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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1610 journals]
  • Combination of selenium‐enriched green tea polysaccharides and
           Huo‐ji polysaccharides synergistically enhances antioxidant and
           immune activity in mice
    • Authors: Chengfu Yuan; Zhihong Li, Fan Peng, Fangxiang Xiao, Dongming Ren, Hui Xue, Tao Chen, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a combination of selenium‐enriched green tea polysaccharides (Se‐GTP) and Huo‐ji polysaccharides (HJP) on the immune function and antioxidant activity in mice. RESULTS The results showed that the indices of spleen and thymus were markedly increased, and the activity of natural killer (NK) cell was promoted in mice treated with the combination of Se‐GTP and HJP. The combined treatment of Se‐GTP and HJP also reduced the content of tumour necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) in splenocytes. In addition, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were remarkably enhanced, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in mice treated with combination of Se‐GTP and HJP. Furthermore, the combined treatment of Se‐GTP and HJP increased nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor (Nrf2) expression at mRNA and protein levels in splenocytes. The effects of the combination treatment of Se‐GTP and HJP in mice were stronger than with Se‐GTP or HJP treatment alone. CONCLUSION Our study suggests that the combined administration of Se‐GTP and HJP can synergistically improve immune function and decrease the oxidative stress by enhancing the mechanisms involved in the clearance of free radicals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T03:20:42.743895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7287
  • Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of natural phenolic extract from
           defatted soybean flour byproduct for stone fruit postharvest application
    • Authors: María del Carmen Villalobos; Manuel Joaquín Serradilla, Alberto Martín, Elena Ordiales, Santiago Ruiz‐Moyano, María de Guía Córdoba
      Abstract: Background Fresh fruit is highly perishable during storage and transport, so there has been growing interest in finding safe and natural antimicrobial compounds as control tool. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites naturally present in vegetable material and have been associated with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and potential antimicrobial effect of phenolic extract obtained from defatted soybean flour against selected pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms responsible of fruit decay. Results Analysis of phenolic composition by HPLC‐MS showed the presence of a wide range of compounds, with isoflavones and phenolic acids the main polyphenols identified. Furthermore, the phenolic extract had important antioxidant activity by two different assays. Related to antimicrobial activity, in vitro experiments demonstrated that phenolic extract displayed a high activity against the main foodborne pathogens. While, a moderate inhibition was found against five yeast spoilage and Monilia laxa and scarce effect for Penicillium glabrum, Cladosporium uredinicola and Botrytis cinerea. Interestingly these compounds considerably inhibited the mycelial growth of Monilia laxa, in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed that defatted soybean flour is an important source of phenolic compounds with remarkable antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, suggesting the possibility of using them as natural additives in postharvest treatments to extend the shelf life of fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T02:28:18.892284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7327
  • Preservation of Different Fig Cultivars (Ficus carica L.) under Modified
           Atmosphere Packaging during Cold Storage
    • Authors: María del Carmen Villalobos; Manuel Joaquín Serradilla, Alberto Martín, Margarita López Corrales, Cristina Pereira, María de Guía Córdoba
      Abstract: Background The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the stability of ‘Cuello Dama Blanco’ (CDB), ‘Cuello Dama Negro’ (CDN) and ‘San Antonio’ (SA) figs during postharvest cold storage was evaluated by using three different films with a diverse number of microperforations (ø = 100 µm): M10 (16 holes), M30 (five holes) and M50 (three holes). A macroperforated film was used as control (five holes, ø = 9 mm). Gas composition, weight loss, percentage disorder, microbial counts and physicochemical parameters were monitored during cold storage for 21 days. Furthermore, sensory quality was also evaluated. Results MAP has allowed the extension of cold storage and distribution time for the three different cultivars of figs, minimising weight loss and delaying pathological disorders related to endosepsis, smut, and souring. Of the three cultivars, the M50 batch (one hole per 50 mm) showed the best efficiency in terms of physicochemical quality and delay of postharvest decay, although the M30 batch was also found to be suitable for delaying the postharvest decay, especially for the CDB cultivar. Conclusion MAP is a useful tool to extend the storability with optimal quality properties for CDN and SA during 21 days of cold storage and 14–17 days of cold storage for CDB.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T04:02:16.17941-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7326
  • Espresso coffee residues as a nitrogen amendment for small scale vegetable
    • Authors: Soraia Cruz; Cláudia M.d.S Cordovil
      Abstract: Background Espresso coffee grounds IS a residue which is produced daily in considerable amounts, and is often pointed out as potentially interesting for plant nutrition. Two experiments (incubations and field experiments) were carried out to evaluate the potential nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) supply for carrot (Daucus carota L.), spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) nutrition. Results Immobilization of nitrogen and phosphorus was detected in all the incubations and, in the field experiments, germination and yield growth were decreased by the presence of espresso coffee grounds, in general for all the species studied. Conclusion The study showed an inhibition of N and P mineralization and a reduction of plant germination and growth. Further research is required to determine whether this is related to the immobilizing capacity of the residue or possibly due to the presence of caffeine.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T04:01:53.951211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7325
  • Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and anticancer activities of
           chestnut inner shell extracts prepared with various solvents
    • Authors: Byeong Su Jung; Na‐Kyoung Lee, Da Som Na, Hwan Hee Yu, Hyun‐Dong Paik
      Abstract: Background The chestnut inner shell (CIS) has long been used as a medicinal herb for strengthening the antioxidant in cosmetic industry. However, little is known about the antioxidant and anticancer effects of the CIS. Results The antioxidant and anticancer effects of CIS extracts (CISEs) were investigated by the use of various methods and cancer cell lines, respectively. The total polyphenol content of CISEs using ethanol, methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate and water were 53.30, 43.98, 32.16, 26.79 and 11.53 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1, respectively. The CISEs using ethanol and methanol exhibited high antioxidant activities in the 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, β‐carotene bleaching and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays; the effects were equivalent to them of butylated hydroxyltoluene. All CISEs at 2.5 mg mL−1 were shown to have a cytotoxic effect over 50%, and the CISE using ethyl acetate at 0.6 mg mL−1 was proved to have 90% cytotoxic effect against the tested cancer cells. Conclusion The ethanol and methanol CISEs had potent antioxidant effects, and the ethyl acetate CISE had the highest cytotoxicity. These results suggest that CISEs could be used as functional ingredients for antioxidant and anticancer effects in foods as extraction solvents.
      PubDate: 2015-06-27T03:47:27.511567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7324
  • Accumulation of γ‐aminobutyric acid in soybean by hypoxia
           germination and freeze–thawing incubation
    • Authors: Runqiang Yang; Li Feng, Shufang Wang, Nanjing Yu, Zhenxin Gu
      Abstract: Background Γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) can be synthesized by GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway in plant under hypoxia stress and lower temperature. The hypoxia germination–freeze thawing–incubation was used as a new technique for accumulating more GABA in soybean. Results Results showed that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content increased during germination within 24 h under hypoxia. However, the contents of dry matters and protein decreased. When the hypoxia‐treated sprouts were frozen at −18 °C for 12 h and thawed at 25 °C for 6 h, GABA content increased drastically to 7.21‐fold of the non‐frozen sprouts. Subsequently, the freeze thawing sprouts were ground into homogenates and incubated. GABA content was 14.20 ‐fold of the only‐soaked seeds when homogenates was incubated at 45 °C for 80 min within 400 µmol L−1 pyridoxine (VB6) (pH 6.5). Conclusion The hypoxia germination–freeze thawing–incubation was an effective method for accumulating GABA in soybean. During incubation, DAO was more important for GABA formation in homogenate of germinated soybean compared with GAD.
      PubDate: 2015-06-27T03:47:06.482418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7323
  • Monitoring the freshness of fish: development of a qPCR method applied to
           MAP chilled whiting
    • Authors: Alexandre Dehaut; Frédéric Krzewinski, Thierry Grard, Marlène Chollet, Philippe Jacques, Anne Brisabois, Guillaume Duflos
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Monitoring of early stages of freshness decay is a major issue for the fishery industry to guarantee the best quality for this highly perishable food matrix. Numerous techniques have been developed, but most of them have the disadvantage of being reliable only either in the last stages of fish freshness or for the analysis of whole fish. This study describes the development of a qPCR method targeting the torA gene harboured by fish spoilage microorganisms. torA encodes an enzyme that leads to the production of trimethylamine responsible for the characteristic spoiled‐fish odour. RESULTS A degenerate primer pair was designed. It amplified torA gene of both Vibrio and Photobacterium with good efficiencies on 7‐log DNA dilutions. The primer pair was used during a shelf‐life monitoring study achieved on modified atmosphere packed, chilled, whiting (Merlangius merlangus) fillets. The qPCR approach allows detecting an increase of torA copies throughout the storage of fillets in correlation with the evolution of both total volatile basic nitrogen (−0.86) and trimethylamine concentrations (−0.81), known as spoilage markers. CONCLUSION This study described a very promising, sensitive, reliable, time‐effective, technique in the field of freshness characterisation of processed fish.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26T01:23:56.263062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7322
  • Effect of egg freshness on texture and
           baking characteristics of batter systems
           formulated using egg, flour and sugar
    • Authors: Liting Xing; Fuge Niu, Yujie Su, Yanjun Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of egg freshness to baking properties and final qualities in batter systems. Batters were made with different freshness of eggs, and the properties of batter systems were studied through rheological analysis, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), batter density and expansion rate during baking and cooling process. Moreover, the qualities of final baked systems were investigated, including specific volume and texture profile analysis (TPA). RESULTS The flow behaviour of batters showed that the consistency index (K) decreased as HU decreased, while the flow index (n) increased. Both of the storage modulus (G′) and the loss modulus (G″) determined by mechanical spectra at 20 °C decreased with decreasing HU. RVA and DSC determinations found that lower HU samples had a lower viscosity in baking process and a shorter time for starch gelatinisation and egg protein denaturation. Observation of the batter density revealed an increase change, which was reflected by the decrease of specific volumes of final model. TPA showed significant differences in hardness and chewiness, but no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness were found. CONCLUSIONS The egg freshness affected the properties of batter systems.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:48:40.320679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7316
  • Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties,
           bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders
    • Authors: Xu Si; Qinqin Chen, Jinfeng Bi, Xinye Wu, Jianyong Yi, Linyan Zhou, Zhaolu Li
      Abstract: Background Dehydration has been considered as one of the traditional but most effective techniques for perishable fruits. Raspberry powders obtained after dehydration can be added as ingredients into food formulations, like bakery and dairy products. Raspberry powders obtained by hot air drying (HAD), infrared radiation drying (IRD), hot air and explosion puffing drying (HA‐EPD), infrared radiation and microwave vacuum drying (IR‐MVD) and freeze drying (FD) were compared from physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Results Drying techniques affected the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders greatly. Freeze dried raspberry powders showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values in terms of water solubility (45.26%), soluble solid (63.46%), hygroscopicity (18.06%), color parameters and anthocyanin retention (60.70%) than other drying methods. However, thermal drying techniques, especially combined drying methods were superior to FD in the final total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The combined drying methods, especially IR‐MVD showed the highest total polyphenol content (123.22 g GAE kg−1 dw) and total flavonoid content (0.30 g CAE kg−1 dw). Additionally, IR‐MVD performed better in antioxidant activity retention. Conclusion Overall, combined drying methods, especially IR‐MVD was noted to present better quality in raspberry powders among the thermal drying techniques. IR‐MVD techniques could be recommended in drying industry in terms of its advantages in the features of timesaving and nutrient retention.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:48:14.296416-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7317
  • Intracellular synthesis of glutamic acid in Bacillus methylotrophicus
           SK19.001, a glutamate‐independent poly (γ‐glutamic
           acid)‐producing strain
    • Authors: Yingyun Peng; Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Ming Miao, Bo Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001 is a glutamate‐independent strain that produces poly (γ‐glutamic acid) (γ‐PGA; a polymer of D‐ and L‐glutamic acids that possesses applications in food, the environment, agriculture, etc.). This study was undertaken to explore the synthetic pathway of intracellular L‐ and D‐glutamic acid in SK19.001 by investigation of the effects of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and different amino acids as metabolic precursors on the production of γ‐PGA and analysing the activities of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of L‐ and D‐glutamate. RESULTS Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could participate in the synthesis of γ‐PGA via independent pathways in SK19.001. L‐aspartate aminotransferase, L‐glutaminase and L‐glutamate synthase were the enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate. Glutamate racemase was responsible for the formation of D‐glutamate for the synthesis of γ‐PGA, and the synthetase had stereoselectivity for glutamate substrate. CONCLUSIONS The enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate were investigated for the first time in the glutamate‐independent γ‐PGA‐producing strain, and multiple enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate were verified in SK19.001, which will benefit efforts to improve production of γ‐PGA with metabolic engineering strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:47:51.771558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7318
  • Potential use of microwave treatment on fresh‐cut carrots: physical,
           chemical and microbiological aspects
    • Authors: Ginés Benito Martínez‐Hernández; Maria Luisa Amodio, Giancarlo Colelli
      Abstract: Background The effect of microwave treatments (900 W and 750 W for 45 s and 60 s) on the microbial, physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh‐cut carrot slices and the contents of several bioactive compounds was studied. Carrot samples were stored for 7 days at 5 °C. Results The microwaving of fresh‐cut carrots reduced the initial respiration rate (8.6 CO2 mL kg−1 h−1) by 55‐74% compared to untreated samples, although the rates then increased during storage. The initial pH (6.7), titratable acidity (0.036%), soluble solids content (8.2 °Brix) and shelf‐life of the samples did not differ greatly from those of the untreated samples. Microwaving prevented the incipient whitening and surface dryness during the storage. In general, no significant changes in the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity (5.5 µmol t‐cinnamic acid kg−1 h−1), total phenolics content (TP, 81.3 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg−1 fw) or total antioxidant capacity (TAC, 74.2 Trolox equivalent kg−1 fw) were observed on the processing day or over storage. However, the mildest treatment (750 W for 45 s) caused TP and TAC enhancements of 118 % and 394 %, respectively, after 7 days of shelf‐life. Microwave treatments reduced the initial microbial loads of the samples by up to 1.8‐log units, although their microbial growth was greater than that of the untreated samples throughout storage. Conclusion Mild microwave treatments, such as 750 W/45 s and 750 W/60 s, are a good sustainable alternative to the use of NaOCl; however, combining this other sanitising techniques is needed to control microbial growth throughout the shelf‐life of fresh‐cut carrot slices.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:47:18.80267-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7319
  • Phospholipids in Foods: Prooxidants or Antioxidants?
    • Authors: Leqi Cui; Eric A. Decker
      Abstract: Lipid oxidation is one of the major causes of quality deterioration in natural and processed foods and thus a large economic concern in the food industry. Phospholipids, especially lecithins, are already widely used as a natural emulsifier and have been gaining increasing interest as natural antioxidant to control lipid oxidation. This review summarizes the fatty acid composition and content of phospholipids naturally occurring in several foods. The role of phospholipids as a substrate for lipid oxidation is discussed with a focus on meats and dairy products. Prooxidant and antioxidant mechanisms of phospholipids are also discussed to get a better understanding of the possible opportunities for using phospholipids as food antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:46:57.384833-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7320
  • Reactivity change of IgE to buckwheat protein treated with high pressure
           treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis
    • Authors: Chaeyoon Lee; Sooyeon In, Youngshin Han, Sangsuk Oh
      Abstract: Background Buckwheat is a popular food material for eastern Asian countries that can cause allergenic response. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrolysis with papain and high pressure (HP) treatment of buckwheat protein (BWP) on reactivity of IgE and its secondary structure. Results Reactivity of IgE was examined using ELISA with serum samples from sixteen patients allergic to buckwheat. Reactivity of IgE to hydrolysate of BWP with papain showed a maximum decrease of 79.8%. After HP treatment at 600 MPa for 1 min, reactivity of IgE to BWP decreased up to 55.1%. When extracted, BWP was hydrolyzed with papain overnight following HP treatment at 600 MPa. Reactivity of IgE decreased significantly, up to 87.1%. Significant changes in secondary structure of BWP were observed in circular dichroism (CD) analysis after hydrolysis with papain following HP treatment. Conclusion Reduction of the reactivity of IgE showed a correlation with changes in the secondary structure of BWP, which may cause changes in conformational epitopes. This suggests the possibility of decreasing reactivity of IgE to BWP using combined physical and enzymatic treatments.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:46:35.84748-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7321
  • Effect of the mechanical harvest of drupes on the quality characteristics
           of green fermented table olives
    • Authors: Alessandra Martorana; Antonio Alfonzo, Luca Settanni, Onofrio Corona, Francesco La Croce, Tiziano Caruso, Giancarlo Moschetti, Nicola Francesca
      Abstract: Background Due to the damages caused by mechanical harvest, the drupes for table olive production are traditionally hand harvested. So far, no data are available on the microbiological and chemical features during the fermentation of drupes mechanically harvested. Results The drupes mechanically harvested and inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 were characterized by the lowest concentrations of potential spoilage microorganisms. On the other hand, the drupes mechanically harvested and subjected to the spontaneous fermentation showed the highest concentration of Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads during tranformation. The lowest decrease of pH (4.20) was registered for the trials inoculated with the starter culture. Differences in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were estimated among trials. The multivariate analysis showed that the olives processed from the drupes mechanically harvested and inoculated with starter were closely related to the control productions (drupes manually harvested) in terms of microbiological and pH values. The sensory analysis evidenced come negative evaluations only for the uninoculated trials. Conclusion The drupes mechanically harvested and subjected to a driven fermentation with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 determined the production of table olives with appreciable organoleptic features. Thus, the mechanical harvest performed by a trunk shaker equipped with an inversa umbrella and the addition of starter lactic acid bacteria represent a valuable alternative to the manual harvest for table olive production at industrial level.
      PubDate: 2015-06-18T04:25:04.370246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7311
  • Different actions of salt and pyrophosphate on protein extraction from
           myofibrils reveal the mechanism controlling myosin dissociation
    • Authors: Qingwu W. Shen; Darl R. Swartz, Zhenyu Wang, Yue Liu, Yuan Gao, Dequan Zhang
      Abstract: Background Myosin is the major functional protein in muscle foods for water retention, protein binding/gelation and fat holding/emulsification. To maximize its functionality, myosin needs to be released from thick filaments. Understanding of the mechanism controlling myosin extraction will help improve quality traits of meat products. Results The data obtained show that actomyosin binding is the rate‐limiting constraint for myosin release in rigor condition. MgPPi increased myosin extraction by weakening actomyosin interaction and maximized myosin extraction at 0.4 M NaCl, which was not attained at 1.0 M NaCl in the absence of PPi. Interaction between myosin rod domains is another critical constraint for myosin extraction, which is, rather than PPi, salt dependent. Further, our data suggest that MyBP‐C (myosin binding protein C) and M‐line might not be of significance in the process of NaCl induced myosin extraction though further study was needed. Conclusion Our study provides new insight into the mechanism that control myosin extraction from intact sarcomere, which could be applied to maximize myosin function and to improve meat quality in practice.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:59:23.014388-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7314
  • Effects of processing on the polyphenol and phenolic acid content and
           antioxidant capacity of semi‐dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon
           esculentum M.)
    • Authors: Valeria Rizzo; Mike N. Clifford, Jonathan E. Brown, Laura Siracusa, Giuseppe Muratore
      Abstract: Background This study was performed to test the effects of pre‐treating cherry tomatoes with a solution containing citric acid: NaCl: CaCl2(10:10:24 g/L), followed by one of three different drying regimes (40, 60, 80 °C) on the antioxidant capacity of their aqueous extracts and the extent of phenolic compound degradation. Results Chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and naringenin were all detected in the aqueous extracts. In fresh cherry tomatoes the predominant phenolic compound was rutin, followed by naringenin, which corresponded to 79 % and 8 % of the total phenolic compounds present, respectively. Pre‐treatment was protective towards naringenin and had a modest protective effect on rutin and ferulic acid (0.1 > p > 0.05). Total phenolic content was similar in all samples, but there was a trend for the level of free polyphenols to be lower in treated tomatoes. The destruction of naringenin was confirmed by LC‐MS data. Conclusions A significant effect of temperature on the antioxidant capacity was observed. After this treatment the industry might introduce some advances in the processing of tomatoes, preserving the main nutritive characteristics and saving the products as semi‐dried.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:59:01.128435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7315
  • Quality and PR gene expression of table grapes treated with ozone and
           sulfur dioxide to control fungal decay
    • Authors: Arturo Duarte‐Sierra; Emmanuel Aispuro‐Hernández, Irasema Vargas‐Arispuro, María A. Islas‐Osuna, Gustavo A. González‐Aguilar, Miguel Ángel Martínez‐Téllez
      Abstract: Background Gaseous fumigants are commonly employed to control fungal decay of cold‐stored grapes. So far it is not clear if these fumigants, beside the direct interaction against fungal structures, induce transcriptional responses of defensive markers. In order to contribute to understand the mechanisms by which these fumigants exert their effect, it was studied the influence of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on the decay caused by Botrytis cinerea, and the quality and expression of the defense related genes chitinase, β‐1,3‐glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase (PAL) in the table grape cultivars ‘Redglobe’ and ‘Sugraone’. Results The application of SO2 or O3 delayed both table grape cultivars decay caused by B. cinerea compared with the inoculated control. O3 treatments altered weight loss, firmness and shatter in both cultivars. Significant up‐regulation of chitinase and β‐1,3‐glucanase were observed in SO2‐treated ‘Redglobe’ berries stored at 2 °C. O3 treatment transiently increased the expression of chitinase and PAL in ‘Redglobe’ and ‘Sugraone’ berries, respectively. Conclusion Ozone and sulfur dioxide treatments can influence the expression patterns of PAL, chitinase and β‐1,3‐glucanase to different extents in different grape cultivars and under different exposure conditions. The upregulation of these genes may be involved in the mechanism by which these fumigants inhibit the decay caused by pathogenic fungi.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:45:21.664412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7312
  • Effect of the use of anti‐hail nets on codling moth (Cydia
           pomonella) and organoleptic quality of apple (cv. Braeburn) grown in Alto
           Adige Region (Northern Italy)
    • Authors: Irene Baiamonte; Antonio Raffo, Nicoletta Nardo, Elisabetta Moneta, Marina Peparaio, Antonio D'Aloise, Markus Kelderer, Claudio Casera, Flavio Paoletti
      Abstract: Background The anti‐hail nets are widely used to protect apple fruit against hailstorms and hail damage. They can have also beneficial effects against pests in apple orchard, in particular codling moth (Cydia pomonella). However, covering the trees with the anti‐hail nets can modify the orchard microclimate and reduce the interception of light, thus potentially causing negative consequences on the organoleptic quality of apple fruits. Results A consistent reduction of the percentage of the apple fruits infested by codling moth was registered due to the use of the anti‐hail nets during two consecutive harvest years. Their use did not affect fruit maturity, but reduced the skin color, sugar content, pulp total phenol content, volatile compound composition and sensory characteristics. However, the results were inconsistent over the years apart for: total phenols, formation of two volatile compounds (butyl and hexenyl acetate, the first one being one of the main odorants in most apple cultivars), sensory attributes of flavor of lemon and juiciness. For these parameters, the fruits from the plot where the trees were not covered showed higher values than those from the plots where the anti‐hail nets were used. Conclusions The use of anti‐hail nets resulted effective in preventing the attack of codling moth to apple fruits, suggesting their use in organic management where the conventional insecticides are prohibited. In the conditions tested, the anti‐hail nets showed a negative effect on some of the quality characteristics measured on apple fruits, that could influence the consumers acceptability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:43:56.877145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7313
  • Effects of nitric oxide on mitochondrial oxidative defence in postharvest
           peach fruits
    • Authors: Guangqin Jing; Jie Zhou, Shuhua Zhu
      Abstract: Background It has been confirmed that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fruit can cause oxidative damage and nitric oxide (NO) can regulate the accumulation of ROS and the antioxidative defence of fruit. However, little is known about the roles of NO on the antioxidant system in mitochondria of fruit. In this study, Feicheng peach fruits were dipped with 2‐(4‐carboxyphenyl)‐4,4,5,5‐tetramethylimidazoline‐1‐oxyl‐3‐oxide (c‐PTIO) and NO solutions to explore the effects of NO on the membrane permeability transition and antioxidant system in mitochondria of peach fruit. Results Treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO solution could delay the decrease of mitochondrial permeability transition and decrease the content of ROS in mitochondria. Besides, when the endogenous NO was scavenged by c‐PTIO, the ROS in mitochondria increased greatly and the SOD activity decreased, while the contents and activities of POD and CAT changed slightly. Conclusion By delaying the decrease of mitochondrial permeability transition, 15 µmol L−1 NO treatment could promote a more stable internal medium in mitochondria of Feicheng peach fruit. The increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria caused by the remove of endogenous NO suggested that NO also plays an important role in the mitochondrial antioxidant system of Feicheng peach fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:51:38.192629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7310
  • Impact of pre‐harvest light spectral properties on health‐ and
           sensory related compounds in broccoli florets
    • Authors: Anne Linn Hykkerud Steindal; Tor J. Johansen, Gunnar B. Bengtsson, Sidsel F. Hagen, Jørgen A. B. Mølmann
      Abstract: Background Plants grown at different latitudes experience differences in light spectral composition. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants were grown in climate‐controlled chambers under supplemental wavelengths (red, far‐red, red + far‐red or blue) from light emitting diodes (LEDs). The light treatments were combined with two cold climate temperatures (12 and 15 °C) during the broccoli head formation to investigate the effects on morphology and contents of the health‐ and sensory related compounds; glucosinolates, flavonols, ascorbic acid, and soluble sugars. Results Supplemental far‐red and red + far‐red light led to elongated plants and the lowest total glucosinolate content in broccoli florets. The content of quercetin was highest with supplemental red light. Vitamin C was not significantly affected by the light treatments, but 12 °C gave a higher content than 15 °C. Conclusion The effects of supplemental red and far‐red light suggest an involvement of phytochromes in the regulation of glucosinolates and flavonols. A shift in red:far‐red ratio could cause changes in their content besides altering the morphology. The sugar and vitamin C contents, appear to be unaffected by these light conditions. Supplemental blue light had little effect on plant morphology and contents of the health‐ and sensory related compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:49.43609-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7307
  • Bioactive compounds of juices from two brazilian grape cultivars
    • Authors: Juliana Kelly da Silva; Cinthia Baú Betim Cazarin, Luiz Claudio Correa, Ângela Giovana Batista, Cibele Priscila Busch Furlan, Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Giuliano Elias Pereira, Adriano Costa de Camargo, Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior
      Abstract: Background Grape juice consumption may prevent several chronic diseases due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which have an important role in the reduction of oxidative stress. This study investigated the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of grape juices from two cultivars: BRS‐Cora and Isabella. Total polyphenol content (TPC), anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH), and phenolic profile (HPLC‐DAD‐FLD) were determined. Results BRS‐Cora grape juice showed higher concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant potential than those of Isabella grape juice. A significant positive correlation was found in TPC or anthocyanin contents when correlated with the remaining antioxidant assays. In addition, the HPLC‐DAD‐FLD showed higher total phenolic content in BRS‐Cora grape juice compared to Isabella. Conclusion The present results show BRS‐Cora as a promising cultivar for grape juice production with an improved functional potential.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:14.820121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7309
  • Differential expression of genes in purple‐shoot tea tender leaves
           and mature leaves during leaf growth
    • Authors: Qiongqiong Zhou; Weijiang Sun, Zhongxiong Lai
      Abstract: Background Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), contains high level of secondary metabolic products with both commercial and medicinal value. At present, most cultivated tea plant have green leaves, although tea plant with purple leaves exist, their supply is inadequate. During leaf growth and maturation, the contents of secondary metabolic compounds decrease, resulting in higher content in tender‐purple leaves (TPL), and lower content in mature‐green leaves (MGL). The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of genes in these two tissues, with cDNA‐AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) approach and biochemical analysis. Results Compared to MGL samples, TPL samples had higher content of anthocyanin, total polyphenols, total catechins, a higher carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, and lower content of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose). TPL samples showed a lower photosynthetic ability demonstrated by a lower CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate accumulation rate. Using cDNA‐AFLP with 256 primer combinations, differential transcript profiling generated 148 matched transcript‐derived fragments (TDFs). Among these TDFs, 77 genes were up‐regulated and 71 were down‐regulated. These were grouped into 11 functional categories which are important for final tea quality parameters. Conclusions Our data presented the first effort to elucidate the molecular basis of differential accumulation of key metabolites during tea leaf maturation. Our findings also provided a theoretical molecular explanation for the color change during leaf growth.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:03.2592-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7308
  • Physiological responses to low temperature in spring and winter wheat
    • Authors: Bin Zhang; Dong Jia, Zhiqiang Gao, Qi Dong, Liheng He
      Abstract: Background Northward expansion of winter wheat is an efficient means to improve crop yield and quality in many countries. However, inadequate cold hardiness restricts the northward expansion of winter wheat. This study aimed to investigate cold adaption of different wheat varieties and underlying physiological mechanism. Results In the field experiment, soluble sugar and proline content, relative electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were higher in wheat varieties in the over‐wintering period than those in the pre‐wintering period. SOD activity was lower in the over‐wintering period than those in the pre‐wintering period and spring growth period. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was reduced dramatically in the winter variety (Suyin 10), weak winter variety (Lumai 22) and spring (Jinchun 9) variety after low temperature treatment. Cold treatment inhibited stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr). Influences of high temperature treatment and cold acclimation after vernalization were further analyzed in greenhouse in wheat variety Jinghe 1. High temperature treatment after vernalization significantly inhibited SOD and POD activities in the vernalized plants, while cold acclimation after vernalization enhanced POD activity. Conclusion Cold tolerance of wheat varieties may be associated with effective osmoregulation ability, photosynthetic capacity, Gs and Tr, as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T01:26:19.876968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7306
  • A Review on Flow Characterization Methods for Cereal Grain‐Based
    • Authors: R. P. Kingsly Ambrose; Shumaila Jan, Kaliramesh Siliveru
      Abstract: Flow difficulties during handling, storage, and processing are common in cereal grain‐based powder industries. The many studies that focus on the flow properties of powders can be classified as flow indicators, shear properties, and dynamic flow properties. The non‐uniformity of physical and chemical characteristics of the individual particles that make up the bulk solid of cereal grain‐based powders adds complexity to the characterization of flow behavior. Even so, knowledge of flow behavior is critical to the design of productive and cost‐effective equipment for handling and processing of these powders. Because many factors influence flow, a single property/index value may not satisfactorily quantify the flow or no‐flow of powders. For powders of biological origin, chemical composition and environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity complicate flow characterization. This review focuses on the specific flow characteristics that directly affect powder flow during handling, processing, and storage.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T01:25:57.061857-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7305
  • Decomposition and Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid
    • Authors: Visenuo Aiko; Edamana Prasad, Alka Mehta
      Abstract: Background Degradation study of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was carried out using a combination of physical and chemical methods. AFB1 was heated at 80 °C in the presence of acetic, citric and lactic acids for various time periods. The cytotoxicity of the degraded AFB1 and its products were determined by MTT assay. Result The result showed that among the three organic acids, lactic acid was most efficient in degrading AFB1. Although complete degradation was not observed, up to 85% degradation of AFB1 was obtained when heated for 120 min. Degradation of AFB1 was confirmed by the reduced toxicity on HeLa cells using MTT assay. Treatment with lactic acid resulted in the conversion of AFB1 into two degradation products. These products were observed at lower retention factors of 0.63 and 0.38 which were identified as AFB2 and AFB2a, respectively. The cytotoxicity of AFB2a exhibited much reduced toxicity on HeLa cells compared to that of AFB1. Conclusion The results have shown the efficiency of lactic acid in degrading AFB1. This study suggest that lactic acid may be considered for use in food and feed industry since it is present naturally in food and is considered safe.
      PubDate: 2015-06-10T10:28:32.554196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7304
  • Chemical and organoleptic characteristics of tomato puree enriched with
           lyophilized tomato pomace
    • Authors: Lucio Previtera; Gabriella Fucci, Anna De Marco, Valeria Romanucci, Giovanni Di Fabio, Armando Zarrelli
      Abstract: Background Epidemiological studies have proved that tomato consumption is associated with the lower risk of developing several diseases (for example certain types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration, age‐related eye disease…). Many of micronutrients and bioactive compounds are mainly present in peel and seeds and are lost during the processing into sauce, puree, paste and juice. Results The addition of lyophilized and powdered tomato pomace enhances the properties of puree. In this paper we reported the chemical and physico‐chemical characterization of a puree enriched with 2% of dry pomace. The comparison of the analytical data of starting puree with the enriched puree showed a significant increase of all micronutrients, without the taste and appearance are compromised or altered negatively. Conclusion The product obtained is an example of a functional food rich in health promoting phytochemicals, with the significant aspect of recovering a waste fraction of the tomato processing that must be disposed of in a landfill with an increase in costs and environmental impact.
      PubDate: 2015-06-10T10:19:25.000148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7303
  • Characterization of Phytophthora nicotianae isolates in southeast Spain
           and their detection and quantification through a real‐time TaqMan
    • Authors: Josefa Blaya; Carmen Lacasa, Alfredo Lacasa, Victoriano Martínez, Ana B Santísima‐Trinidad, Jose A Pascual, Margarita Ros
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T10:29:51.877462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7300
  • Analytical phenolic composition and sensory assessment of selected rare
           Greek cultivars after extended bottle ageing
    • Authors: Stamatina Kallithraka; Yorgos Kotseridis, Maria Kyraleou, Niki Proxenia, Argirios Tsakiris, Garifalia Karapetrou
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T10:25:56.369017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7299
  • Trichoderma saturnisporum, a new biological control agent
    • Authors: Diánez F; Santos M, Carretero F, Marín F.
      Abstract: Background Biocontrol agents (BCAs) could be a viable alternative to chemicals in the management of fungal crop diseases. Screening for potential biocontrol and plant growth promoter isolates from a soil in Cádiz (Spain) was conducted. Several isolates showed antagonism in vitro tests to several plant pathogens. Results Two isolates of T. saturnisporum (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) were identified by sequencing of the rDNA region. One isolate was selected for further in vivo plant growth promotion and biological control assays. Results indicate that substrate application of T. saturnisporum improved plant quality and showed biological control activity against Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora parasitica (Peronosporales, Peronosporaceae). Conclusions There are a few references of T. saturnisporum isolated from different media but not its ability to promote plant growth or biocontrol. This is the first report of T. saturnisporum as a seedling growth promoter and as biological control agent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:42:03.752398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7301
  • Long‐term impacts of grazing intensity on soil carbon sequestration
           and selected soil properties in the arid Eastern Cape, South Africa
    • Authors: Deribe G. Talore; Eyob Tesfamariam, Abubeker Hassen, Du Toit JCO, Katja Klampp, Soussana Jean‐Francois
      Abstract: Background Little is known how basic soil properties respond to contrasting grazing intensities in the Karoo biome, South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate impacts of long‐term (>75 years) grazing at 1.18 heads ha−1 (heavy; CGH), 0.78 heads ha−1 (light; CGL), and exclosure on selected soil properties. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm from the long‐term experimental site of Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute, Eastern Cape. The samples were analyzed for C, N, bulk density, and infiltration rate among others. Results Generally, heavy and light grazing reduced soil N storage by 27.5% and 22.6%, respectively, compared with the exclosure. Animal exclusion improved water infiltration rate and C stocks significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:41:15.445662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7302
  • Forage legumes rich in condensed tannins may increase n–3 fatty acid
           levels and sensory quality of lamb meat
    • Authors: Marion Girard; Frigga Dohme‐Meier, Paolo Silacci, Silvia Ampuero Kragten, Michael Kreuzer, Giuseppe Bee
      Abstract: Background Tannins intensively interact with rumen microbes which is expected to have consequences for meat quality. Results Silages prepared from birdsfoot trefoil (BT), sainfoin (SF), alfalfa (AF) or red clover (RC), were fed alone to 48 lambs. The SF contained 5‐times more condensed tannins than BT, the other tanniferous plant. Growth and carcass performance, but not general meat quality, was reduced with BT and SF compared to AF and RC. Lambs fed SF had half the skatole levels in the perirenal fat than AF‐lambs. The Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of the SF‐lambs, compared to RC and BT, had a lower intensity for ‘livery’ and ‘sheepy’ flavors but a stronger ‘grassy’ flavor. The intramuscular fat of BT‐ and SF‐lambs contained less saturated and more polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 20:4n–6, 20:3n–6, 20:5n–3 and 22:5n–3 with SF being more efficient than BT. Conclusion The SF was most promising to increase beneficial fatty acids and to reduce skatole content in lamb meat.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:35:31.789582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7298
  • Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional
           food—roast duck
    • Authors: Yiming Zhou; Fan Xie, Xiaoli Zhou, Yuqiang Wang, Wen Tang, Ying Xiao
      Abstract: Background Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food, whose flavour is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process, and can induce health risk. The aim of this work was to analysis effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food—roast duck. Results Ducks with different roasting time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40‐ and 50‐min roast ducks exhibited the acceptable degree of sensory, but the 60‐min roast duck shown the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed increasing with roasting, and the 60‐min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (DPPH, 39.3 µmol Trolox g−1 sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g−1) and 5‐hydroxy‐methyl‐furfural (0.089 µg g−1) were detected in the 50‐ and 60‐min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60‐min roast ducks manifested the higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. Conclusion The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be better for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial for health.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:33:31.618243-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7297
  • pH and heat‐dependent behaviour of glucose oxidase down to single
           molecule level by combined fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular
    • Authors: Loredana Dumitrașcu; Nicoleta Stănciuc, Gabriela Elena Bahrim, Alexandrina Ciumac, Iuliana Aprodu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In food industry, glucose oxidase is used for the improvement of shelf life of food materials. The pH and heat induced conformational changes of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger were quantified by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. RESULTS Phase diagram showed an all‐or none transition process, indicating that pH and temperature largely influence the conformational state of GOX. Shifts in maximum wavelength of Trp, Tyr were registered as the protein encounters a lower pH (pH 4.0), suggesting significant changes of the polarity around the chromophore molecule. Quenching experiments using KI showed higher quenching constants of Trp and FAD upon heating or by changing pH value, and were mainly correlated to the conformational changes upon protein matrix. Finally, valuable insights into the thermal behavior of GOX were obtained from molecular modeling results. CONCLUSIONS The conformation and structure of GOX protein is dependent upon the pH and heat treatment applied. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated significant changes in the substrate binding region at temperatures over 60 °C that might affect enzyme activity. Moreover important alteration of the small pocket hosting the positively charged His516 residue responsible for oxygen activation appears evident at high temperatures.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:59:20.608794-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7296
  • Phytochemicals determination and classification in purple and red fleshed
           potato tubers by analytical methods and near‐infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: R. Tierno; A. López, P. Riga, S. Arazuri, C. Jarén, L. Benedicto, J. I. Ruiz de Galarreta
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Over the last two decades, the attractive colours and shapes of pigmented tubers and the increasing concern about the relationship between nutrition and health are contributing to the expansion of their consumption and specialty market. Thus, we have quantified the concentration of health promoting compounds such as soluble phenolics, monomeric anthocyanins, carotenoids, vitamin C, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, in a collection of 18 purple and red fleshed potato accessions. RESULTS Cultivars and breeding lines high in vitamin C, such as Blue Congo, Morada and Kasta, have been identified. Deep purple cultivars Violet Queen, Purple Peruvian and Vitelotte showed high levels of soluble phenolics, monomeric anthocyanins, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, whereas relatively high carotenoid concentrations were found in partially yellow coloured tubers, such as Morada, Highland Burgundy Red, and Violet Queen. CONCLUSION The present characterization of cultivars and breeding lines with high concentrations of phytochemicals is an important step both to support the consideration of specialty potatoes as a source of healthy compounds, and to obtain new cultivars with positive nutritional characteristics. Moreover, by using near‐infrared spectroscopy a non‐destructively identification and classification of samples with different levels of phytochemicals is achieved, offering an unquestionable contribution to potato industry for future automatic discrimination of varieties.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:43:28.088242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7294
  • Physicochemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars
           grown in soils with different phosphorus availability
    • Authors: Magali Leonel; Ezequiel L. Carmo, Adalton M. Fernandes, Célia M. L. Franco, Rogério P. Soratto
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Starch is the major component of potato tubers amounting approximately to 1.5‐2.0 g kg−1 of its weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical method and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. RESULTS For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P avaliability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged of 0.252 to 0.647 g kg−1 and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. CONCLUSION The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:43:06.799766-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7295
  • Rapid and Non‐destructive Determination of Rancidity Levels in
           Butter Cookies by Multispectral Imaging
    • Authors: Qing Xia; Changhong Liu, inxia Liu, Wenjuan Pan, Xuzhong Lu, Jianbo Yang, Wei Chen, Lei Zheng
      Abstract: Background Rancidity is an important attribute for quality assessment of butter cookies, while traditional methods for rancidity measurement are usually laborious, destructive and prone to operational error. In the present paper, the potential of applying multispectral imaging (MSI) technology with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405–970 nm to evaluate the rancidity in butter cookies was investigated. Results Moisture contents, acid value and peroxide value were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back‐propagation artificial neural network (BP‐ANN). The optimal models for predicting moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were obtained by PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained by PLSR models revealed that MSI had a perfect ability to predict moisture content (r = 0.909), acid value (r = 0.944) and peroxide value (r = 0.971). Conclusion The paper demonstrated that the rancidity level of butter cookies can be continuously monitored and evaluated in real‐time by the Multispectral imaging, which is of great significance for developing online food safety monitoring solution.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:11:53.671145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7292
  • Sequential culture with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae and management of fermentation temperature to improve cherry
           wine quality
    • Authors: Shu Yang Sun; Han Sheng Gong, Yu Ping Zhao, Wen Li Liu, Cheng Wu Jin
      Abstract: Background There has been limited research on the use of non‐Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of cherry wines. This work used an autochthonous T. delbrueckii strain 49 (TD49) in association with a commercial S. cerevisiae RC212 yeast, to investigate the effect of multistarter culture (sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation) and fermentation temperature on the quality of cherry wines. Results Both TD49 and RC212 proliferated during AF under sequential inoculation conditions, whereas in the case of simultaneous inoculation, TD49 increased slowly at first and then declined sharply near the fermentation end. The analytical profile showed that both mixed fermentations produced lower levels of volatile acidy and higher levels of aromatic compounds than those from RC212 mono‐culture. During sensory analysis, wines from sequential fermentation obtained the highest score, mainly due to the higher intensity in ‘fruity’ and ‘floral’ characters. As for the influence of temperature, a low temperature (20 °C) enhanced TD49 persistence during AF, but the sensory quality decreased anyway; 30 °C resulted in decreases in most measured descriptors. Therefore, 25 °C was selected as the best culture temperature. Conclusion TD49/RC212 sequential inoculation and fermentation at 25 °C significantly enhanced the cherry wine quality.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:11:31.482864-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7293
  • Deficit irrigation strategies enhance health‐promoting compounds
           through the intensification of specific enzymes in early peaches
    • Authors: Natalia Falagán; Francisco Artés, Perla Azucena Gómez, Francisco Artés‐Hernández, Wenceslao Conejero, Encarna Aguayo
      Abstract: Background Biochemical and enzymatic responses to long‐term regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) at harvest, during cold storage and after retail sale period of ‘Flordastar’ early peaches were evaluated. Irrigation strategies were Control, and two RDI applied during postharvest period (RDI1: severe; RDI2: moderate), based on different thresholds of maximum of daily shrinkage signal intensity (RDI1: 1.4 to dry; RDI2: 1.3 to 1.6). Results Both RDI provoked stress in the plant. This meant higher antioxidant concentration (averaging 1.30 ± 0.27 g AAE kg−1 f.w. for control and 1.77 ± 0.35 and 1.50 ± 0.30 g AAE kg−1 f.w. for RDI1 and RDI2, respectively). Antioxidant levels decreased with storage by polyphenoloxydase action, which increased (from 0.04 ± 0.01 U mg−1 protein to 0.32 ± 0.08 U mg−1 protein). Vitamin C was initially higher in RDI samples (44.22 ± 0.05 g total vitamin C kg−1 f.w. for control vs. 46.77 ± 0.02 and 46.27 ± 0.03 g total vitamin C kg−1 f.w. for RDI1 and RDI2, respectively). Conclusion The way RDI was applied affected bioactive fruit composition, being catalase and dehydroascorbic acid good water stress indicators. RDI strategies can be used as field practice, allowing water savings while enhanced healthy compound content in early peaches.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:09:19.876694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7290
  • Hyperimmunised bovine milk and whey: Influence of pH and enzymatic
           treatments on the antigen‐binding capacity of immunoglobulin G
    • Authors: Julia Dugnol Menéndez; Francisco A. Riera
      Abstract: Background Hyperimmunised bovine milk and whey (whole and defatted) were submitted at 37°C to different pH (between 1 and 10) and enzymes (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin) at their optimum pH and the IgG immunoactivity against Campylobacter jejuni was measured by means of ELISA assays. Results The kinetic ABC Losses follows a hyperbolic‐type equation. The antigen binding capacity of IgG is strongly reduced at low pH (1 and 2) and the effect is lower at alkaline pH (8 and 10). The presence of pepsin (at their optimum pH of 2) almost completely reduced the IgG antigen binding capacity after 2 hours of treatment. The antigen binding capacities are higher in whole products (milk and whey). Influence of trypsin and quimotrypsin on the antigen binding capacities is moderate (ABC Losses lower that 25%). Conclusions The antigen binding capacity of IgG obtained from hyperimmunised bovine defatted milk and whey is largely reduced in conditions similar to those found in the human digestive tract. Only whole milk can maintain around 40% of their initial antigen binding capacity. IgG encapsulation or other methods to protect the immunoglobulin activities could be an alternative to use these type of products in final foods formulae.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:08:17.189578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7291
  • Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) a potential biomass candidate for
           bioethanol: cell wall structural changes enhancing hydrolysis in a mild
           alkali pretreatment regime
    • Authors: Md. Azizul Haque; Dhirendra Nath Barman, Min Keun Kim, Han Dae Yun, Kye Man Cho
      Abstract: Background Imperata cylindrica is being considered as a biomass candidate for bioethanol. This work aimed to evaluate a mild alkali pretreatment effect on the Imperata recalcitrant structure. Therefore, varied concentrations of NaOH (0, 7.5, 15, 20, and 25 g L−1) were applied as treatments to Imperata at 105 °C for 10 min. Results Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that 20 to 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treated Imperata exposed amorphous cellulose on surface granules composed of lignin, waxes, and partly hemicelluloses were abolished due to the comprehensive disruption of the linkages between lignin and carbohydrates. The cellulose crystalline index was increased with 7.5 to 20 g L−1 NaOH‐treatments and reduced with a 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treatment. In fact, the cellulose content in solids increased with the increasing NaOH‐concentration and was estimated to be 720 and 740 g kg−1 for the 20 and 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treatments, respectively. The yield of the reducing sugar was obtained 805 and 813 mg g−1 from 20 and 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treated Imperata, respectively. Conclusion Considering the cost of pretreatment, the 20 g L−1 NaOH‐treatment is judged to be effective for disrupting Imperata recalcitrance in this pretreatment regime.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T03:48:55.629469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7288
  • Proanthocyanidins in an astringent persimmon inhibit Salmonella
           Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1) secretion
    • Authors: Ai Morita; Akihiro Tai, Hideyuki Ito, Natsuki Ganeko, Shin‐Ichi Aizawa
      Abstract: Astringent compounds contained in persimmon fruits have been widely used in Japan as food‐preservatives and thus as anti‐bacterial and anti‐fungi reagents. However, the molecular mechanism of the anti‐microbial activity has been unclear. One of the virulence secretion systems in Salmonella enterica was used to test the anti‐microbial activity of extracts from a persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb ‘Saijo’). We found that the extract could inhibit the secretion of virulence proteins but did not affect cell growth and determined the critical concentrations of the extract to show the effect. Then, the effective fraction on the suppression of secretion of virulence proteins was purified from the crude extracts using solvent partition, absorption chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The anti‐bacterial fraction was analyzed by HCl‐Butanol treatment and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and identified as the octamers of epigallocatechin and its gallate as major components. In conclusion, proanthocyanidins suppress the secretion of SPI1 virulence proteins.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T03:46:18.76858-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7289
  • Optimized extraction of β‐carotene from Spirulina platensis and
           hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice
    • Authors: Qiu‐Yue Ma; Ming Fang, Jia‐Hui Zheng, Di‐Feng Ren, Jun Lu
      Abstract: Background Spirulina platensis is rich in β‐carotene which possesses many important biological activities. This study investigated the ultrasound‐assisted extraction and purification of β‐carotene from Spirulina platensis by using response surface methodology (RSM), determined its antioxidant capacity in vitro and explored its hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mice. Results The raw β‐carotene extract with a concentration of 1,942.14 ± 10.03 µg/mL was obtained at the optimized condition by RSM (0.40 of the solid–liquid ratio, 51% of the extraction power, and 17 min of the extraction time), and the purity of evaporated β‐carotene extract reached 816.32 ± 10.57 mg/g after purified by a NKA‐9 resin with a sampling and elution rate of 1 mL/min. The β‐carotene extract scavenged 1, 1‐Diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radicals with the highest ratios of 44 ± 0.26% and 35 ± 0.45% respectively, and exhibited strong inhibiting capacity on anti‐lipid peroxidation. The blood glucose level of streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice was significantly reduced from 15.81 ± 1.71 mmol/L to 8.10 ± 0.88 mmol/L after 10 d administration of the β‐carotene extract (100 mg/kg b.w.), and the increased food and water intakes in the diabetic mice were also significantly relieved after β‐carotene treatment. Conclusion Our results suggested that extraction of β‐carotene from Spirulina platensis had potential prospects in scaled‐up industrialization and healthcare application.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T05:28:47.671919-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7286
  • Fatty acid composition of the ovine Longissimus dorsi muscle: effect of
           feed restriction in three breeds of different origin
    • Authors: Sofia van Harten; Tanya Kilminster, Timothy Scanlon, John Milton, Chris Oldham, Johann Greeff, André M Almeida
      Abstract: Background Muscle fatty acid profile reflects the body condition of animals and has a noticeable effect on meat quality. Herein, longissimus dorsi muscle of three different sheep breeds, Damara (a fat‐tailed breed), Dorper and Australian Merino sheep, were analysed for fatty acid composition. The three breeds were subjected to two distinctive feeding levels (ad libitum and restricted feeding) over 42 days. Results The Damara sheep revealed several differences compared to the other two breeds, namely a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can be related to being a fat‐tailed breed. Even in restricted feeding conditions, this breed revealed the highest levels compared to Merino and Dorper sheep respectively, of LA (+31% and +28%), LNA (+97% and +51%), EPA (+65% and +37%), DPA (+31% Merino) and DHA (+63% and +77%), being EPA, DPA and DHA three omega‐3 fatty acids, with described beneficial characteristics. Conclusion With this work we show other qualities (higher levels of the omega‐3 fatty acids – EPA, DPA and DHA) of Damara meat that might present this breed as an interesting alternative for animal production in semi‐arid climates.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T05:26:52.886419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7285
  • Anti‐inflammatory effect of water extracts of Graptopetalum
           paraguayense supplementation in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a
           preliminary study
    • Authors: Shu‐Ju Chen; Chi‐Hua Yen, Jen‐Tzu Liu, Yu‐Fen Tseng, Ping‐Ting Lin
      Abstract: Background Many studies have demonstrated that Graptopetalum paraguayense has good antioxidant ability; however, few studies have examined its anti‐inflammatory effect. The study aimed to investigate the anti‐inflammatory effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C‐reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α), and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6)] and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured. Results Forty‐two subjects completed the 12 week intervention study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). After 12 weeks supplementation, subjects in WGP group had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers than the baseline (p < 0.05) and the placebo group (CRP, p = 0.07; TNF‐α, p = 0.04; IL‐6, p = 0.03). The changes in levels of the inflammatory markers were significantly decreased in WGP group (CRP, p = 0.04; TNF‐α, p = 0.06; IL‐6, p = 0.01) compared to the placebo group. Levels of inflammatory markers were significantly negatively correlated with the antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation. Conclusion This study demonstrated a significant reduction in inflammatory status in MS after WGP supplementation. WGP may exert an anti‐inflammatory effect on MS in addition to its antioxidant ability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T05:25:58.49771-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7284
  • Soluble protein, sugar, GA3 and sHSPs genes related with seed germination
           during maturation of hybrid rice seed
    • Authors: Li‐Wei Zhu; Dong‐Dong Cao, Qi‐Juan Hu, Ya‐Jing Guan, Wei‐min Hu, Aamir Nawaz, Jin Hu
      Abstract: Background During the production of early hybrid rice seed, the seeds dehydrated slowly and kept high moisture when the rainy weather lasted for a couple of days, and the rice seeds were easy to occur pre‐harvest sprouting (PHS) along with high temperature, therefore it is necessary to harvest the seeds before the PHS happened. Results The seeds of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica) cv. Qianyou No1 that harvest from 19 to 28 days after pollination (DAP) all had high seed vigor. The seed moisture content at 10 DAP was 36.1 %, and declined to 28.6 % at 19 DAP; the contents of soluble sugar and total starch increased significantly with the development of seeds. The soluble protein content, the level of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA3), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity kept decreasing from 10 DAP to 19 DAP. The seeds of 19 DAP had the highest peroxidase (POD) activity and lowest catalase (CAT) activity while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity had no significant difference among the different developing periods. The relative expressions of genes, 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 transcripts increased significantly from 10 to 19 DAP, and then decreased. However, no significant change was recorded in soluble protein, sugar and GA3 after 16 DAP, and they all significantly correlated with seed viability and vigor during the process of seed maturity. Conclusion The seeds of hybrid rice Qianyou No1 had a higher viability and vigor when harvesting from 19 DAP to 28 DAP, the transcription levels of 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 increased significantly from 10 DAP to 19 DAP and the highest value was recorded at 19 DAP. The seeds could be harvested as early as 19 DAP without negative influence on seed vigor and viability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T08:44:02.817098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7283
  • Effects of technological processes on enniatins levels in pasta
    • Authors: Ana B. Serrano; Guillermina Font, Jordi Mañes, Emilia Ferrer
      Abstract: Background Potential human health risks posed by enniatins (ENs) require its control primarily from cereal products, creating a demand for harvesting, food processing and storage techniques capable to prevent, reduce and/or eliminate the contamination. In this study, different methodologies to pasta processing simulating traditional and industrial processes were developed in order to known the fate of the mycotoxins ENs. The levels of ENs were studied at different steps of pasta processing. The effect of the temperature during processing were evaluated in two types of pasta (white and whole‐grain pasta). Mycotoxin analysis was performed by LC‐MS/MS. Results High reductions up to 50% and 80% were achieved during drying pasta at 45‐55 °C and 70‐90 °C, respectively. The treatments at low temperature (25 °C) did not change ENs levels. The effect of pasta composition did not evidenced a significant effect on the stability of ENs. The effect of the temperature allowed a marked mycotoxin reduction during pasta processing. Generally, ENA1 and ENB showed higher thermal stability than ENA and ENB1. Conclusions The findings from the present study suggested that pasta processing at medium‐high temperatures is a potential tool to remove an important fraction of ENs from the initial durum wheat semolina.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T05:11:21.426364-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7282
  • Aqueous extract of tomato seeds attenuate rotenone‐induced oxidative
           stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Gokul Krishna; Mura Muralidhara
      Abstract: Background Tomato seeds, a major by‐product from food processing industry, constitute a rich source of bioactives and a large population consumes tomato (either in raw or cooked form). In the present study, initially we assessed the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) in selected chemical systems and further explored the neuroprotective effects of TSE utilizing rotenone (ROT) model of neurotoxicity in Drosophila. Results Adult male flies (Oregon K) were fed TSE‐enriched medium (0.1–0.2%) with or without ROT (500 μM) for 7 days. The propensity of TSE to protect flies against ROT‐induced lethality, locomotor phenotype, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity was investigated. TSE offered marked protection against ROT‐induced mortality, while survivors exhibited improved locomotor phenotype. TSE significantly attenuated ROT‐induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, protein carbonyls content, restored the cholinergic function and dopamine levels. Conclusion We hypothesize that the efficacy of tomato seed extract to attenuate ROT‐mediated neurotoxicity may be largely related to the combined antioxidant activity of bioactives resulting in abrogation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. More importantly, our approach provides an experimental paradigm to rapidly assess the potential neuroprotective effects of common dietary components employing Drosophila, since it corroborates with previous evidence in a mice model.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T04:52:21.332519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7281
  • Impact of Electron Beam Irradiation on Quality of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae
           rhamnoides L.) Oil
    • Authors: Monica R. Nemţanu; Mirela Braşoveanu
      Abstract: Background Sea buckthorn oil is a valuable product that can be incorporated into daily foodstuffs, cosmetics, or pharmaceuticals. The effect of accelerated electron irradiation up to 8 kGy on quality characteristics of sea buckthorn oil was investigated in this study. Results Irradiation had no significant influence on phenolic content. Conversely, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity, and oxidative status suffered alterations as the irradiation dose increased. Although no color changes were visible for oil irradiated up to 3 kGy, the total color difference indicated clearly changes that involved a two‐step pattern associated with slow degradation of oil color up to 3 kGy, followed by a fast degradation up to 8 kGy. Some changes of the oil spectral features related to the frequency and intensity of some bands have been found after irradiation, indicating an alteration of the structural integrity induced by irradiation. Conclusion The present investigation may be a useful starting point for irradiation processing of food or non‐food matrices containing sea buckthorn oil. Thus, sea buckthorn oil safety can be ensured with minimal undesirable changes in its quality by applying irradiation doses up to 3 kGy, which allow to control the microbial contamination depending on microorganism type and initial microbial load.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T04:01:43.8997-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7280
  • Physico‐chemical properties and fatty acid composition of
           pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils
    • Authors: Francesco Siano; Maria C Straccia, Marina Paolucci, Gabriella Fasulo, Floriana Boscaino, Maria G Volpe
      Abstract: Background Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health.The aim of this work was to compare the physico‐chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. Results High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UVA and UVB range. Conclusion Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T01:27:22.868779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7279
  • Effect of immobilization materials on viability and fermentation activity
           of dairy starter culture in whey based substrate
    • Authors: Tanja Ž. Krunić; Maja Lj. Bulatović, Nataša S. Obradović, Maja S. Vukašinović‐Sekulić, Marica B. Rakin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The main objectives of the paper were to study influence of immobilization of dairy starter culture ‘Lactoferm ABY 6’ on fermentation and probiotic potential of fermented whey‐based substrate. RESULTS Fermentation with free cells takes 1.5 h less than fermentation with encapsulated cells, but samples with encapsulated cells have better characteristics after 28 days of storage. Chitosan coating provides additional protection of cells in bile salt solution (95.86 % of viable cells compared to the initial number) and simulated gastric juice (37.8 % for pH 2.5) compared to the alginate beads (94.54% in bile salt solution and 36.18 % in simulated gastric juice for pH 2.5). Free cells had a drastic reduction in the number of viable cells (83.0 % in bile salt solution and no viable cells in simulated gastric juice for pH 2.5). CONCLUSION Samples with alginate beads and chitosan‐coated alginate beads have significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T11:53:42.413656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7278
  • Dietary supplementation of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens alters fatty acids of
           milk and rumen fluid in lactating goats
    • Authors: Swati Shivani; Anima Srivastava, Umesh K. Shandilya, Vishnu Kale, Amrish K. Tyagi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have high health amelioration potential hence of great interest to increase the CLA content in dairy products. Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of administration of high CLA producing Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In‐1 on fatty acid composition of milk and rumen fluid in lactating goats. Four groups (n = 5) of lactating goats were assigned the following treatments: Control (C) ( basal diet); T1 (Basal diet + linoleic acid source), T2 (Basal diet + suspension of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In‐1 @ 109 CFU/head) and T3 (Basal diet + linoleic acid source + suspension of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In‐1 @ 109 CFU/head). RESULTS Rumen liquor and milk samples were collected on 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90th days of experiment and linoleic isomerase enzyme (LA‐I) activity and fatty acid profiles were elucidated. Major effects of treatments were seen on the 30th day of experiment. Total CLA content of rumen fluid increased (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T02:04:20.990284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7277
  • Folate distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), common wheat (Triticum
           aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum Desf.) pearled
    • Authors: Debora Giordano; Amedeo Reyneri, Massimo Blandino
      Abstract: Background Wholegrain cereals are an important source of folates. In this study, total folate was analyzed in pearled fractions of barley and wheat cultivars employing the AOAC Official Method 2004.05. In particular, the distribution of folate in the kernels was evaluated in three barley cultivars (two hulled types and a hulless one as well as two‐ and six‐row types) and in a common and a durum wheat cultivar. Results A noticeable variation in the folate content was observed between the barley (653–1033 ng g−1 dm) and wheat cultivars (1024–1119 ng g−1 dm). The highest folate content was detected in the hulless barley cultivar (1033 ng g−1 dm). A significant reduction in total folate, from 63% to 86%, was observed in all cultivars from the outermost to the innermost pearled fractions. Conclusion Results proved that folates are mainly present in the germ and in the outer layers of the kernel. This is the first study reporting the folate distribution in kernels of both common and durum wheat and in a hulless barley cultivar. Results suggest that the pearling process could be useful for the selection of intermediate fractions that could be used in order to develop folate enhanced ingredients and products.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T02:04:05.198512-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7276
  • Analysis of volatiles from stored wheat and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) with
           solid phase microextraction‐gas chromatography mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Yonghao Niu; Lei Hua, Giles Hardy, Manjree Agarwal, Yonglin Ren
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contribute significantly to food flavour and can be used as indicators of quality, age of storage, and hygiene condition of stored products. The VOCs in the headspace of 3 different samples; healthy wheat, Rhyzopertha dominica and wheat with R. dominica, were analysed at 25 °C by solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography‐flame ionization detection (GC‐FID) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). All the experimental conditions were kept consistent except a polar column and a non‐polar column were used to assess the differences in volatile fingerprints. RESULTS A total of 114 volatiles were identified by both the polar and non‐polar columns, of which 48 were specific to one of the 3 samples tested. The volatiles were mainly carbonyl chemical compounds such as aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. GC‐MS results showed slightly more VOCs were identified from the polar column. The total number for the 3 samples was 43 from the polar column compared to 39 from the non‐polar column. Conversely, 30 VOCs unique to a given sample were identified from the non‐polar column compared to 18 from the polar column. CONCLUSION The use of both polar and non‐polar columns is essential to capture the full range of VOCs produced by the 3 specific sample types investigated. The data can form the basis of enquiry into the relationship between storage and grain quality, and insect infestation and grain quality by observing the impact that these circumstances have on the production of volatile organic compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T01:48:24.602141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7274
  • Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in smoked buffalo mozzarella
           cheese produced in Campania Region (Italy)
    • Authors: E. Fasano; F. Esposito, G. Scognamiglio, T. Cirillo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The smoked mozzarella is obtained through traditional smoking techniques or liquid smoke use. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be produced during the organic matrix combustion. The aim of this study was to evaluate Benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P), benzo[a]anthracene (B(a)A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B(b)FA), benzo[k]fluoranthene (B(k)FA), benzo[ghi]perylene (B(g,h,i)PE), chrysene (CHR), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB(a,h)A) and indeno[1,2,3‐cd]pyrene (IP) in smoked buffalo mozzarella produced in Campania, evaluating also the influence of the different smoking techniques. Milk and mozzarella of the same batch, before and after smoking, were collected. Detection method was made of basic hydrolysis, clean up with silica and detection by HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. RESULTS About milk, only 30% was contaminated. In non smoked products the medians were >LODs only for B(a)A and CHR. In smoked mozzarellas highest median was 0.37 ng g−1 wet weight (CHR). CONCLUSION It was found that the assumption of this typical food of Campania does not represent a risk for the consumer considering that the incidences on EFSA dietary intake were always lower than 1.5% for Mozzarella cheese and than 3% for Smoked Mozzarella Cheese.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T01:48:08.741065-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7275
  • Comparison of free amino acids, antioxidants, soluble phenolic acids,
           cytotoxicity and immunomodulation of fermented mung bean and soybean
    • Authors: Norlaily Mohd Ali; Swee‐Keong Yeap, Hamidah Mohd Yusof, Boon‐Kee Beh, Wan‐Yong Ho, Soo‐Peng Koh, Mohd Puad Abdullah, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Kamariah Long
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects while fermentation is a well‐known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non‐fermented mung bean and soybean were compared. RESULTS Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF‐7 cell by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin‐2 (IL‐2) and interferon‐gamma (IFN‐γ). CONCLUSION Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T23:25:15.251001-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7267
  • Screening of anthocyanins in single red grapes using a
           non‐destructive method based on the near infrared hyperspectral
           technology and chemometrics
    • Authors: Jesús Raúl Martínez‐Sandoval; Julio Nogales‐Bueno, Francisco José Rodríguez‐Pulido, José Miguel Hernández‐Hierro, Manuel Alberto Segovia‐Quintero, Miguel Enrique Martínez‐Rosas, Francisco José Heredia
      Abstract: Background Anthocyanins are the main responsible for the colour of red wines and therefore it may be important to evaluate the content of the aforesaid secondary metabolites during grape ripening due to the crucial importance to determine wine colour. Nowadays, there is a growing demand of rapid and non‐destructive analytical tools for analysing grapes, such as the emerging hyperspectral analysis Results The hyperspectral images of intact grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha and Mazuelo red grape from vineyards located in the D.O.Ca. Rioja at two different developmental stages) were recorded using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging device (900–1700 nm). Reference values of anthocyanins were obtained by HPLC‐DAD. Calibrations were performed by modified partial least squares regression and present a good potential (coefficient of determination of 0.72 and standard error of cross‐validation values of 0.78 and 0.70 mg per grape for total and non‐acylated anthocyanins respectively). Conclusion The procedure reported here presents a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of these compounds in intact single berries. Moreover, the heterogeneity of anthocyanins within the same ripeness stage could be evaluated using this non‐detructive tool.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T23:21:38.763669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7266
  • Use of principal factor analysis to generate a corn silage fermentative
           quality index to rank well‐ or poorly‐preserved forages
    • Authors: Antonio Gallo; Gianluca Giuberti, Sara Bruschi, Paola Fortunati, Francesco Masoero
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To investigate corn silage fermentative quality, a principal factor analysis was carried out on a database consisting of 196 corn silages sampled from the core, lateral and apical parts of silo feed‐out face and characterised by 36 variables. Eleven principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Two PCs were related to chemical and digestibility variables; four PCs were characterised by end‐products associated with clostridia, heterolactic, homolactic or aerobic fermentations; two PCs were associated with mycotoxins produced by Penicillium roqueforti or by Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium spp., while three PCs explained ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silages. RESULTS Lower (P
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:26:34.419624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7272
  • Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows†
    • Authors: Wilhelm Knaus
      Abstract: The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high‐input/high‐output system maximizing annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate‐based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture‐based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high‐yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals’ health. On pasture, lighter‐weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year‐round indoor feeding of high‐yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human‐edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilize the evolutionary advantages of ruminants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:25:34.629489-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7273
  • Effects of applying molasses, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on
           fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro gas production of
           total mixed ration silage prepared with oat‐common vetch intercrop
           on the Tibetan plateau
    • Authors: L. Chen; G. Guo, X.J. Yuan, J. Zhang, J. F. Li, T. Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of molasses, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on the fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro gas production of total mixed ration (TMR) silage prepared with oat‐common vetch intercrop on the Tibetan plateau. TMR (436 g/kg dry matter (DM)) was ensiled with six experimental treatments: (1) no additives (control); (2) molasses (M); (3) an inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) (L); (4) propionic acid (P); (5) molasses + propionic acid (MP); (6) inoculant + propionic acid (LP). RESULT All silages were well preserved with low pH (
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T08:54:26.612182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7271
  • Elastin hydrolysate derived from fish enhances proliferation of human skin
           fibroblasts and elastin synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and improves
           the skin conditions
    • Authors: Eri Shiratsuchi; Misako Nakaba, Michio Yamada
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that certain peptides significantly improve skin conditions, such as skin elasticity and the moisture content of the skin of healthy woman. This study aimed to investigate the effects of elastin hydrolysate on human skin. Proliferation and elastin synthesis were evaluated in human skin fibroblasts exposed to elastin hydrolysate and proryl‐glycine (Pro‐Gly), which is present in human blood after elastin hydrolysate ingestion. We also performed an ingestion test with elastin hydrolysate in humans and evaluated skin condition. RESULTS Elastin hydrolysate and Pro‐Gly enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts and elastin synthesis. Maximal proliferation response was observed at 25 ng/ml Pro‐Gly. Ingestion of elastin hydrolysate improved skin condition, such as elasticity, number of wrinkles, and blood flow. Elasticity improved by 4% in the elastin hydrolysate group compared with 2% in the placebo group. CONCLUSION Therefore, elastin hydrolysate activates human skin fibroblasts and has beneficial effects on skin conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T08:52:20.31004-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7270
  • Evaluation of PPARα activation by known blueberry constituents
    • Authors: Agnes M. Rimando; Shabana I. Khan, Cassia S. Mizuno, Guang Ren, Suresh T. Mathews, Hyunsook Kim, Wallace Yokoyama
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins are known to have hypolipidemic property. It was deemed necessary to determine whether major blueberry anthocyanins and catechins are ligands for the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha isoform (PPARα), and compare activation with known PPARα agonistic constituents, pterostilbene and resveratrol. It was also considered important to investigate the effect of pterostilbene on PPARα gene expression, and relate results with hepatic mRNA PPARα expression up‐regulation observed previously in hamsters fed diet supplemented with blueberry peels extract (BBX). RESULTS The anthocyanins and catechins did not activate PPARα. Only pterostilbene exhibited a dose‐dependent activation of PPARα in H4IIEC3 cells. The resveratrol responses were lower than those of pterostilbene. Pterostilbene significantly and dose‐dependently (at 10, 20 and 50 μM) increased PPARα gene expression and the effect at 10 μM was greater than 100 and 200 μM of fenofibrate. Analysis of BBX showed levels of pterostilbene and resveratrol at 418 and 2,381 ng g−1, respectively. CONCLUSION Anthocyanins and catechins do not appear to contribute to the up‐regulation of hepatic PPARα expression observed in hamsters. While pterostilbene and resveratrol demonstrated PPARα activation, their levels in BBX do not seem to be at efficacious concentrations. These stilbenes may contribute to the up‐regulation of PPARα expression by acting synergistically with each other or with other constituents in BBX.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T08:44:13.676883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7269
  • Detection of undeclared animal by‐products in commercial canine
           canned foods: Comparative analyses by ELISA and PCR‐RFLP coupled
           with slab gel electrophoresis or capillary gel electrophoresis
    • Authors: Ming‐Kun Hsieh; Pei‐Yin Shih, Chia‐Fong Wei, Thomas W. Vickroy, Chi‐Chung Chou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The potential presence of undeclared animal by‐products in pet foods is not subject to routine examination. Previously published methods for species‐based identification of animal by‐products have not been used routinely owing to inconsistent results. The present study evaluated the utility of several approaches for accurate identification of animal by‐products in 11 commercial brands of canine canned foods. RESULTS Canine canned foods from several countries were analyzed by ELISA, PCR‐RFLP coupled with slab‐gel electrophoresis (SGE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) to test for evidence of by‐products derived from cattle, chicken, sheep or pig. While CGE‐based analysis detected all (24) animal‐derived by‐products that were reported for the 11 test samples, SGE and ELISA detected only 22/24 (92%) and 14/24 (58%) of labeled by‐products, respectively. In addition, undeclared animal by‐products were found using all three analytical approaches with CGE detecting more positives (19) than SGE (17) or ELISA (5). CONCLUSION Significant disparities were evident between the labeled contents and the detected content of animal by‐products. CGE‐based testing for PCR products appears to provide greater sensitivity and accuracy than either SGE or ELISA‐based methods. As testing of commercial products becomes more reliable and mainstream, manufacturers will need to develop more thorough and accurate labeling protocols.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T08:26:30.78371-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7268
  • Edible films and coatings based on biodegradable residues applied to
           acerolas (Malpighia punicifolia L)
    • Authors: Mariana S. L. Ferreira; Ana Elizabeth C. Fai, Cristina T. Andrade, Paulo H. Picciani, Edwin G. Azero, Édira C. B. A. Gonçalves
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study aimed to produce and characterize edible films and coatings from fruit and vegetable residue flour (FVR) and potato peel flour (P). Two coating approaches (immersion and film) were studied on the quality of acerolas. RESULTS Film forming solutions (FFS) presented a viscoelastic behavior and a gelation process occurring at 70 °C. Maximum density (1.018−3), viscosity (44.404 cP) and starch content were obtained for FFS based on 8% FVR added 4% P. This same film presented enhanced mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break (0.092 MPa, 36%, respectively). Solubility of the films averaged 87%, demonstrating high hydrophilicity. Improved performance was obtained for film packaged acerolas, which exhibited an increase in shelf life of 50% compared to control group. It was observed a lower loss in weight for these samples by about 30‐57%, compared to control, but minor modifications occur over storage concerning pH, titratable acidity and soluble content. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated the potential of FVR flour for edible coating and film formulation. Practical application on acerolas constituted a motivating route to evaluate and optimize this process, however microbiological and sensorial analysis are necessary to assess the material acceptability and safety.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T01:25:26.703515-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7265
  • Flavor Compounds and Sensory Profiles of a Novel Chinese Marinated Chicken
    • Authors: Hai Li; Xia Li, Chun‐hui Zhang, Jin‐zhi Wang, Chun‐hong Tang, Lin‐li Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUD Marinating is Chinese traditional meat process method using aged brine that bring popular flavor together with food safety issues. This study developed a novel marinated method named as quantitative marinating (QM) to improve Chinese traditional marinating (TM). Flavor compounds and sensory profiles of two marinated products were determined to verify if the improved marinated method could maintain the characteristic flavor of traditional marinated products. RESULTS 54, 60, 60, 60 and 44 volatile flavor compounds were identified from four processed stages of QM and TM, respectively. Contents of taste compounds increased firstly and then decreased in the processed stages of QM. The total free amino acids content of QM and TM product was 789 and 536 mg/100 g respectively. Total nucleotide content of QM product (22.21 mg/100 g) was higher than that of TM (20.75 mg/100 g), but the fatty acids content of QM product (26.66 mg/g) was lower than that of TM (44.43 mg/g). Finally, QM received higher sensory scores than TM. CONCLUSION Volatile flavor compounds, taste compounds and sensory properties of QM were richer than that of TM, which indicated QM can not only maintain original aroma of traditional marinating, but also have advantages in taste compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T01:04:42.067659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7263
  • Chicken Surimi Fortified by Omega‐3‐fatty‐acid Addition:
           Manufacturing and Quality Properties
    • Authors: Hao‐Lun Wang; Chung‐Hsi Chou, Yu‐Shan Yu, Chin‐Lin Hsu, Sheng‐Yao Wang, Yi‐Feng Ko, Yi‐Chen Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The meat in spent hens is hard to use due to small amount and poor quality. The washing processing is to remove sarcoplasmic proteins and other impurities which can prolong the shelf life of surimi‐like products. Due to the benefits of ω‐3 PUFAs, functional foods fortified with ω‐3 PUFAs are marketed increasingly. Hence, manufacture of ω‐3 FA fortified chicken surimi was made; meanwhile, how to ameliorate its lipid peroxidation during a frozen storage was investigated. RESULTS 0.10% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution instead of distilled water in the third washing step decreased (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:54:33.362399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7262
  • Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages of Enterococcus
           spp from vegetable food, soil and irrigation water in farm environments in
    • Authors: Leila Ben Said; Naouel Klibi, Raoudha Dziri, Francesca Borgo, Abdellatif Boudabous, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective was to determine the species, clonal diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence in enterococci of different environments. Seventy‐one samples of farm origin (34 of food‐vegetables, 27 of soil and 10 of irrigation water), and 19 samples of vegetables of 5 markets were inoculated in Slanetz‐Bartley agar plates supplemented or not with gentamicin (SB‐Gen and SB plates, respectively) for enterococci recovery. RESULTS Enterococci were obtained from 72.2% of tested samples in SB media (food‐vegetables from farm, 88.2%; soil and irrigation water, 51%; food‐vegetables from market, 84.2%), and 65 enterococcal isolates were obtained. E. faecium was the most prevalent species (52.3%), followed by E. hirae (35.4%), E. faecalis (6.15%), and E. casseliflavus (6.15%). Antibiotic resistance detected among these enterococci were [percentage/detected gene]: ciprofloxacin [60%], erythromycin [18.4%/erm(B)], tetracycline [15.4%/tet(M)‐tet(L)], kanamycin [15.4%/aph(3')‐III], chloramphenicol [7.7%], streptomycin [3%/ant(6)], vancomycin [6.15%/vanC2)], and teicoplanin and ampicillin [0%]. High‐level‐gentamicin resistant (HLR‐G) enterococci were detected in SB‐Gen plates in 14 of 90 tested samples (15.5%), and 15 isolates were characterized: 10 E. faecalis, 4 E. faecium and 1 E. hirae. All HLR‐G enterococci carried the aac(6')‐aph(2”), erm(B) and tet(M) genes, among other resistance genes. The HLR‐G isolates showed high genetic diversity (10 different PFGE‐profiles), and were ascribed to the sequence‐types: E. faecalis (ST2, ST16, ST28, and the new ST528); E. faecium (ST56, ST885, and ST886). CONCLUSION Food‐vegetables at the farm or market setting are frequently contaminated by HLR‐G enterococci and these microorganisms could reach the human intestine through the food chain, if hygienic conditions are not followed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:50:59.881691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7264
  • Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by anti‐microbial
           photodynamic technology using methylene blue
    • Authors: Xi Deng; Shuze Tang, Qian Wu, Juan Tian, William W. Riley, Zhenqiang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causative pathogen of gastroenteritis often related to contaminated seafood. Photodynamic inactivation has been recently proposed as a strategy for killing cells and virus. The objective of this study was to verify the bactericidal effects caused by photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using methylene blue (MB) over V. parahaemolyticus via flow cytometry (FCM), agarose gel electrophoresis and SDS‐PAGE. V. parahaemolyticus counts were determined by using the most probable number (MPN) method. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to intuitively analyze internal and external cell structure. RESULTS Combination of MB and laser treatment significantly inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. The inactivation rate of V. parahaemolyticus was >99.99%, and its counts were reduced by 5‐log10 in the presence of 0.05 mg/mL MB when illuminated with visible light (power density 200 mW/cm2) for 25 min. All inactivated cells showed morphological changes, leakage of cytoplasm and degradation of protein and DNA. CONCLUSION Results from this study indicated that photodynamic technology using methylene blue produced significantly inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus mainly brought about by the degradation of protein and DNA.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:47:53.189514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7261
  • Generation mean analysis of grain quality traits in selected rice
           populations derived from different amylose characteristics
    • Authors: Asfaliza R; M. Y. Rafii, M.A. Latif, G. Saleh, O. Othman, A. Puteh
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Genetic analysis using generation mean analysis is a tool for designing the most appropriate breeding approaches to developing varieties of rice. It estimates the gene actions that control quantitative traits, as well as the additive, dominance and epistatic effects. This study was conducted using three rice populations that were derived from parental lines with different amylose content. The aim was to partition the gene actions using generation mean analysis for the selected populations. RESULTS A scaling test was carried out to evaluate the fulfilment of the additive‐dominance model. Non‐allelic interaction was observed for milled grain length, length‐to‐width ratio and milled rice recovery of all populations evaluated. An additive‐dominance model was not adequate for amylose, gel consistency, grain length, grain width, milled grain width and head rice recovery thus, epistasis was involved in the populations evaluated. The importance of additive gene action was observed for grain length, milled grain length and milled rice recovery for populations of high‐ and low‐amyloseparents. However, populations with intermediate‐ and high‐amylose parents and intermediate‐ and low‐amylose parents shared almost similar dominance gene actions for most of the physical grain quality traits. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that delayed selection is the best approach for traits governed by dominance and epistasis effects. Meanwhile, the traits that were governed by additive effects should undergo thorough selection at an early stage.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:37:39.273627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7260
  • Effect of the season on the free phytoprostanes content in Cornicabra
           extra virgin olive oil from deficit irrigated olive trees
    • Authors: Jacinta Collado‐González; David Pérez‐López, Houssem Memmi, M. Carmen Gijón, Sonia Medina, Thierry Durand, Alexandre Guy, Jean‐Marie Galano, Diego José Fernández, Fernando Carro, Federico Ferreres, Arturo Torrecillas, Angel Gil‐Izquierdo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive (Olea europaea L., cv Cornicabra) oil (EVOO) was studied. During 2012 and 2013 seasons, T0 plants were irrigated at 100 % ETc, and T1 and T2 treatments were irrigated avoiding water deficit during phase I and III of fruit growth and saving water during the non‐critical phenological period of pit hardening (phase II) and developing a more severe water deficit in T2 plants. In 2013, a T3 treatment was performed, which was similar to T2, except that water saving was from the beginning of phase II to 15 days after the end of phase II. RESULTS 9‐F1t‐PhytoP, 9‐epi‐9‐F1t‐PhytoP, 9‐epi‐9‐D1t‐PhytoP, 9‐D1t‐PhytoP, 16‐B1‐ and 9‐L1‐PhytoP were present in Cornicabra EVOO and their contents increased in the EVOO from RDI plats. CONCLUSION Deficit irrigation during pit hardening or a longer period of two weeks in addition to increase irrigation water saving, is clearly critical for EVOO composition because of free PhytoPs enhancement, which have potential beneficial aspects on human health. The response of individual free PhytoPs to changes in plant water status was not as perceptible as expected, avoiding their use as biomarkers of water stress.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:37:23.99222-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7259
  • Kinetic studies of the reaction between pesticides and hydroxyl radical
           generated by laser flash photolysis
    • Authors: Fábio Gozzi; Silvio C. Oliveira, Renato F. Dantas, Volnir O. Silva, Frank H. Quina, Amilcar Machulek
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to contamination of the environment by pesticides and their mishandling, there is the need for treatment of contaminated sites and correct disposal of materials containing them. Thus, studies with advanced oxidation processes are expanding and can determine the rate constant of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds of great importance in environmental contamination. In this context, the use of laser flash photolysis has been shown to be viable for the determination of these constants. RESULTS The reaction rate constants of different pesticides with HO● in degased acetonitrile have been determined. They were 1.6 109 M−1 s−1, 0.6 109 M−1 s−1, 1.2 109 M−1 s−1, 2.4 109 M−1 s−1 and 2.2 109 M−1 s−1 for the pesticides carbaryl, propoxur, fenoxycarb, ethoxysulfuron and chlorimuron‐ethyl, respectively. These values are about an order of magnitude smaller than the diffusion controlled rate and correlate with the relative rates of disappearance of the pesticides in the photo‐Fenton reaction in water. CONCLUSION The correlation of the relative rate constants determined by laser flash photolysis with the relative rates of photo‐Fenton degradation of the pesticides is compelling evidence for the participation of the hydroxyl radical in the degradation of these pesticides in the latter system.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:57:46.399028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7258
  • Dynamic variation of bioactive compounds and aflatoxins in the
           contaminated Radix Astragali during extraction process
    • Authors: Yichen Hu; Weijun Kong, Hongli Luo, Lianhua Zhao, Meihua Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Although the increasing attention was paid on the health threat caused by mycotoxin in commodities such as food or medicines, mycotoxin transfer process from crude material to products have raised little concern right now. Radix Astragali is a commonly used edible and medicinal herbal plant that is susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins from Aspergillus flavus. There have been no studies on mycotoxin transfer into pharmaceutical preparations or derivative products. RESULTS To facilitate the aflatoxin reduction and bioactivity retention, the dynamic variations of aflatoxins as well as herbal compounds, namely calycosin‐7‐glucoside, astragaloside and formononetin, in Radix Astragali contaminated by A. flavus during water decoction and ethanol refluxing treatments were evaluated simultaneously by an ultra‐fast liquid chromatography‐triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method. After the extraction processes, although the amount of alfatoxins was reduced remarkably, aflatoxin residuals in preparation still exceed recommended limits, manifesting the great necessary to establish the aflatoxins limit in herbal extractions or derivative products. Meanwhile, due to the hydrolysis of glucoside, water decoction period should be no longer than 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS This investigation would benefit to figure out the dynamic variation of aflatoxins in infected herbs in preparation treatments, further to develop aflatoxin limits in herbal preparations.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:56:48.474577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7257
  • Effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction
           between Mung bean [Vigna radiate (L.)] protein isolates and glucose and on
           structural and physicochemical properties of conjugates
    • Authors: Zhongjiang Wang; Feifei Han, Yang Li, Lianzhou Jiang, Yong Yang, Hui Zhang, Xiaonan Sui, Baokun Qi, Rui Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between Mung bean protein isolates (MBPI) and glucose and on structural and physicochemical properties of conjugates. RESULTS The degree of glycosylation (DG) of MBPI‐glucose conjugates treated by ultrasound treatment and wet heating (MBPI‐GUH) was higher than that of MBPI‐glucose conjugates only treated by wet heating (MBPI‐GH). Solubility, emulsification activity (EA), emulsification stability (ES) and surface hydrophobicity (H0) of MBPI‐GUH were higher than that of MBPI‐GH. Grafted MBPI had a lower content of α‐helix and unordered coil, but a higher content of β‐sheet and β‐turn structure than MBPI. No significant structural changes were observed in β‐turn and random coil structure of MBPI‐GUH, while α‐helix content increased with ultrasonic time, and decreased at 300 W ultrasonic power with the increase of β‐sheet. MBPI‐GUH had a less compact tertiary structure compared to MBPI‐GH and MBPI. Grafting MBPI with glucose formed conjugates of higher molecular weight, while no significant changes were observed in electrophoresis profiles of MBPI‐GUH. CONCLUSION Ultrasound‐assisted wet heating Maillard reaction between MBPI and glucose could be a promising way to improve functional properties of MBPI.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:54:37.060464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7255
  • Metabolite profile of the tomato dwarf cultivar Micro‐Tom and
           comparative response to saline and nutritional stresses with regard to a
           commercial cultivar
    • Authors: Pilar Flores; Virginia Hernández, Pilar Hellín, Jose Fenoll, Juana Cava, Teresa Mestre, Vicente Martínez
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The dwarf tomato variety Micro‐Tom has been used as a plant model for studies of plant development. However, its response to environmental and agricultural factors has not been well studied. This work studies the phytochemical content of Micro‐Tom tomato and its comparative response to saline and nutritional (N, K and Ca) stresses with regard to a commercial variety. RESULTS The chromatographic profiles of Micro‐Tom were similar to those of the commercial variety and the only differences appear to be the concentration of the components. In Micro‐Tom, the concentrations of sugars and organic acids increased by salinity in a lesser extend than in Optima. Moreover, contrary to that observed in the commercial variety, phenolic compounds and vitamin C did not increase by salinity in the dwarf variety. However, both varieties increased similarly the concentrations of carotenoids under saline conditions. Finally, fruit yield and most primary and secondary metabolite concentrations in Micro‐Tom were not affected by N, K or Ca limitation. CONCLUSIONS The mutations leading to the dwarf phenotype did not greatly alter the metabolite profiles but studies using Micro‐Tom as a plant model should consider the lower capacity for sugars and organic acids under saline conditions and the greater tolerance to nutrient limitation of the dwarf variety.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:45:51.160089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7256
  • Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia,
           dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose‐induced metabolic
           syndrome rats
    • Authors: Ajiboye T. O; Raji H. O, Adeleye A. O, Adigun N. S, Giwa O. B, Ojewuyi O. B, Oladiji A. T.
      Abstract: Background The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract was evaluated in high‐fructose induced metabolic syndrome rats. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout were induced in rats using high‐fructose diet. High‐fructose diet‐fed rats were administered 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract for 3 weeks, starting from the seventh week of high‐fructose diet treatment. Results High fructose diet significantly (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:42.267523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7254
  • Assessment of volatile and non‐volatile compounds in durian wines
           fermented with four commercial non‐Saccharomyces yeasts
    • Authors: Yuyun Lu; Dejian Huang, Pin‐Rou Lee, Shao‐Quan Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chemical compositions of durian wines fermented with Metschnikowia pulcherrima Flavia, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva, Pichia kluyveri FrootZen and Kluyveromyces thermotolerans Concerto were investigated. RESULTS Sucrose was not utilized by M. pulcherrima and P. kluyveri with little formation of ethanol (0.3 % to 0.5 % v/v) while ~7 % ethanol was produced by the other two yeasts. Volatiles such as esters and sulfur‐containing compounds were synthesized or catabolized and distinctive differences existed among yeasts. Larger amounts of higher alcohols and ethyl esters were detected in wines fermented by T. delbrueckii and K. thermotolerans, whereas M. pulcherrima and P. kluyveri produced more acetate esters such as ethyl acetate (1034.43 mg/L and 131.05 mg/L, respectively), isoamyl acetate (0.56 mg/L and 27.68 mg/L, respectively). Most endogenous sulfur volatiles such as disulfides declined to trace levels but new ones such as thioesters were formed. Sulfur volatiles in wines fermented by T. delbrueckii accounted for 0.20 % relative peak area (RPA), followed by K. thermotolerans (0.23 % RPA), P. kluyveri (1.43 % RPA) and M. pulcherrima (4.16 % RPA). CONCLUSION The findings showed that a more complex flavor could result from fermentation with different non‐Saccharomyces yeasts and the typical durian odor still would remain.
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:25.909131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7253
  • Cumulative therapeutic effects of phytochemicals in Arnica montana flower
           extract alleviated collagen induced arthritis: Inhibition of both
           pro‐inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress
    • Authors: Shikha Sharma; Mohammad Arif, Ranjeet Kumar Nirala, Ritu Gupta, Sonu Chand Thakur
      Abstract: Background Arnica montana plant has been used in folklore medicine to alleviate pain, inflammation, swelling of muscles and joints associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of Arnica montana flower methanol extract (AMME) against both inflammation and oxidative stress in collagen‐induced arthritis rat model. Results Oral administration of AMME was found to reduce clinical signs and improved histological and radiological status of the hind‐limb joints. AMME‐treated rats had lower expression levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor‐α, interleukins (IL‐1β, IL‐6 and IL‐12), and titer of type II anti‐collagen antibody as compared to untreated CIA rats. Furthermore, by inhibiting the above mediators, AMME also contributed towards the reversal of the disturbed antioxidant levels and peroxidative damage. Conclusion The alleviation of arthritis in rats can be very likely due to the combined action of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, which are found to be the major constituents in our GC‐MS analysis. This study also shed some light on mechanisms involved in diminution of inflammatory mediators, free radical generating toxicants, and enhancement of antioxidant armory, thereby preventing further tissue damage, injury and synovial hyper proliferation in arthritis.
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:07.985773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7252
    • Authors: Co HG Daatselaar; Joan R Reijs, Jouke Oenema, Gerben J Doornewaard, H Frans M Aarts
      Abstract: On dairy farms the input of nutrients i.c. nitrogen is higher than the output in products like milk and meat. This causes losses of nitrogen to the environment. One of the indicators for the losses of nitrogen is the nitrogen use efficiency. In the Dutch Minerals Policy Monitoring Program (LMM) many data on nutrients of a few hundred farms are collected which can be processed by the instrument Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA, in Dutch: Kringloopwijzer) in order to provide nitrogen use efficiencies. After dividing the dairy farms (available in the LMM‐program) according to soil type and in different classes for milk production ha−1 it is shown that considerable differences in nitrogen use efficiency exist between farms on the same soil type and with the same level of milk production ha−1. This offers opportunities for improvement of the nitrogen use efficiency on many dairy farms. Benchmarking will be a useful first step in this process.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:22:28.143811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7250
    • Authors: Kateřina VALENTOVÁ; Petr ŠÍMA, Zuzana RYBKOVÁ, Jiří KŘÍŽAN, Kateřina MALACHOVÁ, Vladimír KŘEN
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Quercetin‐3‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin), and quercetin‐3‐β‐D‐rutinoside (rutin) are common components of a normal human diet and are increasingly used in food supplements. Here, their effect on mutagenesis and immunity is shown. RESULTS The in vitro (anti‐)mutagenic potential was compared with that of quercetin using the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium His− strains TA100, TA98 and TA102. Isoquercitrin only slightly increased the number of revertants, whereas rutin was non‐mutagenic at all. On the other hand, all compounds displayed dose‐dependent protective activity against H2O2‐ and tert‐butylhydroperoxide‐induced oxidative damage to the TA102 strain and at 75 μM inhibited H2O2/Fe2+‐induced the formation of the open circular and linear form of the DNA plasmid pBSIISK(‐). In mice, none of the flavonols (0.86 µmol per day, 34 days) induced harmful effects. In immunized animals, all compounds enhanced ex vivo B cell proliferation, quercetin stimulated lymphocyte basal proliferation and increased the number of IgM‐producing lymphocytes. Rutin promoted NK cytotoxic activity, supported T cells and enhanced the gut epithelium renewal. No effect on IgG‐forming cells was found. CONCLUSION Isoquercitrin displayed negligible and rutin no mutagenicity, but significant anti‐mutagenic and DNA‐protective effects against oxidative damage. In vivo, they supported the readiness of the immune system for specific humoral immune response.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:22:01.774264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7251
    • Authors: Macario Rodríguez‐Entrena; Melania Salazar‐Ordóñez, David Becerra‐Alonso
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This paper studies which of the attitudinal, cognitive and socioeconomic factors determine the willingness to purchase Genetically Modified (GM) food, enabling the forecasting of consumers’ behavior in Southern Spain –Andalusia. This classification has been made by a standard Multilayer Perceptron neural network trained with Extreme Learning Machine. Later, an ordered logistic regression was applied to research whether the neural network can outperform this traditional econometric approach. RESULTS The results show that the highest relative contributions lie in the variables related to perceived risks of GM food, while the perceived benefits have a lower influence. In addition, innovative attitude towards food presents a strong link, as does the perception of food safety. The variables with the least relative contribution are subjective knowledge about GM food and the consumers’ age. The neural network approach outperforms the correct classification percentage from the ordered logistic regression. CONCLUSION The perceived risks must be considered as a critical factor. A strategy to improve the GM food acceptation is to develop a transparent and balanced information strategy that makes the potential risk understandable by society, and inform about the risk assessments for GM food in the EU. For its success, it is essential to improve the trust in the EU institutions and scientific regulatory authorities.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:21:46.729767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7247
  • The Use of Core‐Shell High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography
           Column Technology to Improve the Biogenic Amine Quantification in Wine
    • Authors: Carmen Berbegal; Isabel Pardo, Sergi Ferrer
      Abstract: Background HPLC column technology has been improved, providing better resolution of closely eluting compounds, better analyte sensitivity, and shorter analysis times. The core‐shell technology columns offer a faster analysis through the use of shorter columns without compromising resolution. The aim of this work was to improve the methods of BA determination in wine using the new HPLC PFP core‐shell column technology. Results Two different elution programs were designed to quantify BA with the core‐shell PFP column. Program I flow rate was 2 mL min−1. The total elution time was 10 min. In the elution program II, the flow rate was 0.8 mL min−1 and the total elution time was 25 min. The two elution programs used with the core‐shell PFP HPLC column showed differences related manly to the histamine peak. The chromatograms showed that when a temporary isocratic elution was added in the gradient (program II), the histamine peak was eluted later, causing its isolation, and therefore its quantification was easier. Conclusions Compared to the previous C18 HPLC column for the BA determination in wine, the main advantage of the presented technique is the reduction of the run times and solvent volumes, and has a better sensitivity and selectivity as peaks are higher and sharper.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:21:31.308899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7249
  • Nitrogen excretion factors of livestock in the European Union: a review
    • Authors: Gerard L Velthof; Yong Hou, Oene Oenema
      Abstract: Livestock manures are major sources of nutrients, used for the fertilization of cropland and grassland. Accurate estimates of the amounts of nutrients in livestock manures are required for nutrient management planning, but also for estimating nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to the environment. Here we report on N excretion factors for a range of animal categories in policy reports by member states of the European Union (EU). Nitrogen excretion is defined in this paper as the total amount of N excreted by livestock per year as urine and faeces. We discuss the guidelines and methodologies for the estimation of N excretion factors by the EU Nitrates Directive, the OECD/Eurostat gross N balance guidebook, the EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the IPCC Guidelines. Our results show that N excretion factors for dairy cattle, other cattle, pigs, laying hens, broilers, sheep, and goats differ significantly between policy reports and between countries. Part of these differences may be related to differences in animal production (e.g. production of meat, milk, and eggs), size/weight of the animals, and feed composition, but partly also to differences in the aggregation of livestock categories and estimation procedures. The methodologies and data used by member states are often not well described. There is a need for a common, harmonized methodology and procedure for the estimation of N excretion factors, to arrive at a common basis for the estimation of the production of manure N and N balances, and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) across the EU.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:21:14.576359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7248
  • The Effect of Adenosine 5'‐monophosphate (AMP) on Tenderness,
           Microstructure and Chemical‐physical Index of Duck Breast Meat
    • Authors: Daoying Wang; Shaoying Deng, Muhan Zhang, Zhiming Geng, Chong Sun, Huan Bian, Weimin Xu, Yongzhi Zhu, Fang Liu, Haihong Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Adenosine 5'‐monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as the evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness. RESULTS Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mM AMP at 5 °C for 10 hours and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T11:35:50.821975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7243
  • Nutrient retention and fate of iron‐binding phenolic compounds
    • Authors: Yohannes Seyoum; Negussie Retta, Kaleab Baye
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Traits like bird‐, insect‐, and mold‐resistance are the focus in selecting improved sorghum varieties, but this often increases the tannin content, which can negatively affect iron bioavailability. The grain characteristics, nutrient retention, and the fate of iron‐binding polyphenols (IBP) during injera processing, an Ethiopian traditional fermented pancake, were investigated using agriculturally improved tannin‐free (TFC) and high‐tannin (HTC) sorghum cultivars. RESULTS The HTC had significantly higher IBP contents than the TFC (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T22:02:35.888369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7246
  • Application of ZnSO4 or Zn‐EDTA fertilizer to a calcareous soil: Zn
           diffusion in soil and its uptake by wheat plants
    • Authors: Ai‐qing Zhao; Xiao‐hong Tian, Yan‐long Chen, Shuo Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of two Zn sources and two application methods on (1) Zn diffusion from fertilized soil to unfertilized soil, (2) grain Zn concentration, and (3) grain Zn bio‐accessibility to humans. In the laboratory experiment, 20 mg of ZnSO4 or 4 mg of Zn‐EDTA was applied to a 5‐mm and 1‐mm‐wide space in the soil in the half‐cell technique. In the greenhouse experiment, Zn‐ZnSO4 or Zn‐EDTA was mixed or banded with the soil at a rate of 20 or 4 mg Zn kg−1, respectively. RESULTS The results from the diffusion experiment showed that both the extractability and the diffusion coefficient of Zn were higher when Zn fertilizer was applied to a 1‐mm‐wide space than when it was applied to a 5‐mm‐wide space. Zn‐EDTA had a greater diffusion distance than ZnSO4. The greenhouse experiment showed that the mixed ZnSO4 application and the Zn‐EDTA application (both mixed and banded) treatments significantly increased grain Zn concentration and bio‐accessibility. The positive effect of Zn‐EDTA on grain Zn concentrations and bio‐accessibility was greater than that of ZnSO4. The banded application reduced the effectiveness of ZnSO4 but not of Zn‐EDTA. CONCLUSION It was concluded that Zn‐EDTA was a better Zn source than ZnSO4 for increasing grain Zn content in a potentially Zn‐deficient calcareous soil.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T21:56:06.411151-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7245
  • Phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins in postmortem ovine muscle with
           different tenderness
    • Authors: Lijuan Chen; Xin Li, Na Ni, Yue Liu, Li Chen, Zhenyu Wang, Qingwu Shen, Dequan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tenderness is one of the most important quality attributes especially for beef and lamb. As protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate glycolysis, muscle contraction and turning over of proteins within living cells, it may contribute to the conversion of muscle to meat. The changes of myofibrillar proteins phosphorylation in postmortem ovine muscle with different tenderness were investigated in this study. RESULTS The protein phosphorylation level (P/T ratio) of tender group increased from 0.5 to 12 h postmortem and then decreased. The P/T ratio of tough group increased during 24 h postmortem and it increased faster from 0.5 to 4 h postmortem than from 4 to 24 h postmortem.The global phosphorylation level of tough meat was significantly higher than tender meat at 4, 12 and 24 h postmortem (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T21:46:59.615637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7244
  • Functionality of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) in the production of
           fruity ice cream
    • Authors: Songül Çakmakçı; Elif Feyza Topdaş, Yusuf Çakır, Pınar Kalın
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) on the quality characteristics of ice cream. Kumquat paste (KP) was added to an ice cream mix at four concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15%, w/w) for ice cream production. RESULTS The increment of KP level caused an increase in acidity, vitamin C content, b values and overrun values compared to control ice cream sample. The apparent viscosity of the samples decreased with the addition of KP by a concentration of 5% and 10% compared to control sample. Results indicated that lyophilized water extracts of KP (LKE) contain remarkable phenolic compounds. It was observed that LKE exhibited moderate in vitro antioxidant capacity. KP enhanced color, flavor, vitamin C and Mg and K amounts of the ice cream. The addition of KP positively affected the sensory properties. CONCLUSION KP may be used as a suitable source of natural color and flavor agent in ice cream production. KP enhanced vitamin C and Mg and K amounts of ice cream, and improved sensory properties.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29T02:27:07.989956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7241
  • Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets
           obtained from Pangasius sutchi and Nile tilapia exported to European
    • Authors: Piotr Kulawik; Władysław MigdaŁ, Florian GambuŚ, Ewa CieŚlik, Fatih ÖzoĞul, Joanna Tkaczewska, Katarzyna Szczurowska, Izabela WaŁkowska
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets from Pangasius catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) exported to Poland, Germany and Ukraine and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exported to Poland and Germany were investigated by analyzing the heavy metal residues, microbiological hazards, biogenic amines, TBA and TVB‐N content. RESULTS The heavy metal residues from all studied samples were far lower than the limits established by authorities. The most abundant biogenic amine found was histamine with the maximum content of 9.6 mg/100 g found in pangasius exported to Poland. The total viable counts were from 2.8 log cfu/g in pangasius exported to Ukraine to 4.3 log cfu/g in pangasius exported to Germany. Vibrio spp. was present in 70‐80% of all studied pangasius groups while there was no Vibrio spp. found on none of the studied tilapia samples. 30% of Pangasius fillets exported to Poland were contaminated with coagulase‐positive staphylococci. No E. coli was found in any of the studied samples. Although the results of TBA analysis differed significantly between studied groups, the malonic aldehyde content in all studied groups was still very low. The TVB‐N content in frozen fillets from pangasius was significantly lower than in frozen tilapia fillets. CONCLUSIONS We reported that Pangasius catfish frozen fillets were widely contaminated with Vibrio spp. which could prove hazardous for the final consumer if the fish is eaten raw or undercooked. The rest of analysis showed no other reason for concern associated with Nile tilapia and Pangasius catfish frozen fillets consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T07:17:24.65883-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7233
  • Age and gender differences in the influence of extrinsic product
           information on acceptability for RTD green tea beverages
    • Authors: Ye‐Won Bae; Soh Min Lee, Kwang‐Ok Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The introduction of ready‐to‐drink (RTD) green tea beverage has allowed diverse consumers to consume green teas and related products. Green tea that has been traditionally consumed for its delicate flavor characteristics is also widely consumed for its recognition as a healthy product. Because it is reported that age difference exists in consideration of health related information, the study was objected to investigate the how sensory and non‐sensory factors, in particular health related information, price and packaging, would affect the flavor acceptability of green tea beverages depending on consumers’ age and gender. RESULTS Regardless of the product information, the old consumers preferred products that provided an indication of health beneficial effect. On the other hand, the young consumers tended to get influenced by the extrinsic product information such as packaging, brand/manufacturer and/or price, though these consumers were not much influenced by health beneficial information as the old. CONCLUSION The findings of the study implied that the influence of non‐sensory information such as health beneficial information in flavor liking differed depending on consumers’ age mostly, and little on gender for RTD green tea beverages.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T07:08:03.799066-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7232
  • Selenium (Se)improves drought tolerance in crop plants ‐ a myth or
    • Authors: Rashid Ahmad; Ejaz Ahmad Waraich, Fahim Nawaz, M.Y. Ashraf, Muhammad Khalid
      Abstract: Climate change has emerged as one of the most complex challenges of the 21st century and has become an area of interest in the past few decades. Many countries of the world have become extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The scarcity of water is the serious concern for food security of these countries and climate change has aggravated the risks of extreme events like drought. Oxidative stress caused by a variety of active oxygen species formed under drought stress, damage many cellular constituents such as, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, which ultimately reduces plant growth, respiration and photosynthesis. Se has become an element of interest to many biologists due to its physiological and toxicological importance. It plays beneficial role in plants by enhancing growth of plants, reducing damage caused by oxidative stress, enhancing chlorophyll contents under light stress, stimulating the senesce to produce antioxidants, and improving plant tolerance to drought stress by regulating water status. The researchers have adopted different strategies to evaluate the role of selenium in plants under drought stress. Some of the relevant work available regarding the role of Se in alleviating adverse effect of drought stress is discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T06:39:31.651633-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7231
  • Heterologous strategy enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence
           polarization immunoassay of clinafloxacin in goat milk
    • Authors: Jiahong Chen; Ilya A. Shanin, Shuwei Lv, Qiang Wang, Chuanbin Mao, Zhenlin Xu, Yuanming Sun, Qing Wu, Sergei A. Eremin, Hongtao Lei
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Clinafloxacin is used for the treatment of disease in food‐producing animals, e.g., Brucella melitensis, which often occurs in goats; however, the clinafloxacin residue in goat milk may harm human health and result in the development of drug‐resistant bacterial strains or allergies. Despite this, there is not a rapid, sensitive and accurate analytical method in goat milk for a rapid screening or monitoring purpose. RESULTS One homologous and five heterologous tracers were designed and compared for fluorescence polarization immunoassay(FPIA) optimization. Based on the combination of a heterologous tracer (PAZ‐FITC, synthesized with pazufloxacin and FITC) and the antibody against clinafloxacin, a highly sensitive FPIA was established for the detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk for the first time. The IC50 value was 29.3 µg/L for clinafloxacin in the heterologous format, 6 times lower than that of the combination of the homologous tracers and the antibody. The recoveries ranged from 86.8% to 104.5%, with the relative standard deviation ranging from 4.1% to 7.2%. Validation by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed that the results obtained from the proposed FPIA were in agreement with those of HPLC. CONCLUSION This proposed heterologous strategy for enhanced FPIA is sensitive and rapid enough for the high‐throughput detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:57:33.312315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7228
  • In vitro functional properties of crude extracts and isolated compounds
           from banana pseudostem and rhizome
    • Authors: Saravanan Kandasamy; Sasikala Ramu, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna Ardhya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pseudostem and rhizome are the significant bio‐waste generated (43.48%) from the banana plant post fruit harvest, which are usually left in the plantation or incinerated and wasted. Very negligible production of these is used for consumption. Further, it has an important part in indigenous systems of medicine. Based on the huge volume of bio‐waste generated and its traditional medicinal use, it is worth exploiting it as a source of natural bioactive compounds. Current study, sequential extracts from banana pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), and isolated compounds including chlorogenic acid, 4‐epicyclomusalenone, and cycloeucalenol acetate were tested for their antimicrobial activity, antiplatelet aggregation and cytotoxicity. RESULTS Isolated compounds and crude extracts exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, platelet aggregation induced by collagen and cytotoxicity towards human liver cancer (HepG2) cells. CONCLUSION Banana plant bio‐waste, pseudostem and rhizome may serve as a potential source of multifunctional bioactive compounds and functional ingredient in food and other allied industries.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:57:15.337727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7229
  • Provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu, a
           non‐alcoholic cereal‐based beverage made with provitamin
           A‐biofortified maize
    • Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi; Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, Unathi Kolanisi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in sub‐Saharan Africa. Amahewu is a popular southern African lactic acid fermented non‐alcoholic maize‐based beverage, which is deficient in vitamin A. In this study, provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu processed using provitamin A‐biofortified maize and three types of inoculums during fermentation (malted maize, wheat bran and Lactobacillus starter culture) were investigated. RESULTS The total provitamin A contents of amahewu samples, estimated as β‐carotene, β‐cryptoxanthin and α‐carotene content ranged from 3.3 ‐ 3.8 g kg−1 (DW). Provitamin A was substantially retained (79% ‐ 90% β carotene equivalent) in amahewu after fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared with added starter cultures had the lowest retention of provitamin A. Consumers (Approx. 69%) liked provitamin A‐biofortified amahewu either moderately or very much. Principal component analysis (PCA) of Amahewu sensory data showed that 71% of variation was due to maize types and 18% of variation could be due to the inoculum used during fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared using provitamin A‐biofortified maize were slightly more liked (Mean score: 7.0 ± 1.2) compared to those of white maize reference samples. The use of starter culture combined with either malted maize or wheat bran as inoculums during fermentation improved the taste and aroma of amahewu and hence their acceptability. CONCLUSION Provitamin A is substantially retained in amahewu after fermentation. The slightly high acceptability of amahewu prepared using provitamin A biofortified maize compared to that of white maize, thus suggests that fermented product like amahewu can potentially be used to deliver provitamin A to vulnerable individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:56:58.181646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7230
  • Giberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from maize and wheat in Iran:
           distribution, molecular identification and fumonisin B1 in vitro
    • Authors: Abdelnasser Mohammadi; Masoomeh Shams‐Ghahfarokhi, Farhad Nazarian‐Firouzabadi, Reza Kachuei, Mohammadhassan Gholami‐Shabani, Mehdi Razzaghi‐Abyaneh
      Abstract: Background Contamination of food and agricultural crops by Fusarium species is a major concern of food spoilage and a potential public health hazard. In the present study, natural contamination of maize and wheat samples from main cultivation areas of Iran by Fusarium species belonging to the G. fujikuroi species complex was evaluated with special attention to the ability of the isolates to produce Fumonisin B1 (FB1). Results A total of 55 Fusarium isolates were obtained from 27/32 maize samples (84.4%) and 11/15 wheat samples (73.3%). They were identified as F. verticillioides (47.3%), F. proliferatum (47.3%), F. fujikuroi (1.8%), F. nygamai (1.8%) and F. redolens (1.8%) by sequence analysis of translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1‐α). Twenty‐two of 55 Fusarium isolates belonging to F. proliferatum (23.6%), F. verticillioides (14.5%) and F. fujikuroi (1.8%) produced FB1 in a total range of 230.4 to 9565.0 µg mL−1. Resulting dendrogram from TEF1‐α profile showed that the genotypes were divided into clusters I, II and III of which cluster III contained only F. redolens as the first report from Iran. Conclusion On the base of in vitro FB1 biosynthesis of the analyzed strains, high degree of contamination of maize and wheat with Fusarium strains reported here should be considered as a potential public health threat as a meaningful number of the isolates were reported to produce hazardous levels of carcinogenic FB1.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T01:26:44.055686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7227
  • Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic
           acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of
           'Kinnow' mandarin juice
    • Authors: Samina Khalid; Aman U Malik, Ahmad S Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Shafique
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regards to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35‐years‐old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during seven days at ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60‐65% RH) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75‐80% RH) conditions. RESULTS During ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18‐year‐old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µ−1) and TAA (93.68 mg.µl−1), as compared to 6 and 35‐years‐old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35‐year‐old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35‐year‐old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18‐year‐old tree maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg.100 ml−1) concentrations; while, fruit from 6‐year‐old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg.µl−1) and TPC (115.1 µ−1). Large sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg.100 ml−1) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg.µl−1). CONCLUSIONS Fruit from 18‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions; while, fruit from 6‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage; whereas large fruit size had higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold storage.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T03:06:23.149704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7225
  • Sensory and nutritional attributes of pomegranate juices extracted from
           separated arils and pressed whole fruits
    • Authors: Lina Mayuoni Kirshenbaum; Ofir Benjamin, Ron Porat
      Abstract: Background The present study aimed to compare the sensory and nutritional attributes of 'Wonderful' pomegranate juices extracted from separated arils with those from pressed whole fruits. Results Five different sensory tests were conducted to evaluate the flavor quality of 'Wonderful' pomegranate juices. Consumer acceptance tests revealed that juice from separated arils achieved significantly higher likability scores than that from whole pressed fruits. Furthermore, preference tests revealed that 84% of the tasters preferred the juice extracted from separated arils whereas only 16% preferred the juice from whole pressed fruits. Sensory discrimination tests (triangle tests) revealed that tasters significantly distinguished between the two juices at p ≤ 0.01. Descriptive tests by a trained panel and sensory analysis with an electronic tongue demonstrated that juice from whole pressed fruits was more astringent and had a stronger after‐taste than juice from separated arils. Juice from pressed whole fruits contained significantly higher levels of phenols and hydrolysable tannins, which led to higher astringency. Conclusions Pomegranate juice extracted from separated arils was less astringent and more preferred by tasters than juice from whole pressed fruits. Nonetheless, juice from separated arils has lower nutritional benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T02:49:33.951693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7224
  • Control of citrus molds using bioactive coatings incorporated with fungal
           chitosan/plant extracts composite
    • Authors: Ahmed A. Tayel; Shaaban H. Moussa, Mohammed F. Salem, Khaled E. Mazrou, Wael F. El‐Tras
      Abstract: Background The ongoing postharvest loss in citrus fruits, due to fungal infection, is a chronic economic and agricultural problem. Most of citrus damages are caused by Penicillium spp., e.g. green mold by P. digitatum and blue mold by P. italicum. Fungal chitosan, from Mucor rouxii, and plant extracts from cress seeds, olive leaves, pomegranate peels and senna pods, were evaluated as antifungal agents against the phytopathogenic fungi, P. digitatum and P. italicum, using in vitro qualitative and quantitative assays. Results The entire natural agents exhibited potent antifungal activity; the most powerful agent was cress (Lepidium sativum) seed extract and the following was pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract. Fungal chitosan had also a remarkable fungicidal potentiality using both evaluation assays. P. digitatum was generally more resistant than P. italicum toward all examined agents. The incorporation of each individual natural agent in coating material resulted in great reduction in fungal growth and viability. The addition of chitosan combined with cress and pomegranate extracts, to the coating materials, prevented coated citrus fruit from decay by green and blue mold for two weeks storage period. Conclusion Natural derivatives, however, could be recommended as powerful antifungal alternatives to protect citrus fruits from postharvest fungal decay.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T02:48:03.456432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7223
  • Introgression of blast resistance genes into the elite variety mr263
           through marker‐assisted backcrossing
    • Authors: Muhammad M. Hasan; Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohd Razi Ismail, Maziah Mahmood, Md. Amirul Alam, Harun Abdul Rahim, Mohammad A. Malek, Mohammad Abdul Latif
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early maturing, high‐yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as a donor of the blast resistance Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d (t)1, Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL. Our objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker‐assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection. RESULTS The improved MR263‐BR‐3‐2, MR263‐BR‐4‐3, MR263‐BR‐13‐1 and MR263‐BR‐26‐4 lines carrying the Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d (t), Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL were developed using the SSR markers RM5961 and RM263 (linked to the blast resistance genes and QTL) for foreground selection and a collection of 65 polymorphic SSR markers for background selection in backcrossed and selfed generations. A background analysis revealed that the highest rate of recurrent parent genome recovery was 96.0% in MR263‐BR‐4‐3 and 94.1% in MR263‐BR‐3‐2. CONCLUSION The addition of blast resistance genes can be used to improve several Malaysian rice varieties to combat this major disease.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:25:53.023802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7222
  • Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation
           of fresh foods
    • Authors: Seung Yuan Lee; Seung Jae Lee, Dong Soo Choi, Sun Jin Hur
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g., active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified active packaging (MAP) systems extends shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high‐quality product as well as reduced economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, active packaging should be considered several variables, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing, and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging plays facilitating data access and information exchange by altering conditions of the inside or outside packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, a few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations, or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore, more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable or effective packaging systems for various foods.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:16:26.900655-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7218
  • Effect of fermented medicinal plants on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions, and diarrhea score in weanling
    • Authors: Pinyao Zhao; Hanlin Li, Yan Lei, Tianshui Li, Sunki Kim, Inho Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock has been banned in European Union since 2006. Alternatives of antibiotics have focused on phytogenic plants, such as herb and medicinal plant. No studies have evaluated use of fermented medicinal plants (FMP) made up of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Scutellaria baicalensis in weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of FMP on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions, and diarrhea score in weanling pigs. RUSULTS FMP supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, gain:feed, apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and gross energy compared with NC treatment, while a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on those criteria. Ammonia, total mercaptans, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) by the supplementation of FMP compared with NC. Additionally, diarrhea score was lower (P < 0.05) by FMP addition compared with NC during d 0 to 7 and d 8 to 14. CONCLUSION These results suggested that FMP could be used as alternative of antibiotics by enhancing growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and decreasing fecal noxious gas emission and early diarrhea score of weanling pigs.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:56:56.192037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7217
  • The genetic aspects of berries: from field to health
    • Authors: Luca Mazzoni; Patricia Perez‐Lopez, Francesca Giampieri, Jose M Alvarez‐Suarez, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes‐Hernandez, Jose L Quiles, Bruno Mezzetti, Maurizio Battino
      Abstract: Berries are a relevant source of micronutrients and nonessential phytochemicals such as polyphenol compounds, that play a synergistic and cumulative role in human health promotion. Several systematic analyses showed that berry phenolics are able to detoxify ROS/RNS blocking their production, to intervene in the cell cycle, participating in the transduction and expression of genes involved in apoptosis, and to repair oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the improvement of the nutritional quality of berries has become a new quality target of breeding and biotechnological strategies, to control or to increase the content of specific health‐related compounds in fruits. This work reviews, on the basis of the in vitro and in vivo evidences, the main berries phytochemical compounds and their possible mechanisms of action on pathways involved in several type of diseases, with particular attention to cancer, inflammation, neurodegeneration, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:56:06.879709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7216
  • Effect of synthetic and natural water absorbing soil amendments on
           photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality of potato in
           a semi‐arid region
    • Authors: Shengtao Xu; Lei Zhang, Neil B. McLaughlin, Junzhen Mi, Qin Chen, Jinghui Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Effect of water absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality was investigated in a field experiment in a semi‐arid region in northern China in 2010–2012. Treatments included two synthetic water absorbing amendments (potassium polyacrylate‐PAA, polyacrylamide‐PAM) and one natural amendment (humic acid‐HA), both as single amendments, and compound amendments (natural combined with a synthetic) and a no amendment control. RESULTS Soil amendments had a highly significant effect (P ≤0.01) on photosynthesis characteristics, dry biomass, crop root/shoot (R/S) ratio and tuber nutritional quality. Soil amendments improved both dry biomass above ground (DB‐AG) and dry biomass underground (DB‐UG) in the whole growing season by 4.6‐31.2% and 1.1‐83.1% respectively in all three years. Crop R/S ratio was reduced in the early growing season by 2.0‐29.4% and increased in the later growing season by 2.3‐32.6%. Soil amendments improved leaf soil plant analysis development value (SPAD), net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration (Tr) rates respectively by 1.4‐17.0%, 5.1‐45.9%, 2.4‐90.6% and 2.0‐22.6%, and reduced intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) by 2.1‐19.5% in all three years. CONCLUSION Amendment treatment with PAM + HA always achieved the greatest effect on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality among six amendment treatments, and deserves further research.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:10:59.093518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7188
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