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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (212 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat from young Nellore
           bulls fed different levels of palm kernel cake
    • Abstract: Background Palm kernel cake is a biodiesel byproduct and an alternative feed additive in cattle production. This study evaluated the effects of palm kernel cake added to bull's diets on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat. Thirty‐two young Nellore bulls were used, distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments: 0, 7, 14 or 21% palm kernel cake in the dry matter of the diet. Hay was used in 35% of the diet, which were balanced to provide 150 g kg−1crude protein and 33 Mcal kg−1 metabolizable energy. Results The moisture (P = 0.40), ash (P = 0.70), protein (P = 0.10) and ether extract contents (P = 0.31) of the meat samples were not affected by the inclusion of palm kernel cake. The qualitative characteristics of the meat, including the pH (P = 0.69), WHC (P = 0.22), CL (P = 0.14), SF (P = 0.32), L* (P = 0.75), a* (P = 0.44), and b* (P = 0.41), were not affected by the substitution of palm kernel cake for soybean meal. Conclusion Palm kernel cake may be included at up to 21% in cattle feed without compromising the physicochemical, sensory and acceptance of the meat.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26T02:10:03.104806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7546
  • The impact of elevated CO2 and temperature on grain quality of rice grown
           under open‐air field conditions
    • Authors: Liquan Jing; Juan Wang, Shibo Sheng, Yunxia Wang, Jianguo Zhu, Yulong Wang, Lianxin Yang
      Abstract: Background Rising atmospheric CO2 is accompanied by global warming. However, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature have not been well studied on grain quality of rice. A japonica cultivar was grown in field by using a Free‐Air CO2 Enrichment facility in combination with canopy‐air‐temperature increase system in 2014. The gas fumigation (200 μmolmol−1 above ambient CO2) and temperature increase (1 °C above ambient air temperature) were performed from tillering until maturity. Results Compared with the control (ambient CO2 and air temperature), elevated CO2 increased grain length and width, grain chalkiness, but decreased protein concentrations. In contrast, the increase of canopy air temperature showed less effects on these parameters except for grain chalkiness. The starch pasting properties of rice flour and taste analysis of cooked rice indicated that palatability of rice was improved by CO2 and/or temperature elevation, with the combination of two treatments showed the most significant changes compared with ambient rice. Conclusion It is concluded that projected CO2 in 2050 may have larger effects on rice grain quality than the projected temperature increase. Although deterioration in the milling suitability, grain appearance and nutritional quality can be expected, the taste of cooked rice might be better in the future environment.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26T02:08:40.678138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7545
  • Olive pomace valorization by Aspergillus species: lipase production using
           solid‐state fermentation
    • Abstract: Background Pollution by olive mill wastes is an important problem in the Mediterranean area and novel solutions for their proper management and valorization are needed. The aim of this work was to optimize a solid‐state fermentation (SSF) process to produce lipase using olive pomace (OP) as the main source of nutrients by several Aspergillus spp. Optimized variables in two different designs were: ratio between olive pomace and wheat bran (OP:WB), NaNO3, Czapek nutrients, fermentation time, moisture content (MC) and temperature. Results Results showed that the mixture OP:WB and MC were the most significant factors affecting lipase production for all fungi strains tested. With MC and temperature optimization, a 4.4‐fold increase in A. ibericus lipase was achieved (90.5± 1.5 U g−1), using a mixture of OP and WB at 1:1 ratio, 0.02 g NaNO3 per g dry substrate, absence of Czapek nutrients, 60% of MC and incubation at 30 °C for 7 days. For A. niger and A. tubingensis, highest lipase activity obtained was 56.6± 5.4 U g−1 and 7.6± 0.6 U g−1, respectively. Conclusion A. ibericus was found to be the most promising microorganism for lipase production using mixtures of OP and WB.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T00:12:19.831811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7544
  • Effect of Physico‐chemical Parameters on the Polygalacturonase of an
           Aspergillus sojae Mutant using Wheat Bran an Agro‐industrial Waste
           via Solid‐state Fermentation
    • Abstract: Background Polygalacturonases (PG) are valuable enzymes of the food industry; therefore it is of great importance to discover new and GRAS PG‐producing microbial strains. In this study, PG enzyme produced from a high PG activity producer mutant Aspergillus sojae using wheat bran at the flask scale under the pre‐optimized conditions of solid‐state fermentation (SSF) was biochemically characterized. Results The crude PG enzyme showed optimum activity at the pH range of 4.0 – 5.0 and was stable in the pH range of 3.0 – 7.0. The optimum temperature for the PG was 40 °C and it retained its 99% activity at 50 °C. The mutant Aspergillus sojae polygalacturonase could preserve more than 50% of its stability between 25 and 50 °C, both for 30 and 60 minutes and was found to be stable in the presence of most of the tested compounds and metal ions. The inactivation energy (Ed) was determined as 125.3 kJ mole−1. Enthalpy (ΔH*), free energy of inactivation (ΔG*) and entropy (ΔS*) for thermal inactivation were found to be stable with the increasing temperature. Conclusion The mutant Aspergillus sojae polygalacturonase could be suitable for the clarification (depectinization) of orange and grape juices and wine.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T00:11:57.541928-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7543
  • Cross‐linking of Peanut Allergen Ara h 2 by Polyphenol Oxidase:
           Digestibility and Potential Allergenicity Assessment
    • Authors: Zhihua Wu; Jun Lian, Yuanlong Han, Ningling Zhou, Xin Li, Anshu Yang, Ping Tong, Hongbing Chen
      Abstract: Background Peanut is one of the eight major food allergens. Its allergen, Ara h 2, can be recognized by over 90% of serum IgE samples from peanut‐allergic patients. Therefore, reducing the allergenicity of Ara h 2 is especially important. Results In the present study, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a protein cross‐linking reaction catalyst that acts on tyrosine residue, was used to modify Ara h 2. After cross‐linking, the microstructure, digestibility, IgG binding capability, and IgE binding capability of Ara h 2 were analyzed. Cross‐linking decreased the potential allergenicity of Ara h 2 by masking the allergen epitope, while the antigenicity of Ara h 2 slightly changed. After cross‐linking, the apparent diameter of Ara h 2 was altered from 300 nm to 1,700 nm or 220 nm, indicating that polymerization could either be inter‐ or intramolecular. For the digestibility, cross‐linked Ara h 2 was relatively more easily digested by gastric fluid compared with the untreated Ara h 2, but much more difficult in the intestinal fluid. Conclusion The cross‐linking reaction catalyzed by PPO, as a non‐thermal process, may be beneficial for avoiding food allergy. The reaction could mask the allergen epitopes, decreasing allergenicity of Ara h 2.
      PubDate: 2015-11-24T02:46:43.079719-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7542
  • Extraction methods of Amaranthus sp. grain oil isolation
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Amaranthus sp. is a fast‐growing crop with well known beneficial nutritional values (rich in protein, fat, dietary fiber, ash, and minerals, especially calcium and sodium and contain a higher amount of lysine than conventional cereals). Amaranthus sp. is an underexploited plant source of squalene, compound of high importance in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. RESULTS This paper has examined the effects of the different extraction methods (Soxhlet, supercritical fluid and accelerated solvent extraction) on the oil and squalene yield of three genotypes Amaranthus sp. grain. The highest yield of the extracted oil (78.1 g kg−1) and squalene (4.7 g kg−1) in grain was obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in genotype 16. The post hoc Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between observed samples. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), were used for assessing the effect of different genotypes and extraction methods on oil and squalene yield, and also the fatty acid composition profile. Using coupled PCA and CA of observed samples, the possible directions for improving the quality of product can be realized. CONCLUSION The results of this study indicate that is very important to choose both the right genotype and the right method of extraction for optimum oil and squalene yield.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:57:11.247861-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7540
  • Effects of microwave pretreatment and transglutaminase crosslinking on the
           gelation properties of soybean protein isolate and wheat gluten mixtures
    • Abstract: Background The integration of soybean protein isolate (SPI) with wheat gluten (WG) crosslinked via microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) may enhance the formation of ε‐(γ‐glutamyl)lysine covalent bonds, due to SPI is rich in lysine and WG contains more glutamine. Microwave pretreatment may accelerate enzymatic reactions. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of microwave pretreatment on the gelation properties of SPI and WG cross‐linked with MTGase. Results Interestingly, the gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC), and storage modulus (G’) values of MTGase‐induced SPI/WG gels were dramatically improved with the increasing microwave power. Moreover, the MTGase crosslinking reaction promoted the formation of disulfide bonds, markedly reducing the free SH group and soluble protein contents of gels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of SPI/WG gels showed that microwave pretreatment increased the proportion of α‐helices and β‐turns and decreased the proportion of β‐sheets. Results from scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MTGase‐induced SPI/WG gels had denser and more homogeneous microstructures after microwave pretreatment. Conclusion Thus, the effect of microwave pretreatment is useful in advancing gelation characters of MTGase‐induced SPI/WG gels and provides possible for expanding the application of food protein.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:56:25.555394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7541
  • Discrimination of the sensory quality of the Coffea arabica L. (cv. yellow
           bourbon) produced in different altitudes using decision trees obtained by
           the chaid method
    • Abstract: Background The knowledge of the sensory profile of coffee quality, associated with genetic and environmental factors, is of utmost importance for the international market, as well as for the productive sector. In this context, the goal of this study was to classify the quality of Coffea arabica L., cv. Yellow Bourbon, according to different scores obtained through sensory evaluations based on the Specialty Coffee Association of America protocol (SCAA), and by means of decision trees resulting from applying the CHAID method (Chi‐square automatic interaction detection). To that end, we used a database with the sensory characteristics of cv. Yellow Bourbon and the environmental characteristics of the Mantiqueira de Minas region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Results The method used exhibited promising results regarding accuracy and success rates in order to discriminate the coffee sensory quality as a function of the production environment. The results obtained clearly show the effect of the coffee growing environment on the Yellow Bourbon variety, resulting in notable sensory differences in the beverage. Conclusion It was possible to discriminate cv. Yellow Bourbon coffee samples, the sensory evaluations of which resulted in scores ≥88 points, which are associated with growing environments at altitudes ≥1,200 meters.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:55:45.531322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7539
  • Recycling of Osmotic Solutions in Microwave‐Osmotic Dehydration:
           Product Quality and Potential for Creation of a Novel Product
    • Authors: Derek Wray; Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Despite osmotic dehydration being a cost effective process for moisture removal, the cost implications of making, regenerating, and properly disposing of the spent osmotic solutions contributes greatly to the economic feasibility of the drying operation. The potential for recycling of osmotic solutions and their use for creation of a novel product was explored using microwave osmotic dehydration under continuous flow spray (MWODS) conditions. RESULTS Identical runs were repeated ten times to determine the progressive physical and compositional effects of the thermal treatment and leaching from the cranberry samples. The microbiological stability and constant drying performance indicated that MWODS would be well suited for employing recycled solutions. While the anthocyanin content of the solution never approached that of cranberry juice concentrate, it is demonstrated that the spent syrup can infuse these health positive components into another product (apple). CONCLUSION This study found that re‐using osmotic solutions is a viable option to reduce cost in future MWODS applications, with no detriment to product quality and potential to use the spent solution for novel products.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:54:33.692578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7536
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antihypertensive
           activities of protein hydrolysate from meat of Kacang goat (Capra aegagrus
           hircus )
    • Authors: Irdha Mirdhayati; Joko Hermanianto, Christofora H Wijaya, Dondin Sajuthi, Keizo Arihara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The meat of Kacang goat has potential for production of a protein hydrolysate. Functional ingredients from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat were determined by the consistency of ACE inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect. This study examined the potency of Kacang goat protein hydrolysate in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antihypertensive activity. RESULT Protein hydrolysates of Kacang goat meat were prepared using sequential digestion of endo‐proteinase and protease complex at several concentrations and hydrolysis times. The highest ACE inhibitory activity resulted from a hydrolysate that was digested for 4 h with 5 g kg−1 of both enzymes. An ACE inhibitory peptide was purified and a novel peptide found with a sequence of Phe‐Gln‐Pro‐Ser (IC50 value of 27.0 µmol L−1). Both protein hydrolysates and a synthesized peptide (Phe‐Gln‐Pro‐Ser) demonstrated potent antihypertensive activities in spontaneous hypertensive rats. CONCLUSION Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat produced by sequential digestion with endo‐proteinase and protease complex has great potential as a functional ingredient, particularly as an antihypertensive agent.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:53:07.248946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7538
  • Carbon monoxide stunning of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) modifies
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Methods of stunning used in salmon slaughter are still the subject of research. Fish quality can be influenced by pre, ante and post mortem conditions, including handling before slaughter, slaughter methods and storage conditions. Carbon monoxide (CO) is known to improve colour stability in red muscle and to reduce microbial growth and lipid oxidation in live fish exposed to CO. Quality differences in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., stunned by CO or percussion, were evaluated and compared by different techniques (Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy NIRS, electronic nose EN, electronic tongue ET) and sensory analysis. RESULTS Thawed samples, freeze‐dried preparates and NIRS devices proved to be the most efficient combinations for discriminating the treatments applied to salmon, i.e. first the stunning methods adopted, then the back‐prediction of the maximum time to reach rigor mortis and finally to correlate some sensory attributes. A trained panel found significant differences between control and CO‐stunned salmon: reduced tactile crumbliness, reduced odour and aroma intensities, and reduced tenderness of CO‐treated fillets. CO stunning reduced radiation absorbance in spectra of thawed and freeze‐dried fillets, but not fillet samples stored in ethanol where it may have interacted with myoglobin and myosin. CONCLUSIONS The good results in a rapid discrimination of thawed samples detected by NIRS suggest suitable applications in the fish industry. CO treatment could mitigate sensory perception, but consumer tests are needed to confirm our findings.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:44:22.661995-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7537
  • In Vivo Assessment of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydrolyzed Peptides
           from Corylus heterophylla Fisch
    • Authors: Dayong Ren; Mingshuang Wang, Minghao Shen, Chunlei Liu, Wei Liu, Weihong Min, Jingsheng Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Hazelnut dregs are byproducts of hazelnut oil expression, which have not been fully exploited. This research aims to assess the immunomodulatory function of hazelnut hydrolyzed peptides (HHPs). RESULTS HHPs with a hydrolysis degree of 38.08% were divided into three fractions by ultrafiltration: the high molecular weight peptide (>10 kDa), medium molecular weight peptide (3 kDa to 10 kDa), and low molecular weight peptide (
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T01:03:11.633133-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7535
  • The influence of milk protein cross‐linking by transglutaminase on
           the rennet coagulation time and the gel properties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Transglutaminase (TGase) modifies milk proteins by cross‐linking of caseins, with increased cheese yield being the main technological benefit. In the present work the influence of TGase addition in different concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3 U g−1 protein in the system) and under different incubation conditions (0 h, 40 °C/2 h, 25 °C/4 h and 5 °C/16 h) on the rennet coagulation time (RCT) and the comprehensive rennet gel properties was investigated. RESULTS Modification of milk proteins by TGase in a concentration‐dependent manner caused longer RCT and lower gel firmness. The highest TGase concentration and incubation at 40 °C for 2 h resulted in the longest RCT and the lowest gel firmness. Rennet gels obtained from TGase modified milk were characterised by significantly lower values of texture parameters, lower syneresis and were composed of smaller casein micelles, thinner chains and smaller clusters than those obtained from the control milk. The content of whey proteins in the gel from modified milk was higher and the content of individual casein fractions in the milk samples and rennet gels decreased upon TGase modification. CONCLUSION Rennet cheese with modified textural and nutritional properties and improved yield can be obtained upon TGase modification but simultaneous addition of rennet and TGase is recommended.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T01:01:57.146395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7534
  • Dynamic sensory description of Rioja Alavesa red wines made by different
           winemaking practices by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations
    • Abstract: Background Although sensory description of wines in scientific literature is very large, there is an evident lack of studies describing wines from a dynamic approach. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of the sensations perceived in red wines from Rioja Alavesa (RA) by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and also to compare wines made with the two winemaking procedures used in RA: carbonic maceration (CM) and destemming (DS). Results Ten sensory attributes were evaluated in eight wines (four CM and four DS wines) in triplicate by a panel of 16 trained assessors. Red/black berry and woody aromas were dominant firstly, whereas heat, astringent, bitter and pungent sensations were dominant later. CM wines showed higher dominance for woody, spicy, pungent and acid sensations and lower dominance for red/black berry aroma and astringency than DS wines. Conclusion This study is the first one describing Rioja wines from a dynamic approach and it also provides information about the dynamic sensory differences between wines made by CM or by DS. In this sense, this work shows the usefulness of TDS to describe and differentiate wines and to provide additional information to the conventional static descriptive analysis.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T04:22:33.169445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7533
  • Effect of steam explosion‐assisted extraction on phenolic acid
           profiles and antioxidant properties of wheat bran
    • Authors: Liya Liu; Mengli Zhao, Xingxun Liu, Kui Zhong, Litao Tong, Xianrong Zhou, Sumei Zhou
      Abstract: Background The majority of phenolic acids in wheat bran occur bound to the cell walls. Hence, a high proportion of phenolic acids cannot be extracted with conventional extraction methods. This study was aimed to investigate the efficiency of steam explosion pre‐treatment in increasing the extractability of phenolic compounds from wheat bran. Results Bound phenolic acids (BPA) can be released by steam explosion‐assisted extraction. Within the experimental range, soluble free phenolic acids (FPA) and soluble conjugated phenolic acids (CPA) increased gradually with residence time and temperature. After steam explosion at 215 °C for 120 s, the total FPA and CPA reached 6671.8 and 2578.6 µg GAE/g bran, respectively, which was about 39 and 7‐fold higher than that of the untreated sample. Ferulic acid, the major individual phenolic acids in bran, increased from 55.7 to 586.3 µg/g for FPA, and from 44.9 to 1108.4 µg/g for CPA. The antioxidant properties of FPA and CPA extracts were significantly improved after treated. Correlation analysis indicated that the antioxidant capacity was in close relationship with phenolic content in FPA and CPA. Conclusion Steam explosion pre‐treatment could be effectively used to release of BPA and enhance the antioxidant capacity of wheat bran.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T02:18:19.159826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7532
  • Winter wheat fertilized with biogas residue and mining waste –
           yielding and the quality of grain
    • Abstract: Background Environmental protection problems and efforts to increase agricultural productivity result in attempts to use various organic and mineral wastes as fertilizers. This study aimed to determine the effect of biogas residue (BR) and mining waste (MS) fertilization on wheat yield as well as the nutritional and pro‐health quality of grains produced. Results After the application of MS and BR the wheat grain yield was increased compared to the unfertilized wheat. The highest grain yield and the thousand grain weight were obtained after MS+BR fertilization. Grains of wheat fertilized with BR and MS+BR contained significantly more protein and wet gluten compared to no fertilization and conventional fertilization (NPK). The studied conditions did not statistically effect on the starch content. BR fertilization significantly increased the total phenolic content; however grains of wheat fertilized with NPK were characterized by the highest content of flavonoids and syringic, p‐coumaric and sinapic acids. Compared to NPK, waste fertilizations positively effect on the reducing power and antiradical activity of wheat. Conclusion These results suggest that the wastes evaluated can be an alternative for conventional fertilization in the soil tested that without any significant deterioration and in the some cases significantly improve yielding and wheat quality.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13T03:25:20.408621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7528
  • Pomegranate peel extract decreases small intestine lipid peroxidation by
           enhancing activities of major antioxidant enzymes
    • Abstract: Background Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) contains several compounds with antioxidative properties. Addition of PPE to foods may interact with endogenous antioxidants and promote health outcome. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which PPE exert their actions on tissues of biological systems in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PPE on activities of antioxidant enzymes. Mice were used to investigate the effects of PPE on plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue MDA content and activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the small intestine, liver and skeletal muscle, different tissues involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of dietary nutrients. Control mice were fed with a standard diet, while treated mice were fed for 40 days the standard diet containing 5% or 10% PPE. Results Mice fed the 10% PPE diet exhibited lower plasma MDA concentrations, reduced contents of MDA in the small intestine and liver and higher levels of SOD1 and GPX activities in the small intestine compared to the mice fed the control diet. Conclusions These findings demonstrates that intake of PPE in diet attenuates small intestine lipid peroxidation and strengthens the first line of small intestine antioxidant defenses by enhancing enzymatic antioxidative pathways. PPE is worthy of further study as a therapeutic approach to prevent peroxidative stress‐induced gut pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13T03:24:54.374724-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7529
  • The effects of Mg enrichment of vegetable sprouts on Mg concentration,
           yield and ROS generation
    • Abstract: Background Two thirds of the world's population do not consume the recommended amount of Mg, hence the demand for the production of Mg‐enriched plants. Sprouts represent promising targets for enrichment. This study evaluated the effects of enriching broccoli, radish, alfalfa and mung bean sprouts with Mg (50–300 mg.L−1) on (i) the concentration of Mg and other ions, (ii) biomass accumulation, (iii) levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and (iv) the activity/content of enzymatic and non‐enzymatic components of antioxidative systems. Results Enrichment of sprouts with Mg led to a significant increase in Mg concentration, especially in alfalfa (increase of 23–152 %), without depletion of other ions. A higher Mg concentration had a minor effect on biomass accumulation, but increased, often significantly, ROS generation and affected enzymatic and non‐enzymatic antioxidative systems. The level of O2°− increased most in broccoli, by 59–158 %, while OH° increased most in radish, by 200–350 %. Conclusions Enrichment of sprouts with Mg is possible, but attention must be paid to elevated ROS levels in food. Mung bean sprouts are best suited to enrichment as they make a considerable contribution to the daily supplementation of Mg, at still low levels of ROS in enriched plants.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13T03:24:08.272855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7530
  • Comparison of antioxidant activity of the fruits derived from in vitro
           propagated and traditionally cultivated tayberry plants
    • Authors: Ely G Zayova; Ira V Stancheva, Maria P Geneva, Maria I Petrova, Ludmila I Dimitrova
      Abstract: Background Tayberry is a hybrid between Rubus fruticosus L. and Rubus idaeus L. These fruits contain valuable vitamins and antioxidants. An effective protocol for micropropagation of tayberry plants is here described. Different concentrations of cytokinins (6‐benzylaminopurine, Zeatin and 6‐(y,y‐dimethylallylamino) purine) were added in Murashige and Skoog, 1962 (MS) medium to micropropagation using stem tip and nodal explants. Results The highest propagation rate was recorded on MS medium containing 2 mg L−1 Zeatin, where the shoot formation resulted in 3.4 shoots per stem tip explant after four weeks of culture. It was found that half strength MS medium with 0.1 mg L−1 indole‐3‐butyric acid was the best for plant rooting. For ex vitro acclimatization of plants, the mixture of peat, soil and perlite (1:1:1 v/v/v) was the most suitable planting substrate for hardening. The micropropagation protocol described in this study might be useful for the production of healthy plant materials. The tayberry fruits from in vitro propagated plants and adapted to the field conditions possessed higher antioxidant capacity in comparison to the traditionally cultivated plants. Conclusion The fruits extracts of micropropagated tayberry plants and adapted to the field conditions can be used as a rich source of natural antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13T03:23:44.956055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7531
  • Inoculation of new rhizobial isolates improve nutrient uptake and growth
           of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and arugula (Eruca sativa)
    • Authors: Eduardo M. de Souza; Victor L. Bassani, Raul A. Sperotto, Camille E. Granada
      Abstract: Background In the current agricultural model, the massive use of chemical fertilizer causes environmental and economic losses. Inoculation of plant growth promoting nitrogen fixing bacteria is an alternative to the use of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizers. In this study, rhizobia strains isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) root nodules were evaluated in an effort to identify an efficient nitrogen‐fixing rhizobia strain able to improve bean germination and growth. Results Common bean plants were collected from seven sites in southern Brazil, and 210 native rhizobia isolates were obtained. Evaluation of plant growth promoting (PGP) traits showed that most of the rhizobia isolates were non siderophore producer and weak indolic compounds producers. In laboratory conditions, rhizobia isolates E15 (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and L5 (Rhizobium radiobacter) increase germination percentage, length, and dry weight of common bean and arugula (Eruca sativa) seedlings. In greenhouse conditions, common bean plants inoculated with the rhizobia isolates VC28 and L15 (both Rhizobium fabae) presented the highest nodule number and shoot dry matter, while VC28 also presented the highest values of shoot nitrogen and potassium. Isolate L17 presented highly effective N fixation, even with reduced nodulation. Conclusion Thus, these new rhizobia isolates are attractive alternatives to plant growth promoting for replacing chemical fertilizers.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13T02:57:47.796298-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7527
  • Women's and children's acceptance of biofortified quality protein maize
           for complementary feeding in rural Ethiopia
    • Authors: Nilupa S. Gunaratna; Tafese Bosha, Demissie Belayneh, Tigist Fekadu, Hugo De Groote
      Abstract: Background For impact of nutritionally improved biofortified crops, consumer acceptance specifically by women and children is necessary when target beneficiaries are young children. The objective was to assess women's and children's acceptance of a biofortified crop, quality protein maize (QPM), for complementary feeding in rural Ethiopia. Results Randomly sampled mothers (n=61) of young children (6–24 months) evaluated flours from a QPM and conventional maize variety for five sensory characteristics and overall acceptance by mother and child in a home use test with a double‐blind, randomized controlled crossover design. Women distinguished the varieties when used to prepare porridge, and QPM scored more favorably for texture in hand and mouth (both p
      PubDate: 2015-11-12T05:36:33.933895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7526
  • Development of antimicrobial active packaging materials based on gluten
    • Abstract: Background The incorporation of natural biocides agents into protein‐based bioplastics, a source for biodegradable polymeric materials, manufactured by thermo‐mechanical method is a way to contribute to sustainable food packaging industry. Results This study assesses the antimicrobial activity of ten different biocides incorporated into wheat gluten‐based bioplastics. Additionally, the effect that formulation, processing, and further thermal treatments exert on the thermo‐mechanical properties, water absorption characteristics and rheological behaviour of these materials is studied. Conclusions Bioplastics containing six of the ten examined bioactive agents have demonstrated suitable antimicrobial activity at 37°C after their incorporation into the bioplastic. Moreover, the essential oils are able to create an antimicrobial atmosphere within Petri dish. Depending on the selected biocide, its addition may alter the bioplastics protein network in a different extent, which leads to materials exhibiting less water uptake and different rheological and thermo‐mechanical behaviours.
      PubDate: 2015-11-12T05:36:11.432587-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7525
  • Obtainment and partial characterization of biodegradable gelatin films
           with tannic acid, bentonite, and glycerol
    • Abstract: Background Researches about the overall effect of the addition of plasticizers, cross‐linking and strengthening agents in gelatin film‐forming mixtures are very scarce. Also, there are not studies focused on the interactions among their individual components, and neither those showing which sort of effects they might cause altogether. The obtainment of a gelatin film from a composite consisting of tannic acid, bentonite, and glycerol were evaluated. Nine gelatin films were manufactured by the casting method, using these materials, following a 23 factorial design with five replicates on the central point. Results The interactions among gelatin, tannic acid, and bentonite, caused a decrease in hydrogen bonds, while the polar groups of the gelatin chains were less exposed to interactions with water molecules. There was an increase in temperature and enthalpy of gelatin denaturation, due to increasing tannic acid and bentonite concentration. Tactoids were found in the gelatin films, caused mainly by bentonite poly‐dispersion. Conclusions A synergistic effect among tannic acid, bentonite, and glycerol, which overall improved the measured gelatin film properties was found. The best film formulation was that with 40, 150 and 250 g kg−1 gelatin of tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol respectively, displaying a tensile strength of 38 MPa, an elongation at break of 136%, a water vapor permeability of 1.28x10−12 g (Pa s m)−1 and solubility of 23.4%.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T23:39:28.496596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7524
  • Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains:
           case of green bean chain in Kenya versus hot pepper chain in Uganda
    • Authors: J. Nanyunja; L. Jacxsens, K. Kirezieva, A.N. Kaaya, M. Uyttendaele, P.A. Luning
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMSs) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of respectively context riskiness, FSMS activities and system output in primary production (n = 60) and trade (n = 60). High‐risk context characteristics combined with basic FSMS are expected to increase the risk on unsafe produce. RESULTS In Uganda both farmers and export traders of hot peppers operate in a high to moderate risk context but have basic FSMS and low systems output. In Kenya, both farmers and export traders of green beans operate in a low to moderate risk context. The farmers have average performing FSMS whereas export trade companies showed more advanced FSMS and system output scores ranged from satisfactory to good. CONCLUSION Large retailers supplying in the EU premium market play a crucial role in demanding compliance to strict voluntary food safety standards, which was reflected in the more advanced FSMS and good system output in Kenya, especially the traders. In Kenya, a clear shift in more fit‐for‐purpose FSMS and higher system output was noticed between farms and trade companies. In the case of Uganda, traders commonly supply to the less demanding EU wholesale markets like ethnic specialty shops. They only have to comply with the legal phytosanitary and pesticide residue requirements for export activities, which apparently resulted in basic FSMSs and low system output present with both farmers and traders.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T03:48:31.802999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7518
  • Extractable and non‐extractable polyphenols from blueberries
           modulate LPS‐induced expression of iNOS and COX‐2 in RAW264.7
           macrophages via NF‐κB signaling pathway
    • Authors: Anwei Cheng; Caijing Han, Xixiu Fang, Jinyue Sun, Xiangyan Chen, Fachun Wan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Plant polyphenols are rich in blueberries that have a wide range of properties beneficial to human health. There are two types, according to the solubility of polyphenols, which were defined as extractable polyphenols (EPP) and non‐extractable polyphenols (NEPP), respectively. Presently in most of reports “total polyphenol” refers only to EPP excluding NEPP. In this paper, the effects of EPP and NEPP on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) in RAW264.7 cells via nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) signaling pathway were compared. RESULTS The results showed that EPP and NEPP from blueberries significantly inhibited the LPS‐induced production of NO and gene expression of iNOS and COX‐2 in cells. The constitutive level of p65 subunit of NF‐κB was obviously detected after the treatments with EPP or NEPP. By contrast, the level of phosphorylated p65 (P‐p65) was strongly inhibited by EPP or NEPP. EPP had a stronger inhibition on the gene expression of iNOS and COX‐2 than that of NEPP. CONCLUSION These findings of inhibition of iNOS and COX‐2 mRNA expression through the suppression of NF‐κB suggest that EPP and ENPP from blueberries have significant anti‐inflammatory effect and may be as potential medicine.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T02:58:30.377745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7519
  • Governing GMOs in the USA: Science, Law and Pubic Health
    • Authors: Y. Tony Yang; Brian Chen
      Abstract: Controversy surrounds the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Proponents argue that GMO food sources represent the only viable solution to food shortages in an ever‐growing global population. Science reports no harm from GMO use and consumption so far. Opponents fear the potentially negative impact that GMO development and use could have on the environment and consumers, and are concerned about the lack of data on the long‐term effects of GMO use. We discuss the development of GMO food sources, the history of legislation and policy for the labeling requirements of GMO food products, and the health, environmental, and legal rationale for and against GMO food labeling. The Food and Drug Administration regulates food with GMOs within a coordinated framework of federal agencies. Despite mounting scientific evidence that GMO foods are substantially equivalent to traditionally bred food sources, debate remains over the appropriateness of GMO food labeling. In fact, food manufacturers have mounted a First‐Amendment challenge against Vermont's passage of a law that requires GMO labeling. Mandatory GMO labeling is not supported by science. Compulsory GMO labels may not only hinder the development of agricultural biotechnology, but may also exacerbate the misconception that GMOs endanger people's health.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T01:52:07.570841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7523
  • Effect and mechanism of pyridoxamine on the lipid peroxidation and
           stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids in beef patties
    • Authors: Daniel Wong; Xiaoqiang Hu, Ningping Tao, Xichang Wang, Mingfu Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Little is known how vitamins can affect the peroxidation and stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cooked foods. Thus the effects of fifteen vitamins on toxic malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in cooked beef patties were examined with the application of solid phase extraction and TBA analysis by HPLC‐DAD. The polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in cooked beef patties treated with some vitamins were further compared with that of control sample (no vitamin addition) by GC‐MS analysis. RESULTS Pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, retinoic acid, α‐tocopherol and L‐ascorbic acid exhibited significant effects lowering the amount of MDA. It was further discovered that retinoic acid, α‐tocopherol and L‐ascorbic acid could help to preserve polyunsaturated fatty acids, while pyridoxamine addition actually showed no effect to retain most of tested polyunsaturated fatty acids, even lower the content of arachidonic acid. Further LC‐MS analysis demonstrated that pyridoxamine could directly react with MDA via addition reaction. The reaction involves a nucleophilic attack of pyridoxamine's free amine group on one of the aldehyde functional group of MDA to form a new adduct, may accelerate lipid peroxidation with the loss of more polyunsaturated fatty acids. CONCLUSION Some vitamins may directly participate into lipid peroxidation and affect food quality.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T01:50:53.902777-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7522
  • Drivers of high‐involvement consumers’ intention to buy pdo
           wines: Valpolicella pdo case study
    • Authors: Roberta Capitello; Lara Agnoli, Diego Begalli
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study investigates whether different sensory profiles of wines belonging to the same Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are perceived as different products by consumers. It identifies the drivers of consumers’ intention to buy preferred wines. Descriptive sensory analysis, consumer tests and consumer interviews were conducted to reach research aims. To perform the consumer tests and interviews, 443 consumers participated in the survey. The tasted wines comprised five samples representative of Valpolicella PDO wine. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear and logit regressions were employed to verify the research hypotheses. RESULTS The results demonstrated the following: i) different sensory profiles exist within the Valpolicella PDO wine; ii) these sensory profiles result in consumers having the perception of diversified products; iii) the perception of differences was less marked for consumers than for trained assessors due to the different weight attributed to visual, aroma and the taste/mouth‐feel hedonic dimensions; iv) consumers’ liking, as well as general perceptions, attitudes, preferences, wine knowledge and experience, contribute to consumers’ intentions to buy more than the sociodemographic characteristics of consumers. CONCLUSION The analysis of the drivers of consumers’ intention to buy certain PDO wines provides new marketing insights into the roles of intrinsic quality, preferences and consumers’ subjective characteristics in market segmentation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T01:50:33.150581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7521
  • Bioavailability of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles
           relative to lutein in corn gluten meal based on lutein retention in egg
    • Authors: Hye Seong Shin; Jong Woong Kim, Dong Gu Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Dong Yong Kil
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Dietary lutein and its food sources have gained great attention due to its health‐promoting effects on humans, especially for certain eye disease. However, relative bioavailability (RBV) of lutein among lutein‐rich feed ingredients that lead to lutein‐enriched egg production has not been determined. Thus, the RBV of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared to lutein in corn gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated based on lutein retention in egg yolk. RESULTS Increasing inclusion levels of DDGS or CGM in diets increased (linear, P 
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T01:42:26.745724-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7520
  • Inhibition of lipid oxidation in frozen farmed ovate pompano (Trachinotus
           ovatus Linnaeus) fillets stored at −18 °C by chitosan
           coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract
    • Authors: Xujian Qiu; Shengjun Chen, Guangming Liu, Hong Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation can occur in fish fillets during long term frozen storage and cause quality and nutrition loss, which is a major concern in the seafood industry. Our previous study showed that chitosan combined with citric acid or licorice extract can have preserving effect on fresh fish fillets stored at 4 °C. It is of interest to further study their antioxidant effects on fish fillets during frozen storage. RESULTS Chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract can inhibit primary and secondary lipid oxidation, as indicated by lower peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values compared to the control samples. In addition, drip loss was decreased in the treatment samples. Both citric acid and licorice extract enhanced the antioxidant effects of chitosan. Among all the three treatments, chitosan and licorice extract showed the best antioxidant effects, reducing both PV and TBARS significantly at the end of storage. CONCLUSION The combination of chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract showed significant antioxidant effects on ovate pompano fillets at −18 °C during 6 months of storage. They could be applied as natural antioxidant preservatives for use in seafood products or other meat products.
      PubDate: 2015-11-03T03:41:01.495457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7517
  • Modelling postharvest quality of blueberry affected by biological
           variability using image and spectral data
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance sensing as well as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were investigated as non‐destructive tools for estimating blueberry firmness, elastic modulus and soluble solid content (SSC). The least squares‐support vector machine models were established from these three spectra based on samples from the three cultivars viz. Bluecrop, Duke and M2 and two harvest years viz. 2014 and 2015 for predicting blueberry postharvest quality. RESULTS One‐cultivar reflectance models (establish model using one cultivar) derived better results than the corresponding transmittance and NIR models for predicting blueberry firmness with few cultivar effects. The two‐cultivar NIR models (establish model using two cultivars) proved to be suitable for estimating blueberry SSC with correlations over 0.83. Rp (RMSEp) values of the three‐cultivar reflectance models (establish model using 75% of three cultivars) were 0.73 (0.094) and 0.73 (0.186), respectively , for predicting blueberry firmness and elastic modulus. For SSC prediction, the three‐cultivar NIR model was found to achieve the Rp (RMSEp) value of 0.85 (0.090). Adding of Bluecrop samples harvested in 2014 could enhance the three‐cultivar model robustness for firmness and elastic modulus. CONCLUSION Above results indicated that the potential of using spatial and spectral techniques to develop the robust models for predicting blueberry postharvest quality containing biological variability.
      PubDate: 2015-11-03T02:27:24.039026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7516
  • A new allele of γ‐kafirin gene coding for a protein with high
           lysine content in mexican white sorghum germplasm
    • Abstract: Background Low protein digestibility and lysine content of white sorghum grain limit its use as foodstuff. The increase in γ‐kafirin cross‐linking, has an important role in the reduction of protein digestibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the γ‐kafirin gene in 12 Mexican tannin‐free white sorghum genotypes and its relationship with protein digestibility and lysine content. Results Two alleles of γ‐kafirin gene were identified: allele 1 and 7. The predicted amino acid sequence of allele 7 showed seven point mutations; six were silent, and one missense (C235G), causing the substitution P79A in the deduced amino acid sequence. In silico analysis showed that γ‐kafirin codified by allele 1 has five α‐helixes without disulphide bonds, while γ‐kafirin coding by allele 7 has four α‐helixes and three disulphide bonds. Genotypes with allele 7 had higher lysine content than these with allele 1, showing no differences in the kafirin electrophoretic profile, neither a correlation with the protein content nor the in vitro pepsin digestibility. Conclusions Mexican tannin‐free white sorghum genotypes showed two γ‐kafirin alleles, 1 and 7. Allele 7 was associated with higher lysine content; in silico analysis showed that the substitution of P79A in this allele could modify γ‐kafirin secondary structure.
      PubDate: 2015-11-03T02:27:00.298265-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7513
  • Proteome Analysis of the Almond Kernel (Prunus dulcis)
    • Authors: Shugang Li; Fang Geng, Ping Wang, Jiankang Lu, Meihu Ma
      Abstract: Background Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a popular tree nut worldwide and offers many benefits to human health. However, the importance of almond kernel proteins in the nutrition and function in human health requires further evaluation. The present study presents a systematic evaluation of the proteins in the almond kernel using proteomic analysis. Results The nutrient and amino acid content in almond kernels from Xinjiang is similar to that of American varieties; however, Xinjiang varieties have a higher protein content. 2‐DE analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of molecular weights and isoelectric points of almond kernel proteins. A total of 434 proteins were identified by LC‐MS/MS, and most were proteins that were experimentally confirmed for the first time. GO analysis of the 434 proteins indicated that proteins involved in primary biological processes including metabolic processes (67.5 %), cellular processes (54.1 %), and singe‐organism processes (43.4 %), the main molecular function of almond kernel proteins are in catalytic activity (48.0 %), binding (45.4 %) and structural molecule activity (11.9 %), and proteins are primarily distributed in cell (59.9 %), organelle (44.9 %), and membrane (22.8 %). Conclusion Almond kernel is a source of a wide variety of proteins. This study provides important information contributing to the screening and identification of almond proteins, the understanding of almond protein function, and the development of almond protein products.
      PubDate: 2015-11-03T02:26:01.088469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7514
  • Production of wheat gluten hydrolysates with reduced antigenicity
           employing enzymatic hydrolysis combined with downstream unit operations
    • Authors: Michael Merz; Lucas Kettner, Emma Langolf, Daniel Appel, Imre Blank, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer
      Abstract: Background Due to allergies or other health disorders a certain segment of the population is not able to safely consume some plant proteins, which are the main protein support in human nutrition. Celiac disease is a prominent autoimmune disorder and requires a strict adherence to a gluten‐free diet. The aim of this study was to identify suitable combinations of enzymatic hydrolysis and common unit operations in food processing (centrifugation, ultrafiltration) to produce gluten‐free wheat gluten hydrolysates for food application. To analyze the hydrolysates, a simple and cheap competitive ELISA protocol was designed and validated in this study as well. Results The competitive ELISA was validated using gliadin spiked skim milk protein hydrolysates, due to the latter application of the assay. The limit of quantification was 4.19 mg kg−1, which allowed the identification of gluten‐free (
      PubDate: 2015-11-03T02:23:17.348145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7515
  • Aggregation of Egg White Proteins with Pulsed Electric Fields and Thermal
    • Authors: Li Wu; Wei Zhao, Ruijin Yang, Wenxu Yan, Qianyan Sun
      Abstract: Background Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is progressing towards application for liquid egg to ensure microbial safety. However, it usually causes protein aggregation, and the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, egg white protein was applied to investigate the changes in protein structure and mechanism of aggregates formation and a comparison was made with thermal treatment. Results Soluble protein content decreased with the increase of turbidity after both treatments. Fluorescence intensity and free sulfhydryl content were increased after being treated at 70 °C for 4 min. Less remarkable changes of hydrophobicity were observed after PEF treatments (30 kV/cm, 800 µs). Soluble and insoluble aggregates were observed by thermal, and disulfide bonds were the main binding forces. The main components of insoluble aggregates formed by thermal were ovotransferrin (30.58%), lysozyme (18.47%) and ovalbumin (14.20%). While only insoluble aggregates were detected during PEF processes, which consists of ovotransferrin (11.86%), lysozyme (21.11%) and ovalbumin (31.07%). Electrostatic interaction played a very important role in the aggregates formation. Conclusion PEF had a minor impact on the structure of egg white protein. PEF had insignificant influence on heat‐sensitive protein, indicating that PEF has potential in processing food with high biological activity and heat sensitive properties.
      PubDate: 2015-11-03T02:20:20.541096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7512
  • Lipophilic bioactive compounds in the oils recovered from cereal
    • Abstract: Background The by‐products of seven different cereal grains were investigated as a source of extractable oil, rich in lipophilic bioactive compounds. Results Oil yields (g kg−1 dw) recovered from cereal by‐products were as follows: 189 (rice bran) > 112 (wheat germ) > 74 (corn bran) > 58 (oat bran) > 41 (buckwheat bran) > 39 (spelt bran) > 33 (wheat bran) > 27 (rye bran). The main fatty acids identified in the studied oil samples were palmitic acid (11.39–17.23%), oleic acid (11.76–42.73%), linoleic acid (35.54–62.65%) and α‐linolenic acid (1.05–9.46%). The range of total tocochromanols and phytosterols in the obtained oils was 0.369–3.763 and 1.19–35.24 g kg−1 of oil, respectively. The oils recovered from buckwheat and corn bran, and wheat germ were dominated by tocopherols (99.9, 84.2 and 96.5%, respectively), whereas the oat, rice, rye, spelt, wheat bran oils were rich in tocotrienols (73.9, 79.6, 78.1, 90.6 and 73.8%, respectively). The campesterol and β‐sitosterol constituted 10.1–32.5 and 30.4–63.7%, respectively, of total phytosterols contents identified in all of the studied samples. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that oils recovered from the cereal by‐products are richer sources of bioactive compounds, compared with traditional oils.
      PubDate: 2015-11-02T01:18:47.814308-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7511
  • Relationships between the structure of wheat gluten and ACE inhibitory
           activity of hydrolysate: Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis
    • Authors: Yanyan Zhang; Haile Ma, Bei Wang, Wenjuan Qu, Asif Wali, Cunshan Zhou
      Abstract: Background Ultrasound pretreatment of wheat gluten (WG) before enzymolysis can improve the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates by alerting the structure of substrate proteins. Establishment of a relationship between the structure of WG and ACEI activity of the hydrolysates to judge the end point of the ultrasonic pretreatment is very vital. Results The results of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) showed that the contents of free sulfhydryl, α‐helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil were significantly correlated to ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate, with the standard partial regression coefficients were 3.729, −0.676, −0.252, 0.022 and 0.156, respectively. The R2 of this model was 0.970. External validation showed that, stepwise MLR model could well predict the ACE Inhibitory activity of hydrolysate based on the content of free sulfhydryl, α‐helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil of WG before hydrolysis. Conclusion A stepwise multiple linear regression model describing the quantitative relationships between the structure of WG and the ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates was established. This model can be used to predict the endpoint of the ultrasonic pretreatment.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T02:58:00.022811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7509
  • Physicochemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil enzymatic
           interesterification with Palm stearin and Palm kernel oil and its
           potential application in food
    • Authors: Sarafhana Dollah; Sabo Mohammed Abdulkarim, Siti Hajar Ahmad, Anahita Khoramnia, Hasanah Mohd Ghazali
      Abstract: Background High oleic acid Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) has been rarely applied in food products due to the low melting point and lack of plasticity. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) of MoO with palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel oil (PKO) could yield harder fat stocks that may impart desirable nutritional and physical properties. Results Blends of MoO and PS or PKO were examined for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC). EIE caused rearrangement of TAGs, reduction of U3 and increase of U2S in MoO/PS blends while reduction of U3 and S3 following increase of S2U and U2S in MoO/PKO blends (U, unsaturated and S, saturated fatty acids). SFC measurements revealed wide range of plasticity, enhancements of spreadability, mouthfeel and cooling effect for interesterified MoO/PS indicating the possible application of these blends in margarines. However, interesterified MoO/PKO was not suitable in margarine application while, ice‐cream may be formulated from these blends. A soft margarine formulated from MoO/PS 70:30 revealed high oxidative stability during 8 weeks storage with no significant changes in peroxide and p‐anisidine values. Conclusion EIE of fats with MoO allowed obtaining nutritional and oxidative stable plastic fats, suitable for possible use in industrial food application.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T02:57:38.465441-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7510
  • Effects of recombinant lipoxygenase on the rheological properties of dough
           and the quality of noodles
    • Authors: Chong Zhang; Shuang Zhang, Xiaomei Bie, Haizhen Zhao, Fengxia Lu, Zhaoxin Lu
      Abstract: Background In this study, the effects of purified recombinant lipoxygenase (ana‐rLOX) on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of noodles made from wheat flour with low protein content (Yanmai 15) were studied. Results The addition of ana‐rLOX increased dough stability time, decreased the degree of softening within 12 min, enhanced the resistance to extension, and increased the extensibility with 135 min of resting time. The mechanical spectra of the dough showed an increase in both storage modulus (Gʹ) and loss modulus (Gʹʹ) with increasing ana‐rLOX levels. The L* values of the noodle sheets increased by 2.34 compared with the control after storing for 1 h at room temperature. The textural parameters of noodles improved after ana‐rLOX addition, including hardness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness. The wheat flour treated with the ana‐rLOX had a higher cooking yield and lower cooking loss for the resulting noodles. The scanning electron microscopy results revealed that gluten was formed in the noodle samples that were treated with ana‐rLOX. Conclusion In this study, ana‐rLOX was applied to noodles during the noodle‐making process, and both dough rheological characteristics and noodle quality were improved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-25T23:49:46.422506-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7508
  • Influence of the hydrophilic head size and hydrophobic tail length of
           surfactants on the ability of micelles to stabilize citral
    • Authors: Chi Rac Hong; Sung Joon Park, Seung Jun Choi
      Abstract: Surfactant‐made micelles can control the rate of chemical degradation of poorly water‐soluble food flavors. To evaluate how the molecular structure of surfactant has an influence on the chemical decomposition rate of citral, micelles were prepared with polyoxyethylene alkyl ether‐type surfactants that had similar molecular structures but various hydrophilic head sizes and hydrophobic tail lengths. At a critical 20× micelle concentration of surfactant, there was no significant difference in the chemical degradation rate of citral in micelles in neutral pH, regardless of the hydrophilic head size or hydrophobic tail length. In an acidic environment, the degradation rate constant of citral generally increased proportionally with increasing a hydrophilic head size of surfactant (0.1563 and 0.2217 for surfactants with 23 and 100 oxyethylene units, respectively) but the length of hydrophobic tail did not affect the citral stability. Also, little difference (0.2217 and 0.2265 for surfactant having 100 oxyethylene units with and without Fe3+) in degradation rate constant of citral between in simple micellar solution and in micellar solution containing iron suggested that iron ions could not accelerate citral degradation in micelles, regardless of the forms of iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+). This work concludes that although the concentration of the surfactant could be relevant, if its concentration could be controlled in the same manner as the critical micelle concentration, then a polyethylene alkyl ether‐type surfactant with a small hydrophilic head could more efficiently stabilize citral at an acidic pH.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23T03:25:25.889103-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7505
  • Production of the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides and
           isolation of four novel peptides from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum)
           protein hydrolysate
    • Authors: Xin Liu; Miansong Zhang, Yaping Shi, Ruojin Qiao, Wei Tang, Zhenliang Sun
      Abstract: Background Angiotensin I‐converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure in human body. ACE inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins could exert antihypertensive effects without side effects. Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) is an important fishery resource suitable for production of ACE inhibitory peptides. The objective of this study is to optimize the hydrolysis conditions for production of protein hydrolysate from R. esculentum (RPH) with ACE inhibitory activity, and to isolate and identify the ACE inhibitory peptides from RPH. Results R. esculentum protein was hydrolyzed with Compound proteinase AQ to produce protein hydrolysate with ACE inhibitory activity, and the hydrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum parameters for producing peptides with the highest ACE inhibitory activity were as the following: hydrolysis time 3.90 h, hydrolysis temperature 58°C, enzyme to substrate ratio 2.8% and pH 7.60. Under these conditions, the ACE inhibitory rate reached to 32.21%. In addition, four novel ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated, and their amino acids sequences were identified as Val‐Gly‐Pro‐Tyr, Phe‐Thr‐Tyr‐Val‐Pro‐Gly, Phe‐Thr‐Tyr‐Val‐Pro‐Gly‐Ala and Phe‐Gln‐Ala‐Val‐Trp‐Ala‐Gly, respectively. The IC50 value of the purified peptides for ACE inhibitory activity was 8.40 μM, 23.42 μM, 21.15 μM and 19.11 μM. Conclusion These results indicate that the protein hydrolysate prepared from R. esculentum might be a commercial competitive source of ACE inhibitory ingredients to be used in functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23T03:17:55.593988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7507
  • Differential role of endogenous cathepsin and microorganism in texture
           softening of ice‐stored grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets
    • Authors: Lihong Ge; Yanshun Xu, Wenshui Xia, Qixing Jiang, Xiaoqing Jiang
      Abstract: Background Texture deterioration often negatively affects sensory attributes and commercial values of ice‐stored fish fillets. The mechanism of softening of fish fillets during chilling storage is not fully resolved. Grass carp is a predominant freshwater fish species in China. The objective of the present study was to investigate the differential role of endogenous cathepsin and microorganisms in texture softening of ice‐stored grass carp fillets. Results The fillets were immersed in either NaN3 solution to reduce microbial activity or to iodoacetic acid solution to exclude cathepsin activity before ice‐storage. Treatment with NaN3 reduced microbial load of fillets below 2 log CFU g−1 muscle during the entire storage period, and had no significant influence on the cathepsin activity and proteolysis. But the shear force of fillets treated with NaN3 decreased by 66% after 21 days of storage. Meanwhile, treatment with iodoacetic acid inactivated cathepsin B and B+L but did not significantly affect the microbial growth of fillets. Compared to NaN3 treatment, iodoacetic acid effectively alleviated softening and inhibited the increase in TCA‐soluble peptides during storage. Conclusion This study demonstrated that proteolysis induced by endogenous cathepsins, rather than microorganisms, plays an important role in texture softening of ice‐stored grass carp fillets.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23T03:16:57.079084-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7506
  • Identification and Analysis of Anthocyanin Components in Variation type of
           Fruit Color in Schisandra chinensis
    • Authors: Jingjing Liao; Jian Zang, Fei Yuan, Shuang Liu, Yibo Zhang, Haiyan Li, Zhongyun Piao, Hongbo Li
      Abstract: Background Fruits color is important index and parameter that measure fruit quality. And as the one of important pigments, anthocyanin is a determinant which appears all sorts of colors of fruits in nature. Results Color parameters that are measured by using a spectrometer, which were used as a basis to divide all materials into three groups such as reddish orange, orange and yellow group. A validated HPLC–ESI–MS method for the analysis of anthocyanin in Schisandra chinensis and determining major anthocyanin components in Schisandra chinensis fruits, which were Cyanidin‐XylosylGlucoside (CyXylGlu), Cyanidin‐GlucosylRutinoside (CyGluRutin), Cyanidin‐Rutinoside (CyRutin) and Cyanidin‐XylosylRutinoside (CyXylRutin), respectively. The anthocyanin contents is various obviously in different color fruits in schisandra chinensis. The impact of anthocyanin on coloration of fruits was investigated by multiple regression analysis between color parameters and anthocyanin components, which indicated that CyRutin is the primary cause of fruit coloration in variation type of fruit colors in Schisandra chinensis. Conclusion The content and type of anthocyanin determine the fruits coloration of Schisandra chinensis, which lay the early foundation for interpretating systematically fruit coloration mechanism in Schisandra chinensis.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23T02:45:36.442517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7503
  • Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of gelatin
           hydrolysate from unicorn leatherjacket skin
    • Authors: Supatra Karnjanapratum; Yvonne C. O'Callaghan, Soottawat Benjakul, Nora O'Brien
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The in vitro cellular bioactivities including, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of a gelatin hydrolysate (GH) prepared from unicorn leatherjacket skin, using partially purified glycyl endopeptidase, were investigated in order to optimise the use of fish skin waste products as functional food ingredients. RESULTS GH under the tested concentrations (750–1500 µg mL−1) protected against H2O2‐induced DNA damage in U937 cells. GH also protected against the H2O2‐induced reduction in cellular antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in HepG2 cells. GH demonstrated immunomodulatory potential by reducing pro‐inflammatory cytokine (interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) and IL‐1β) production and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Cell proliferation in human colon cancer (Caco‐2) cells was significantly reduced in dose‐dependent manner following incubation with GH. CONCLUSION These results indicate that GH has several bioactivities which support its potential as a promising functional food ingredient with various health benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23T02:41:16.799993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7504
  • Molecular characterization of a bio‐based active packaging
           containing Origanum vulgare L. essential oil using pyrolysis gas
           chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py‐GC/MS)
    • Abstract: Background Environmental, economic and safety challenges motivate shift towards safer materials for food packaging. New bioactive packaging techniques i.e. addition of essential plant oils (EOs), are gaining attention by creating barriers to protect products from spoilage. Analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py‐GC/MS) was used to fingerprint a bioactive polylactic acid (PLA) with polybutylene succinate (PBS) (950 g kg−1:50 g kg−1) film extruded with variable quantities (0, 20, 50 and 100 g kg−1) of Origanum vulgare EO. Results Main PLA:PBS pyrolysis products were lactide enantiomers and monomer units from the major PLA fraction and succinic acid anhydride from the PBS fraction. Oregano EO pyrolysis released cymene, terpinene and thymol/carvacrol peaks as diagnostic peaks for EO. In fact, linear correlation coefficients better than 0.950R2 value (p
      PubDate: 2015-10-19T04:19:53.429742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7502
  • Importance of Glu53 in the C‐terminal region of brazzein, a
           sweet‐tasting protein
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The sweetness of brazzein, one of the known sweet proteins, is dependent on charges and/or structures of its specific amino acid side chains. As the residues in the C‐terminus of brazzein are known to play a critical role in sweetness, the currently unknown function of Glu53 requires further study. RESULTS To identify important residues responsible for the sweetness of the protein brazzein, four mutants of the Glu53 residue in the C‐terminal region of des‐pE1M‐brazzein, which lacks the N‐terminal pyroglutamate were constructed using site‐directed mutagenesis. Mutations of Glu53 substitution to Ala or Asp significantly decreased the sweetness. On the other hand, a Lys mutation resulted in a molecule with sweetness similar to that of des‐pE1M‐brazzein. Mutation of Glu53 to Arg resulted in a molecule significantly sweeter than des‐pE1M‐brazzein, which agrees with previous findings that showed that mutation with positively charged residues results in a sweeter protein. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the residue at position 53 is crucial for the sweetness of brazzein, which may be interacting with the sweet‐taste receptor.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19T02:44:22.979707-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7501
  • Screening of the chemical composition and bioactivity of Waldheimia glabra
           (Decne.) Regel essential oil
    • Abstract: Background This research aimed at improving knowledge as to the chemical composition and the antibacterial and anticancer activities of the essential oil of Waldheimia glabra, a wild plant from the Himalayan Mountains. Results The results obtained by GC/MS showed that spathulenol, 9‐tetradecenol, thujopsene, α‐thujone, santolina alcohol and terpinen‐4‐ol were the main constituents of Waldheimia glabra essential oil. These results were confirmed by HS‐SPME GC/MS analysis that also reported high amounts of artemisia alcohol and camphor. Disc diffusion assay suggested a mild antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, a dose–response correlation was observed between Waldhemia glabra essential oil concentration and viability of human breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA‐MB‐231 and MCF‐7. Conclusions Together with the GC/MS method, HS‐SPME GC/MS proved to be a reliable technique to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil obtained from aromatic plants. Further studies will focus on W. glabra phytochemicals and their biological activity, in order to support traditional uses of the plant.
      PubDate: 2015-10-15T01:54:08.257577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7499
  • Comprehensive Review on Agro technologies of Low Calorie Natural Sweetener
           Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni): A boon to diabetic
    • Authors: Saurabh Sharma; Swati Walia, Bikram Singh, Rakesh Kumar
      Abstract: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, is a low calorie natural sweetener plant native to Paraguay. The leaves of stevia have sweetening compounds called as steviol glycosides (SGs) which contain different marker compounds viz., Stevioside (St), rebaudioside (Rb)–A, B, C, D, E, dulcoside‐A and steviol biosides, which are nearly 300 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia is a better substitute for sugar, in formulation of food products, reducing the harmful effect of sugar and improving the nutrient properties. We have tried to compile the literature on various agronomic and management aspects which are helpful to increase the yield and quality of stevia to be grown as a crop which will benefit the farmers and industrialists. And thus the stevioside so obtained can be used to make different food products for sweetening purpose which can be a boon to diabetic patients. Incorporation of different agronomic techniques like propagation method, transplanting time, intercropping, irrigation, mulching, plant geometry, pinching and harvesting time not only improved the biomass but also increase the quality of stevia. Therefore, agronomic considerations are of high priority to utilize its maximum potential.
      PubDate: 2015-10-15T01:53:38.475326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7500
  • Hen Egg White Ovomacroglobulin Promotes Fibroblast Migration via Mediating
           Cell Adhesion and Cytoskeleton
    • Authors: Fang Geng; Xi Huang, Meihu Ma
      Abstract: Background Hen egg white ovomacroglobulin (OVM) possesses a variety of bioactivities and could potentially be used as a pharmaceutical agent. It has been reported that OVM is involved in wound healing and cancer pathological processes, and previous results suggest that OVM plays a potential role in cell proliferation and migration, however this has not yet been proven. In the present study, the effects of OVM on fibroblast proliferation and migration were evaluated. Results Results of cell counting, cell viability, and cell cycle indicated that proliferation of fibroblasts was not altered by OVM treatment. However, scratch assays showed that OVM could promote the migration of 3T6 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human skin fibroblasts (HSF). As well, the adhesion of HSF to the collagen matrix was also enhanced by OVM treatment. RT‐qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that β1‐integrin, β‐tubulin, and β‐actin were up‐regulated while E‐cadherin was down‐regulated in OVM‐treated HSF cells. The effect of OVM was silenced after forming a complex with trypsin, suggesting that the protease inhibitory ability of OVM is important for its effect on cell migration. Conclusion These results suggested that promotion of OVM on cell migration was achieved by enhancing cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, reducing intercellular aggregation, and strengthening cytoskeleton. The finding of the promotion effect of OVM on cell migration is important for understanding its role in wound healing and cancer pathological processes.
      PubDate: 2015-10-15T01:50:15.545432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7498
  • Analytical fingerprint and chemometrics as phytochemical composition
           control tools in food supplement analysis: characterization of raspberry
           bud‐preparations of different cultivars
    • Authors: D. Donno; G.L. Beccaro, C. Carlen, A. Ancay, A.K. Cerutti, M.G. Mellano, G. Bounous
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., provides several plant parts (as buds) used for food supplements. The aim of this research was to establish a technique for chemical composition control of R. idaeus herbal‐preparations, using chromatographic methods. These methods allowed to identify and to quantify the main phytochemicals, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint (phytocomplex). Combined with two different chemometric methods , Clustering Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, the raspberry bud‐extracts of the different cultivars were efficiently characterized. RESULTS R. idaeus buds were identified as a rich source of anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: organic acids, vitamins and catechins were found out to be the most discriminating variables by chemometric techniques to differentiate raspberry cultivars . In particular, catechins (13.25%) and flavonols (8.71%) were the most important polyphenolic classes, followed by cinnamic and benzoic acids. CONCLUSION This study developed an useful tool for the R. idaeus extract phytochemical characterization that could be applied also for differentiation and composition control of other herbal preparations.
      PubDate: 2015-10-13T03:54:24.629889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7494
  • Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium
           bifidum modulates immunoglobulin levels and cytokines expression in whey
           proteins sensitized mice
    • Authors: Umesh Kumar Shandilya; Ankita Sharma, Rajeev Kapila, Vinod Kumar Kansal
      Abstract: Background Cow milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children. So far, no effective treatment is available to prevent or cure food allergy. This study investigated whether orally administrated probiotics could suppress sensitization in whey proteins (WP)‐induced allergy mouse model. Two types of probiotic Dahi were prepared by co‐culturing Dahi bacteria (Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris NCDC‐86 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis NCDC‐ 60) along with selected strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3. Mice were fed with probiotic Dahi (La‐Dahi & LaBb‐Dahi) from 7 days before sensitization with WP, respectively, in addition to milk protein‐free basal diet, and control group received no supplements. Results Feeding of probiotic Dahi suppressed the elevation of whey proteins‐specific IgE and IgG response of WP‐sensitized mice. In addition, sIgA levels were significantly (p
      PubDate: 2015-10-13T02:46:47.535206-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7497
  • Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified (GM) maize in commercial
           animal feeds and food products in Turkey
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9−1 (for approved GM crops). We screened maize‐containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. RESULTS With this aim, 83 food and feed products – none labelled as containing GM material – were screened using multiplex real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event‐specific PCR to identify which GMOs they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. CONCLUSION Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases.
      PubDate: 2015-10-13T02:42:20.490587-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7496
  • Investigation of transgenic soybean components in soybean from an area of
    • Authors: Cunfang Wang; Yuying Zhu
      Abstract: Background To evaluate the large quantities of genetically modified soybeans that are imported into China, we evaluated the presence of transgenes in soybean samples from an area, which are major soybean‐producing areas. We evaluated the presence of exogenous genes in a total of 254 soybean samples from farms and 35 commercially available soybean samples using "Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and sequence analysis. Results The farm soybean samples contained a total of 67 CaMV35S‐positive samples, 46 NOS‐positive samples, 16 CP4‐EPEPS‐positive samples, and 66 BT‐positive samples. The commercially available soybean samples contained a total of 12 CaMV35S‐positive samples, 19 NOS‐positive samples, 13 CP4‐EPEPS‐positive samples, and 15 BT‐positive samples among. Conclusion In conclusion, several exogenous genes were detected in the farmed and commercially available soybeans. We should use caution in the management of genetically modified soybeans.
      PubDate: 2015-10-13T02:39:26.995428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7495
  • Application of near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to identify
           potential PSE meat
    • Authors: Xiao Li; Fang Feng, Runze Gao, Lu Wang, Ye Qian, Chunbao Li, Guanghong Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat is a quality problem that causes a big economic loss to pork industry. In the present work, NIR quantification and identification methods were used to investigate the feasibility of differentiating potential PSE meat from normal meat. RESULTS NIR quantification models were developed to estimate meat pH and color attributes (L*, a*, b*). Promising results were reported for prediction of muscle pH (R2CV=70.10%, RPDCV=1.83) and L* (R2CV=77.18%, RPDCV=1.91), but it's still hard to promote to practical application at this level. The Factorization Method applied to NIR spectra could differentiate potential PSE meat from normal meat at 3 h post‐mortem. Correlation analysis showed significant relationship between NIR data and LF‐NMR T2 components that were indicative of water distribution and mobility in muscle. PSE meat had unconventionally faster energy metabolism than normal meat, which caused greater water mobility. CONCLUSION NIR spectra coupled with Factorization Method could be a promising technology to identify potential PSE meat. The difference in the intensity of H2O absorbance peaks between PSE and normal meat might be the basis of this identification method.
      PubDate: 2015-10-13T02:29:39.783312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7493
  • Application of visible/near‐infrared reflectance spectroscopy for
           predicting internal and external quality in pepper
    • Abstract: Background The characterization of internal (°Brix, pH, malic acid, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and total carotenoid content) and external (color, firmness and pericarp wall thickness) pepper quality is necessary to better understand its possible applications and increase consumer awareness of its benefits. The main aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of using visible/near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VIS‐NIRS) to predict quality parameters in different pepper types. Commercially available spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: a Polychromix Phazir spectrometer for intact raw pepper, and a scanning monochromator for freeze‐dried pepper. Results The RPD values (ratio of the standard deviation of the reference data to the standard error of prediction) obtained from the external validation exceeded a value of 3 for chlorophyll a and total carotenoid content; values ranging between 2.5
      PubDate: 2015-10-12T04:40:52.260389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7488
  • Effects of an equol‐producing bacterium isolated from human feces on
           isoflavone and lignan metabolism in mice
    • Authors: Motoi Tamura; Sachiko Hori, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Satoshi Yamauchi, Takuya Sugahara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Equol is a metabolite of daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. The estrogenic activity of equol is stronger than daidzein. Equol producing bacteria are believed to play an important role in the gut. The rod‐shaped and Gram‐positive anaerobic equol‐producing intestinal bacterium Slackia TM‐30 was isolated from healthy human feces and its effects on urinary phytoestrogen, plasma and fecal lipids were assessed in adult mice. RESULTS The urinary amounts of equol in urine were significantly higher in the BAC group than in the CO group (p < 0.01). However, no significant differences were observed between the urinary amounts of daidzein (DAD), dihydrodaidzein (DHD), enterodiol (END), and enterolactone (ENL) between the BAC and CO groups. No significant differences in the plasma lipids were observed between the two groups. The lipid content (% dry weight) in the feces sampled on the final day of the experiment tended to be higher in the BAC group than in the CO group (p =0.07). CONCLUSION Administration of equol‐producing bacterium TM‐30 affected the urinary amounts of phytoestrogens and the fecal lipid contents of mice. The equol‐producing bacterium TM‐30 likely influences the metabolism of phytoestrogen via changes in the gastrointestinal environment.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12T02:43:25.165164-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7490
  • NMR relaxometry study of development of freeze damage in Mandarin orange
    • Authors: Lu Zhang; Michael J. McCarthy
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Freeze damage to citrus fruit is one of the major causes of the loss of marketable fruit for the citrus industry. Because freeze damage occurs inside citrus fruit, detecting freeze damage is very challenging. This study addresses this problem by using NMR relaxometry to monitor changes at the subcellular level in mandarin flesh at two freezing temperatures, −4 °C and −20 °C. RESULTS The T2 relaxation spectra of mandarin flesh segments displayed three relaxation components, each representing a subcellular water compartment. Freezing treatment at −4 °C for 240 min significantly decreased the relative magnitude of the slow relaxation component and increased that of the intermediate relaxation components. These changes are signs of water redistribution between subcellular compartments and an increase in membrane permeability. Freezing treatment at −20 °C caused more evident changes in the T2 relaxation spectra. Noticeable changes occurred as early as 120 min of freezing. In addition, NMR relaxometry was performed on cold‐stored mandarins. Smaller changes were observed in samples stored at 4 °C than frozen samples. CONCLUSION The relative magnitudes of relaxation components are sensitive to subcellular changes in mandarin flesh due to freeze damage. Thus, freeze damage in mandarin flesh can be tracked by NMR relaxometry.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12T02:43:04.879848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7491
  • Selected chemical compounds in firm and mellow persimmon fruit before and
           after the drying process
    • Authors: Mateja Senica; Robert Veberic, Jana Jurhar Grabnar, Franci Stampar, Jerneja Jakopic
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Persimmon is a seasonal fruit and only available in fresh form for a short period of year. In addition to freezing, drying is the simplest substitute for the fresh fruit and accessible throughout the year. The effect of mellowing and drying was evaluated in ‘Tipo’ persimmon, an astringent cultivar. RESULTS ‘Tipo’ firm fruit contained high levels of tannins (1.1 mg g−1 DW), which were naturally decreased to 0.2 mg g−1 DW after mellowing. Drying process greatly impacted the contents of carotenoids, total phenols, individual phenolics, tannins, organic acids, sugars and color parameters in firm and mellow fruit. The reduction of tannins, phenolic compounds and organic acids were accompanied by the increase of sugars and carotenoids, improving the color of the analyzed samples. CONCLUSION These results showed that drying process improved the quality of persimmon products and extended their shelf life.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12T02:42:43.615799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7492
  • Health benefit of fucosterol from marine algae – A Review
    • Authors: Qudeer Ahmed Abdul; Ran Joo Choi, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
      Abstract: Background Seaweeds belong to a group of marine plants known as algae which consumed as sea vegetables in several Asian countries. Recent studies have focused on the biological and pharmacological activities of seaweeds and its highly bioactive secondary metabolites due to its possibility in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Although several varieties of bioactive novel compounds such as phlorotannins, diterpenes, and polysaccharides from seaweeds have been already well scrutinized, fucosterol as phytosterols still need to reinvent itself. Results Fucosterol (24‐ethylidene cholesterol) is a sterol that can be isolated from algae, seaweed, and diatoms. Fucosterol exhibits various biological therapeutics, including anti‐cancer, anti‐diabetic, anti‐oxidant, hepatoprotective, anti‐hyperlipidemic, anti‐fungal, anti‐histaminic, anti‐cholinergic, anti‐adipogenic, anti‐photodamaging, anti‐osteoporotic, blood cholesterol reducing, blood vessel thrombosis preventive, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Conclusion In this review, we address some potential approaches for arbitrating novel fucosterol biologics in the medical field, focusing on the selection of personalized drug candidates and highlighting the challenges and opportunities regarding medical breakthroughs. We also highlight the recent advances made in the design of this novel compound, as the significant health benefits from using these optimized applications apply to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12T02:41:15.892052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7489
  • In vitro screening of natural feed additives from crustaceans, diatoms,
           seaweeds and plant extracts to manipulate rumen fermentation
    • Abstract: Background Eight natural products from animal, unicellular algae, brown seaweed and plant origins were chosen according to their theoretical anti‐microbial activity: Diatomaceous earths (DE), insoluble chitosan (ICHI), soluble chitosan (CHI), seaweed meal (SWM), Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC), Laminaria digitata (LAM), Neem oil (NOIL) and an Ivy fruit extract rich in saponins (IVY). Dose‐response incubations were conducted to determine their effect on rumen fermentation pattern and gas production, while their anti‐protozoal activity was tested using 14C‐labelled bacteria. Results DE, SWM, NOIL and ICHI had very small effects on rumen function when used at inclusion rate up to 2g L−1. ASC had anti‐protozoal effects (up to ‐23%) promoting a decrease in gas production and methanogenesis (‐15%). LAM increased VFA production (+7%) and shifted from butyrate to acetate. CHI also shifted fermentation towards propionate production and lower methane (‐23%) and protozoal activity (‐56%). IVY decreased protozoal activity (‐39%) and ammonia concentration (‐56%), as well as increased feed fermentation (+11% VFA concentration) and shifted from acetate to propionate production. Conclusions ASC, LAM, CHI and IVY showed promising potential in vitro as feed additives to improve rumen function, thus more research is needed to investigate their mode of action in the rumen microbial ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T00:32:57.178126-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7481
  • Modification of gelatin‐DNA interaction for optimized DNA extraction
           from gelatin and gelatin capsule
    • Authors: Nurhidayatul Asma Mohamad; Shuhaimi Mustafa, Aly Farag El Sheikha, Nur Fadhilah Khairil Mokhtar, Amin Ismail, Md. Eaqub Ali
      Abstract: Background Poor quality and quantity of DNA extracted from gelatin and gelatin capsule often cause failure in animal species determination using PCR. Gelatin, which is mainly derived from porcine and bovine, has been a matter of concern among customers in order to fulfill religious obligation and safety precaution against several transmissible infectious diseases associated with bovine species. Thus, optimized DNA extraction from gelatin is very important for successful real time PCR detection of gelatin species. In this work, the DNA extraction method was optimized in terms of lysis's incubation period and inclusion of pre‐treatment pH modification of samples. Results Yield of DNA extracted from porcine gelatin was significantly increased when pH of the samples were adjusted to pH 8.5 prior to DNA precipitation with isopropanol. Optimal pH for DNA precipitation from bovine gelatin solution was then determined at original pH range of solution; pH 7.6 to 8. DNA fragment of approximately 300 base pairs was available for PCR amplification. Conclusion DNA extracted from gelatin and commercially available capsule have been successfully utilized for species detection using real time PCR assay. However, significant adulterations of porcine and bovine in pure gelatin and capsule have been detected, which require further analytical techniques for validation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T00:32:33.737901-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7482
  • Long‐term intake of white tea prevents oxidative damage caused by
           adriamycin in kidney of rats
    • Abstract: Background White tea infusion (Camelia sinensis) has antioxidants properties. Contains polyphenols that has been proposed to induced ARE response via NRF2. Adriamycin (ADR) has antitumor properties and oxidative effects. Oxidative stress is related with a variety of kidney diseases. Prevention of the oxidative stress through long‐term intake of white tea and the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in protection could be of great interest. Rats were given distilled water, 0.015 or 0.045 g of solid white tea extract x kg−1 body weight for 12 months. Animals received an injection of ADR. In kidney, oxidative stress parameters were measured, the expressions of nuclear factor E2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2), and detoxifying and antioxidants genes were analysed, and the activities of CAT, SOD and GR were measured. Results ADR administration increased oxidative parameters and decreased the antioxidant activity; significantly increased the expression of analysed genes and the activity of CAT and SOD and decreased GR activity. The highest white tea dose protected redox status and inhibited ARE response. Conclusion Long‐term intake of white tea protected kidney against the oxidative stress. ADR activated the ARE response but in animals treated with the highest dose of white tea, this response was inhibited, probably for the antioxidant protection.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T00:32:11.88956-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7483
  • Preparation, characterization and use for antioxidant oligosaccharides of
           a cellulase from abalone Haliotis discus hannai viscera
    • Abstract: Background In China, abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) production is growing annually. During industrial processing, the viscera which are abundant of cellulase, are usually discarded or processed into low‐value feedstuff. Thus, it is of interest to obtain cellulase from abalone viscera and investigate its application for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. Results A cellulase was purified from the hepatopancreas of abalone by ammonium sulfate precipitation and two steps of column chromatographies. The molecular weight of the cellulase was 45 kDa on SDS‐PAGE. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis yielded 103 amino acid residues, which were identical to cellulases from other species of abalone. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the cellulase is an endo‐1,4‐β‐glucanase. Hydrolysis of seaweed Porphyra haitanensis polysaccharides by the enzyme produced oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization of 2–4, whose monosaccharide composition was 58% galactose, 4% glucose and 38% xylose. The oligosaccharides revealed a, a‐diphenyl‐b‐picrythydrazyl (DPPH) free radical as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Conclusion It is feasible and meaningful to utilize cellulase from the viscera of abalone for preparation of functional oligosaccharides.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T00:31:36.362635-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7484
  • Determining the arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by
           atomic absorption spectrometry in Pangasius fillets from Vietnam
    • Abstract: Background Pangasius is a fish produced on a large scale in Vietnam and exported to many countries. Since the rivers contamination from human activities can affect the safety of this food, fish consumption can be an exposure to potentially toxic elements for humans. Thereby, the aim of this study was to assess arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in Pangasius fillet produced in the provinces of Dong Thap and Can Tho (Vietnam) and exported to Brazil. Results The limits of detection were arsenic 0.5443 µg kg −1, cadmium 0.0040 mg kg −1, chromium 0.0004 mg kg −1, copper 0.0037 mg kg −1 and lead 0.0284 mg kg −1. Analysis of 20 samples shown results below the LOD for arsenic, chromium and lead, while copper average concentration was 0.0234 mg kg −1. Cadmium average concentration was 0.0547 mg kg −1, with no significant difference between the two regions studied. Conclusion The samples of Pangasius had no detectable concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper and lead, and do not represent a hazard to public health. However, cadmium analysis revealed non compliant samples, demonstrating the importance of monitoring the quality of imported Pangasius fish.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T00:31:13.992587-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7486
  • Mapping the potential beverage quality of coffee produced in the Zona da
           Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    • Abstract: Background Detailed knowledge of coffee production systems enables optimization of crop management, harvesting and post‐harvest techniques. In this study, coffee quality is mapped as a function of coffee variety, altitude and terrain aspect attributes. The work was performed in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Results A large range of coffee quality grades was observed for the Red Catuai variety. For the Yellow Catuai variety, no quality grades lower than 70 were observed. Regarding the terrain aspect, samples from the southeast‐facing slope (SEFS) and the northwest‐facing slope (NWFS) exhibited distinct behaviors. The SEFS samples had a greater range of quality grades than did the NWFS samples. The highest grade was obtained from a NWFS point. The lowest quality values and the largest range of grades were observed at lower altitudes. The extracts from the highest altitude samples did not produce any low‐quality coffee. Conclusions The production site's position and altitude are the primary variables that influenced the coffee quality. The study area has micro‐regions with grades ranging from 80 to 94. These areas have the potential for producing specialty coffees.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T00:30:51.219049-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7485
  • Phytogenic pigments in animal nutrition: potentials and risks
    • Authors: Bettina Faehnrich; Brigitte Lukas, Elke Humer, Qendrim Zebeli
      Abstract: Phytogenic pigments are secondary plant compounds responsible for coloring effects in plant tissues. In particular, phenolic flavonoids and terpenoid carotenoids, but also rare compounds like curcumin and betalain form this group of bio‐chemical agents used in animal nutrition. From the perspective of ecological mutuality between plants and animals, these compounds are of crucial importance because they serve as visual attraction for herbivores but also signal nutritional and/or health‐promoting values. This review focuses on the properties of phytogenic pigments which are likely to impact feed intake and preferences of livestock. Also natural prophylactic and/or therapeutic properties and in particular potential of pigments to enhance quality and health value of animal products for human consumption are important issues. Nevertheless, reasonable limits of use due to possible adverse indications have been suggested recently. Pathways of digestion, metabolism and excretion in animal play a crucial role not only in the evaluation of effectiveness but also in the prediction of potential risks for human consumption. The popularity of natural feed additives is growing; therefore more research work is needed to better understand metabolic pathways in the animal's body and to better estimate the potentials and risks of pigmenting plant compounds used in animal nutrition.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:50:27.847596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7478
  • Nutrition recommendations and science – next parallel steps
    • Authors: Mikael Fogelholm
      Abstract: This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population‐based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in getting more benefits out of nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance, and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies, such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to get more insight on how to change eating behaviour for better health on population level.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:49:50.052205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7479
  • Emu oil decreases atherogenic plaque formation in cafeteria diet induced
           obese rats
    • Authors: Soundararajan Kamalakkannan; P.B.Tirupathi Pichiah, Seenivasan Kalaiselvi, Arunachalam Sankarganesh, Shanmugam Achiraman
      Abstract: Background Atherosclerosis induced coronary heart disease—caused by elevated levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and inflammation—is one of the most prevalent diseases. Monounsaturated fatty acids are reported to prevent atherosclerosis; emu oil being a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acid, we hypothesize that emu oil supplementation could lower inflammation and prevent atherosclerosis in Diet Induced Obese (DIO) animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=6), and fed with Normal Diet (chow pellet)‐ND, or with Cafeteria Diet‐ CD, or with Cafeteria Diet–CD along with emu oil supplementation at three different doses of ED1 (2ml), ED2 (4ml) and ED3 (8ml) kg−1 BW respectively. Results After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and serum was analyzed for measuring lipid profile, C–reactive proteins, testosterone and LH. Histopathological studies were performed to observe atherogenic changes in thoracic aorta. Restoration of altered lipid and hormonal profiles, and inhibition of atherognic changes in thoracic aorta were observed with supplementation of emu oil, confirming its anti‐atherosclerotic activity. Conclusion High content of oleic acid in emu oil could have orchestrated—either solely or in combinations with linoleic and linolenic acids—in up regulating testosterone biosynthesis and inhibiting atheromatous plaque formation in diet induced obese animals.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:49:21.439917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7480
  • Developing a Carob‐Based Milk Beverage Using Different Varieties of
           Carob Pods and Two Roasting Treatments and Assessing Their Effect on
           Quality Characteristics
    • Authors: Nadine Srour; Hamza Daroub, Imad Toufeili, Ammar Olabi
      Abstract: Background This work aimed at formulating a carob‐based milk beverage and assessing its chemical and sensory properties. Six varieties of carob pods, each processed into roasted and unroasted powders, were used to develop twelve prototypes of the beverage. Chemical and physicochemical analyses (moisture, ash, fiber, protein, sugars, total‐phenolics, total‐antioxidants, water activity and color) and sensory tests were conducted. Results Variety of carob pod had a significant effect on all chemical variables in carob powders(p
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:48:59.384319-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7476
  • In ovo administration of copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate
           positively influences chicken performance
    • Abstract: Background Copper (Cu) is a key trace mineral involved in a variety of physiological processes, and is commonly used in poultry production. However, regardless of the inclusion level the majority of Cu is excreted with poultry faeces. We hypothesize that in ovo administration will allow for better utilisation of Cu during embryo development than when supplied postnatally with feed to growing chickens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of in ovo administration of NanoCu and copper sulphate (CuSO4) on broiler chicken performance Results The study showed the positive influences of Cu nanoparticles and CuSO4 on broiler chickens performance. Body weight, at the end of the rearing period (day 42) was significantly higher in NanoCu (2206 g) and CuSO4 (2402 g) groups compared to the control group (2000 g). Both treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion rate and mortality, and higher percentage of breast and leg muscles in the carcass versus control. Conclusion The in ovo application of Cu colloids may ensure an efficient penetration of Cu into the embryonic tissue with long lasting effects on postnatal growth. The method may provide a successful alternative to using Cu as a feed additive.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T01:48:30.932562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7477
  • Metabolomic analysis can detect the composition of pasta enriched with
           fibre after cooking
    • Authors: Romina Beleggia; Valeria Menga, Cristiano Platani, Franca Nigro, Mariagiovanna Fragasso, Clara Fares
      Abstract: Background Several studies have demonstrated that metabolomics has a definite place in food quality, nutritional value, and safety issues. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the metabolites in different pasta samples with fibre, and to investigate the modifications induced in these different kinds of pasta during cooking, using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS)‐based metabolomics approach. Results Differences were seen for some of the amino acids, which were absent in control pasta, while were present both in the commercial available high‐fibre pasta (A‐C) and the enriched pasta (D‐F). The highest content in reducing sugars was observed in enriched samples in comparison with high fibre ‐ pasta. The presence of stigmasterol in sample enriched with wheat bran was relevant. Cooking decreased all of the metabolites: the high‐fibre pasta (A‐C) and Control showed losses of amino acids and tocopherols, while for sugars and organic acids, the decrease depended on the pasta sample. The enriched pasta samples (D‐F) showed the same decreases with the exception of phytosterols, and in pasta with barley the decrease of SFAs was not significant as for tocopherols in pasta with oat. The PCA of the metabolites and the pasta discrimination was effective in the differentiation of the enriched pasta from the commercial pasta, both uncooked and cooked. Conclusions The study has established that such metabolomic analyses provide useful tools in the evaluation of the changes in nutritional compounds in high‐fibre and enriched pasta, both before and after cooking.
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T03:48:59.352251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7473
  • Iron migration from undamaged and dented juice tinplate cans
    • Abstract: Background Iron migration from tinplate cans to pineapple drink was studied along time by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), having in consideration, storage temperature, sell‐by date, and can condition (dented/undamaged). An organoleptic test, at the sell‐by date, was also performed. Result Analysis of iron in drinks from tinplate cans, glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were performed till the sell‐by date. For undamaged canned drinks stored at room temperature, iron was found to remain constant at 0.23±0.01 mg L−1, since the 24th day till one year after production. Iron found in glass and PET bottles, also remained constant till the sell‐by date, at 0.15±0.04 and 0.12±0.04 mg L−1, respectively. However, migration of iron from dented cans was found to be significant. Twelve months after production, iron content in dented cans, stored at room temperature (22°C), and in a refrigerator chamber (4°C), was 14.4±1.0 mg L−1 and 5.5±0.4 mg L−1, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that for a 35 kg child, the intake of 3 damaged canned drinks may contribute with more that 50% of the iron Provisional Maximum Tolerance Daily Intake (PMTDI).
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T07:13:16.704259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7474
  • How the variance of some extraction variables may affect the quality of
           espresso coffees served at coffee shop?
    • Authors: Severini C; Derossi A, Fiore A.G, De Pilli T, Alessandrino O, Del Mastro A.
      Abstract: Background To improve the quality of espresso coffee, the variables under the control of barista, such as grinding grades, coffee quantities and pressure applied on coffee cake as well as their variance are of great importance. A nonlinear mixed effect modeling was used to obtain information on the changes in chemical attributes of espresso coffee (EC) as a function of the variability of extraction conditions. Results During extraction, the changes in volume were well described by a logistic model while the chemical attributes were better fit by a first order kinetic. The major source of information was contained into the grinding grade which accounted for the 87‐96% of the variance of experimental data. The variability of the grinding produced changes in caffeine content in the range of 80.03 mg and 130.36 mg when using a constant grinding grade of 6.5. Conclusion The variability in volume and chemical attributes of EC is large. The grinding had the most important effect showing as the variability in particle size distribution observed for each grinding level had a profound effect on the quality of EC. The standardization of the grinding would be of crucial importance for obtaining all espresso coffees with a high quality standard.
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T07:08:03.673136-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7472
  • Estimation of total soluble solids in grape berries using a hand held NIR
           spectrometer under field conditions
    • Abstract: Background Recent studies have reported the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectral analyzers for monitoring the ripeness of grape berries alternatively to wet chemistry methods. This study covers various aspects regarding the calibration and implementation of predictive models of total soluble solids (TSS) in grape berries using laboratory and in‐field collected NIR spectra. Results The performance of the calibration models obtained under laboratory conditions indicated that at least 700 berry samples are required to assure enough prediction accuracy. A statistically significant error reduction (Δ RMSECV=0.1 °Brix) with p
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:46:55.778291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7470
  • Production of the natural iron chelator deferriferrichrysin from
    • Authors: Takehiko Todokoro; Katsuharu Fukuda, Kengo Matsumura, Motoko Irie, Yoji Hata
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Deferriferrichrysin (Dfcy) is a siderophore found in foods fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and is a promising candidate for an antioxidant food additive because of its high binding constant toward iron. However, the Dfcy concentration is typically low in foods and cultures. RESULTS We optimized culture conditions to improve Dfcy production to 2800 mg L−1 from 22.5 mg L−1 under typical conditions. Then, we evaluated the potential of Dfcy as a food additive by measuring its safety, stability, and antioxidant activity. Dfcy was sufficiently stable that over 90% remained after pasteurization at 63°C for 30 min at pH 3–11, or after sterilization at 120°C for 4 min at pH 4–6. Dfcy showed high antioxidant activity in an oil‐in‐water model, where inhibition of lipid oxidation was measured by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. Dfcy decreased PV and TBARS by 83% and 75%, respectively. Antioxidant activity of Dfcy was equal to or higher than that of the synthetic chelator EDTA. CONCLUSION Our study provides the first practical method for production of Dfcy. Dfcy can be a novel food‐grade antioxidant and the first natural alternative to the synthesized iron chelator EDTA.
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:46:05.188811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7469
  • Impacts of degree of milling on the appearance and aroma characteristics
           of raw rice
    • Abstract: Background Little has been reported about the sensory impact of degree of milling (DOM) on raw, uncooked rice. This study focuses on the effects of DOM, which was measured by surface lipid content (SLC), on appearance and aroma attributes of raw rice, as well as the appearance of cooked rice; greater DOM leads to lesser SLC levels. Results Milled‐rice samples with SLCs of 0.64, 0.59, 0.42, and 0.25%, as well as brown rice (2.27% total lipid content), were evaluated by trained panelists on three appearance‐ and five aroma‐related attributes of raw rice, as well as four appearance‐related attributes of the resultant cooked rice. All milled‐rice samples, varying in SLC level from 0.64 to 0.25%, differed from brown rice with respect to raw‐rice and cooked‐rice appearance and aroma attributes. A significant sensory difference among the four raw‐rice samples was present only in the degree of whiteness; however, such a difference was absent once the samples were cooked. When cooked, highly‐milled rice (0.25% SLC) was rated glossier than either lightly‐milled rice (0.64% SLC) or brown rice. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that sensory impacts of DOM on raw rice were present between brown rice and milled‐rice samples, but not among the milled‐rice samples varying in SLC level from 0.64 to 0.25%. The overall findings indicate that consumers may not detect appearance‐ or aroma‐related differences among raw‐rice samples ranging in SLC from 0.64 to 0.25%.
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:44:35.955106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7471
  • Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of
           camel meat emulsion sausages
    • Authors: Hussein M. H. Mohamed; Mohamed M. T. Emara, Taha M. Nouman
      Abstract: Background The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Results Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85°C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105°C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilization of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Conclusion Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries.
      PubDate: 2015-09-22T06:44:26.557842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7468
  • Properties of a novel polydatin‐β‐D‐glucosidase
           from Aspergillus niger SK34.002 and its application in enzymatic
           preparation of resveratrol
    • Authors: Linfang Zhou; Shuhua Li, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Bo Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Resveratrol and its glucoside polydatin are the main stilbenes in Polygonum cuspidatum. Resveratrol has become the subject of intensive research over the past two decades owing to its outstanding pharmacological properties. However, its lower concentration in plants compared to polydatin limits its application. In this study, the polydatin‐β‐D‐glucosidase (PBG) that hydrolyzes β‐D‐glucosyl residue of polydatin with release of resveratrol was purified to homogeneity and characterized. RESULTS The molecular weight of PBG was estimated to be 125 kDa by SDS‐PAGE and 128 kDa by SEC‐MALLS/UV/RI. The optimal PBG activity was observed at 70 °C and pH 4.5. The enzyme showed around 50% stability at 60 °C for 12 h and residual activity was over 80% at pH 3.0‐5.0. Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ba2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions had no significant affect on the enzyme activity. The PBG presented higher affinity to polydatin (Km = 0.74 mmol L−1) than p‐nitrophenyl‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (Km = 2.9 mmol L−1) and cellobiose (Km = 8.9 mmol L−1). CONCLUSION With this enzyme, nearly all polydatin in P. cuspidatum was converted to resveratrol. Although several β‐D‐glucosidases (BGLs) have been obtained from other sources, the PBG is distinguished from other BGLs by its outstanding thermal stability and high catalytic efficiency.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:39:07.781078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7465
  • Moderate water stress prevents the postharvest decline of ascorbic acid in
    • Authors: Lars M Mogren; Andrew M Beacham, John P H Reade, James M Monaghan
      Abstract: Background Babyleaf salads such as Spinach (S. oleracea L.) and spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla var. cicla) are an important dietary source of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Such compounds may be important in disease prevention in consumers but the level of these compounds in leaves frequently declines after harvest. As such, methods to maintain antioxidant levels in fresh produce are being sought. Results Irrigation deficits were used to apply water stress to S. oleracea and B. vulgaris plants. This treatment prevented postharvest decline of leaf ascorbic acid content in S. oleracea but not in B. vulgaris. Ascorbic acid levels in leaves at harvest were unaffected by the treatment in both species compared to well‐watered controls. Conclusion We have shown that restricted irrigation provides a viable means to maintain leaf vitamin content after harvest in S. oleracea, an important finding for producers, retailers and consumers alike.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:38:43.853257-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7464
  • Synthesis and characterization of a stable humic‐urease complex:
           application to barley seed encapsulation for improving N uptake
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Most of the N fertilizers added to the soil are not efficiently used by plants and are lost to the atmosphere or leached from the soil, causing environmental pollution and increasing cost. The barley seed encapsulation in calcium alginate gels containing free or immobilized urease was investigated to enhance plant utilization of soil N. RESULTS Urease was immobilized with soil humic acids (HA). A central composite face‐centered design was applied to optimize the immobilization process, reaching an immobilization yield of 127%. Soil stability of urease was enhanced after the immobilization. The seed encapsulation with free urease (FU) and humic‐urease complex (HUC) resulted in an urease activity retention in the coating layer of 46 and 24%, and in germination rates of 87 and 92%, respectively. Under pot culture conditions, the pots planted with seeds encapsulated with FU and HUC showed higher ammonium N (NH4+‐N) (26 and 64%, respectively) than the control soil at 28 days after planting (DAP). Moreover, the seed encapsulation with FU and HUC increased the N uptake 83 and 97%, respectively, at 35 DAP. CONCLUSION The seed encapsulation with urease could substantially contribute to enhance the plant N nutrition in the early stages of seedling establishment.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:37:54.288106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7466
  • Within‐season yield prediction with different nitrogen inputs under
           rain‐fed condition using CERES‐Wheat model in northwest of
    • Authors: Zhengpeng Li; Mingdan Song, Hao Feng, Ying Zhao
      Abstract: Background Yield prediction within season is of great use to improve agricultural risk management and decision making. The objectives of this study were to access the yield forecast performance with increasing nitrogen inputs and to determine when the acceptable predicted yield can be achieved using CERES‐Wheat model. Results the calibrated model simulated wheat yield very well under various water and nitrogen conditions. Long‐term simulation demonstrated nitrogen input enlarged the annual variability of wheat yield generally. Within‐season yield prediction showed that: regardless of nitrogen inputs yield forecasts in later growing season improved the accuracy and reduced the uncertainty of yield prediction. In low‐yielding year (2011–2012) /high‐yielding year (1991–1992), the date of acceptable predicted yield was achieved 62 and 65 days prior to wheat maturity, respectively. In normal‐yielding year (1983–1984), Inadequate precipitation after jointing stage in most historical years led to the under‐estimation of wheat yield and the date of accurate yield prediction was delayed to 235–250 day after simulation (7–22 days prior to maturity) for different N inputs. Conclusion Yield prediction was highly influenced by the distribution of meteorological elements during growing season and it may have a great improvement that the provided reliable future weather can be forecasted early.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T02:36:43.327622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7467
  • Physico‐chemical and microbiological characterization of Italian
           fermented sausages in relation to their size
    • Authors: Giulia Tabanelli; Eleonora Bargossi, Aldo Gardini, Rosalba Lanciotti, Rudy Magnani, Fausto Gardini, Chiara Montanari
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to study the physico‐chemical and microbiological parameters of 10 Italian fermented sausages industrially produced in order to highlight the differences in relation to their size. The sausages were classified as small, medium and large and the data concerning every feature considered were analyzed with some statistical explorative tools: ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). RESULTS Significant differences in relation to the sausage size were found regarding microbial populations (regarding in particular enterobacteria and staphylococci). The pH was higher in the small sausages, and consequently the presence of lactate and acetate was higher in the bigger one. Also the biogenic amine content (particularly tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine) was influenced by the size. CONCLUSIONS In spite of the extreme variability of the sausage types at the end of ripening, this work evidenced that it was possible to find a strict relationship between sausages diameter and some essential physico‐chemical parameters. Thus, the cross‐sectional size of the product is an essential parameter, which can drive the biochemical processes during ripening, not only by affecting the kinetics of water losses, but also by influencing the microbiota enzymatic activity.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:40:30.868059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7442
  • "Laba" garlic processed by Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: the relation
           between green color generation and cellular structure, alliin consumption
           and alliinase activity
    • Authors: Dandan Tao; Bing Zhou, Luyao Zhang, Xiaosong Hu, Xiaojun Liao, Yan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND “Laba” garlic is usually processed by soaking garlic in vinegar for more than one week during winter, it is popular for its unique green color and tasty flavor. Greening is desirable and required for this product as its characteristic. Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide (DPCD) had a significant effect on the greening of intact garlic (Allium sativum L) cloves. The relation between green color generation and alliin consumption, alliinase activity and the cellular structure of garlic were respectively investigated in this work. The effects of treatment time, pressure and temperature of DPCD were also analyzed and discussed. RESULTS DPCD had a significant effect on the cellular structure of garlic cells. Garlic protoplast underwent greater morphological change after DPCD treatments at higher temperatures while the amount of precipitate increased with greater treatment time and temperature. Common trends on garlic greening and alliin consumption were observed except for DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 65 °C. The alliinase activity decreased with increasing treatment time, pressure and temperature. It reached the lowest level at 13 MPa and 55 °C. CONCLUSION The green color formation was a comprehensive result of DPCD on changing cellular structure, alliin consumption and alliinase activity. DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 55 °C was the optimum condition for the greening of “Laba” garlic. This work further facilitated the application of DPCD in the industrial production of “Laba” garlic.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:47:23.782782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7463
  • Cinnamon intake reduces serum T3 level and modulates tissue‐specific
           expression of thyroid hormone receptor and target genes in rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Cinnamon has several effects on energy metabolism. However, no data exist on the impact of cinnamon intake on thyroid hormone serum concentrations and action, since thyroid hormones (TH) play a major role in metabolism. RESULTS Male rats were treated with cinnamon water extract (400 mg kg−1 body weight, 25 days). Cinnamon supplementation resulted in a lower serum total T3 level accompanied by normal serum T4 and TSH levels. The cinnamon‐treated rats did not exhibit significant differences in TSHβ subunit, TRβ or deiodinase type 2 mRNA expression in the pituitary. In the liver, cinnamon did not change the TRβ protein expression or the deiodinase type 1 mRNA expression, suggesting that there were no changes in T3 signaling or metabolism in this organ. However, mitochondrial GPDH, a target gene for T3 in the liver, exhibited no changes in mRNA expression, although its activity level was reduced by cinnamon. In the cardiac ventricle, T3 action was markedly reduced by cinnamon, as demonstrated by the lower TRα mRNA and protein levels, reduced SERCA2a and RyR2 and increased phospholamban mRNA expression. CONCLUSION This study has revealed that TH action is a novel target of cinnamon, demonstrating impairment of T3 signaling in the cardiac ventricles.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:45:53.299389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7460
  • Chemical composition, nutritional value and in vitro starch digestibility
           of roasted chickpeas
    • Abstract: Background Chickpea is considered a wholesome and nutritious food due to its nutritional properties and glycemic response. Such properties can be influenced by the thermal treatment used to cook this legume and produce a snack named leblebi. From the consumers’ point of view, it is desirable to improve texture and palatability of the chickpea by the processing steps used to make leblebi. However, consumers are increasingly concerned with the nutritional value of snack foods. Results Nutritional components and digestibility properties of single and double heat‐treated chickpea, single and double roasted leblebi and white leblebi were studied. High sodium, starch damage and soluble dietary fiber content were observed in white leblebi; while the other samples showed significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:45:04.11199-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7461
  • Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose
           severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage
    • Authors: Babak Madani; Amin Mirshekari, Elhadi Yahia
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Therehave been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. RESULTS Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium‐treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to thecontrol, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after six days in storage, for the 2%calcium treatment compared to thecontrol. Calcium‐treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. CONCLUSION Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintainingpapaya fruit quality during ambient storage.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T02:44:43.157882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7462
  • Simultaneous decontamination and drying of rough rice using combined
           pulsed light and holding treatment
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Pulsed light (PL) technology has been proven effective in food disinfection. However, increasing the light intensity or treatment time could swiftly increase the temperature of the food product. Using the thermal effect in a proper way may achieve a simultaneous disinfection and drying effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous disinfection and drying of rough rice using PL and holding treatment. RESULTS Freshly harvested rice samples were inoculated by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and treated using PL under different intensities and durations followed by holding treatment. The PL treatment under intensity of 1.08 W cm−2 for 21 s led to a reduction of 0.29 log cfu g−1 on population size of A. flavus spores. After holding treatment, a 5.2 log cfu g−1 reduction was achieved. The corresponding total moisture removal reached to 3.3% points. No adverse effect on milling quality was detected after the treatment. CONCLUSION The obtained results revealed that the combined PL and holding treatment had a good potential for successful application in the rice industry to simultaneously achieve disinfection and drying.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T04:44:06.099205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7458
  • Quality changes of cuttlefish stored under various atmosphere
           modifications and vacuum packaging
    • Authors: Achilleas D. Bouletis; Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Christos Neofitou, Parlapani Foteini, Dimitrios C. Gkagtzis
      Abstract: Backround Seafood preservation and its self‐life prolongation are two of the main issues placing obstacles to the seafood industry. As a result, and in view of the market globalization, research has been triggered in this direction by applying several techniques such as Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP), Vacuum Packaging (VP) and Active Packaging (AP) among others. However, there is seafood such as octopus, cuttlefish and others that have not been thoroughly investigated up to now. The aim of this research was to determine the optimal conditions of modified atmosphere under which the cuttlefish storage time and consequently shelf‐life time could be prolonged without endangering the consumers’ safety. Results It was found that cuttlefish shelf‐life reached 2, 2, 4, 8 and 8 days for control, vacuum, MAP 1, MAP 2 and MAP 3 treated samples, respectively judging by their sensorial attributes. Elevated CO2 levels had a strong microbiostatic effect, whereas storage under vacuum did not offer significant advantages. All physicochemical attributes of MAP treated samples were better preserved compared to control. Conclusion Application of high CO2 atmospheres such as MAP 2 and MAP 3 proved to be an effective strategy toward preserving the characteristics and prolonging the shelf life of fresh cuttlefish and thereby improving its potential in the market.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T04:42:53.142479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7459
  • Rapid and sensitive screening of some acidic micronutrients in infant
           foods by HPLC with fluorescent detector
    • Authors: Guoliang Li; Weiheng Kong, Guangsen Fan, Wenli Wang, Na Hu, Guang Chen, Xianen Zhao, Jinmao You
      Abstract: Background Currently, commercially prepared complementary foods have become an important part of the diet of many infants and toddlers. But the method for simultaneous analysis of different types micronutrient remain poorly investigated, which hinders the rapid and comprehensive quality control of infant foods. In the presented study, we first tried to employ the fluorescence labeling strategy combining with HPLC‐FLD for simultaneous determination of some acidic micronutrients including biotin, nicotinic acid, linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in infant foods. Results 2‐(5‐Benzoacridine) ethyl‐p‐toluenesulfonate (BAETS) was used as the fluorescence labeling reagent for simultaneous labeling of the seven components. The labeling conditions were optimized systematically by response surface methodology. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves of the tested compounds ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9998. Limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 1.99 ‐ 3.05 nmol/L. RSD values of retention time and peak area of seven compounds were less than 0.05 % and 0.75 %, respectively. The intra‐ and inter‐day precisions were in the range of 1.81‐ 3.80 % and 3.21‐ 4.30 %, respectively. When applied to analyze several infant foods, it showed good applicability. Conclusion The developed method has been proven to be simple, inexpensive, selective, sensitive, accurate and reliable for analysis of some acidic micronutrients in infant foodstuffs. Furthermore, this developed method also has powerful potential in the analysis of many other complementary foodstuffs.
      PubDate: 2015-09-12T01:43:51.848212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7457
  • Authentication of the origin of sucrose‐based sugar products using
           quantitative natural abundance 13C NMR
    • Authors: Yulia B. Monakhova; Bernd W.K. Diehl
      Abstract: Background Due to possible falsification of sugar cane products with cheaper alternative (sugar beet) on the market, a simple analytical methodology has to be developed to control the authenticity of sugar products. Results A direct 13C NMR method has been validated to differentiate between sucrose‐based sugar products produced from sugar beet (C3 plant) and sugar cane (C4 plant). The method based on calculating relative 13C content of the C1, C2, C5, and the C1, C4, C5, C6 positions of the glycosyl and fructosyl moieties of the sucrose molecule, respectively. NMR acquisition parameters and data processing have been optimized to reach a high level of intraday and interday precision (
      PubDate: 2015-09-12T01:43:27.393195-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7456
  • Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut
           (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by
    • Authors: Suellen Gomes; Alexandre G Torres
      Abstract: Background The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by‐product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. Results The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved with the following conditions: ethanol:water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization with Ultra‐turrax®; and one hour extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by HPLC‐PDA. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4‐dihydroxybenzoic acid, p‐hydroxybenzoic acid, p‐coumaric acid, and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)‐catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg−1. Conclusion Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T01:24:24.876394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7448
  • Extraction, partial purification and characterization of vanillic acid
           decarboxylase from Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3923
    • Authors: Rui Cai; Dongyu Li, Yahong Yuan, Zhouli Wang, Chunfeng Guo, Bin Liu, Tianli Yue
      Abstract: Background Vanillic acid decarboxylase (VAD) is the key enzyme responsible for guaiacol production in Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris; however, information related to this enzyme is currently unavailable. The aim of this study is to characterize the VAD from A. acidoterrestris. Results Specific activity of VAD in vanillic acid‐induced A. acidoterrestris DSM 3923 cells was highest in the early stage of log phase, and almost could not be detectable in stationary and death phases. Of the four techniques used to extract VAD, sonication was found to be the most effective and recovered 3.23 U mg−1 of VAD. Through optimization of the crucial parameters for sonication, the recovery of VAD had more than doubled (6.81 U mg−1). The crude enzyme extract was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a 9.87‐fold purification was obtained. The partially purified VAD exhibited optimum activity at pH 6.0‐6.5, 45°C and was stable at pH 5.0‐7.5, 20‐45°C. The Km and Vmax values of the VAD were 0.53 mmol L−1 and 96 U mg−1 protein, respectively. VAD activity was stimulated by Co2+ and Mn2+, but was inhibited by Ni2+, Cu2+, Ba2+ and Fe3+. Cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin and rutin at the concentration of 1 mmol L−1 could completely inhibit the activity of VAD. Conclusion The present study provides the first report on the characteristics of the VAD from A. acidoterrestris, which will contribute to the development of more effective control methods to minimize A. acidoterrestris‐related spoilage in fruit juices.
      PubDate: 2015-09-09T04:39:53.846378-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7455
  • Effect of postharvest Ultraviolet‐C treatment on the proteome
           changes in fresh cut mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan)
    • Authors: Dominic Soloman George; Zuliana Razali, Vicknesha Santhirasegaram, Chandran Somasundram
      Abstract: Background Postharvest treatments of fruits such as ultraviolet‐C have been linked with maintenance of the fruits quality as well as shelf‐life extension. However, the effects of this treatment on the quality of fruits on a proteomic level remain unclear. This study was conducted in order to understand the response of mango fruit to postharvest UV‐C irradiation. Results Approximately 380 reproducible spots were detected following two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Through gel analysis, 24 spots were observed to be differentially expressed in UV‐C treated fruits and 20 were successfully identified via LCMS/MS. Postharvest UV‐C treatment resulted in degradative effects on these identified proteins of which 40% were related to stress response, 45% to energy and metabolism and 15% to ripening and senescence. In addition, quality and shelf‐life analysis of control and irradiated mangoes was evaluated. UV‐C was found to be successful in retention of quality and extension of shelf‐life up to 15 days. Furthermore, UV‐C was also successful in increasing antioxidants (total flavonoid, reducing power and ABTS scavenging activity) in mangoes. Conclusion This study provides an overview of the effects of UV‐C treatment on the quality of mango on a proteomic level as well as the potential of this treatment in shelf‐life extension of fresh‐cut fruits.
      PubDate: 2015-09-09T04:16:40.415305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7454
  • Sugar and phenol content in apple with or without watercore
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Watercore is a physiological disorder affecting fruit of some apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars. Intercellular spaces are filled with fluid, which reduces intercellular air space volume. In this study individual phenolic content, sugars and organic acids in watercore affected flesh have been identified and quantified. Peroxidase activity was also measured, as a potential stress indicator. The study was performed on three cultivars prone to watercore development ‘Delicious’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Fuji’. RESULTS Total phenolic content was higher in flesh of fruit without watercore in all three cultivars, which was mainly due to higher individual and total flavanol content. In contrast, total and individual dihydrochalcone content was higher in watercore flesh, where it was up to 2.4 times higher from the flesh of fruit without watercore. Also, peroxidase activity was higher in watercore flesh. CONCLUSION Higher peroxidase activity and total and individual dihydrochalcone content leads us to believe that oxidative stress occurred. These results show that watercore has an influence on apple fruit sugar and phenol content even before any visual signs of internal breakdown and browning. With the development of non‐destructive techniques for phenol content determination, the knowledge about phenolic changes in watercore affected fruits could aid with apple fruit sorting.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T03:16:13.058198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7453
  • Isolation of cytotoxic diterpenoids from the Chilean medicinal
           plant Azorella compacta Phil from the Atacama Desert by
           high‐speed counter‐current chromatography
    • Abstract: Background Azorella compacta (Apiaceae) is a native Chilean cushion shrub which produces a resin containing mulinane and azorellane diterpenoids. This plant is used since precolombian times to treat inflammation and dental neuralgias. In this work the first preparative fractionation of diterpenoids present in this plant by means of high‐speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was applied, and cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated for the first time against a panel of MCF7 cells. Results The mayor compounds isolated were identified by means of spectroscopy as azorellanol, 13α, 14α‐dihydroxymulin‐11‐en‐20‐oic acid, mulinolic acid, mulin‐11,13‐dien‐20‐oic acid, 17‐acetoxy‐mulin‐11,13 dien‐20 oic acid, and 17‐acetoxy‐mulinic acid (compounds 7, 9–11 and 13, respectively), and four minor diterpenoids (7‐deacetyl‐azorellanol (6), 13‐epi‐azorellanol, 7‐acetoxy‐mulin‐9,12‐diene, and 17‐acetoxy‐mulin‐11,13 dien‐20 oic acid (compounds 4, 8 and 12), together with three new minor diterpenoids: 13β,14β‐dihydroxymulin‐11‐en‐20‐oic acid (1), 13‐epiazorellanone (2) and 13‐epi‐7‐deacetyl‐azorellanol (3) were identified. Besides, compounds 4, 6, 7, 8 and 11 displayed good cytotoxic activity (less than 50% cell viability at 100 μM). Among them, compound 7, an acetylated azorellane, was the most active. Conclusions HSCCC allowed the isolation of 12 diterpenoids present in A. compacta. Three compounds are reported for the first time. Isolated azorellanes are more potent cytotoxic than mulinanes.
      PubDate: 2015-09-07T02:32:22.031725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7451
  • Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape
    • Authors: Kenneth J. Olejar; Sudip Ray, Paul A. Kilmartin
      Abstract: Background A natural antioxidant derived from an agro‐waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high‐density polyethylene, linear low‐density polyethylene, and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Results Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusions in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to steadily increase with a greater concentration of grape tannins, with the highest increases seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin‐grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Conclusion Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro‐waste.
      PubDate: 2015-09-04T01:38:33.959886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7450
  • Drying of re‐structured chips made from the old stalks of Asparagus
           officinalis: Impact of different drying methods
    • Authors: Zhenbin Liu; Min Zhang, Yuchuan Wang
      Abstract: Background The old stalks of Asparagus officinalis which account for one third of the total length of each spear are always discarded as wastes. To make fully use of the resource, a kind of re‐structured Asparagus officinalis chip was made. Then the effects of pulse‐spouted microwave‐assisted vacuum drying (PSMVD), microwave‐assisted vacuum drying (MVD) and vacuum drying (VD) on texture, color and other quality parameters of re‐structured chips were studied to obtain high‐quality dried chips. Results Results indicated that the drying time significantly affected by drying methods and PSMVD had much better drying uniformity than MVD. The expansion ratio and crispness of chips increased with increasing microwave power and vacuum degree. The browning reaction of samples in VD was more serious, which confirmed by the results of color test and electronic nose. Conclusions Drying method of PSMVD had much better drying uniformity than MVD. The dried chips obtained by PSMVD showed optimal quality and more readily accepted by consumers.
      PubDate: 2015-09-04T01:37:48.484055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7449
  • Flavored phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts stability during
           storage as affected by different packaging materials
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different packaging materials on storage stability of flavored phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts. White vanilla (WV) and blood orange (BO) phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts conditioned in mono‐ layer and triple‐ layer co‐extruded plastic bottles were stored at +6 ± 1 °C for 35 days (under alternating 12 h light and 12 h darkness) to simulate shelf‐life conditions. Samples were collected at three different storage times and subjected to determination of total sterol content (TSC), peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). RESULTS TSC was not significantly affected by packaging material or storage time and met the quantity declared on the label. PV was significantly influenced by yogurt type x packaging material x storage time interaction and TBARs by packaging material x storage time interaction. CONCLUSION Between the two packaging materials, the triple‐ layer plastic mini bottle with black colored and completely opaque intermediate layer offered the best protection against lipid oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T04:45:30.38499-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7443
  • Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance
           shelf life during storage
    • Abstract: Backround Eggs have long been recognized as a source of high‐quality proteins. There are many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment. Ozone treatment is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces to food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2,4,and 6ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 minutes 6 weeks at 24°C. Effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs were also reported. Results Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh Unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity(RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 minutes can be applied to fresh eggs that extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24°C storage period. Conclusion Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg's quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at the 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results to maintain internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) resulted a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone‐treatments 2, especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T22:11:39.475386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7440
  • Effect of drought stress on the development of endosperm starch granules
           and the composition and physicochemical properties of starches from soft
           and hard wheat
    • Authors: Xurun Yu; Bo Li, Leilei Wang, Xinyu Chen, Wenjun Wang, Yunjie Gu, Zhong Wang, Fei Xiong
      Abstract: Background The objectives of this study were: (i) to observe effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (ii) to investigate effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; (iii) to compared the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. Results DS resulted in large A‐type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B‐type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000‐grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose‐to‐amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B‐type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A‐type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α‐amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starches. Conclusion Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products.
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T06:20:32.677957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7439
  • Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the underutilized
           Prunus mahaleb L. fruit
    • Authors: Federica Blando; Clara Albano, Yazheng Liu, Isabella Nicoletti, Danilo Corradini, Noemi Tommasi, Carmela Gerardi, Giovanni Mita, David D. Kitts
      Abstract: Background The identification of novel plant‐based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). Results We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg−1 fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so‐called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol TE kg−1 FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:15:51.085859-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7381
  • Preparation and evaluation of a sustained‐release buckwheat noodle
    • Abstract: Background Different carbohydrates elicit various effects on the digestibility and the glucose release rate, so it is of interest to develop a sustained‐release noodle based on the combination of different carbohydrates and reveal the sustained‐release mechanism. Results The obtained data suggest that xanthan and konjac gum exhibited excellent and synergistic sustained‐release properties, whereas cornstarch showed the lowest average digestion rate. The sustained release was particularly evident when the noodle consisted of the following components: 50 g of 25 g kg−1 hydrophilic colloid mixture solution composed of a 1:1 mass ratio of xanthan:konjac gum and 100 g of reconstructed flour consisting of 200 g kg−1 buckwheat flour, 400 g kg−1 cornstarch, and 400 g kg−1 plain flour. The morphological structure of noodles revealed that the composite hydrophilic colloids strengthened the interaction between the gluten network and starch granules. This buried starch within the three‐dimensional structure thereby releasing glucose in a slow and sustained way. The most suitable model to describe glucose release from noodles was the Ritger‐Peppas equation, which revealed that matrix erosion contributed to the release mechanism. Conclusion These findings indicate that the controlled use of hydrophilic colloids and starches in manufacturing noodles could modulate the glucose sustained‐release.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:13:00.429226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7383
  • Evaluation of alginate‐whey protein microcapsules for intestinal
           delivery of lipophilic compounds in pigs
    • Authors: Yonggang Zhang; Qi C. Wang, Hai Yu, Julia Zhu, C.F.M. de Lange, Yulong Yin, Qi Wang, Joshua Gong
      Abstract: Background In animal care and management, there is an increasing demand for convenient methods of oral delivery of bioactive compounds to specific segments of animal's gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The objective of this study was to test the suitability of microcapsules made with alginate and whey proteins of two different sizes (250 and 800 µm; containing 71 g kg−1 of carvacrol) for intestinal delivery of carvacrol in pigs. Results Encapsulated carvacrol was completely released from the microcapsules after 5 h incubation in simulated intestinal fluids or 6 h in (ex vivo) ileal digesta, whereas release in simulated gastric fluid was minimal. Tests with growing pigs showed over 95% of unencapsulated carvacrol was absorbed or metabolized in the stomach and the duodenum. Encapsulation effectively minimised carvacrol absorption in the stomach (p
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:09:22.173781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7385
  • Comparison of bioactivities and phenolic composition of Choerospondias
           axillaris peels and fleshes
    • Authors: Qian Li; Jun Chen, Ti Li, Chengmei Liu, Wei Liu, Jiyan Liu
      Abstract: Background Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects. While the comprehensive information on chemical composition and bioactivity of fruits is still lacking. Therefore, this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris. Results The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than that of flesh. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and Ultra performance liquid chromatography‐electrospray ionization/quadrupole time‐of‐flight‐mass spectrometer (UPLC‐ESI‐QTOF‐MS2) analysis revealed that (+)‐catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging ability on DPPH•. PP exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco‐2 cells in a dose and time‐dependent manners, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49 µg mL−1 to HepG2 cells, 101.90 and 102.61 µg mL−1 to Caco‐2 cells, respectively. Conclusion This is the first detailed report on chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:21:32.703179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7366
  • Effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene,
           ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange‐fleshed sweet
           potato for production of amala in Nigeria
    • Authors: Abbas Bazata Yusuf; Richard Fuchs, Linda Nicolaides
      Abstract: The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange‐fleshed sweet potato amala. In fact, the most common sweetpotato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange fleshed sweetpotato to improve provitamin A intake.Orange‐fleshed sweet potato slices were traditional processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold water fermentation and a decrease following the hot water fermentation compared to raw orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange‐fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:49:43.414185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7367
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 1 - 1
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T05:56:00.809456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7393
  • Issue Information ‐ Info Page
    • Pages: 2 - 2
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T05:55:50.470022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7394
  • Issue Information ‐ Table of Contents
    • Pages: 3 - 5
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T05:56:00.878349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7395
  • How to Get Published in JSFA
    • Authors: Andrew Waterhouse; Mark Shepherd
      Pages: 7 - 8
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T05:55:41.756188-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7487
  • Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows
    • Authors: Wilhelm Knaus
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high‐input/high‐output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate‐based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture‐based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high‐yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter‐weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year‐round indoor feeding of high‐yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human‐edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T00:16:17.431624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7273
  • Phospholipids in foods: prooxidants or antioxidants?
    • Authors: Leqi Cui; Eric A Decker
      Pages: 18 - 31
      Abstract: Lipid oxidation is one of the major causes of quality deterioration in natural and processed foods and thus a large economic concern in the food industry. Phospholipids, especially lecithins, are already widely used as natural emulsifiers and have been gaining increasing interest as natural antioxidants to control lipid oxidation. This review summarizes the fatty acid composition and content of phospholipids naturally occurring in several foods. The role of phospholipids as substrates for lipid oxidation is discussed, with a focus on meats and dairy products. Prooxidant and antioxidant mechanisms of phospholipids are also discussed to get a better understanding of the possible opportunities for using phospholipids as food antioxidants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-07-23T05:12:32.577226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7320
  • Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review
    • Authors: Adina C Bosch; Bernadette O'Neill, Gunnar O Sigge, Sven E Kerwath, Louwrens C Hoffman
      Pages: 32 - 48
      Abstract: The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-07T05:47:02.167049-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7360
  • Biochemical characterization of a d‐psicose 3‐epimerase from
           Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 and its application on enzymatic production
           of d‐psicose
    • Authors: Wenli Zhang; Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The rare sugar d‐psicose is a hexoketose monosaccharide and a C‐3 epimer of d‐fructose. d‐Psicose is a novel functional sweetener with 70% of the sweetness but only 0.3% of the energy content of sucrose. Generally, the industrial production of d‐psicose involves a bioconversion from d‐fructose induced by ketose 3‐epimerases. RESULTS The d‐psicose 3‐epimerase (DPEase) gene from Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 (Trpr‐DPEase) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was purified with a molecular mass of 33 kDa. Trpr‐DPEase exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 70 °C and was sensitive to temperature, with relative thermal stability below 50 °C. It was strictly metal‐dependent and displayed maximum catalytic activity with 450 µmol L−1 Co2+. The Km values of the enzyme for d‐psicose and d‐fructose were 209 and 279 mmol L−1 respectively. The d‐psicose/d‐fructose equilibrium ratio of Trpr‐DPEase was 28:72. CONCLUSION A novel DPEase from T. primitia ZAS‐1 was characterized that could catalyze the formation of d‐psicose from d‐fructose. d‐Psicose was produced at a yield of 137.5 g L−1 from 500 g L−1 d‐fructose, suggesting that Trpr‐DPEase might be appropriate for the industrial production of d‐psicose. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T03:39:11.499063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7187
  • Diversity among mandarin varieties and natural sub‐groups in aroma
           volatiles compositions
    • Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mandarins constitute a large, diverse and important group within the Citrus family. Here, we analysed the aroma volatiles compositions of 13 mandarin varieties belonging to seven genetically different natural sub‐groups that included common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). RESULTS We found that mandarin varieties among tangors (‘Temple’, ‘Ortanique’), tangelos (‘Orlando’, ‘Minneola’) and King (‘King’) had more volatiles, at higher levels, and were richer in sesquiterpene and ester volatiles, than other varieties belonging to the sub‐groups common mandarin (‘Ora’, ‘Ponkan’), clementine (‘Oroval’, ‘Caffin’), satsuma (‘Okitsu’, ‘Owari’) and Mediterranean mandarin (‘Avana’, ‘Yusuf Efendi’). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis accurately differentiated between mandarin varieties and natural sub‐groups according to their aroma‐volatile profiles. CONCLUSIONS Although we found wide differences in aroma‐volatiles compositions among varieties belonging to different natural sub‐groups, we detected only minor differences among varieties within any natural sub‐group. These findings suggest that selecting appropriate parents would enable manipulation of aroma‐volatile compositions in future mandarin breeding programmes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T05:12:28.084854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7191
  • Intracellular synthesis of glutamic acid in Bacillus methylotrophicus
           SK19.001, a glutamate‐independent poly(γ‐glutamic
           acid)‐producing strain
    • Authors: Yingyun Peng; Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Ming Miao, Bo Jiang
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001 is a glutamate‐independent strain that produces poly(γ‐glutamic acid) (γ‐PGA), a polymer of d‐ and l‐glutamic acids that possesses applications in food, the environment, agriculture, etc. This study was undertaken to explore the synthetic pathway of intracellular l‐ and d‐glutamic acid in SK19.001 by investigating the effects of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and different amino acids as metabolic precursors on the production of γ‐PGA and analyzing the activities of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of l‐ and d‐glutamate. RESULTS Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could participate in the synthesis of γ‐PGA via independent pathways in SK19.001. l‐Aspartate aminotransferase, l‐glutaminase and l‐glutamate synthase were the enzymatic sources of l‐glutamate. Glutamate racemase was responsible for the formation of d‐glutamate for the synthesis of γ‐PGA, and the synthetase had stereoselectivity for glutamate substrate. CONCLUSION The enzymatic sources of l‐glutamate were investigated for the first time in the glutamate‐independent γ‐PGA‐producing strain, and multiple enzymatic sources of l‐glutamate were verified in SK19.001, which will benefit efforts to improve production of γ‐PGA with metabolic engineering strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T03:17:59.165957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7318
  • Huanglongbing modifies quality components and flavonoid content of
           ‘Valencia’ oranges
    • Authors: Roberto Massenti; Riccardo Lo Bianco, Amandeep K Sandhu, Liwei Gu, Charles Sims
      Pages: 73 - 78
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In order to evaluate the effect of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB), on quality components and flavonoid contents of ‘Valencia’ oranges, fruit from non‐infected trees (control), from infected trees but symptom‐less (asymptomatic) and from infected trees and showing clear HLB symptoms (symptomatic) were harvested in March and in May, 2013. Fruit peel, pulp and juice were separated, the main quality components were determined, and hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were quantified using liquid chromatography. RESULTS Peel colour, total soluble solids and citric acid were similar in control and asymptomatic fruits. Symptomatic fruits were smaller, yielded less juice, had higher acidity and lower sugar and peel colour than control fruits. In the peel, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. Peel flavonoids decreased with fruit maturation. Also, in pulp and juice, flavonoid content was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. CONCLUSIONS These results show that asymptomatic fruits are similar to control fruits more than to symptomatic fruits, suggesting that secondary metabolism and physical properties of fruits are only affected at a later and more advanced stage of HLB infection. Despite the significant loss of quality, fruit with clear HLB symptoms accumulate high quantities of flavonoids in peel and pulp. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T06:04:54.982364-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7061
  • Composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red
           deer, sheep, pig and cattle
    • Pages: 79 - 89
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Animal blood is a large‐volume by‐product of the meat industry. Besides blood meal fertiliser, blood is marketed for human consumption as a supplement. Minimal comparative work on slaughterhouse animal blood fractions has been carried out. In this study, slaughterhouse deer, sheep, pig and cattle blood parameters were compared. Some blood constituents were determined. Fractionated blood was assessed for antioxidant activity (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, oxygen radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antimicrobial activity were also assessed. RESULTS Serum iron ranged from 35.3 ± 0.6 µmol L−1 in cattle to 16.3 ± 3.1 µmol L−1 in deer. Cattle had the highest total plasma proteins (81.7 ± 1.5 g L−1). While the plasma fractions contained considerable antioxidant activity, the red blood cell fractions of all four animal species contained higher antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Negligible levels of ACE inhibitory activity were found for all animal blood fractions. Antimicrobial activity was detected towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with sheep white blood cells from which a crude neutrophil extract was obtained which demonstrated concentration‐dependent inhibitory effects on the growth rates of these bacterial strains. CONCLUSION Fractionated animal blood obtained from local slaughterhouses contains native proteins that possess antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-26T06:02:32.78043-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7062
  • Wild Morchella conica Pers. from different origins: a comparative study of
           nutritional and bioactive properties
    • Pages: 90 - 98
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Morchella conica Pers. is a species of fungus that belongs to the Morchellaceae family and was studied in order to obtain more information about this species, by comparing Portuguese and Serbian wild samples. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques. M. conica methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The absence of hepatotoxicity was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells. RESULTS The nutrition value varied between the two samples and the Serbian one gave the highest energy contribution and content in sugars, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds, while the Portuguese sample was richer in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and organic acids. In general, the Portuguese sample revealed the highest antioxidant potential (except for lipid peroxidation inhibition), while the Serbian one displayed higher antimicrobial activity. None of the samples revealed toxicity towards liver cells. CONCLUSION The present study provides new data concerning chemical characterization and bioactivity of Morchella conica Pers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-19T09:54:01.946782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7063
  • Identification of antioxidant peptides of Jinhua ham generated in the
           products and through the simulated gastrointestinal digestion system
    • Pages: 99 - 108
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to purify and identify antioxidant peptides present in the extract of Chinese dry‐cured Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham extracts were separated into five fractions (A–E) by size‐exclusion chromatography. Each fraction was subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion system and fractions showing strong antioxidant activities were collected and subjected to liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for further purification and identification. RESULTS Using MS/MS analysis, 33 peptides were identified in these fractions. Several key peptides were selected for synthesis and their antioxidant activity determined. The peptide showing strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was GKFNV, which showed 92.7% antioxidant activity at a concentration of 1 mg mL−1; the peptide LPGGGHGDL showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity; and LPGGGT and HA showed strong inhibition activity against erythrocyte hemolysis (about 45%) before digestion. On the other hand, KEER may contribute to Fe2+ chelating ability in fraction C after GI digestion. CONCLUSION Jinhua dry‐cured ham seems to be a potential source of antioxidant peptides generated in the products and in GI digestion. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:09:55.260453-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7065
  • Engineering of a thermostable β‐1,3‐1,4‐glucanase
           from Bacillus altitudinis YC‐9 to improve its catalytic efficiency
    • Authors: Shurui Mao; Peng Gao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu, Chong Zhang, Haizhen Zhao, Xiaomei Bie
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Error‐prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is frequently used in directed evolution of enzymes to modify their quality. In this study, error‐prone PCR was used to improve the catalytic efficiency of β‐1,3‐1,4‐glucanase from Bacillus altitudinis YC‐9. RESULTS By screening, the mutant Glu‐3060 with higher activity was selected among 5000 transformants. After induction with isopropyl β‐d‐1‐thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), the activity of the mutant Glu‐3060 reached 474.6 U mL−1, resulting in a 48.6% increment of the parent enzyme activity. Research on the characterization of the mutated enzyme showed the optimal pH of the mutated enzyme to be 5.0, which is lower than the parent enzyme, but thermal stability was almost the same between them. Sequence analysis of the mutated enzyme revealed that three amino acids were changed compared with the parent enzyme, including K142N, Q203L and N214D. CONCLUSION The three‐dimensional structure predicted by SWISS‐MODEL of the mutated enzyme Glu‐3060 showed that the substitution of three amino acids had an effect on the catalytic activity, stability and optimal pH of the enzyme, through changing the charge properties or electron density, forming secondary keys, the acidity of the amino acids and the side chain group. The sum effects of all the factors were increased activity of the mutated enzyme and decreased optimal pH, while the same thermostability was maintained, thereby increasing the suitability of the enzyme for industrial use. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T08:32:15.56321-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7066
  • Hypoglycaemic effects of functional tri‐peptides from silk in
           differentiated adipocytes and streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice
    • Pages: 116 - 121
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, the tri‐peptides Gly‐Glu‐Tyr (GEY) and Gly‐Tyr‐Gly (GYG), identified previously as active compounds from the silk peptide E5K6, significantly stimulated basal and insulin‐mediated glucose uptake by 3T3‐L1 fibroblasts in a dose‐dependent manner. RESULTS Synthetic GEY and GYG peptides at a concentration of 500 µmol L−1 significantly increased glucose transporter type 4 expression by 157% and 239%, respectively. Differentiation of 3T3‐L1 cells into adipocytes leads to accumulation of intracellular fat droplets, and GEY and GYG at a concentration of 250 µmol L−1 suppressed this effect by 72% and 75%, respectively. GYG improved glucose tolerance in steptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic mice in a dose‐dependent manner. CONCLUSION These results suggest that GYG isolated from E5K6 has anti‐diabetic potential and silk waste products containing bioactive peptides could be used to the developments of treatments to lower blood glucose. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T08:18:13.97311-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7067
  • Influence of temperature during grain filling on gluten viscoelastic
           properties and gluten protein composition
    • Pages: 122 - 130
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low to moderate temperatures on gluten functionality and gluten protein composition. Four spring wheat cultivars were grown in climate chambers with three temperature regimes (day/night temperatures of 13/10, 18/15 and 23/20 °C) during grain filling. RESULTS The temperature strongly influenced grain weight and protein content. Gluten quality measured by maximum resistance to extension (Rmax) was highest in three cultivars grown at 13 °C. Rmax was positively correlated with the proportion of sodium dodecyl sulfate‐unextractable polymeric proteins (%UPP). The proportions of ω‐gliadins and D‐type low‐molecular‐weight glutenin subunits (LMW‐GS) increased and the proportions of α‐ and γ‐gliadins and B‐type LMW‐GS decreased with higher temperature, while the proportion of high‐molecular‐weight glutenin subunits (HMW‐GS) was constant between temperatures. The cultivar Berserk had strong and constant Rmax between the different temperatures. CONCLUSION Constant low temperature, even as low as 13 °C, had no negative effects on gluten quality. The observed variation in Rmax related to temperature could be explained more by %UPP than by changes in the proportions of HMW‐GS or other gluten proteins. The four cultivars responded differently to temperature, as gluten from Berserk was stronger and more stable over a wide range of temperatures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T10:38:05.325052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7068
  • Effect of harvest time on table grape quality during on‐vine storage
    • Authors: Francesca Piazzolla; Sandra Pati, Maria Luisa Amodio, Giancarlo Colelli
      Pages: 131 - 139
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Postponing the harvest of grapes is a common practice in southern Italy, in order to delay harvest up to Christmas and make higher income from their sale. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of harvest time (over almost 3 months) on the quality of table grapes (cv. Italia). The experiment was repeated for two years (2010 and 2011). In 2010, grapes were harvested starting from 8 October and after 11, 27 and 48 days. In 2011, five harvest times were compared over a period of 56 days. Respiration rate, firmness, colour, sensory attributes, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), phenols and antioxidant activity were measured. In addition, in the second year, volatile compounds were evaluated. RESULTS For both years, harvest time influenced most parameters, which indicated that metabolic changes took place in the plants. In 2010, harvest time influenced respiration rate, cluster and berry appearance scores, colour attributes, crunchiness, pH, TA, total phenol content and antioxidant activity. In 2011, harvest time influenced respiration rate, colour attributes, most sensory attributes, TSS and TA. Generally, late harvested grapes showed higher firmness, berry appearance score, sweetness, fruity taste, overall sensory evaluation score and TSS. Regarding volatile compounds, terpene content decreased during ripening, while C6 compounds showed a nonlinear trend. CONCLUSION The results showed that table grape sensory quality could be increased by delaying harvest up to a certain time of the season, while excessive delay could reduce final grape quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T04:07:40.482874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7072
  • Descriptive and hedonic analyses of low‐Phe food formulations
           containing corn (Zea mays) seedling roots: toward development of a dietary
           supplement for individuals with phenylketonuria
    • Pages: 140 - 149
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seedling roots of anthocyanin‐rich corn (Zea mays) cultivars contain high levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The development of a natural dietary supplement containing corn roots could provide the means to improve the restrictive diet of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients by increasing their tolerance to dietary phenylalanine (Phe). Therefore this research was undertaken to explore the sensory characteristics of roots of four corn cultivars as well as to develop and evaluate food products (cereal bar, beverage, jam‐like spread) to which roots had been added. RESULTS Sensory profiles of corn roots were investigated using ten trained judges. Roots of Japanese Striped corn seedlings were more bitter, pungent and astringent than those of white and yellow cultivars, while roots from the Blue Jade cultivar had a more pronounced earthy/mushroom aroma. Consumer research using 24 untrained panelists provided hedonic (degree‐of‐liking) assessments for products with and without roots (controls). The former had lower mean scores than the controls; however, the cereal bar had scores above 5 on the nine‐point scale for all hedonic assessments compared with the other treated products. CONCLUSION By evaluating low‐Phe food products containing corn roots, this research ascertained that the root‐containing low‐Phe cereal bar was an acceptable ‘natural’ dietary supplement for PKU‐affected individuals. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T08:37:17.376188-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7074
  • Leaf removal and wine composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Nero d'Avola:
           the volatile aroma constituents
    • Authors: Antonella Verzera; Gianluca Tripodi, Giovanna Dima, Concetta Condurso, Antonio Scacco, Fabrizio Cincotta, Dina Maria Letizia Giglio, Tanino Santangelo, Antonio Sparacio
      Pages: 150 - 159
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Defoliation is a cultural practice for crop management in grapevines and the benefits effects have been demonstrated. Here, the influence of ‘early’ leaf removal on the quality of Nero d'Avola wines was evaluated. Particular attention has been given to the volatile constituents responsible for the wine aroma but also to the total amount of polyphenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonoids. RESULTS ‘Early’ defoliation was manually applied and compared with non‐defoliated controls. The grapes were harvested at two different ripening times following their technological and phenolic maturity. Statistical quantitative differences occurred among the samples from the four trials (defoliated and control samples, both at two ripening times). Both the time of harvest and the vine leaf removal determined variation in the wine composition. A large number of volatile constituents were identified and quantified; the odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Basal leaf removal reduced pH and increased titratable acidity, total amount of anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyphenols and colour intensity in the wines from the first harvest. Results showed the increase of fermentation and varietal aromas in the defoliated wines from the first harvest. Limited differences occurred between the wines from defoliated and control vines relative to the second harvest. Principal components analysis, which was applied to compounds with OAVs ≥ 0.5, allowed the different compounds to be distinguished. CONCLUSION ‘Early’ leaf removal can lead to a positive effect on the quality of Nero d'Avola under the environmental conditions in which the present study was undertaken but particular attention has to be given to the time of grape harvest. The results also demonstrate that ‘early’ defoliation can be applied to improve wine quality in the Mediterranean region, where there is a concentration of rainfall during winter, and nearly arid conditions and high temperatures during the summer. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T08:28:52.457631-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7075
  • In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate
           proportion: relative effects of inocula and substrates
    • Pages: 160 - 168
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterise rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate [low (L): 350 g kg−1 vs. high (H): 700 g kg−1] incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble carbohydrates (SCs) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. RESULTS In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SCs and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate‐to‐propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. CONCLUSION The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T09:11:43.702369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7076
  • Effect of oxidant stressors and phenolic antioxidants on the
           ochratoxigenic fungus Aspergillus carbonarius
    • Pages: 169 - 177
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There are few studies dealing with the relationship between oxidative stress and ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. In this work, we analyzed the effect of the oxidant stressor menadione and the antioxidants 3,5‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐hydroxytoluene (BHT), catechin, resveratrol and a polyphenolic extract on growth, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), OTA production and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes of Aspergillus carbonarius. RESULTS Exposure to menadione concentrations higher than 20 µmol L−1 led to increases in ROS and OTA levels and a decrease in growth rate. Exposure to 2.5–10 mmol L−1 BHT also led to higher ROS and OTA levels, although growth rate was only affected above 5 mmol L−1. Naturally occurring concentrations of catechin, resveratrol and polyphenolic extract barely affected growth rate, but they produced widely different effects on OTA production level depending on the antioxidant concentration used. In general, gene expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxiredoxin (PRX) was downregulated after exposure to oxidant and antioxidant concentrations that enhanced OTA production level. CONCLUSION Aspergillus carbonarius responds to oxidative stress, increasing OTA production. Nevertheless, the use of naturally occurring concentrations of antioxidant phenolic compounds to reduce oxidative stress is not a valid approach by itself for OTA contamination control in grapes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T07:33:11.236517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7077
  • Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin‐rich natural extracts from
           grape seed and cupuassu on gastrointestinal mucosa
    • Pages: 178 - 182
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is constantly exposed to reactive species released by the GI tract itself, and those present in food and beverages. Phenolic compounds may help in protecting the GI tract against damage produced by the reactive species. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in two different intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco‐2 and the enteroendocrine cell line STC‐1. RESULTS We show that GSPE prevents tert‐butylhydroperoxide‐induced oxidative stress in both cell lines, and that the effects are dose and time dependent. We have also analyzed whether GSPE has any in vivo effect, and found that 25 mg kg−1 body weight cannot counteract the increase in intestinal ROS induced by the cafeteria diet. However, an acute (1 h) treatment of 1 g GSPE kg−1 body weight reduced ROS in fasted animals and also decreased ROS induction by food. These effects were found only after a short‐term treatment. Furthermore, we have compared the in vitro GSPE effects with those of another proanthocyanidin‐rich extract from cupuassu seeds, though it has compounds with different structures. Cupuassu extract also shows antioxidant effects in both cell types, which suggests different mechanisms from those of GSPE. CONCLUSION Natural proanthocyanidin‐rich extracts have an antioxidant effect in the GI tract, acting on absorptive cells and enterohormone‐secreting cells, although the effects depend on the dose and period of treatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T04:21:09.977256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7079
  • Thyme and basil essential oils included in edible coatings as a natural
           preserving method of oilseed kernels
    • Authors: Cecilia G Riveros; Valeria Nepote, Nelson R Grosso
      Pages: 183 - 191
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sunflower seeds are susceptible to developing rancidity and off‐flavours through lipid oxidation. Edible coatings and essential oils have proven antioxidant properties in different food products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of using an edible coating and thyme and basil essential oils to preserve the chemical and sensory quality parameters of roasted sunflower seeds during storage. RESULTS 50% DPPH inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.278 and 0.0997 µg mL−1 were observed for thyme and basil, respectively. On storage day 40, peroxide values were 80.68, 70.28, 68.43, 49.31 and 33.87 mEq O2 kg−1 in roasted sunflower seeds (RS), roasted sunflower seeds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (RS‐CMC), roasted sunflower seeds coated with CMC added with basil (RS‐CMC‐A), thyme (RS‐CMC‐T) and butylated hydroxytoluene (RS‐CMC‐BHT), respectively. RS‐CMC‐T and RS‐CMC‐BHT presented the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and p‐anisidine values during storage. RS‐CMC‐BHT, RS‐CMC‐T, and RS‐CMC‐A showed the lowest oxidized and cardboard flavour intensity ratings. On storage day 40, roasted sunflower flavour intensity ratings were higher in RS‐CMC‐T and RS‐CMC‐A. CONCLUSIONS Thyme and basil essential oils added to the CMC coating improved the sensory stability of this product during storage, but only thyme essential oil increased their chemical stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T04:07:21.081477-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7080
  • In vitro anti‐inflammatory properties of fermented pepino (Solanum
           muricatum) milk by γ‐aminobutyric acid‐producing
           Lactobacillus brevis and an in vivo animal model for evaluating its
           effects on hypertension
    • Pages: 192 - 198
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine the in vitro anti‐inflammatory and in vivo antihypertensive effects of fermented pepino (Solanum muricatum) milk by Lactobacillus brevis with the goal of developing functional healthy products. The inflammatory factors of fermented pepino milk with L. brevis were assessed in RAW 264.7 macrophages, including nitric oxide (NO) production. Inflammatory factor genes of cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and −2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α were also assayed by a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). RESULTS Results showed that fermented PE inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with 150 mg mL−1 fermented PE completely blocking LPS‐induced NO production. The mRNA expressions of COX‐1, COX‐2, and iNOS were attenuated by treatment with higher concentrations of fermented PE (150 mg/ml). Cells treated with fermented pepino extract (PE) (100 ng mL−1) exhibited strikingly decreased LPS‐induced expression of TNF‐α mRNA. During the feeding trial, rats treated with 10% fermented pepino milk (100 µg 2.5 mL−1) and 100% fermented pepino milk (1000 µg 2.5 mL−1) exhibited significant decreases in the systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION Our results showed that fermented pepino milk has wide potential applications for development as a health food. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T07:29:23.383732-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7081
  • Fast pyrolysis biochar from sawdust improves the quality of desert soils
           and enhances plant growth
    • Authors: Mahmood Laghari; Zhiquan Hu, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat, Bo Xiao, Ahmed Ali Tagar, Mian Hu
      Pages: 199 - 206
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biochar has been mostly used in conventional arable soils for improving soil fertility. This study investigated the effect of biochars of different temperatures on plant growth and desert soil properties. Biochars of different temperatures (i.e. 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) were mixed in the soil with 5% by mass, and the treatments were designated as T‐400, T‐500, T‐600, T‐700 and T‐800, respectively. Sorghum was used as a test crop, and the effect of biochar on plant height, yield and soil properties was evaluated. RESULTS Sorghum yield increased by 19% and 32% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively, above the control. Biochar reduced depth‐wise moisture depletion in soil columns and hence improved soil water‐holding capacity by 14% and 57% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Soil hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 15% and 42%, and moisture‐retention capacity was improved by 16% and 59%. Hence, sorghum net water‐use efficiency increased by 52% and 74% in T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Biochar also improved soil total carbon, cation exchange capacity and plant nutrient content. CONCLUSION The addition of fast pyrolysis biochar made from pine sawdust improved the quality of Kubuqi Desert soil and enhanced plant growth. Hence, it can be used for desert modification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-17T06:39:31.459232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7082
  • Artificial neural networks to model the production of blood protein
           hydrolysates for plant fertilisation
    • Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Amino acid‐based fertilisers increase the bioavailability of nitrogen in plants and help withstand stress conditions. Additionally, porcine blood protein hydrolysates are able to supply iron, which is involved in chlorophyll synthesis and improves the availability of nutrients in soil. A high degree of hydrolysis is desirable when producing a protein hydrolysate intended for fertilisation, since it assures a high supply of free amino acids. Given the complexity of enzyme reactions, empirical approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) are preferred for modelisation. RESULTS Porcine blood meal was hydrolysed for 3 h with subtilisin. The time evolution of the degree of hydrolysis was successfully modelled by means of a feedforward ANN comprising 10 neurons in the hidden layer and trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The ANN model described adequately the influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and reaction time upon the degree of hydrolysis, and was used to estimate the optimal operation conditions (pH 6.67, 56.9 °C, enzyme to substrate ratio of 10 g kg−1 and 3 h of reaction) leading to the maximum degree of hydrolysis (35.12%). CONCLUSIONS ANN modelling was a useful tool to model enzymatic reactions and was successfully employed to optimise the degree of hydrolysis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T04:22:07.678205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7083
  • Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium
           caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance,
           digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler
    • Authors: Hong Mei Shang; Hui Song, Ya Li Xing, Shu Li Niu, Guo Dong Ding, Yun Yao Jiang, Feng Liang
      Pages: 215 - 222
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into five dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with six pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg−1 flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg−1 HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. RESULTS The results revealed that the average daily gain [linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01] of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (days 1–21), finisher (days 22–42), and the overall experiment period (days 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the Lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and Bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. CONCLUSION Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts and inhibited E. coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-11T08:56:58.552221-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7084
  • Processing barley grain with lactic acid and tannic acid ameliorates rumen
           microbial fermentation and degradation of dietary fibre in vitro
    • Pages: 223 - 231
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cereal grains are important ingredients of ruminant diets, but their rapid degradation seriously impairs rumen fermentation and the host's health. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether processing of barley grain with 1 or 5% lactic acid (LA) and 1 or 5% tannic acid (TA), without or with an additional heat treatment (1% LAH or 1% TAH), may affect microbial ruminal abundance, fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation in vitro. RESULTS Processing with LA lowered (P < 0.05) the concentration of short‐chain fatty acids (SCFAs), proportions of branched‐chain SCFA, and the acetate‐to‐propionate ratio. Treatment with 1% TAH and 1% LAH lowered (P < 0.05) gene copy numbers of total protozoa, rumen lipopolysaccharide, and degradation of crude protein, and tended (P = 0.08) to lower the proportion of the genus Prevotella. Treatment of barley grain with 1% LA or 1% LAH stimulated Clostridium cluster XIV. Degradation of fibre was enhanced (P < 0.05) by all LA and TA treatments. CONCLUSION Chemical and heat treatment of barley grain modulated the ruminal fermentation profile and enhanced fibre degradation; however, processing of grain with LA seems to be superior because this effect was not associated with a concomitant depression in ruminal degradation of organic matter. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T04:13:55.31005-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7085
  • Antioxidant activity and high‐performance liquid chromatographic
           analysis of phenolic compounds during in vitro callus culture of Plantago
           ovata Forsk. and effect of exogenous additives on accumulation of phenolic
    • Authors: Pratik Talukder; Shonima Talapatra, Nirmalya Ghoshal, Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri
      Pages: 232 - 244
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Plantago ovata, commonly called psyllium, is known to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds. The present study was aimed at determining polyphenol content and studying their antioxidant activities in P. ovata during in vitro callus culture. An attempt was also made to enhance polyphenol content using external additives. The role of PAL gene in polyphenol accumulation was also studied. RESULTS The study indicated the presence of significant amounts of polyphenols, including flavonoids, in P. ovata callus. A gradual increase in polyphenol and flavonoid content was observed up to the third passage (63 days) of callus culture, which declined at the next passage. The third‐passage callus showed highest antioxidant activity. High‐performance liquid chromatographic results indicated the presence of high amounts of gallic acid and rutin in P. ovata calli; however, other polyphenols were also present but to a lesser extent. Additive supplementation was effective in enhancing polyphenol production and in increasing antioxidant activity in P. ovata callus. CONCLUSION The present research reported accumulation of polyphenols in callus culture of P. ovata, which could be applied to isolation of polyphenols for various beneficial purposes. It also indicated enhancement in the production of several polyphenols and also an increase in antioxidant activity in the additive‐treated callus. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T04:23:17.252506-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7086
  • Application of Serratia marcescens RZ‐21 significantly enhances
           peanut yield and remediates continuously cropped peanut soil
    • Pages: 245 - 253
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Continuous cropping practices cause a severe decline in peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions to determine peanut agronomic indices, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzyme activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ‐21), an equivalent sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) and distilled water (CK). RESULTS S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1 and reduced their populations in rhizosphere soil. The RZ‐21 treatment significantly increased peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3, 33, 72 and 61.4% respectively, followed by the M treatment. The P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ‐21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at various stages. In addition, RZ‐21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except for M in the case of the fungal population at flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. CONCLUSION This is the first report of S. marcescens being applied to continuously cropped peanut soil. The results suggest that S. marcescens RZ‐21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products and thus allow the development of sustainable management practices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-11T09:18:02.261176-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7087
  • Enzymatic cell wall degradation of high‐pressure‐homogenized
           tomato puree and its effect on lycopene bioaccessibility
    • Authors: Paola Palmero; Ines Colle, Lien Lemmens, Agnese Panozzo, Tuyen Thi My Nguyen, Marc Hendrickx, Ann Van Loey
      Pages: 254 - 261
      Abstract: BACKGROUND High‐pressure homogenization disrupts cell structures, assisting carotenoid release from the matrix and subsequent micellarization. However, lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato puree upon high‐pressure homogenization is limited by the formation of a process‐induced barrier. In this context, cell wall‐degrading enzymes were applied to hydrolyze the formed barrier and enhance lycopene bioaccessibility. RESULTS The effectiveness of the enzymes in degrading their corresponding substrates was evaluated (consistency, amount of reducing sugars, molar mass distribution and immunolabeling). An in vitro digestion procedure was applied to evaluate the effect of the enzymatic treatments on lycopene bioaccessibility. Enzymatic treatments with pectinases and cellulase were proved to effectively degrade their corresponding cell wall polymers; however, no further significant increase in lycopene bioaccessibility was obtained. CONCLUSION A process‐induced barrier consisting of cell wall material is not the only factor governing lycopene bioaccessibility upon high‐pressure homogenization. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T08:17:06.414234-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7088
  • Lipid degradation and sensory characteristics of ripened sausages packed
           in modified atmosphere at different carbon dioxide concentrations
    • Authors: Carmine Summo; Antonella Pasqualone, Vito Michele Paradiso, Isabella Centomani, Gerardo Centoducati, Francesco Caponio
      Pages: 262 - 270
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Conflicting results about the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) rich in CO2 on the quality of different kinds of meat products are present in the literature. In this study, the degree of lipid degradation and the sensory characteristics of ripened sausages packed in modified atmosphere at three different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were evaluated during 5 months of storage. RESULTS The degree of hydrolytic degradation of the lipid fraction was found to decrease with increasing CO2 concentration. Similarly, oxidative phenomena occurred at a lower rate when the CO2 concentration increased. The variations in CO2 concentration influenced the perception of rancid flavor in the examined sausages. CONCLUSION An increase in CO2 concentration in MAP slowed down the evolution of lipid oxidation owing to the minor extent of hydrolytic degradation, whose products have pro‐oxidant activity. This effect was more evident in the first 2 months of storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T04:22:22.851705-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7089
  • Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen
           aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): factors which may affect the
    • Authors: Greta Geldenhuys; Nina Muller, Lorinda Frylinck, Louwrens C Hoffman
      Pages: 271 - 279
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Baseline research on the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. This study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min–4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca2+‐dependent protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. RESULTS No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = −0.806; ultimate pH ∼5.86) compared with other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20 °C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the µ/m‐calpain activity remained constant during the rigor period, while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepsin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. CONCLUSION Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during aging is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T10:42:45.706407-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7090
  • Influence of pre‐cooking protein paste gelation conditions and
           post‐cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture
    • Authors: Ilgin Paker; Kristen E Matak
      Pages: 280 - 286
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre‐cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post‐cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre‐cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. RESULTS No‐set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P < 0.05) when analyzed immediately after cooling; however, gel chewiness, cohesiveness and firmness indicated by Kramer force benefited from 24 h at 4 °C gel setting when stored post‐cooking. Gel‐setting conditions had a greater (P < 0.05) effect on texture when directly analyzed and most changes occurred in no‐set gels. There were significant (P < 0.05) changes between directly analyzed and post‐cooking stored gels in texture and color, depending on the pre‐cooking gelation strategy. CONCLUSION Pre‐cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel‐setting period. However, post‐cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-13T06:36:26.864069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7091
  • Effects of amaranth addition on the pro‐vitamin A content, and
           physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro‐vitamin
           A‐biofortified maize snacks
    • Authors: Daniso Beswa; Nomusa R Dlamini, Eric O Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, John Derera
      Pages: 287 - 294
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health‐promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro‐vitamin A content of extruded pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. RESULTS At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro‐vitamin A content. CONCLUSION Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro‐vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline. Copyright © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T10:43:04.619478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7092
  • Biogenic amines in Zamorano cheese: factors involved in their accumulation
    • Pages: 295 - 305
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ripened cheese is among fermented food the most often associated with food poisoning from biogenic amines. The influence of ripening time, heat treatment of milk and the effect of using milk from a different ewe breed on the biogenic amine (BA) content of Zamorano cheese was studied by high‐performance liquid chromatography. Physicochemical, proteolytic and microbiological parameters were also studied. RESULTS BA content increased significantly during ripening and their final values were around 400 mg kg−1. Cheeses elaborated with raw milk duplicated the concentration of BA relative to those elaborated with pasteurized milk (72 °C for 20 s). The average levels of putrescine, spermine and tyramine were higher in cheeses made with a greater proportion of milk from Churra breed. Significant differences in microbial counts and nitrogen soluble in 5% phosphotungstic acid were observed between the different batches. CONCLUSION Ripening time and heat treatment applied to milk were the factors that exercised the greatest influence upon the concentration of BA in Zamorano cheese. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-11T09:26:40.843499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7093
  • Application of self‐organising maps towards segmentation of soybean
           samples by determination of inorganic compounds content
    • Pages: 306 - 310
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, 20 samples of soybean, both transgenic and conventional cultivars, which were planted in two different regions, Londrina and Ponta Grossa, both located at Paraná, Brazil, were analysed. In order to verify whether the inorganic compound levels in soybeans varied with the region of planting, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and B contents were analysed by an artificial neural network self‐organising map. RESULTS It was observed that with a topology 10 × 10, 8000 epochs, initial learning rate of 0.1 and initial neighbourhood ratio of 4.5, the network was able to differentiate samples according to region of origin. Among all of the variables analysed by the artificial neural network, the elements Zn, Ca and Mn were those which most contributed to the classification of the samples. CONCLUSION The results indicated that samples planted in these two regions differ in their mineral content; however, conventional and transgenic samples grown in the same region show no difference in mineral contents in the grain. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-13T06:47:31.119528-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7094
  • Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in
           virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches
    • Authors: Giuseppe Procida; Angelo Cichelli, Corrado Lagazio, Lanfranco S Conte
      Pages: 311 - 318
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. RESULTS Forty‐two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties (‘green–fruity’ and ‘sweet’) and olfactory perception. CONCLUSION Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-03-03T05:09:16.656813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7096
  • Salinity thresholds and genotypic variability of cabbage (Brassica
           oleracea L.) grown under saline stress
    • Authors: Rabab Sanoubar; Antonio Cellini, Anna Maria Veroni, Francesco Spinelli, Andrea Masia, Livia Vittori Antisari, Francesco Orsini, Giorgio Gianquinto
      Pages: 319 - 330
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Two botanical varieties of cabbage, namely Savoy (Brassica oleracea var. Sabauda L.) and White (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L.) were used in order to understand the morphological, physiological and biochemical elements of functional salt stress response. Thirteen salt concentrations (range, 0 to 300 mmol L−1 NaCl) were considered in Experiment 1 and, of these 13, three (0, 100 and 200 mmol L−1 NaCl) were used in Experiment 2. RESULTS Experiment 1 enabled the definition of two salinity thresholds (100 and 200 mmol L−1 NaCl), associated with morphological and physiological adaptations. In Experiment 2, moderate salinity (100 mmol L−1 NaCl) had lower effects on Savoy than in White cabbage yield (respectively, −16% and −62% from control). Concurrently, 100 mmol L−1 NaCl resulted in a significant increase of antioxidant enzymes from control conditions, that was greater in Savoy (+289, +423 and +88%, respectively) as compared to White (+114, +356 and +28%, respectively) cabbage. Ion accumulation was found to be a key determinant in tissue osmotic adjustment (mainly in Savoy) whereas the contribution of organic osmolites was negligible. CONCLUSIONS Higher antioxidative enzymatic activities in Savoy versus White cabbage after treatment with 100 mmol L−1 NaCl were associated with improved water relations, thus suggesting a possible physiological pathway for alleviating perceived salt stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T07:52:46.594228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7097
  • Prevention of retinoic acid‐induced osteoporosis in mice by
           isoflavone‐enriched soy protein
    • Authors: Juan Yang; Nana Wu, Jie Peng, Xiaoquan Yang, Jian Guo, Shouwei Yin, Jinmei Wang
      Pages: 331 - 338
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A novel soy protein aggregate enriched with isoflavones (SPA‐IS), a mixture of soy protein and isoflavones (Mix), isoflavones (IS), and the soy protein were obtained to investigate the preventive effects on osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid in Kunming mice. RESULTS The serum osteocalcin levels in the Mix and SPA‐IS groups decreased compared with the model group (mice showing retinoic acid‐induced osteoporosis) (P < 0.05). The trabecular analysis results showed an increased preventive effect of the SPA‐IS group over the Mix group, the IS group, and the soy protein group. The results of both left tibial maximum load and the 4th lumbar structural strength differ between the IS and the SPA‐IS groups. CONCLUSION The SPA‐IS exhibited obvious oestrogenic activities on retinoic acid‐induced osteoporosis in Kunming mice compared to Mix, IS, and soy protein. The results suggest that there is a potential use for SPA‐IS in the treatment of osteoporosis induced by intake of retinoic acid. The improvement of bone indicators might be attributed to the formation of aggregate particles and the improvement of IS solubility. Copyright © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T10:44:05.143754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7098
  • Evaluation of Muscodor suthepensis strain CMU‐Cib462 as a
           postharvest biofumigant for tangerine fruit rot caused by Penicillium
    • Authors: Nakarin Suwannarach; Boonsom Bussaban, Wipornpan Nuangmek, Wasna Pithakpol, Bantoon Jirawattanakul, Kenji Matsui, Saisamorn Lumyong
      Pages: 339 - 345
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study investigated both the in vitro and in vivo biofumigant ability of the endophytic fungus Muscodor suthepensis CMU‐Cib462 to control Penicillium digitatum, the main cause of tangerine fruit rot. RESULTS Volatile compounds from M. suthepensis inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. The most abundant compound was 2‐methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3‐methylbutan‐1‐ol. They showed median effective doses (ED50) on P. digitatum growth of 74.91 ± 0.73 and 250.29 ± 0.29 µL L−1 airspace respectively. Rye grain was found to be a suitable solid medium for M. suthepensis inoculum production. The results indicated that mycofumigation with a 30 g rye grain culture of M. suthepensis for 12 h controlled tangerine fruit rot. The percentage weight loss and soluble solids concentration of fumigated tangerines were similar to those of non‐infected and non‐fumigated fruits. CONCLUSION Muscodor suthepensis has potential as a biofumigant for controlling postharvest disease of tangerine fruit. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-13T06:53:15.843698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7099
  • Food safety issues in China: a case study of the dairy sector
    • Authors: Xiaoxia Dong; Zhemin Li
      Pages: 346 - 352
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents have occurred frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained the attention of the Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. RESULTS The research indicates that consumers' response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Until 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from this influence. Using the random effects model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consumption. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the results show that consumers in the low‐income group are more sensitive to safety risk than those in the high‐income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents' dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption, which was affected by the melamine incident, was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for the high‐income group even increased. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-03-06T06:31:04.894018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7107
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