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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Changes in sugar content and related enzyme activities in table grape
           (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to foliar selenium fertilizer
    • Authors: Shuaimeng Zhu; Yinli Liang, Xiaojuan An, Fanchao Kong, Dekai Gao, Hongfei Yin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSpraying Se fertilizer is an effective way for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated.RESULTSAcid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control. Glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in berries, and trace of sucrose. In both berries and leaves, neutral invertase (NI) activity was lower than AI, there was no significant difference in NI, Sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) between Se fertilizer treated and control. In berries, AI showed significant positive correlation with glucose and fructose, also Se content was significantly correlated with sugar content.CONCLUSIONAI played an important role in process of sugar accumulation in berries; high AI activity in berries and Pn in leaves could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in berries.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:05:24.973317-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8276
  • Bioprocessing of common beans in diets for tilapia. In vivo digestibility
           and antinutritional factors
    • Authors: Francisco Valdez-González; Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Alfredo Hernández-Llamas, Manuel García-Ulloa, Luís Sánchez-Magaña, Breidy Cuevas-Rodríguez, Hervey Rodríguez-González
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBioprocessing of ingredients by solid-state fermentation is a low-cost technique for preparing diets. It is perfomed by adding microorganisms as Rhizopus oligosporus to the grains of bean, with minimal degradation of nutrients, and a significant improvement in digestibility. In particular, fermentation induces favorable changes in beans by reducing enzyme inhibitors, such as phytates and tannins.RESULTSFermentation significantly (P  0.05) effect on the chemical content of beans and digestibility of diets. The dehulled bean meal significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T00:25:27.64557-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8275
  • Differences in the nutrient concentrations, in vitro methanogenic
           potential and other fermentative traits of tropical grasses and legumes
           for beef production systems in northern Australia
    • Authors: Zoey Durmic; Carlos A. Ramírez-Restrepo, Chris Gardiner, Christopher J. O'Neill, Eman Hussein, Phillip E. Vercoe
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn northern Australia, beef cattle grazed extensively on tropical rangelands are responsible for 5 % of the nation's total greenhouse gas emissions. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and in grazing ruminants might be mitigated by selecting forages that, when consumed, produce less CH4 when fermented by rumen microbes. This study examined variability in the in vitro fermentation patterns including CH4 production of selected tropical grasses and legumes to identify candidates for CH4 mitigation in grazing livestock in northern Australia.RESULTSNutritive values and fermentation parameters varied between plant species and across the seasons. The grasses with the relatively lower methanogenic potential were Urochloa mosambicensis (wet summer), Bothriochloa decipiens (autumn), Sorghum plumosum (winter), and Andropogon gayanus (spring), while the legumes were Calliandra calothyrsus (wet summer and autumn), Stylosanthes scabra (winter) and Desmanthus leptophyllus (spring). There was some correlation between CH4 production and overall fermentation (volatile fatty acid concentrations) in grasses (R2 = 0.67), but not in legumes (R2 = 0.01) and there were multiple plants that had lower CH4 not associated with reduction in microbial activity.CONCLUSIONDifferences in nutrient concentrations of tropical grasses and legumes may provide opportunities for productive grazing on these pastures, while offering some CH4 mitigation options in the context of northern Australia extensive beef farming systems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T00:15:38.47377-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8274
  • Analysis of α-helix unfolding in the pine nut peptide Lys-Cys-His-Lys-Pro
           induced by pulsed electric field
    • Authors: Jie Xing; Sitian Zhang, Mingdi Zhang, Songyi Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA variety of analytical techniques were applied to explore the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) on the α-helix structural changes in the novel antioxidant peptide Lys-Cys-His-Lys-Pro (KCHKP, 611.76 Da).RESULTSThe relative α-helix content of the KCHKP peptide was significantly altered from 100% to 89.91 ± 0.97% when the electric pulse frequency was 1800 Hz and the field intensity was 10 kV cm−1. Moreover, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities of PEF-treated KCHKP were increased from 56.31 ± 0.74% to 84.33 ± 1.23% and from 40.56 ± 0.78% to 51.33 ± 0.27%, respectively.CONCLUSIONPEF treatment increased peptide linkage stretch vibration and altered hydrogen bonding of KCHKP. The stability of the α-helix structure was influenced by hydrogen bonds within the peptide linkage of KCHKP induced by PEF and was related to changes in antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T10:55:28.07661-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8273
  • Influence of different yeast/lactic acid bacteria combinations on the
           aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine
    • Authors: Marine Gammacurta; Stéphanie Marchand, Virginie Moine, Gilles de Revel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe typical fruity aroma of red Bordeaux wines depends on the grape variety but also on microbiological processes, such as alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. These transformations involve respectively the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oeni. Both species play a central role in red winemaking but their quantitative and qualitative contribution to the revelation of the organoleptic qualities of wine has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of sequential inoculation of different yeast and bacteria strains on the aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine.RESULTSAll microorganisms completed fermentations and no significant difference was observed between tanks regarding the main oenological parameters until 3 months' aging. Regardless of the yeast strain, B28 bacteria required the shortest period to completely degrade the malic acid, compared to the other strain. . Quantification of 73 major components highlighted a specific volatile profile corresponding to each microorganism combination. However, the yeast strain appeared to have a predominant effect on aromatic compound levels, as well as on fruity aroma perception.CONCLUSIONYeasts had a greater impact on wine quality and have more influence on the aromatic style of red wine than bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T10:25:30.828733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8272
  • Morphological and physiological responses of different wheat genotypes to
           chilling stress: A cue to explain yield loss
    • Authors: Pu-Fang Li; Bao-Luo Ma, You-Cai Xiong, Wen-Yuan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe eco-physiological mechanism of wheat yield loss resulting from chilling stress is a fundamental scientific issue. However, previous studies have focused on hexaploid wheats, and few studies on the morphological and physiological plasticity of wheat plants. Six different wheat genotypes were tested under chilling stress to investigate the physio-morphological parameters as well as the loss of grain yield in growth chambers.RESULTSChilling stress resulted in significant loss in grain yield in all genotypes. Under chilling stress, diploid wheats generated zero harvest, and tetraploid genotypes also suffered from a pronounced loss in grain yield, compared with the control group. In contrast, hexaploid genotypes acquired relatively high maintenance rate of grain yield among three species.CONCLUSIONSDiploid and tetraploid wheat genotypes maintained relatively large leaf area and high photosynthetic rates, but they were subjected to significant declines in vascular bundle number and productive tillers as a consequence of the inhibition by sink growth under chilling stress. The hexaploid wheats were found to have relatively low leaf area and photosynthetic rates. These genotypes also stored more soluble carbohydrates and exhibited stronger sink enhancement, ensuring the translocation and redistribution of assimilates. Our findings provided a new theoretical understanding of yield stabilization in the domestication process of wheat genotypes under chilling stress.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T01:00:25.668304-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8271
  • The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera
           intraspecific hybrids
    • Authors: Rafael Apolinar-Valiente; Encarna Gómez-Plaza, Nancy Terrier, Thierry Doco, José María Ros-García
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia (S.E. Spain). Their berries seem characterized by rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in our region, due to its high phenolic content with high extractability. Our study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy.RESULTSThe total sugars content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than then from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content values than Monastrell.CONCLUSIONThis study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrids grapes presented major differences of composition compared with their parents. Our data could help to develop new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of southeastern of Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring the extractability.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T05:25:27.682713-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8270
  • Positive and negative aspects of green coffee consumption - antioxidant
           activity vs. mycotoxins
    • Authors: Magdalena Jeszka-Skowron; Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Stępień, Ewa Stanisz
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms which can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage.RESULTSAntioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed highest activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica coffee. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) in green coffee beans was studied, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, content of ergosterol as a marker indicating fungal occurrence was also determined. Among aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 was dominant mycotoxin in coffee bean samples with the highest level at 17.45 ng g−1. Ochratoxin A was detected in four samples in the range of 1.27 to 4.34 ng g−1 and fungi (potentially producing this toxin): Aspergillus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were isolated.CONCLUSIONSSteaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increased antioxidant activities of brews in comparison to those prepared from unprocessed beans. Although toxins can be quantified in green coffee beans and novel fungi were isolated, their concentrations are acceptable according to law limits.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T05:15:38.979177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8269
  • Effect of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma on white grape juice
    • Authors: S. K. Pankaj; Zifan Wan, William Colonna, Kevin M. Keener
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study focusses on the effects of novel, non-thermal high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) processing on the quality of grape juice. A quality based comparison of cold plasma treatment of white grape juice was done with thermal pasteurization treatment.ResultsHVACP treatment of grape juice at 80 kV for 4 min resulted in 7.4 log10 cfu/mL reduction of S. cerevisiae without any significant (p > 0.05) change in pH, acidity and electrical conductivity of the juice. Increase in non-enzymatic browning was observed but total color difference was very low and within acceptable limits. Spectrophotometric measurements showed decrease in total phenolics, flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, however they were found to be comparable with the thermal treatment. Increase in total flavonols was observed after HVACP treatments.ConclusionHVACP treatment of white grape juice at 80 kV for 2 min was found comparable with thermal pasteurization in all analyzed quality attributes. HVACP has shown the potential to be used as an alternative to thermal treatment of white grape juice.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T05:05:23.255757-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8268
  • Influence of japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and
           preference (A case study on deep-fried peanuts)
    • Authors: Atsushi Miyagi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDetailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference, and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 15 min) at 150 °C. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), polynomial regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted using the collected data.RESULTSThe results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did.CONCLUSIONIn the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted, and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age were clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T04:50:29.260117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8266
  • Roasting conditions for preserving cocoa flavan-3-ol monomers and
           oligomers: interesting behaviour of Criollo clones
    • Authors: Cédric De Taeye; Marie Bodart, Gilles Caullet, Sonia Collin
      Abstract: BackgroundCocoa bean roasting is important for creating the typical chocolate aroma through Maillard reactions, but it is also a key step deleterious to the polyphenol content and profile.ResultsCompared to usual roasting at 150 °C, keeping the beans for 30 min at 120 °C or for 1 hour at 90 °C proved much better for preventing strong degradation of native P1, P2, and P3 flavan-3-ols in cocoa (shown for the Forastero, Trinitatio, and Criollo cultivars). Surprisingly, Cuban, Mexican, and Malagasy white-seeded beans behaved atypically when roasted for 30 min at 150 °C, releasing a pool of catechin. Enantiomeric chromatographic separation proved that this pool contained mainly (−)-catechin issued from (−)-epicatechin by epimerisation. As the (−)-epicatechin content remained relatively constant through Criollo bean roasting, flavan-3-ol monomers must have been regenerated from oligomers. This emergence of (−)-catechin in Criollo beans only, reported here for the first time, could be due to increased flavan-3-ol monomer stability in the absence of anthocyanidin-derived products.ConclusionThe degradation rate of flavan-3-ols through roasting is higher in cocoa beans containing anthocyani(−di-)ns. The liberation of a pool of (−)-catechin when submitted to a roasting at 150 °C allows to distinguish white-seeded cultivars.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T04:40:50.577615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8265
  • Grain classifier with computer vision using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference
    • Authors: Kadir Sabanci; Abdurrahim Toktas, Ahmet Kayabasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA computer vision-based classifier using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is designed for classifying wheat grains into bread or durum. To train and test the classifier, images of 200 wheat grains (100 for bread and 100 for durum) are taken by a high resolution camera. Visual feature data of the grains related to dimension (#4), colour (#3) and texture (#5) as inputs of the classifier is mainly acquired for each grain using image processing techniques (IPTs). In addition to this main data, 9 features are reproduced from the main features to ensure a varied population. Thus four sub-sets including categorized features of reproduced data are constituted to examine their effects on the classification. In order to simplify the classifier, the most effective visual features on the results are investigated.RESULTSThe data sets are compared with each other regarding classification accuracy. A simplified classifier having 7 selected features is achieved with the best results. In testing process, the simplified classifier computes the output with 99.46% accuracy and accurately assorts the wheat grains with 100%.CONCLUSIONA system which classifies the grains with higher accuracy is designed. The proposed classifier integrated to industrial applications can automatically classify a variety of wheat grains.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T04:40:35.577254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8264
  • Effect of deamidation-induced modification on umami and bitter taste of
           wheat gluten hydrolysates
    • Authors: Bo-Ye Liu; Ke-Xue Zhu, Xiao-Na Guo, Wei Peng, Hui-Ming Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBitter taste is the main limiting factor for various applications of protein hydrolysates. Frequently used physicochemical methods for debittering protein hydrolysates come with some undesired side effects. Deamidation-induced modification would be a very promising technique to improve the flavor of wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). This study was designed to determine the effect of deamidation with certain enzymes or acid treatment on the chemical composition, bitterness and umami properties of WGHs. The difference between umami peptide and free glutamic acid on the suppression of bitterness is emphatically discussed. The optimal scheme is proposed based on the flavor of WGHs and the yield of peptides.RESULTSThe generation of umami substances suppressed bitter signal transduction. When the content of umami substances was relatively high, the umami-enhancing properties of umami peptides were obviously effective. The intensity of umami taste was high enough to further suppress bitter taste in the course of neurocognitive functioning.CONCLUSIONWhen WGHs were treated with Glutaminase for 180 min, the umami taste score increased from 1.62 to 4.27 and the bitter taste score decreased from 1.33 to 0.65. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T03:50:26.937458-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8162
  • Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for foreign substance
           detection on fresh-cut lettuce
    • Authors: Changyeun Mo; Giyoung Kim, Moon S. Kim, Jongguk Lim, Hyunjeong Cho, Jinyoung Yang Barnaby, Byoung-Kwan Cho
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting the worms were investigated using the one-way ANOVA and correlation analyses.RESULTSThe worm detection imaging algorithms, RSI-I(492-626)/492, provided a prediction accuracy of 99.0%. The fluorescence HSI techniques indicated that the spectral images with a pixel size of 1 × 1 mm had the best classification accuracy for worms.CONCLUSIONThe overall results demonstrate that fluorescence HSI techniques have the potential to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. In the future, we will focus on developing a multispectral imaging system to detect foreign substances such as worms, slugs, and earthworms on fresh-cut lettuce.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T02:55:31.169615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8262
  • Assessing the effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuralon on selected components
           of immune responses in mice immunized with ovalbumin
    • Authors: Mohammad Alizadeh; Hamed Khodaei, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, Sevda Saleh-Ghadimi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is one of the most important products of the maillard reaction. In recent years, many profitable biological effects of this compound have been demonstrated. This study sought to elucidate the anti-allergic effect of 5-HMF by investigating some selected components of the immune response in BALB/c mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA).RESULTSImmunized animals had an increased level of serum total and OVA-specific antibodies when compared to the control (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T02:45:40.5794-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8261
  • Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in
           vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation
    • Authors: Shaopu Wang; Michael Kreuzer, Ueli Braun, Angela Schwarm
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls.RESULTSAll the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (ml g−1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg−1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n–6:n–3 fatty acids or C18:2:C18:3 in the seed lipids were not related.CONCLUSIONUnconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T02:10:28.845973-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8260
  • Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: Effects of
           animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine)
    • Authors: Pan Wang; Yanting Hong, Weixin Ke, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats.RESULTSFive HAs 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine.CONCLUSIONChoice of raw materials and optimization of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T01:35:27.866837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8259
  • Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein
           of legume and grass species during the spring growth
    • Authors: Zeinab Solati; Uffe Jørgensen, Jørgen Eriksen, Karen Søegaard
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDKnowledge of the variation of extractable protein amount in legumes and grasses as affected by harvest time is important for identifying optimal combinations to enable a high protein production in a bioefinery. The extractability of protein was estimated using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth.RESULTSThe estimated extractable protein (g CP kg−1 DM) defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests whilst if the more cell wall attached fraction B3 can be extracted, white clover had the highest extractable protein amongst all species. Total yield of B1+B2 per ha was higher in white clover and red clover at the early growth while B1+B2+B3 was by far the highest for red clover through all harvests.CONCLUSIONWhite clover could be a good candidate for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximize the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend on the value of the fiber after extraction of the protein.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:55:24.535169-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8258
  • Rennet-induced coagulation of raw and heated camel and cow milk gels
           determined by instrumental techniques: Effects of added calcium and
    • Authors: Romdhane Karoui; Mohammad Kamal
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe potentiality of the front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and rheological measurements combined with chemometric tools to characterize the structure evolution during coagulation of raw and preheated camel and cow milk at 50 and 70 °C with/without added calcium and phosphate was evaluated. Tryptophan and vitamin A fluorescence spectra were collected during the gelation of milk at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 45 min after the addition of rennet-induced coagulation. In parallel, the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G") and tan delta (tan δ) were determined using low amplitude oscillation shear analysis.RESULTSThe principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the normalized tryptophan spectra allowed to differentiate the gels made with camel milk from those of cow milk on the one hand, and to monitor protein structure modifications during the gelation, on the other hand. The common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA) applied jointly to the fluorescence and rheological data sets permitted a clear separation of raw milk gels from those preheated at 50 and 70 °C.CONCLUSIONThe front-face fluorescence spectroscopy method coupled with multivariate statistical analyses showed a high capacity for studying changes in the micelle structure throughout the rennet-induced coagulation process.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:50:23.818819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8257
  • The influence of plant protection by effective microorganisms on the
           content of bioactive phytochemicals in apples
    • Authors: Barbara Kusznierewicz; Anna Lewandowska, Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska, Agnieszka Bartoszek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe phytochemicals of two apple cultivars (Yellow Transparent and Early Geneva) protected in two ways: conventionally with chemical pesticides or by effective organisms (EM), were compared. Two types of components were determined: lipids synthesized constitutively and generated via inducible pathways polyphenols along with antioxidant activity and profiles.RESULTSThe antioxidant activities assessed with ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu reagents were about twice higher in the case of microbiologically protected apples. The qualitative composition of phenolics determined by LC-DAD-MS varied between cultivars and the part of apples studied, while the way of protection caused mainly differences in concentration of some groups of polyphenols (hydroxycinnamates, flavanols, dihydrochalcones, flavonols, anthocyanins). The apples from biological cultivation contained about 34-54% more phenolics than these from conventional orchard. In contrast, lipid composition did not differ significantly between apples originating from conventional and bio crops.CONCLUSIONThe results indicate that the advantage of using the EM technology in agriculture may not only be the reduction of consumption of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, but also, at least in the case of apples, may lead to the production of crops with improved health quality due to the higher content of bioactive phytochemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:35:26.723404-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8256
  • Guayusa (Ilex guayusa L.) new tea: phenolic and carotenoid composition and
           antioxidant capacity
    • Authors: Almudena García-Ruiz; Nieves Baenas, Ana M. Benítez-González, Carla M. Stinco, Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez, Diego A. Moreno, Jenny Ruales
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGuayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes) is an evergreen tree native of South America that grows particularly in the upper Amazon region of Ecuador. For its health benefits, it has been cultivated and consumed since ancient time by Amazon indigenous tribes.RESULTSA total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O-hexose were the main representatives of the hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols, respectively. Five carotenoids were identified, showing lutein the highest concentration. Guayusa leaves revealed high antioxidant capacity determined by two analytical methods: DPPH and ORAC. The industrial processing applied to the leaves modified the composition of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of guayusa. In general, blanched guayusa retained the concentration of phenolic compounds and some carotenoids and similar antioxidant capacity as untreated green leaves. Oppositely, fermentation reduced the content of bioactive compounds and showed the lowest antioxidant capacity.CONCLUSIONTherefore, blanched guayusa has potential for product development as functional ingredient in food industry.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:20:30.401802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8255
  • Anti-prediabetic effect of rose hip (Rosa canina) extract in spontaneously
           diabetic Torii rats
    • Authors: Si Jing Chen; Chiwa Aikawa, Risa Yoshida, Tomoaki Kawaguchi, Toshiro Matsui
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPrediabetes, a high-risk state for developing diabetes showing impaired glucose tolerance but normal fasting blood glucose level, has increasing prevalence worldwide. However, no study to prevent impaired glucose tolerance at prediabetic stage by anti-diabetic functional foods has been reported. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-prediabetic effect of rose hip in a prediabetic rat model.RESULTSSpontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were supplemented with hot-water extract of rose hip at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 weeks. The result showed that the supplementation of rose hip extract improved impaired glucose tolerance, promoted insulin secretion, preserved pancreatic beta-cell function, and suppressed plasma advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation of methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) residue and Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine residues (e.g., MG-H1, control: 465.5 ± 43.8 vs. rose hip: 59.1 ± 13.0 pmol mg protein−1, P < 0.05) in SDT rats at the prediabetic stage (12 to 20-week-old).CONCLUSIONThe present study provided the first finding that a hot-water extract of rose hip could exert anti-prediabetic effect in a rat model.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T09:10:33.396354-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8254
  • Maternal cinnamon extract intake during lactation leads to sex-specific
           endocrine modifications in rat offspring
    • Authors: Thais Bento-Bernardes; Fernanda P Toste, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Karen J Oliveira
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCinnamon supplementation has been associated with improvement in glucose disposal and reduction in fat mass in type 2 diabetes. Maternal nutrition during lactation impacts the health of the offspring throughout life. We hypothesize that cinnamon intake by lactating rats affects maternal physiology, leading to hormonal and metabolic changes in their offspring. To investigate this hypothesis, dams received aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg cinnamon/kg body mass/day) or water orally, during lactation.RESULTSMaternal cinnamon intake did not affect the body mass gain or food intake of dams or their offspring, but it decreased visceral white adipose tissue mass in dams and in their adult offspring of both sexes. Cinnamon-treated dams exhibited no differences in serum insulin, adiponectin, leptin, or estradiol levels, but they presented higher serum progesterone. At weaning, cinnamon male pups exhibited lower insulinemia, whereas cinnamon female pups exhibited lower glycemia. Interestingly, in adulthood, only the female offspring exhibited an altered hormonal profile, with reduced serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin levels accompanied by lower glycemia.CONCLUSIONSOur study demonstrates that maternal cinnamon intake during lactation promotes mild changes in dams and can trigger sex-specific metabolic programming in pups that lasts into adulthood.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T09:10:32.172682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8253
  • Yeast alter micro-oxygenation of wine: Oxygen consumption and aldehyde
    • Authors: Guomin Han; Michael R. Webb, Chandra Richter, Jessica Parsons, Andrew L. Waterhouse
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicro-oxygenation (MOx) is a common winemaking treatment used to improve red wine color development and diminish vegetal aroma among other effects. It is commonly applied to wine immediately after yeast fermentation (phase 1) or later, during aging (phase 2). While most winemakers avoid MOx during malolactic (ML) fermentation, it is often not possible to avoid as ML bacteria are often present during phase 1 MOx treatment. We investigated the effect of common yeast and bacteria on the outcome of micro-oxygenation.RESULTSCompared to sterile filtered wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculation significantly increased oxygen consumption, keeping dissolved oxygen in wine below 30 µg/L during micro-oxygenation, while Oenococcus Oeni inoculation was not associated with a significant impact on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The unfiltered baseline wine also had both present, but much higher populations of bacteria and also consumed oxygen. The yeast-treated wine yielded much higher levels of acetaldehyde, rising from 4.3 mg/L to 29 mg/L during micro-oxygenation, while no significant difference was found between the bacteria-treated wine and the filtered control. The unfiltered wine exhibited rapid oxygen consumption, but no additional acetaldehyde, as well as reduced pyruvate. Analysis of the acetaldehyde-glycerol acetal levels showed a good correlation with acetaldehyde concentrations.CONCLUSIONSThe production of acetaldehyde is a key outcome of MOx and it is dramatically increased in the presence of yeast, but perhaps counteracted by the metabolism of O. oeni bacteria. Additional controlled experiments are necessary to clarify the interaction of yeast and bacteria during MOx treatments. Analysis of the glycerol acetals may be useful as a proxy for acetaldehyde levels.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T09:05:25.491155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8252
  • Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment
    • Authors: Márcia Carvalho; Teresa Lino-Neto, Eduardo Rosa, Valdemar Carnide
      Abstract: Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include the good protein quality with a high nutritional value, the nitrogen-fixing ability, and be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, the studies with cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress. This review provides an overview on different aspects of cowpea, with special emphasis on the molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity, as well as on the biochemical and transcriptomic data to evaluate cowpea drought stress tolerance. The integration of both datasets will be useful for cowpea improvement, since the research on drought stress tolerance is a major interest for this crop in a challenging environment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T08:56:08.37553-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8250
  • Phenotypic diversity and evaluation of fresh pods of cowpea landraces from
           Southern Europe
    • Authors: Efstathia Lazaridi; Georgia Ntatsi, Juan Antonio Fernández, Ioannis Karapanos, Valdemar Carnide, Dimitrios Savvas, Penelope J Bebeli
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCowpea fresh pods are consumed as green vegetables in many countries in Southern Europe. Among cowpea cultivated material a relatively large number of landraces can be found, maintaining species genetic diversity. In order to assess the value of these landraces in breeding programs, characterization and estimation of diversity levels are therefore required. In this study, estimation of diversity and evaluation of cowpea landraces, originating from Portugal, Spain and Greece, in terms of their fresh pod traits were performed, aiming to assist the problem of low cowpea production in Southern Europe.RESULTSA notable mean total phenotypic diversity (Ht = 0.57) was observed in the whole collection. Spanish cv. - gr. unguiculata collection exhibited the highest value of total phenotypic diversity (0.56). Landraces did not differ significantly from each other regarding the three countries of origin. Landraces like Cp4906, Vg60 and BGE038478 that presented higher values of some traits studied could contribute to breeding of new cowpea varieties for fresh pod production. Positive correlations were observed, indicating feasibility of breeding for preferable traits regarding fresh pod consumption.CONCLUSIONOur work revealed a wide diversity among and within cowpea landraces that could enhance fresh pod production in South European countries.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T08:56:06.177337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8249
  • Spectrophotometric vs NIR-MIR assessments of cowpea pods for
           discriminating the impact of freezing
    • Authors: Nelson Machado; Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Ana Ramos, Eduardo A S Rosa, Ana I R N A Barros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFreezing represents an important storage method for vegetal foodstuffs, such as cowpea pods and thus, the impact of this process on the chemical composition of these matrices arises as a prominent issue. In this sense, the phytochemical contents in frozen cowpea pods (6 and 9 months) have been compared with fresh cowpea pods material, the samples being concomitantly assessed by FTIR (both MIR and NIR), to evaluate the potential of these techniques as a rapid tool for the traceability of these matrices.RESULTSA descend of the phytochemical contents during freezing has been observed, allowing these variations to classify the samples according to the freezing period. Also MIR and NIR allowed to discriminate the samples, the usage of the 1st derivative displaying better performance for this purpose, whereas the usage of the normalized spectra conducted to the best correlations between the spectra and specific contents. In both cases, NIR displayed the best performance.CONCLUSIONSFreezing of cowpea pods leads to the decrease of the phytochemical contents, which can be monitored by FTIR spectroscopy, both within the MIR and NIR ranges, while the use of this technique, in tandem with chemometrics, constitutes a suitable methodology for the traceability of these matrices.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T08:56:01.472087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8251
  • Natural losses in tuber weight during storage as a predictor of
           susceptibility to post-wounding blackspot in advanced potato breeding
    • Authors: Magdalena Grudzińska; Piotr Barbaś
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn potatoes, mechanical damage and the formation of black spots in the tuber flesh cause substantial economic losses and degradation of quality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of new potato genotypes (178 elite breeding lines) to blackspot damage after seven months storage at 5 and 8 °C, and examine whether this susceptibility correlated with natural losses.RESULTSThe lowest index of black spot damage after harvest was found in genotypes from mid late group of earliness and of low susceptibility group, while after storage — in genotypes from early group of earliness and low susceptibility group. The tubers after storage at 5 °C were characterized by a lower susceptibility to bruising, compared with the tubers stored at 8 °C. The storage temperature significantly affected the natural losses in advanced potato breeding materials after storage in case of all earliness and susceptibility groups. The highest susceptibility to black spot damage and natural losses occurred in potatoes stored at 8 °C (r = 0.85 to 0.91). Such relationship was not observed in potatoes stored at 5 °C.CONCLUSIONFor potato tubers susceptible to the formation of after-wounding blackspot, the natural losses arising as a result of storage at 8 °C can be used as a subjective method to evaluate the susceptibility of potatoes to the formation of black spots in the flesh. However this observation needs further studies and stronger proof of this theory.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T01:45:37.105344-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8248
  • Synthesis and Swelling Property of the Superabsorbent Starch Grafted with
           Acrylic Acid/2-Acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic Acid
    • Authors: Yeqiao Meng; Lin Ye
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to develop the starch-based superabsorbent polymers with high water absorbency, both acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido −2-methyl-1- propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) were graft copolymerized onto cassava starch, and St-g-AA-AMPS SAP was successfully synthesized. The effect of AA/AMPS molar ratio on the structure and swelling property of SAP was investigated.RESULTIntroduction of AMPS units improved the storage modulus and crosslinking density of St-g-AA-AMPS SAP, and was beneficial to form perfect network structure. With increasing AMPS content, the equilibrium swelling ratio and the swelling rate constant (k) of the SAP first increased and then decreased, and the maximum swelling ratio reached 1200.0 g/g and 90.0 g/g in distilled water and brine respectively, resulting from the high ionization constant and hydrophilic ability of AMPS, and improved tolerance to brine. By introduction of AMPS units, the re-swelling capability of SAP was improved, and more hydrogen bonds could form between molecules of water and SAP, leading to the increase of non-freezing bound water and freezing bound water, and the water retention of SAP was enhanced.CONCLUSIONIntroduction of AMPS units improved the water absorption capacity, swelling rate, and water retention ability of St-g-AA-AMPS SAP, presenting wide application potential in agriculture and horticulture of desert regions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T00:25:39.934225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8247
  • Efficient Salt-aided Aqueous Extraction of Bitter Almond Oil
    • Authors: Lei Liu; Xiuzhu Yu, Zhong Zhao, Lirong Xu, Rui Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSalt-aided aqueous extraction (SAAE) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of oil extraction, which is influenced by many factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAAE on bitter almond oil yield.RESULTSThis study used sodium bicarbonate solution as extraction solvent and the optimal extraction parameters predicted by Box-Behnken design (i.e., concentration of sodium bicarbonate, 0.4 mol L−1; solvent to sample ratio, 5:1; extraction temperature, 84 °C; extraction time, 60 min), for oil recovery of 90.9%. The physiochemical characteristics of the extracted oil suggest that the quality was similar to those of the aqueous enzymatic extracted oil. Moreover, the content of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in bitter almond oil was found to be less than 5 mg kg−1, which was lower compared to those obtained by other reported methods. Results of microanalysis indicated that SAAE led to significant improvement in oil yield by allowing the release of oil and decreasing the emulsion fraction. Therefore, extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE is feasible.CONCLUSIONSThese results demonstrate that extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE based on the salt effect is feasible on a laboratory scale.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T00:25:37.642125-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8245
  • Effects of intermittent CO2 convection under far infrared radiation on
           vacuum-drying of pre-osmodehydrated watermelon
    • Authors: Rajat Chakraborty; Pijus Mondal
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWatermelon, a tropical seasonal fruit with high nutrient content, requires preservation through drying due to its perishable nature. Nevertheless, drying of watermelon through conventional processes has negative impact either on the drying time or on the final product quality. In this work, osmotic dehydration (OD) of watermelon followed by far infrared radiation assisted vacuum-drying (FIRRAVD) was optimised to develop dehydrated watermelon with minimum moisture content. Significantly, during FIRRAVD, an attempt was made to further intensify the drying rate by forced convection through intermittent CO2 injection. Drying kinetics of each operation and physicochemical qualities of dried products were evaluated.RESULTSThe FIRRAVD was a viable method of watermelon drying with appreciably high moisture diffusivity (Deff,m) of 4.97 × 10−10 to 1.49 × 10−9 m2 s−1 compared to conventional tray drying. Moreover, intermittent CO2 convection during FIRRAVD (ICFIRRAVD) resulted appreciable intensification of drying rate with enhanced Deff,m (9.93 × 10−10 to 1.99 × 10−9 m2 s−1). Significantly, ICFIRRAVD required less energy and approximately 16% less time compared to FIRRAVD. Quality of final dehydrated watermelon was superior compared to conventional drying protocols.CONCLUSIONSThe novel CO2 convective drying of watermelon in presence of far infrared radiation demonstrated an energy-efficient and time-saving operation rendering a dehydrated watermelon with acceptable quality parameters.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T00:25:33.025334-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8246
  • Cover Image, Volume 97, Issue 4
    • Authors: Ting Xu; Yan Li, Xiadong Zeng, Xiaolu Yang, Yuanzhu Yang, Shanshan Yuan, Xiaochun Hu, Jiarui Zeng, Zhenzhen Wang, Qian Liu, Yuqing Liu, Hongdong Liao, Chunyi Tong, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
      Abstract: The cover image, by Ting Xu et al., is based on the Research Article Isolation and evaluation of endophytic Streptomyces endus OsiSh-2 with potential application for biocontrol of rice blast disease,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7841.The cover image, by Ting Xu et al., is based on the Research Article Isolation and evaluation of endophytic Streptomyces endus OsiSh-2 with potential application for biocontrol of rice blast disease,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7841.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T04:05:27.955016-05:
  • A mechanistic modelling approach to understand 1-mcp inhibition of
           ethylene action and quality changes during ripening of apples
    • Authors: Sunny George Gwanpua; Bert E. Verlinden, Maarten L.A.T.M. Hertog, Bart M. Nicolai, Annemie H. Geeraerd
      Abstract: BACKGROUND1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) inhibits ripening in climacteric fruit by blocking ethylene receptors, preventing ethylene from binding and eliciting its action. The objective of the current study was to use mathematical models to describe 1-MCP inhibition of apple fruit ripening, and to provide a tool for predicting ethylene production, and two important quality indicators of apple fruit, firmness and background colour.RESULTSA model consisting of coupled differential equations describing 1-MCP inhibition of apple ripening was developed. Data on ethylene production, expression of ethylene receptors, firmness, and background colour during ripening of untreated and 1-MCP treated apples were used to calibrate the model. An overall adjusted R2 of 95 % was obtained. The impact of time from harvest to treatment, and harvest maturity on 1-MCP efficacy was modelled. Different hypotheses on the partial response of ‘Jonagold’ apple to 1-MCP treatment were tested using the model. The model was validated using an independent dataset.CONCLUSIONSLow 1-MCP blocking efficacy was shown to be the most likely cause of partial response for delayed 1-MCP treatment, and 1-MCP treatment of late picked apples. Time from harvest to treatment was a more important factor than maturity for 1-MCP efficacy in ‘Jonagold’ apples.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T05:45:38.214955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8244
  • Application and bioactive properties of CaTI, a trypsin inhibitor from
           Capsicum annuum seeds: membrane permeabilization, oxidative stress and
           intracellular target in phytopathogenic fungi cells
    • Authors: Marciele S Silva; Suzanna F F Ribeiro, Gabriel B Taveira, Rosana Rodrigues, Katia V S Fernandes, André O Carvalho, Ilka Maria Vasconcelos, Erica Oliveira Mello, Valdirene M Gomes
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDuring the last few years, a growing number of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds. Recent results from our laboratory have shown the purification of a new trypsin inhibitor, named CaTI, from chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of CaTI on phytopathogenic fungi and detect the presence of protease inhibitors in other species of this genus.RESULTSOur results show that CaTI can inhibit the growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. lindemuthianum. CaTI can also permeabilize the membrane of all tested fungi. When testing the inhibitor on its ability to induce reactive oxygen species, an induction of ROS and NO particularly in Fusarium species was observed. Using CaTI coupled to FITC, it was possible to determine the presence of the inhibitor inside the hyphae of the Fusarium oxysporum fungus. The search for protease inhibitors in other Capsicum species revealed their presence in all tested species.CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, this paper shows the antifungal activity of protease inhibitors such as CaTI against phytopathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial peptides, among which the trypsin protease inhibitor family stands out, are present in different species of the genus Capsicum and are part of the chemical arsenal that plants use to defend themselves against pathogens.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T05:25:51.178775-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8243
  • Nutritional value and antioxidant content of seed-containing and seedless
           eggplant fruits of two cultivars grown under protected cultivation during
           autumn-winter and spring-summer
    • Authors: Despoina I. Makrogianni; Anastasia Tsistraki, Ioannis C. Karapanos, Harold C. Passam
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDue to their low carbohydrate and high antioxidant content, eggplants are beneficial for the human diet. At
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T05:01:02.92096-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8238
  • Evaluation of vegetable – Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under
           Latvian agro-ecological conditions
    • Authors: Līga Lepse; Sandra Dane, Solvita Zeipiņa, Raul Domínguez-Perles, Eduardo A S Rosa
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12-month. In organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015).RESULTSData obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m−2, immature faba bean pods – 0.20-0.43 kg m−2) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m−2, immature faba bean pods – 0.10-0.52 kg m−2), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since induces a very low onion yield (0.66 to 1.09 kg m−2), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m−2).CONCLUSIONVegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing, in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T05:00:55.887555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8239
  • Gelation of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) minced muscle as affected by
           pressure and thermal treatments at low salt concentration
    • Authors: Binh Q Truong; Roman Buckow, Minh H Nguyen, John Furst
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBarramundi minced muscle with salt 10 g kg−1 and 20 g kg−1 added is gelled by different combinations of pressurisation (300, 400 and 500 MPa at 4 °C for 10 min), cooking (0.1 MPa, 90 °C for 30 min) and setting (0,1 MPa, 50 °C for 2 h) to improve mechanical properties of barramundi gels and reduce salt added to barramundi gels.RESULTSAt the low salt concentration of 10 g kg−1, pressurisation prior to cooking (P – C) treatment induced barramundi gels with comparable mechanical properties and water holding capacity to those of conventional heat induced (HI) gels with 20 g kg−1 added salt. At salt concentration of 20 g kg−1, pressurisation prior to setting (P – S) and P – C gels exhibited higher mechanical properties and water holding capacity as compared to HI gels. Scanning electron microscope images showed a smooth and dense microstructure of P – C and P – S gels whereas the microstructure of HI gels is rough and less compact.CONCLUSIONSP – C treatment can reduce salt concentration added to barramundi gels to 10 g kg−1. P – S and P – C treatment can result in higher mechanical and functional properties of barramundi gels at conventional salt concentration (20 g kg−1) as compared to HI gels.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T05:00:52.196839-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8242
  • Non-destructive assessment of grapevine water status in the field using a
           portable NIR spectrophotometer
    • Authors: Javier Tardaguila; Juan Fernández-Novales, Salvador Gutiérrez, Maria Paz Diago
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUntil now, the majority of methods employed to assess grapevine water status are destructive, time-intensive, costly and provide information of limited number of samples, thus the ability of revealing within-field water status variability is reduced. The goal of this work was to evaluate the capability of non-invasive, portable NIR spectroscopy acquired in the field, to assess the grapevine water status in diverse varieties, grown under different environmental conditions, in a fast and reliable way. The research was conducted two weeks before harvest in 2012, in two commercial vineyards, planted with eight different varieties. Spectral measurements were acquired in the field on the adaxial and abaxial sides of 160 individual leaves (20 leaves per variety) using a commercially available handheld spectrophotometer (1.600 – 2.400 nm).RESULTSPrincipal component analysis (PCA) and modified partial least squares (MPLS) were used to interpret the spectra and to develop reliable prediction models for stem water potential (Ψs) (cross validation correlation coefficient (rcv) ranged from 0.77 to 0.93, and standard error of cross validation (SECV) ranged from 0.10 to 0.23), and leaf relative water content (RWC) (rcv ranged from 0.66 to 0.81, and SECV between 1.93 and 3.20). The performance differences between models built from abaxial and adaxial-acquired spectra was also discussed.CONCLUSIONSThe capability of non-invasive NIR spectroscopy to reliably assess the grapevine water status under field conditions was proved. This technique can be a suitable and promising tool to appraise within-field variability of plant water status, helpful to define optimized irrigation strategies in the wine industry.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T04:30:07.338432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8241
  • Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in
           chicken sausages
    • Authors: Gema Nieto; Lorena Martínez, Gaspar Ros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction process (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g/100 g walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g/100 g) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out.RESULTSThe sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT2 and HXT3) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T04:05:57.135111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8240
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on growth performance,
           meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: Jiahui Cong; Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Shuhao Wang, Feng Gao, Guanghong Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effects of dietary carnosine were evaluated on the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in thigh muscle of 256 one-day-old male broilers that were assigned to 4 diets: basal diet supplemented with 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine during 42-d experiment, respectively.RESULTCarnosine concentration and carnosine synthase expression in thigh muscle were linearly increased (P < 0.05), and the feed:gain was decreased (P < 0.05) in the starter period by carnosine addition. Dietary supplementation with carnosine resulted in increases in pH45min, redness and cohesiveness, decreases in drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and hardness with linear terms (P < 0.05). Carnosine addition elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced contents of malondialdehyde and carbonyl compounds (P < 0.05). Dietary carnosine linearly decreased diameters and increased densities of muscle fibers (P < 0.01). The ratios of MyHC I and IIa were increased whereas IIb was decreased (P < 0.01). The mRNA expressions of genes related to fiber type transformation were up-regulated with linear terms (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONThese findings indicated that carnosine supplementation was beneficial to improve the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics of broilers.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T01:20:44.606534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8236
  • Effect of black cumin seeds on growth performance, nutrient utilisation,
           immunity, gut health, and nitrogen excretion by broiler chickens
    • Authors: Pawan Kumar; Amlan Kumar Patra, Guru Prasad Mandal, Indranil Samanta, Saktipada Pradhan
      Abstract: BackgroundUse of antibiotic growth promoters (AB) as feed additives in broiler chickens poses risky due to cross-resistance amongst pathogens and residues in tissues. The study aims to evaluate the supplementation of black cumin seed (BCS) as a natural growth promoter on nutrient utilisation, intestinal microbiota and morphology, immunity, anti-oxidant status, protein deposition in muscles, and nitrogen excretion by chickens.ResultsBroiler chickens were fed BCS at 0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg−1 diet. Body weight gain tended to increase (P = 0.10) and daily feed intake increased quadratically with increasing concentrations of BCS in the diets. Supplementation of BCS resulted in a tendency to decrease the feed conversion efficiency on d 28 to 42. Metabolisability of nutrients increased linearly with increasing doses of BCS. Protein deposition in thigh and breast muscles was increased and nitrogen excretion was reduced by BCS and AB compared with the control (CON). Intestinal morphology in the duodenum, jejunum and ilium were not generally affected by BCS. The counts of total bacteria, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., and Clostridium spp. were not affected by BCS and AB compared with the CON. But, Salmonella spp. decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing doses of BCS. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus on d 35 increased quadratically (P < 0.001) with increasing doses of BCS. Concentrations of glucose and triglyceride in blood were not affected by BCS. Concentrations of cholesterol decreased linearly, while the concentration of total protein increased linearly with increasing doses of BCS.ConclusionThe use of BCS in broiler chickens may improve growth performance, immunity, and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T01:20:34.830832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8237
  • Effect of dietary macronutrients on aflatoxicosis: A mini review
    • Authors: Z. Nurul Adilah; S. Mohd Redzwan
      Abstract: Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. The main route of aflatoxin exposure is through the diet. Indeed, the long term aflatoxin exposure is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aflatoxin causes aflatoxicosis, which can be affected by several factors and it is prevalent in many developing Asian and African countries. This mini review discussed the effects of carbohydrates, fat and protein on aflatoxicosis based on findings from animal and human studies. It was found that high carbohydrate intake enhanced aflatoxicosis occurrence, while low ingestion of carbohydrate with caloric restriction slowed the symptoms associated with aflatoxicosis. Additionally, diets with low protein content worsened the symptoms related to HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. Nevertheless, a study reported that high protein diet favored detoxification of aflatoxin in vivo. There were also conflicting results on the influence of dietary fats as high ingestion of fat enhanced aflatoxicosis development as compared to the low fat diet. Moreover, the types of fat also play a significant role that influence aflatoxin toxicity. In regard to food safety, understanding the influence of macronutrients toward the progression of aflatoxicosis can improve the preventive measures to prevent humans and animals exposure to aflatoxin.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:30:29.396844-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8234
  • Effect of shortening replacement with oleogels on the rheological and
           tomographic characteristics of aerated baked goods
    • Authors: Jeongtaek Lim; Sungmin Jeong, JaeHwan Lee, Sungkwon Park, Jonggil Lee, Suyong Lee
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA great deal of effort has been made to reduce the use of shortening due to a high level of saturated fats as well as the presence of trans fats. Grape seed oil high in unsaturated fats was structured with candelilla wax to form solid-like oleogels that were utilized as a shortening replacer in aerated baked goods, specifically muffins.RESULTSMuffin batters with greater amounts of oleogels exhibited lower viscosity, greater shear-thinning behavior, and less elastic nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels significantly increased the specific gravity of the batters, consequently affecting the muffin volume after baking. X-ray tomography demonstrated that lower fragmentation index (that is, a more connected solid structure) was observed in the oleogel-incorporated muffins that were correlated to more enclosed and isolated air cells. The stress relaxation test showed that the shortening replacement with oleogels produced the muffins with firmer and springier texture. Based on the fatty acid compositions, the ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced from 2.81 to 0.41.CONCLUSIONUse of the oleogels as a shortening replacer at a ratio of 1:3 by weight was effective in producing muffins with comparable quality attributes to the control with shortening.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:26:07.117031-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8235
  • HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) as a fat replacer improves the
           physical properties of low-fat tofu
    • Authors: Woo-kyoung Shin; Louise Wicker, Yookyung Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of the addition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the textural properties of low-fat tofu was investigated. Three fat levels (240, 100, and 30 g kg−1) were used to make tofu, which were identified as C (full-fat tofu), L1, and L2. HPMC (5 g kg−1) was added to soymilk to prepare control and low-fat tofu, designated as CH, L1H, and L2H.RESULTSSoymilk with lower fat level had lower viscosity: 143 (C), 100 (L1), and 42 (L2) cP. The addition of HPMC increased the viscosity of all types of soymilk, particularly in L2H (107 cP). With fat reduction, tofu syneresis increased from 19% (C) to 29% (L2), but syneresis of L2H recovered to 19%, similar to high fat control tofu. The decreased fat resulted in a lower firmness in L2 (0.67 N) from control (0.78 N). Firmness increased to 1.08 N (L2H) tofu, while the firmness of CH was 0.63 N. All types of tofu showed a denser, well-connected and cross-linking structure when HPMC was added, especially in L2 tofu.CONCLUSIONHPMC improved the texture of the low-fat tofu by creating a harder texture and reducing syneresis. HPMC is an effective fat replacer for lower fat soymilk.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:26:04.889002-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8233
  • Potential prebiotic properties of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.)
           agro-industrial byproduct on Lactobacillus species
    • Authors: Francisca Nayara Dantas Duarte; Jéssica Bezerra Rodrigues, Maiara da Costa Lima, Marcos dos Santos Lima, Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco, Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado, Jailane de Souza Aquino, Evandro Leite de Souza
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe prebiotic effects of a cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) agro-industrial byproduct powder (CAP) on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains, namely L. acidophilus LA-05, L. casei L-26 and L. paracasei L-10, was assessed using in vitro experimental models. For this, the growth of the Lactobacillus strains when cultivated in a broth containing CAP (20 or 30 g L−1), glucose (20 g L−1) or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (20 g L−1) were monitored during 48 h; the prebiotic activity scores of CAP were determined; and the changes in pH values, production of organic acids and consumption of sugars in growth media were verified.RESULTSDuring the 48 h-cultivation, similar viable cell counts were observed for the Lactobacillus strains grown in the different tested media. The CAP presented positive prebiotic activity scores toward all the tested Lactobacillus strains, indicating a desirable selective fermentable activity relative to enteric organisms. The cultivation of the Lactobacillus strains in broth containing glucose, FOS or CAP resulted in high viable cell counts, decreased pH, production of organic acids and consumption of sugars over time, revealing intense bacterial metabolic activity.CONCLUSIONThe CAP exert potential prebiotic effects on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains, and should be an added-value ingredient for food industry.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:10:37.232155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8232
  • Suitability of combination of calcium propionate and chitosan for
           preserving minimally processed banana quality
    • Authors: Amin Mirshekari; Babak Madani, John B. Golding
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMarketability of fresh-cut banana slices is limited by the rapid rate of fruit softening and browning. However there is no scientific literature on the role of postharvest calcium propionate and chitosan treatment on quality attributes of fresh cut banana and therefore the aim of this research was to investigate these effects.RESULTSThis study showed that the application of calcium propionate plus chitosan (CaP+Chit) treatment retained higher firmness, ascorbic acid content (AA) content, total antioxidant activity (TAA) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) with lower browning, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activities and microbial growth compared with the control banana slices after five days of cold storage.CONCLUSIONThese results show that CaP+Chit could be used to slow the loss of quality whilst maintaining quality and inhibiting microbial loads.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:10:27.649563-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8231
  • Dry formulations of the biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 using
           fluidised bed drying to control the main postharvest diseases on fruits
    • Authors: Anna Carbó; Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Estanislau Fons, Neus Teixidó
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 has been demonstrated to be effective against several diseases. Consequently, the optimisation of a dry formulation of C. sake to improve its shelf life and manipulability is essential to increase its potential for future commercial applications. The aim of this research was to optimise the conditions to make a dry formulation of C. sake using a fluidised bed drying system and then to determine the shelf life of the optimised formulation and its efficacy against Penicillium expansum on apples.RESULTSThe optimal conditions for the drying process were found to be 40 °C for 45 minutes, and potato starch used as the carrier significantly enhanced the viability. However, none of the protective compounds tested increased the viability of the dried cells. A temperature of 25 °C for 10 min in phosphate buffer was considered the optimum condition to recover the dried formulations. The dried formulations should be stored at 4 °C and air-packaged; moreover, shelf life assays revealed good results after 12 months of storage. The formulated products maintained their biocontrol efficacy.CONCLUSIONA fluidised bed drying system is a suitable process for dehydrating C. sake cells; moreover, the C. sake formulation is easy to pack, store and transport, and it is a cost-effective process.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:45:51.235424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8229
  • Effects of synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity and
           mineral contents in broilers
    • Authors: Y. F. Cheng; Y. P. Chen, X. H. Li, W. L. Yang, C. Wen, Y. R. Kang, A. Q. Wang, Y. M. Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUDThe present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity and mineral contents in broilers. 96 day-old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres Plus) were randomly allocated to 2 groups, and each group consisted of 6 replicates with 8 chicks each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with either 0 or 1.5 g · kg−1 synbiotic consisted of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Clostridium butyricum) and prebiotics (yeast cell wall and xylooligosaccharide) from 1 to 42 days of age.RESULTSCompared with the control group, the supplementation of synbiotic increased average daily gain (P < 0.05) but reduced feed/gain ratio (P < 0.01) in broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. Likewise, dietary synbiotic inclusion increased breast yield (P < 0.05), but decreased abdominal fat (P < 0.01) in broilers. The breast muscle pH value at 24 h postmortem in broilers was elevated with the incorporation of synbiotic (P < 0.05). In contrast, synbiotic supplementation lowered the cooking loss during the heat treatment in water bath, malondialdehyde content, and total Cr content in the thigh muscle in broilers (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONDietary synbiotic supplementation into broilers' diet might be an effective method to improve growth performance and carcass compositions, and produce meat with favorable quality and oxidative stability.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:45:36.954711-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8230
  • Bacterial impregnation of mineral fertilizers improves yield and nutrient
           use efficiency of wheat
    • Authors: Shakeel Ahmad; Muhammad Imran, Sabir Hussain, Sajid Mahmood, Azhar Hussain, Muhammad Hasnain
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of agricultural crops is generally low which results in poor crop yields and low economic benefits to the farmers. Among the various approaches used to enhance FUE, impregnation of mineral fertilizers with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) is attracting a worldwide attention. The present study was aimed to improve growth, yield and nutrient use efficiency of wheat by bacterially impregnated mineral fertilizers.RESULTSResults of the pot study revealed that impregnation of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea with PGPB was helpful in enhancing the growth, yield, photosynthetic rate, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of wheat. However, the plants treated with F8 type DAP and urea, prepared by coating a slurry of PGPB (Bacillus sp. strain KAP6) and compost on DAP and urea granules at the rate of 2.0 g/100 g fertilizer, produced better results than other fertilizer treatments. In this treatment, the growth parameters including plant height, root length, straw yield and root biomass significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased from 58.8-70.0 cm, 41.2-50.0 cm, 19.6-24.2 g/pot and 1.8-2.2 g/pot, respectively. The same treatment improved grain yield of wheat by 20% than un-impregnated DAP and urea (F0). Likewise, the maximum increase in photosynthetic rate, grain NP content, grain NP uptake, NUE and PUE of wheat were also recorded with F8 treatment.CONCLUSIONSThe results suggests that the application of bacterially impregnated DAP and urea is highly effective for improving growth, yield and FUE of wheat.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:50:30.279324-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8228
  • Assessment of biochar and hydrochar as minor to major constituents of
           growing media for containerized tomato production
    • Authors: Fernando Fornes; Rosa M. Belda, Pascual Fernández de Córdova, Jaime Cebolla-Cornejo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChars are emerging materials as constituents of growth media. However, chars of different origin differ in their characteristics and more studies are needed to ratify them for such role. The characteristics of coir mixed with 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 (% v:v) of two biochars, from forest waste (BCH-FW) and from olive mill waste (BCH-OMW), and one hydrochar, from forest waste (HYD-FW), and their effects on growth, yield and fruit quality of two tomato cultivars (Gransol RZ and Cuarenteno) were assessed.RESULTSChars negatively affected plant growth and yield but not fruit quality. The effect was related to the char dose and was larger in HYD-FW and BCH-FW than in BCH-OMW, despite the high salinity of the latter, and more acute in Cuarenteno than in Gransol RZ. The results were discussed on the basis of: the large particle size of BCH-FW, which could have caused low nutrient solution retention and, hence, reduced plant nutrient uptake, and the high water holding capacity, poor aeration and large CO2 emission of HYD-FW, which could lead to root anoxia.CONCLUSIONBCH-OMW can be used at high proportion in media for tomato cultivation. The use of BCH-FW at high proportion might be taken under consideration after adjusting particle size yet this needs additional assays. HYD-FW is inadequate for soilless containerized tomato cultivation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:46:41.236298-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8227
  • Role of microbial inoculation and industrial by-product phosphogypsum on
           growth and nutrients uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous
    • Authors: Abdul-Aziz R. Al-Enazy, Saud S. AL-Oud, Fahad N. AL-Barakah, Adel R. A; Usman
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrients availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg−1), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg−1) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl; Azotobacter chroococcum, phosphate-solubilizing bacterium of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on growth and nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil. Treatment effects on soil chemical and biological properties and the Cd and Pb availability to maize plants were also investigated.RESULTSApplying PG decreased soil pH. The soil available P increased when soil was inoculated and/or treated with CM, especially with PG. The total microbial count and dehydrogenase activity enhanced with PG+CM+Incl treatments. Inoculated soils treated with PG showed significant increases in NPK uptake and maize plant growth. However, the most investigated treatments showed significant decreases in shoot micronutrients. The Cd and Pb were not detected in maize shoots.CONCLUSIONSApplying PG with microbial inoculation improved macro-nutrients uptake and plant growth.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:30:34.539175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8226
  • Investigation into the role of endogenous abscisic acid during ripening of
           imported avocado cv. Hass
    • Authors: Marjolaine D Meyer; Gemma A Chope, Leon A Terry
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe importance of ethylene in avocado ripening has been extensively studied. In contrast, little is known about the possible role of abscisic acid (ABA). The present work studied the effect of 1-MCP (0.3 μL L−1), e + ® Ethylene Remover and the combination thereof on the quality of imported avocado cv. Hass fruit stored for 7 days at 12 °C. Ethylene production, respiration, firmness, colour, heptose (C7) sugars and ABA concentrations in mesocarp tissue were measured throughout storage.RESULTSTreatment with e + ® Ethylene Remover reduced ethylene production, respiration rate and physiological ripening compared with controls. Fruit treated with 1-MCP + e + ® Ethylene Remover and, to a lesser extent 1-MCP alone, had the lowest ethylene production and respiration rate and hence the best preserved quality. Major sugars measured in mesocarp tissue were mannoheptulose and perseitol, and their content was not correlated with ripening parameters. Mesocarp ABA concentration, as determined by mass spectrometry, increased as fruit ripened and was negatively correlated with fruit firmness.CONCLUSIONSResults suggest a relationship between ABA and ethylene metabolism since blocking ethylene, and to a larger extent blocking and removing ethylene, resulted in lower ABA concentrations. Whether ABA influences avocado fruit ripening needs to be determined in future research.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:26:10.134069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8225
  • Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on
           pH, water holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial
           growth in beef during cold storage
    • Authors: Seung Jae Lee; Seung Yun Lee, Gap Don Kim, Geun Bae Kim, Sang Keun Jin, Sun Jin Hur
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDActive packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packagingmaterials with the purpose of hold or extending food product quality and shelf life. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging in beef. Beef loin samples were divided into 3 packaging groups (C: ziplock bag-packaging, T1: vacuum-packaging, T2: active-packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days.RESULTSThe water-holding capacity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in C and T2 than in T1 for up to 7 days of storage. The TBARS value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage. The counts of some microorganism were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage; the total bacterial counts and E. coli count were lowest in T2 at the end of storage.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that active packaging by using self-CO2-generation material can extend the shelf-life similar to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active-packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:11:57.603014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8223
  • Targeted forcing improves quality, nutritional and health value of sweet
           cherry fruit
    • Authors: Verena Overbeck; Michaela Schmitz, Michael Blanke
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTrade and consumers alike require premium quality cherries with high nutritional and health values preferably of local origin. While early fruit imports cannot supply such fruit, a new technology of forcing cherry emerged for an early local supply by covering the crop in spring. In the apparent scarcity of data on the resulting fruit quality, fruit characteristics of forced cherries were compared with those without coverRESULTSSize and weight of forced cherry fruit were successfully increased by 6-14%. The less negative osmotic potential of the forced fruit (−3 to −2 Ψπ) indicates less water stress under spring cover compared with field-grown fruit (−4 Ψπ), as confirmed by the larger fruit size and weight.Greater anti-oxidative potentials in the lipophilic (and hydrophilic extract (control min. 185 mE vs. max. 365 mE under cover) of forced fruit in two cvs showed their healthier attribute in terms of bioactive compounds, supported also by an averaged 14% increase in phenolics, as a response to the modified environmental conditions and was not investigated before.CONCLUSIONThe new technology of covering cherry trees in spring to force flowering and enhance ripening, can improve the synthesis of bioactive compounds and provide the consumer with early high quality fruit..
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:10:52.674833-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8224
  • Stability of color in Spanish-style green table olives pasteurized and
           stored in plastic containers
    • Authors: Antonio Higinio Sánchez; Antonio López-López, Víctor Manuel Beato, Antonio de Castro, Alfredo Montaño
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere is an increasing interest in the use of pasteurizable plastic packaging by the olive industry. In order to investigate the change from traditional glass or varnished can containers to plastic packaging, the proper plastic material that is compatible with fermented olives while maintaining color quality during pasteurization treatment and storage must be selected. This work is focused on color stability in two distinct pasteurizable plastic containers with different oxygen permeability.RESULTSIn PET + MDPE/EVOH (polyethylene terephthalate + medium-density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol) pouches, pasteurization provoked severe browning which drastically decreased their color shelf life ( 6.5 months).CONCLUSIONThe plastic material had a significant effect on the retention of color of the pasteurized product. The use of AlOx-coated PET + MDPE pouches could be an alternative to traditional packaging for the pasteurization and storage of Spanish-style green olives from a color quality standpoint.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T00:55:23.409907-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8222
  • Shrimp Tropomyosin Retains Antibody Reactivity after Exposure to Acidic
    • Authors: Adeseye Lasekan; Hanjuan Cao, Soheila Maleki, Balunkeswar (Balu) Nayak
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlthough shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrix, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denaturation on the immunoreactivity of tropomyosin.RESULTSWhole shrimp experienced either swelling or shrinkage after marination depending on the vinegar pH and the final muscle pH. The extractability of soluble myofibrillar proteins was reduced significantly among shrimp marinated in vinegar at pH 1.0 – 3.5 and a substantial amount of tropomyosin were retained in the insoluble pellets. Consequently, the IgE – binding capacity of tropomyosin was significantly lower in the soluble protein fraction of shrimp marinated at pH 1.0 – 3.5 compared with samples marinated at pH 4.8 and control. However, tropomyosin in the insoluble protein fraction of all marinated shrimp showed strong IgE – binding capacity at all marinating conditions.CONCLUSIONThus, tropomyosin in shrimp exposed to low pH condition retained its allergenic capacity due to the conservation of its linear epitopes. Analysis of the insoluble protein fraction was crucial for the accurate determination of the effect of low pH condition on the immunoreactivity of this allergen.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T00:45:26.904757-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8221
  • Mechanical and barrier properties of maize starch-gelatin composite film:
           effects of amylose content
    • Authors: Kun Wang; Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Junsheng Ding, Shaojing Zhang, Anjun Liu
      Abstract: BackgroundIn order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin based film, three types of maize starches: waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns), and high amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into the gelatin films, and their properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content.ResultsThe thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin films increased depending upon amylose content along with the concentration of starch. Effects of three starches on mechanical properties of gelatin film were governed by amylose content, starch concentration, as well as environment humidity. At 75% RH, the presence of Al and Ns into gelatin matrix increased the film strength but decreased elongation except for Ap, which exhibited an inverse effect. The addition of all starches decreased oxygen permeability of the film, with the lowest value at 20% Al and Ns. All starches, notably when the starch content are 30% led to a decrease in water vapor permeability of the composite films at 90% RH, especially Ns starch. Furthermore, starches improved the thermal stability of the film, to some extent. The FTIR spectra indicated that some weak intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding occurred between gelatin and starch. Moreover, a high degree of B-type crystallinity of starch was characterized in the Gel-Al film by X-ray diffraction.ConclusionTailoring the properties of gelatin film by the incorporation of different types of maize starch provides the potential to develop and extend its new applications in edible food packaging.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T00:45:23.937538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8220
  • Biochemical markers to predict internal browning disorders in ‘Rocha’
           pear during storage under high CO2
    • Authors: Teresa Deuchande; Christian Larrigaudière, Umbelina Guterres, Susana M.P. Carvalho, Marta W. Vasconcelos
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to identify biochemical markers to predict internal browning disorders (IBD) in ‘Rocha’ pear. Fruit from five orchards were stored for 45 days under cold air followed by 100 days in browning inducing controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions (1 kPa O2 + 10 kPa CO2).RESULTSRelationships between concentrations of ethanol (EtOH), acetaldehyde (AcDH), ascorbic acid (AA) and the activities of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and IBD incidence were established. The partial least square (PLS) model using the most promising markers, EtOH and AcDH, explained 89% of the variance in IBD incidence, whereas the univariate models based on the same markers explained between 89 to 94%. In contrast, the models based on AA levels and AA depletion rate only explained 57% and 82% of the variance in IBD incidence, respectively. Models’ validation confirmed the robustness of EtOH for the prediction (R2 = 0.91; RMSE= 11.1) and allowed to propose a threshold level of 30 μL EtOH L−1 above which IBD may occur. Using this threshold value the storage time limit associated to the occurrence of the first IBD symptoms was predicted with an acceptable RMSE of nine days.CONCLUSIONThis work clearly identifies biochemical IBD markers for ‘Rocha’ pear and shows that dynamic changes in ethanol concentration during the beginning of storage may be used to predict IBD development. Therefore, the results presented herein represent a major step forward in the prediction of IBD in ‘Rocha’ pear.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T00:05:27.915925-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8219
  • A comparative study on composition and antioxidant activities of
           supercritical carbon dioxide, hexane and ethanol extracts from blackberry
           (Rubus fruticosus) growing in Poland
    • Authors: Anna Wajs-Bonikowska; Agnieszka Stobiecka, Radosław Bonikowski, Agnieszka Krajewska, Magdalena Sikora, Józef Kula
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLarge quantities of blackberry seeds are produced as a pomace during the processing of juice and jam production – this by-product is a very interesting raw material both for oil manufacturing and as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work the composition, yield and antioxidant activity of three types of Rubus fructicosus pomace extracts isolated by liquid-extraction using solvents of different polarity, as well with supercritical CO2 fluid extraction have been compared.RESULTSThe highest extract yield was reported for Soxhlet extraction using ethanol as a solvent (14.2%). Supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extracts were characterized by the highest content of phytosterols (1445 and 1583 mg/100 g of extract, respectively) among which β-sitosterol was the main one, while the concentration of tocopherols, with predominant γ-isomer, was the highest for both hexane and ethanol extracts, being 2364 and 2334 mg/100 g, respectively. Using GC-MS method 95 volatiles, in which non-saturated aldehydes were predominant, were identified in the essential oil of seed pomace and in the volatile oil isolated from supercritical extract. The ethanolic extract which is characterized by the highest phenolic content (9443 mg GAE/100 g) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (according to ABTS•+ and DPPH• assay).CONCLUSIONAll pomace extracts examined are of high quality, rich in essential omega fatty acids and with a very high content of bioactive compounds, such as phytosterols and tocopherols. The high nutritional value of extracts from berry seed pomace could justify the commercialization of specific extracts not only as food additives but also as cosmetic components.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T07:35:35.305005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8216
  • Partial purification, characterization and thermal inactivation kinetics
           of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase isolated from Kalipatti sapota
           (Manilkara zapota)
    • Authors: Vishwasrao Chandrahas; Chakraborty Snehasis, Ananthanarayan Laxmi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe extraction, purification, and characterization of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were studied for Kalipatti sapota fruit. The crude enzyme extract was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by BioGel P100 size exclusion and Unosphere Q anion-exchange chromatography.RESULTSMolecular weights of 20 kDa (POD) and 24 kDa (PPO) were indicated by SDS-PAGE. A single band was observed on SDS-PAGE with a fold purity of 10.38 and 7.42 for POD and PPO, respectively. Michaelis-Menten constants for POD and PPO were 22.3 and 23.0 mM using guaiacol and catechol as substrates. Thermal inactivation kinetics was studied in the temperature range of 60–95 °C. The crude extract of POD and PPO showed D-values of 2.2-60.2 and 1.0-35.2 min; Z-values of 18.7 ± 0.4 and 16.0 ± 0.3 °C; and activation energies (Ea) 128.6 and 151.0 kJ mol−1, respectively.CONCLUSIONPOD and PPO showed good stability at a wide range of pH and temperature. As reflected by Z and Ea values, the fruit matrix had no significant influence towards enzyme stability. Designing of thermal process should take into consideration D and Z- values of the enzymes along with D and Z- values of microorganisms to obtain a product with better shelf life.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T07:30:39.245624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8215
  • Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile
           compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines
    • Authors: Jing Liu; Nils Arneborg, Torben B. Toldam-Andersen, Mikael A. Petersen, Wender L. P. Bredie
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere has been increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated in Denmark, were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines.RESULTSThe different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, 5 acids, 2 ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulphur compound. The use of M. viticola in sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae resulted in richer berry and fruity flavours in wines. However, the sensory plot showed a more clear separation among wine samples by grape cultivars compared with yeast strains.CONCLUSIONKnowledge on the influence of indigenous non-Saccharomyces strains and grape cultivars on the flavor generation contributed to producing diverse wines in the cool-climate wine regions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T07:30:31.365965-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8218
  • Characterisation of the enzymatic properties of MpAPr1, an aspartic
           protease secreted by the wine yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima
    • Authors: Louwrens Wiid Theron; Marina Bely, Benoit Divol
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMpAPr1, encoding an acid protease from the wine yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima IWBT Y1123, was previously isolated and shown to display potential activity against casein and grape proteins. However, its characterisation remained partial.RESULTSMpAPr1 was cloned into the pGAPZαA vector and transformed into Komagataella pastoris X33 for heterologous expression. After verification of activity, the enzyme properties were characterised. Protease activity within the concentrated supernatant was retained over a pH range of 3.0 to 5.0 and between 10 °C to 50 °C. Optimal conditions for protease activity were found at 40 °C and pH 4.5. Activity was mostly unaffected by the presence of metal ions with the exception of Cu2+ and Ni2+. Furthermore, proteolytic activity was retained in the presence of sugar and ethanol. pH and temperature conditions for MpAPr1 expression in K. pastoris were optimised. Purification was achieved by means of cation exchange chromatography and kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were determined. MpAPr1 activity against grape proteins was confirmed, but the extent of the degradation was dependent on the nature of these proteins and the environmental conditions.CONCLUSIONOverall, the results suggest that MpAPr1 could be applied in food biotechnology processes such as winemaking.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T07:20:22.627454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8217
  • Progress in Modification of Sunflower Oil to Expand its Industrial Value
    • Authors: Saeed Rauf; Nazia Jamil, Sultan Ali Tariq, Maria Khan, Maria Kausar, YalcinKaya
      Abstract: Increasing the sunflower seed oil content as well as improving its quality makes it compatible for industrial demands. This is an important breeding objective of sunflower which increases its market value and ensures high returns for the producers. The present review focuses on determining the progress of improving sunflower seed oil content and modifying its quality by empirical and advanced molecular breeding methods. It is known that the oil content and quality of sunflower oil have been altered through empirical selection methods and mutation breeding programs in various parts of the world. Further improvement in seed oil content and its components (such as phytosterols, tocopherols and modified fatty acid profile) has been slowed down due to lower genetic variation in elite germplasm and complex hereditary of traits. Introgression from wild species can be carried out to modify the fatty acids profile and tocopherol contents with linkage drags. Different transgenes introduced through biotechnological methods may produce novel long chain fatty acids within sunflower oil. Bio-engineering of sunflower oil could allow to be utilized in diverse industrial products such as biodiesel or bioplastics. These results showed that past and current trends of modifying the sunflower oil quality are essential for its further expansion as an oilseed crop.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T04:00:22.951511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8214
  • Application of multi-block analysis and mixture design with process
           variable for development of chocolate cake containing yacon [Smallanthus
           sonchifolius] and maca [Lepidium meyenii]
    • Authors: Marcela Marta Lazaretti Tormena; Luana Tabalipa de Medeiros, Patrícia Casarin de Lima, Gabriela Possebon, Renata Hernandez Barros Fuchs, Evandro Bona
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using the k-means.RESULTSAfter segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group, it is obtained R2ajusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49−1total flour, 0.37−1total flour, 0.14−1total flour and 140.0 mL water) and another for group 2 (0.35−1total flour, 0.65−1total flour and 120.0 mL water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32−1total flour), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data was evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA).CONCLUSIONIt was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified the brownness and the burnt aroma and taste. Meanwhile, a larger proportion of yacon produced better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T04:05:37.778533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8211
  • Characterization of protease and effects of temperature and salinity on
           the biochemical changes during fermentation of Antarctic krill
    • Authors: Yan Fan; Lili Tian, Yong Xue, Zhaojie Li, Hu Hou, Changhu Xue
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDespite their abundance, the Antarctic krill are underutilized for numerous difficulties in commercial processing. Ideally, fermentation technology can be applied to transform them into a popular condiment. Besides the exploration on protease properties, this study aimed to evaluate proteinase activities, pH of the fermentation broth, amino nitrogen, and histamine formed during fermentation at different temperatures and salt treatments.RESULTSEven though activity of the Antarctic krill protease reached a maximum at 40 °C and pH 7, it was stable at 30 °C and pH 7–9. Among the metal ions tested, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ increased protease activity in contrast to Zn2+ and Cu2+. Within each treatment, the highest protease activity and amino nitrogen content, and the lowest histamine level were observed on the 12th day of fermentation. The treatment at 35 °C and 180 g kg -1 salt led to the production of maximum amino nitrogen (0.0352 g kg -1) and low histamine (≤0.0497 g kg -1).CONCLUSIONKrill paste fermented for 12 d at 35 °C with 180 g kg -1 salt exhibited the optimal quality and properties, suggesting an efficient method for fermentation of Antarctic krill and other aquatic resources.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T23:55:42.242737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8209
  • New propolis type from northeast Brazil: chemical composition, antioxidant
           activity and botanical origin
    • Authors: Joselena M. Ferreira; Caroline C. Fernandes-Silva, Antonio Salatino, Giuseppina Negri, Dejair Message
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPropolis is a bee product with wide diversity of biological activity. It has complex composition, which is dependent on its botanical source. The present work aimed at determining the chemical profile, antioxidant activity and botanical origin of two samples of a propolis type from two locations of the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil).RESULTSThe standard chemical characteristics of the RN propolis are similar or superior to the internationally marketed Brazilian green propolis. RN propolis from two locations have high antioxidant activity, corresponding to 10% (municipality of Afonso Bezerra) and 13% (municipality of Alto do Rodrigues) of quercetin activity by the DPPH method and to 15% (both locations) by the β-carotene discoloration method. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analyses revealed that most constituents of the RN propolis are flavonoids, mainly flavonols and chalcones. HPLC-DAD analysis of ethanol extracts revealed a great similarity between the chemical profile of RN propolis and shoot apices of “jurema-preta” (Mimosa tenuiflora, Leguminosae, Mimosoideae).CONCLUSION“Jurema-preta” shoot apices are likely resin sources of RN propolis. The chemical characteristics and antioxidant property of RN propolis provide promising prospects for the introduction of this type of propolis into the apicultural market.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T23:55:36.798327-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8210
  • Supplementing diet with Manitoba lingonberry juice reduces kidney
           ischemia-reperfusion injury
    • Authors: Cara K. Isaak; Pengqi Wang, Suvira Prashar, Karmin O, Daniel C.W. Brown, Samir C. Debnath, Yaw L. Siow
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) contains high levels of anthocyanins which are bioavailable in the kidney and may be protective against ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effect of lingonberry juice on IR-induced stress-activated signaling pathway and inflammatory response in the kidney.RESULTSSprague–Dawley rats subjected to kidney IR had significantly impaired kidney function, with increased activation of the JNK signaling pathway and increased inflammatory response, measured using a multiplex panel containing an extensive array of inflammatory biomarkers. In rats fed 1 mL of lingonberry juice daily for 3 weeks prior to IR, kidney function was protected and attenuation of inflammatory response and JNK signaling was reflected in the reduction of the measured biomarkers. In vitro results in cultured HK-2 cells confirmed that lingonberry anthocyanins reduced JNK signaling and inflammatory gene expression after IR.CONCLUSIONThis study shows, for the first time, that daily supplementation with lingonberry juice may protect against loss of kidney function induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury by modulating JNK signaling and inhibiting the subsequent inflammatory response.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T00:30:49.064157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8200
  • Bioaccessibility of selenium from cooked rice as determined in a simulator
           of the human intestinal tract (SHIME)
    • Authors: Guo-Xin Sun; Tom Van de Wiele, Pradeep Alava, Filip M. G. Tack, Gijs Du Laing
      Abstract: BackgroundAs an essential but also potentially toxic element, both overexposure and underexposure to Se can significantly affect public health. Rice is a common source of selenium (Se), especially in Asia. Not all Se may be released from the rice and become available for absorption into the bloodstream upon digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the bioaccessibility of Se in cooked white (polished) rice was assessed in vitro using the static gastrointestinal simulator SHIME (Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem).ResultsThe common cooking procedure in China prior to consumption, i.e boiling at low rice:water ratios (1:3) until all water is absorbed into the rice, did not change total Se levels in the rice. Gastrointestinal digestion of the cooked rice matrix revealed a Se bioaccessibility between 67-76% of total Se. Subsequent microbial activity in the colon reduced the accessibility of Se in the cooked rice to 51-62%.ConclusionNot all Se present in cooked white rice should be considered as being bioavailable in the small intestine. A minor part is transferred with the remaining food matrix to the colon where it is available for the microbial metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T07:35:21.08269-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8208
  • Irrigation and Fruit Canopy Position Modify Oil Quality of Olive Trees
           (cv. Frantoio)
    • Authors: Giovanni Caruso; Riccardo Gucci, Maria Isabella Sifola, Roberto Selvaggini, Stefania Urbani, Sonia Esposto, Agnese Taticchi, Maurizio Servili
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In this study the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting about 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation.RESULTSFruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position nor irrigation affected the K232, K270, ∆K, and lignans concentration in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment.CONCLUSIONLight and water availability are not only crucial for tree productivity, but they also clearly affect olive oil quality.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T07:11:12.803802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8207
  • Consumers’ expectations and acceptability for low saturated fat
           “salami”: healthiness or taste?
    • Authors: Rosaria Marino; Antonella della Malva, Antonio Seccia, Mariangela Caroprese, Agostino Sevi, Marzia Albenzio
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNutritional properties of meat and meat products are becoming very important in purchasing behavior because consumers are even more concerned about healthiness. The present study aimed to examine the influence of health information on the expected and informed acceptability of salami. Traditional salami and two low saturated fat salami produced with a partial or total substitution of pork backfat with extra-virgin oil were evaluated.RESULTSPerceived acceptability was the lowest in salami with total animal fat substitution. In both low saturated fat salami expected acceptability was significantly higher than in the perceived, while in traditional salami it was lower. Consumers completely assimilated their liking in direction of expectations for salami with partial animal fat substitution, whereas an incomplete assimilation was observed for salami with total animal fat substitution. Results also revealed that some socio demographic characteristics discriminate consumer clusters from each other.CONCLUSIONThe present study highlights that nutritional information is not enough to satisfy consumers' expectations if the product is not sensory acceptable. Findings about the relevance of information and consumers' segmentation could have important implications for policymakers and for the industry of meat products.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:53:10.172121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8205
  • Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino
           acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing
    • Authors: Blanca A. Mondaca-Navarro; Luz A. Ávila-Villa, Aaron F. Gonzalez-Córdova, Jaime Lopez-Cervantes, Dalia I. Sanchez-Machado, Olga C. Campas-Baypoli, Roberto Rodríguez-Ramírez
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMaillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest due to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to the Fe+2 and Cu+2 ion chelating capacity.RESULTSIn the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 μM/mL (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents (μM/mL). In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 μM/mL (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe2+ and Cu2+ was 96.31 and 59.44%, respectively, in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min).CONCLUSIONThe model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing of some foods.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:53:07.416558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8206
  • Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers’ beef
           preferences by external preference mapping
    • Authors: Keisuke Sasaki; Motoki Ooi, Naoto Nagura, Michiyo Motoyama, Takumi Narita, Mika Oe, Ikuyo Nakajima, Tatsuro Hagi, Koichi Ojima, Miho Kobayashi, Masaru Nomura, Susumu Muroya, Takeshi Hayashi, Kyoko Akama, Akira Fujikawa, Hironao Hokiyama, Kuniyuki Kobayashi, Takanori Nishimura
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOver the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. Here we sought to identify the consumer segments in Japanese that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling.RESULTSThree Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef, and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis, and consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as ‘gradual high-fat likers,’ ‘moderate-fat and distinctive-taste likers,’ ‘Wagyu likers,’ and ‘distinctive-texture likers.’ Although the major trend of Japanese consumers’ beef preference was ‘marbling-liking,’ 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers’ attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey was in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the ‘moderate-fat and distinctive-taste likers.’CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:53:06.287293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8204
  • Impact of rhizobial inoculation and reduced N supply on biomass production
           and biological N2-fixation in common bean grown hydroponically
    • Authors: Charis-Konstantina Kontopoulou; Epifanios Liasis, Pietro P.M. Iannetta, Anastasia Tampakaki, Dimitrios Savvas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTesting rhizobial inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in hydroponics enables accurate quantification of biological N2-fixation (BNF) and provides information about the potential of reducing inorganic-N fertilizer use. In view of this background, common bean grown on pumice was inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 (Rt) and supplied with either full-N (total-nitrogen 11.2 mM) or 1/3 of full-N, or N-free nutrient solution (NS). BNF was quantified at the early pod filling stage using the 15N natural abundance method.RESULTSFull-N supply to Rt-inoculated plants resulted in markedly smaller nodules than less- or zero-N supply, and no BNF. Rt inoculation of full-N treated plants did not increase biomass and pod yield compared with non-inoculation. Restriction (1/3 of full-N) or omission of inorganic N resulted in successful nodulation and BNF (54.3 and 49.2 kg N ha−1, corresponding to 58% and 100% of the total plant-N content, respectively) but suppressed dry shoot biomass from 191.7 (full-N, +Rt) to 107.4 and 43.2 g/plant, respectively. The nutrient cation uptake was reduced when inorganic-N supply was less or omitted.CONCLUSIONRt inoculation of hydroponic bean provides no advantage when full-N NS is supplied, while 1/3 of full-N, or N-free NS suppresses plant biomass and yield, partly because the restricted NO3− supply impairs cation uptake.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:52:55.359119-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8202
  • Increased protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with
           arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen fixing bacteria under water
           deficit conditions
    • Authors: Rui S. Oliveira; Patrícia Carvalho, Guilhermina Marques, Luís Ferreira, Mafalda Nunes, Inês Rocha, Ying Ma, Maria F. Carvalho, Miroslav Vosátka, Helena Freitas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a widely cropped pulse and an important source of proteins for humans. In Mediterranean regions it is predicted that drought will reduce soil moisture and become a major issue in agricultural practice. Nitrogen (N) fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and drought tolerance. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of N fixing bacteria and AM fungi and on the growth, grain yield and protein content of chickpea under water deficit.RESULTSPlants inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum or Rhizophagus irregularis without water deficit and inoculated with M. mediterraneum under moderate water deficit had significant increases in biomass. Inoculation with microbial symbionts brought no benefits to chickpea under severe water deficit. However, under moderate water deficit grain crude protein was increased by 13, 17 and 22% in plants inoculated with M. mediterraneum, R. irregularis and M. mediterraneum + R. irregularis, respectively.CONCLUSIONInoculation with N fixing bacteria and AM fungi has potential to benefit agricultural production of chickpea under water deficit conditions and to contribute to increase grain protein content.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:10:30.679045-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8201
  • Deer Leather: Analysis of the Microstructure Affecting Pebble
    • Authors: Hannah C. Wells; Katie Sizeland, Sue M. Cooper, Nigel Kirby, Adrian Hawley, Stephen Mudie, Richard G. Haverkamp
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDeer leather has a characteristic pattern, referred to as “pebble”, that is accorded such importance that a lack of it renders a leather defective. Synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), ultrasonic imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and tear tests are used to investigate the structural characteristics of well pebbled and poorly pebbled cervine leathers.RESULTSPoorly pebbled leather has a less open structure in the upper grain region than well pebbled leather. The orientation index (OI) of leather with a poor pebble is less than that of the well pebbled leather, particularly in the corium. The tear strength is also less for the poorly pebble leather.CONCLUSIONSThe differences in structure between well and poorly pebbled cervine leathers are not the same as the structural differences between tight and loose bovine leathers, to which they are sometimes compared. On the contrary, good pebble may reflect an internal structure similar to that of looseness. It is hoped that methods to prevent a reduction in pebbling during the processing of cervine leather may be developed by applying this knowledge of cervine leather's structural characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:05:22.986159-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8199
  • Extraction, partial purification and characterization of amylase from
           parthenocarpic date (P. dactylifera): effect on the cake quality
    • Authors: Hanen El Abed; Bassem Khemakhem, Imen Fendri, Mouna Chakroun, Mehdi Triki, Noureddine Drira, Hafedh Mejdoub
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic, and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The objective of the present study is to extract biomolecules from parthenocarpic fruit by producing value-added products from the fruits.RESULTSThe optimization extraction of amylolytic activity from parthenocarpic fruit (AmyPF) was carried out using Box Behnken Design (BBD). A partial purification of about 250 folds with an activity yield of 47% was achieved. The amylase exhibited specific activity of 80 U mg−1 of protein. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 5 and 55 °C, respectively. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH (5–10) and a significant stabilization was observed at 60 °C. The purified enzyme belongs to the exo type of amylases. Given the economic and industrial relevance of amylases used in food industries, three different concentrations of AmyPF (0.007, 0.014 and 0.018 U g−1) were incorporated into the cake formulation, resulting in the decrease of density, moisture retention, and water activity and the increase of hardness.CONCLUSIONThe beneficial effect of AmyPF on the technological characteristics of cakes was confirmed by the sensory evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:00:26.612435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8198
  • Issue Information - ToC
    • Pages: 1049 - 1054
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T04:05:38.672561-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7935
  • Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory
           quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)
    • Authors: Tor J Johansen; Jørgen AB Mølmann, Gunnar B. Bengtsson, Monica Schreiner, Pablo Velasco, Anne L Hykkerud, Elena Cartea, Per Lea, Josefine Skaret, Randi Seljåsen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBroccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply at natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70 °N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture.RESULTSAverage results over three summer seasons in Germany, Southern Norway and Northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42 °N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations with exception for most texture attributes.CONCLUSIONResults clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:05:42.297615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8196
  • Chemical characterization and in vitro colonic fermentation of grape
           pomace extracts
    • Authors: Irene Gil-Sánchez; Begoña Ayuda-Durán, Susana González-Manzano, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Carolina Cueva, M. Angeles Martín-Cabrejas, Marisa Sanz-Buenhombre, Alberto Guadarrama, M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas, Begoña Bartolomé
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCurrently, there is growing interest in extracts derived from winery by-products due to their beneficial health properties, which are associated to the presence of bioactive compounds. In this paper, we have carried out the chemical characterization and in vitro colonic fermentation of four grape pomace (GP) extracts rich in polyphenols and dietary fibre.RESULTFirstly, phenolic and dietary fibre composition of the GP extracts was determined. The highest individual phenolic concentrations corresponded to gallic and ellagic acids, followed by catechins and flavonols. The non-digestible fibre fraction ranged from 66% to 83% of the GP extracts, which indicated that they mainly contained non-digestible cell wall components. Secondly, when GP extracts were subjected to fermentation by faecal microbiota, a total of 16 bacterial phenolic metabolites were found in the fermented samples, confirming that polyphenols contained in the GP extracts were metabolized into different active metabolites by microbiota. In addition, the GP extracts tended to promote the growth of intestinal microbiota, although it was only significant for the Enterococcus group.CONCLUSIONThese findings, together with other information available in the literature, support the high added value of products obtained from winery by-products.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:01:43.901582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8197
  • Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on
           calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain
    • Authors: Antonio Rafael Sánchez-Rodríguez; María Carmen del Campillo, José Torrent
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDZinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and fertilizer application on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains.RESULTSWheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively.CONCLUSIONApplying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:01:36.235873-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8195
  • Production of D-allulose from D-glucose by Escherichia coli transformant
           cells co-expressing D-glucose isomerase and D-psicose 3-epimerase genes
    • Authors: Wenli Zhang; Hao Li, Bo Jiang, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDD-Allulose is a novel and low-calorie rare monosaccharide that is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose. Because of its excellent physiological properties and commercial potential, D-allulose has attracted researchers’ interests. Based on the Izumoring strategy, D-allulose is converted from D-fructose by D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase), while D-fructose is converted from D-glucose by D-glucose isomerase (GIase). In this study, we created a cellular system capable of converting D-glucose to D-allulose in a one-step process that co-expressed the GIase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and the DPEase from Dorea sp. CAG.RESULTSThe co-expression plasmid pETDuet-Dosp-DPE/Acce-GI was generated and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. The recombinant co-expression cells exhibited maximum catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 75 °C. These cells were thermostable at less than 60 °C. The addition of Co2+ significantly increased the catalytic activity by 10.8-fold. When the reaction equilibrium was reached, the ratio of D-glucose, D-fructose and D-allulose was approximately 6.5:7:3, respectively.CONCLUSIONA recombinant co-expression strain that catalysed the bioconversion of D-allulose from D-glucose in a one-step process was created and characterized. When adding 500 g L−1 D-glucose as a substrate, 204.3 g L−1 D-fructose and 89.1 g L−1 D-allulose were produced.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T05:13:46.6179-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8193
  • Inclusion of Hermetia illucens larvae meal on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss) feed: effect on sensory profile according to static and dynamic
    • Authors: Monica Borgogno; Caterina Dinnella, Valeria Iaconisi, Renzo Fusi, Claudia Scarpaleggia, Achille Schiavone, Erminio Monteleone, Laura Gasco, Giuliana Parisi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDiet implementation with insect meal arouses increased attention in aquaculture considering the advantages of this new protein source. The effect of Hermetia illucens meal (HI) inclusion in diets on rainbow trout physical-chemical and sensory properties was evaluated. Three diets were prepared: HI0, HI25, HI50, with 0, 25 and 50% of HI replacing fish meal, respectively. Fillet sensory profiles were described by descriptive analysis (DA) and Temporal Dominance of Sensation (TDS) methods. Cooking Loss, WB-Shear Force, proximate analysis, fatty acid composition were also determined.RESULTSDiets significantly affected fillets sensory profile. DA indicated significant changes in perceived intensity of aroma, flavour and texture descriptors as a function of diet composition. TDS evaluations provided information on dominance and evolution of sensations perceived in fillets from different diets. The first sensations perceived as dominant were related to texture attributes, followed by flavours. Dominance of fibrousnesses decreased with the increasing of HI in diet. Boiled fish, algae flavours and umami taste clearly dominated the HI0 dynamic profile. The onset of metallic flavour dominance characterized HI25 and HI50. No differences in physical parameters were detected. Principal component analysis highlighted the relationship between sensory attributes and physico-chemical parameters.CONCLUSIONSensory description of fillets indicated that HI inclusion induces significant differences in the perceived profile.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21T06:15:28.623031-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8191
  • Eco-friendly biorefractory films of gelatin and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose
           ester for food packaging application
    • Authors: Chen Zhuang Furong Tao; Yuezhi Cui
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecent years, many types of food packing films and composites have been prepared by using gelatin due to its good film-forming ability, non-toxic nature and cost-effective. However, the relatively weak thermal stability, poor mechanical properties and easily-degradable quality limit the potential application of gelatin as a practical material. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), as one of the most abundant biomass resources, has been regarded as safe and reliable food additives because the same ingredients with the cellulose of people's daily intake. The food packing films with the excellent properties composed by gelatin and oxidized-cellulose will be an interesting topic.RESULTSMCC was modified by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and chosen as the base of the macromolecule cross-linker (TMN). After modification of gelatin film by TMN, the minimum amount of free -NH2 in the solution was 4.8 × 10−4 mol/g). The thermal property increased obviously (from 322.31 oC to 352.63 oC) and it was crucial for usage in food industry. The highest water contact value 123.09° (η = 25%) indicated better surface hydrophobicity. The higher Eab (58.88%) and lower Em (77.16%) demonstrated a more flexible and shatter-proof material was obtained. Water vapor uptake studies suggested the increased moisture absorption and great swelling ability.CONCLUSIONThe film material obtained in this work was safe, stable, eco-friendly and biorefractory, and also could be decomposed completely by the environment after disposal due to the nature ingredients gelatin and cellulose. The incorporation of cellulosic cross-linker to gelatin-based films was an ideal choice to form a packaging in food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:45:25.26044-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8189
  • Corn-silage replacement with barley-silage in dairy cows’ diet does not
           change milk quality, cheese quality and yield
    • Authors: Migliorati L; Boselli L, Pirlo G, Moschini M, Masoero F.
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConsidering the water availability for agricultural needs is being restricted, alternative to corn in animal nutrition should be explored in the Po Valley. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of either a partial (Trial I) or a total (Trial II) corn-silage substitution with barley-silage in dairy cows’ diet on milk yield and composition, its coagulation properties, cheese yield and the sensorial profile of 16 month-aged Grana Padano cheese.RESULTSA partial or a total substitution of corn-silage with barley-silage had no effect on milk yield. Milk fat content in Trial I and milk urea content in both trials were higher with barley-silage based diets than in corn-silage based diets. In both trials milk characterised by high values of curd firmness (a30) resulted in a higher cheese yield than milk with low values of a30. Sixteen month-aged cheeses were graded as younger than their age because of six texture profile describers.CONCLUSIONA partial or a total substitution of corn-silage with barley-silage in diets for dairy cows did not induce any negative effects on animal performance or on milk-quality traits, cheese quality and yield.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:45:21.423413-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8190
  • Storage stability of packaged baby formula in poly(lactide)-whey protein
           isolate laminated pouch
    • Authors: Thunyaluck Phupoksakul; Manusawee Leuangsukrerk, Anongnat Somwangthanaroj, Kanitha Tananuwong, Theeranun Janjarasskul
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe use of biodegradable polymeric materials have been proposed as environmentally-friendly alternatives to petroleum-based packaging. In order to extend the shelf life of food products, these bioplastics must possess the appropriate barrier properties and food-package stability. In this study, the shelf life analyses of packaged baby formula in biopolymeric, multilayer film, fabricated from poly(lactide) (PLA) and whey protein isolate (WPI), PLA/WPI/PLA and PLA pouches were performed at 4-35°C, 50-59%RH.RESULTDespite the possible sorption of food components into contact PLA surfaces, the result showed that transparency and barrier properties of PLA-based pouches were insignificantly changed over time (p > 0.05), although the films showed a slow rate of color change. The baby formula packaged in PLA/WPI/PLA had a delayed lipid oxidation compared to the sample in the PLA pouch, especially at higher temperature. The application of WPI in the multilayer structure shifted the shelf life determination factor from lipid oxidation to moisture gain.CONCLUSIONThe results indicated that the PLA/WPI/PLA pouch showed good storage stability. The film could be used to package dry food properly at 4-35°C, 50-59% RH, for an extended period of time.
      PubDate: 2016-12-18T22:00:28.294098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8187
  • Phenotypic characterization of qualitative parameters and antioxidant
           contents in peach and nectarine fruit and changes after jam preparation
    • Authors: P. Drogoudi; D. Gerasopoulos, M. Kafkaletou, E. Tsantili
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSugars and antioxidants in peaches contribute to fresh fruit quality and nutrition; however information on widely grown cultivars and changes induced after peach jam preparation is limited. In the present study colour, sugars and antioxidant parameters were determined in fruit and jam from 45 peach and nectarine cultivars.RESULTSPronounced varietal differences were found in sorbitol (42-fold range), total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacities (10- to 19-fold range). Sorbitol levels were greater in non-melting peach, followed by nectarine and lower values were found in melting peach cultivars. Late-harvested peach and nectarine cultivars tended to have higher soluble solid content and antioxidant potential. Cultivars with relatively high antioxidant contents produced darker and redder jams, containing more antioxidants, than the jam or the fruit from the other cultivars. Jam-TPs were reduced by 48% compared with fruit-TPs, with greater reduction noticed in high antioxidant cultivars. The most favorable jam organoleptic characteristics were found in ‘Morsiani 90’, ‘Amiga’, ‘Romea’ and ‘Alirosada’, and in non-melting compared with melting peach cultivars.CONCLUSIONThe best cultivars for each fruit flesh type and jam were identified. Peach jam could be an alternative substitute when fresh fruit is not available, when prepared with high antioxidant cultivars.
      PubDate: 2016-12-18T22:00:25.287758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8188
  • Oxidative stability of sesame and flaxseed oils and their effects on
           morphometric and biochemical parameters in an animal model
    • Authors: Priscila S Figueiredo; Camila J Candido, Jeandre AS Jaques, Ângela A Nunes, Anderson RL Caires, Flávio Santana Michels, Jeeser A Almeida, Wander FO Filiú, Priscila A Hiane, Valter A Nascimento, Octavio L Franco, Rita CA Guimarães
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSesame and flaxseed oils, which are rich in essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are widely consumed. We have determined the optical behavior with the quality and identity of cold-pressed sesame and flaxseed oils. The effects of these oils and their combinations on metabolic parameters in animal models were also measured.RESULTSFlaxseed oil emitted carotenoid fluorescence (500-650 nm), but it was more unstable than sesame oil, which had a larger induction period by the Rancimat method. The greater stability of sesame may be due to the lower quantity of linolenic fatty acids. These oils were added to the feed of 56 rats, while animal fat was used for the control group (CG). The SO (sesame oil), FO (flaxseed oil) and SFO (sesame + flaxseed oils) groups showed a significantly reduced adiposity index and blood glucose compared to CG, while total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides were lower in FO and SFO (P
      PubDate: 2016-12-18T22:00:23.370829-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8186
  • Determination of Isoflavone (Genistein and Daidzein) Concentration of
           Soybean Seed as Affected by Environment and Management Inputs
    • Authors: Randy Laurenz; Pavani Tumbalam, Seth Naeve, Kurt D. Thelen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIsoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, are produced in soybean seed (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and may be associated with health benefits in the human diet. More research is required to determine the effect of agronomic soybean treatments on isoflavone concentration. In this study from 2012 to 2014 at Michigan State University and Breckenridge locations, we have have evaluated agronomic input management systems which are marketed to increase or protect potential soybean grain yield, including: nitrogen fertilization; herbicide-defoliant; foliar applied fertilizer; a biological-based foliar application; foliar applied fungicide; foliar applied insecticide; a seed applied fungicide; and a maximized seed treatment that included fungicide and insecticide as well as an inoculant and lipo-chitooligosaccharide nodulation promoter; for their effect on soybean seed genistein and daidzein concentrations.RESULTSPaired comparisons were made between treatments receiving a designated management input and those without the input. Year and location had a significant effect on isoflavone concentrations. Agronomic management inputs impacted soybean seed daidzein concentrations in 15 of 48 field observations and genistein concentrations in 11 of 48 observations.CONCLUSIONThe research supports findings that soybean seed isoflavone levels exhibit a location specific response, and the temporal variability experienced between years appears to influence changes in soybean isoflavone levels more than location.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:20:32.163346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8184
  • Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried
           straw mulch
    • Authors: Zhibin Guo; Hui Liu, Shuixia Wan, Keke Hua, Chaoqiang Jiang, Daozhong Wang, Chuanlong He, Xisheng Guo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStraw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a two-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilization alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha−1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0–15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha−1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15–30 cm (NPKDW).RESULTSNPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilization alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15–30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0–15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15–30 cm.CONCLUSIONSThe comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15–30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:20:28.747836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8183
  • Characterization of electrospun gelatine nanofibres encapsulated with
           Moringa oleifera bioactive extract
    • Authors: Norziah M Hani; Amir E Torkamani, Mohammad H Azarian, Kamil WA Mahmood, Siti Hawa Nagalim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves have been used as a folk herbal medicine across many cultures since long ago. This is most probably due to presence of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant properties which could retard oxidative stress and their degenerative effect. The current study deals with nanoencapsulation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethanolic extract within fish sourced gelatine matrix using electrospinning technique.RESULTSThe total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC50) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE/ g sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE/g extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/ml and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe (II)/g extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80-85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content were significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption.CONCLUSIONOverall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method; where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:20:26.130389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8185
  • Production of oridonin-rich extracts from Rabdosia rubescens using
           hyphenated ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction
    • Authors: Yu-Chiao Yang; Pei-Hui Lin, Ming-Chi Wei
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAmong active components in Rabdosia rubescens, oridonin has been considered a key component and the most valuable compound because it has a wide range of activities beneficial to human health. To produce a high-quality oridonin extract, an alternative hyphenated procedure involving an ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2) extraction method to extract oridonin from R. rubescens was developed in this study. Fictitious solubilities of oridonin in supercritical CO2 (SC–CO2) with ultrasound-assisted were measured by using the dynamic method at temperature ranging from 305.15 K to 342.15 K over a pressure range of 11.5 to 33.5 MPa.RESULTSFictitious solubilities of oridonin at different temperatures and pressures were over the range of 2.13 × 10−6 to 10.09 × 10−6 (mole fraction) and correlated well with the density-based models, including the Bartle model, the Chrastil model, the Kumar and Johnston model and the Mendez-Santiago and Teja model, with an overall average absolute relative deviation (AARD) of 6.29%, 4.39%, 3.12% and 5.07%, respectively.CONCLUSIONOridonin exhibits retrograde solubility behavior in the supercritical state. Fictitious solubility data were further determined and obtained a good fit with four semi-empirical models. Simultaneously, the values of the total heat of solution, vaporization and solvation of oridonin were estimated.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T02:05:35.495441-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8182
  • Effect of pretreatment on rehydration, colour and nanoindentation
           properties of potato cylinders dried using mixed-mode solar dryer
    • Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant; Punyadarshini P Tripathy, Shanker L Shrivastava
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDesirable quality estimation is an important consumer driver for wider acceptability of mixed-mode solar drying of potatoes in food industries. The aim of this study is to characterize rehydration, colour, texture, nanoindentaion and microstructure of dried potato samples and to establish the influence of pre-drying treatment on above qualities.RESULTSThe water absorption capacity and rehydration ability of solar dried potato were significantly influenced by pretreatment followed by rehydration temperature and sample diameter. The redness index (a*) of pretreated dried samples was lower with simultaneous higher value of yellowness index (b*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*). Also, the average nanohardness (H) of pretreated samples increased significantly by 22.64% compared to that of untreated samples. The average reduced modulus (Er) and Young's modulus (Es) of dried potato samples were 1.865 GPa and 1.403 GPa respectively. Moreover, creep displacement of 43.27 nm was traced in the untreated potato samples during 20 second dwell time under a constant load of 200 μN in nanoindentation test. Micrographs revealed more uniform pore spaces in pretreated samples.CONCLUSIONPretreated thinner potato samples achieved better quality dried products in terms of rehydration, colour, texture and nanohardness indices with significant improved microstructure and creep resistance properties.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T01:21:21.836536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8181
  • Determination of oxathiapiprolin concentration and dissipation in grapes
           and soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass
    • Authors: Yu PZ; Zhao EC, Jia CH, Chen L, He HJ, Jing JJ, He M
      Abstract: BACHGROUNDThe residue concentrations and dissipation rate of a new oxathiapiprolin fungicide in the grapes and soil were investigated to provide an evaluation for the safe use of oxathiapiprolin in grape. Pesticide residue was extracted by acetonitrile, then purified by SPE with Envi-Carb cartridge and determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.RESULTSThe fortified recoveries ranged from 85.2%-99.0% with relative standard deviations of 1.7%-4.5%. The limit of quantitation for oxathiapiprolin in the grapes and soil was 0.002 mg kg−1. The mean initial deposits of oxathiapiprolin in grapes were 0.345- 0.565 mg kg−1 with half-lives of 8.6-9.2 days. The mean initial deposits of oxathiapiprolin in soil were 0.078-0.273 mg kg−1 with half-lives of 7.6-12.0 days. The oxathiapiprolin residue in the grapes and soil was 0.002-0.022 mg kg−1 and 0.002-0.123 mg kg−1 after sampling 14 days, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe residue in the grapes was less than 0.01 mg kg−1 after sampling 28 days, which suggested that the application rate of 20 mg−1 for this fungicide should be used to ensure that treated grapes can be considered safe for humans to consume when sampling 28 days after the final application.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:55:39.374804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8178
  • Authentic sheep meat in the European Union: Factors influencing and
           validating its unique meat quality
    • Authors: Sara W. Erasmus; Magdalena Muller, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Abstract: Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensorial quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:55:38.242807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8180
  • Combined Effect of Carnosol, Rosmarinic acid and Thymol on the Oxidative
           Stability of Soybean Oil Using a Simplex Centroid Mixture Design
    • Authors: Salma Saoudi; Nadia Chammem, Ines Sifaoui, Ignacio A. Jiménez, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, José E. Piñero, Maha Bouassida-Beji, Moktar Hamdi, Isabel L. Bazzocchi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOxidation taking place during the use of oil, leads to the deterioration of both nutritional and sensorial qualities. Natural antioxidants from herbs and plants are rich in phenolic compounds and could be therefore more efficient than synthetic ones to prevent lipid oxidation reactions. This study was aimed at the valorization of Tunisian aromatic plants and their active compounds as new sources of natural antioxidant preventing oil oxidation.RESULTSCarnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol were isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus capitatus by column chromatography and were analyzed by NMR. Their antioxidant activities were measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. These active compounds were added into soybean oil at different proportion using a simplex-centroid mixture design. Antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of oils were carried out before and after 20 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C.CONCLUSIONResults showed that bioactive compounds are effective in maintaining oxidative stability of soybean oil. However, the binary interaction of rosmarinic acid and thymol caused reduction in antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of soybean oil. Optimum conditions for maximum antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were found to be an equal ternary mixture of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:55:30.299576-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8179
  • Transgenic modification of potato pectic polysaccharides also affects type
           and level of cell wall xyloglucan
    • Authors: Jie-Hong Huang; Rui Jiang, Anne Kortstee, Dianka C.T. Dees, Luisa M. Trindade, Harry Gruppen, Henk A. Schols
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGenes encoding pectic enzymes were introduced into wild-type potato Karnico. Cell wall materials were extracted from Karnico and transgenic lines expressing β-galactosidase (β-Gal-14) or rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RGL-18). Pectic polysaccharides from the β-Gal-14 transgenic line exhibited rhamnogalacturonan-I structural elements with shorter galactan side chains, while the RGL-18 transgenic line had less rhamnogalacturonan-I structures than Karnico. Xyloglucan in primary cell walls interacts with pectin and other cell wall polysaccharides and controls cell growth.RESULTSXyloglucan extracts from transgenic lines had different levels of monosaccharides compared to wild-type. Most XXGG-type xyloglucans from Karnico and RGL-18 alkali-extractable extracts predominantly consisted of XXGG and XSGG building blocks. Karnico and RGL-18 4M extracts had small proportions of the XXXG-type xyloglucan, where as β-Gal-14 extracts also contained the XXXG-type xyloglucan. The peak ratios of XSGG/XXGG were 1.9, 2.4 and 1.1 for 4M extracts of Karnico, RGL-18 and β-Gal-14 lines, respectively.CONCLUSIONSAfter transgenic modification on pectin, the xyloglucan building blocks may have been changed. The β-Gal-14 lines mostly present XXXG-type repeating units instead of the XXGG-type in 4M extract. The ratio of XSGG/XXGG repeating units also changed, indicating that the transgenic modification of pectin altered xyloglucan structure during plant development.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:33.153139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8172
  • Purification and characterization of peroxidase from sprouted green gram
           (Vigna radiata) roots and removal of phenol and p-chlorophenol by
           immobilized peroxidase
    • Authors: Shaik Akbar Basha; Ummiti JS Prasada Rao
      Abstract: BackgroundPeroxidase activity was increased during germination of green gram and its increase may have benefits in many physiological processes. The present study is to investigate the optimum conditions for the extraction, purification and characterization of peroxidase from the germinated green gram roots and also its application for the removal of phenols in water.ResultsPeroxidase activity was increased by 300-fold in five-day germinated green gram. As root was rich in peroxidase activity, peroxidase from roots was isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified peroxidase showed a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 50 kDa, with an optimum pH of 5.5 and with pH stability ranging from 5 to 9. The enzyme had 50% residual activity at 70 °C. It catalysed the oxidation of a variety of substrates. The Km value of enzyme for o-dianisidine was 1.28 mmol L−1 and for H2O2, it was 0.045 mmol L−1. The enzyme lost 100% activity in the presence of dithiothreitol and cysteine. Addition of copper ion increased the enzyme activity by 3-fold. Both soluble and immobilized peroxidases removed more phenol than p-chlorphenol, whereas horseradish peroxidase removed more p-chlorphenol. Thus, the green gram root peroxidase showed good pH and temperature stability, and had ability to remove phenolic compounds from effluent.ConclusionPeroxidase with good thermal and pH stability was purified from germinated green gram roots and has the ability to oxidise phenolic compounds from waste water.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:29.813855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8173
  • Italian and Spanish commercial tomato sauces for pasta dressing: study of
           sensory and head-space profiles by Flash Profiling and SPME-GC-MS
    • Authors: Alessandra Bendini; Anna Vallverdu-Queralt, Enrico Valli, Rosa Palagano, Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventos, Tullia Gallina Toschi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe sensory and head-space profiles of Italian and Spanish commercial tomato sauces have been studied. The Flash Profiling method was used to evaluate the sensory characteristics and samples within each set and were ranked according to selected descriptors. A hundred volatile compounds were identified by SPME-GC-MS.RESULTSFor Italian samples, the sensory notes of basil/aromatic herbs, acid and cooked tomato were among the most perceived by assessors, whereas in Spanish ones the sensory attributes of garlic/onion, onion/sweet pepper and, as for the Italian ones, cooked tomato were among the most frequently found. Data were elaborated by multivariate statistical approaches and interesting correlations were seen among different sensory attributes and related volatile compounds.CONCLUSIONSSpanish samples were characterized by highest content of volatiles linked to thermal treatment of tomatoes and to raw and sautéed garlic and onion, whereas the Italian ones by terpenic compounds typical of basil and volatile molecules derived from fresh tomato. These results confirm the influence of formulation and production processes on the aromatic profile (sensory attributes and volatile compounds) of tomato products probably linked to different eating habits and culinary tradition in Italy and Spain.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:25.304023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8174
  • Potassium uptake and redistribution in cabernet sauvignon and syrah grape
           tissues and its relationships with grape quality parameters
    • Authors: María Concepción Ramos; María Paz Romero
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, and with and without leaf thinning. K in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids.RESULTSDifferences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but in grape tissues the differences were not significant in all samplings with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. K levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest and K was mainly accumulated in skins and to a lesser extent in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids while the correlation with titratable acidity was negative.CONCLUSIONSGrape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K while titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole but differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This poses the need for considering K berry concentration in order to optimise K fertilisation programmes.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:50:24.303469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8175
  • Microwave enhanced oxidation treatment of organic fertilizers
    • Authors: Abhilasha More; Asha Srinivasan, Ping Huang Liao, Kwang Victor Lo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLiquid organic fertilizers (LOF) are relatively easy to degrade than those of solid organic fertilizers, and the nutrients are readily available for plant uptake. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation treatment (MW/H2O2-AOP) was used to convert solid organic fertilizers (insoluble blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, sunflower ash and a mixture) into LOF.RESULTSAfter the MW/H2O2-AOP treatment, high soluble nitrogen (11 to 29%), soluble phosphorus (64%) and potassium (92%), as well as low total suspended solids content could be obtained. The resulting LOF would make the nutrients more bioavailable, and would provide some of them for the plant uptake immediately. Temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage were found to be significant factors affecting nitrogen release from blood meal and feather meal, while temperature and pH were found to be significant factors for solubilizing phosphorus and potassium from bone meal and ash, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe MW/H2O2-AOP reduced suspended solids, and released nutrients into solution; therefore, it was an effective treatment method to make LOF.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:20:31.431217-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8171
  • Sucrose replacement in high ratio white layer cakes
    • Authors: Rebecca A. Miller; Orelia E. Dann, Amanda R. Oakley, Megan E. Angermayer, Katherine H. Brackebusch
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeveral commercially available alternative sweeteners have potential in reducing the caloric content of baked products. Sugar alcohols and natural sweeteners have similar bulk as sucrose and can replace sucrose directly. High intensity sweeteners have high potency but light weight so bulking agents are often added. This study determined alternative sweeteners and combinations of alternative sweetener and a bulking agent that produced good quality white layer cakes.RESULTSCakes made with maltitol were acceptable but erythritol and fructose produced undesirable cakes. Maltodextrin and polydextrose were acceptable bulking agents, producing cakes that were similar to control cakes. The flavor of cakes sweetened with sucralose was acceptable but those with stevia had a disagreeable metallic aftertaste. Cakes made with sucralose plus maltodextrin were preferred over those containing sucralose plus polydextrose. Consumer acceptance of flavor, texture and overall liking of cakes containing maltitol was similar to sucrose and both were preferred over cakes containing maltodextrin plus sucralose.CONCLUSIONReplacing sucrose with maltitol in white layer cakes reduced the caloric content by 16% with no loss in quality.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:20:14.761748-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8170
  • Impacts of fat from ruminants’ meat on cardiovascular health and
           possible strategies to alter its lipid composition
    • Authors: Vargas-Bello-Pérez E; Larraín R. E
      Abstract: In the last decades there has been an increased consumer interest in the fatty acid (FA) composition of ruminant meat due to its content of saturated FA, which have been implicated in diseases associated with modern life. However, recent studies have questioned the recommendations to reduce intake of fat, saturated FA and cholesterol as a mean of reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, ruminant meat has some bioactive lipids such as C18:1t11 and C18:2 c9, t11 which have been reported to have positive effects on human health. In order to improve muscle fat composition from a human health standpoint, oilseeds, plant oils and marine oils can be used in ruminant diets. On the other hand, molecular mechanisms play an important role in the alteration of the FA composition of muscle fat. Genetics offer a wide range of possibilities for improvement of muscle fat composition by identifying different loci underlying the expression of quantitative traits. While significant progress has been made in characterizing the influence of diet on the FA composition of ruminant meat, the use of genetic tools can favor genotypes that could maximize their genetic potential through the diet.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:19:46.246368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8168
  • Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term
           fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce
    • Authors: Yang Yang; Yue Deng, Yulan Jin, Yanxi Liu, Baixue Xia, Qun Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSoy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavor. In this study, both culture-dependent and independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to four years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage.RESULTSGenera of Bacillus, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P < 0.05). For microbial community structure, subsequent analyses showed that obvious changes occurred with fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage.CONCLUSIONSThe clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of four years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:19:40.51686-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8169
  • Anti-hypercholesterolemic influence of the spice cardamom (Elettaria
           cardamomum) in experimental rats
    • Authors: Shamarao Nagashree; Kottangada K. Archana, Pullabhatla Srinivas, Krishnapura Srinivasan, Halagur B. Sowbhagya
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is an aromatic seed spice grown extensively in India and used as a flavoring in sweets. The anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of cardamom was evaluated in Wistar rats by inducing hypercholesterolemia with a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made with (a) Cardamom powder (50−1), (b) Cardamom oil (3−1) (equivalent to 50−1 cardamom), and (c) de-oiled cardamom powder (50−1).RESULTSSignificant reduction in the blood total cholesterol (31%) and LDL cholesterol (44%) was observed by oral administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats accompanied by a marked decrease in serum triglycerides by 42%. Cholesterol content of cardiac muscle was beneficially lowered by 39% with administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats. Liver triglycerides were reduced by 33%. Incorporation of cardamom oil/powder in diet did not alter the feed consumption in rats. Compromised activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes under hypercholesterolemic situation were generally countered by dietary cardamom. Treatment with de-oiled cardamom as well as cardamom oil countered the diminished activity of catalase in hypercholesterolemic animals. Cardamom also enhanced the activity of heart superoxide dismutase in hypercholesterolemic situation. Ascorbic acid concentration in circulation was significantly increased by dietary cardamom or its fractions in hypercholesterolemic situation.CONCLUSIONSThis animal study has thus established the potential of cardamom oil in restoring the alteration in lipid homeostasis in conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Significant reduction of atherogenicity index by dietary intervention with cardamom powder and cardamom oil indicates the potential cardio protective effect of cardamom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26T04:20:22.344244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8165
  • Phytate/calcium molar ratio does not predict accessibility of calcium in
           ready-to-eat dishes
    • Authors: Daniela Erba; Federica Manini, Erika Meroni, Maria C. Casiraghi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytic acid (PA), a naturally occurring compound of plant food, is generally considered to affect mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the PA/calcium molar ratio as a predictive factor of calcium accessibility in composed dishes and their ingredients.RESULTSWe chose dishes whose ingredients were rich in Ca (milk or cheese) or in PA (whole-wheat cereals) in order to consider a range of PA/Ca ratios (from 0 to 2.4) and measure Ca solubility using an “in vitro” approach. The amounts of soluble Ca in composed dishes were consistent with the sum of soluble Ca from ingredients (3 out of 5 meals) or higher. Among the whole-wheat products, bread showed higher Ca accessibility (71%, PA/Ca = 1.1) than biscuits (23%, PA/Ca = 0.9) and pasta (15%, PA/Ca = 1.5), and among Ca-rich ingredients, semi-skimmed milk displayed higher Ca accessibility (64%) than sliced cheese (50%) and Parmesan (38%). We found no significant correlation between PA/Ca ratio and Ca accessibility (p = 0.077).CONCLUSIONThe reliability of the PA/Ca ratio for predicting the availability of calcium in composed dishes is unsatisfactory; data emphasized the importance of the overall food matrix influence on mineral accessibility.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T05:40:26.571145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8163
  • Valorization of functional properties of extract and powder of olive
           leaves in raw and cooked minced beef meat
    • Authors: Fathia Aouidi; Aicha Okba, Moktar Hamdi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive leaves (OL), resulting with a huge amount from pruning, were known to be a useful source for biologically active compounds. This paper investigates the potential application of OL as a supplement to minced beef meat, in order to develop a functional product. The effect of OL extract or powder (100, 150 µg phenols g−1of meat) on quality and stability of raw and cooked meat, during refrigerated storage, was examined.RESULTSMicrowave drying at 600w gave OL with the highest antioxidant quality (evaluated by TEACphenols and by DPPHphenols , compared to other methods. OL showed an ability to inhibit (P
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T05:40:25.041601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8164
  • The effect of pH and amino acids on the formation of methylglyoxal in
           glucose-amino acid model system
    • Authors: Pei Yu; Xian-Bing Xu, Shu-Juan Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMethylglyoxal (MGO) as a α-dicarbonyl compound not only affects food flavor and color but also contributes to the loss of nutrition and the generation of toxic compounds. The study was carried out using glucose-amino acids model system incubated at 120 °C to investigate the effect of amino acids and pH on the formation of MGO. MGO derivative (2-methylquinoxaline) was detected by a high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Changes of glucose, amino acids and products such as acetic acid were tested using a high performance anion exchange chromatography with an electrochemical detector or an electrical conductivity detector.RESULTSLysine and glycine had higher reactivity to form MGO and melanoidins than arginine and proline. More acetic acid was produced and a higher consumption of arginine was observed in glucose-arginine solution. Moreover, higher pH significantly accelerated the formation of MGO.CONCLUSIONAmino reactivity and pH were two important factors to affect the formation of MGO in the Maillard reaction.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:32.638067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8158
  • Chemical composition of microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis and
           Dunaliella tertiolecta with emphasis on carotenoids
    • Authors: Andressa Bacalau Diprat; Tania Menegol, Juliana Ferreira Boelter, Ariane Zmozinski, Maria Goreti Rodrigues Vale, Eliseu Rodrigues, Rosane Rech
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicroalgae have been used as food supplements due their high protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoid contents. As different carotenoids have distinct properties, and carotenoid composition from microalgae were poorly explored in the literature, this study determined the complete carotenoid composition from two microalgae species, Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and a mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS2). Additionally, the proximate composition and major minerals were evaluated.RESULTSThe carotenoid composition of both the microalgae was similar. Thirteen carotenoids were found in H. luteoviridis and twelve in D. tertiolecta. The major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (1.18 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 1.59 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta), all-trans-violaxanthin (0.52 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.45 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta) and all-trans-β-carotene (0.50 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.62 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta). All-trans-lutein was the predominant carotenoid in both microalgae, representing around 40 % (mass fraction) of the total carotenoids. The lutein content found in these microalgae was significantly higher (2-40 times) than other important food sources of lutein (e.g. parsley, carrots, red peppers, broccolis).CONCLUSIONThe microalgae H. luteoviridis and D. tertiolecta are excellent sources of lutein that could be commercially exploited by food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, it was confirmed that both the microalgae are good sources of protein, lipids and calcium.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:23.688895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8159
  • Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for
           characterization of geographical origin and agronomic practices of table
    • Authors: Francesco Longobardi; Grazia Casiello, Valentina Centonze, Lucia Catucci, Angela. Agostiano
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported about the geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios.This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. 2H/1H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 18O/16O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional vs. organic farming) and the provenance of table grape.ResultsIn order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t-test was carried out in light of which, only δ13C and δ18O provide statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) for the discrimination of geographical origin and farming method. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed no good separation of samples different for geographical area and agronomic practice, therefore, for classification aims, supervised approaches were carried out. In particular, General Discriminant Analyses (GDA) was used, resulting in prediction abilities of 75.0% and 92.2% for the discrimination of farming methods and origin, respectively.ConclusionThe present findings suggest that stable isotopes (i.e. δ18O, δ2H and δ13C) combined with chemometrics, can be successfully applicable to discriminate the provenance of table grape. However, the use of bulk nitrogen isotopes was not effective for the farming discrimination.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:12:54.063704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8161
  • Effect of high pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall
           quality parameters of white grape juice
    • Authors: Yin-Hsuan Chang; Sz-Jie Wu, Bang-Yuan Chen, Hsiao-Wen Huang, Chung-Yi Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP) over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage.RESULTSResults showed that HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeast counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences when compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids, and remained less than 50% of PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice.CONCLUSIONThis study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf-life during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:00:22.289252-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8160
  • Water dynamics of Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn powder and effects of moisture
           absorption on its chemical properties
    • Authors: Songyi Lin; Peiyu Xue, Shuailing Yang, Xingfang Li, Xiuping Dong, Feng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study has elucidated moisture dynamics in the soybean peptide, Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn (SHECN) powder by using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) and NMR. We also tried to investigate the effects of moisture absorption on the biological activity and chemical properties of SHECN with some effective methods such like mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and GC-MS.RESULTSThe DVS results showed the maximum moisture absorption of SHECN could reached 33% and the SHECN powder after synthesis actually existed in a trihydrate state of SHECN·3H2O. LF-NMR revealed that four water proportions were involved in SHECN moisture absorption and combined water was dominant in its hygroscopicity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MIR results indicated moisture absorption could change the morphology and structure of SHECN. After moisture absorption at 50% and 75% relative humidity, 19 volatiles were identified by GC-MS analysis. Additionally, this study showed a part of reductive groups in SHECN was oxidized and its antioxidant ability declined significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T10:25:30.641017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8154
  • Laboratory-Scale Milling of Whole-Durum Flour Quality: Effect of Mill
           Configuration and Seed Conditioning
    • Authors: Lingzhu Deng; Frank A Manthey
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDResearch was conducted to develop a laboratory milling procedure to make whole-durum flour. An ultra-centrifugal mill was evaluated by determining the effect of mill configuration and seed conditioning on particle size distribution and quality of whole-wheat flour.RESULTSParticle size of whole-wheat flour decreased as screen aperture decreased from 1,000 to 250 µm; as rotor speed increased from 6,000 to 18,000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg−1. Feed rate during milling did not affect particle size distribution. Starch damage decreased as screen aperture increased; as rotor speed increased from 6,000 to12,000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg−1. Flour temperature varied with milling parameters but did not exceed 34 °C.CONCLUSIONUltra-centrifugal mill configured with rotor speed of 12,000 rpm, screen aperture of 250 µm, and seed conditioning moisture of 90 g kg−1 resulted in a fine whole-wheat flour where 82 % of particles were
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T22:35:20.812468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8156
  • Study of heat-moisture treatment of potato starch granules by chemical
           surface gelatinization
    • Authors: Josiane Bartz; Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNative potato starch was heat-moisture treated (HMT) at 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 % of moisture content at 110 °C for 1 h and the effects on morphology, structure, thermal and physicochemical properties were investigated. To reveal the internal structure, 30 and 50 % of the granular surface were removed by chemical surface gelatinization in concentrated LiCl solution.RESULTSAt moisture contents of 12 and 15 %, the HTM reduced the gelatinization temperatures and relative crystallinity of the starches while at moisture contents of 21 and 24 % both increased. The alterations on morphology, X-ray pattern, physicochemical properties and increase of amylose content were more intense with the increase of moisture content of HMT.CONCLUSIONThe removal of granular layers showed that the changes promoted by HMT occur throughout the whole granule and was pronounced at the core or peripheral region depending of the moisture content applied during HMT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:45:28.547157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8153
  • Processing black mulberry into jam: Effects on antioxidant potential and
           in vitro bioaccessibility
    • Authors: Merve Tomas; Gamze Toydemir, Dilek Boyacioglu, Robert D. Hall, Jules Beekwilder, Esra Capanoglu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBlack mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, percent polymeric color, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples.RESULTSJam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (p 
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:40:23.466369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8152
  • Kinetics of volatile marker compounds during ripening of cured loins
           inoculated with Staphylococcus carnosus
    • Authors: Ramona Bosse (née Danz); Melanie Wirth, Monika Gibis, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Weiss
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe current study was designed to investigate the influence of ripening time (12 weeks, 15 °C) on the volatile compounds and sensory acceptance for North European cured loins inoculated with a proteolytic Staphylococcus carnosus starter culture.RESULTSThe results demonstrated that the trend of volatile compounds, sensory acceptance and proteolytic activity increased during a ripening of 7 to 9 weeks. A further ripening led to a plateau phase for sensory attributes and aroma-relevant volatile compounds such as benzaldehyde, nonanone and acetophenone. The inoculation of the proteolytic S. carnosus LTH 3838 significantly increased aroma-relevant volatile compounds (3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, acetophenone, 1-octen-3-ol) and sensory acceptance up to a score 3.5 and 3.6 for the overall odor and taste by week 9. In addition, compounds such as nonanal, hexanal, 2-pentanone and nonanone, which originate from lipid oxidation, were significantly limited by S. carnosus LTH 3838.CONCLUSIONA ripening time of 7 to 9 weeks seems to be an optimal period for the production of aroma intensive smoked North European cured loins.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22T10:05:22.865357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8150
  • Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed
           extracts of cv. sangiovese(Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Giuseppe Bombai; Federica Pasini, Vito Verardo, Onur Sevindik, Michele Di Foggia, Paola Tessarin, Anna Maria Bregoli, Paola Taddei, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Adamo Domenico Rombolà
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically-cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines.RESULTSLinoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerization ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total proanthocyanidins concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening.CONCLUSIONSFatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds considerably swung during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased.The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of monomers and oligomeric proanthocyanidins greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T23:40:21.367851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8151
  • Incorporation of conjugated fatty acids into Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
    • Authors: Elton G. Bonafé; Luana C. Figueiredo, Alessandro F. Martins, Johny P. Monteiro, Oscar O. S. Junior, Edmilson A. Canesin, Swami Arêa Maruyama, Jesuí V. Visentainer
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to improve the nutritional quality of Nile tilapia meat through enriched diets with conjugated isomers of linolenic acid from tung oil. The transfer process of conjugated fatty acids (CFA) into fish muscle tissue was evaluated by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (EASI-MS). The results showed that conjugated fatty acids were transferred from enriched diet for muscle tissue of Nile tilapia. Conjugated linoleic acids biosynthesis from conjugated linolenic acids was also observed after ten days. Other important fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and arachidonic (AA) acids were also identified over time, however, DHA showed the highest concentration when compared with EPA and AA compounds. Therefore, the nutritional quality of Nile tilapia was improved through feeding with enriched diets. The ingestion of these fish may contribute to reach adequate levels of daily CFA consumption. Furthermore, other important substances which play an important role in human metabolism, such as EPA, DHA, and AA, can also be ingested together with CFA.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T23:15:29.705906-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8149
  • Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic
           yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii
    • Authors: Suprama Datta; David J. Timson, Uday S. Annapure
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSaccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastro-intestinal disorders. In this paper, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed in order to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced.RESULTSS. cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance when compared with S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a 6-10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the DPPH assay), with 70-fold higher total phenolic content and 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further elucidated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites viz. vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B6 which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain.CONCLUSIONThis study presents a new perspective of differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the work also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T02:01:12.486445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8147
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
  • Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture
    • Authors: Massimiliano Marvasi
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, NO release rate is dependent upon the chemical structure of the donor itself and the chemical environment. Despite NO’s powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not achieved and research is mainly at the experimental level.Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope, to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening, and increasing shelf life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified.This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. We provide insights into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) potential use of donors in animal production, and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T06:20:25.455311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8117
  • Grape by-products extracts against microbial proliferation and lipid
           oxidation: a review
    • Authors: Gabriela N. Mattos; Renata V. Tonon, Angela A.L. Furtado, Lourdes M.C. Cabral
      Abstract: The wine industry is responsible for the production of million tons of waste, such as grape skin, stalk, sludge and seeds, which can be considered inexpensive phenolic compounds sources, due to incomplete extraction during wine production. Phenolic compounds, also called as polyphenols, are the most abundant bioactive compounds in grape composition and are recognized by their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Because of their functional properties, extracts obtained from grape wastes, which are rich in phenolic compounds, can be employed in development of many products ranging from medical to food applications, decreasing the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and inhibiting lipid oxidation. These characteristics are motivating the research for alternative sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents, aiming at decreasing the use of artificial additives, which have been associated to some toxic effects. This article provides a review on the use of grape by-products extracts and their bioactive compounds as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food products.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:45:42.239832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8062
  • The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and
           public health
    • Authors: Shimon Barel; Dani Elad, Olga Cuneah, Jakob A Shimshoni
      Pages: 1073 - 1083
      Abstract: The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-11T05:30:24.956758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8064
  • Non-destructive evaluation of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds using
           visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging
    • Authors: Hoonsoo Lee; Moon S. Kim, Yu-Rim Song, Chang-Sik Oh, Hyoun-Sub Lim, Wang-Hee Lee, Jum-Soon Kang, Byoung-Kwan Cho
      Pages: 1084 - 1092
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere is a need to minimize economic damage by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infected seeds, such as seedling grow-out, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the real-time PCR have a critical drawbacks in that they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive procedures. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds.RESULTSA hyperspectral Vis/NIR reflectance imaging system (spectral region of 400–1000 nm) was constructed to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images for 336 bacteria-infected watermelon seeds, which were then subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) to classify bacteria-infected watermelon seeds from healthy watermelon seeds. The developed system detected bacteria-infected watermelon seeds with an accuracy > 90% (PLS-DA: 91.7%, LS-SVM: 90.5%), suggesting that the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system is effective for quarantining bacteria-infected watermelon seeds.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study show that it is possible to use the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T04:20:45.81711-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7832
  • Response surface methodology applied to the generation of casein
           hydrolysates with antioxidant and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory
    • Authors: Alice B Nongonierma; Solène Le Maux, Claire Esteveny, Richard J FitzGerald
      Pages: 1093 - 1101
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHydrolysis parameters affecting the release of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides from milk proteins have not been extensively studied. Therefore, a multifactorial (i.e. pH, temperature and hydrolysis time) composite design was used to optimise the release of bioactive peptides (BAPs) with DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidant [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)] properties from sodium caseinate.RESULTSFifteen sodium caseinate hydrolysates (H1–H15) were generated with ProtamexTM, a bacillus proteinase activity. Hydrolysis time (1 to 5 h) had the highest influence on both DPP-IV inhibitory properties and ORAC activity (P < 0.05). Alteration of incubation temperature (40 to 60 °C) and pH (6.5 to 8.0) had an effect on the DPP-IV inhibitory properties but not the ORAC activity of the Protamex sodium caseinate hydrolysates. A multi-functional hydrolysate, H12, was identified having DPP-IV inhibitory (actual: 0.82 ± 0.24 vs. predicted optimum: 0.68 mg mL−1) and ORAC (actual: 639 ± 66 vs. predicted optimum: 639 µmol TE g−1) activity of the same order (P > 0.05) as the response surface methodology (RSM) predicted optimum bioactivities.CONCLUSIONGeneration of milk protein hydrolysates through multifactorial design approaches may aid in the optimal enzymatic release of BAPs with serum glucose lowering and antioxidant properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T02:10:54.905381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7834
  • Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on
           protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major)
           during frozen storage
    • Authors: Tiantian Wang; Zhenxing Li, Fangzhou Yuan, Hong Lin, Tushar Ramesh Pavase
      Pages: 1102 - 1107
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFrozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at −18 °C were investigated.RESULTSAll added antioxidants at 1 g kg−1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca2+-ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:45:28.025356-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7835
  • Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: the
    • Authors: Karina MO dos Santos; Isabel C de Oliveira, Marcos AC Lopes, Ana Paula Gil Cruz, Flávia CA Buriti, Lourdes M Cabral
      Pages: 1108 - 1115
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGrape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physico-chemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated.RESULTSThe TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log CFU mL−1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavor, color and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added.CONCLUSIONThe use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T02:15:44.127059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7836
  • Effects of nano-TiO2-LDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant
           capacity of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) stored at refrigeration
    • Authors: Dongdong Li; Qingyang Ye, Lei Jiang, Zisheng Luo
      Pages: 1116 - 1123
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNano-TiO2–low-density polyethylene (NTLDPE) packaging was prepared, and the effects of NTLDPE packaging on quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits were investigated.RESULTSWith increased barrier properties, NTLDPE packaging quickly formed a relative lower O2 and higher CO2 air composition in comparison with LDPE. It was also more efficient in maintaining the overall quality of strawberry fruit, as reflected by lower decay rate and weight loss, as well as retarding the decrease in firmness and titratable acid. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in NTLDPE-packed fruits were 10.8% and 21.9% lower, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in ROS scavenging in NTLDPE-packed fruits were significantly higher at the later period of storage time. Anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited, whereas ascorbic acid and total phenolics contents were better retained and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 13.2% higher in NTLDPE-packed fruit by the end of storage.CONCLUSIONThese data indicate that the beneficial effects of NTLDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry are probably associated with the promotion of ROS scavenging and related antioxidant enzyme activities, and NTLDPE packaging together with refrigeration storage is a promising method for strawberry fruit preservation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T02:30:34.794097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7837
  • Studies on optimum harvest time for hybrid rice seed
    • Authors: Hong Fu; Dong-Dong Cao, Wei-Min Hu, Ya-Jing Guan, Yu-Ying Fu, Yong-Feng Fang, Jin Hu
      Pages: 1124 - 1133
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTimely harvest is critical for hybrid rice to achieve maximum seed viability, vigor and yield. However, how to predict the optimum harvest time has been rarely reported so far.RESULTSThe seed vigor of Zhuliangyou 06 (ZLY06) increased and reached the highest level at 20 days after pollination (DAP), when seed moisture content had a lower value, which was maintained until final seed maturation. For Chunyou 84 (CY84), seed vigor, fresh and dry weight had relatively high values at 25 DAP, when seed moisture content reached the lowest value and changed slightly from 25 to 55 DAP. In both hybrid rice varieties, seed glume chlorophyll content declined rapidly from 10 to 30 DAP and remained at a very low level after 35 DAP. Starch content exhibited an increasing trend during seed maturation, while both soluble sugar content and amylase activity decreased significantly at the early stages of seed development. Moreover, correlation analyses showed that seed dry weight, starch content and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly positively correlated with seed vigor. In contrast, chlorophyll content, moisture content, soluble sugar, soluble protein, abscisic acid, gibberellin content, electrical conductivity, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were significantly negatively correlated with seed vigor. Physiological and biochemical parameters were obviously more closely related with seed vigor than with seed germinability during seed development.CONCLUSIONSeed vigor could be better used as a comprehensive factor to predict the optimum seed harvest time. It is suggested that for ZLY06 seeds could be harvested as early as 20 DAP, whereas for CY84 the earliest optimum harvest time was 25 DAP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:15:36.227329-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7838
  • Effects of water stress on the composition and immunoreactive properties
           of gliadins from two wheat cultivars: Nawra and Tonacja
    • Authors: Bartosz Brzozowski; Katarzyna Stasiewicz
      Pages: 1134 - 1142
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWater shortage during wheat vegetation causes changes in the composition of gliadins in grains, which can lead to changes in their immunoreactive properties.RESULTSThe investigated wheat cultivars exposed to water stress accumulated significantly lower amounts (P < 0.05) of gliadins and glutenins in grains. The composition of proteins accumulated in grains was also modified. Water shortage results in a decreased share of αβ and γ fractions in total gliadins. Grains of wheat cultivated under water stress contain significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of ω-gliadins by 4.5% and 43.3% for Nawra and Tonacja cultivars, respectively. Water stress promotes an increase in the share of P and Q/E residues in gliadins. In protein samples R5 antibodies recognized increased amounts of gliadins matching the QQPFP sequence. Wheat proteins also reacted with IgE antibodies isolated from subjects allergic to gluten.CONCLUSIONCultivation of wheat under conditions of water stress results in the qualitative and quantitative changes of gliadins by increasing their immunoreactivity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:31:17.176176-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7839
  • Effects of long-term intake of Antarctic krill oils on artery blood
           pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    • Authors: Da-Yong Zhou; Yu-Xin Liu, Zhi-Li Xu, Fa-Wen Yin, Liang Song, Xiu-Lin Wan, Yu-Kun Song, Bei-Wei Zhu
      Pages: 1143 - 1148
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in research on krill oil (KO) for its health benefits. However, the action of KO in lowering blood pressure (BP) has not been studied yet. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess the ability of long-term KO supplementation to lower systolic BP (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.RESULTSCompared with the blank control (BC) SHRs administered edible soybean oil, the high-dose (500 mg kg−1 body weight (BW)) KO-supplemented SHRs in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th weeks following oral administration, the mid-dose (100 mg kg−1 BW) KO-supplemented SHRs in the 4th and 5th weeks following oral administration and the low-dose (20 mg kg−1 BW) KO-supplemented SHRs in the 5th week following oral administration showed significantly lower SBP (P < 0.05). However, supplementation of KO had no significant effect on the SBP of healthy SD rats. Meanwhile, 5 weeks of KO administration significantly increased the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and total NO synthase of SHRs (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONKO has an antihypertensive effect in SHRs that is associated with an NO-related mechanism. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T08:00:27.281211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7840
  • Isolation and evaluation of endophytic Streptomyces endus OsiSh-2 with
           potential application for biocontrol of rice blast disease
    • Authors: Ting Xu; Yan Li, Xiadong Zeng, Xiaolu Yang, Yuanzhu Yang, Shanshan Yuan, Xiaochun Hu, Jiarui Zeng, Zhenzhen Wang, Qian Liu, Yuqing Liu, Hongdong Liao, Chunyi Tong, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
      Pages: 1149 - 1157
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBiocontrol is a promising strategy in the control of rice blast disease. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a novel antagonist to the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae from rice endophytic actinomycetes.RESULTSOut of 482 endophytic actinomycetes isolated from rice blast infected and healthy rice, Streptomyces endus OsiSh-2 exhibited remarkable in vitro antagonistic activity. Scanning electron microscopy observations of M. oryzae treated by OsiSh-2 revealed significant morphological alterations in hyphae. In 2-year field tests, the spraying of OsiSh-2 spore solution (107 spores mL−1) is capable of reducing rice blast disease severity by 59.64%. In addition, a fermentation broth of OsiSh-2 and its cell-free filtrates could inhibit the growth of M. oryzae, suggesting the presence of active enzymes and secondary metabolites. OsiSh-2 tested positive for polyketide synthase-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes and can produce cellulase, protease, gelatinase, siderophore, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. A preliminary separation indicated that the methanol extract of OsiSh-2 could suppress the growth of pathogens. The major active component was identified as nigericin.CONCLUSIONEndophytic S. endus OsiSh-2 has potential as a biocontrol agent against rice blast in agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T06:05:36.381362-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7841
  • Intervention of pumpkin seed oil on metabolic disease revealed by
           metabonomics and transcript profile
    • Authors: Xiu-Ju Zhao; Yu-Lian Chen, Bing Fu, Wen Zhang, Zhiguo Liu, Hexian Zhuo
      Pages: 1158 - 1163
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUnderstanding the metabolic and transcription basis of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) intervention on metabolic disease (MD) is essential to daily nutrition and health.RESULTSThis study analyzed the liver metabolic variations of Wistar rats fed normal diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD) and high-fat plus PSO diet (PSO) to establish the relationship between the liver metabolite composition/transcript profile and the effects of PSO on MD. By using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy together with multivariate data analysis, it was found that, compared with CON rats, HFD rats showed clear dysfunctions of choline metabolism, glucose metabolism and nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), it was found that, compared with HFD rats, PSO rats showed alleviated endoplasmic reticulum stress accompanied by lowered unfolded protein response.CONCLUSIONThese findings provide useful information to understand the metabolic alterations triggered by MD and to evaluate the effects of PSO intervention. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:45:24.724517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7842
  • Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis
           in chili pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition
    • Authors: Magaji G Usman; Mohd Y Rafii, Mohammad Y Martini, Yusuff Oladosu, Pedram Kashiani
      Pages: 1164 - 1171
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStudies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.RESULTSYield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield.CONCLUSIONLonger fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T03:15:23.915506-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7843
  • Effect of added nitrogen fertilizer on pyrazines of roasted chicory
    • Authors: Céline Jouquand; Céline Niquet-Léridon, Grégory Loaec, Frédéric Jacques Tessier
      Pages: 1172 - 1177
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCoffee substitutes made of roasted chicory are affected by the formation of acrylamide whose main precursor is asparagine. One strategy for limiting the formation of acrylamide is to reduce free asparagine in the chicory roots by lessening the supply of nitrogen in the field. However, decreasing nitrogen fertilizer could affect the formation of the volatile compounds and, consequently, the sensory characteristics of the roasted chicory. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the nitrogen supply in five commercial varieties on their aroma profile.RESULTSThe addition of 120 kg ha−1 of nitrogen fertilizer in the field resulted in a greater amount of pyrazines in the roasted chicory. Triangle tests were performed to determine the effect of the nitrogen level on the sensory quality of the five varieties. The results revealed that the chicory aroma was modified in two out of five varieties.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study suggest that a strategy aiming to limit the amount of acrylamide could affect the sensory quality of some varieties of chicory. Further acceptance tests need to be conducted to assess the effect (whether favourable or otherwise) on the sensory quality of the coffee substitutes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:20:44.854232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7845
  • Inactivation kinetics of invertase in honey and honey–glucose syrup
           formulations: effects of temperature and water activity
    • Authors: Martin Sramek; Benjamin Woerz, Helmut Horn, Jochen Weiss, Reinhard Kohlus
      Pages: 1178 - 1184
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe high viscosity and stickiness of honey in its natural state causes handling difficulties, therefore the demand for honey powder is continuously increasing. Powder preparation has to be performed gently because of the thermo- and oxidation- sensitive nature of honey. The aim of this study was to determine the degradation of invertase during drying as an indirect measure of the retention of valuable honey nutrients.RESULTSThe reaction kinetics were estimated in polyfloral honey and honey–glucose syrup (GS) formulation and the impact of temperature (40–70°C) and water activity (aw 0.23–0.81) was established. The honey–GS formulation (55:45 w/w) was intended for the preparation of high-grade honey powders using the vacuum-drying method. Invertase inactivation at temperatures below 60°C followed first-order kinetics. At 60°C high dilution (aw 0.81) and at 70°C, heterogeneous inactivation behaviour was observed. The best fit of invertase heterogeneous inactivation kinetic was achieved with the Cerf two-fraction model. The GS addition showed a stabilizing effect on invertase during thermal degradation.CONCLUSIONThe data on invertase inactivation gathered here can be utilized to select optimal parameters for honey vacuum-drying and other thermal processes in order to achieve maximum invertase retention. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T04:55:27.032628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7846
  • Viable bacterial population and persistence of foodborne pathogens on the
           pear carpoplane
    • Authors: Francois J Duvenage; Stacey Duvenage, Erika M Du Plessis, Quinton Volschenk, Lise Korsten
      Pages: 1185 - 1192
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDKnowledge on the culturable bacteria and foodborne pathogen presence on pears is important for understanding the impact of postharvest practices on food safety assurance. Pear fruit bacteria were investigated from the point of harvest, following chlorine drenching and after controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to assess the impact on natural bacterial populations and potential foodborne pathogens.RESULTSSalmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected on freshly harvested fruit in season one. During season one, chemical drenching and CA storage did not have a significant effect on the bacterial load of orchard pears, except for two farms where the populations were lower ‘after CA storage’. During season two, bacterial populations of orchard pears from three of the four farms increased significantly following drenching; however, the bacterial load decreased ‘after CA storage’. Bacteria isolated following enumeration included Enterobacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Bacillaceae, with richness decreasing ‘after drench’ and ‘after CA storage’.CONCLUSIONSalmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not detected after postharvest practices. Postharvest practices resulted in decreased bacterial species richness. Understanding how postharvest practices have an impact on the viable bacterial populations of pear fruit will contribute to the development of crop-specific management systems for food safety assurance. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T06:02:07.400733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7847
  • Freshwater clam extract supplementation improves wound healing by
           decreasing the tumor necrosis factor α level in blood
    • Authors: Yi-Chi Peng; Fwu-LinYang, Yi-Maun Subeq, Chin-Chieh Tien, Ru-Ping Lee
      Pages: 1193 - 1199
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) is a widely consumed functional food in Asia and is traditionally used to improve health and either prevent or treat inflammation-related diseases. Numerous studies have proposed that freshwater clams act to prevent and attenuate inflammatory responses, and also serve as a possible inhibitor to systemic inflammation. However, there is limited information available about the effects of freshwater clams on wound healing.RESULTSThe present study investigated the influence of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on wound healing and inflammatory responses in a cutaneous incision model. Sixteen rats were used and divided into two groups: the FCE group and the normal saline (NS) group. The rats underwent dorsal full-thickness skin excisional wounds (diameter 20 × 10 mm). FCE or NS was administered for oral feeding twice daily for 14 days after wounding. Blood samples were taken and analyzed, and wound areas were measured at several time points during the 2 weeks after excision. On day 14 after wounding, skin biopsies from the wound sites were sent for histological examination. Treatment with FCE (71.63 ± 9.51 pg mL−1) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α levels compared to the NS group (109.86 ± 12.55 pg mL−1) after wounding at 3 h (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of white blood cells, interleukin (IL)-6, or IL-10. The wound areas of the NS group (23.9%) were larger than those in the FCE group (8.26%) on day 14 (P < 0.05). Numerous fibroblasts and collagen fiber organization were observed in the FCE group.CONCLUSIONFCE supplementation improves the wound healing process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:56:09.56786-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7849
  • Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt
           snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
    • Authors: Li Wang; Chuanyue Chen, Wanjing Liu, Hu Xia, Jian Li, Xuezhen Zhang
      Pages: 1200 - 1206
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDToxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of an organic biomass containing cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. The ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia are grave hazards for fish. The present study assessed the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).RESULTSDietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impact on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, whereas it significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness and gumminess, and increased fillet ultimate pH as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH, thaw loss and protein carbonyl content, whereas ammonia exposure did not.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T05:35:26.553466-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7850
  • The inter-relationship between processing-induced molecular structure
           features and metabolic and digestive characteristics in hulled and hulless
           barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains with altered carbohydrate traits
    • Authors: Xiaogang Yan; Fangyu Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
      Pages: 1207 - 1211
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aimed to determine the microwave irradiation (MIR)-induced changes in protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains in relation to the truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. Samples from hulled and hulless cultivars of barley, harvested in consecutive years from four replicate plots, were evaluated. The samples were either kept raw or were irradiated with microwaves for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). The truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems was evaluated using the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance). Molecular structure changes as a result of processing were revealed by vibrational molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation region.RESULTSCompared to the raw samples, MIR processing decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T03:40:24.660734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7851
  • Physicochemical, agronomical and microbiological evaluation of alternative
    • Authors: Francesco Di Gioia; Palmira De Bellis, Carlo Mininni, Pietro Santamaria, Francesco Serio
      Pages: 1212 - 1219
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPeat-based mixes and synthetic mats are the main substrates used for microgreens production. However, both are expensive and non-renewable. Recycled fibrous materials may represent low-cost and renewable alternative substrates. Recycled textile-fiber (TF; polyester, cotton and polyurethane traces) and jute-kenaf-fiber (JKF; 85% jute, 15% kenaf-fibers) mats were characterized and compared with peat and Sure to Grow® (Sure to Grow, Beachwood, OH, USA; (STG; 100% polyethylene-terephthalate) for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.; Broccoletto group) microgreens.RESULTSAll substrates had suitable physicochemical properties for the production of microgreens. On average, microgreens fresh yield was 1502 g m−2 in peat, TF and JKF, and was 13.1% lower with STG. Peat-grown microgreen shoots had a higher concentration of K+ and SO42−and a two-fold higher NO3− concentration [1959 versus 940 mg kg−1 fresh weight (FW)] than those grown on STG, TF and JKF. At harvest, substrates did not influence microgreens aerobic bacterial populations (log 6.48 CFU g−1 FW). Peat- and JKF-grown microgreens had higher yeast-mould counts than TF- and STG microgreens (log 2.64 versus 1.80 CFU g−1 FW). Peat-grown microgreens had the highest population of Enterobacteriaceae (log 5.46 ± 0.82 CFU g−1) and Escherichia coli (log 1.46 ± 0.15 CFU g−1). Escherichia coli was not detected in microgreens grown on other media.CONCLUSIONTF and JKF may be valid alternatives to peat and STG because both ensured a competitive yield, low nitrate content and a similar or higher microbiological quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T02:30:25.81046-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7852
  • Preharvest salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid treatments preserve
           quality and enhance antioxidant systems during postharvest storage of
           sweet cherry cultivars
    • Authors: M José Giménez; María Serrano, Juan Miguel Valverde, Domingo Martínez-Romero, Salvador Castillo, Daniel Valero, Fabián Guillén
      Pages: 1220 - 1228
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSweet cherries are much appreciated by consumers as a result of their organoleptic quality attributes and antioxidant properties, although they deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Different preharvest strategies have been carried out to increase their quality at the time of harvest. We present data regarding the effect of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) treatments on sweet cherry quality during postharvest storage.RESULTSAt harvest and during postharvest storage, sweet cherry fruits (‘Sweet Heart’, ‘Sweet Late’ and ‘Lapins’) from SA (0.5 mmol L−1) and ASA (1 mmol L−1) treated trees had a higher colour (lower chroma index), firmness, total soluble solids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and hydrophilic total antioxidant activity. In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase was also enhanced in SA- and ASA-treated cherries.CONCLUSIONBoth SA and ASA preharvest treatments could be promising tools for improving sweet cherry quality at harvest and after storage, with an additional effect on delaying the postharvest ripening process by increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T03:20:47.828912-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7853
  • Combined effects of Wx and SSIIa haplotypes on rice starch physicochemical
    • Authors: Xunchao Xiang; Cuifang Kang, Shunju Xu, Bowen Yang
      Pages: 1229 - 1234
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWx and SSIIa are central genes for determining starch physicochemical properties and rice endosperm starch is composed of linear amylose, which is entirely synthesized by granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI, encoded by Wx) and branched amylopectin. In the present study, different haplotypes of rice were examined to investigate the combined effects of pivotal genes in the metabolic chain of starch, Wx and SSIIa.RESULTSWx haplotypes differed in terms of apparent amylose content (AAC) and gel consistency (GC). The I-3 [haplotype I (Int1T/Ex10C) of Wx and haplotype 3 (A-G-TT) of SSIIa] and the I-4 combinations of rice had better eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) with lower AAC, lower gelatinization temperature (GT) and softer GC.CONCLUSIONThe characteristic parameters of Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA) could distinguish differences in AAC and GC but not GT. The I-3 and I-4 haplotype combinations of Wx and SSIIa represent key targets for the production of rice with better ECQs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T02:35:56.310463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7854
  • Evaluation of visco-elastic properties of conditioned wheat kernels and
           their doughs using a compression test under small strain
    • Authors: Néstor Ponce-García; Benjamín Ramírez-Wong, Patricia I Torres-Chávez, Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, Sergio O Serna-Saldívar, Mario O Cortez-Rocha, Anayansi Escalante-Aburto
      Pages: 1235 - 1243
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this research was to evaluate the visco-elastic properties of conditioned wheat kernels and their doughs by applying the compression test under a small strain. Conditioned wheat kernels and their doughs, from soft and hard wheat classes were evaluated for total work (Wt), elastic work (We) and plastic work (Wp).RESULTSSoft wheat kernels showed lower We than Wp, while the hard wheat kernels had a We that was higher than Wp. Regarding dough visco-elasticity, cultivars from soft and hard wheat showed higher Wp than We. The degree of elasticity (DE%) of the conditioned wheat kernel related to its dough decreased ∼46% in both wheat classes. The Wt, We and Wp from the soft wheat kernel and dough correlated with physico-chemical and farinographic flour tests. The Wt, Wp and the maximum compression force (Fmax) of the dough from hard wheat class presented highly significant negative correlations with wet gluten.CONCLUSIONThe visco-elasticity parameters from compression test presented significant differences among conditioned wheat classes and their doughs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T02:50:22.598099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7855
  • Optimum condition of producing crisp osmotic banana using superheated
           steam puffing
    • Authors: Surapit Tabtiang; Somkiat Prachayawarakorn, Somchart Soponronnarit
      Pages: 1244 - 1251
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPuffing can improve textural property of snacks. Nevertheless, high temperature puffing accelerates non-enzymatic browning reactions. The osmotic treatment using sucrose solution potentially retards the browning, but the high amount of sucrose gain causes hard texture. The objective of this work was therefore to study the effects of osmotic time, puffing time and puffing temperature on banana qualities such as colour, shrinkage and textural property.RESULTSThe experimental results showed that puffing temperature, puffing time and osmotic time significantly affected colour, shrinkage and textual properties.CONCLUSIONThe optimisation using response surface methodology was used for a trade-off between colour and textural properties. To obtain a good quality product, the puffed osmotic banana should be operated at the osmotic time of 43 min and puffing temperature of 220 °C and puffing time of 2 min. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T03:05:48.672078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7857
  • Relationships between botanical and chemical composition of forages: a
           multivariate approach to grasslands in the Western Italian Alps
    • Authors: Simone Ravetto Enri; Manuela Renna, Massimiliano Probo, Carola Lussiana, Luca M Battaglini, Michele Lonati, Giampiero Lombardi
      Pages: 1252 - 1259
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPlant composition of species-rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituents and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi-natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps.RESULTSMesophilic and dry grasslands were comparable in terms of phenology, biodiversity indices and proportion of botanical families. The content of total fatty acids and that of the most abundant fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acids) were mainly associated to nutrient-rich plant species, belonging to the mesophilic grassland ecological group. Mesophilic grasslands showed also higher values of crude protein, lower values of fibre content and they were related to higher pastoral values of vegetation compared to dry grasslands. The proximate composition and fatty acid profile appeared mainly single species dependent rather than botanical family dependent.CONCLUSIONThese findings highlight that forage from mesophilic grasslands can provide higher nutritive value for ruminants and may be associated to ruminant-derived food products with a healthier fatty acid profile. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:20:37.818485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7858
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ochratoxin A contamination in
           green coffee beans using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: Panchita Taradolsirithitikul; Panmanas Sirisomboon, Cheewanun Dachoupakan Sirisomboon
      Pages: 1260 - 1266
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOchratoxin A (OTA) contamination is highly prevalent in a variety of agricultural products including the commercially important coffee bean. As such, rapid and accurate detection methods are considered necessary for the identification of OTA in green coffee beans. The goal of this research was to apply Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy to detect and classify OTA contamination in green coffee beans in both a quantitative and qualitative manner.RESULTSPLSR models were generated using pretreated spectroscopic data to predict the OTA concentration. The best model displayed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814, a standard error of prediction (SEP and bias of 1.965 µg kg−1 and 0.358 µg kg−1, respectively. Additionally, a PLS-DA model was also generated, displaying a classification accuracy of 96.83% for a non-OTA contaminated model and 80.95% for an OTA contaminated model, with an overall classification accuracy of 88.89%.CONCLUSIONThe results demonstrate that the developed model could be used for detecting OTA contamination in green coffee beans in either a quantitative or qualitative manner. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T02:42:08.176119-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7859
  • Nebulized water cooling of the canopy affects leaf temperature, berry
           composition and wine quality of Sauvignon blanc
    • Authors: Pericle Paciello; Fabio Mencarelli, Alberto Palliotti, Brunella Ceccantoni, Cécile Thibon, Philippe Darriet, Massimiliano Pasquini, Andrea Bellincontro
      Pages: 1267 - 1275
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present paper details a new technique based on spraying nebulized water on vine canopy to counteract the negative impact of the current wave of hot summers with temperatures above 30 °C, which usually determine negative effects on vine yield, grape composition and wine quality.RESULTSThe automatized spraying system was able to maintain air temperature at below 30 °C (the threshold temperature to start spraying) for all of August 2013, when in the canopy of uncooled vines the temperature was as high as 36 °C. The maintenance of temperature below 30 °C reduced leaf stress linked to high temperature and irradiance regimes as highlighted by the decrease of H2O2 content and catalase activity in the leaves. A higher amount of total polyphenols and organic acids and lower sugars characterized the grapes of cooled vines. Wine from these grapes had a higher content of some volatile thiols like 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexylacetate (3SHA), and lower content of 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP).CONCLUSIONUnder conditions of high temperature and irradiance regimes, water nebulization on the vine canopy can represent a valid solution to reduce and/or avoid oxidative stress and associated effects in the leaves, ensure a regular berry ripening and maintain high wine quality. The consumption of water during nebulization was acceptable, being 180 L ha−1 min−1, which lasted an average of about 1 min to reduce the temperature below the threshold value of 30 °C. A total of 85–90 hL (from 0.8 to 0.9 mm) of water per hectare per day was required. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:51:31.482725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7860
  • In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation,
           levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen
    • Authors: Shengyong Mao; Wenjie Huo, Junhua Liu, Ruiyang Zhang, Weiyun Zhu
      Pages: 1276 - 1285
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDiets containing high levels of carbohydrates provoke a rapid decrease of rumen pH and high levels of biogenic amines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which severely impair the health and performance of ruminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (BC) buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of LPS and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota using in vitro rumen cultures.RESULTSSodium bicarbonate supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the final pH levels and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and LPS, as well as the proportions of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate, and it decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of butyrate and the levels of lactic acid, methylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that BC inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the bacterial diversity index compared with the control. Adding BC also decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Butyrivibrio and increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio and Prevotella.CONCLUSIONSodium bicarbonate supplementation has beneficial effects in the reduction of bioamine levels and the increase in ruminal pH, and in modifying the microbial ecology of the rumen; however, it results in an accumulation of LPS under high-grain diet conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T02:55:31.547349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7861
  • Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and
           some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of
           metabolizable energy
    • Authors: Mahsa Mirbod; Amir Hossein Mahdavi, Abdol-Hossein Samie, Mehran Mehri
      Pages: 1286 - 1294
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress.RESULTSIncreasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg−1 CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg−1 CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONAn improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T03:50:40.436179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7862
  • Sodium alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose films containing pyrogallic acid:
           physical and antibacterial properties
    • Authors: Yingying Han; Lijuan Wang
      Pages: 1295 - 1301
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAntibacterial films were prepared using sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a matrix, glycerin as a plasticizer and CaCl2 as a cross-linking agent, and by incorporating the natural antibacterial agent pyrogallic acid (PA). The present study describes the microstructure and the physical, barrier, mechanical, optical and antibacterial properties of blended films prepared by incorporating different concentrations of PA into the SA/CMC matrix.RESULTSThe microstructure of the films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that PA interacts with the SA/CMC matrix through hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the incorporation of PA increased the moisture content, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of SA/CMC films. Films containing 40 g kg−1 of PA had the highest elongation at break result (39.60%). Compared with pure SA/CMC films, the incorporation of PA improved the barrier properties against ultraviolet light; however, it decreased the color parameter L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the films. Furthermore, films with PA, especially at higher concentrations, were more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.CONCLUSIONAntibacterial SA/CMC films incorporating PA appear to have good potential to enhance the safety of foods and food products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T02:20:25.740024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7863
  • Ascorbate pool, sugars and organic acids in black currant (Ribes nigrum
           L.) berries are strongly influenced by genotype and post-flowering
    • Authors: Tomasz L Woznicki; Anita Sønsteby, Kjersti Aaby, Berit K Martinsen, Ola M Heide, Anne-Berit Wold, Siv F Remberg
      Pages: 1302 - 1309
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMarked effects of the climatic environment on fruit chemical composition have often been demonstrated in field experiments. However, complex covariations of several climatic factors in the natural environment complicate the interpretation of such experiments and the identification of the causal factors. This can be better achieved in a phytotron where the various climatic factors can be varied systematically. Therefore, we grew four black currant cultivars of contrasting origin in a phytotron under controlled post-flowering temperature and photoperiod conditions and analysed the berries for their ascorbic acid, sugar and organic acid contents.RESULTSThe analyses revealed significant effects of genotype on all investigated compounds. Particularly large cultivar differences were observed in the concentrations of l-ascorbic acid (AA) and sucrose. The concentrations of both AA and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), as well as the concentrations of all major sugars, decreased consistently with an increasing temperature over the temperature range 12–24 °C. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars with concentrations several fold higher than that for sucrose. AA was the main contributor to the total ascorbate pool in black currant berries. The AA/DHAA ratio varied from 5.6 to 10.3 among the studied cultivars. The concentration of citric acid, which was the predominant organic acid in black currant berries, increased with an increasing temperature, whereas the opposite trend was observed for malic and shikimic acid. Quninic acid was always present at relatively low concentrations. By contrast, photoperiod had no significant effect on berry content of any of the investigated compounds.CONCLUSIONIt is concluded that the post-flowering temperature has marked effects on the concentration of important chemical compounds responsible for taste and nutritional value of black currant berries, whereas photoperiod has no such effect in the studied cultivars. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T02:25:23.816309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7864
  • Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on growth
           performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial and noxious gas
           emission in weaning pigs
    • Authors: Ruixia Lan; Jinmo Koo, Inho Kim
      Pages: 1310 - 1315
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAntibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock have been banned in the European Union since 2006. Antibiotics alternatives have focused on probiotics, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. The concentration of L. acidophilus is considered crucial for obtaining the desired effects. However, limited studies have been conducted to test the dose-dependent effects of L. acidophilus. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the dose-dependent effects of L. acidophilus on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial flora and fecal noxious gas emission in weaning pigs.RESULTSLactobacillus acidophilus supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and Lactobacillus counts compared to the basal diet treatment, and a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on those criteria. Escherichia coli counts and NH3 emission were decreased (P < 0.05) by L. acidophilus supplementation, and a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on E. coli counts.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that L. acidophilus could be used as an antibiotic alternative by improving growth performance, nutrient digestibility and gut balance (i.e. increased Lactobacillus counts and decreased E. coli counts), and decreasing NH3 emission, of weaning pigs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T05:35:37.349068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7866
  • Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas
           made from different botanical materials by comprehensive two-dimensional
           gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on the technology of
           ultra-fast gas chromatography
    • Authors: Paulina Wiśniewska; Magdalena Śliwińska, Tomasz Dymerski, Waldemar Wardencki, Jacek Namieśnik
      Pages: 1316 - 1325
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDVodka is a spirit-based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin have been costly, time-consuming and insufficient for making a distinction between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests.RESULTSIn the present study, we employed comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and an electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast GC with chemometric methods such as partial least square discriminant analysis, discriminant function analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy.CONCLUSIONBoth techniques allow a distinction between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC, the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose; however, the electronic nose allowed the significantly faster analysis of vodkas. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T08:30:30.525499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7868
  • Effect of ultrasonic processing on the changes in activity, aggregation
           and the secondary and tertiary structure of polyphenol oxidase in oriental
           sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)
    • Authors: Siyu Liu; Yan Liu, Xingjian Huang, Wenjin Yang, Wanfeng Hu, Siyi Pan
      Pages: 1326 - 1334
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPolyphenol oxidase (PPO) mainly contributes to the browning reaction of fruits and vegetables and causes serious damage to the quality of sweet melon products. However, traditional methods to inactivate browning may induce more unexpected risks than ultrasonic processing. Meanwhile, there are no reports on the effect of ultrasound on PPO directly purified from sweet melon.RESULTSThe PPO in the original juice was less inactivated than the purified form when treated with ultrasound. As for purified PPO, superior to thermal treatment, less heat was needed to inactivate the PPO with ultrasonic treatment. At intensity lower than 200 W, ultrasound did not significantly affect the structure and activity of PPO (P > 0.05), and latent PPO was activated. At intensity higher than 200 W, ultrasound inactivated PPO, induced aggregation and dissociation of PPO particles and significantly decreased the α-helix structure content.CONCLUSIONLow-frequency high-intensity ultrasound caused an inactivation effect and conformational changes of purified PPO from oriental sweet melons. Changes in the PPO structure induced by ultrasound eventually inactivated the enzyme. Ultrasound may be a potential method to inactivate PPO in oriental sweet melons. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T02:42:10.687409-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7869
  • Effects of probiotic supplementation in different nutrient density diets
           on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal
           microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pig
    • Authors: Ruixia Lan; Hoainam Tran, Inho Kim
      Pages: 1335 - 1341
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProbiotics can serve as alternatives to antibiotics to increase the performance of weaning pigs, and the intake of probiotics is affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a probiotic complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs.RESULTSFrom day 22 to day 42, both high-nutrient-density and probiotic complex supplementation diets increased (P < 0.05) the average daily gain. On day 42, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy (GE), blood urea nitrogen concentration and NH3 and H2S emissions were increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed high-nutrient-density diets. Pigs fed probiotic complex supplementation diets had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of GE than pigs fed non-supplemented diets. Fecal Lactobacillus counts were increased whereas Escherichia coli counts and NH3 and H2S emissions were decreased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed probiotic complex supplementation diets. Interactive effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed from day 22 to day 42 and overall, where probiotic complex improved ADFI more dramatically in low-nutrient-density diets.CONCLUSIONThe beneficial effects of probiotic complex (Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium butyricum) supplementation on ADFI is more dramatic with low-nutrient-density diets. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-27T08:10:52.774792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7871
  • Rapid biodegradation of aflatoxin B1 by metabolites of Fusarium sp.
           WCQ3361 with broad working temperature range and excellent thermostability
    • Authors: Cuiqiong Wang; Zhongyuan Li, Hui Wang, Haiyan Qiu, Minghui Zhang, Shuang Li, Xuegang Luo, Yajian Song, Hao Zhou, Wenjian Ma, Tongcun Zhang
      Pages: 1342 - 1348
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDContamination of food and feed by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) poses serious economic and health problems worldwide, so the development of biological methods for effective AFB1 degradation is strongly required.RESULTSAmong three AFB1-degrading microorganisms isolated from moldy peanut, Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 could remove AFB1 extremely effectively, with a degradation ratio of 70.20% after 1 min and 95.38% after 24 h. Its degradation ratio was not much affected by temperature change (0–90 °C) and it also displayed excellent thermostability, maintaining 99.40% residual activity after boiling for 10 min. Since protease K could reduce the AFB1 degradation ratio by 55.15%, it is proposed that the effective component for AFB1 degradation is a protein. The AFB1 degradation ability of Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 was further verified by feed stock detoxification and the MTT test with HepG2 cells. In addition, no degradation products were detected by preliminary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, suggesting that AFB1 might be metabolized to products with different chemical characteristics from AFB1.CONCLUSIONFusarium sp. WCQ3361 is the first reported AFB1 degradation fungus belonging to the genus Fusarium with broad working temperature range, excellent thermostability and high activity, which provides a potential highly useful solution for dealing with AFB1 contamination in the human diet and animal feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T02:20:27.434597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7872
  • Anatomy, nutritional value and cell wall chemical analysis of foliage
           leaves of Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae, Bambusoideae, Bambuseae), a
           promising source of forage
    • Authors: Cecilia C Panizzo; Paula V Fernández, Darío Colombatto, Marina Ciancia, Andrea S Vega
      Pages: 1349 - 1358
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study combines morphological and anatomical studies, cell wall chemical composition analysis, as well as assessment of the nutritional value of Guadua chacoensis foliage leaves.RESULTSFoliage leaves of G. chacoensis are a promising source of forage because: (a) as a native woody bamboo, it is adapted to and helps maintain environmental conditions in America; (b) leaf anatomical studies exhibit discontinuous sclerenchyma, scarcely developed, while pilose indumentum, silica cells, prickles and hooks are also scarce; (c) it has a high protein content, similar to that of Medicago sativa, while other nutritional parameters are similar to those of common forages; and (d) glucuronoarabinoxylan, the major extracted polysaccharide, has one-third of the 4-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl units of the backbone substituted mainly with α-l-arabinofuranose as single stubs or non-reducing end of short chains, but also 5-linked α-l-arabinofuranose units, terminal β-d-xylopyranose and d-galactopyranose units, as well as α-d-glucuronic acid residues and small amounts of its 4-O-methylated derivative.CONCLUSIONThese results constitute the first report on this species, and as culms are utilized in constructions and crafts, the remaining leaves, when used as forage, constitute a byproduct that allows an additional income opportunity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:47:52.155109-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7873
  • Protective effects of allicin on streptozotocin-induced diabetic
           nephropathy in rats
    • Authors: Hong Huang; Ying Jiang, Genxiang Mao, Fang Yuan, Hexin Zheng, Yuan Ruan, Tianfeng Wu
      Pages: 1359 - 1366
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStudies in animal models have shown that allicin, a major biologically active component of garlic, can play a role in the prevention of tissue fibrosis in the liver, lung and heart, mainly related to the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, fibrogenic cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix synthesis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of allicin on renal damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats were administered allicin (15, 30 and 45 mg · kg−1 · day−1) via daily intra-gastric gavage for 12 weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (sCr), lipid and 24 h urine albumin excretion (UAE) were measured at the end of weeks 4, 8 and 12. The renal histopathology and the expression levels of collagen I, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) were measured using immunohistochemistry and/or western blotting.RESULTSIn 12 week STZ-induced diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and albuminuria were markedly developed. Treatment with allicin for 12 weeks ameliorated diabetes-induced morphological alterations of the kidney and decreased FBG, BUN, sCr, triglyceride (TG) and 24 h UAE in diabetic rats. The expression levels of collagen I, TGF-β1 and p-ERK1/2 were significantly decreased by allicin treatment.CONCLUSIONThese results suggested that allicin may play a protective role in diabetic nephropathy via the TGF-β1/ERK pathway in diabetic rats. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T02:50:39.194876-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7874
  • Products derived from olive leaves and fruits can alter in vitro ruminal
           fermentation and methane production
    • Authors: Pirouz Shakeri; Zoey Durmic, Joy Vadhanabhuti, Philip E Vercoe
      Pages: 1367 - 1372
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe industrial processing of olive generates a high quantity of by-products. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of products derived from olive trees, i.e. leaves, fruits or kernels as a sole substrate (part A), and crude extract from leaves combined with a substrate (part B) on rumen microbial fermentation in an in vitro batch fermentation system. In this study, total gas production, methane production, and concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia in ruminal fluid were measured.RESULTSIn part A, in vitro fermentation of leaves or fruits yielded a gas and total VFA production that were comparable with control substrate, while most of them produced significantly less methane (up to 55.6%) when compared to control substrate. In part B, amongst leaf extracts, only addition of chloroform extract reduced methane production, which was also associated with a decrease (P < 0.01) in gas production. This effect was associated with a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in acetate to propionate ratio and ammonia production, but not in reduction in VFA concentrations.CONCLUSIONOlive leaf and olive leaf chloroform extract reduced ammonia production and increased the molar proportion of propionate in the rumen and can assist in developing novel feed additives for methane mitigation from the rumen. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T03:46:08.569505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7876
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