreme rainfall were recorded in July 2011 and 2012. Different environmental conditions affected the development of M. x piperita plants and content and composition of the essential oil. Conclusion Seasonal and maturity variations are interlinked each other, because the specific ontogenic growth stage differed as the season progressed. Fluctuations in monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns affected the quality of peppermint essential oil.
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T12:08:37.943559-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6802
  • Interactive effects of vitamin D3 and strontium on performance, nutrient
           retention, and bone mineral composition in laying hens.
    • Authors: Linda C. Browning; Aaron J. Cowieson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Strontium is currently prescribed for patients with osteoporosis to increase bone density and reduce bone fractures but its relevance in animal nutrition is obscure. In order to investigate the effect of supplemental strontium and vitamin D3 on performance, egg quality and skeletal integrity in poultry a total of 108 laying hens, 99 weeks of age, were fed three levels of strontium (0, 500 mg kg−1, 1000 mg kg−1) and two levels of vitamin D3 (2,500iu kg−1, 5,000iu kg−1) over a 12 week period. Results There was an improvement (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T02:25:39.851744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6801
  • Characterisation of bacterial community of raw milk from dairy cows during
           subacute ruminal acidosis challenge by high throughput sequencing
    • Authors: Ruiyang Zhang; Wenjie Huo, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Four cannulated primiparous Holstein dairy cows (84 ± 25 DIM) were used in a 2 × 2 crossover experimental design. The two diets contained 40% (low-concentrate diet, or control diet, LC) and 70% (high-concentrate diet, or SARA induction diet, HC) concentrate feeds respectively. Milk samples were collected on day 17, 18, and 19 of each experimental period. DNA was extracted from each milk sample, and the pyrosequencing was applied to analyse the milk microbial community. Results Regardless of diet, the bacterial community of milk was dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. HC feeding showed a higher proportion of some mastitis-causing pathogen bacteria, such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus parauberis, and Brevundimonas diminuta, as well as of Psychrotrophic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingobacterium, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, and Lactobacillus. However, the diversity of the milk bacterial microbiota (ACE, Chao, and Shannon, index) was not affected by HC feeding. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of pyrosequencing for evaluating the impacts of nutrition on changes in the composition of milk microbiota. These findings indicate that HC feeding may increase the risk of dairy cows suffering from mastitis, decrease the organoleptic quality of raw milk and dairy products, and limit the shelf life of processed fluid milk.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T12:09:10.5395-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6800
  • Influence of Processing on Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Juice Flavor
           and Aroma
    • Authors: Kadri Koppel; Erika L. Anderson, Edgar Chambers
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to determine effect of technological treatment on pomegranate juice flavor characteristics, aromatic compounds, and physico-chemical properties. Fresh, fresh frozen, pasteurized, and reconstituted juice samples were made from Wonderful variety pomegranates. The samples were analyzed for their flavor profiles, aromatic compounds content, and physico-chemical parameters (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, and total phenolic content). Results The results indicated differences among the samples’ flavor characteristics. The most differentiated was the reconstituted sample with fermented and brown flavors while fresh, fresh frozen, and pasteurized samples did not vary as much. Concentration of aromatic compounds was lower than expected. However, this finding was in line with the flavor profiles of the samples. Some flavors as well as total phenolic content were found to be lower than what has been previously reported and this may be the result of a number of variables such as the season, growing region, and subspecies of the fruit variety. Conclusions Processing has an effect on pomegranate juice properties; however, the effect is different depending on the processing method chosen. Drying and reconstituting pomegranate seeds have an impact on flavor, aromatic compounds, as well as total phenolic content.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T12:05:26.541202-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6799
  • Flavonoids Protecting Food And Beverages Against Light
    • Authors: Kevin Huvaere; Leif H. Skibsted
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Flavonoids, ubiquitously present in plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at ppm level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions, are safe, and possibly attribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (i) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (ii) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitizers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (iii) quenching of singlet oxygen from Type II photosensitization; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in Type I photosensitization. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitizers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimized through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerization of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light to heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T05:24:17.568162-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6796
  • A procedure for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo, a typical fermented
           sausage produced in Emilia Romagna Region (Italy)
    • Authors: Fabio Coloretti; Luigi Grazia, Fausto Gardini, Rosalba Lanciotti, Chiara Montanari, Giulia Tabanelli, Cristiana Chiavari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Salama da sugo is a fermented sausage from Ferrara tradition (Italy, Emilia-Romagna region), subjected to a long ripening period (4–6 months) and characterized by a high content of wine and spices in the mixture. It can be consumed after cooking and it is served with its sugo, i.e. the liquid extracted by cooking process. The aim of this work is the setting up of a method for the sensory profile of Salama da sugo, whereas it has been requested to the European Commission the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Results A system of sample preparation that provides for the precooking in autoclave and cooking in boiling water was set-up. A specific sheet for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo has been created and reports 23 descriptors identified during the lexicon development. The differences in sensory profile of four samples were evaluated and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has highlighted the more discriminant parameters i. e. odour intensity, wine odour, spicy aroma, fat/lean connection, sweet, bitter, juiciness, chewiness and pricking. Conclusions The proposed method allows the standardization of sensory profiling of Salama da sugo, also to verify compliance with the specification PGI.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T07:13:23.461092-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6793
  • Determination of β–N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic
           acid and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus and Lathyrus cicera by capillary
           zone electrophoresis
    • Authors: Mara Sacristán; Alejandro Varela, Mercedes M Pedrosa, Carmen Burbano, Carmen Cuadrado, M Estrella Legaz, Mercedes Muzquiz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Lathyrus species as legumes represent an alternative protein source for human and animal nutrition. Heavy consumption of these species can lead to lathyrism, caused by the non-protein amino acid β–N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Currently, there is no well-defined level below which β-ODAP is considered non-toxic. In this work, the β-ODAP content was determined in L. sativus and L. cicera samples to assess their potential toxicity. Homoarginine is another non-protein amino acid found in Lathyrus spp. with interesting implications for human and animal nutrition. Results The level of β-ODAP found in these two species ranged from 0.79 to 5.05 mg g−1. The homoarginine content of the samples ranged from 7.49 to 12.44 mg g−1. Conclusion This paper describes an accurate, fast and sensitive method of simultaneous detection and quantification of β-ODAP and homoarginine by capillary zone electrophoresis in L. cicera and L. sativus seeds. Moreover, several methods of extraction were compared to determine the highest performance.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T07:12:54.675851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6792
  • Water scarcity conditions affect peach fruit size and polyphenol contents
           more severely than other fruit quality traits
    • Authors: Mitra Rahmati; Gilles Vercambre, Gholamhossein Davarynejad, Mohammad Bannayan, Majid Azizi, Michel Génard
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Literature mostly abounds with the impacts of drought conditions on the concentration of non-structural compounds (NSC) and acids in peach fruits without distinction as to the direct effect of drought on fruit metabolism and its indirect effect through dilution. Moreover, there is a need to investigate the sensitivity of the fruit composition to progressive water deficit in semi-arid conditions, as well as the origin of variations in fruit composition – not only in carbohydrates and organic acids, but also in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols. Results The increase in stress intensity resulted in smaller fruits and a reduction in yield. Drought increased fruit dry matter content, structural dry matter (SDM) content and firmness due to lower water import to fruits although drought reduced fruit surface conductance and its transpiration. Drought significantly affected the concentrations of each NSC either through the decrease in dilution and/or modifications of their metabolism. The increase in hexoses and sorbitol concentrations of fruits grown under drought conditions resulted in an increase in the sweetness index but not near harvest. Malic acid concentration and content to SDM ratio increased as drought intensified, whereas those of citric and quinic acids decreased. Polyphenols concentration and content increased under severe drought. Conclusion The increase in stress intensity strongly affected fruit mass. The concentration of total carbohydrates and organic acid at harvest increased mainly through a decrease in fruit dilution whereas the concentrations of polyphenols were also strongly affected through an impact on their metabolism.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T06:59:08.446983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6797
  • Determination of Fifteen Sedative Residues in Mutton by Rapid Resolution
           Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Jinmei Wei; Yuzhu Luo, Li Zhang, Suli Fang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of xenobiotic compounds in animal husbandry has given rise to consumer anxieties regarding residual risk and food safety. Thus, animal tissues have become main samples for residue analysis and food safety for sedatives. In this study, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of fifteen sedatives residues in mutton. Results After enzymolysis, sedatives residues in mutton were extracted by ammonium hydroxide- acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) and determined by RRLC-MS/MS with quantification by standard curve method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the concentrations of 0.5-50 µg kg−1 with the correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.9639 to 0.9984. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were 0.25-2.5 and 0.5-5 µg kg−1, respectively. The average recoveries of spikes samples were in the ranges of 74.1-116.8% with relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day ranged from 2.6% to 11.2% and from 2.1% to 11.4%, respectively. Conclusion This method is simple, sensitive and accurate in the determination of sedative residues.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T06:58:19.630836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6794
  • Soybean flour induces a greater increase of the antioxidant defenses in
           rats fed with normocaloric diet compared with hypercaloric diet
    • Authors: Gabriela S Razzeto; Viviana R Lucero López, María S Giménez, Nora L Escudero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Soybeans, due to their antioxidant properties, present beneficial health effects. The objective was to evaluate if replacing casein with soy flour, modifies antioxidant defenses in rat liver, compared to animals that continued being fed with casein based diets (normocaloric and hypercaloric). Results Four groups of rats were used: CC (control casein), CS (control soy), HC (hypercaloric casein) and HS (hypercaloric soy). Malondialdehyde, in serum and liver, did not present differences. In liver, when comparing CS vs. CC: increased superoxide dismutase 1 (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T06:58:05.162608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6795
  • Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Irrigation on Phenolic Content,
    • Authors: Dongyun Ma; Dexiang Sun, Yaoguang Li, Chenyang Wang, Yingxin Xie, Tiancai Guo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Understanding the variance of antioxidant in wheat grain responses to irrigation and nitrogen (N) fertilizer management will improve the nutrient quality of wheat grain. Four N rates (0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha−1) combined with irrigation times (I0, no irrigation; I1, jointing time irrigation; I2, jointing + flowering time irrigation), were used to determine the effect of N fertilization and irrigation on total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity (AOA) of wheat grain. Results Irrigation, N fertilization and their interactions had significant effect on TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), AOA, p-coumaric acid (PCA), as well as vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic acid (CA). I1N300 treatment had the highest TPC at Zhengzhou and Wenxian (1451.5 µg g−1 and 1397.9 µg g−1, respectively) location, while I1N240 resulted in the highest TFC (0.75 mg g−1) and VA (19.77 µg g−1) at Wenxian. TPC, TFC, AOA, ferulic acid (FA), PCA and VA increased with N application rate (from 180 to 300 kg N ha−1). Conclusion An appropriate irrigation and N management improved antioxidant content and AOA in wheat grain. Generally, I1N240 and I1N300 treatment resulted in the higher TPC, TFC, AOA, as well as phenolic acid, i.e. FA and VA.
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T08:32:55.244952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6790
  • Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and
           mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens)
    • Authors: Yongxin Yang; Xiaowei Zhao, Shumin Yu, Suizhong Cao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. Results We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Hemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. Conclusion These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival.
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T03:55:16.691108-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6791
  • Effects of light quality on the accumulation of phytochemicals in
           vegetables produced in controlled environments: a review
    • Authors: Zhong Hua Bian; Qi Chang Yang, Wen Ke Liu
      Abstract: Phytochemicals in vegetables are important for human health, and their biosynthesis, metabolism and accumulation are affected by environmental factors. Light condition (light quality, light intensity and photoperiod) is one of the most important environmental variables in regulating vegetable growth, development and phytochemical accumulation, particularly for vegetables produced in controlled environments. With the development of LED (light-emitting diode) technology, light environment regulation has become increasingly feasible for the provision of ideal light quality, intensity and photoperiod for protected facilities. In this review, the effects of light quality regulation on phytochemical accumulation in vegetables produced in controlled environments are identified, highlighting the research progress and advantages of LED technology as a light environment regulation tool for modifying phytochemical accumulation in vegetables.
      PubDate: 2014-06-14T08:46:41.609579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6789
  • Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
           using liquid solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction
    • Authors: Laura Jaime; Erika Vázquez, Tiziana Fornari, María del Carmen Lopez-Hazas, Mónica R. Garcia-Risco, Susana Santoyo, Guillermo Reglero
      Abstract: Background In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid–liquid extraction (SLE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. Results The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO2 extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds shows the highest antioxidant activities, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also shows a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts present an important anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported.
      PubDate: 2014-06-14T08:26:37.320406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6788
  • Application of response surface methodology to optimize microbial
           inactivation of shrimp and conch by supercritical carbon dioxide
    • Authors: Manhua Chen; Xiao Sui, Xixiu Ma, Xiaomei Feng, Yuqian Han
      Abstract: Background Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been shown to have a good pasteurizing effect on food. However, very few research papers have investigated the possibility to exploit this treatment for solid foods, particularly for seafood. Considering the microbial safety of raw seafood consumption, the study aimed to explore the feasibility of microbial inactivation of shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and conch (Rapana venosa) by SC-CO2 treatment. Results Response surface methodology (RSM) models were established to predict and analyze the SC-CO2 process. A 3.69-log reduction in the total aerobic plate count (TPC) of shrimp was observed by SC-CO2 treatment at 53 °C, 15 MPa for 40 min, and the logarithmic reduction in TPC of conch was 3.31 at 55 °C, 14 MPa for 42 min. Sensory scores of the products achieved approximately 8 (desirable). The optimal parameters for microbial inactivation of shrimp and conch by SC-CO2 might be 55 °C, 15 MPa and 40 min. Conclusion SC-CO2 exerted a strong bactericidal effect on the TPC of shrimp and conch, and the products maintained good organoleptic properties. This study verified the feasibility of microbial inactivation of shrimp and conch by SC-CO2 treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T15:15:58.084683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6783
  • Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing
           food waste?
    • Authors: Michael M Blanke
      Pages: 2357 - 2361
      Abstract: Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59–65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas – ethylene – is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor‐based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low‐ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1‐MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. ‘It's Fresh’, Ryan'), packages (e.g. ‘Peakfresh’), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce (‘Wunderlinge’), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the ‘sell by’ date (‘Die Tafel’) and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing food waste. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T08:32:43.231353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6660
  • The role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle: tracking the
           below‐ground microbial processing of plant‐derived carbon for
           manipulating carbon dynamics in agricultural systems
    • Authors: Christos Gougoulias; Joanna M Clark, Liz J Shaw
      Pages: 2362 - 2371
      Abstract: It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and managed soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil‐derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil carbon cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic carbon inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the management of agro‐ecosystems for carbon sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant‐derived carbon‐utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high‐throughput ability to quantitatively apportion carbon use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant–soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil carbon storage in agricultural soil. © 2014 The
      Authors . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2014-03-06T10:35:40.386642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6577
  • Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals
    • Authors: Jafar Milani; Gisoo Maleki
      Pages: 2372 - 2375
      Abstract: The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food‐processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T10:10:31.630676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6600
  • Bioproduction of baccatin III, an advanced precursor of paclitaxol, with
           transgenic Flammulina velutipes expressing the 10‐deacetylbaccatin
           III‐10‐O‐acetyl transferase gene
    • Authors: Fei Han; Lin‐Zhi Kang, Xian‐Lu Zeng, Zhi‐Wei Ye, Li‐Qiong Guo, Jun‐Fang Lin
      Pages: 2376 - 2383
      Abstract: BACKGROUND 10‐Deacetylbaccatin III (10‐DAB) and baccatin III are intermediates in the biosynthesis of Taxol (an anti‐cancer drug) and useful precursors for semi‐synthesis of the drug. In this study, a bioconversion system was established for the production of baccatin III, an advanced precursor of paclitaxel, in the transgenic mushroom Flammulina velutipes expressing the 10‐deacetylbaccatin III‐10β‐O‐acetyltransferase gene. The expression vector pgFvs‐TcDBAT containing the 10‐deacetylbaccatin III‐10β‐O‐acetyltransferase (DBAT) gene was constructed and transformed into the cells of F. velutipes by polyethylene glycol‐mediated protoplast transformation. RESULTS Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting analysis verified the successful integration of the exogenous DBAT gene into the genome of F. velutipes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme activity analyses confirmed that the DBAT gene was expressed in F. velutipes, and DBAT is able to convert substrate into baccatin III. CONCLUSION The DBAT gene from the plant Taxus chinensis can be functionally expressed in F. velutipes. Transgenic F. velutipes expressing the DBAT gene is able to produce the target product, baccatin III. This is the first report about the transformation and expression of paclitaxel biosynthetic gene in the edible mushroom F. velutipes. This represents a significant step towards bio‐production of paclitaxel and its advanced precursor baccatin III in an edible fungus. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-13T10:47:50.570578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6562
  • Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste
           characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha
           (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice
    • Authors: Yonathan Asikin; Hibiki Fukunaga, Yoshimasa Yamano, De‐Xing Hou, Goki Maeda, Koji Wada
      Pages: 2384 - 2392
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. RESULTS Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; ‘Izumi kugani’ juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26–53.73 mg L−1 in whole juice versus 0.82–1.58 mg L−1 in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Conclusion Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:53:45.863937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6563
  • Anthocyanin profiles and biological properties of caneberry (Rubus spp.)
           press residues
    • Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac; Amadeo Gironés‐Vilaplana, Sonja Djilas, Pedro Mena, Gordana Ćetković, Diego A Moreno, Jasna Čanadanović‐Brunet, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić, Milica Krunić
      Pages: 2393 - 2400
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The global interest in natural food colours shows increasing attention towards new product development to replace synthetic colourants, because of the strengthening of legislative rules and consumer awareness of synthetic additives and chemicals in food. This study was designed to evaluate anthocyanin content and biological activities of press residues from four caneberries: two raspberry (Rubus idaeus, cv. ‘Meeker’ (RM) and ‘Willamette’ (RW)) and two blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, cv. ‘Thornfree’ (BT) and ‘Čačanska bestrna’ (BC)) cultivars. RESULTS Analysis by high‐performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry identified cyanidin glycosides in all press residues, cyanidin 3‐glucoside being prevalent in BC (1360.6 mg kg−1) and BT (1397.7 mg kg−1), and cyanidin 3‐sophoroside in RM (349.2 mg kg−1) and RW (581.0 mg kg−1). Antioxidant capacity (AC), evaluated by ABTS (2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethyl benzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) assay, reducing power (RP) and α‐glucosidase inhibitory potential (α‐GIP) was higher in blackberry press residues. Total anthocyanin content was in good correlation with AC (r = 0.953; P < 0.05), RP (r = 0.993, P < 0.01) and α‐GIP (r = 0.852, P < 0.15). CONCLUSION This study has revealed the potential for valorization of juice production byproducts for further industrial use as a rich source of bioactive compounds and natural colourants (mainly anthocyanins). Also, they can provide health‐promoting effects beyond their general organoleptic acceptance in food product development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-13T04:54:44.609042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6564
  • Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric assay of ascorbic acid in
           pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice with pH adjustment and
           pre‐extraction of lanthanum(III)–flavonoid complexes
    • Authors: F Ayca Ozdemir Olgun; Dilek Ozyurt, Kadriye Isil Berker, Birsen Demirata, Resat Apak
      Pages: 2401 - 2408
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study proposes modifications to the conventional Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) spectrophotometric method for individually determining ascorbic acid (AA) in complex matrices in the presence of other phenolics and potential interferents. The conventional FC assay in the aqueous phase, which normally measures total water‐soluble phenolics and other antioxidants, has recently been modified by incorporating isobutanol (iso‐BuOH) in the solvent mixture for the simultaneous determination of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in foods. RESULTS Interference effects of other flavonoids and phenolics to individual AA assays were overcome by preliminary extraction–removal as their La(III) chelates into ethyl acetate (EtAc). The pH of the medium was adjusted to 3.0 in order to prevent conversion of AA into over‐oxidation products further beyond the dehydroascorbic acid stage, as encountered in the conventional FC assay carried out at pH 10. This pH does not permit most phenolics to ionise, rendering their oxidation difficult. CONCLUSION Both methods (conventional and iso‐BuOH‐modified FC at pH 3, with and without La(III)/EtAc pre‐extraction) were applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice, showing good agreement with HPLC results. The proposed spectrophotometric methods with their low cost, simplicity, reliability, versatility and accuracy offer novelty to the determination of AA in complex matrices. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:54:14.096705-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6569
  • Barrier, structural and mechanical properties of bovine
           gelatin–chitosan blend films related to biopolymer interactions
    • Authors: Nasreddine Benbettaïeb; Mia Kurek, Salwa Bornaz, Frédéric Debeaufort
      Pages: 2409 - 2419
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The increased use of synthetic packaging films has led to a high ecological problem due to their total non‐biodegradability. Thus, there is a vital need to develop renewable and environmentally friendly bio‐based polymeric materials. Films and coatings made from polysaccharide polymers, particularly chitosans and gelatins have good gas barrier properties and are envisaged more and more for applications in the biomedical and food fields, as well as for packaging. In this study a casting method was used to develop an edible plasticised film from chitosan and gelatin. Aiming to develop a blend film with enhanced properties, the effects of mixing chitosan (CS) and gelatin (G) in different proportions (CS:G, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, w/w) on functional and physico‐chemical properties have been studied. RESULTS Mean film thickness increased linearly (R2 = 0.999) with surface density of the film forming solution. An enhancement of mechanical properties by increasing the tensile strength (38.7 ± 11 MPa for pure chitosan and 76.8 ± 9 MPa for pure gelatin film) was also observed in blends, due to gelatin content. When the gelatin content in blend films was increased an improvement of both water vapour barrier properties [(4 ± 0.3) × 10−10 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for pure chitosan and (2.5 ± 0.14) × 10−10 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for pure gelatin, at 70% RH gradient] and oxygen barrier properties ((822.62 ± 90.24) × 10−12 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for blend film chitosan:gelatin (25:75 w/w) and (296.67 ± 18.76) × 10−12 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for pure gelatin was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectra of blend films showed a shift in the peak positions related to the amide groups (amide‐I and amide‐III) indicating interactions between biopolymers. CONCLUSIONS Addition of gelatin in chitosan induced greater functional properties (mechanical, barrier) due to chemical interactions, suggesting an inter‐penetrated network. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:47:06.070234-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6570
  • Effect of power ultrasound pretreatment on peptidic profiles and
           angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition of milk protein concentrate
    • Authors: Hankie Uluko; Lu Liu, Hongjuan Li, Wenming Cui, Shuwen Zhang, Lili Zhao, Haixiao Xue, Jiaping Lv
      Pages: 2420 - 2428
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of power ultrasound as a pretreatment to enhance the hydrolysis of milk protein concentrate (MPC) and subsequent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity has been studied. Liquid chromatography was used to analyse peptide profiles of Neutrase‐derived MPC hydrolysates after pretreatment at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at an ultrasound power level of 800 W. RESULTS The peptide profiles indicated an increase in number of peptides when ultrasound pretreatment was applied. There was also an increase in the degree of hydrolysis of MPC hydrolysates. The profiles indicated that new small peptides in ultrasound pretreated samples (1–5 min) which were not present in the control samples and 8 min pretreated samples, could be responsible for increased ACE inhibitory activity. These small peptides were digested in the 8 min pretreated samples. CONCLUSION Ultrasound pretreatment of MPC increases the ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates because of the production of new small peptides. This can be used as a means to derive potent ACE inhibitory peptides at industrial scale in complex protein sources. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-11T09:50:38.87307-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6572
  • Characterization, phylogenetic affiliation and probiotic properties of
           high cell density Lactobacillus strains recovered from silage
    • Authors: Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Min‐Woong Jung, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Da Hye Kim, Hyung Su Park, Jung Won Park, Naif Abdullah Al‐Dhabi, Ki Choon Choi
      Pages: 2429 - 2440
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to isolate high cell density Lactobacillus (LAB) from different forages and select the best strains for production of silage with improved the lactic acid production. RESULTS Twenty heterofermentative LAB strains were selected and their probiotic properties were analyzed by evaluating their tolerance to low pH, bile salts, biogenic amine production, enzyme activity, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and antifungal activity. The 16S rRNA gene‐based phylogenetic affiliation indicated that 16 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum and others were L. bobalius, L. zymae, L. crustorum and L. diolivorans. Shake‐flask cultivation of these strains under aerobic conditions showed comparatively higher growth and organic acid production than that achieved using the well‐studied LAB strains. In addition, all the strains were highly sensitive towards ox gall (0.3%), but grew well in the presence of sodium taurocholate (0.3%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is an intrinsic feature of these LAB strains; thus consumption does not represent a health risk to humans. Lactobacillus plantarum strains exhibited considerable antifungal activity against food pathogens. CONCLUSION The present finding raises the possibility that high cell density LAB strains with potential probiotic properties could be used to prepare quality silages for animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T12:40:15.892677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6573
  • Effect of citronella essential oil on the inhibition of postharvest
           Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato
    • Authors: Qianru Chen; Shixiang Xu, Tao Wu, Jun Guo, Sha Sha, Xiaodong Zheng, Ting Yu
      Pages: 2441 - 2447
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Essential oils such as citronella oil exhibit antifungal activity and are potential alternative inhibitors to chemical synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases. In this study the antifungal activity of citronella oil against Alternaria alternata was investigated. RESULTS In vitro, citronella oil showed strong inhibition activity against A. alternata. The minimum inhibitory concentration in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose broth medium was determined as 1 and 0.8 µL mL−1 respectively. In vivo the disease incidence of Lycopersicon esculentum (cherry tomato) treated with citronella oil was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced compared with the control after 5 days of storage at 25 °C and 95% relative humidity. The disease incidence at oil concentrations of 0.2–1.5 µL mL−1 was 88–48%. The most effective dosage of the oil was 1.5 µL mL−1, with 52% reduction, and the oil had no negative effect on fruit quality. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed considerably abnormal mycelial morphology. CONCLUSION Citronella oil can significantly inhibit A. alternata in vitro and in vivo and has potential as a promising natural product for controlling black rot in cherry tomato. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-21T05:02:09.657203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6576
  • Amino acid availability in ruminants of cereals and cereal
    • Authors: Javier González; José M Arroyo, Jésus Alberto Guevara‐González, Rabiaa Mouhbi, Olga Piquer, Vicente Javier Moya
      Pages: 2448 - 2455
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microbial corrected in situ estimates of the ruminal undegraded fraction (RU) and intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of amino acids (AA), except tryptophan, of rye, wheat and corn grains, wheat bran, wheat and barley distilled dried grains and corn gluten feed were measured on three rumen‐ and duodenum‐cannulated wethers using 15N‐labelling techniques and considering ruminal rates of particle comminution and outflow. RESULTS The lack of microbial correction led to overestimations of the intestinal digested fraction that rose with the increase in ruminal degradability. Thus these overestimations varied widely among feeds (from 4.3 to 32.1% for total analysed AA) and among AA. Digestion led to large changes in the AA supply that were greater in the rumen than in the intestine. The impact of these changes on the protein value is conditioned by the magnitude of the undegraded protein fraction. CONCLUSION Microbial contamination taking place in the rumen and changes in the AA supply with digestion should be considered to attain accurate estimates of AA digestion. Globally, digestion improved the AA supply in rye, wheat and wheat distilled dried grain and decreased it in corn and corn gluten feed by reducing the supply of valine and basic AA, especially lysine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T13:00:49.103432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6579
  • Bio protection and preservation of raw beef meat using pungent aromatic
           plant substances
    • Authors: Kesavan Radha krishnan; Srinivasan Babuskin, Packirisamy Azhagu Saravana Babu, Mohammed Abbas Fayidh, Kalleary Sabina, Ganesan Archana, Meenatchisundaram Sivarajan, Muthusamy Sukumar
      Pages: 2456 - 2463
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study examined the effectiveness of three individual spice (clove, cinnamon and oregano) extracts and their combinations in raw beef meat during refrigerated storage. Meat samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp.) and physicochemical (pH, colour and thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances (TBARS)) attributes. RESULTS Samples treated with the combination of all three spice extracts showed lower bacterial counts and better L*, a* and b* values among treated samples during the storage period. Positive and negative control samples had the highest TBARS values at the end of the storage period. With the addition of spice extracts, TBARS values in raw beef samples were retarded effectively (P < 0.05) compared with control samples, especially when the combination of all three spice extracts was used. CONCLUSION The results of this study show that spice extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations and retarding lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage (4 °C) of raw beef meat. They also suggest that combinations of these extracts may have potential as natural preservatives in raw meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-20T17:25:41.941947-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6580
  • Determination of volatile compounds in turbot (Psetta maxima) during
           refrigerated storage by headspace solid‐phase microextraction and
           gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Yongxia Xu; Ying Liu, Chengcheng Jiang, Chaomin Zhang, Xuepeng Li, Danshi Zhu, Jianrong Li
      Pages: 2464 - 2471
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A procedure based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS‐SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) was developed for the study of the volatile profile characteristics of turbot during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 20 days in order to find possible markers of freshness or spoilage. RESULTS A total of 61 volatile compounds including aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, aromatics, amines and others were identified in turbot muscle extracted by the optimised HS‐SPME method. The volatile profile characteristics of turbot at different storage periods were specified by principal component analysis (PCA). The concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, (2E,4E)‐heptadienal, acetophenone, 2‐undecanone and 1‐octen‐3‐ol decreased during storage, whereas benzene acetaldehyde, 6‐methyl‐5‐hepten‐2‐one, 2‐nonanone, acetic acid butyl ester, 3‐methyl‐1‐butanol and trimethylamine increased. CONCLUSION SPME‐GC‐MS combined with PCA may be a useful method for monitoring the volatile profile characteristics of turbot during storage, which could be potentially used for freshness evaluation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:44:34.692551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6581
  • Studies on the preparative isolation and stability of seven main
           anthocyanins from Yan 73 grape
    • Authors: Ke Tang; Yang Li, Yehui Han, Fuliang Han, Jiming Li, Yao Nie, Yan Xu
      Pages: 2472 - 2481
      Abstract: BACKROUND Seven anthocyanin monomers of Yan 73 grape were separated using preparative HPLC and identified by UPLC‐ESI‐MS/MS. The stabilities of the seven isolated anthocyanins to light, temperature and pH were also investigated. RESULTS Seven anthocyanin monomers were successfully isolated with an Xbridge Prep C18 column on a preparative scale. The pigments delphinidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, malvidin‐3‐O‐acetylglucoside and malvidin‐3‐O‐coumarylglucoside were yielded in a one‐step separation by preparative HPLC, with purities up to 99.9%, 91.7% and 95.5%, respectively. The pigments cyanidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, petunidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, peonidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, and malvidin‐3‐O‐glucoside were further purified with another elution method and their purities were all improved up to 99.9%. Monomeric anthocyanin degradation fitted a first‐order reaction model. The seven isolated anthocyanins were significantly more stable in the dark than under light. High temperature was also unfavourable for the stability of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins were more stable at lower pH than at higher pH. In addition, among these anthocyanins, delphinidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, malvidin‐3‐O‐acetylglucoside and malvidin‐3‐O‐coumarylglucoside were more susceptible to light, heat, and pH than the others. CONCLUSION A simple and clean isolation method of seven anthocyanin monomers from Yan 73 grape was established. The stabilities of the seven anthocyanin monomers to light, temperature and pH were different, but the trends in changes were similar. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-17T04:50:48.020138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6582
  • Allergenicity of an enzymatic hydrolysate of soybean 2S protein
    • Authors: Dongeun Sung; Kang Mo Ahn, Seung‐Yong Lim, Sangsuk Oh
      Pages: 2482 - 2487
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study was performed to examine how the characteristics of soybean 2S protein influence allergenicity after enzymatic hydrolysis. Soybean 2S protein was extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using pepsin and chymotrypsin. Allergenicity was observed using soybean‐sensitive patients' sera. RESULTS Only 13.3% (6/45) of soybean‐sensitive patients reacted to soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), known as the major allergen of soybean 2S protein. After peptic hydrolysis for 90 min at pH 1.2, the intensity of SKTI decreased to 25% but was still visible on SDS‐PAGE. Chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis at pH 8 for 60 min showed a limited hydrolytic effect on soybean 2S protein. Peptic hydrolysis of soybean 2S protein partially reduced the allergenicity of soybean 2S protein, while chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis increased slightly the allergenicity. CONCLUSION Food allergy caused by soybean 2S protein occurred in part of the soybean‐sensitive patients. SKTI was partially digested after peptic hydrolysis for 90 min. The allergenicity was decreased with peptic hydrolysis, while subsequent treatment of chymotrypsin increased slightly the allergenicity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-22T11:37:30.918721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6583
  • Loss of sulfur dioxide and changes in some chemical properties of Malatya
           apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) during sulfuring and drying
    • Authors: Meltem Türkyılmaz; Mehmet Özkan, Nihal Güzel
      Pages: 2488 - 2496
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study was conducted to determine the differences in some analytical properties of four apricot cultivars and to determine the changes in these analytical properties during sulfuring and sun‐drying. RESULTS There were significant differences in the contents of polyphenols, carotenoids and organic acids (OA) as well as antioxidant activities (AOAs) of the cultivars (P < 0.05). After sulfuring and drying, considerable reductions were detected in the contents of total polyphenols (TPCs, 11–26%), OAs (4–32%) and β‐carotene (6–21%), and AOAs (2–21%) of the samples. Sun‐drying resulted in 71–83% decreases in sulfur dioxide (SO2) contents of sulfured–dried apricots (SDAs) in comparison with apricots immediately after sulfuring. As the TPCs increased, the SO2 absorption by the samples also increased. In contrast, the OA contents had no effect on SO2 absorption, but an increase in OA content resulted in an increase in the browning values of the SDAs. As expected, increases in contents of ferulic acid (r = 0.932), chlorogenic acid (r = 0.850), epicatechin (r = 0.804) and quercetin (r = 0.750) led to an increase in browning values of the SDAs. CONCLUSION There were significant effects of cultivar and processing on the physico‐chemical properties investigated in the study, and with the absorption of SO2 and the formation of a brown colour in the samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T15:27:47.360613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6584
  • Antioxidant, oxidative DNA damage protective and antimicrobial activities
           of the plant Trigonella foenum‐graecum
    • Authors: Pankaj Singh; Shri P Vishwakarma, Ram L Singh
      Pages: 2497 - 2504
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The plant Trigonella foenum‐gracecum (TFG) is used as antidiabetic and diuretic. In order to ascertain antioxidant potential of leaf (early and mature) and seed of TFG, total phenolics, free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation, ferric thiocyanate assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DNA damage protective activities were determined. The study was further carried out to assay the antimicrobial activity and HPLC analysis of plant parts. RESULTS Ethanol extracts of leaf (early and mature) exhibited a high content of phenolics (54.79 and 41.28 g kg−1 GAE) when it was compared with seed extract (23.85 g kg−1 GAE). Results showed that mature TFG leaf extract had the lowest IC50 for the free radical scavenging assay (IC50 = 2.23 mg mL−1), superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.71 mg mL−1), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 17.30 mg mL−1) and highest reducing power (10.14 ascorbic acid equivalents mL−1). However, the ethanol seed extract showed the maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the ferric thiocyanate assay. Mature leaf also showed the maximum DNA damage protection activity and higher concentration of phytochemicals. CONCLUSION The results showed that the mature TFG leaf had a higher antioxidant activity, which may be due to the presence of total phenolics. It may be used in herbal drugs or as a nutritional supplement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-20T17:25:36.647083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6585
  • Accumulation of lipofuscin‐like pigments of walnuts (Carya
           cathayensis) during storage: potential roles of lipid oxidation and
           non‐enzymatic glycosylation
    • Authors: Wenjuan Li; Haiyan Gao, Xiangjun Fang, Fei Tao, Hangjun Chen, Honglei Mu, Yueming Jiang
      Pages: 2505 - 2513
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lipofuscin‐like pigments (LFLP) are considered a hallmark of aging. The intracellular LFLP formation rate is negatively correlated with the life expectancy of cell. In food quality, increase of LFLP not only affects the appearance but also causes loss of nutritional value. RESULTS The accumulation of LFLP increased during storage of all walnuts. LFLP fluorescent intensities of walnuts with 4%, 6%, 12% and 16% moisture at the end of storage were 8.1, 4.8, 4.3 and 2.8 times those at the beginning, respectively. The LFLP accumulation of walnuts with high moisture was found to be negatively correlated with soluble sugars and 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical quenching rate, but positively correlated with the content of hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF). While the LFLP accumulation of walnuts with low moisture had a strong positive correlation with anisidine value, it exhibited high negative correlations with acid phosphatase activity, DPPH• quenching rate and tocopherol content. CONCLUSION In walnuts with low initial moisture, lipoxidation products increased markedly during storage and these products might provide the source for LFLP accumulation. On the other hand, in walnuts with high initial moisture, reducing sugars derived from the hydrolysis of soluble sugars might play an important role in initiating the Maillard‐like reaction, leading to LFLP accumulation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-22T09:16:34.726786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6587
  • Lactobacillus brevis OPK‐3 isolated from kimchi inhibits
    • Authors: Jeong‐Eun Park; Suk‐Heung Oh, Youn‐Soo Cha
      Pages: 2514 - 2520
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Kimchi is a traditional fermented food in Korea that contains various unique microorganisms. Diverse bacteria are involved in the process of Kimchi fermentation and the healthful advantages; one of the major species is Lactobacillus. We investigated whether lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi (KLAB) are capable of reducing intracellular lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of adipogenesis and lipogenesis promoting genes in differentiating 3T3‐L1 cells. RESULTS KLAB (Lactobacillus brevis OPK‐3) mediated dose‐dependent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, intracellular triglyceride accumulation and glycerol‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. The expression of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α involved in adipogenesis was markedly decreased by the KLAB treatment. Terminal adipogenic marker, e.g. adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase, liver X receptor α, leptin and GPDH were significantly downregulated by KLAB treatment compared to untreated control. Moreover, cytokine genes, such as tumor necrosis factor‐α and interleukin‐6 mRNA expressions level were also decreased, whereas adiponectin mRNA level was upregulated by KLAB. CONCLUSION These results suggest that the KLAB inhibits lipid accumulation in the differentiating adipocyte through downregulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes involved in lipid metabolism. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-26T11:03:38.20555-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6588
  • Improving ryegrass‐clover pasture dry matter yield and urea
           efficiency with gibberellic acid
    • Authors: Mohammad Zaman; Anwar Ghani, Leonid V Kurepin, Richard P Pharis, Shabana Khan, Terry J Smith
      Pages: 2521 - 2528
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of spraying gibberellic acid (GA3) at 20 or 30 g ha−1, with or without application of urea, on pasture dry matter (DM) yield, herbage nitrogen (N) concentration and feed quality were investigated in 2011 and 2012 for managed pastoral systems in New Zealand across a range of sites, in both autumn and spring. RESULTS On the Waikato site (autumn and spring, 2012), and at all five sites in 2011, liquid urea applied with GA3 at 20 or 30 g ha−1 consistently produced significantly higher pasture shoot DM yield, relative to liquid urea alone. Application of GA3 alone reduced feed quality by lowering metabolizable energy, crude protein and organic matter digestibility values. However, a reduced feed quality was not observed when GA3 was applied together with liquid urea. Liquid urea applied with GA3 also reduced total N and nitrate‐N concentration in herbage, relative to liquid urea applied alone. CONCLUSION Application of GA3 together with liquid urea provides an opportunity for the strategic use of urea to meet both production and environmental goals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T10:16:50.275245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6589
  • Antimicrobial potentials of active component isolated from Citrullus
           colocynthis fruits and structure–activity relationships of its
           analogues against foodborne bacteria
    • Authors: Min‐Gi Kim; Sung‐Eun Lee, Ji‐Yeon Yang, Hoi‐Seon Lee
      Pages: 2529 - 2533
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Synthetic preservatives have been consistently used to maintain the quality of food products. However, the degree of danger to human health cannot be ignored. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of Citrullus colocynthis fruits and 4‐methylquinoline analogues were investigated to develop natural preservatives against foodborne bacteria. RESULTS Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and five fractions derived from C. colocynthis fruits were evaluated against five foodborne bacteria. The chloroform fraction possessed strong activities against five foodborne bacteria. 4‐Methylquinoline was isolated by chromatographic analyses. To establish the structure–activity relationships, the antimicrobial activities of 4‐methylquinoline analogues (2‐hydroxyquinoline, 4‐hydroxyquinoline, 6‐hydroxyquinoline, 2‐methylquinoline, 6‐methyquinoline, 8‐methylquinoline and 2‐methyl‐8‐hydroxyquinoline) were tested against food‐borne bacteria. When employing the agar diffusion method, 2‐methyl‐8‐hydroxyquinoline was found to have potent activities against the five foodborne bacteria. In terms of minimum bactericidal concentration or minimum inhibitory concentration, 2‐methyl‐8‐hydroxyquinoline had significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the five foodborne bacteria. CONCLUSION Citrullus colocynthis fruits and 4‐methylquinoline analogues could be useful for the development of eco‐friendly food supplemental agents and pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T12:05:29.790357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6590
  • An eco‐friendly, quick and cost‐effective method for the
           quantification of acrylamide in cereal‐based baby foods
    • Authors: Mehmet Fatih Cengiz; Cennet Pelin Boyacı Gündüz
      Pages: 2534 - 2540
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The presence of acrylamide in cereal‐based baby foods is a matter of great concern owing to its possible health effects. Derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of the most common methods to quantify acrylamide. However, it requires the use of toxic chemicals and is time‐consuming. The aim of this study was to develop an eco‐friendly, rapid and inexpensive method for the determination of acrylamide in cereal‐based baby foods. RESULTS The method involves defatting with n‐hexane, extraction into water, precipitation of proteins, bromination, extraction into ethyl acetate and injection into a GC/MS system. The effects of defatting, precipitation, treatment with triethylamine, addition of internal standard and column selection were reviewed. A flow chart for acrylamide analysis was prepared. To evaluate the applicability of the method, 62 different cereal‐based baby foods were analyzed. The levels of acrylamide ranged from not detected (below the limit of detection) to 660 µg kg−1. CONCLUSION The method is more eco‐friendly and less expensive because it consumes very little solvent relative to other methods using bromine solutions and ethyl acetate. In addition, sample pre‐treatment requires no solid phase extraction or concentration steps. The method is recommended for the determination of trace acrylamide in complex cereal‐based baby food products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-24T12:07:41.838387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6592
  • Fate and survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7
           in repacked soil lysimeters after application of cattle slurry and human
    • Authors: Karin A Nyberg; Jakob R Ottoson, Björn Vinnerås, Ann Albihn
      Pages: 2541 - 2546
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Use of cattle slurry as a fertiliser is common practice around the world. Human urine use is not as common, but owing to its fertiliser value this might change in the future. It is essential to minimise the transfer of enteric pathogens through fertilisation, with respect to both animal and public health. Therefore the objective of this research was to study the survival and transport of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in two agricultural soils when applied to soil along with either cattle slurry or human urine over a period of 180 days. RESULTS Both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were more rapidly reduced when applied together with human urine than when applied with cattle slurry. However, both pathogens persisted in low amounts at 20 and 50 cm depth in both soils throughout the whole study period. No Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the leachate over the 180 day study. CONCLUSION The risk of disease transmission is higher when cattle slurry is used as fertiliser compared with human urine. However, the risk of groundwater infiltration would be low as long as water velocity through the soil is moderate. Increased knowledge of pathogen persistence in soil after fertiliser application is a valuable tool for improving risk evaluations and formulating guidelines for the use of cattle and/or human wastes in cropping soils. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-24T12:07:32.545985-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6593
  • Effects of ZnO nanoparticles and microwave heating on the sterilization
           and product quality of vacuum‐packaged Caixin
    • Authors: Qian Liu; Min Zhang, Zhong‐xiang Fang, Xiao‐hong Rong
      Pages: 2547 - 2554
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The sterilization of vacuum‐packaged Caixin (Brassica chinensis L.), which is a green‐leafy vegetable and also a low‐acid food, remains a difficult problem. In this study, effects of ZnO nanoparticles and microwave heating on the sterilization and product quality of vacuum‐packaged Caixin were investigated. RESULTS Addition of ZnO nanoparticle suspension at 0.01–0.02 g kg−1 reduced the number of bacterial colonies. The antibacterial activity was enhanced with the increased amount of ZnO nanoparticles. Microwave heating (915 and 2450 MHz) was used to sterilize Caixin samples. Samples had good product quality (better greenness, chroma and hue angle values, lower browning index and acceptable texture) and the lowest total colony number under the microwave heating condition of 400 W 150 s (2450 MHz). CONCLUSION The best sterilization condition was observed under 2450 MHz microwave (400 W 150 s) heating combined with 0.02 g kg−1 ZnO nanoparticle addition, which led to a total colony number of
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T06:47:58.503422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6594
  • Effect of methyl jasmonate, sodium selenate and chitosan as exogenous
           elicitors on the phenolic compounds profile of broccoli sprouts
    • Authors: Herna Barrientos Carvacho; Carmen Pérez, Gustavo Zúñiga, Andrea Mahn
      Pages: 2555 - 2561
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Broccoli sprouts are a good source of secondary metabolites, exhibiting biological activity, such as polyphenols, whose concentration is affected by the exposure to exogenous elicitors. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sodium selenate, chitosan and methyl jasmonate, applied directly to the seeds or through irrigation, on the content and profile of phenolic compounds in broccoli sprouts. The effect on antioxidant activity was also investigated. RESULTS Methyl jasmonate and chitosan decreased antioxidant capacity. Methyl jasmonate significantly decreased total polyphenols content in comparison with control sprouts, while chitosan significantly increased it. Sodium selenate had no statistical effect on antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols concentration. The polyphenols profile in sprouts was composed by quercetin, morine, genisteine, luteoline and sinapic acid. Elicitor type and concentration affected the synthesis of these compounds. Chitosan stimulated the synthesis of quercetin, sinapic acid and morine, whereas methyl jasmonate stimulated the synthesis of luteoline. Sodium selenate had no effect on polyphenols synthesis. CONCLUSION The exposure of broccoli to the elicitors produced changes in the phenolic compounds profile of broccoli sprouts. Besides, the stimulation of phenolic compounds synthesis was elicitor‐specific, thus opening the possibility of managing culture conditions to increase the content of a specific phenolic compound. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T05:51:17.549339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6596
  • Effects of formulation, extrusion cooking conditions, and CO2 injection on
           the formation of acrylamide in corn extrudates
    • Authors: Mustafa Tugrul Masatcioglu; Vural Gokmen, Perry K W Ng, Hamit Koksel
      Pages: 2562 - 2568
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Acrylamide is a possible carcinogen and known to form in heat‐treated carbohydrate‐rich foods. This study was designed to investigate the effects of different ingredients (reducing sugars, chemical leavening agents, citric acid), processing conditions (feed moisture content: 22, 24 or 26%, exit die temperature: 110, 150 °C), and extrusion cooking methods (with or without CO2 injection) on acrylamide formation. RESULTS The type of reducing sugar did not have a considerable effect on acrylamide formation, while increased exit die temperature had a promoting effect. Addition of chemical leavening agents (sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate) into formulations increased acrylamide formation levels. The addition of citric acid prevented acrylamide formation, but its effect on textural properties was detrimental. Acrylamide levels of extrudates decreased gradually with increasing feed moisture in all formulations. Acrylamide content of extrudates produced with 22% feed moisture decreased by 61% in the CO2 injection method compared to conventional extrusion. Furthermore, an 82% decrease in acrylamide content was observed with the combined effect of CO2 injection and increasing feed moisture content from 22 to 24% and decreased below the limit of quantification with a further increase in feed moisture. CONCLUSION A substantial decrease in final acrylamide level is probably due to restriction of two major steps of acrylamide formation: dehydration and decarboxylation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-07T06:50:48.880242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6598
  • Determining sucrose and glucose levels in dual‐purpose sorghum
           stalks by Fourier transform near infrared (FT‐NIR) spectroscopy
    • Authors: Shih‐Fang Chen; Mary‐Grace C Danao, Vijay Singh, Patrick J Brown
      Pages: 2569 - 2576
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sorghum is an advanced biomass feedstock from which grain, sugar and stover can be used for biofuel production. Determinations of specific sugar contents in sorghum stalks help to make strategic decisions during plant breeding, processing, storage and optimization of fermentation conditions. In this study, Fourier transform near infrared (FT‐NIR) spectroscopy was used as a relatively fast, low‐cost, high‐throughput assay to predict sucrose and glucose levels in stalks of 40 dwarf grain sorghum inbreds. RESULTS The diffuse reflection spectra were pretreated with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and first‐derivative Savitzy–Golay (SG‐1). Calibrated models were developed by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis. Martens' uncertainty test was used to determine the most effective spectral region. The PLSR model for stalk sucrose content was built on 380 significant wavenumbers in the 4000–6999 cm−1 range. The model was based on four factors and had RPD = 2.40, RMSEP = 1.77 and R2 = 0.81. Similarly, the model for stalk glucose was built using 4000–9000 cm−1 and six factors, with RPD = 2.45, RMSEP = 0.73 and R2 = 0.81. CONCLUSION PLSR models were developed based on FT‐NIR spectra coupled with multivariate data analysis to provide a quick and low‐cost estimate of specific sugar contents in grain sorghum stalks. This sugar information helps decision making for sorghum‐based biomass processing and storage strategies. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-03T11:40:42.762657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6606
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