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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 302 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (14 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)

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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.822]   [H-I: 100]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Supplementing diet with Manitoba lingonberry juice reduces kidney
           ischemia-reperfusion injury
    • Authors: Cara K. Isaak; Pengqi Wang, Suvira Prashar, Karmin O, Daniel C.W. Brown, Samir C. Debnath, Yaw L. Siow
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) contains high levels of anthocyanins which are bioavailable in the kidney and may be protective against ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effect of lingonberry juice on IR-induced stress-activated signaling pathway and inflammatory response in the kidney.RESULTSSprague–Dawley rats subjected to kidney IR had significantly impaired kidney function, with increased activation of the JNK signaling pathway and increased inflammatory response, measured using a multiplex panel containing an extensive array of inflammatory biomarkers. In rats fed 1 mL of lingonberry juice daily for 3 weeks prior to IR, kidney function was protected and attenuation of inflammatory response and JNK signaling was reflected in the reduction of the measured biomarkers. In vitro results in cultured HK-2 cells confirmed that lingonberry anthocyanins reduced JNK signaling and inflammatory gene expression after IR.CONCLUSIONThis study shows, for the first time, that daily supplementation with lingonberry juice may protect against loss of kidney function induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury by modulating JNK signaling and inhibiting the subsequent inflammatory response.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T00:30:49.064157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8200
       
  • Bioaccessibility of selenium from cooked rice as determined in a simulator
           of the human intestinal tract (SHIME)
    • Authors: Guo-Xin Sun; Tom Van de Wiele, Pradeep Alava, Filip M. G. Tack, Gijs Du Laing
      Abstract: BackgroundAs an essential but also potentially toxic element, both overexposure and underexposure to Se can significantly affect public health. Rice is a common source of selenium (Se), especially in Asia. Not all Se may be released from the rice and become available for absorption into the bloodstream upon digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the bioaccessibility of Se in cooked white (polished) rice was assessed in vitro using the static gastrointestinal simulator SHIME (Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem).ResultsThe common cooking procedure in China prior to consumption, i.e boiling at low rice:water ratios (1:3) until all water is absorbed into the rice, did not change total Se levels in the rice. Gastrointestinal digestion of the cooked rice matrix revealed a Se bioaccessibility between 67-76% of total Se. Subsequent microbial activity in the colon reduced the accessibility of Se in the cooked rice to 51-62%.ConclusionNot all Se present in cooked white rice should be considered as being bioavailable in the small intestine. A minor part is transferred with the remaining food matrix to the colon where it is available for the microbial metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T07:35:21.08269-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8208
       
  • Irrigation and Fruit Canopy Position Modify Oil Quality of Olive Trees
           (cv. Frantoio)
    • Authors: Giovanni Caruso; Riccardo Gucci, Maria Isabella Sifola, Roberto Selvaggini, Stefania Urbani, Sonia Esposto, Agnese Taticchi, Maurizio Servili
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In this study the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting about 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation.RESULTSFruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position nor irrigation affected the K232, K270, ∆K, and lignans concentration in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment.CONCLUSIONLight and water availability are not only crucial for tree productivity, but they also clearly affect olive oil quality.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T07:11:12.803802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8207
       
  • Consumers’ expectations and acceptability for low saturated fat
           “salami”: healthiness or taste?
    • Authors: Rosaria Marino; Antonella della Malva, Antonio Seccia, Mariangela Caroprese, Agostino Sevi, Marzia Albenzio
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNutritional properties of meat and meat products are becoming very important in purchasing behavior because consumers are even more concerned about healthiness. The present study aimed to examine the influence of health information on the expected and informed acceptability of salami. Traditional salami and two low saturated fat salami produced with a partial or total substitution of pork backfat with extra-virgin oil were evaluated.RESULTSPerceived acceptability was the lowest in salami with total animal fat substitution. In both low saturated fat salami expected acceptability was significantly higher than in the perceived, while in traditional salami it was lower. Consumers completely assimilated their liking in direction of expectations for salami with partial animal fat substitution, whereas an incomplete assimilation was observed for salami with total animal fat substitution. Results also revealed that some socio demographic characteristics discriminate consumer clusters from each other.CONCLUSIONThe present study highlights that nutritional information is not enough to satisfy consumers' expectations if the product is not sensory acceptable. Findings about the relevance of information and consumers' segmentation could have important implications for policymakers and for the industry of meat products.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:53:10.172121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8205
       
  • Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino
           acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing
    • Authors: Blanca A. Mondaca-Navarro; Luz A. Ávila-Villa, Aaron F. Gonzalez-Córdova, Jaime Lopez-Cervantes, Dalia I. Sanchez-Machado, Olga C. Campas-Baypoli, Roberto Rodríguez-Ramírez
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMaillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest due to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to the Fe+2 and Cu+2 ion chelating capacity.RESULTSIn the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 μM/mL (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents (μM/mL). In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 μM/mL (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe2+ and Cu2+ was 96.31 and 59.44%, respectively, in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min).CONCLUSIONThe model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing of some foods.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:53:07.416558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8206
       
  • Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers’ beef
           preferences by external preference mapping
    • Authors: Keisuke Sasaki; Motoki Ooi, Naoto Nagura, Michiyo Motoyama, Takumi Narita, Mika Oe, Ikuyo Nakajima, Tatsuro Hagi, Koichi Ojima, Miho Kobayashi, Masaru Nomura, Susumu Muroya, Takeshi Hayashi, Kyoko Akama, Akira Fujikawa, Hironao Hokiyama, Kuniyuki Kobayashi, Takanori Nishimura
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOver the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. Here we sought to identify the consumer segments in Japanese that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling.RESULTSThree Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef, and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis, and consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as ‘gradual high-fat likers,’ ‘moderate-fat and distinctive-taste likers,’ ‘Wagyu likers,’ and ‘distinctive-texture likers.’ Although the major trend of Japanese consumers’ beef preference was ‘marbling-liking,’ 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers’ attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey was in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the ‘moderate-fat and distinctive-taste likers.’CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:53:06.287293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8204
       
  • Impact of rhizobial inoculation and reduced N supply on biomass production
           and biological N2-fixation in common bean grown hydroponically
    • Authors: Charis-Konstantina Kontopoulou; Epifanios Liasis, Pietro P.M. Iannetta, Anastasia Tampakaki, Dimitrios Savvas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTesting rhizobial inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in hydroponics enables accurate quantification of biological N2-fixation (BNF) and provides information about the potential of reducing inorganic-N fertilizer use. In view of this background, common bean grown on pumice was inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 (Rt) and supplied with either full-N (total-nitrogen 11.2 mM) or 1/3 of full-N, or N-free nutrient solution (NS). BNF was quantified at the early pod filling stage using the 15N natural abundance method.RESULTSFull-N supply to Rt-inoculated plants resulted in markedly smaller nodules than less- or zero-N supply, and no BNF. Rt inoculation of full-N treated plants did not increase biomass and pod yield compared with non-inoculation. Restriction (1/3 of full-N) or omission of inorganic N resulted in successful nodulation and BNF (54.3 and 49.2 kg N ha−1, corresponding to 58% and 100% of the total plant-N content, respectively) but suppressed dry shoot biomass from 191.7 (full-N, +Rt) to 107.4 and 43.2 g/plant, respectively. The nutrient cation uptake was reduced when inorganic-N supply was less or omitted.CONCLUSIONRt inoculation of hydroponic bean provides no advantage when full-N NS is supplied, while 1/3 of full-N, or N-free NS suppresses plant biomass and yield, partly because the restricted NO3− supply impairs cation uptake.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:52:55.359119-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8202
       
  • Increased protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with
           arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen fixing bacteria under water
           deficit conditions
    • Authors: Rui S. Oliveira; Patrícia Carvalho, Guilhermina Marques, Luís Ferreira, Mafalda Nunes, Inês Rocha, Ying Ma, Maria F. Carvalho, Miroslav Vosátka, Helena Freitas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a widely cropped pulse and an important source of proteins for humans. In Mediterranean regions it is predicted that drought will reduce soil moisture and become a major issue in agricultural practice. Nitrogen (N) fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and drought tolerance. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of N fixing bacteria and AM fungi and on the growth, grain yield and protein content of chickpea under water deficit.RESULTSPlants inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum or Rhizophagus irregularis without water deficit and inoculated with M. mediterraneum under moderate water deficit had significant increases in biomass. Inoculation with microbial symbionts brought no benefits to chickpea under severe water deficit. However, under moderate water deficit grain crude protein was increased by 13, 17 and 22% in plants inoculated with M. mediterraneum, R. irregularis and M. mediterraneum + R. irregularis, respectively.CONCLUSIONInoculation with N fixing bacteria and AM fungi has potential to benefit agricultural production of chickpea under water deficit conditions and to contribute to increase grain protein content.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:10:30.679045-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8201
       
  • Deer Leather: Analysis of the Microstructure Affecting Pebble
    • Authors: Hannah C. Wells; Katie Sizeland, Sue M. Cooper, Nigel Kirby, Adrian Hawley, Stephen Mudie, Richard G. Haverkamp
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDeer leather has a characteristic pattern, referred to as “pebble”, that is accorded such importance that a lack of it renders a leather defective. Synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), ultrasonic imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and tear tests are used to investigate the structural characteristics of well pebbled and poorly pebbled cervine leathers.RESULTSPoorly pebbled leather has a less open structure in the upper grain region than well pebbled leather. The orientation index (OI) of leather with a poor pebble is less than that of the well pebbled leather, particularly in the corium. The tear strength is also less for the poorly pebble leather.CONCLUSIONSThe differences in structure between well and poorly pebbled cervine leathers are not the same as the structural differences between tight and loose bovine leathers, to which they are sometimes compared. On the contrary, good pebble may reflect an internal structure similar to that of looseness. It is hoped that methods to prevent a reduction in pebbling during the processing of cervine leather may be developed by applying this knowledge of cervine leather's structural characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:05:22.986159-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8199
       
  • Extraction, partial purification and characterization of amylase from
           parthenocarpic date (P. dactylifera): effect on the cake quality
    • Authors: Hanen El Abed; Bassem Khemakhem, Imen Fendri, Mouna Chakroun, Mehdi Triki, Noureddine Drira, Hafedh Mejdoub
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic, and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The objective of the present study is to extract biomolecules from parthenocarpic fruit by producing value-added products from the fruits.RESULTSThe optimization extraction of amylolytic activity from parthenocarpic fruit (AmyPF) was carried out using Box Behnken Design (BBD). A partial purification of about 250 folds with an activity yield of 47% was achieved. The amylase exhibited specific activity of 80 U mg−1 of protein. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 5 and 55 °C, respectively. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH (5–10) and a significant stabilization was observed at 60 °C. The purified enzyme belongs to the exo type of amylases. Given the economic and industrial relevance of amylases used in food industries, three different concentrations of AmyPF (0.007, 0.014 and 0.018 U g−1) were incorporated into the cake formulation, resulting in the decrease of density, moisture retention, and water activity and the increase of hardness.CONCLUSIONThe beneficial effect of AmyPF on the technological characteristics of cakes was confirmed by the sensory evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:00:26.612435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8198
       
  • Cover Image, Volume 97, Issue 3
    • Authors: Borja Millan; Arturo Aquino, Maria P Diago, Javier Tardaguila
      Abstract: The cover image, by Borja Millán et al., is based on the Research Paper Image analysis-based modelling for flower number estimation in grapevine,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7797.The cover image, by Borja Millán et al., is based on the Research Paper Image analysis-based modelling for flower number estimation in grapevine,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7797.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03T04:14:11.727873-05:
       
  • Issue Information - ToC
    • Pages: 713 - 718
      PubDate: 2017-01-03T04:14:09.405133-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7932
       
  • Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory
           quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)
    • Authors: Tor J Johansen; Jørgen AB Mølmann, Gunnar B. Bengtsson, Monica Schreiner, Pablo Velasco, Anne L Hykkerud, Elena Cartea, Per Lea, Josefine Skaret, Randi Seljåsen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBroccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply at natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70 °N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture.RESULTSAverage results over three summer seasons in Germany, Southern Norway and Northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42 °N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations with exception for most texture attributes.CONCLUSIONResults clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:05:42.297615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8196
       
  • Chemical characterization and in vitro colonic fermentation of grape
           pomace extracts
    • Authors: Irene Gil-Sánchez; Begoña Ayuda-Durán, Susana González-Manzano, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Carolina Cueva, M. Angeles Martín-Cabrejas, Marisa Sanz-Buenhombre, Alberto Guadarrama, M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas, Begoña Bartolomé
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCurrently, there is growing interest in extracts derived from winery by-products due to their beneficial health properties, which are associated to the presence of bioactive compounds. In this paper, we have carried out the chemical characterization and in vitro colonic fermentation of four grape pomace (GP) extracts rich in polyphenols and dietary fibre.RESULTFirstly, phenolic and dietary fibre composition of the GP extracts was determined. The highest individual phenolic concentrations corresponded to gallic and ellagic acids, followed by catechins and flavonols. The non-digestible fibre fraction ranged from 66% to 83% of the GP extracts, which indicated that they mainly contained non-digestible cell wall components. Secondly, when GP extracts were subjected to fermentation by faecal microbiota, a total of 16 bacterial phenolic metabolites were found in the fermented samples, confirming that polyphenols contained in the GP extracts were metabolized into different active metabolites by microbiota. In addition, the GP extracts tended to promote the growth of intestinal microbiota, although it was only significant for the Enterococcus group.CONCLUSIONThese findings, together with other information available in the literature, support the high added value of products obtained from winery by-products.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:01:43.901582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8197
       
  • Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on
           calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain
    • Authors: Antonio Rafael Sánchez-Rodríguez; María Carmen del Campillo, José Torrent
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDZinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and fertilizer application on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains.RESULTSWheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively.CONCLUSIONApplying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:01:36.235873-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8195
       
  • Production of D-allulose from D-glucose by Escherichia coli transformant
           cells co-expressing D-glucose isomerase and D-psicose 3-epimerase genes
    • Authors: Wenli Zhang; Hao Li, Bo Jiang, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDD-Allulose is a novel and low-calorie rare monosaccharide that is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose. Because of its excellent physiological properties and commercial potential, D-allulose has attracted researchers’ interests. Based on the Izumoring strategy, D-allulose is converted from D-fructose by D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase), while D-fructose is converted from D-glucose by D-glucose isomerase (GIase). In this study, we created a cellular system capable of converting D-glucose to D-allulose in a one-step process that co-expressed the GIase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and the DPEase from Dorea sp. CAG.RESULTSThe co-expression plasmid pETDuet-Dosp-DPE/Acce-GI was generated and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. The recombinant co-expression cells exhibited maximum catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 75 °C. These cells were thermostable at less than 60 °C. The addition of Co2+ significantly increased the catalytic activity by 10.8-fold. When the reaction equilibrium was reached, the ratio of D-glucose, D-fructose and D-allulose was approximately 6.5:7:3, respectively.CONCLUSIONA recombinant co-expression strain that catalysed the bioconversion of D-allulose from D-glucose in a one-step process was created and characterized. When adding 500 g L−1 D-glucose as a substrate, 204.3 g L−1 D-fructose and 89.1 g L−1 D-allulose were produced.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T05:13:46.6179-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8193
       
  • New icing media for quality enhancement of chilled hake (Merluccius
           merluccius) using a jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin extract
    • Authors: Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; José M. Miranda, Jesús Enrique Chan-Higuera, Jorge Barros-Velázquez, Santiago P.Aubourg
      Abstract: BACKGROUDAn advanced strategy for chilled fish preservation, based on the inclusion in ice of an extract of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin (JSS), is proposed. Aqueous solutions including acetic acid-ethanol extracts of JSS were tested at two different concentrations as icing media, being the effects on the quality evolution of chilled hake (Merluccius merluccius) monitored.RESULTSA significant inhibition (p 
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T05:07:14.374264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8192
       
  • Inclusion of Hermetia illucens larvae meal on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss) feed: effect on sensory profile according to static and dynamic
           evaluations
    • Authors: Monica Borgogno; Caterina Dinnella, Valeria Iaconisi, Renzo Fusi, Claudia Scarpaleggia, Achille Schiavone, Erminio Monteleone, Laura Gasco, Giuliana Parisi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDiet implementation with insect meal arouses increased attention in aquaculture considering the advantages of this new protein source. The effect of Hermetia illucens meal (HI) inclusion in diets on rainbow trout physical-chemical and sensory properties was evaluated. Three diets were prepared: HI0, HI25, HI50, with 0, 25 and 50% of HI replacing fish meal, respectively. Fillet sensory profiles were described by descriptive analysis (DA) and Temporal Dominance of Sensation (TDS) methods. Cooking Loss, WB-Shear Force, proximate analysis, fatty acid composition were also determined.RESULTSDiets significantly affected fillets sensory profile. DA indicated significant changes in perceived intensity of aroma, flavour and texture descriptors as a function of diet composition. TDS evaluations provided information on dominance and evolution of sensations perceived in fillets from different diets. The first sensations perceived as dominant were related to texture attributes, followed by flavours. Dominance of fibrousnesses decreased with the increasing of HI in diet. Boiled fish, algae flavours and umami taste clearly dominated the HI0 dynamic profile. The onset of metallic flavour dominance characterized HI25 and HI50. No differences in physical parameters were detected. Principal component analysis highlighted the relationship between sensory attributes and physico-chemical parameters.CONCLUSIONSensory description of fillets indicated that HI inclusion induces significant differences in the perceived profile.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21T06:15:28.623031-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8191
       
  • Eco-friendly biorefractory films of gelatin and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose
           ester for food packaging application
    • Authors: Chen Zhuang Furong Tao; Yuezhi Cui
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecent years, many types of food packing films and composites have been prepared by using gelatin due to its good film-forming ability, non-toxic nature and cost-effective. However, the relatively weak thermal stability, poor mechanical properties and easily-degradable quality limit the potential application of gelatin as a practical material. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), as one of the most abundant biomass resources, has been regarded as safe and reliable food additives because the same ingredients with the cellulose of people's daily intake. The food packing films with the excellent properties composed by gelatin and oxidized-cellulose will be an interesting topic.RESULTSMCC was modified by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and chosen as the base of the macromolecule cross-linker (TMN). After modification of gelatin film by TMN, the minimum amount of free -NH2 in the solution was 4.8 × 10−4 mol/g). The thermal property increased obviously (from 322.31 oC to 352.63 oC) and it was crucial for usage in food industry. The highest water contact value 123.09° (η = 25%) indicated better surface hydrophobicity. The higher Eab (58.88%) and lower Em (77.16%) demonstrated a more flexible and shatter-proof material was obtained. Water vapor uptake studies suggested the increased moisture absorption and great swelling ability.CONCLUSIONThe film material obtained in this work was safe, stable, eco-friendly and biorefractory, and also could be decomposed completely by the environment after disposal due to the nature ingredients gelatin and cellulose. The incorporation of cellulosic cross-linker to gelatin-based films was an ideal choice to form a packaging in food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:45:25.26044-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8189
       
  • Corn-silage replacement with barley-silage in dairy cows’ diet does not
           change milk quality, cheese quality and yield
    • Authors: Migliorati L; Boselli L, Pirlo G, Moschini M, Masoero F.
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConsidering the water availability for agricultural needs is being restricted, alternative to corn in animal nutrition should be explored in the Po Valley. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of either a partial (Trial I) or a total (Trial II) corn-silage substitution with barley-silage in dairy cows’ diet on milk yield and composition, its coagulation properties, cheese yield and the sensorial profile of 16 month-aged Grana Padano cheese.RESULTSA partial or a total substitution of corn-silage with barley-silage had no effect on milk yield. Milk fat content in Trial I and milk urea content in both trials were higher with barley-silage based diets than in corn-silage based diets. In both trials milk characterised by high values of curd firmness (a30) resulted in a higher cheese yield than milk with low values of a30. Sixteen month-aged cheeses were graded as younger than their age because of six texture profile describers.CONCLUSIONA partial or a total substitution of corn-silage with barley-silage in diets for dairy cows did not induce any negative effects on animal performance or on milk-quality traits, cheese quality and yield.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:45:21.423413-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8190
       
  • Storage stability of packaged baby formula in poly(lactide)-whey protein
           isolate laminated pouch
    • Authors: Thunyaluck Phupoksakul; Manusawee Leuangsukrerk, Anongnat Somwangthanaroj, Kanitha Tananuwong, Theeranun Janjarasskul
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe use of biodegradable polymeric materials have been proposed as environmentally-friendly alternatives to petroleum-based packaging. In order to extend the shelf life of food products, these bioplastics must possess the appropriate barrier properties and food-package stability. In this study, the shelf life analyses of packaged baby formula in biopolymeric, multilayer film, fabricated from poly(lactide) (PLA) and whey protein isolate (WPI), PLA/WPI/PLA and PLA pouches were performed at 4-35°C, 50-59%RH.RESULTDespite the possible sorption of food components into contact PLA surfaces, the result showed that transparency and barrier properties of PLA-based pouches were insignificantly changed over time (p > 0.05), although the films showed a slow rate of color change. The baby formula packaged in PLA/WPI/PLA had a delayed lipid oxidation compared to the sample in the PLA pouch, especially at higher temperature. The application of WPI in the multilayer structure shifted the shelf life determination factor from lipid oxidation to moisture gain.CONCLUSIONThe results indicated that the PLA/WPI/PLA pouch showed good storage stability. The film could be used to package dry food properly at 4-35°C, 50-59% RH, for an extended period of time.
      PubDate: 2016-12-18T22:00:28.294098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8187
       
  • Phenotypic characterization of qualitative parameters and antioxidant
           contents in peach and nectarine fruit and changes after jam preparation
    • Authors: P. Drogoudi; D. Gerasopoulos, M. Kafkaletou, E. Tsantili
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSugars and antioxidants in peaches contribute to fresh fruit quality and nutrition; however information on widely grown cultivars and changes induced after peach jam preparation is limited. In the present study colour, sugars and antioxidant parameters were determined in fruit and jam from 45 peach and nectarine cultivars.RESULTSPronounced varietal differences were found in sorbitol (42-fold range), total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacities (10- to 19-fold range). Sorbitol levels were greater in non-melting peach, followed by nectarine and lower values were found in melting peach cultivars. Late-harvested peach and nectarine cultivars tended to have higher soluble solid content and antioxidant potential. Cultivars with relatively high antioxidant contents produced darker and redder jams, containing more antioxidants, than the jam or the fruit from the other cultivars. Jam-TPs were reduced by 48% compared with fruit-TPs, with greater reduction noticed in high antioxidant cultivars. The most favorable jam organoleptic characteristics were found in ‘Morsiani 90’, ‘Amiga’, ‘Romea’ and ‘Alirosada’, and in non-melting compared with melting peach cultivars.CONCLUSIONThe best cultivars for each fruit flesh type and jam were identified. Peach jam could be an alternative substitute when fresh fruit is not available, when prepared with high antioxidant cultivars.
      PubDate: 2016-12-18T22:00:25.287758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8188
       
  • Oxidative stability of sesame and flaxseed oils and their effects on
           morphometric and biochemical parameters in an animal model
    • Authors: Priscila S Figueiredo; Camila J Candido, Jeandre AS Jaques, Ângela A Nunes, Anderson RL Caires, Flávio Santana Michels, Jeeser A Almeida, Wander FO Filiú, Priscila A Hiane, Valter A Nascimento, Octavio L Franco, Rita CA Guimarães
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSesame and flaxseed oils, which are rich in essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are widely consumed. We have determined the optical behavior with the quality and identity of cold-pressed sesame and flaxseed oils. The effects of these oils and their combinations on metabolic parameters in animal models were also measured.RESULTSFlaxseed oil emitted carotenoid fluorescence (500-650 nm), but it was more unstable than sesame oil, which had a larger induction period by the Rancimat method. The greater stability of sesame may be due to the lower quantity of linolenic fatty acids. These oils were added to the feed of 56 rats, while animal fat was used for the control group (CG). The SO (sesame oil), FO (flaxseed oil) and SFO (sesame + flaxseed oils) groups showed a significantly reduced adiposity index and blood glucose compared to CG, while total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides were lower in FO and SFO (P
      PubDate: 2016-12-18T22:00:23.370829-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8186
       
  • Determination of Isoflavone (Genistein and Daidzein) Concentration of
           Soybean Seed as Affected by Environment and Management Inputs
    • Authors: Randy Laurenz; Pavani Tumbalam, Seth Naeve, Kurt D. Thelen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIsoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, are produced in soybean seed (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and may be associated with health benefits in the human diet. More research is required to determine the effect of agronomic soybean treatments on isoflavone concentration. In this study from 2012 to 2014 at Michigan State University and Breckenridge locations, we have have evaluated agronomic input management systems which are marketed to increase or protect potential soybean grain yield, including: nitrogen fertilization; herbicide-defoliant; foliar applied fertilizer; a biological-based foliar application; foliar applied fungicide; foliar applied insecticide; a seed applied fungicide; and a maximized seed treatment that included fungicide and insecticide as well as an inoculant and lipo-chitooligosaccharide nodulation promoter; for their effect on soybean seed genistein and daidzein concentrations.RESULTSPaired comparisons were made between treatments receiving a designated management input and those without the input. Year and location had a significant effect on isoflavone concentrations. Agronomic management inputs impacted soybean seed daidzein concentrations in 15 of 48 field observations and genistein concentrations in 11 of 48 observations.CONCLUSIONThe research supports findings that soybean seed isoflavone levels exhibit a location specific response, and the temporal variability experienced between years appears to influence changes in soybean isoflavone levels more than location.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:20:32.163346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8184
       
  • Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried
           straw mulch
    • Authors: Zhibin Guo; Hui Liu, Shuixia Wan, Keke Hua, Chaoqiang Jiang, Daozhong Wang, Chuanlong He, Xisheng Guo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStraw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a two-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilization alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha−1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0–15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha−1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15–30 cm (NPKDW).RESULTSNPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilization alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15–30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0–15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15–30 cm.CONCLUSIONSThe comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15–30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:20:28.747836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8183
       
  • Characterization of electrospun gelatine nanofibres encapsulated with
           Moringa oleifera bioactive extract
    • Authors: Norziah M Hani; Amir E Torkamani, Mohammad H Azarian, Kamil WA Mahmood, Siti Hawa Nagalim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves have been used as a folk herbal medicine across many cultures since long ago. This is most probably due to presence of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant properties which could retard oxidative stress and their degenerative effect. The current study deals with nanoencapsulation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethanolic extract within fish sourced gelatine matrix using electrospinning technique.RESULTSThe total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC50) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE/ g sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE/g extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/ml and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe (II)/g extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80-85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content were significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption.CONCLUSIONOverall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method; where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:20:26.130389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8185
       
  • Production of oridonin-rich extracts from Rabdosia rubescens using
           hyphenated ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction
    • Authors: Yu-Chiao Yang; Pei-Hui Lin, Ming-Chi Wei
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAmong active components in Rabdosia rubescens, oridonin has been considered a key component and the most valuable compound because it has a wide range of activities beneficial to human health. To produce a high-quality oridonin extract, an alternative hyphenated procedure involving an ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2) extraction method to extract oridonin from R. rubescens was developed in this study. Fictitious solubilities of oridonin in supercritical CO2 (SC–CO2) with ultrasound-assisted were measured by using the dynamic method at temperature ranging from 305.15 K to 342.15 K over a pressure range of 11.5 to 33.5 MPa.RESULTSFictitious solubilities of oridonin at different temperatures and pressures were over the range of 2.13 × 10−6 to 10.09 × 10−6 (mole fraction) and correlated well with the density-based models, including the Bartle model, the Chrastil model, the Kumar and Johnston model and the Mendez-Santiago and Teja model, with an overall average absolute relative deviation (AARD) of 6.29%, 4.39%, 3.12% and 5.07%, respectively.CONCLUSIONOridonin exhibits retrograde solubility behavior in the supercritical state. Fictitious solubility data were further determined and obtained a good fit with four semi-empirical models. Simultaneously, the values of the total heat of solution, vaporization and solvation of oridonin were estimated.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:05:35.495441-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8182
       
  • Effect of pretreatment on rehydration, colour and nanoindentation
           properties of potato cylinders dried using mixed-mode solar dryer
    • Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant; Punyadarshini P Tripathy, Shanker L Shrivastava
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDesirable quality estimation is an important consumer driver for wider acceptability of mixed-mode solar drying of potatoes in food industries. The aim of this study is to characterize rehydration, colour, texture, nanoindentaion and microstructure of dried potato samples and to establish the influence of pre-drying treatment on above qualities.RESULTSThe water absorption capacity and rehydration ability of solar dried potato were significantly influenced by pretreatment followed by rehydration temperature and sample diameter. The redness index (a*) of pretreated dried samples was lower with simultaneous higher value of yellowness index (b*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*). Also, the average nanohardness (H) of pretreated samples increased significantly by 22.64% compared to that of untreated samples. The average reduced modulus (Er) and Young's modulus (Es) of dried potato samples were 1.865 GPa and 1.403 GPa respectively. Moreover, creep displacement of 43.27 nm was traced in the untreated potato samples during 20 second dwell time under a constant load of 200 μN in nanoindentation test. Micrographs revealed more uniform pore spaces in pretreated samples.CONCLUSIONPretreated thinner potato samples achieved better quality dried products in terms of rehydration, colour, texture and nanohardness indices with significant improved microstructure and creep resistance properties.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T01:21:21.836536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8181
       
  • Determination of oxathiapiprolin concentration and dissipation in grapes
           and soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass
           spectrometry
    • Authors: Yu PZ; Zhao EC, Jia CH, Chen L, He HJ, Jing JJ, He M
      Abstract: BACHGROUNDThe residue concentrations and dissipation rate of a new oxathiapiprolin fungicide in the grapes and soil were investigated to provide an evaluation for the safe use of oxathiapiprolin in grape. Pesticide residue was extracted by acetonitrile, then purified by SPE with Envi-Carb cartridge and determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.RESULTSThe fortified recoveries ranged from 85.2%-99.0% with relative standard deviations of 1.7%-4.5%. The limit of quantitation for oxathiapiprolin in the grapes and soil was 0.002 mg kg−1. The mean initial deposits of oxathiapiprolin in grapes were 0.345- 0.565 mg kg−1 with half-lives of 8.6-9.2 days. The mean initial deposits of oxathiapiprolin in soil were 0.078-0.273 mg kg−1 with half-lives of 7.6-12.0 days. The oxathiapiprolin residue in the grapes and soil was 0.002-0.022 mg kg−1 and 0.002-0.123 mg kg−1 after sampling 14 days, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe residue in the grapes was less than 0.01 mg kg−1 after sampling 28 days, which suggested that the application rate of 20 mg a.i.kg−1 for this fungicide should be used to ensure that treated grapes can be considered safe for humans to consume when sampling 28 days after the final application.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:55:39.374804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8178
       
  • Authentic sheep meat in the European Union: Factors influencing and
           validating its unique meat quality
    • Authors: Sara W. Erasmus; Magdalena Muller, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Abstract: Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensorial quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:55:38.242807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8180
       
  • Comparative community structure of archaea in rumen of buffaloes and
           cattle
    • Authors: Shyam S Paul; Avijit Dey, Dao H Baro, Balbir S Punia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDetailed knowledge of community structure of methanogens is essential for amelioration of methane emission from livestock species. Several studies have indicated that predominant methanogens of buffalo rumen are different from those in cattle. However, predominant genera of methanogens reported by individual studies varied primarily because of limited scope of sampling, sequencing of limited number of sequences and potential PCR bias in individual studies. In this study, the collective comparative diversity of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of cattle and buffaloes was examined by performing a meta-analysis of all the 16S rRNA (rrn) sequences deposited in the GenBank.RESULTSRuminal methanogen sequences of buffalo were clustered into 900 species level OTUs and ruminal methanogen sequences of cattle were clustered into 1522 species level OTUs. The number of species level OTUs shared between cattle and buffaloes were 229 (10.4% of all OTUs) comprising 1746 sequences (27% of total 6447 sequences). According to taxonomic classification by three different classifiers, Methanobrevibacter was found to be the most predominant genus both in cattle (69-71% of sequences) as well as buffaloes (65.1-68.9% of sequences). Percentage of Methanomicrobium was much higher (P 
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:55:32.400865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8177
       
  • Combined Effect of Carnosol, Rosmarinic acid and Thymol on the Oxidative
           Stability of Soybean Oil Using a Simplex Centroid Mixture Design
    • Authors: Salma Saoudi; Nadia Chammem, Ines Sifaoui, Ignacio A. Jiménez, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, José E. Piñero, Maha Bouassida-Beji, Moktar Hamdi, Isabel L. Bazzocchi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOxidation taking place during the use of oil, leads to the deterioration of both nutritional and sensorial qualities. Natural antioxidants from herbs and plants are rich in phenolic compounds and could be therefore more efficient than synthetic ones to prevent lipid oxidation reactions. This study was aimed at the valorization of Tunisian aromatic plants and their active compounds as new sources of natural antioxidant preventing oil oxidation.RESULTSCarnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol were isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus capitatus by column chromatography and were analyzed by NMR. Their antioxidant activities were measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. These active compounds were added into soybean oil at different proportion using a simplex-centroid mixture design. Antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of oils were carried out before and after 20 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C.CONCLUSIONResults showed that bioactive compounds are effective in maintaining oxidative stability of soybean oil. However, the binary interaction of rosmarinic acid and thymol caused reduction in antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of soybean oil. Optimum conditions for maximum antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were found to be an equal ternary mixture of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:55:30.299576-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8179
       
  • Transgenic modification of potato pectic polysaccharides also affects type
           and level of cell wall xyloglucan
    • Authors: Jie-Hong Huang; Rui Jiang, Anne Kortstee, Dianka C.T. Dees, Luisa M. Trindade, Harry Gruppen, Henk A. Schols
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGenes encoding pectic enzymes were introduced into wild-type potato Karnico. Cell wall materials were extracted from Karnico and transgenic lines expressing β-galactosidase (β-Gal-14) or rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RGL-18). Pectic polysaccharides from the β-Gal-14 transgenic line exhibited rhamnogalacturonan-I structural elements with shorter galactan side chains, while the RGL-18 transgenic line had less rhamnogalacturonan-I structures than Karnico. Xyloglucan in primary cell walls interacts with pectin and other cell wall polysaccharides and controls cell growth.RESULTSXyloglucan extracts from transgenic lines had different levels of monosaccharides compared to wild-type. Most XXGG-type xyloglucans from Karnico and RGL-18 alkali-extractable extracts predominantly consisted of XXGG and XSGG building blocks. Karnico and RGL-18 4M extracts had small proportions of the XXXG-type xyloglucan, where as β-Gal-14 extracts also contained the XXXG-type xyloglucan. The peak ratios of XSGG/XXGG were 1.9, 2.4 and 1.1 for 4M extracts of Karnico, RGL-18 and β-Gal-14 lines, respectively.CONCLUSIONSAfter transgenic modification on pectin, the xyloglucan building blocks may have been changed. The β-Gal-14 lines mostly present XXXG-type repeating units instead of the XXGG-type in 4M extract. The ratio of XSGG/XXGG repeating units also changed, indicating that the transgenic modification of pectin altered xyloglucan structure during plant development.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:33.153139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8172
       
  • Purification and characterization of peroxidase from sprouted green gram
           (Vigna radiata) roots and removal of phenol and p-chlorophenol by
           immobilized peroxidase
    • Authors: Shaik Akbar Basha; Ummiti JS Prasada Rao
      Abstract: BackgroundPeroxidase activity was increased during germination of green gram and its increase may have benefits in many physiological processes. The present study is to investigate the optimum conditions for the extraction, purification and characterization of peroxidase from the germinated green gram roots and also its application for the removal of phenols in water.ResultsPeroxidase activity was increased by 300-fold in five-day germinated green gram. As root was rich in peroxidase activity, peroxidase from roots was isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified peroxidase showed a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 50 kDa, with an optimum pH of 5.5 and with pH stability ranging from 5 to 9. The enzyme had 50% residual activity at 70 °C. It catalysed the oxidation of a variety of substrates. The Km value of enzyme for o-dianisidine was 1.28 mmol L−1 and for H2O2, it was 0.045 mmol L−1. The enzyme lost 100% activity in the presence of dithiothreitol and cysteine. Addition of copper ion increased the enzyme activity by 3-fold. Both soluble and immobilized peroxidases removed more phenol than p-chlorphenol, whereas horseradish peroxidase removed more p-chlorphenol. Thus, the green gram root peroxidase showed good pH and temperature stability, and had ability to remove phenolic compounds from effluent.ConclusionPeroxidase with good thermal and pH stability was purified from germinated green gram roots and has the ability to oxidise phenolic compounds from waste water.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:29.813855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8173
       
  • Italian and Spanish commercial tomato sauces for pasta dressing: study of
           sensory and head-space profiles by Flash Profiling and SPME-GC-MS
    • Authors: Alessandra Bendini; Anna Vallverdu-Queralt, Enrico Valli, Rosa Palagano, Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventos, Tullia Gallina Toschi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe sensory and head-space profiles of Italian and Spanish commercial tomato sauces have been studied. The Flash Profiling method was used to evaluate the sensory characteristics and samples within each set and were ranked according to selected descriptors. A hundred volatile compounds were identified by SPME-GC-MS.RESULTSFor Italian samples, the sensory notes of basil/aromatic herbs, acid and cooked tomato were among the most perceived by assessors, whereas in Spanish ones the sensory attributes of garlic/onion, onion/sweet pepper and, as for the Italian ones, cooked tomato were among the most frequently found. Data were elaborated by multivariate statistical approaches and interesting correlations were seen among different sensory attributes and related volatile compounds.CONCLUSIONSSpanish samples were characterized by highest content of volatiles linked to thermal treatment of tomatoes and to raw and sautéed garlic and onion, whereas the Italian ones by terpenic compounds typical of basil and volatile molecules derived from fresh tomato. These results confirm the influence of formulation and production processes on the aromatic profile (sensory attributes and volatile compounds) of tomato products probably linked to different eating habits and culinary tradition in Italy and Spain.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:25.304023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8174
       
  • Potassium uptake and redistribution in cabernet sauvignon and syrah grape
           tissues and its relationships with grape quality parameters
    • Authors: María Concepción Ramos; María Paz Romero
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, and with and without leaf thinning. K in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids.RESULTSDifferences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but in grape tissues the differences were not significant in all samplings with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. K levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest and K was mainly accumulated in skins and to a lesser extent in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids while the correlation with titratable acidity was negative.CONCLUSIONSGrape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K while titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole but differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This poses the need for considering K berry concentration in order to optimise K fertilisation programmes.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:24.303469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8175
       
  • Evaluation of phenolic antioxidant content in organically and
           conventionally grown buckwheat herb crop and its regrowth
    • Authors: Vaidotas Žvikas; Vilma Pukelevičienė, Liudas Ivanauskas, Danuta Romanovskaja, Valdas Jakštas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBuckwheat herb is known in pharmaceutical industry as material rich in phenolics. Buckwheat is also capable to regrow and produce additional harvest at the same year. Although buckwheat herb is a popular material, it is not known, whether the regrowth has same quality features as the first harvest. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine biometric properties, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity as material quality indicators for buckwheat herb and its regrowth grown under organic and conventional farming conditions, using the herb of 15 varieties of buckwheat cultivated in Lithuania.RESULTSHighest amount of rutin was indicated in organically cultivated regrowth of 2015. Buckwheat material accumulated significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:21.060704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8176
       
  • Microwave enhanced oxidation treatment of organic fertilizers
    • Authors: Abhilasha More; Asha Srinivasan, Ping Huang Liao, Kwang Victor Lo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLiquid organic fertilizers (LOF) are relatively easy to degrade than those of solid organic fertilizers, and the nutrients are readily available for plant uptake. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation treatment (MW/H2O2-AOP) was used to convert solid organic fertilizers (insoluble blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, sunflower ash and a mixture) into LOF.RESULTSAfter the MW/H2O2-AOP treatment, high soluble nitrogen (11 to 29%), soluble phosphorus (64%) and potassium (92%), as well as low total suspended solids content could be obtained. The resulting LOF would make the nutrients more bioavailable, and would provide some of them for the plant uptake immediately. Temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage were found to be significant factors affecting nitrogen release from blood meal and feather meal, while temperature and pH were found to be significant factors for solubilizing phosphorus and potassium from bone meal and ash, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe MW/H2O2-AOP reduced suspended solids, and released nutrients into solution; therefore, it was an effective treatment method to make LOF.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:20:31.431217-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8171
       
  • Sucrose replacement in high ratio white layer cakes
    • Authors: Rebecca A. Miller; Orelia E. Dann, Amanda R. Oakley, Megan E. Angermayer, Katherine H. Brackebusch
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeveral commercially available alternative sweeteners have potential in reducing the caloric content of baked products. Sugar alcohols and natural sweeteners have similar bulk as sucrose and can replace sucrose directly. High intensity sweeteners have high potency but light weight so bulking agents are often added. This study determined alternative sweeteners and combinations of alternative sweetener and a bulking agent that produced good quality white layer cakes.RESULTSCakes made with maltitol were acceptable but erythritol and fructose produced undesirable cakes. Maltodextrin and polydextrose were acceptable bulking agents, producing cakes that were similar to control cakes. The flavor of cakes sweetened with sucralose was acceptable but those with stevia had a disagreeable metallic aftertaste. Cakes made with sucralose plus maltodextrin were preferred over those containing sucralose plus polydextrose. Consumer acceptance of flavor, texture and overall liking of cakes containing maltitol was similar to sucrose and both were preferred over cakes containing maltodextrin plus sucralose.CONCLUSIONReplacing sucrose with maltitol in white layer cakes reduced the caloric content by 16% with no loss in quality.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:20:14.761748-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8170
       
  • Impacts of fat from ruminants’ meat on cardiovascular health and
           possible strategies to alter its lipid composition
    • Authors: Vargas-Bello-Pérez E; Larraín R. E
      Abstract: In the last decades there has been an increased consumer interest in the fatty acid (FA) composition of ruminant meat due to its content of saturated FA, which have been implicated in diseases associated with modern life. However, recent studies have questioned the recommendations to reduce intake of fat, saturated FA and cholesterol as a mean of reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, ruminant meat has some bioactive lipids such as C18:1t11 and C18:2 c9, t11 which have been reported to have positive effects on human health. In order to improve muscle fat composition from a human health standpoint, oilseeds, plant oils and marine oils can be used in ruminant diets. On the other hand, molecular mechanisms play an important role in the alteration of the FA composition of muscle fat. Genetics offer a wide range of possibilities for improvement of muscle fat composition by identifying different loci underlying the expression of quantitative traits. While significant progress has been made in characterizing the influence of diet on the FA composition of ruminant meat, the use of genetic tools can favor genotypes that could maximize their genetic potential through the diet.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:19:46.246368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8168
       
  • Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term
           fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce
    • Authors: Yang Yang; Yue Deng, Yulan Jin, Yanxi Liu, Baixue Xia, Qun Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSoy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavor. In this study, both culture-dependent and independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to four years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage.RESULTSGenera of Bacillus, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P < 0.05). For microbial community structure, subsequent analyses showed that obvious changes occurred with fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage.CONCLUSIONSThe clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of four years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:19:40.51686-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8169
       
  • Effects of steam-microwave blanching and different drying processes on
           drying characteristics and quality attributes of Thunbergia laurifolia
           Linn. leaves
    • Authors: Traiphop Phahom; Singhanat Phoungchandang, William L. Kerr
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDried Thunbergia laurifolia leaves are usually prepared using tray drying, resulting in products that have lost substantial amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The maturity of the raw material, blanching techniques and drying methods were investigated in order to select the best condition to produce high qualities of dried T. laurifolia leaves.RESULTSThe 1st stage of maturity was selected and steam-microwave blanching (SMB) for 4 min was adequate for blanching leading to the maximum recovery of bioactive compounds. Modified Halsey model was the best desorption isotherm model. A new drying model proposed in this study was the best to fit the drying curves as compared to five common drying models. Moisture diffusivities were increased with the increase of drying temperature when combining SMB and heat pump-dehumidified drying. Microwave heat pump-dehumidified drying (MHPD) provided the shortest drying time, high specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) and could reduce drying time by 67.5% and increase caffeic acid and quercetin by 51.24% and 60.89%, respectively.CONCLUSIONMHPD was found to be the best drying method and provided the highest antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds content, high SMER and short drying time.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:17:58.65317-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8167
       
  • Anti-hypercholesterolemic influence of the spice cardamom (Elettaria
           cardamomum) in experimental rats
    • Authors: Shamarao Nagashree; Kottangada K. Archana, Pullabhatla Srinivas, Krishnapura Srinivasan, Halagur B. Sowbhagya
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is an aromatic seed spice grown extensively in India and used as a flavoring in sweets. The anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of cardamom was evaluated in Wistar rats by inducing hypercholesterolemia with a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made with (a) Cardamom powder (50 g.kg−1), (b) Cardamom oil (3 g.kg−1) (equivalent to 50 g.kg−1 cardamom), and (c) de-oiled cardamom powder (50 g.kg−1).RESULTSSignificant reduction in the blood total cholesterol (31%) and LDL cholesterol (44%) was observed by oral administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats accompanied by a marked decrease in serum triglycerides by 42%. Cholesterol content of cardiac muscle was beneficially lowered by 39% with administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats. Liver triglycerides were reduced by 33%. Incorporation of cardamom oil/powder in diet did not alter the feed consumption in rats. Compromised activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes under hypercholesterolemic situation were generally countered by dietary cardamom. Treatment with de-oiled cardamom as well as cardamom oil countered the diminished activity of catalase in hypercholesterolemic animals. Cardamom also enhanced the activity of heart superoxide dismutase in hypercholesterolemic situation. Ascorbic acid concentration in circulation was significantly increased by dietary cardamom or its fractions in hypercholesterolemic situation.CONCLUSIONSThis animal study has thus established the potential of cardamom oil in restoring the alteration in lipid homeostasis in conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Significant reduction of atherogenicity index by dietary intervention with cardamom powder and cardamom oil indicates the potential cardio protective effect of cardamom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26T04:20:22.344244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8165
       
  • Phytate/calcium molar ratio does not predict accessibility of calcium in
           ready-to-eat dishes
    • Authors: Daniela Erba; Federica Manini, Erika Meroni, Maria C. Casiraghi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytic acid (PA), a naturally occurring compound of plant food, is generally considered to affect mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the PA/calcium molar ratio as a predictive factor of calcium accessibility in composed dishes and their ingredients.RESULTSWe chose dishes whose ingredients were rich in Ca (milk or cheese) or in PA (whole-wheat cereals) in order to consider a range of PA/Ca ratios (from 0 to 2.4) and measure Ca solubility using an “in vitro” approach. The amounts of soluble Ca in composed dishes were consistent with the sum of soluble Ca from ingredients (3 out of 5 meals) or higher. Among the whole-wheat products, bread showed higher Ca accessibility (71%, PA/Ca = 1.1) than biscuits (23%, PA/Ca = 0.9) and pasta (15%, PA/Ca = 1.5), and among Ca-rich ingredients, semi-skimmed milk displayed higher Ca accessibility (64%) than sliced cheese (50%) and Parmesan (38%). We found no significant correlation between PA/Ca ratio and Ca accessibility (p = 0.077).CONCLUSIONThe reliability of the PA/Ca ratio for predicting the availability of calcium in composed dishes is unsatisfactory; data emphasized the importance of the overall food matrix influence on mineral accessibility.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T05:40:26.571145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8163
       
  • Valorization of functional properties of extract and powder of olive
           leaves in raw and cooked minced beef meat
    • Authors: Fathia Aouidi; Aicha Okba, Moktar Hamdi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive leaves (OL), resulting with a huge amount from pruning, were known to be a useful source for biologically active compounds. This paper investigates the potential application of OL as a supplement to minced beef meat, in order to develop a functional product. The effect of OL extract or powder (100, 150 µg phenols g−1of meat) on quality and stability of raw and cooked meat, during refrigerated storage, was examined.RESULTSMicrowave drying at 600w gave OL with the highest antioxidant quality (evaluated by TEACphenols and by DPPHphenols , compared to other methods. OL showed an ability to inhibit (P
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T05:40:25.041601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8164
       

  •        Effect of deamidation-induced modification on umami and bitter taste
           of wheat gluten hydrolysates
    • Authors: Bo-Ye Liu; Ke-Xue Zhu, Xiao-Na Guo, Wei Peng, Hui-Ming Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBitter taste is the main limiting factor for various applications of protein hydrolysates. Frequently-used physicochemical methods for debittering protein hydrolysates came with some undesired side effects. Deamidation-induced modification method would be a very promising technique to improve the flavor of wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). This study was designed to determine the effect of deamidation with certain enzymes or acid treatment on the chemical composition, bitterness and umami properties of WGHs. The difference between umami peptide and free glutamic acid on the suppression of bitterness was emphatically discussed. The optimal scheme was proposed based on the flavor of WGHs and the yield of peptides.RESULTSThe generation of umami substances suppressed bitter signal transduction. When the content of umami substances was relatively high, the umami-enhancing properties of umami peptides were obviously effective. The intensity of umami taste was high enough to further suppress bitter taste in course of neurocognitive functioning.CONCLUSIONWhen WGHs were treated for 180 min by Glutaminase, the umami taste score had increased from 1.62 to 4.27 and the bitter taste score had decreased from 1.33 to 0.65.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T00:05:20.86814-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8162
       
  • Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the enzymatic hydrolysis of Bovine
           Serum Albumin
    • Authors: Serena De Maria; Giovanna Ferrari, Paola Maresca
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe extent of the enzymatic proteolysis mainly depends on the accessibility of the peptide bonds, which stabilize the protein structure. High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) process is able to induce, at certain operating conditions, protein displacement, thus suggesting that this technology can be used to modify protein resistance to the enzymatic attack. This work aims at investigating the mechanism of the enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by HHP performed at different processing conditions (pressure level, treatment time). Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was selected for the experiments, solubilized in Sodium Phosphate Buffer (25 mg/mL, pH=7.5) with α-chymotrypsin or trypsin (E/S ratio = 1/10) and treated in HPP processes (100–500 MPa, 15–25 min).RESULTSHHP treatments enhanced the extent of the hydrolysis reaction of globular proteins, being more effective than conventional hydrolysis. At HHP treatment conditions maximizing the protein unfolding, the hydrolysis degree of proteins was increased, as a consequence of the increased exposure of peptides bonds to the attack of proteolytic enzymes. The maximum hydrolysis degree (10 % and 7% respectively for the samples hydrolyzed with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin) was reached after a treatment at 400 MPa for 25 minutes) was observed for the samples processed at 400 MPa for 25 minutes. At pressure levels higher than 400 MPa the formation of aggregates was likely to occur, thus the degree of hydrolysis decreased.CONCLUSIONSProtein unfolding represents the key-factor controlling the efficiency of the HHP assisted hydrolysis treatments. The peptide produced under high pressure showed lower dimensions and a different structure with respect to those of the hydrolysates obtained when the hydrolysis was carried out at atmospheric pressure, thus opening new frontiers of application in food science and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:35.247459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8157
       
  • The effect of pH and amino acids on the formation of methylglyoxal in
           glucose-amino acid model system
    • Authors: Pei Yu; Xian-Bing Xu, Shu-Juan Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMethylglyoxal (MGO) as a α-dicarbonyl compound not only affects food flavor and color but also contributes to the loss of nutrition and the generation of toxic compounds. The study was carried out using glucose-amino acids model system incubated at 120 °C to investigate the effect of amino acids and pH on the formation of MGO. MGO derivative (2-methylquinoxaline) was detected by a high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Changes of glucose, amino acids and products such as acetic acid were tested using a high performance anion exchange chromatography with an electrochemical detector or an electrical conductivity detector.RESULTSLysine and glycine had higher reactivity to form MGO and melanoidins than arginine and proline. More acetic acid was produced and a higher consumption of arginine was observed in glucose-arginine solution. Moreover, higher pH significantly accelerated the formation of MGO.CONCLUSIONAmino reactivity and pH were two important factors to affect the formation of MGO in the Maillard reaction.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:32.638067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8158
       
  • Chemical composition of microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis and
           Dunaliella tertiolecta with emphasis on carotenoids
    • Authors: Andressa Bacalau Diprat; Tania Menegol, Juliana Ferreira Boelter, Ariane Zmozinski, Maria Goreti Rodrigues Vale, Eliseu Rodrigues, Rosane Rech
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicroalgae have been used as food supplements due their high protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoid contents. As different carotenoids have distinct properties, and carotenoid composition from microalgae were poorly explored in the literature, this study determined the complete carotenoid composition from two microalgae species, Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and a mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS2). Additionally, the proximate composition and major minerals were evaluated.RESULTSThe carotenoid composition of both the microalgae was similar. Thirteen carotenoids were found in H. luteoviridis and twelve in D. tertiolecta. The major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (1.18 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 1.59 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta), all-trans-violaxanthin (0.52 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.45 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta) and all-trans-β-carotene (0.50 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.62 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta). All-trans-lutein was the predominant carotenoid in both microalgae, representing around 40 % (mass fraction) of the total carotenoids. The lutein content found in these microalgae was significantly higher (2-40 times) than other important food sources of lutein (e.g. parsley, carrots, red peppers, broccolis).CONCLUSIONThe microalgae H. luteoviridis and D. tertiolecta are excellent sources of lutein that could be commercially exploited by food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, it was confirmed that both the microalgae are good sources of protein, lipids and calcium.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:23.688895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8159
       
  • Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for
           characterization of geographical origin and agronomic practices of table
           grape
    • Authors: Francesco Longobardi; Grazia Casiello, Valentina Centonze, Lucia Catucci, Angela. Agostiano
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported about the geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios.This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. 2H/1H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 18O/16O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional vs. organic farming) and the provenance of table grape.ResultsIn order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t-test was carried out in light of which, only δ13C and δ18O provide statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) for the discrimination of geographical origin and farming method. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed no good separation of samples different for geographical area and agronomic practice, therefore, for classification aims, supervised approaches were carried out. In particular, General Discriminant Analyses (GDA) was used, resulting in prediction abilities of 75.0% and 92.2% for the discrimination of farming methods and origin, respectively.ConclusionThe present findings suggest that stable isotopes (i.e. δ18O, δ2H and δ13C) combined with chemometrics, can be successfully applicable to discriminate the provenance of table grape. However, the use of bulk nitrogen isotopes was not effective for the farming discrimination.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:12:54.063704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8161
       
  • Effect of high pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall
           quality parameters of white grape juice
    • Authors: Yin-Hsuan Chang; Sz-Jie Wu, Bang-Yuan Chen, Hsiao-Wen Huang, Chung-Yi Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP) over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage.RESULTSResults showed that HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeast counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences when compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids, and remained less than 50% of PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice.CONCLUSIONThis study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf-life during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:00:22.289252-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8160
       
  • Water dynamics of Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn powder and effects of moisture
           absorption on its chemical properties
    • Authors: Songyi Lin; Peiyu Xue, Shuailing Yang, Xingfang Li, Xiuping Dong, Feng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study has elucidated moisture dynamics in the soybean peptide, Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn (SHECN) powder by using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) and NMR. We also tried to investigate the effects of moisture absorption on the biological activity and chemical properties of SHECN with some effective methods such like mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and GC-MS.RESULTSThe DVS results showed the maximum moisture absorption of SHECN could reached 33% and the SHECN powder after synthesis actually existed in a trihydrate state of SHECN·3H2O. LF-NMR revealed that four water proportions were involved in SHECN moisture absorption and combined water was dominant in its hygroscopicity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MIR results indicated moisture absorption could change the morphology and structure of SHECN. After moisture absorption at 50% and 75% relative humidity, 19 volatiles were identified by GC-MS analysis. Additionally, this study showed a part of reductive groups in SHECN was oxidized and its antioxidant ability declined significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T10:25:30.641017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8154
       
  • Laboratory-Scale Milling of Whole-Durum Flour Quality: Effect of Mill
           Configuration and Seed Conditioning
    • Authors: Lingzhu Deng; Frank A Manthey
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDResearch was conducted to develop a laboratory milling procedure to make whole-durum flour. An ultra-centrifugal mill was evaluated by determining the effect of mill configuration and seed conditioning on particle size distribution and quality of whole-wheat flour.RESULTSParticle size of whole-wheat flour decreased as screen aperture decreased from 1,000 to 250 µm; as rotor speed increased from 6,000 to 18,000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg−1. Feed rate during milling did not affect particle size distribution. Starch damage decreased as screen aperture increased; as rotor speed increased from 6,000 to12,000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg−1. Flour temperature varied with milling parameters but did not exceed 34 °C.CONCLUSIONUltra-centrifugal mill configured with rotor speed of 12,000 rpm, screen aperture of 250 µm, and seed conditioning moisture of 90 g kg−1 resulted in a fine whole-wheat flour where 82 % of particles were
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T22:35:20.812468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8156
       
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant peptides from
           digestion of larvae and pupae of Asian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina,
           Fabucious
    • Authors: Werawich Pattarayingsakul; Arjaree Nilavongse, Onrapak Reamtong, Pamorn Chittavanich, Idsada Mungsantisuk, Yuvadee Mathong, Wipoo Prasitwuttisak, Watanalai Panbangred
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMixed larvae and pupae of weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) are widely used as an important food ingredient in regions of Thailand. They have high nutritional values and comprise 53% protein and 13% lipid. Peptides derived from food proteins have been shown to possess biological activities.RESULTSPeptides derived from pepsin and trypsin digestion of these weaver ant larvae and pupae were purified based on ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities, and their amino acid sequences identified by LC-MS/MS. In silico docking of peptides with ACE successfully predicted the inhibitory peptides as confirmed by their chemical synthesis. Two peptides with sequences of FFGT and LSRVP showed IC50 values for ACE inhibition of 19.5 ± 1.7 and 52.7 ± 4.0 µmol L−1, respectively. In addition, one potent antioxidant peptide with a sequence of CTKKHKPNC showed IC50 values of 48.2 ± 2.1 µmol L−1 for DPPH assay and 38.4 ± 0.2 µmol L−1 for ABTS assay, respectively.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that proteins from larvae and pupae of weaver ants are potential sources of peptides with anti-ACE and antioxidation bioactivities.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:45:33.903885-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8155
       
  • Study of heat-moisture treatment of potato starch granules by chemical
           surface gelatinization
    • Authors: Josiane Bartz; Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNative potato starch was heat-moisture treated (HMT) at 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 % of moisture content at 110 °C for 1 h and the effects on morphology, structure, thermal and physicochemical properties were investigated. To reveal the internal structure, 30 and 50 % of the granular surface were removed by chemical surface gelatinization in concentrated LiCl solution.RESULTSAt moisture contents of 12 and 15 %, the HTM reduced the gelatinization temperatures and relative crystallinity of the starches while at moisture contents of 21 and 24 % both increased. The alterations on morphology, X-ray pattern, physicochemical properties and increase of amylose content were more intense with the increase of moisture content of HMT.CONCLUSIONThe removal of granular layers showed that the changes promoted by HMT occur throughout the whole granule and was pronounced at the core or peripheral region depending of the moisture content applied during HMT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:45:28.547157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8153
       
  • Processing black mulberry into jam: Effects on antioxidant potential and
           in vitro bioaccessibility
    • Authors: Merve Tomas; Gamze Toydemir, Dilek Boyacioglu, Robert D. Hall, Jules Beekwilder, Esra Capanoglu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBlack mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, percent polymeric color, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples.RESULTSJam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (p 
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:40:23.466369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8152
       
  • Kinetics of volatile marker compounds during ripening of cured loins
           inoculated with Staphylococcus carnosus
    • Authors: Ramona Bosse (née Danz); Melanie Wirth, Monika Gibis, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Weiss
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe current study was designed to investigate the influence of ripening time (12 weeks, 15 °C) on the volatile compounds and sensory acceptance for North European cured loins inoculated with a proteolytic Staphylococcus carnosus starter culture.RESULTSThe results demonstrated that the trend of volatile compounds, sensory acceptance and proteolytic activity increased during a ripening of 7 to 9 weeks. A further ripening led to a plateau phase for sensory attributes and aroma-relevant volatile compounds such as benzaldehyde, nonanone and acetophenone. The inoculation of the proteolytic S. carnosus LTH 3838 significantly increased aroma-relevant volatile compounds (3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, acetophenone, 1-octen-3-ol) and sensory acceptance up to a score 3.5 and 3.6 for the overall odor and taste by week 9. In addition, compounds such as nonanal, hexanal, 2-pentanone and nonanone, which originate from lipid oxidation, were significantly limited by S. carnosus LTH 3838.CONCLUSIONA ripening time of 7 to 9 weeks seems to be an optimal period for the production of aroma intensive smoked North European cured loins.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22T10:05:22.865357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8150
       
  • Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed
           extracts of cv. sangiovese(Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Giuseppe Bombai; Federica Pasini, Vito Verardo, Onur Sevindik, Michele Di Foggia, Paola Tessarin, Anna Maria Bregoli, Paola Taddei, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Adamo Domenico Rombolà
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically-cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines.RESULTSLinoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerization ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total proanthocyanidins concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening.CONCLUSIONSFatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds considerably swung during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased.The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of monomers and oligomeric proanthocyanidins greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T23:40:21.367851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8151
       
  • Incorporation of conjugated fatty acids into Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: Elton G. Bonafé; Luana C. Figueiredo, Alessandro F. Martins, Johny P. Monteiro, Oscar O. S. Junior, Edmilson A. Canesin, Swami Arêa Maruyama, Jesuí V. Visentainer
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to improve the nutritional quality of Nile tilapia meat through enriched diets with conjugated isomers of linolenic acid from tung oil. The transfer process of conjugated fatty acids (CFA) into fish muscle tissue was evaluated by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (EASI-MS). The results showed that conjugated fatty acids were transferred from enriched diet for muscle tissue of Nile tilapia. Conjugated linoleic acids biosynthesis from conjugated linolenic acids was also observed after ten days. Other important fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and arachidonic (AA) acids were also identified over time, however, DHA showed the highest concentration when compared with EPA and AA compounds. Therefore, the nutritional quality of Nile tilapia was improved through feeding with enriched diets. The ingestion of these fish may contribute to reach adequate levels of daily CFA consumption. Furthermore, other important substances which play an important role in human metabolism, such as EPA, DHA, and AA, can also be ingested together with CFA.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T23:15:29.705906-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8149
       
  • Characterization of a novel cellobiose 2-epimerase from thermophilic
           Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis for lactulose production
    • Authors: Qiuming Chen; Roman Levin, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLactulose, a bioactive lactose derivative, has been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Isomerization of lactose to lactulose by cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) has recently attracted increasing attention, since CE produces lactulose with high yield from lactose as a single substrate. In this study, a new lactulose-producing CE from Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis was extensively characterized.RESULTSThe recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 70 °C. It displayed high thermostability with Tm of 86.7 °C. The half-life was calculated to be 8.1, 2.8, and 0.6 h at 75, 80, and 85 °C, respectively. When lactose was used as substrate, epilactose was rapidly produced in a short period, and afterwards both epilactose and lactose were steadily isomerized to lactulose, with a final ratio of 35: 11: 54 for lactose: epilactose: lactulose. When the reverse reaction was investigated using lactulose as substrate, both lactose and epilactose appeared to be steadily produced from the start.CONCLUSIONThe recombinant CE showed both epimerization and isomerization activities against lactose, making it an alternative promising biocatalyst candidate for lactulose production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T22:21:13.441405-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8148
       
  • Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic
           yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii
    • Authors: Suprama Datta; David J. Timson, Uday S. Annapure
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSaccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastro-intestinal disorders. In this paper, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed in order to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced.RESULTSS. cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance when compared with S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a 6-10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the DPPH assay), with 70-fold higher total phenolic content and 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further elucidated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites viz. vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B6 which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain.CONCLUSIONThis study presents a new perspective of differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the work also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T02:01:12.486445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8147
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induces disease resistance against Monilinia
           fructicola through activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit
    • Authors: Guangjin Li; ShuHua Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Chang Zhang, Yong Peng, Qingguo Wang, Jingying Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitric Oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in plant-induced resistance to disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between disease resistance induced by NO and phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit. The effect of NO on the main enzymes and metabolites of phenylpropanoid pathway of harvested peach probably related to disease resistance against M. fructicola was investigated in the present study.RESULTSThe results showed that treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) and their genes expression. Furthermore, NO treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, lignin over the whole storage and maintained higher total anthocyanins, phenolic acids and individual anthocyanins contents during earlier storage period.CONCLUSIONThese results suggested that NO treatment could activate the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance the activity of related enzymes as well as the contents of phenylpropanoid metabolites in peach to improve the disease resistance and prevent pathogenic invasion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:25:37.948656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8146
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induces disease resistance against Monilinia
           fructicola through activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit
    • Authors: Guangjin Li; ShuHua Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Chang Zhang, Yong Peng, Qingguo Wang, Jingying Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitric Oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in plant-induced resistance to disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between disease resistance induced by NO and phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit. The effect of NO on the main enzymes and metabolites of phenylpropanoid pathway of harvested peach probably related to disease resistance against M. fructicola was investigated in the present study.RESULTSThe results showed that treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) and their genes expression. Furthermore, NO treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, lignin over the whole storage and maintained higher total anthocyanins, phenolic acids and individual anthocyanins contents during earlier storage period.CONCLUSIONThese results suggested that NO treatment could activate the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance the activity of related enzymes as well as the contents of phenylpropanoid metabolites in peach to improve the disease resistance and prevent pathogenic invasion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:25:37.948656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8146
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induces disease resistance against Monilinia
           fructicola through activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit
    • Authors: Guangjin Li; ShuHua Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Chang Zhang, Yong Peng, Qingguo Wang, Jingying Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitric Oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in plant-induced resistance to disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between disease resistance induced by NO and phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit. The effect of NO on the main enzymes and metabolites of phenylpropanoid pathway of harvested peach probably related to disease resistance against M. fructicola was investigated in the present study.RESULTSThe results showed that treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) and their genes expression. Furthermore, NO treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, lignin over the whole storage and maintained higher total anthocyanins, phenolic acids and individual anthocyanins contents during earlier storage period.CONCLUSIONThese results suggested that NO treatment could activate the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance the activity of related enzymes as well as the contents of phenylpropanoid metabolites in peach to improve the disease resistance and prevent pathogenic invasion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:25:37.948656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8146
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed
           product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil
    • Authors: David L. Compton; Kervin O. Evans, Michael Appell
      Abstract: BackgroundFeruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency.ResultsThe formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22 day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products.ConclusionThe quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:05:20.980075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8145
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed
           product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil
    • Authors: David L. Compton; Kervin O. Evans, Michael Appell
      Abstract: BackgroundFeruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency.ResultsThe formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22 day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products.ConclusionThe quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:05:20.980075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8145
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed
           product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil
    • Authors: David L. Compton; Kervin O. Evans, Michael Appell
      Abstract: BackgroundFeruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency.ResultsThe formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22 day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products.ConclusionThe quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:05:20.980075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8145
       
  • Aflatoxins and Food Pathogens: Impact of Biologically Active Aflatoxins
           and their Control Strategies
    • Authors: S Umesha; H. M. Manukumar, B. Chandrasekhar, P. Shivakumara, J. Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, P. Avinash, M. Shirin, T. R. Bharathi, S. B. Rajini, M. Nandhini, G. Vinaya Rani, M. Shobha, H. S. Prakash
      Abstract: Globally disease outbreaks are due to consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff is regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms paicularly fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in human and animals. Moreover, the terrible conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue within the country. For that reason, mycotoxin illness of nutrition with exceeding stages represents a major health hazard for the neighborhood population. Government policies should be strong in making regulations to avoid aflatoxin entry into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by the regulatory authorities. There is a need of attention from farmers, scientists, government, and collaborative minds throughout the country to change into aflatoxin free food. This overview is supposed to be informative, just not only for health-conscious of consumers but in addition for authorities in the area to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our talents with regard to mycotoxins and food security.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T01:50:39.032333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8144
       
  • Aflatoxins and Food Pathogens: Impact of Biologically Active Aflatoxins
           and their Control Strategies
    • Authors: S Umesha; H. M. Manukumar, B. Chandrasekhar, P. Shivakumara, J. Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, P. Avinash, M. Shirin, T. R. Bharathi, S. B. Rajini, M. Nandhini, G. Vinaya Rani, M. Shobha, H. S. Prakash
      Abstract: Globally disease outbreaks are due to consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff is regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms particularly fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in human and animals. Moreover, the terrible conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue within the country. For that reason, mycotoxin illness of nutrition with exceeding stages represents a major health hazard for the neighborhood population. Government policies should be strong in making regulations to avoid aflatoxin entry into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by the regulatory authorities. There is a need of attention from farmers, scientists, government, and collaborative minds throughout the country to change into aflatoxin free food. This overview is supposed to be informative, just not only for health-conscious of consumers but in addition for authorities in the area to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our talents with regard to mycotoxins and food security.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T01:50:39.032333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8144
       
  • Aflatoxins and Food Pathogens: Impact of Biologically Active Aflatoxins
           and their Control Strategies
    • Authors: S Umesha; H. M. Manukumar, B. Chandrasekhar, P. Shivakumara, J. Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, P. Avinash, M. Shirin, T. R. Bharathi, S. B. Rajini, M. Nandhini, G. Vinaya Rani, M. Shobha, H. S. Prakash
      Abstract: Globally disease outbreaks are due to consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff is regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms particularly fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in human and animals. Moreover, the terrible conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue within the country. For that reason, mycotoxin illness of nutrition with exceeding stages represents a major health hazard for the neighborhood population. Government policies should be strong in making regulations to avoid aflatoxin entry into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by the regulatory authorities. There is a need of attention from farmers, scientists, government, and collaborative minds throughout the country to change into aflatoxin free food. This overview is supposed to be informative, just not only for health-conscious of consumers but in addition for authorities in the area to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our talents with regard to mycotoxins and food security.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T01:50:39.032333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8144
       
  • Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: A literature review
    • Authors: G. Banias; Ch. Achillas, Ch. Vlachokostas, N. Moussiopoulos, M. Stefanou
      Abstract: Production of olive oil is considered one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite their importance, environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. This paper aims to present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications in the field of use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration farming of olive trees, manufacturing of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded, while also the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees –with pesticides’ use and waste/by-products production being the “hottest” topics– and manufacturing of olive oil –concentrating mostly on waste/by-products production and management– are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly on fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:30:21.957569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8143
       
  • Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: A literature review
    • Authors: G. Banias; Ch. Achillas, Ch. Vlachokostas, N. Moussiopoulos, M. Stefanou
      Abstract: Production of olive oil is considered one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite their importance, environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. This paper aims to present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications in the field of use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration farming of olive trees, manufacturing of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded, while also the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees –with pesticides’ use and waste/by-products production being the “hottest” topics– and manufacturing of olive oil –concentrating mostly on waste/by-products production and management– are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly on fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:30:21.957569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8143
       
  • Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: A literature review
    • Authors: G. Banias; Ch. Achillas, Ch. Vlachokostas, N. Moussiopoulos, M. Stefanou
      Abstract: Production of olive oil is considered one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite their importance, environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. This paper aims to present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications in the field of use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration farming of olive trees, manufacturing of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded, while also the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees –with pesticides’ use and waste/by-products production being the “hottest” topics– and manufacturing of olive oil –concentrating mostly on waste/by-products production and management– are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly on fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:30:21.957569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8143
       
  • Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in
           modified atmosphere
    • Authors: Ilija Djekic; Jovana Vunduk, Igor Tomašević, Maja Kozarski, Predrag Petrovic, Miomir Niksic, Predrag Pudja, Anita Klaus
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP); low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP); and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR).RESULTSThis research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. As of the second period, the odor intensities were stronger for all four packaging. Color difference and browning index showed that significantly lower color changes were on AIR and LOP compared to HNP and LCP mushrooms.CONCLUSIONTotal quality index showed that the best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are worthy, in respect to examining two component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O2 and CO2) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and total quality index of A. bisporus mushroom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:15:24.442073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8142
       
  • Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in
           modified atmosphere
    • Authors: Ilija Djekic; Jovana Vunduk, Igor Tomašević, Maja Kozarski, Predrag Petrovic, Miomir Niksic, Predrag Pudja, Anita Klaus
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP); low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP); and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR).RESULTSThis research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. As of the second period, the odor intensities were stronger for all four packaging. Color difference and browning index showed that significantly lower color changes were on AIR and LOP compared to HNP and LCP mushrooms.CONCLUSIONTotal quality index showed that the best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are worthy, in respect to examining two component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O2 and CO2) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and total quality index of A. bisporus mushroom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:15:24.442073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8142
       
  • Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in
           modified atmosphere
    • Authors: Ilija Djekic; Jovana Vunduk, Igor Tomašević, Maja Kozarski, Predrag Petrovic, Miomir Niksic, Predrag Pudja, Anita Klaus
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP); low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP); and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR).RESULTSThis research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. As of the second period, the odor intensities were stronger for all four packaging. Color difference and browning index showed that significantly lower color changes were on AIR and LOP compared to HNP and LCP mushrooms.CONCLUSIONTotal quality index showed that the best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are worthy, in respect to examining two component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O2 and CO2) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and total quality index of A. bisporus mushroom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:15:24.442073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8142
       
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
       
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
       
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
       
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
           properties
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
       
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
           properties
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
       
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
           properties
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
       
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
       
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
       
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
       
  • Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion
           varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems
    • Authors: Feiyue Ren; Kim Reilly, Michael Gaffney, Joseph P. Kerry, Mohammad Hossain, Dilip K. Rai
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOnions contain a number of bioactive compounds - in particular polyphenols. They are a rich source of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion.RESULTSWe examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over four years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year on year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in generally were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:41:33.864421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8138
       
  • Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion
           varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems
    • Authors: Feiyue Ren; Kim Reilly, Michael Gaffney, Joseph P. Kerry, Mohammad Hossain, Dilip K. Rai
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOnions contain a number of bioactive compounds - in particular polyphenols. They are a rich source of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion.RESULTSWe examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over four years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year on year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in generally were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:41:33.864421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8138
       
  • Absolute quantification of microRNAs in green tea (Camellia sinensis) by
           stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR
    • Authors: Ying-Hui Hou; Anburaj Jeyaraj, Xiao Zhang, Chao-Ling Wei
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere are some studies to show that food-derived plant microRNAs (miRNAs) may be detected in mammals. The research evidence has being provoked a considerable debate whether plant-derived miRNAs exert the same regulatory functions as endogenous animal miRNAs. To test the hypothesis, the methods of highly sensitive absolute quantification miRNAs have been developed. However, absolute miRNA quantification of green tea has not yet been reported. In this study, it is the first to build an absolute quantification method to detect miRNAs level in green tea using stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).RESULTSTwo miRNAs, csn-miR164 (a conserved miRNA) and csn-miRn329 (a tea-specific miRNA), were selected as examples for the detection and absolute quantification of miRNAs in green tea samples using stem-loop qRT-PCR. The content of csn-miR164 was significantly higher in the Yuexi Cuilan (YX) samples than in the Shucheng Orchid (SC) samples. The content of csn-miRn329 was found to be high at the start of processing in leaf tissues in both the withering and soaking experiments, after which it gradually decreased with time.CONCLUSIONTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to absolutely quantify the miRNAs present in green tea. This method is help to further investigate the possibility that tea-derived miRNAs may play an important role on defending against various diseases in human.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:20:42.910672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8137
       
  • Absolute quantification of microRNAs in green tea (Camellia sinensis) by
           stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR
    • Authors: Ying-Hui Hou; Anburaj Jeyaraj, Xiao Zhang, Chao-Ling Wei
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere are some studies to show that food-derived plant microRNAs (miRNAs) may be detected in mammals. The research evidence has being provoked a considerable debate whether plant-derived miRNAs exert the same regulatory functions as endogenous animal miRNAs. To test the hypothesis, the methods of highly sensitive absolute quantification miRNAs have been developed. However, absolute miRNA quantification of green tea has not yet been reported. In this study, it is the first to build an absolute quantification method to detect miRNAs level in green tea using stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).RESULTSTwo miRNAs, csn-miR164 (a conserved miRNA) and csn-miRn329 (a tea-specific miRNA), were selected as examples for the detection and absolute quantification of miRNAs in green tea samples using stem-loop qRT-PCR. The content of csn-miR164 was significantly higher in the Yuexi Cuilan (YX) samples than in the Shucheng Orchid (SC) samples. The content of csn-miRn329 was found to be high at the start of processing in leaf tissues in both the withering and soaking experiments, after which it gradually decreased with time.CONCLUSIONTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to absolutely quantify the miRNAs present in green tea. This method is help to further investigate the possibility that tea-derived miRNAs may play an important role on defending against various diseases in human.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:20:42.910672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8137
       
  • Content of cadmium and lead in raw, fried and baked commercial frozen
           fishery products consumed in Poland
    • Authors: Anna Winiarska-Mieczan; Eugeniusz R. Grela
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study aimed to verify whether the consumption of frozen fishery products was safe in terms of Cd and Pb content. The study material was 31 frozen fishery products (15 breaded products and 16 fillets). Immediately before the analyses the products were subject to culinary treatment according to the recommendations of the producer: fried in colza oil or baked in a gas oven. The level of Cd and Pb was determined using the GF AAS method.RESULTSThe analysed frozen products contained on average 14.0 µg Cd and 18.5 µg Pb per kg. Compared to raw products, baked fish contained 56 % more Cd and 72 % more Pb, whereas fried fish contained 16 % more Cd and 15 % more Pb. Compared to fried products, baked fish contained 34 % more Cd and 49 % more Pb.CONCLUSIONThe content of Cd and Pb in the products did not exceed the acceptable standard. However, it cannot be clearly stated which method of culinary treatment of frozen fishery products is the best with regard to the level of Cd and Pb in the final products.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T01:55:43.808368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8136
       
  • A POSSIBLE APPROACH TO ASSESS ACIDIFICATION OF MEAT STARTER CULTURES: A
           CASE STUDY FROM SOME WILD STRAINS OF Lactobacillus plantarum
    • Authors: Barbara Speranza; Antonio Bevilacqua, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Milena Sinigaglia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe performances of four autochthonous isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum were assessed to study the most important variables acting on acidification and propose a possible step-by-step approach for the validation at lab-scale. This main topic was addressed through three intermediate steps: (i) evaluation of acidification in liquid and solid media, as a function of salt, nitrites, nitrates, lactose, pepper and temperature; (ii) assessing acidification in a pork-meat preparation; iii) designing a protocol to improve the performances at sub-optimal temperatures. The concentration of the ingredients and the temperature were combined through a 3k-p Fractional Factorial Design. Acidification and viable count were assessed and modeled through a multi-factorial ANOVA.RESULTSIn model systems acidification was affected by lactose and was maximum (ΔpH of ca. 2.8-3.0) in the combinations containing 0.4% lactose, 250 mg/kg nitrates or 150 mg/kg nitrites, 5% salt, and at 30 °C. Solid media caused a higher acidification. In the pork meat preparation, the effect of salt and nitrites was significant. At 10 °C the strains could not reduce pH, but this ability could be induced using an adaptation step.CONCLUSIONSAcidification was affected by lactose in the model system, whereas in meat preparation the other variables were significant. In addition, a protocol to improve acidification at 10 °C was optimized.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T01:15:24.116056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8135
       
  • Saffron: a promising natural medicine in the treatment of metabolic
           syndrome
    • Authors: Bibi Marjan Razavi; Hossein Hosseinzadeh
      Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses with obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Although several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, however, because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors.Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Iridaceae family. Saffron is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste and has been widely used in traditional as well as modern medicine to treat several illnesses including cardiovascular diseases. Most of unique properties of this plant are attributed to the presence of three major components including crocin, safranal and crocetin. It has been proved that saffron has an important role in the management of metabolic syndrome because of its marvelous activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypotensive and hypolipidemic properties. In this review article, we discussed the beneficial properties of saffron and its active components to treat different components of metabolic syndrome and most relevant animal and human studies regarding the use of this plant in cardiovascular disease with focuses on the metabolic risk factors. This review also suggested that after randomized clinical trials, saffron may be implicated as a preventive or therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T01:00:30.475945-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8134
       
  • Amino acids profile and sensory characteristic of dry fermented pork loins
           produced with the mixture of the probiotic starter cultures
    • Authors: Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska; Anna Okoń, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska, Zbigniew Dolatowski
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProteolysis is a biochemical processes in dry-aged meat products where proteins are metabolized and broken down to polypeptides, peptides and free amino acids. In the literature are presented that the proper choice of probiotic starter cultures limits proteolytic changes in dry fermented meat products. In this study the combined effect of the mixture of probiotic starter cultures on the free amino acid profile, total count of lactic acid bacteria, and the sensory quality of dry-aged pork loins after fermentation and after storing the vacuum-packed samples was evaluated.RESULTSLOCK900 and BB12 probiotic strains were the technologically best two-species mixture of starter cultures for the production of probiotic dry-aged pork loins. They allowed to obtain products with high and stable bacterial count and acceptable sensory quality, both after 21 days of fermentation and after 2 months of cold storage. Changes in the free amino acid profile and the increased intensity of selected sensory attributes result from the significant share of probiotics in the meat proteolysis of the occurring fermentation and storage.CONCLUSIONThe obtained study results suggest the relevance of using probiotic bacteria as the two-species starter cultures for the production of dry-aged products.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T16:03:28.78286-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8133
       
  • Non-destructive analysis of sensory traits of dry-cured loins by
           MRI-computer vision techniques and data mining
    • Authors: Daniel Caballero; Teresa Antequera, Andrés Caro, María del Mar Ávila, Pablo G. Rodríguez, Trinidad Perez-Palacios
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with computer vision techniques have been proposed as an alternative or complementary technique to determine the quality parameters of food in a non-destructive way. The aim of this work was to analyze the sensory attributes of dry-cured loins using this technique. For that, different MRI acquisition sequences (spin echo (SE), gradient echo (GE) and turbo 3D (T3D)), algorithms for MRI analysis (GLCM, NGLDM, GLRLM and GLCM-NGLDM-GLRLM) and predictive data mining techniques (multiple linear regression, MLR, and isotonic regression, IR) were tested.RESULTSThe correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the prediction results. The combination of SE, GLCM and IR produced the most accurate results. In addition, the MRI data from dry-cured loins seems to be more suitable than the data from fresh loins.CONCLUSIONSThe application of predictive data mining techniques to extract computational texture features from the MRI data of loins enables the determination of the sensory traits of dry-cured loins in a non-destructive way.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T16:03:27.709745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8132
       
  • QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED OKARA AS A SOURCE OF PRODUCTION OF GLUTEN-FREE
           FLOUR
    • Authors: María V. Ostermann-Porcel; Ana N. Rinaldoni, Laura T. Rodriguez-Furlán, Mercedes E. Campderrós
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOkara is a by-product of soymilk and of tofu elaboration which is rich in protein, fiber and vegetable oils as a source of gluten-free flour. In order to take advantage of the nutritional characteristics of Okara and to be able to determine an appropriate drying methodology, a microwave, a rotary dryer and freeze-drying were assessed. Furthermore, flour with an enzymatic treatment was characterized as well as its functional, physicochemical and textural properties.RESULTSThe results showed that the physiochemical characteristics of the flour were affected by the drying process, reaching adequate water content, high protein and fiber content. The freeze–drying process produced clearer flours with porous structure and high water absorption capacity, with a higher protein denaturation. Okara dried by microwave and rotary dryer exhibited a more dense structure with similar functional properties and improved textural characteristics such as firmness and consistency. The microwave produced darker flour due to the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The enzymatic treatment employed improved the consistency of the flour.CONCLUSIONIt was possible to choose the drying process to be applied according to the feasible use of the flour, intended to preserve the favorable nutritional aspects of the Okara flour. Based in the results, it can be affirmed that the physicochemical properties and attributes of okara are influenced by the dried processes employed. The okara dried by freeze-drying resulted in a better product because it had a low final moisture content and the highest whiteness index (WI). The flour presented a porous structure with a high solubility which is an indicator of potential applications in foods developments.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T05:56:03.120996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8131
       
  • Improving the water solubility of Monascus pigments in acidic conditions
           with gum arabic
    • Authors: Wenjie Jian; Yuanming Sun, Jian-Yong Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonascus pigments (Mps) are natural food colorants and their stability in acidic solutions is important for application in the food industry. This study was to evaluate the use of gum arabic (GA) as a stabilizer for maintaining the solubility of Mps in an acidic aqueous solution exposed to a high temperature, and to analyze the molecular interactions between GA and Mps.RESULTSMps dispersed (0.2 g kg−1) in deionized water at pH 3.0-4.0 without GA formed precipitates but remained in a stable solution in the presence of GA (1 g kg−1). The significant improvement of Mps water solubility in acidic conditions was attributed to the formation of Mps-GA complexes, as indicated by a sharp increase in the fluorescence intensity. The results on particle size, zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopy further suggested that molecular binding of Mps to GA, electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance of GA were contributing factors to preventing the aggregation of Mps in acidic solutions. A mechanistic model was presented for GA-Mps interactions and complex structures.CONCLUSIONGA was proven an effective stabilizer of natural food colorants in acidic solutions.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T10:06:00.315886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8130
       
  • Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on carbon and nitrogen
           distribution and grain yield and nutritional quality in rice (Oryza sativa
           L.)
    • Authors: Xue Zhang; Li Wang, Fang Ma, Jixian Yang, Meng Su
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for nutrient uptake and growth in rice has been widely recognized. However, little is known about the distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in rice under AMF inoculation, which can affect grain yield and quality. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of C and N within rice plants under AMF inoculation and the effects on grain yield and quality.RESULTSAMF inoculation significantly increased N accumulation and distribution in vegetative tissues at tillering and N translocation into seeds from heading to maturity. Consequently, AMF inoculation more strongly impacted the distribution of N than that of C in seeds, with significantly reduced C-to-N ratios and increased protein content (by 7.4%). Additionally, AMF inoculation significantly increased grain yield by 28.2% through increasing the grain-to-straw ratio by 18.4%. In addition, the roots of inoculated rice exhibited greater change in C distribution, with significantly higher C concentrations, C accumulations, and C-to-N ratios at tillering and maturity.CONCLUSIONAMF inoculation affected the distribution of N in seeds and C in roots. As such, AMF inoculation may be a potential method for improving grain yield and quality.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T10:01:26.453683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8129
       
  • The impact of a cold chain break on the survival of Salmonella enterica
           and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed ‘Conference’ pears
           during their shelf life
    • Authors: Pilar Colás-Medà; Inmaculada Viñas, Isabel Alegre, Maribel Abadias
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn recent years, improved detection methods and increased fresh-cut processing of produce have led to an increased number of outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. During fruit and vegetable processing, natural protective barriers are removed and tissues are cut, causing nutrient rich exudates and providing attachment sites for microbes. Consequently, fresh-cut produce is more susceptible to microbial proliferation than whole produce.RESULTSThe aim of this study was to examine the impact of storage temperature on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on a fresh-cut ‘Conference’ pear over an eight day storage period. Pears were cut, dipped in antioxidant solution, artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, packed under modified atmospheric conditions simulating commercial applications and stored in properly refrigerated conditions (constant storage at 4 °C for 8 days) or in temperature abuse conditions (3 days at 4 °C plus 5 days at 8 °C). After 8 days of storage, both conditions resulted in a significant decrease of S. enterica populations on pear wedges. In contrast, when samples were stored at 4 °C for 8 days, L. monocytogenes populations increased 1.6 logarithmic units, whereas under the temperature abuse conditions, L. monocytogenes populations increased 2.2 logarithmic units.CONCLUSIONListeria monocytogenes was able to grow on fresh-cut pears processed under the conditions described here, despite low pH, refrigeration and use of modified atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04T02:30:17.180417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8127
       
  • Outbreaks and factors influencing microbiological contamination of fresh
           produce
    • Authors: Yukiko Wadamori; Ravi Gooneratne, Malik A Hussain
      Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables are nutritionally well-recognized as healthy components in diets. The microbiological foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have been increasing. Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate fresh produce. This review discusses recent foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce, factors that affect microbiological contamination and measures that could be adopted to reduce the foodborne illnesses.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03T01:10:32.674822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8125
       
  • The effect of governance mechanisms on food safety in the supply chain:
           Evidence from the Lebanese dairy sector
    • Authors: Gumataw K. Abebe; Ali Chalak, Mohamad G. Abiad
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood safety is a key public health issue worldwide. This study aims to characterize existing governance mechanisms – governance structures (GS) and food safety management systems (FSMS) – and analyze the alignment thereof in detecting food safety hazards, based on empirical evidence from Lebanon.RESULTSFirm-to-firm and public baseline are the dominant FSMS applied in a large-scale, while chain-wide FSMS are observed only in a small-scale. Most transactions involving farmers are relational and market-based in contrast to (large-scale) processors, which opt for hierarchical GS. Large-scale processors use a combination FSMS and GS to minimize food safety hazards albeit potential increase in coordination costs; this is an important feature of modern food supply chains. The econometric analysis reveals contract period, on-farm inspection and experience having significant effects in minimizing food safety hazards. However, the potential to implement farm-level FSMS is influenced by formality of the contract, herd size, trading partner choice, and experience.CONCLUSIONPublic baseline FSMS appears effective in controlling food safety hazards; however, this may not be viable due to the scarcity of public resources. We suggest public policies to focus on long-lasting governance mechanisms by introducing incentive schemes and farm-level FSMS by providing loans and education to farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T23:20:31.239293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8128
       
  • New Functionalities of Maillard Reaction Products As Emulsifier and
           Encapsulating Agent and Its Processing Parameters: A Brief Review
    • Authors: Yee-Ying Lee; Teck-Kim Tang, Eng-Tong Phuah, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed Alitheen, Chin-Ping Tan, Oi-Ming Lai
      Abstract: Non enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavor, taste, and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction product as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifier as well as a superior encapsulating matrix for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that are needed to be taken into consideration when conducting Maillard reaction.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T07:21:00.753387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8124
       
  • Study of the terpene profile at harvest and during berry development of
           Vitis vinifera L. aromatic varieties Aleatico, Brachetto, Malvasia di
           Candia aromatica and Moscato bianco
    • Authors: Claudio D'Onofrio; Fabiola Matarese, Angela Cuzzola
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn this work, we evaluated the aromatic composition of berries at harvest and during the whole berry development of Aleatico, Brachetto, Malvasia di Candia aromatica and Moscato bianco grapevine varieties, which were cultivated in the same vineyard and agricultural conditions.RESULTSMalvasia had a total concentration of aroma which was significantly higher than the other grapes that showed comparable amounts with each other. The class of monoterpenes was quantitatively predominant for all four grapes, in the free and in the most plentiful bound form. In Malvasia and Aleatico there was a high prevalence of geraniol derivatives throughout the entire berry development while in Brachetto and in Moscato there was a prevalence of linalool derivatives during the green phase and geraniol derivatives during ripening.CONCLUSIONThe study of the monoterpene profile allowed us to highlight similarities and differences among the four aromatic varieties and to make hypothesis about their biosynthetic dynamics. This information is useful for further studies on gene functional characterization and the regulation of these important berry pathways.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T07:20:59.819004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8126
       
  • Bromelain: From Production to Commercialisation
    • Authors: Aizi Nor Mazila Ramli; Tuan Norsyalieza Tuan Aznan, Rosli Md. Illias
      Abstract: Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants. Bromelain can be found in several parts of the pineapple plant, including the stem, fruit, leaves and peels. High demand from bromelain has resulted in gradual increases in bromelain production. Such increases in production have led to the need for a bromelain production strategy that yields more purified bromelain at a lower cost and with fewer productions steps. Previously, bromelain was purified using conventional centrifugation, ultrafiltration and lyophilisation. Recently, the developments of more modern purification techniques such as gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, aqueous two phase extraction and reversed micelle chromatography have resulted in increased industrial bromelain production worldwide. In addition, recombinant DNA technology has emerged as an alternative strategy for producing large amounts of ultrapure bromelain. An up-to-date compilation of data regarding the commercialisation of bromelain in the clinical, pharmaceutical and industrial fields is provided in this review.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:26:28.48745-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8122
       
  • The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing L-carnitine and
           Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched designer eggs
    • Authors: Namhyeon Park; Tae-Kyung Lee, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Eun-Bae An, Nahyun M. Kim, Young-Hyun You, Tae-Sub Park, Doman Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe potential of fermented buckwheat as feed additives was studied to increase L-carnitine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine, and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of L-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce L-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects like enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity, and blood pressure control.RESULTSA novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting L-carnitine and GABA was developed using LC/MS and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 fold-increased L-carnitine and GABA, respectively, than normal buckwheat. Compared to control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched L-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk. However, only L-carnitine was significantly different (p 
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:25:24.19546-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8123
       
  • Sakacin-A antimicrobial packaging for decreasing Listeria contamination in
           thin-cut meat: preliminary assessment
    • Authors: Alberto Barbiroli; Alida Musatti, Giorgio Capretti, Stefania Iametti, Manuela Rollini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMinimally processed ready-to eat products are considered a high-risk food because of the possibility of contamination with pathogenic bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes from the animal reservoir, and the minimal process they undergo. In this study a sakacin-A anti-Listeria active package was developed and tested on thin-cut veal meat slices (namely, carpaccio).RESULTSEnriched food-grade sakacin-A was obtained from a cell-free supernatant of a Lactobacillus sakei culture, and applied (0.63 mg cm−2) onto the surface of polyethylene-coated paper sheets, to obtain an active antimicrobial package. The coating retained antimicrobial features, indicating that the process did not affect sakacin-A functionality, as evidenced in tests carried out in vitro. Thin-cut veal meat slices inoculated with Listeria innocua (surrogate of the pathogenic L. monocytogenes) were laid on active paper sheets. After 48 h incubation at 4 °C, Listeria population was found 1.5 log cycles lower with respect to controls (3.05 vs. 4.46 log cfu g−1).CONCLUSIONThis study demonstrates the possibility of using an antimicrobial coating containing sakacin-A to inhibit or decrease Listeria population in ready-to-eat products, thus lowering the risk of food-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:21:04.194544-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8120
       
  • Whole lactation production responses in high-yielding dairy cows using
           high-quality grass/clover silage
    • Authors: Mikaela Patel; Ewa Wredle, Eva Spörndly, Jan Bertilsson
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLimiting the use of purchased concentrate for livestock and replacing it with home-grown forage without compromising milk production can offer benefits in both organic and conventional dairy systems. A full lactation trial was conducted with 92 cows over two years comparing three diets, each differing in the mean forage proportion over the lactation, 500 (50F), 600 (60 F) and 700 (70 F) g kg−1 dry matter (DM), respectively. The diets were designed to represent common conventional feeding, current regulations for organic production and more extreme high-forage based production, respectively. The aims were to determine the effects of forage proportion in the diet on milk production and feed utilisation.RESULTSCompared with 50F, daily milk yield did not differ in 60 F but was lower in 70 F (31.3, 31.1 and 29.2 kg energy corrected milk, respectively). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between treatments (20.3, 20.4 and 19.9 kg in 50F, 60 F and 70F, respectively).CONCLUSIONIncreasing the forage proportion from 500 to 600 g kg−1 DM did not have any adverse effects on milk production or DMI. Thus it is possible to produce the same quantity of milk with less concentrate and reduce use of potential human feeds in dairy production.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:15:24.13307-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8119
       
  • The application of NMR-based milk metabolites analysis in milk
           authenticity identification
    • Authors: Qiangqiang Li; Zunbo Yu, Dan Zhu, Xianghe Meng, Xiumei Pang, Yue Liu, Russell Frew, He Chen, Gang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMilk is an important food component in human diet and is a target for fraud, including many unsafe practices. For example, the unscrupulous adulteration of soymilk into bovine and goat milk, or bovine milk into goat milk in order to gain profit without declaration is a health risk as the adulterants source and sanitary history in unknown. A robust and fit-for-purpose technique is required to enforce market surveillance and hence protect consumers’ health. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique for characterization of food products based on measuring the profile of metabolites. In this study, 1D NMR in conjunction with multivariate chemometrics as well as 2D NMR was applied to differentiate the milk types, and to identify milk adulteration.RESULTSTen metabolites were found which differed among milk types hence providing characteristic markers for identifying the milk. These metabolites were used to establish the mathematical model for milk type differentiation. The LOQ of adulteration was 2 % for soymilk in bovine milk, 2 % for soymilk in goat milk, and 5 % for bovine milk in goat milk, RSD≤10 %, which can meet the needs of daily inspection.CONCLUSIONThe NMR method described here is effective for milk authenticity identification, and our study demonstrates that NMR-based milk metabolites analysis approach provides a means of detecting the adulteration at these expected levels and can be used for dairy quality monitoring.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T01:05:31.015509-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8118
       
  • Increasing meat products functionality by the addition of milled flaxseed
           Linum usitatissimum.
    • Authors: Zając Marzena; Kulawik Piotr, Tkaczewska Joanna, Migdał Władysław, Pustkowiak Henryk
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFunctional meat products are still rare on the market, since it is difficult to incorporate new ingredients and gain both healthy and acceptable product. Flaxseed is known for its beneficial properties and it was used as an ingredient in the production of homogenized and liver sausages in this study (0, 5 and 10% flaxseed addition).RESULTSThe homogenized and liver sausages with 5% flaxseed addition were given the highest scores by the consumers, although the colour changed with flaxseed addition. The spreadability and hardness of the liver sausages increased with the flaxseed addition while the texture of homogenized sausages did not change. Flaxseed addition improved the fatty acids profile from the health point of view for both products, by increasing the n3 fatty acids and overall PUFA content. The TBARS values were higher in products with flaxseed and increased during storage.CONCLUSIONThe results indicate, that it is possible to obtain products which would be acceptable by consumers and more healthy at the same time. High level of α-linolenic acid in the sausages with 5% addition level allows to label the product with information about high omega-3 fatty acid content. However, those products are more susceptible for oxidation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:36:11.328422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8116
       
  • Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and quinolone resistance
           factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E.
           faecium isolates obtained from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients
           
    • Authors: Min-Chan Kim; Gun-Jo Woo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients was analyzed.RESULTSAmong the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multi-drug resistance profiles. The virulence factors esp and hyl were identified in 27 (58.7%) and 25 (54.3%) isolates, respectively. Sequence type analysis showed that 35 strains of HLCR E. faecium were clonal complex 17. Eleven strains of HLCR E. faecalis were confirmed as ST 28, ST 64, and ST 125. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutation was identified in HLCR Enterococcus isolates; serine changed to others in gyrA83, gyrA87, parC80. This result showed that gyrA and parC mutations could be important factors for high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones.CONCLUSIONNo significant differences in antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics among the isolates from fresh produce and fecal samples were observed. Therefore, good agricultural practices in farming and continuous monitoring of patients, food, and the environment for Enterococcus spp. should be performed to prevent antimicrobial resistance and reduction of resistance rates.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:20:28.758554-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8115
       
  • Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture
    • Authors: Massimiliano Marvasi
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, NO release rate is dependent upon the chemical structure of the donor itself and the chemical environment. Despite NO’s powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not achieved and research is mainly at the experimental level.Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope, to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening, and increasing shelf life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified.This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. We provide insights into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) potential use of donors in animal production, and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T06:20:25.455311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8117
       
  • Influence of growing altitude, shade and harvest period on quality and
           biochemical composition of Ethiopian specialty coffee
    • Authors: Kassaye Tolessa; Jolien D'heer, Luc Duchateau, Pascal Boeckx
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCoffee quality is key characteristic for the international market, cup quality and chemical bean constituents describe it. In Ethiopia, using total specialty cup scores, coffees are grouped into Q1 (specialty 1) ≥85 and Q2 (80-84.75). This classification results in market segmentation and higher prices. Although different studies evaluated effects of altitude and shade on bean quality, optimum shade levels along different altitudinal ranges are not clearly indicated. Information on effects of harvest periods on coffee quality is also scanty. This study examined influences of these factors and their interactions on Ethiopian coffee qualityRESULTSCoffee from high altitude with open or medium shade and early to middle harvest periods gave superior bean quality. These growing conditions also favoured production of beans with lower caffeine. Increasing altitude from mid to high, ca. 400m decreased caffeine content by 10%. At high altitude, dense shade decreased Q1 coffee by 50%. Compared to late harvesting, early harvesting increased the percentage from 27 to 73%. At mid altitude >80% is Q2 coffee.CONCLUSIONSChanges of quality scores driven by altitude, shade and harvest period are small, though may induce dramatic switches in the fraction Q1 vs. Q2 coffee. The latter affects farmers’ profit and competitiveness in the international markets.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T06:05:23.941484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8114
       
  • Effect of sulfur-containing spices on the bioaccessibility of trace
           minerals from selected cereals and pulses
    • Authors: Meena Kumari; Kalpana Platel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGarlic and onion, rich in organo-sulfur compounds, are reported to enhance the bioaccessibility of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn; however, there is lack of similar information on the bioaccessibility of copper, manganese and chromium. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of exogenous garlic and onion on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from selected food grains. The effect of two levels of garlic (0.25 and 0.5 g/10 g of grain) and onion (1.5 and 3 g/10 g of grain) on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from two representative cereals and pulses was determined by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure.RESULTSBoth garlic and onion significantly improved the bioaccessibility of Cu, especially when added at the higher level, in most of the foods examined. The enhancing effect of garlic on Mn bioaccessibility was found in cooked sorghum and chickpea, while onion significantly improved Mn bioaccessibility in cooked rice and chickpea. Addition of both the spices did not exert any enhancing effect on Cr bioaccessibility from the cereals and pulses.CONCLUSIONHence, bioaccessibility of Cu, and to a lesser extent, Mn, from vegetarian diets can be significantly improved by incorporating garlic and onion to the diet.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T05:50:29.584018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8113
       
  • Inhibitory properties of bambara groundnut protein hydrolysate and peptide
           
    • Authors: Abimbola K. Arise; Adeola M. Alashi, Ifeanyi D. Nwachukwu, Sunday A. Malomo, Rotimi E. Aluko, Eric O. Amonsou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIncreased rate of high blood pressure has led to critical human hypertensive conditions in most nations. In this study, bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs) obtained using three different proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), and their peptide fractions (molecular weight: 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa) were investigated for antihypertensive and antioxidant activities.RESULTSAlcalase hydrolysate contained the highest amount of low molecular weight (LMW) peptides compared to pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates. LMW peptides fractions (
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T05:40:18.874269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8112
       
  • Influence of Brewing Conditions on Taste Components in Fuding White Tea
           Infusions
    • Authors: Haihua Zhang; Yulin Li, Yangjun Lv, Yulan Jiang, Junxian Pan, Yuwei Duan, Yuejin Zhu, Shikang Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWhite tea has received increasing attention of late due to its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The objective of this work was to study the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature.RESULTSBrewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids content generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Condition with a time of 7 min, brewing temperature 100 °C, the ratio of tea and water 1:30 or 1:40, and second brewing steps, were respectively proved to obtain the highest content of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, condition with an infusion time of 3 min, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, a temperature of 100 °C and a first brewing step resulted in the highest sensory score as comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste.CONCLUSIONThe results revealed differences in the content of various taste compounds including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids with different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T04:55:20.037686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8111
       
  • The effects of entanglement concentration on the hydrodynamic properties
           of cereal starches
    • Authors: Li Guo; Juanjuan Zhang, Jian Hu, Xianfeng Du, Bo Cui
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe hydrodynamic properties of four cereal starches in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were investigated using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope and steady shear rheological measurements.RESULTSThe results indicated that the starch solutions showed the non-linear shape of the ηsp/c versus c curves in dilute solutions, followed by a linear increase to different extents thereafter. The intrinsic viscosity might be positively correlated with the entanglement concentration (ce). Compared to normal maize and wheat starch solutions, ce influences more significantly the network formation of normal and waxy rice starch solutions. At concentrations ≤ ce, the gelatinized cereal starch solutions hardly exhibit shear thinning behaviour, whereas shear thinning behavior developed at concentrations > ce, at which the solutions were pseudoplastic and thixotropic.CONCLUSIONThe obtained information will be very useful, based on ce as a reference value, to regulate the starch concentration suitable to different industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T01:55:25.811604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8107
       
  • Physiochemical, texture properties, and the microstructure of set yogurt
           using whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate aggregates as thickening agents
           
    • Authors: Jianjun Cheng; Siyu Xie, Yuan Yin, Xianmin Feng, Shuai Wang, Mingruo Guo, Chunlei Ni
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPolymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in acidic environment provided during fermentation. The varieties of the thicken agent has influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting the consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharides stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate may be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set-yogurt.RESULTSWhey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI, and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile, and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T22:10:37.616291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8110
       
  • Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes
           into the cultivated MR219 rice variety
    • Authors: Gous Miah; Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohd R. Ismail, Adam B. Puteh, Harun A. Rahim, Mohammad A. Latif
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor.RESULTSMarker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of thirteen improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219.CONCLUSIONThe research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease resistant rice varieties, which in turn, will match the rising demand and food security worldwide.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T22:10:32.731575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8109
       
  • Preliminary investigation of mineral content of pollen collected from
           different Serbian maize hybrids – is there any potential nutritional
           value?
    • Authors: Aleksandar Ž. Kostić; Lazar M. Kaluđerović, Biljana P. Dojčinović, Miroljub B. Barać, Vojka B. Babić, Marina P. Mačukanović-Jocić
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBee pollen has already proved to be a good supplement rich in content of iron and zinc. Studies about application of flower pollen in food industry and medicine have been started. Bearing in mind prevalence of maize as crop culture its pollen will be easily available. The mineral composition of pollen of seven Serbian maize hybrids was analyzed in order to establish its nutritional value and benefits of its implementation in the human diet using ICP method.RESULTSPresence of twenty four different macro- (nine) and micronutrients (fifteen) was detected. The most common minerals were phosphorus and potassium, while arsenic, cobalt, lead, nickel and molybdenum were found in some samples.CONCLUSIONComparing obtained results with recommended or tolerable dietary intake references for adults it was found that maize pollen can be used as very good source of zinc, iron, chromium and manganese for humans. According to selenium content pollen samples proved to be moderately good source of this important micronutrient. Contents of some elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Se, Al and V) showed significant differences depending on hybrid type. In some samples increased concentrations of aluminum and vanadium were recorded which may pose a potential problem due to their toxicity.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T21:25:21.431042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8108
       
  • Characterization of autochthonous sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.)
           of Southern Italy for fruit quality, bioactive compounds and antioxidant
           activity
    • Authors: Antonio Di Matteo; Rosa Russo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Claudio Di Vaio
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCharacterizing germplasm collections of autochthonous cultivars for fruit quality traits could be a successful approach for selection, enhance the organoleptic quality and the level of antioxidants of crop produce, develop new market opportunity and coherent strategies of conservation and valorization. The aim of the study was the evaluation of fruit physico-chemical traits as well as the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in 25 sweet cherry autochthonous cultivars.RESULTSCultivars were source of statistically significant variation for all evaluated traits. Notably, the average fruit ascorbate levels ranged from 34.45 to 244.68 µg g FW−1, total flavonoids from 1396.40 to 4694.75 µg QE g FW−1, monomeric anthocyanins from 4.80 to 360.90 µg g FW−1, the total antioxidant capacity from 1.53 to 2.58 nmol trolox eq. mg FW−1. Fruit profiling of eight cultivars by high resolution mass spectrometry identified a total of eight different anthocyanins and twenty-five non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds, mostly coumaroylquinic acid and neochlorogenic acid.CONCLUSIONAmong better performing cultivars for fruit quality traits, Mulegnana Nera and Pagliarella shared high fruit level in phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. This is a forerunner work on the characterization of genetic resources which is critical for its use and conservation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T23:40:23.410921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8106
       
  • Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition
           and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage
    • Authors: Gema Flores; Gracia Patricia Blanch, María Luisa Ruiz del Castillo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage.RESULTSContents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (ie, from 50.8 to 64.5%, from 7.2 to 9.1% and from 1.5 to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg−1, chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg−1, vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg−1, caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg−1, p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg−1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg−1 were obtained.CONCLUSIONMethyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as a postharvest technique alternative to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:25:25.029282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8104
       
  • TIMING FOR A SUSTAINABLE FERTILIZATION WITH HBED/Fe3+ AND EDDHA/Fe3+
           CHELATES OF Glycine max
    • Authors: Clara Martín-Fernández; Sandra López-Rayo, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza, Juan J Lucena
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn efficient use of Fe chelates is crucial to avoid environmental risks and reduce economic losses. The HBED/Fe3+ has been recently approved by the EU for soil fertilization, but studies delving into the best timing for its application are necessary. In this work, a batch incubation experiment and two biological experiments were developed to determine the optimal physiological stage for a sustainable application of HBED/Fe3+ in soil fertilization compared with EDDHA/Fe3+ fertilizers using 57Fe.RESULTSThe HBED/Fe3+ demonstrated a high durability in soils and soil materials, maintaining more than 80% of Fe chelated after 70 days, and its application at an early physiological stage resulted in a high Fe accumulation in soybean and soil after 36 days. In contrast, the stability of EDDHA/Fe3+ decreased because of the retention of its lowest stable isomers. The best timing for chelates application was confirmed in a 52 days experiment. The application of HBED/Fe3+ at the early stage increased the Fe translocation to fruits; while the o,oEDDHA/Fe3+ accumulated more Fe in fruits when added at the fructification stage.CONCLUSIONThe high HBED/Fe3+ stability in calcareous soil requires a differentiate application timing, and its addition at early physiological stages leads into the most efficient fertilization.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:25:22.868387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8105
       
  • Effects of 4 short-chain fatty acids or salts on dynamics of nitrogen
           transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage
    • Authors: XianJun Yuan; AiYou Wen, Seare T. Desta, ZhiHao Dong, Tao Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDShort-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of 4 chemical compounds with antimicrobial property on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage.RESULTSPotassium diformate and formic acid rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage. The free amino acid N contents in potassium diformate (PD) and formic acid (FA) treated silages were lower than other silages at all intervals of ensilage. The ammonia N concentrations in FA and PD silages were the lowest, followed by SD and CAP silages. As ensiling progressed, the aminopeptidase activity was completely lost by day 5 for FA and PD silages and inactive by day 7 for SD silage, while it remained active after day 7 for control and CAP silage. The carbxypeotidase activities in FA and PD silages were already reduced below 50% by day 1 of ensiling.CONCLUSIONThe potassium diformate was as effective as formic acid in depressing the proteolysis, while sodium diacetate and calcium propionate were inferior to formic acid in protecting alfalfa proteins from being hydrolyzed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:20:31.762728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8103
       
  • Effects of different depth of grain color on antioxidant capacity during
           water imbibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Oon Ha Shin; Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesized that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration.RESULTSThe results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat. Total phenol content was slightly increased in all groups compared to their initial state, but the levels of other phytochemicals varied among groups. It is revealed that anthocyanin was significantly degraded during the water imbibition stage. Also, the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in each grain color group did not correlated with germination speed. Overall antioxidant activity reduced as imbibition progressed in each group. Generally, darker grain groups showed higher total antioxidant activities than did lighter grain groups.CONCLUSIONThese findings suggested that the reduced activity of reactive oxygen species, as controlled by internal antioxidant enzymes and phytochemicals, related with germination speed during the water imbibition stage in grains with greater depth of purple coloring.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T03:30:39.392857-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8102
       
  • Growth of wheat and lettuce and enzyme activities of soils under garlic
           stalk decomposition for different durations
    • Authors: Xu Han; Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGarlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered to be a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilise this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development.RESULTSThe effect of decomposed garlic stalk for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) as test plants. Garlic stalk in early stages of decomposition inhibited the shoots and roots length of wheat and lettuce, but promoted the shoots and roots length in later stages; longer durations of garlic stalk decomposition significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weight of wheat and lettuce, whereas shorter decomposing durations significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh weight; and garlic stalk at different decomposition durations increased the activities of urease, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase of soil that wheat or lettuce was planted.CONCLUSIONGarlic stalk decomposed for 30 days or 40 days could promote the growth of wheat and lettuce plants as well as soil enzyme activities. These results may provide a scientific basis for the study and application of garlic stalk.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T22:10:33.621782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8099
       
  • Grape yield and quality responses to simulated year 2100 expected climatic
           conditions under different soil textures
    • Authors: Urtzi Leibar; Inmaculada Pascual, Fermín Morales, Ana Aizpurua, Olatz Unamunzaga
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGlobal warming influence on grape quality is a great concern among grapegrowers and enologists. The effects of simulated year 2100 expected CO2, T and RH conditions (FCC; 700 µmol CO2/mol air, 28/18 °C day/night and 33/53% RH, day/night) vs. the current condition situation (Curr; 390 µmol CO2/mol air, 24/14 °C and 45/65% RH); well-irrigated vs. expected future water deficits and three soils with different clay contents (41, 19 and 8%) on yield and berry quality of grapevine cv. Tempranillo were evaluated.RESULTSFCC shortened the time between fruit set and veraison and between fruit set and maturity up to 7 and 10 days, respectively. This faster maturity led to higher must pH and tonality and reduced malic and tartaric acid concentrations, total anthocyanin concentration and colour intensity. Water deficit delayed ripeness for up to 9 days and reduced vegetative growth and malic acid concentration of grapes. However, this malic acid reduction did not happen with the clayey soils. These soils induced the lowest root fresh weight and berries with lower total anthocyanin concentration.CONCLUSIONAmong the adaptation techniques to cope with the described effects on fruit composition, soil selection should be considered with attention in addition to irrigation practices.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T05:07:16.958358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8086
       
  • Effect of nursing or mentoring by adult cows on physical activity,
           performance and meat quality of fattening beef calves kept on alpine
           pastures
    • Authors: Isabelle DM Gangnat; Pierre-Alain Dufey, Paolo Silacci, Jessika Messadene-Chelali, Michael Kreuzer, Joel Berard
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCompared to weaned calves, nursed calves benefit from access to milk as nutrient-dense feed and mentoring by their dams. Both may be decisive for growth under difficult conditions such as grazing on alpine pastures, where experience will play an essential role. These factors were investigated separately by comparing nursed calves with calves weaned at 3 months of age and grazing with or without mentor cow (n = 8 calves).RESULTSWeaned calves with mentor cows spent less time lying and walked more than nursed calves. Irrespective of whether they had a mentor cow or not the weaned calves grew slower than the nursed calves (357, 428 and 1324 g day−1, respectively). This also adversely affected slaughter weight, dressing percentage, conformation and fat cover at slaughter. In general mentoring had no effect. Meat quality did not differ whether weaned calves were mentored or not. Nursed calves were superior in intramuscular fat content, tenderness and water-holding capacity.CONCLUSIONThe availability of milk appeared to be much more important to the calves under demanding grazing conditions than mentoring. The differences in growth rate were accompanied with unexpectedly large differences in meat quality, showing that early weaning was not suitable for this system.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:52:33.19852-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8101
       
  • Strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap of household farms through
           precision fertigation under irrigated conditions using CERES-Maize model
    • Authors: Jiangang Liu; Guangyao Wang, Qingquan Chu, Fu Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe nitrogen significantly increases the maize yield; however, the unreasonable use of nitrogen is common in China. An analysis of crop yield gaps can reveal the limiting factors for yield improvement; however, there's a lack of practical strategies for narrowing the yield gaps of household farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the yield gap of summer maize using an integrative method and to develop strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap through precise nitrogen fertilization.RESULTSThe results indicated that there's a significant difference in the maize yield among fields, with a low level of variation. Additionally, significant differences in the N application rate were observed among fields, with high variability. Based on the long-term simulation results, the optimum nitrogen application rate was 193 kg ha−1 with a corresponding maximum attainable yield (AYmax) of 10318 kg ha−1. There was a considerable difference observed between the farmers’ yield and AYmax. There exhibited a low agronomic efficiency of applied N fertilizer (AEN) in farmers’ fields.CONCLUSIONThe integrative method lays a foundation for exploring the specific factors constraining crop yield gaps at the field scale and for developing strategies for rapid site-specific nitrogen management. Optimization strategies to narrow maize yield gap include increasing N application rates and adjusting the N application schedule.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:30:27.848802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8100
       
  • Improvement of skin condition by oral administration of collagen
           hydrolysates in chronologically aged mice
    • Authors: Zhenbin Wang; Qing Wang, Lin Wang, Weidong Xu, Yuanqing He, Yunliang Li, Song He, Haile Ma
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCollagen hydrolysates (CHs) has been demonstrated to have positive effect on skin photo-aging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there's little report about its influence on skin chronological aging so far.RESULTSNine-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing the CHs (2.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the survival rate, viscera indexes and the contents of moisture, fat and non-collagenous protein of skin didn't changed (p > 0.05). The color, luster and quantity of hair were obviously ameliorated. Moreover, the structure of epidermis and dermis, density and distribution of collagen fibers and ratio of type I to type III collagen were obviously improved in a dose-dependent manner showed by histochemical staining.CONCLUSIONThe oral ingestion of CHs increased the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes activities, and improved the appearance and structure of skin. These suggested its potential to be developed into nutraceuticals or functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:16:23.203666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8098
       
  • Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting
           bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris
    • Authors: Qunying Lin; Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control.RESULTSCS and CCP were suitable for the fruit body formation of C. militaris, with yields of 22 g bottle−1 and 20 g bottle−1 respectively. The fruit bodies grown on CCP showed the highest levels of cordycepin and adenosine up to 9.45 mg g−1 and 5.86 mg g−1, respectively. The content of D-mannitol in fruit body obtained on CS was 120 mg g−1 (80% of the control group), followed by that on CCP, 100 mg g−1. The fruit bodies cultivated on CCP displayed a high crude polysaccharide level of 26.9 mg g−1, which was the mostly close to the control group (34.5 mg g−1).CONCLUSIONCS and CCP are effective substrates for the production of fruit body and bioactive compounds by C. militaris. This study provides a new approach of decreasing the cost of C. militaris cultivation and dealing with these agricultural wastes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:11.614437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8097
       
  • High intensity ultrasound enhances the IgG and IgE binding of ovalbumin
    • Authors: Wen-hua Yang; Zong-cai Tu, Hui Wang, Xue Li, Ming Tian
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHen's egg is widely used in food industry due to its excellent nutritional and processing properties, and Ovalbumin (OVA) is the major allergen of hen's egg white. Ultrasound has been widely used in food processing industry, but effect of high intensity ultrasound on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding and conformational structure of OVA remains unclear.RESULTSUltrasound treatment at 600 - 800 W dramatically increased the IgG and IgE binding of OVA with the highest values observed at 600 W. The free sulphydryl content, surface hydrophobicity and UV absorption were gradually increased when the power was improved from 200 to 600 W, implying the occurrence of molecule unfolding. When the power was 800 W, the binding ability was slightly decreased associated with the aggregation of OVA molecule. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis implied that ultrasound treatment at 800 W could induce the aggregation of OVA molecule through disulfide bonds and/or hydrophobic interaction.CONCLUSIONHigh intensity ultrasound can increase the potential allergenicity of OVA. Therefore, high intensity ultrasound processing of some egg products alone may improve the risk of allergenic reaction of egg allergy patients to some extend.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:30:44.976005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8095
       
  • Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera
           L.). Effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile
    • Authors: Massimiliano Alessandrini; Federica Gaiotti, Nicola Belfiore, Fabiola Matarese, Claudio D'Onofrio, Diego Tomasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnvironmental factors have been acknowledged as greatly influencing grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has been scarcely debated in literature, to date. In this study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy).RESULTSThe site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest one (200 m a.s.l.) and, even with differences in temperature in the range of 1.5 – 2°C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site evidenced slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all main classes of aroma compounds typical of Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance.CONCLUSIONAltitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in subsequent sparkling wines. Moreover, this study underscored the fact that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:12:01.353557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8093
       
  • Occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 in Baby Foods Marketed in Iran
    • Authors: Ehsan Mottaghianpour; Firouzeh Nazari, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as a toxic fungal metabolite, can be found in baby foods, which can lead to serious complications for children's health. In this study, 48 commercial baby foods available in the Iranian market were investigated for the presence of AFB1, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with post-column photochemical derivatization and a fluorescence detector.RESULTSIn this study, 33 out of 48 samples (68.7%) were contaminated with AFB1 at median, maximum and mean concentration levels of 0.11, 15.15, and 2.602 ± 4.065 µg kg −1, respectively. The AFB1 concentration in 39.6% of the samples was higher than the maximum level established in Iran for AFB1 within baby foods containing milk (0.5 µg kg −1). The AFB1 incidence in rice, wheat, and multigrain infant cereal samples was 90%, 25% and 100%, respectively, while the rice-based baby foods contained the highest levels of AFB1.CONCLUSIONIn this study, the findings of both high rates and high levels of AFB1 in cereal baby foods indicated the need to reduce AFB1 contamination in these products. Therefore, further monitoring and control of pre- and post-harvest, storage, and manufacturing processes are required.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:16:17.202248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8092
       
  • Correlation between three glycometabolic-related hormones and muscle
           glycolysis as well as meat quality in three pig breeds
    • Authors: J. Luo; L. Y. Shen, H. G. Lei, K.P. Zhu, Y. Z. Jiang, L. Bai, M. Z. Li, G. Q. Tang, X. W. Li, S. H. Zhang, L. Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations among muscle concentration of three glycometabolic-related hormones (insulin, epinephrine and glucagon), muscle glycolysis and meat quality in representative muscles of either glycolytic or oxidative types. Moreover, the relative glycometabolic-related gene expression was measured. One Western crossbreed DLY (Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), one crossbreed with half-Chinese native-pig origin DL (Duroc × LiangShan) and one pure Chinese native pig TP (Tibetan pig) were used in this study.RESULTSAmong the three breeds, DLY had the greatest glucagon and epinephrine (P < 0.01). Compared with DLY, TP and DL had lower lactic acid concentration, showing lower glycolytic potentials (GP), greater ultimate pH values (P < 0.01), and lower relative expression levels of glycometabolic-related genes (GYS1, PRKAG3 and PKM2). Compared with the glycolytic muscle (m. longissimus dorsi), oxidative muscle PM (m. psoas major ) had lower glucagon and epinephrine contents, lower GP and better meat quality. Concentration of glycometabolic-related hormones in the muscle had significant correlations with muscle glycolysis, meat pH and lightness.CONCLUSIONThese results implied that glucagon and epinephrine levels could be used to indicate early glycolytic metabolism during postmortem. These findings may be helpful in identifying pork with undesirable quality traits.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15T00:20:46.452064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8094
       
  • Identification of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) heartwood as a rich source
           of bioactive stilbenes by qNMR
    • Authors: Kostas Ioannidis; Eleni Melliou, Paraskevi Alizoti, Prokopios Magiatis
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecently published studies have demonstrated the strong anti-inflammatory properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood extracts, related to its stilbene content. In order to find alternative sources of Pinus heartwood extracts rich in stilbenes, a large number of samples was investigated, using a new developed high throughput screening method based on qNMR.RESULTSThe new method enabled us to measure the levels of pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether and pinosylvin dimethylether in heartwood extracts in only 45 seconds per sample. The method was applied to 260 Pinus nigra trees originating from Peloponnese (southern Greece) from four different natural populations of the species. The results obtained showed that the total stilbenoids per dry heartwood weight varied greatly, ranging from 10.9 mg/gdrywood to 128.2 mg/gdrywood (average 59.92 ± 21.79 mg/gdrywood). The major stilbene in all cases was pinosylvin monomethylether (40.32 ± 15.55 mg/gdrywood), followed by pinosylvin (17.07 ± 6.76 mg/gdrywood) and pinosylvin dimethylether (2.54 ± 1.22 mg/gdrywood). The highest stilbene content of P. nigra samples was found 6.3 times higher than the highest reported for P. sylvestris L.CONCLUSIONP. nigra heartwood is the richest source of pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether identified up today and can be considered as the best natural resource for production of bioactive extracts.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T02:00:43.646094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8090
       
  • Multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds in organic
           juices with high antioxidant capacity
    • Authors: Dariusz Nowak; Michał Gośliński, Artur Szwengiel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate).RESULTSAll the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L−1). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (approx. 5000 mg of Trolox equivalents L−1). Other samples had lower TP and TAC. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds.CONCLUSIONChokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them for further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular diseases prophylaxis.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T01:46:28.693591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8089
       
  • Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the
           technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L.
           ‘Siska’)
    • Authors: Maja Turinek; Martina Bavec, Milan Repič, Matjaž Turinek, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Christian Moellers, Alba Tres, Franc Bavec
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOrganic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. ‘Siska’ seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed.RESULTSThe BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content.CONCLUSIONBecause quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, the production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation, presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T01:06:18.414616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8088
       
  • Grape by-products extracts against microbial proliferation and lipid
           oxidation: a review
    • Authors: Gabriela N. Mattos; Renata V. Tonon, Angela A.L. Furtado, Lourdes M.C. Cabral
      Abstract: The wine industry is responsible for the production of million tons of waste, such as grape skin, stalk, sludge and seeds, which can be considered inexpensive phenolic compounds sources, due to incomplete extraction during wine production. Phenolic compounds, also called as polyphenols, are the most abundant bioactive compounds in grape composition and are recognized by their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Because of their functional properties, extracts obtained from grape wastes, which are rich in phenolic compounds, can be employed in development of many products ranging from medical to food applications, decreasing the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and inhibiting lipid oxidation. These characteristics are motivating the research for alternative sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents, aiming at decreasing the use of artificial additives, which have been associated to some toxic effects. This article provides a review on the use of grape by-products extracts and their bioactive compounds as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food products.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:45:42.239832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8062
       
  • Nutrient profiles of the hybrid grape cultivar Isabel during berry
           maturation and ripening
    • Authors: Aynur Kurt; Hülya Torun, Nesrin Colak, Gerald Seiler, Sema Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Faik Ahmet Ayaz
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe hybrid grape cultivar Isabel (Vitis labrusca x V. vinifera) is widely grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey and constitutes an important part of the diet of its inhabitants. Phenological and ampelographical studies of the grape have previously been performed, but there are no data concerning nutrient composition. Its nutrient content needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic and nutritional uses in the region.RESULTSThe concentrations (range, g kg−1 fresh weight) of major soluble sugars (fructose; 2.08 – 79.70, glucose; 3.71 – 66.74) increased and those of organic acids (tartaric acid; 0.05 – 6.60, malic acid; 2.38 – 9.92) decreased in the skin and pulp during ripening. The major fatty acid was linoleic acid in the skin (50.13), pulp (18.11) and seed (704), while the main minerals (dry weight) were potassium (2.70 – 19.70), followed by phosphorus (0.53 – 3.40) and calcium (0.42 – 5.90) in the parts.CONCLUSIONBerry maturation and ripening significantly influenced the concentrations of sugars and organic acids the most in the skin and pulp, but did not significantly affect the concentrations of fatty acids and minerals in the ′Isabel′ grape. Our findings also suggest an optimal harvest time in terms of levels of the nutrients.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:40:23.696084-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8061
       
  • Drying based on temperature-detection-assisted control in
           microwave-assisted pulse-spouted vacuum drying
    • Authors: Xiaohuang Cao; Min Zhang, He Qian, Arun S. Mujumdar
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOnline temperature-detection-assisted control system of microwave-assisted pulse-spouted vacuum drying was newly developed. Used this system, temperature control can be automatically and continuously adjusted based on detection of drying temperature and preset temperature. Various strategies of constant temperature controlled, linear temperature controlled and 3-steps temperature controlled had been applied to dry carrot cubes. Drying kinetics and quality of various temperature controlled strategies online are evaluated for new drying technology as well as a suitable alternative.RESULTSDying time in 70 °C mode1 had the shortest drying time and lowest energy consumption in all modes. Suitable color, highest re-hydration ratio and fracture-hardness, longest drying time had an occurrence in 30-40-50 °C mode3. Number of hot spots was reduced in 40-50-60°Cmode3. Accepted carrot snack had been obtained in 50-60-70 °C mode3 and 70 °C mode2. All temperature curves showed that the actual temperatures followed the preset temperatures appropriately.CONCLUSIONSWith this system, Linear temperature controlled strategy and 3-steps temperature controlled strategy can improve product quality and heating non-uniformity compared to constant temperature controlled, but need more energy consumption and drying time. Temperature-detection-assisted control system was developed newly for providing various drying strategies for a suitable alternative in snack product.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T04:01:41.302245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8040
       
  • Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart) fruits: Novel raw materials for the
           pectin industry
    • Authors: Sylvie Assoi; Koffi Konan, Georges N. Agbo, Hortense Dodo, Ron Holser, Louise Wicker
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPreventing post-harvest waste of Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart) fruits is possible by recovery of pectin as a value added ingredient. Extraction conditions on yield and functionality of Palmyra palm pectin was determined at different temperatures and pH with 30 min extraction time.RESULTSPalmyra palm fruits contain more than 650 g kg−1 of GalA acid and produce soft gels with sucrose in acidic media despite a high degree of acetylation (≈5%). Mechanical deformation of pectin gel was similar, when extracted at pH 2.5 and 70 °C or under natural pH at room temperature or 70 °C. Pectins isolated under pH 7 exhibited comparable gel softness (G’/G”) with commercial pectin. Palm pectins also showed emulsifying activity greater than 50%, attributed to high protein content of 8 g /100 g. For pectins extracted at pH near 5.2-5.5, molar mass ranged from 3.00 to 3.38*105 g mol−1; intrinsic viscosity ranged from 218 to 297 ml g−1; arabinose was the main neutral sugar; ζ-potential ranged from −23 to −25 mV.CONCLUSIONPalm fruit offers an inexpensive raw material to extract pectin in environmentally friendly and economical way and yield a pectin with unique gelling, viscosifying and emulsifying properties.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29T04:15:20.789333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8010
       
  • Agricultural anaerobic digestion power plants in Ireland and Germany:
           policy and practice
    • Authors: Agathe Auer; Nathan H Vande Burgt, Florence Abram, Gerald Barry, Owen Fenton, Bryan K Markey, Stephen Nolan, Karl Richards, Declan Bolton, Theo De Waal, Stephen V Gordon, Vincent O'Flaherty, Paul Whyte, Annetta Zintl
      Pages: 719 - 723
      Abstract: The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon-neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large-scale treatment facilities, which contribute significantly to national renewable energy quotas. However, these large AD plants are costly to run and demand intensive farming of energy crops for feedstock. Current policy in Germany has transitioned to support funding for smaller digesters, while also limiting the use of energy crops. AD within Ireland, as a new technology, is affected by ambiguous governmental policies concerning waste and energy. A clear governmental strategy supporting on-site AD processing of agricultural waste will significantly reduce Ireland's carbon footprint, improve the safety and bioavailability of agricultural waste, and provide an indigenous renewable energy source. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T03:01:05.574998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8005
       
  • Potential application of microalga Spirulina platensis as a protein source
    • Authors: Anne Luize Lupatini; Luciane Maria Colla, Cristiane Canan, Eliane Colla
      Pages: 724 - 732
      Abstract: The high protein level of various microalgal species is one of the main reasons to consider them an unconventional source of this compound. Spirulina platensis stands out for being one of the richest protein sources of microbial origin (460–630 g kg−1, dry matter basis), having similar protein levels when compared to meat and soybeans. The use of S. platensis in food can bring benefits to human health owing to its chemical composition, since it has high levels of vitamins, minerals, phenolics, essential fatty acids, amino acids and pigments. Furthermore, the development of new protein sources to supply the shortage of this nutrient is an urgent need, and protein from S. platensis plays an important role in this scenario. In this sense, extraction processes that allow maximum protein yield and total utilization of biomass is an urgent need, and ultrasonic waves have proven to be an effective extraction technique. The number of scientific papers related to protein fraction from S. platensis is still limited; thus further studies on its functional and technological properties are needed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T02:41:14.104445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7987
       
  • Yeast derived from lignocellulosic biomass as a sustainable feed resource
           for use in aquaculture
    • Authors: Margareth Øverland; Anders Skrede
      Pages: 733 - 742
      Abstract: The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high-quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low-value and non-food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein-rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favourable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish, including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream processing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast-derived cell wall fractions. This review summarises current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-21T01:50:30.37128-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8007
       
  • Genotype, environment and G × E interaction influence
           (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan fine structure in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
    • Authors: Aron T Cory; Manu P Gangola, Anthony Anyia, Monica Båga, Ravindra N Chibbar
      Pages: 743 - 752
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe structure of β-glucan influences its use in cereal-based foods and feed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of environment (E) and genotype (G) on β-glucan fine structure and its genetic control in two-row spring barley with normal starch characteristics.RESULTSA population of 89 recombinant inbred lines, derived from the cross of two-row spring barley genotypes Merit × H93174006 (H92076F1 × TR238), was characterized for concentration and structure of grain β-glucan in two environments. Results showed that concentrations of β-glucan, DP3, DP4 and DP3 + DP4 were positively correlated with each other, suggesting no preference for DP3 or DP4 subunit production in high- or low-β-glucan lines. The concentrations of β-glucan, DP3, DP4 and DP3:DP4 ratios were significantly influenced by genotype and environment. However, only DP3:DP4 ratio showed a significant effect of G × E interaction. Association mapping of candidate markers in 119 barley genotypes showed that marker CSLF6_4105 was associated with β-glucan concentration, whereas Bmac504 and Bmac211 were associated with DP3:DP4 ratio. Bmac273e was associated with both β-glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio.CONCLUSIONThe grain β-glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio are strongly affected by genotype and environment. Single-marker analyses suggested that the genetic control of β-glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio was linked to separate chromosomal regions on barley genome. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T02:15:27.668126-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7789
       
  • Effect of including whole linseed and vitamin E in the diet of young bulls
           slaughtered at two fat covers on the sensory quality of beef packaged in
           two different packaging systems
    • Authors: Pere Albertí; María M Campo, María J Beriain, Guillermo Ripoll, Carlos Sañudo
      Pages: 753 - 760
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDForty-six Pirenaica young bulls, slaughtered at two levels of fatness (3 and 4 mm), were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 50 g kg−1 linseed alone or with 200 IU vitamin E kg−1 in the concentrate and of the meat packaging system (vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)) on the beef sensory quality.RESULTSThe inclusion of linseed or supplementation with vitamin E in the concentrate induced no significant differences in the main meat sensory scores and overall appraisal except under MAP, where small differences due to concentrate ingredients were found in juiciness and metallic flavor intensity. Extending the display time up to 4 or 8 days in high-oxygen MAP had detrimental effects on sensory attributes. Meat from animals with 4 mm fat cover depth were rated more tender and juicy, less fibrous and with a higher intensity of beef flavor and rancid odor than meat from 3 mm fat cover bulls when both samples were vacuum packaged.CONCLUSIONThe inclusion of 50 g kg−1 linseed in the concentrate fed to bulls had no detrimental effect on the beef sensory quality. The vacuum-packaged meat of bulls slaughtered at 4 mm fat cover was rated higher on sensory analysis than that at 3 mm fat cover. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T02:05:27.086693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7792
       
  • Change of volatile components in six microalgae with different growth
           phases
    • Authors: Lv Zhou; Jiao Chen, Jilin Xu, Yan Li, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
      Pages: 761 - 769
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHead space solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied to analyze the volatile components of six marine microalgae (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nitzschia closterium, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Platymonas helgolandica, Nannochloropsis spp. and Dicrateria inornata) from Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta, respectively, in different growth phases.RESULTSAll volatile compounds were identified by database searching in the NIST08 Mass Spectral Library and analyzed by principal component analysis with SIMCA-P software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden). The results clearly revealed that the volatile components of the six microalgae were significantly different in the exponential, stationary and declining phases. Aldehydes, alkanes, some esters and dimethyl sulfide significantly changed in different growth phases.CONCLUSIONThis is the first report on the comprehensive characteristics of volatile components in different microalgae and in different growth phases. The results may provide reference data for studies on the flavor of cultivated aquatic organism, odor formation in nature water, choice of feeding period and microalgae species selection for the artificial rearing of marine organisms. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T04:11:29.047254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7794
       
  • Stabilization of red fruit-based smoothies by high-pressure processing.
           Part A. Effects on microbial growth, enzyme activity, antioxidant capacity
           and physical stability
    • Authors: Adriana Hurtado; Maria Dolors Guàrdia, Pierre Picouet, Anna Jofré, José María Ros, Sancho Bañón
      Pages: 770 - 776
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNon-thermal pasteurization by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. However, most of the research on HPP-fruit products only partially addresses fruit–pressure interaction, which limits its practical interest. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit-based smoothies (microbial, enzymatic, oxidative and physical stability).RESULTSHPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) was slightly less effective than TP (85 °C/7 min) in inactivating microbes (mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) in smoothies kept at 4 °C for up to 28 days. The main limitation of using HPP was its low efficacy in inactivating oxidative (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (pectin methyl esterase) enzymes. Data on antioxidant status, colour parameters, browning index, transmittance, turbidity and viscosity confirmed that the HPP-smoothies have a greater tendency towards oxidation and clarification, which might lead to undesirable sensory and nutritional changes (see Part B).CONCLUSIONThe microbial quality of smoothies was adequately controlled by mild HPP treatment without affecting their physical-chemical characteristics; however, oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure-resistant, which suggests that additional strategies should be used to stabilize smoothies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T02:10:28.970652-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7796
       
  • Stabilisation of red fruit-based smoothies by high-pressure processing.
           Part II: effects on sensory quality and selected nutrients
    • Authors: Adriana Hurtado; Maria Dolors Guàrdia, Pierre Picouet, Anna Jofré, José María Ros, Sancho Bañón
      Pages: 777 - 783
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNon-thermal pasteurisation by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. The resulting products need to be validated from a sensory and nutritional standpoint. The objective was to assess a mild HPP treatment to stabilise red fruit-based smoothies in a wide (sensory quality and major nutrients) study.RESULTSHPP (350 MPa/ 10 °C/ 5 min) provided ‘fresh-like’ smoothies, free of cooked-fruit flavours, for at least 14 days at 4 °C, although their sensory stability was low compared with the TP-smoothies (85 °C/ 7 min). In HPP-smoothies, the loss of fresh fruit flavour and reduced sliminess were the clearest signs of sensory deterioration during storage. Furthermore, HPP permitted the higher initial retention of vitamin C, although this vitamin and, to a lesser extent, total phenols, had a higher degradation rate during storage. The content of sugar present was not affected by either processing treatment.CONCLUSIONMild HPP treatment did not alter the sensory and nutritional properties of smoothies. The sensory and nutritional losses during storage were less than might be expected, probably due to the high antioxidant content and the natural turbidity provided by red fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T02:16:14.694114-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7795
       
  • Image analysis-based modelling for flower number estimation in grapevine
    • Authors: Borja Millan; Arturo Aquino, Maria P Diago, Javier Tardaguila
      Pages: 784 - 792
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGrapevine flower number per inflorescence provides valuable information that can be used for assessing yield. Considerable research has been conducted at developing a technological tool, based on image analysis and predictive modelling. However, the behaviour of variety-independent predictive models and yield prediction capabilities on a wide set of varieties has never been evaluated.RESULTSInflorescence images from 11 grapevine Vitis vinifera L. varieties were acquired under field conditions. The flower number per inflorescence and the flower number visible in the images were calculated manually, and automatically using an image analysis algorithm. These datasets were used to calibrate and evaluate the behaviour of two linear (single-variable and multivariable) and a nonlinear variety-independent model. As a result, the integrated tool composed of the image analysis algorithm and the nonlinear approach showed the highest performance and robustness (RPD = 8.32, RMSE = 37.1). The yield estimation capabilities of the flower number in conjunction with fruit set rate (R2 = 0.79) and average berry weight (R2 = 0.91) were also tested.CONCLUSIONThis study proves the accuracy of flower number per inflorescence estimation using an image analysis algorithm and a nonlinear model that is generally applicable to different grapevine varieties. This provides a fast, non-invasive and reliable tool for estimation of yield at harvest. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T04:26:12.042323-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7797
       
  • Genetic variation of carotenoids, vitamin E and phenolic compounds in
           Provitamin A biofortified maize
    • Authors: Tawanda Muzhingi; Natalia Palacios-Rojas, Alejandra Miranda, Maria L Cabrera, Kyung-J Yeum, Guangwen Tang
      Pages: 793 - 801
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBiofortified maize is not only a good vehicle for provitamin A carotenoids for vitamin A deficient populations in developing countries but also a source of vitamin E, tocochromanols and phenolic compounds, which have antioxidant properties. Using high-performance liquid chromatography and a total antioxidant performance assay, the present study analyzed the antioxidant variation and antioxidant activity of 36 provitamin A improved maize hybrids and one common yellow maize hybrid.RESULTSThe ranges of major carotenoids in provitamin A carotenoids biofortified maize were zeaxanthin [1.2–13.2 µg g−1 dry weight (DW)], β-cryptoxanthin (1.3–8.8 µg g−1 DW) and β-carotene (1.3–8.0 µg g−1 DW). The ranges of vitamin E compounds identified in provitamin A carotenoids biofortified maize were α-tocopherol (3.4–34.3 µg g−1 DW), γ-tocopherol (5.9–54.4 µg g−1 DW), α-tocotrienol (2.6–19.5 µg g−1 DW) and γ-tocotrienol (45.4 µg g−1 DW). The ranges of phenolic compounds were γ-oryzanol (0.0–0.8 mg g−1 DW), ferulic acid (0.4–3.6 mg g−1 DW) and p-coumaric acid (0.1–0.45 mg g−1 DW). There was significant correlation between α-tocopherol and cis isomers of β-carotene (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T02:21:42.47603-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7798
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts as affected by
           cultivar
    • Authors: Ema C Rosas-Burgos; Armando Burgos-Hernández, Luis Noguera-Artiaga, Miroslava Kačániová, Francisca Hernández-García, José L Cárdenas-López, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina
      Pages: 802 - 810
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSome studies have reported that different parts of the pomegranate fruit, especially the peel, may act as potential antimicrobial agents and thus might be proposed as a safe natural alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. The high tannin content, especially punicalagin, found in pomegranate extracts, has been reported as the main compound responsible for such antimicrobial activity. Because the pomegranate peel chemical composition may vary with the type of cultivar (sweet, sour–sweet and sour), pomegranates may also differ with respect to their antimicrobial capacity.RESULTSThe extract from PTO8 pomegranate cultivar peel had the highest antimicrobial activity, as well as the highest punicalagins (α and β) and ellagic acid concentrations. In the results obtained from both antibacterial and antifungal activity studies, the sour–sweet pomegranate cultivar PTO8 showed the best antimicrobial activity, and the highest ellagic acid concentrations.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study suggest that ellagic acid content has a significant influence on the antimicrobial activity of the pomegranate extracts investigated. The pomegranate peel of the PTO8 cultivar is a good source of antifungal and antibacterial compounds, and may represent an alternative to antimicrobial agents of synthetic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T02:29:51.601677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7799
       
  • Calcium hydroxide as a processing base in alkali-aided pH-shift protein
           recovery process
    • Authors: Ilgin Paker; Jacek Jaczynski, Kristen E Matak
      Pages: 811 - 817
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProtein may be recovered by using pH shifts to solubilize and precipitate protein. Typically, sodium hydroxide is used as the processing base; however, this has been shown to significantly increase sodium in the final recovered protein.RESULTSProtein was extracted from black bullhead catfish (Ameiurus melas) using a pH-shift method. Protein was solubilized using either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and precipitated at pH 5.5 using hydrochloric acid (HCl). Protein solubility was greater when Ca(OH)2 was used compared to NaOH during this process. Using Ca(OH)2 as the processing base yielded the greatest lipid recovery (P < 0.05) at 77 g 100 g−1, whereas the greatest (P < 0.05) protein recovery yield was recorded as 53 g 100 g−1 protein using NaOH. Protein solubilized with Ca(OH)2 had more (P < 0.05) calcium in the protein fraction, whereas using NaOH increased (P < 0.05) sodium content.CONCLUSIONResults of our study showed that protein solubility was increased and the recovered protein had significantly more calcium when Ca(OH)2 was used as the processing base. Results showed both NaOH and Ca(OH)2 to be an effective processing base for pH-shift protein recovery processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T01:55:29.320697-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7800
       
  • High-sensitivity chemiluminescent immunoassay investigation and
           application for the detection of T-2 toxin and major metabolite HT-2 toxin
           
    • Authors: Yanshen Li; Jing Zhang, Xin Mao, Yongtao Wu, Gongzhen Liu, Liting Song, Yonggang Li, Jianrong Yang, Yanli You, Xuelin Cao
      Pages: 818 - 822
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDT-2 toxin is a widely distributed mycotoxin in cereals. HT-2 toxin is the major metabolite, which is also a contaminant in cereals. T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin have been identified as having carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic properties. To reduce the risk of contamination, a rapid, highly sensitive and inexpensive assay for the detection is required.RESULTSIn this study a high-sensitivity chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunoassay (CL-ELISA) of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin was developed. With the help of the chemiluminescent substrate, this protocol showed a highly sensitive character with an IC50 as low as 33.28 ng mL−1 and 27.27 ng mL−1 for T-2 and HT-2, respectively. In addition, this method had no cross-reaction with other structurally related mycotoxins.CONCLUSIONThese results indicated that the developed CL-ELISA could be applied for the detection of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in actual samples without complicated steps. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T05:30:30.00358-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7801
       
  • A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction to enhance
           volatile flavor in Chinese marinated chicken
    • Authors: Xiuli Wei; Chunqing Wang, Chunhui Zhang, Xia Li, Jinzhi Wang, Hai Li, Chunhong Tang
      Pages: 823 - 831
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction was investigated by adding d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine to the marinated brine of quantitative marinating, which was expected to enhance the volatile flavor of Chinese marinated chicken. Response surface methodology was used to optimize parameters, in which response was sensory evaluation scores of marinated chicken. A Box–Behnken center design was applied to the optimized added contents. The optimized contents were d-xylose (1–5‰), l-cysteine (1–5‰) and thiamine (1–3‰).RESULTSAnalysis of variance indicated that a second-order polynomial equation could predict the experimental data well (R2 = 0.94), and sensory evaluation scores were significantly affected by the added amount of d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine. The optimal conditions that maximized the sensory evaluation score of Chinese marinated chicken were found to be 4.96‰ d-xylose, 2.28‰ l-cysteine and 2.66‰ thiamine (w/w). Given these optimal conditions, a number of meat-like flavor compounds such as 2-pentyl-furan, benzothiazole and 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol were identified by gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis.CONCLUSIONOur results suggested that a combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction might be a promising method to enhance the volatile flavor, especially meat-like flavor, of Chinese marinated chicken. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T05:46:35.700958-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7803
       
  • Food safety in Thailand. 3: Pesticide residues detected in mangosteen
           (Garcinia mangostana L.), queen of fruits
    • Authors: Kamonrat Phopin; Sompon Wanwimolruk, Virapong Prachayasittikul
      Pages: 832 - 840
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFor developing countries like Thailand, regulation of pesticide usage exists, but it is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study aimed to determine the pesticide residues in mangosteen fruits sold in Thailand. The mangosteen samples (n = 111) were purchased and the contents of 28 pesticides were analysed by GC-MS/MS method.RESULTSOf the pesticides tested, eight were found in 100% of the mangosteen samples. However, in 97% of these samples, either chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their maximum residue limits (MRLs), representing a 97% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL. This rate is much higher than those found in other fruits sold in developed countries. However, this conclusion excludes the fresh Thai mangosteens grown for export, as these are generally cultivated and harvested to GAP standards. Since the edible part of the mangosteen is the pulp, washing the fruits with running water can reduce the risk of pesticide residues contaminating the pulp which would be eaten by the consumer.CONCLUSIONThe findings strongly suggest that routine monitoring of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables is required to reduce the health risks associated with consuming contaminated food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T08:00:29.921223-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7804
       
  • Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters, and the effects of their
           chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice
    • Authors: Man Liu; Jie Liu, Yizhen Wu, Boyan Gao, Pingping Wu, Haiming Shi, Xiangjun Sun, Haiqiu Huang, Thomas TY Wang, Liangli(Lucy) Yu
      Pages: 841 - 848
      Abstract: BACKGROUND3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPDEs) comprise a group of food toxicants formed during food processing. 3-MCPDEs have received increasing attention concerning their potential negative effects on human health. However, reports on the toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are still limited. To determine the effects of fatty acid substitutions on the toxicity of their esters, 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters of 3-MCPD were synthesized and evaluated with respect to their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice.RESULTS3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and fatty acid chlorides, and their purities and structures were characterized by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), infrared, 1H and 13C spectroscopic analyses. Medial lethal doses of 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters were 2973.8, 2081.4, 2016.3, 5000 and > 5000 mg kg−1 body weight. For the first time, 3-MCPDEs were observed for their toxic effects in the thymus and lung. In addition, major histopathological changes, as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, were examined for mice fed the five 3-MCPDEs.CONCLUSIONThe results from the present study suggest that the degree of unsaturation, chain length, number of substitution and relative substitution locations of fatty acids might alter the toxicity of 3-MCPDEs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T10:15:38.885503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7805
       
  • Influence of deficit irrigation on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa
           Duch.) fruit quality
    • Authors: Nika Weber; Vesna Zupanc, Jerneja Jakopic, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Franci Stampar
      Pages: 849 - 857
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThree different irrigation regimes – upper limit of field capacity (UFC), −12 kPa); lower limit of field capacity (LFC), −33 kPa; and deficit irrigation (DI), −70 kPa) were established on silty-loam soil and monitored with tensiometers. Yield and fruit quality of ‘Flamenco’ and ‘Eva's Delight’ ever-bearing strawberry cultivars were monitored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimes on the content of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry HPLC/HPLC-MS.RESULTSDeficit irrigation significantly increased the content of sugars (from 1.1- to 1.3 fold), organic acids (from 1.1- to 1.3-fold), their ratio (from 1.1- to 1.2-fold) and the content of most identified phenolics in cv. ‘Flamenco’. Conversely, higher amounts of total sugars and organic acids (1.7- to 1.8-fold) were detected in ‘Eva's Delight’ strawberries at UFC and LFC irrigation. Deficit irrigation generally decreased strawberry yield of cv. ‘Eva's Delight’.CONCLUSIONThe results suggest superior fruit quality and taste of strawberries grown under minor deficit irrigation for cv. ‘Flamenco’. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T02:15:41.941459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7806
       
  • Effects of carbohydrate/protein ratio on the microstructure and the
           barrier and sorption properties of wheat starch–whey protein blend
           edible films
    • Authors: Ewelina Basiak; Andrzej Lenart, Frédéric Debeaufort
      Pages: 858 - 867
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStarch and whey protein isolate and their mixtures were used for making edible films. Moisture sorption isotherms, water vapour permeability, sorption of aroma compounds, microstructure, water contact angle and surface properties were investigated.RESULTSWith increasing protein content, the microstructure changes became more homogeneous. The water vapour permeability increases with both the humidity gradient and the starch content. For all films, the hygroscopicity increases with starch content. Surface properties change according to the starch/whey protein ratio and are mainly related to the polar component of the surface tension. Films composed of 80% starch and 20% whey proteins have more hydrophobic surfaces than the other films due to specific interactions.CONCLUSIONSThe effect of carbohydrate/protein ratio significantly influences the microstructure, the surface wettability and the barrier properties of wheat starch–whey protein blend films. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T05:21:41.735436-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7807
       
  • Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its
           effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil
    • Authors: Sa-Sa Chen; Shui-Zhong Luo, Zhi Zheng, Yan-Yan Zhao, Min Pang, Shao-Tong Jiang
      Pages: 868 - 874
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCrude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time.RESULTSThe acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g−1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil.CONCLUSIONThe enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T02:35:27.42363-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7808
       
  • Agroindustrial composts to reduce the use of peat and fungicides in the
           cultivation of muskmelon seedlings
    • Authors: Ana Belen Morales; Margarita Ros, Luis Miguel Ayuso, Maria de los Angeles Bustamante, Raul Moral, Jose Antonio Pascual
      Pages: 875 - 881
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnvironmental concerns about peat extraction in wetland ecosystems have increased. Therefore, there is an international effort to evaluate alternative organic substrates for the partial substitution of peat. The aim of this work was to use different composts (C1–C10) obtained from the fruit and vegetable processing industry (pepper, carrot, broccoli, orange, artichoke residues, sewage sludge (citric and pepper) and vineyard pruning wastes) to produce added-value composts as growing media with suppressive effect against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (FOM) in muskmelon.RESULTSComposts showed values of water-soluble carbon fractions and dehydrogenase activity that allowed them to be considered mature and stabilized. All compost treatments produced significantly (F = 7.382; P < 0.05) higher fresh shoot weight than peat, treatment T-C2 showing the highest values. Treatments T-C5, T-C7 and T-C8 showed percentages of disease incidence that were significantly (F = 16.052; P < 0.05) the lowest, relative to peat, followed by T-C6, T-C10, T-C1 and T-C9 with values below 50%.CONCLUSIONComposts produced are suitable components of mixed compost–peat growing media, providing a 50% substitution of peat. Furthermore, some of these composts also showed an added value as a suppressive organic medium against Fusarium wilt in muskmelon seedling, a fact probably related to high pH and pepper wastes and high content of pruning waste as initial raw materials. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T05:05:27.432685-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7809
       
  • Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa
           (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein
    • Authors: Mila P Hojilla-Evangelista; Gordon W Selling, Ronald Hatfield, Matthew Digman
      Pages: 882 - 888
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlfalfa is considered a potential feedstock for biofuels; co-products with value-added uses would enhance process viability. This work evaluated dried alfalfa leaves for protein production and describes the functional properties of the protein.RESULTSDried alfalfa leaves contained 260 g kg−1 dry basis (DB) crude protein, with albumins being the major fraction (260 g kg−1 of total protein). Alkali solubilization for 2 h at 50 °C, acid precipitation, dialysis, and freeze-drying produced a protein concentrate (600 g kg−1 DB crude protein). Alfalfa leaf protein concentrate showed moderate solubility (maximum 500 g kg−1 soluble protein from pH 5.5 to 10), excellent emulsifying properties (activity 158–219 m2 g−1 protein, stability 17–49 min) and minimal loss of solubility during heating at pH ≥ 7.0.CONCLUSIONSIt is technically feasible to extract protein with desirable emulsifying and heat stability properties from dried alfalfa leaves; however, the dried form may not be a practical starting material for protein production, given the difficulty of achieving high yields and high-purity protein product. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T07:55:44.466026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7810
       
  • A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in
           gingerbread without compromising sensory quality
    • Authors: Tomáš Komprda; Antonin Pridal, Renata Mikulíková, Zdeněk Svoboda, Olga Cwiková, Šárka Nedomová, Vladimír Sýkora
      Pages: 889 - 895
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread.RESULTSThe type of leavening agent and the presence of Ca2+ and citric acid accounted for 33.6%, 13.2% and 53.2% of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P < 0.01). The AA content in gingerbread produced with (NH4)2CO3 alone was 186.5 µg kg−1. Irrespective of other tested additives, NaHCO3 decreased (P < 0.05) AA content to 42% compared to (NH4)2CO3. Combination of NaHCO3 + CaCl2 + citric acid in dough reduced (P < 0.05) AA content below the limit of detection (25 µg kg−1). The AA content in gingerbread (y; µg kg−1) decreased with an increasing number of additives used (x) according to the equation y = 158.8 – 47.94x (r2 = 0.42; P < 0.0001). A comprehensive sensory analysis did not indicate any significant deterioration (P > 0.05) in the organoleptic quality of gingerbread produced using calcium cation and citric acid.CONCLUSIONThe present study demonstrates that the combination of additives NaHCO3/Ca2+/citric acid synergically decreases AA content in gingerbread without compromising the sensory quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T05:20:24.951538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7811
       
  • Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility
           and estimated glycemic index of cooked non-waxy long-grain rice (Oryza
           sativa L.)
    • Authors: Natthawuddhi Donlao; Yukiharu Ogawa
      Pages: 896 - 901
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e. hot-air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated.RESULTSCooked rice obtained from hot-air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun-drying. Among samples from hot-air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature, except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot-air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI.CONCLUSIONThe results indicated that cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:45:50.911569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7812
       
  • Thinned stone fruits are a source of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds
    • Authors: Diego Redondo; Esther Arias, Rosa Oria, María E Venturini
      Pages: 902 - 910
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThinned fruits are agricultural by-products that contain large quantities of interesting compounds due to their early maturity stage. In this work, the phenolic profile and the antioxidant activity of six thinned stone fruits (apricot, cherry, flat peach, peach, plum and nectarine) have been investigated, focussing on proanthocyanidins.RESULTSThinned nectarine had the highest content of total phenols [67.43 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) g−1 dry weight (DW)] and total flavonoids (56.97 mg CE g−1 DW) as well as the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging (133.30 mg [Trolox equivalents (TE) g−1 DW] and FRAP assay (30.42 mg TE g−1 DW). Proanthocyanidins were very abundant in these by-products, and the main phenolic group quantified in cherry (10.54 mg g−1 DW), flat peach (33.47 mg g−1 DW) and nectarine (59.89 mg g−1 DW), while hydroxycinnamic acids predominate in apricot, peach and plum (6.67, 22.04 and 23.75 mg g−1 DW, respectively). The low, mean degree of polymerisation of proanthocyanidins suggests that their bioavailability could be very high.CONCLUSIONSThis study shows that thinned stone fruit extracts might be used as antioxidants in foods or as a source of compounds with health-related benefits that can be used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:36:09.637843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7813
       
  • Interaction of light quality and fertility on biomass, shoot pigmentation
           and xanthophyll cycle flux in Chinese kale
    • Authors: Dean A Kopsell; Carl E Sams, Robert C Morrow
      Pages: 911 - 917
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNutritionally important carotenoids in 21-day-old brassica microgreens increase following short and long-term exposure to narrow-band wavelengths from light-emitting diodes (LED). The present study aimed to measure the impact of: (1) fluorescent/incandescent light and different percentages of blue/red LED light and (2) different levels of nutrient fertility on biomass and pigment concentrations in 30-day-old ‘Green Lance’ Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra). Kale plants were exposed to four light treatments and two fertility levels and were harvested 30 days after seeding and analyzed for nutritionally important shoot pigments.RESULTSKale under the fluorescent/incandescent light treatment had a significantly higher shoot fresh and dry mass. The shoot tissue concentrations of most pigment were significantly higher under blue/red LED light treatments. The higher fertility level resulted in higher concentrations for most pigments. Interestingly, the pool of xanthophyll cycle pigments and de-epoxidized xanthophylls was higher under all LED treatments.CONCLUSIONThe results obtained in the present study support previous data demonstrating the stimulation of nutritionally important shoot tissue pigment concentrations following exposure to sole source blue/red LEDs compared to traditional lighting. Xanthophyll cycle flux was impacted by LEDs and this may support the role of zeaxanthin in blue light perception in leafy specialty crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T02:21:00.41887-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7814
       
  • Isolation and identification of anti-proliferative peptides from Spirulina
           platensis using three-step hydrolysis
    • Authors: Zhujun Wang; Xuewu Zhang
      Pages: 918 - 922
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSpirulina platensis is an excellent source of proteins (>60%) that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides.RESULTSIn this study, whole proteins of Spirulina platensis were extracted and hydrolyzed using three gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin). Subsequently, gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates, and four fractions (Tr1–Tr4) were obtained. Among them, Tr2 showed the strongest anti-proliferation activities on three cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG-2 and SGC-7901), with IC50 values of
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:35:51.174305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7815
       
  • Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus enriched with selenium, zinc and copper
    • Authors: Piotr Rzymski; Mirosław Mleczek, Przemysław Niedzielski, Marek Siwulski, Monika Gąsecka
      Pages: 923 - 928
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAgaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) is an important culinary and medicinal species of worldwide importance. The present study investigated for the first time whether it may be grown on substrates supplemented with Se alone or in combination with Cu and/or Zn (0.1–0.8 mmol L−1) to produce fruiting bodies of increased nutritional value.RESULTSAs found, substrate supplementation did not affect yielded biomass up to 0.6 mmol L−1 element concentrations regardless of the cultivation model. At 0.8 mmol L−1 Se + Cu and Se + Zn supplementation biomass comparable with controls still developed. The accumulation of trace elements in the fruiting bodies generally increased over the concentration gradient reaching its maximum at 0.6 mmol L−1 (for Se + Zn and Se + Cu + Zn) and 0.8 mmol L−1 (for Se and Se + Cu). The organic Se constituted the greatest share in total Se quota. As calculated, each 10 g of dried fruiting bodies of A. bisporus obtained from 0.6 or 0.8 mmol L−1 supplementation would represent 342–469% of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for Se, 43.4–48.5% for Cu and 5.2–5.8% for Zn.CONCLUSIONConsidering inexpensive methods of A. bisporus cultivation, global popularity and use of this mushroom, its biofortification with Se, Cu and Zn could have a practical application in deficiency prevention and assisted treatment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T02:41:48.709753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7816
       
  • Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red
           raspberries over shelf-life
    • Authors: Marcos de Souza Gomes; Maria das Graças Cardoso, Ana Clara Garcia Guimarães, Adriana Cavaco Guerreiro, Custódia Maria Luís Gago, Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas, Cristina Maria Barrocas Dias, Ana Cristina Cabaça Manhita, Maria Leonor Faleiro, Maria Graça Costa Miguel, Maria Dulce Carlos Antunes
      Pages: 929 - 938
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth.RESULTSFruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient.CONCLUSIONThe application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T10:55:27.245206-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7817
       
  • Application of a stir bar sorptive extraction method for the determination
           of volatile compounds in different grape varieties
    • Authors: Giuseppe Vasile-Simone; Remedios Castro, Ramón Natera, Francesca Masino, Carmelo G Barroso, Enrique Durán-Guerrero
      Pages: 939 - 948
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) has been employed for the analysis of aroma compounds directly from Spanish and Italian grape extracts. The extraction conditions have been optimized using a statistical approach, obtaining results that improve the current state of the art.RESULTSThe proposed analytical conditions were: sample volume 40 mL, extraction time 80 min, 25% (w/v) NaCl and stirring speed 750 rpm using 20 mm × 0.5 mm stir bars. Performance characteristics of the SBSE procedure were further studied and showed correlation coefficients, detection and quantification limits, linear ranges, recoveries and precision values adequate for analysing these compounds in grapes. Twenty-four grape varieties (aromatic and non-aromatic) were analysed. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) according to geographical origin were found, being derived mainly from the terpenoid content. By principal component analysis it was possible to note that the terpenoids were more effective in the separation of the non-aromatic samples, showing negative and positive scores for Italian and Spanish grapes, respectively.CONCLUSIONFor non-aromatic grape varieties, the factor ‘geographic location’ was the most significant, thus corroborating the high influence of this parameter on the volatile composition of grapes and therefore on the genuineness of wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T08:00:24.408892-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7818
       
  • Compost biofortification with diazotrophic and P-solubilizing bacteria
           improves maturation process and P availability
    • Authors: Jader G Busato; Daniel B Zandonadi, Alan R Mól, Rafaela S Souza, Kamilla P Aguiar, Fábio B Reis Júnior, Fábio L Olivares
      Pages: 949 - 955
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhosphorus-containing fertilizers play an important role in tropical agriculture owing to the well documented shortage of plant-available P in soils. Traditional P fertilizer production is based on chemical processing of insoluble rock phosphate (RP), which includes an acid treatment at high temperature. Processing the RP increases fertilizer costs, making it unavailable for undercapitalized and typically family-based farmers. Biotechnological methods have been proposed as an alternative to increase phosphate availability in RP. In this study, Burkholderia silvatlantica and Herbaspirillum seropedicae were co-inoculated into an RP-enriched compost with the aim of determining the effects of this technology on the levels of phosphatase activities and release of plant-available P.RESULTSInoculation of both microorganisms resulted in higher organic matter decomposition and higher humic acid formation in composting. Herbaspirillum seropedicae was the most promising microorganism for the production of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. Both microorganisms presented potential to increase the supply of P from poorly soluble sources owing to increased levels of water-soluble P and citric acid P.CONCLUSIONBurkholderia silvatlantica and H. seropedicae in RP-enriched compost may represent an important biotechnological tool to reduce the overall time required for composting and increase the supply of P from poorly soluble sources. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T02:10:28.755375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7819
       
  • Vermicompost and farmyard manure improves food quality, antioxidant and
           antibacterial potential of Cajanus cajan (L. Mill sp.) leaves
    • Authors: Subhasish Das; Nazneen Hussain, Bhaskarjyoti Gogoi, Alak Kumar Buragohain, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
      Pages: 956 - 966
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) leaves are a good source of nutrition and health benefitting phenolic compounds. However, its importance has not yet been effectively addressed. Recently, a 2-year field experiment was attempted in an alluvial soil to understand the role of various organic and inorganic fertilisers and their combinations not only on soil quality, but also on production of foremost phenolic compounds and imparting antioxidant and antibacterial properties in C. cajan under vermicompost treatments.RESULTSNotable enhancements in crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, ash content and total flavonoid content were recorded in Cajanus leaves under vermicompost treatments. We detected a significant rise in carlinoside content in C. cajan leaves, which is known to reduce bilirubin concentration in hepatitis affected human blood. Farmyard manure treatments resulted in a high crude fibre content coupled with a substantially high concentration of total phenols, and chlorophyll. In addition, incorporation of vermicompost with or without inorganic fertiliser in the soil had a significant impact on antioxidant and antibacterial properties of C. cajan leaves. Above and beyond, farmyard manure and vermicompost positively influenced the physico-chemical health of the soil.CONCLUSIONThe present nutrient management scheme based on organic input not only induced a higher yield of C. cajan endowed with improved antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but also enhanced the production of various phenolic compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-28T04:10:36.682127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7820
       
  • Influence of different salting processes on the evolution of the volatile
           metabolites of vacuum-packed fillets of farmed and wild sea bass
           (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored under refrigeration conditions: a study by
           SPME-GC/MS
    • Authors: Natalia P Vidal; María J Manzanos, Encarnación Goicoechea, María D Guillén
      Pages: 967 - 976
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFish shelf-life extension is a topic of great interest. In this study the behaviour of salted and unsalted farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets during storage was analysed through the evolution of their volatile metabolites. Farmed and wild sea bass fillets were brine-salted for 15 or 75 min, or dry-salted, vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C for up to 1 month, and their headspaces were studied by Solid Phase Micro extraction–Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).RESULTSAt the same storage time, unsalted wild fillets contained, in general, a higher number and abundance of volatile compounds coming from microbiological or endogenous enzymatic activity than unsalted farmed ones. The more intense the salting, the lower the number and abundance of microbiological spoilage metabolites, especially in wild samples. The appearance of oxidation metabolites only in dry-salted wild samples evidences that this kind of salting provokes a certain oxidation in these samples.CONCLUSIONSThe better performance of farmed than wild fillets suggests that salted farmed fillets, vacuum-packed and stored under refrigeration conditions, could be a successful alternative to diversify the presence of sea bass in the market. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T04:20:51.173752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7821
       
  • Effect of elicitors on the evolution of grape phenolic compounds during
           the ripening period
    • Authors: Encarna Gómez-Plaza; Ana B Bautista-Ortín, Yolanda Ruiz-García, José I Fernández-Fernández, Rocío Gil-Muñoz
      Pages: 977 - 983
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of the application of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ) at veraison on the phenolic composition of grapes from three varieties (Monastrell, Syrah and Merlot) was studied during the ripening period, using HPLC techniques to measure flavonols, anthocyanins and tannins.RESULTSThe effects of the treatments differed in the three varieties, and the maximum concentration of phenolic compounds was not always reached at the end of the ripening period but some days before harvest. At the end of ripening both treated Syrah grapes only differed from control grapes in the flavonol concentration, whereas MeJ-treated Merlot grapes presented higher anthocyanin and skin tannin contents than the control and BTH-treated grapes. Only the anthocyanin content was significantly higher in treated Monastrell grapes at the moment of harvest.CONCLUSIONThe results indicate that the moment of elicitor treatment should be more studied since differences between treated and control grapes were, in general greater several days before harvest in all three varieties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T04:20:26.52129-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7823
       
  • Microwave flow and conventional heating effects on the physicochemical
           properties, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of tomato puree
    • Authors: Mitra Arjmandi; Mariano Otón, Francisco Artés, Francisco Artés-Hernández, Perla A Gómez, Encarna Aguayo
      Pages: 984 - 990
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThermal processing causes a number of undesirable changes in physicochemical and bioactive properties of tomato products. Microwave (MW) technology is an emergent thermal industrial process that offers a rapid and uniform heating, high energy efficiency and high overall quality of the final product. The main quality changes of tomato puree after pasteurization at 96 ± 2 °C for 35 s, provided by a semi-industrial continuous microwave oven (MWP) under different doses (low power/long time to high power/short time) or by conventional method (CP) were studied.RESULTSAll heat treatments reduced colour quality, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C, with a greater reduction in CP than in MWP. On the other hand, use of an MWP, in particular high power/short time (1900 W/180 s, 2700 W/160 s and 3150 W/150 s) enhanced the viscosity and lycopene extraction and decreased the enzyme residual activity better than with CP samples. For tomato puree, polygalacturonase was the more thermo-resistant enzyme, and could be used as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency.CONCLUSIONMWP was an excellent pasteurization technique that provided tomato puree with improved nutritional quality, reducing process times compared to the standard pasteurization process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:40:26.969881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7824
       
  • Unraveling the target genes of RIN transcription factor during tomato
           fruit ripening and softening
    • Authors: Ling Li; Xiaoguang Wang, Xinhua Zhang, Mei Guo, Tieling Liu
      Pages: 991 - 1000
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe RIN transcription factor is one of the MADS box family members and predominantly controls fruit ripening. In this study, effort was made to demonstrate the regulation network of RIN transcription factor during tomato fruit ripening and softening. Novel RIN target genes were identified by proteomics, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis.RESULTSOver 700 protein spots were achieved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and 42 proteins were successfully identified. Among them, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (LeACO4, ethylene synthesis, spot 3) and α-galactosidase-like isoform 2 (α-Gal, cell wall metabolism, spot 26) exhibited varied expression levels in different tomato fruits. Particularly high expression levels of LeACO4 and α-Gal were observed in wild type but not in the rin mutant. Additionally, CArG box, a RIN-binding site, was discovered in the promoter regions of both LeACO4 and α-Gal genes, suggesting that RIN possibly directly regulates their transcriptions, and this assumption was further confirmed by EMSA and ChIP assay.CONCLUSIONFunctional annotations of RIN target genes demonstrated the specific role of RIN in the process of fruit ripening and softening, especially in cell wall degradation and ethylene biosynthesis. This study will further illuminate the mechanism of tomato ripening and softening. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:40:48.08733-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7825
       
  • Development of a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody based
           enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of a new β-agonist,
           phenylethanolamine A, in food samples
    • Authors: Danni Jiang; Biyun Cao, Meiyu Wang, Hong Yang, Kang Zhao, Jianguo Li, Mingxin Li, Lulu Sun, Anping Deng
      Pages: 1001 - 1009
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAll β-agonists are banned as feed additives for growth promotion in animals due to toxic effects on humans after consuming the β-agonist contaminated meats. Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a newly emerged β-agonist. Thus there is a need to develop highly sensitive and specific analytical methods for the detection of PA in food samples. In this study, the monoclonal antibody (mAb) against PA was produced by hybridoma technology and used for the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).RESULTSThe IC50 values and limits of detection (LODs) of the ELISA using homogeneous combination of coating antigen/antibody for PA were 0.16 ng mL−1 and 0.011 ng mL−1, respectively. The cross-reactive (CR) values of the assay with 14 structurally related β-agonists were lower than 0.59%. Swine liver and meat samples were spiked with PA at different content and analysed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 91.40–105.51% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 1.56–9.92% (n = 3) were obtained. The ELISA for seven spiked samples was confirmed by LC-MS/MS with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9881.CONCLUSIONThe proposed mAb-based ELISA was highly sensitive and specific for PA and could be used as a quantitative/screening method for PA analysis in food samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T02:30:25.817552-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7826
       
  • Development of soybeans with low P34 allergen protein concentration for
           reduced allergenicity of soy foods
    • Authors: Daisuke Watanabe; Nóra Adányi, Krisztina Takács, Anita Maczó, András Nagy, Éva Gelencsér, Martin Pachner, Kathrin Lauter, Sabine Baumgartner, Johann Vollmann
      Pages: 1010 - 1017
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn soybean, at least 16 seed proteins have been identified as causing allergenic reactions in sensitive individuals. As a soybean genebank accession low in the immunodominant protein P34 (Gly m Bd 30K) has recently been found, introgression of the low-P34 trait into adapted soybean germplasm has been attempted in order to improve the safety of food products containing soybean protein. Therefore, marker-assisted selection and proteomics were applied to identify and characterize low-P34 soybeans.RESULTSIn low-P34 lines selected from a cross-population, concentrations of the P34 protein as identified with a polyclonal antibody were reduced by 50–70% as compared to P34-containing controls. Using 2D electrophoresis and immunoblotting, the reduction of P34 protein was verified in low-P34 lines. This result was confirmed by liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric analysis, which revealed either a reduction or complete absence of the authentic P34 protein as suggested from presence or absence of a unique peptide useful for discriminating between conventional and low-P34 lines.CONCLUSIONMarker-assisted selection proved useful for identifying low-P34 soybean lines for the development of hypoallergenic soy foods. The status of the P34 protein in low-P34 lines needs further characterization. In addition, the food safety relevance of low-P34 soybeans should be tested in clinical studies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T08:36:13.89217-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7827
       
  • Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow ‘Arbequina’ olive trees
           under deficit irrigation
    • Authors: José M García; Ana Morales-Sillero, Ana G Pérez-Rubio, Antonio Diaz-Espejo, Antonio Montero, José E Fernández
      Pages: 1018 - 1026
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRegulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an ‘Arbequina’ orchard (1667 trees ha−1) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year−1 of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed.RESULTSIn general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:45:45.286417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7828
       
  • Safety assessment of a natural tomato oleoresin containing high amounts of
           Z-isomers of lycopene prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide
    • Authors: Masaki Honda; Takuma Higashiura, Tetsuya Fukaya
      Pages: 1027 - 1033
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDZ-isomers of lycopene, which are abundantly present in processed tomato products, are more bioavailable than (all-E)-lycopene found predominantly in raw tomatoes. Despite extensive studies on the bioavailability and biological activities of Z-isomers of lycopene, detailed studies on their safety and toxicology are limited.RESULTSThe geno-, acute and subacute toxicities of tomato oleoresin that contained high amounts of lycopene Z-isomers (10.9% lycopene with 66.3% Z-isomer content) and had been prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. The oleoresin was non-mutagenic in the Ames test with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The medial lethal dose (LD50) of the oleoresin in rats, as determined by a single-dose oral test, was more than 5000 mg kg body weight−1 (bw) [361 mg (Z)-lycopene kg bw−1]. In the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test, rats were administered oleoresin at 4500 mg kg−1 day−1 [325 mg (Z)-lycopene kg bw−1 day−1]. There were no clinically significant changes with respect to vital signs, physical examination outcomes and laboratory test values during the test period.CONCLUSIONBased on our findings and as supported by its long history of consumption, tomato oleoresin that contains high amounts of Z-isomers of lycopene prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide can be considered as safe for human consumption. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T05:45:29.530801-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7830
       
  • The effect of pentosanase on the solubilisation and degradation of
           arabinoxylan extracted from whole and refined wheat flour
    • Authors: Wei Yang; Zhijian Jiang, Liya Liu, Yanjun Lin, Li Wang, Sumei Zhou
      Pages: 1034 - 1041
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe quality improvement capability of pentosanase (Pn) for whole-wheat Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is not as efficient as that for refined CSB. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this work, water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and water-unextractable solids (WUS) were extracted from whole and refined wheat flour, and then treated with Pn under the conditions similar to CSB-making. Solubilisation and degradation of arabinoxylan (AX) caused by Pn treatment were determined.RESULTSWEAX from whole flour exhibited higher molecular weight than that from refined flour before and after the treatment with equivalent Pn. Compared with WUS from refined flour, WUS from whole flour had a much lower dissolution degree but the degradation of AX released from the WUS was more efficiently. Moreover, AX released from WUS for refined flour showed a higher Ara/Xyl ratio and the percentage of residual ferulic acid in WUS decreased more significantly.CONCLUSIONThe difference in quality improvement degree for Pn in whole-wheat and refined CSB might be mainly explained by its effect on WUS. That is, Pn contributed much more to the solubilisation of WUS from refined flour but provoked degradation predominantly on AX solubilised from WUS isolated from whole flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:40:32.663356-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7833
       
 
 
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