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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (216 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Beneficial health characteristics of native and hydrolysed konjac
           (Amorphophallus konjac) glucomannan
    • Abstract: The impact of ingesting glucomannans on health is not limited to colonic‐focused fermentation into short‐chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which might have some local health benefits; it also helps in treating disease states and enhancing the body's immune system, both within the gut and in/on other parts of the body. The local and systemic roles of hydrolysed glucomannans, especially konjac glucomannans, in the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gut‐associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin and vagina, are highlighted. Therapeutic applications are discussed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T03:58:17.012582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7571
  • Characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides for discrimination of
           Maca (Lepidium meyenii) by LC‐MS/MS and multivariate statistical
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Macamides with a benzylalkylamide nucleus are characteristic and major bioactive compounds in the functional food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp). The aim of this study was to explore variations in macamide content among Maca from China and Peru. Twenty‐seven batches of Maca hypocotyls with different phenotypes, sampled from different geographical origins, were extracted and profiled by liquid chromatography‐ultraviolet detection ‐tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐UV‐MS/MS). RESULTS Twelve macamides were identified by mass spectrometry operated at multiple scanning modes. The similarity analysis showed that Maca samples differed significantly in their macamide fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) was used to differentiate samples according to their geographical origin and to identify the most relevant variables in the classification model. The prediction accuracy for raw Maca was 91% and five macamides were selected and considered as the chemical markers for sample classification. CONCLUSION When combined with a PLS‐DA model, characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides could be recommanded for labelling for the authentication of Maca from different geographical origins. The results provided potential evidence for the relationships between environmental or other factors and distribution of macamides.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T01:37:22.399642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7660
  • Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non‐target plant associated
           insects and soil organisms
    • Authors: Amina Yaqoob; Ahmad Ali Shahid, Tahir Rehman Samiullah, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan, Sana Tahir, Safdar Ali Mirza, Tayyab Husnain
      Abstract: Transgenic plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes are being cultivated worldwide to express the toxic insecticidal proteins. However, the commercial utilization of Bt crops greatly enlightens the biosafety issues worldwide. Therefore assessing the risks, caused by genetically modified crops prior to their commercial cultivation is critical issue to be addressed. In agriculture biotechnology, goal of safety assessment is not just to identify the safety of genetically modified (GM) plant, rather to demonstrate its impact on ecosystem. Various experimental studies have been made worldwide from last 20 years to investigate the risks and fears associated with non‐target organisms (NTO’s). The NTO’s include beneficial insects, natural pest controllers, rhizobacteria, growth promoting microbes, pollinators, soil dwellers, aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, mammals and human beings. To highlight all the possible risks associated with different GM events, information has been gathered from a total of 76 articles, regarding non‐target plant and soil inhabiting organisms, and summarized in the form of current review article. No significant harmful impact has been reported in any case study related to approved GM events but still critical risk assessments are needed before commercialization of these crops.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T01:37:00.568758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7661
  • Optimization of cellulase‐assisted extraction process and
    • Abstract: Background Tricholoma mongolicum Imai is a well‐known edible and medicinal mushroom. In recent years, T. mongolicum Imai has drawn more and more attention because of its bioactivities. In this study, water soluble polysaccharides were extracted from T. mongolicum Imai by using cellulase‐assisted extraction and their antioxidant activities were investigated. Results In order to improve the yield of the polysaccharides, four variables of cellulase amount (X1), pH (X2), temperature (X3) and extraction time (X4) were investigated with Box‐Behnken design. The optimal conditions were predicted to be cellulase amount of 20 g·kg−1, pH of 4.0, temperature of 50 °C, and extraction time of 127 min; and the predicted polysaccharides yield of was 190.1 g·kg−1. The actual value of polysaccharides under these conditions was 189.6 g·kg−1, which matched the predicted value well. The crude polysaccharides were purified to obtain four fractions and characterization of each part was analyzed. In addition, antioxidant properties of four polysaccharides, including the 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryldydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals scavenging assay indicated that polysaccharides from T. mongolicum Imai (TMIPs) possessed antioxidant activity in a dose‐dependent manner. Conclusion TMIPs show moderate antioxidant activities in vitro. Therefore, we suggest that TMIPs are potential natural antioxidants in functional food.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T01:36:37.376358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7662
  • Study of aroma formation and transformation during manufacturing process
           of Biluochun green tea in Yunnan Province by HS‐SPME and GC‐MS
    • Authors: Chen Wang; Shidong Lv, Yuanshuang Wu, Ming Lian, Xuemei Gao, Qingxiong Meng
      Abstract: Background Biluochun is a typical non‐fermented tea and is also famous for its unique aroma in China. Few studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of a manufacturing process on the formation and content of its aroma. Results The volatile components were extracted at different manufacturing process steps of Biluochun green tea using fully automated headspace solid‐phase microextraction (HS‐SPME) and further characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). Among 67 volatile components collected, the fractions of linalool‐oxides, β‐ionone, phenylacetaldehyde, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrogen compounds were increased while alcohols and hydrocarbons were declined during the manufacturing process. The aroma compounds decreased the most during the drying steps. Conclusion We identified a number of significantly changed components that can be used as markers and quality control during the producing process of Biluochun. The drying step played a major role in the aroma formation of green tea products and should be the most important step for quality control.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T01:36:15.424837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7663
  • Enrichment of two isoflavone aglycones in black soymilk by Rhizopus
           oligosporus NTU 5 in a plastic composite support bioreactor
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND A plastic composite support (PCS) bioreactor was implemented to evaluate the effects on isoflavone deglycosylation in black soymilk fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus NTU 5. RESULTS Evaluation for the optimal PCS for mycelia immobilisation was conducted, which led to the significant results that the most mycelium weight (0.237 g per PCS, P < 0.05) is held by an S‐type PCS; therefore, it was selected for black soymilk fermentation. It was found that the PCS fermentation system without pH control exhibits better efficiency of isoflavone bioconversion (daidzin to daidzein, and genistin to genistein) than the one with pH control at pH 6.5. As for the long‐run fermentation, those without pH control indeed accelerate the isoflavone bioconversion by continuously releasing β‐glucosidase into soymilk. Deglycosylation can be completed in 8 to 24 h and sustained for at least 34 days as 26 batches. The non‐pH‐control fermentation system also exhibits the highest total phenolic content (ranged from 0.147 to 0.340 mg GAE mL−1 sample) when compared to the pH‐controlled and suspended ones. Meanwhile, the black soymilk from the 22nd batch with 8 h fermentation demonstrated the highest DPPH radical scavenging effect (54.7%). CONCLUSION A repeated‐batch PCS fermentation system was established to accelerate the deglycosylation rate of isoflavone in black soymilk. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T03:47:02.329131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7569
  • How ‘ground‐picked’ olive fruits affect virgin olive oil
           ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality
    • Abstract: Background Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground‐picked olives, tree‐picked fruits and their mixture. Results Ground‐picked olives produced ‘Lampante’ virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree‐picked olives gave oils classified as ‘virgin’ because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the ‘extra’ category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground‐ picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree‐picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Conclusion Ground‐picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low‐quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground‐picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T08:34:13.451584-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7573
  • Discrimination of Polygonatum species and identification of novel markers
           using 1H NMR‐ and UPLC/Q‐TOF MS‐based metabolite
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Rhizomes of Polygonatum species are commonly used as herbal supplements in Asia. They have different medicinal effects by species but have been misused and mixed owing to their similar taste and smell. Therefore accurate and reliable analytical methods to discriminate between Polygonatum species are required. RESULTS In this study, global and targeted metabolite profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and ultra‐performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q‐TOF MS) was applied to discriminate between different Polygonatum species. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) models were used to classify and predict species of Polygonatum. Cross‐validation derived from PLS‐DA revealed good predictive accuracy. Polygonatum species were classified into unique patterns based on K‐means clustering analysis. 4‐Hydrobenzoic acid and trigonelline were identified as novel marker compounds and quantified accurately. CONCLUSION The results demonstrate that metabolite profiling approaches coupled with chemometric analysis can be used to classify and discriminate between different species of various herbal medicines. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T08:06:43.420845-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7580
  • Vulnerability of maize production under future climate change: possible
           adaptation strategies
    • Authors: Bannayan Mohammad; Paymard Parisa, Ashraf Batoul
      Abstract: Background Climate change can affect the productivity and geographic distribution of crops. Therefore, evaluation of adaptive management options is very crucial in dealing with negative impacts of climate change. The objectives of this study were to simulate the impacts of climate change on maize production in the northeast of Iran. Moreover, vulnerability index which indicated that how much of the crop yield loss is related to the drought was computed for each location to identify where adaptation and mitigation strategies are effective. Different sowing dates were also applied as an adaptation approach to decrease the negative impacts of climate change in study area. Results The results showed that the maize yield would decline during 21st century from −2.6% to −82% at all study locations in comparison with the baseline. The result of vulnerability index also indicated that using the adaptation strategies could be effective in all of the study areas. Using different sowing dates as an adaptation approach showed that delaying the sowing date will be advantageous in order to obtain higher yield in all study locations in future. Conclusion This study provided insight regarding the climate change impacts on maize production and the efficacy of adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T01:45:56.996921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7659
  • Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil
    • Authors: Francesco Caponio; Giacomo Squeo, Graziana Difonzo, Antonella Pasqualone, Carmine Summo, Vito Michele Paradiso
      Abstract: The maximization of both extraction yields and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards the extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation determines an increase in oil extraction yield, due to a reduction of the oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature could compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil determining undesirable effects, such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds, responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by the EC regulations due to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakage of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, consequently increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oils depends on numerous variables: cultivar, ripeness degree of olives, olive quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage condition. However, also the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing could influence the virgin olive oil characteristic. Literature highlights an increase of oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil. An increase of oil stability was reported, though no effect of talc was reported on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T01:33:57.311122-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7658
  • Antihyperlipidemic effect of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim)
           Harms leaves in high‐fat‐diet fed mice
    • Authors: Miyako Nishida; Momoko Kondo, Taro Shimizu, Tetsuo Saito, Shinji Sato, Masao Hirayama, Tetsuya Konishi, Hiroshi Nishida
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for a variety of obesity‐related diseases. Recently, the effects of functional foods have been investigated on lipid metabolism as a means to reduce lipid content in the blood, liver and adipose tissues associated with carnitine O‐palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (AS) is a medicinal herb possessing a wide spectra of functions including antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and anti‐fatigue actions. Despite much research being focused on the cortical roots of AS, little information is available regarding its leaves, which are also expected to promote human health, for example by improving abnormal lipid metabolism. Here, we explored whether AS leaves affect lipid metabolism in mice fed a high‐fat diet. RESULTS The administration of AS to BALB/c mice fed a high‐fat diet significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (TG). CPT activity in the liver of these mice was significantly enhanced by AS treatment. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that AS leaves have the potential to alleviate increase in plasma TG levels due to high‐fat diet intake in mice, possibly by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β‐oxidation, especially via CPT activation. Consequently, daily intake of AS leaves could promote beneficial health effects including the prevention of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T03:59:58.94432-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7557
  • Ingestion of bioactive collagen hydrolysates enhance facial skin moisture
           and elasticity and reduce facial aging signs in a randomized
           double‐blind placebo‐controlled clinical study
    • Authors: Naoki Inoue; Fumihito Sugihara, Xuemin Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Several human studies have demonstrated occurrence of two major collagen peptides, prolyl‐hydroxyproline (Pro‐Hyp), hydroxyprolyl‐glycine (Hyp‐Gly), in human peripheral blood. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated that Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly has chemotaxis to dermal fibroblast and enhance cell proliferation. Additionally, Pro‐Hyp enhances the production of hyaluronic acid by dermal fibroblast. These findings suggest that contents of Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly in blood are important factors to exhibit the efficacy of collagen hydrolysates on skin health. RESULTS We conducted a randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled clinical trial of ingestion of two types of collagen hydrolysates, which are composed of different contents of the bioactive dipeptides, Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly, to investigate their effects on skin condition improvement. Improvement in skin conditions such as skin moisture, elasticity, wrinkles, and roughness were compared with a placebo group at baseline, and four and eight weeks after the start of the trial. In addition, the safety of dietary supplementation with these peptides was evaluated by blood test. Collagen hydrolysate with a higher content of bioactive collagen peptides (H‐CP) showed significant and more improvement than the collagen hydrolysate with a lower content of bioactive collagen peptides (L‐CP) and the placebo, in facial skin moisture, elasticity (R2), wrinkles and roughness, compared with the placebo group. In addition, there were no adverse events during the trial. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that the collagen hydrolysate with a higher content of Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly, showed more improvement in facial skin condition, including facial skin moisture, elasticity, wrinkles and roughness.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T02:08:04.09516-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7606
  • Influence of temperature and fish thickness on the mass transfer kinetics
           during the cod (Gadus morhua) desalting process
    • Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of desalting temperature, fish thickness and desalting time on the mass transfer kinetics during the cod desalting process by physicochemical analyses. Results Both water uptake and salt loss increased with increasing temperature (15 °C>10 °C>5 °C) up to 24 h in “thicker” pieces. The equilibrium achievement was faster in “thinner” pieces and also with increasing temperature. Longer desalting times at 10 °C can be a good practice to be used during cod desalting at an industrial scale in order to obtain commercial products with higher yields. The faster mass transfer during desalting of “thinner” pieces appears to follow 3 periods as a result of diffusion of the components (water, NaCl, and soluble proteins) because of the concentration differences, and pressure gradients due to expansion/shrinkage of the protein matrix, which is dependent on the NaCl content. The refractive index can be used by industry as an indirect measurement to determine the moment at which the “thicker” samples are near the ZNaCl=YNaCl equilibrium. Conclusion Optimum combinations between the process variables analysed are essential in order to speed up the mass transfer kinetics during cod desalting at an industrial scale.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T00:32:28.952782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7657
  • Oil Quality parameters and Quantitative Measurement of Major Secoiridoid
           Derivatives in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins using qNMR
    • Authors: Amir Ben Mansour; Boutheina Gargouri, Eleni Melliou, Prokopios Magiatis, Mohamed Bouaziz
      Abstract: Background Olive oil contains compounds with interesting biological activities which are influenced by the cultivar, the geographic origin and other factors. The aim of this work was to investigate these factors in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins. The aim of this work was to attest the influence of geographic conditions on phenolic composition of Neb Jmel olive oil and consequently on the antioxidant compounds, and to verify if it is permit to discriminate the geographical origin. Results The characterization of extra‐virgin Neb Jmel olive oil produced in their original place has been conducted. Owing to the effect of the genotype and environmental, agronomic and technological factors on the chemical composition of olive oil and its quality, all studied olives were collected at the same season, and their oil obtained under the same processing technique. Many analyses were carried out to characterize the different olive oils: free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Rancimat assay, pigments content and phenolic compounds by 1H NMR. A recently developed method for the direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative 1H NMR was applied. The method was applied to the study of four Neb Jmel olive oils samples, and a broad variation of concentrations of all four secoiridoids was recorded. The concentration of each one ranged from 55 to 529 mg/kg and the sum of the four major secoiridoids (known as D3) ranged from 436 to 1063 mg/kg. Conclusion The quantification of major phenolic compounds of olive oil by NMR method indicated that environmental conditions influence the production of qualitative phenolic fractions. All these compounds can be used as base '' markers' to characterize and differentiate these olive oil on geographic origin.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T00:28:44.988752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7654
  • Changes in physical and gelling properties of freeze dried egg white as a
           result of temperature and relative humidity
    • Authors: Wattinee Katekhong; Sanguansri Charoenrein
      Abstract: Background The quality of dried egg white with respect to functional properties can be affected by storage conditions. The effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on changes in color and gelling properties in freeze dried egg white (FDEW) during storage was investigated. Results The glass transition temperature (Tg) of FDEW decreased with increasing %RH. The color of FDEW stored at 60 °C was darker yellow than those at 40 and 25 °C, particularly at high %RH. RH had no effect on hardness and water holding capacity (WHC) of gels made from FDEW stored at 25°C for 1 week.However, hardness and WHC of gels from FDEW stored at higher temperatures; 40 °C, 48 %RH and 60 °C, 11 %RH dramatically increased. These results related to the differential scanning calorimeter thermogramswhich showed a broadening peak with lower enthalpy of protein denaturation. Moreover, the protein's SDS‐PAGE pattern in the samples stored at high temperatures or RH levels showed protein aggregation. Conclusion Storage of FDEW at high temperature and RH levels induced protein conformation changes. These have contributed to protein aggregation which affected FDEW’s gelling properties.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T00:27:48.481122-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7653
  • Characterisation of potato crisp effective porosity using micro‐ct
    • Authors: Ryan C. Renshaw; John P. Robinson, Georgios A. Dimitrakis, John R. Bows, Samuel W. Kingman
      Abstract: Background The effective porosity is an important quantitative parameter for food products that has a significant effect on taste and quality. It is challenging to quantify the apparent porosity of fried potato crisps as they have a thin irregularly shaped cross section containing oil and water. This study uses a novel Micro‐CT technique to determine the solid volume fraction and hence the effective porosity of three types of potato crisps – standard continuously fried crisps, microwaved crisps, and continuously fried “kettle” crisps. Results It was found that continuously fried kettle crisps had the lowest effective porosity at 0.54, providing the desired crunchy taste and lower oil contents. Crisps produced using a microwave process designed to mimic the dehydration process of standard continuous fried crisps had an effective porosity of 0.65, which was very similar to the effective porosity of 0.63 for standard continuously fried crisps. The results were supported by the findings of a forced preference consumer test. Conclusion The effective porosity affects the product taste and is therefore a critical parameter. This study shows that Micro‐CT analysis can be used to characterise the change in effective porosity of a thin irregularly shaped food product, caused by a change of cooking procedure.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T00:26:17.038051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7655
  • Effect of interfacial composition and crumbliness on aroma release in soy
           protein/sugar beet pectin mixed emulsion gels
    • Abstract: Background In this study, Soy protein isolate/sugar beet pectin (SPI/SBP) emulsion gels were prepared through an enzymatic gelation process. effects of emulsifiers (SBP, SPI and SPI/SBP complex) and emulsified process on microstructure, texture, breakdown properties and aroma release behaviour of resulted emulsion gels were investigated. Results The oil emulsified by SBP/SPI complex resulted in higher amount of emulsifier absorbing on the oil–water interface than by SBP and SPI alone, indicating that a more compact interfacial network was formed. The flocculation of oil droplets were observed and corresponding emulsion gels exhibited lower fracture force and strain while the oil was emulsified by SPI and SBP/SPI complex. Moreover, emulsion gels with small droplets produced greater quantity of small fragments after mastication. However, microstructure did not show a significant effect on breakdown properties of emulsion gels. Headspace‐gas chromatography analysis showed release rate of ethyl butyrate which before and after mastication was significantly lower in emulsion gel with more compact network, but the release of aroma compounds with higher hydrophobicity did not show significantly influence by the microstructure and texture of emulsion gel. Conclusion This finding provided a useful application for designing semi‐solid foods with desirable flavour perception.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T00:25:18.859955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7656
  • Microbial community, and biochemical and physiological properties of
           Korean traditional black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in microbial community and biochemical and physiological properties of traditional Muju black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar (TMBV) during fermentation by culture‐independent methods. RESULTS During vinegar fermentation, ethanol produced up to 120 g L−1 until day 35, with continuously increasing yeast concentration to a total of log 7.6 CFU mL−1. After day 35, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) concentrations rose to log 5.8 CFU mL−1 until day 144. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected until day 87 of the fermentation, at which point Acetobacter pasteurianus gradually took over as the dominant species. Total sugar was reduced to 6.6 °Brix and total acidity produced up to 44 g L−1. CONCLUSION In this study, we established the physicochemical analysis and growth dynamics of yeast and AAB during alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of black raspberry by a traditional method. Overall, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus species appeared to dominate the TMBV fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for TMBV by the static surface method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T04:01:53.312547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7560
  • Harvest Date Effects on Aroma Compounds in Aged Riesling Icewines
    • Authors: Ramsey Khairallah; Andrew G. Reynolds, Amy J. Bowen
      Abstract: Background Riesling icewine is an important product of the Ontario wine industry. The objective of this study was to characterize concentrations in aroma compounds in aged icewines associated with three harvest dates (H1, H2, H3) using stir bar sorptive extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and to make inferences, where appropriate, with respect to their roles in potential wine quality. Results Delaying harvest decreased concentrations of many odorants, but increased many critical odor‐active compounds; e.g., 1‐octen‐3‐ol, ethyl benzoate, ethyl octanoate, cis‐rose oxide, and β‐ionone. H1 wines had higher concentrations of four aldehydes, three alcohols, nine esters, seven terpenes, γ‐nonalactone, p‐vinylguaiacol, β‐damascenone, and 2‐furanmethanol. However, many of these compounds, with some exceptions, have relatively high odor thresholds. Fourteen compounds were above their odor thresholds, including decanal, 1‐octen‐3‐ol, phenylethyl alcohol, four ethyl esters, cis‐rose oxide, linalool, γ‐nonalactone, p‐vinylguaiacol, ethyl cinnamate, β‐damascenone, and 1,1,6‐trimethyl‐1,2‐dihydronaphthalene. H3 wines contained higher concentrations of highly odor‐active compounds e.g. 1‐octen‐3‐ol, cis‐rose oxide, and β‐ionone. Only phenylethyl alcohol [H3 odor activity value (OAV) = 0.33 (honey, spice, rose)] and linalool [H3 OAV = 0.92 (floral, lavender)] had H3 OAVs < 1. Conclusions Early harvest increased many esters and aliphatic compounds, but delayed harvest appeared to substantially increase concentrations of several highly‐odor‐active compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T02:48:01.720292-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7650
  • In vivo assessment of iron bioavailability from fortified pearl millet
           based weaning food
    • Authors: Manvesh Kumar Sihag; Vivek Sharma, Ankit Goyal, Sumit Arora, Rajeev Kapila
      Abstract: Background Iron is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development of the body. Infants are more vulnerable to develop iron‐deficiency anemia due to inadequate iron supply in early stages. The objective of the study was in vivo assessment of iron bioavailability from pearl millet based weaning food fortified with iron & vitamin A, and to investigate the role of vitamin A in iron absorption in animal models. Results Results revealed that anemic group showed significantly (P
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T02:47:37.054529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7651
  • Optimization of Fertilization Characteristics of Urine by Addition of
           Nitrosomonas europaea Bio‐seed
    • Authors: Shervin Hashemi; Mooyoung Han, Tschungil Kim
      Abstract: Background Because of the high concentration of nutrients in human urine, its utilization as an organic fertilizer has been notable throughout history. However, the nitrogen compounds in urine are not stable. Therefore, to convert urine into a suitable fertilizer, it is important to stabilize and adjust unstable nitrogen compounds such as ammonia. Because nitrification can influence the nitrogen profile, the use of nitrifying microorganisms can be useful for stabilizing the nitrogen profile of urine. In this study, we investigated the changes in nitrogen compounds in pure urine and examined the effect of adding Nitrosomonas europaea bio‐seed solution on these changes. Results We found that the addition of bio‐seed could reduce nitrogen loss as well as the time required to stabilize nitrogen profile. Furthermore, we determined the optimum concentration of bio‐seed (6 × 105 N. europaea cells/mL) that not only leads to the least nutrient loss but also results in the adequate nitrate:ammonium ratio and regulates the amount of nitrate produced, thereby preventing over‐fertilization. Conclusion At this concentration, no dilution or dewatering is required, thus, minimizing water and energy consumption. Usage of optimum of concentration of bio‐seed will also eliminate the need for inorganic chemical additives.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T02:41:49.522201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7652
  • Oregano (Lippia graveolens) essential oil added within pectin edible
           coatings prevents fungal decay and increases the antioxidant capacity of
           treated tomatoes
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato is a fruit widely consumed due to its flavor and nutritional value; however, it is susceptible to fungi contamination. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is a fungicide whose constituents are volatile; therefore, their incorporation within edible coatings can protect them and maintain their efficacy. In this context, this study evaluated the effect of OEO applied within pectin coatings on the inhibition of Alternaria alternata growth, antioxidant content and sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. RESULTS The major volatile compounds of OEO were carvacrol (47.41%), p‐cymene (26.44%) and thymol (3.02%). All the applied OEO concentrations (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 g L−1) inhibited the in vitro growth of A. alternata, whereas the in vivo effective concentrations were 25.9 and 36.1 g L−1. Additionally, there was an increment of total phenols and antioxidant activity in coated tomatoes compared to controls. Aroma acceptability of tomatoes was not affected by the pectin–OEO coating; additionally, the pectin, pectin–OEO 15.7 g L−1 treatments and control tomatoes showed higher flavor acceptability than those coated with pectin–OEO 25.9 and 36.1 g L−1. CONCLUSION Pectin–OEO coatings showed antifungal effect and increased the antioxidant activity without negative effects on the sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T11:16:40.221606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7568
  • Serum metabolomics analysis of rat after intragastric infusion of
           Pu‐erh theabrownin
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim was to study the effects of Pu‐erh theabrownin (TB) (Mw > 50 kDa) on the metabolism of rat serum by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)‐based metabolomics and identify candidate marker metabolites associated with Pu‐erh TB, and thus provide fundamental information for a better understanding of the metabolism of Pu‐erh tea in animals. RESULTS TB infusion induced different changes in endogenous serum metabolites depending on the type of diet. Compared with the control group, the TB infusion group showed significantly reduced serum glycine and choline levels, as well as significantly increased taurine, carnitine and high‐density lipoprotein (all P < 0.05). Compared with the high‐lipid group, the high‐lipid TB infusion group exhibited significantly reduced low‐density lipoprotein and acetate levels, as well as significantly increased inositol, carnitine and glycine levels (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Examination of the variations of these differential expressed metabolites and their individual functions revealed that the TB extract accelerated lipid catabolism in rats and might affect glucose metabolism. Of these, carnitine level significantly increased after intragastric infusion of TB regardless of the type of diet, and activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferases I and II changed significantly, suggesting carnitine may be a candidate serum marker for tracking the metabolism of TB in rats. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T09:22:20.710032-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7556
  • Development of an SPME‐GC‐MS method for the specific
           quantification of dimethylamine and trimethylamine: use of a new ratio for
           the freshness monitoring of cod fillets
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish is a highly perishable food, so it is important to be able to estimate its freshness to ensure optimum quality for consumers. The present study describes the development of an SPME‐GC‐MS technique capable of quantifying both trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA), components of what has been defined as partial volatile basic nitrogen (PVB‐N). This method was used, together with other reference methods, to monitor the storage of cod fillets (Gadus morhua) conserved under melting ice. RESULTS Careful optimisation enabled definition of the best parameters for extracting and separating targeted amines and an internal standard. The study of cod spoilage by sensory analysis and TVB‐N assay led to the conclusion that the shelf‐life of cod fillet was between 6 and 7 days. Throughout the study, TMA and DMA were specifically quantified by SPME‐GC‐MS; the first was found to be highly correlated with the values returned by steam distillation assays. Neither TMA‐N nor DMA‐N were able to successfully characterise the decrease in early freshness, unlike dimethylamine/trimethylamine ratio (DTR), whose evolution is closely related to the results of sensory analysis until the stage where fillets need to be rejected. CONCLUSION DTR was proposed as a reliable indicator for the early decrease of freshness until fish rejection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T08:26:30.221671-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7570
  • Occurrence, prevention and remediation of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins
           in silage: a review
    • Authors: Eva Wambacq; Ilse Vanhoutte, Kris Audenaert, Leen De Gelder, Geert Haesaert
      Abstract: Ruminants are considered to be less sensitive towards mycotoxins than monogastric animals because rumen microbiota have mycotoxin‐detoxifying capacities. Therefore the effect of mycotoxins towards ruminants has been studied to a lesser extent compared with monogastric animals. Worldwide, a high proportion of the ruminant diet consists of silages made of forage crops (i.e. all parts of the crop above the stubble are harvested). In practice, silages are often contaminated with multiple mycotoxins. Exposure to a cocktail of mycotoxins can hamper animal production and have severe health consequences. In this article the different aspects associated with mycotoxin contamination of silage are reviewed ‘from seed to feed’. An overview is given on the occurrence of toxigenic fungal species and their concomitant mycotoxins in forage crops before and after ensiling. The mycotoxin load of visually non‐mouldy samples and mouldy hot spots within the same silo is also compared. Subsequently, this review delves into different problem‐solving strategies. A logical first step is prevention of mould growth and mycotoxin production in the field, during harvest and during ensiling. If prevention should fail, several remediation strategies are available. These are listed, mainly focusing on the possibilities of microbial degradation of mycotoxins in vivo in silage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T05:44:00.22855-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7565
  • Temperature effect on triacylglycerol species in seed oil from high
           stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds
    • Abstract: Background We characterized the influence of temperature during grain filling on the saturated fatty acids distribution in triacylglycerol molecules from high stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds. Two growth chamber experiments were conducted with the following day‐night temperatures: 16‐16°C, 26‐16°C, 26‐26°C and 32‐26°C. Results In all genotypes, independently of the genetic background, higher temperatures increased palmitic and oleic acid and reduced linoleic acid concentrations. Increasing night temperature produced an increase in saturated‐unsaturated‐saturated species, indicating a more symmetrical distribution of saturated fatty acids. The solid fat index was more affected by temperature during grain filling in lines with high linoleic than high oleic background. The higher variations in symmetry among night temperatures were observed in lines with high oleic background, which are more stable in fatty acid composition. Conclusion The effect of temperature on triacylglycerol composition is not completely explained by its effect on fatty acid composition. So, night temperature affects oil properties via its effects on fatty acids synthesis and on the distribution of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol molecules.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T04:00:12.834187-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7646
  • Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed, and
           switch grass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production
    • Abstract: Background Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio‐oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production. Results The results show that coffeeweed and switch grass seeds contain known triglycerides which are 983 and 1000 g kg−1 respectively of the fatty acids found in edible vegetables oils such as sunflower, corn and soy bean oils. In addition, the triglyceride yields of 53 – 67 g kg−1 of the seed samples are in the range of commercial oil‐producing seeds such as corn (42 g kg−1). Conclusion The results also indicate that the two non‐edible oils could be used as substitutes for edible oil for biodiesel production. In addition, the use of seeds of switch grass for non‐edible oil production (as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel) further increases the total bio‐fuel yield when switch grass is cultivated for use as energy feedstock for pyrolysis oil and biodiesel production.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T03:51:33.26862-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7649
  • Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the
           physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet
    • Authors: Karen Thang; Kimberlee Au, Cyril Rakovski, Anuradha Prakash
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. ‘Bluecrop’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and ‘Sweetheart’ cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Results Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11‐14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf‐life and irradiated fruit. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially, however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ~1 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. Conclusion This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T03:51:10.3003-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7648
  • The effect of pomegranate juice on clinical signs, matrix
           metalloproteinases and antioxidant status in patients with knee
    • Authors: Nasrin Ghoochani; Majid Karandish, Karim Mowla, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Taha Jalali
      Abstract: Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the commonest forms of musculoskeletal disorders that leads to joint degeneration and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. Experimental and in vitro studies have suggested the protective roles of pomegranate juice (PJ) as a rich antioxidant source for mitigating cartilage inflammation. In this interventional study, 38 patients with knee OA were randomly divided into two groups: PJ or control for 6 weeks to evaluate the effect of this intervention on clinical signs, inflammation and antioxidant status. Results Significant decreases in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) total score (P= 0.01), stiffness score (p=0.00) and physical function score (p=0.01) were observed in PJ group after the intervention. The means of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) ‐13 was significantly decreased (p=0.02) and glutathione peroxidase was increased in the intervention group compared with the control group after the study period (p=0.02). Conclusions According to the findings of this clinical trial, PJ consumption can improve physical function and stiffness, decrease breakdown cartilage enzymes and increase antioxidant status in patients with knee OA.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T03:48:54.795428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7647
  • Role of nano‐ranged amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement
           of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings
    • Authors: Totan Adak; Jitendra Kumar, Najam A. Shakil, Sushil Pandey
      Abstract: Background Nano‐sized and wide range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. Investigation was carried out to know the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and as pesticide carriers. Results Amphiphilic polymers were synthesized in our laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di‐acids with 127.5 to 354 nm micelle size. Percent germination of soybean seeds reduced drastically from 97.80 to 81.55% for uncoated seeds, but polymer coated seeds had germination in the tune of 95.92 ‐ 89.44% after 6 months of storage. Vigour index‐1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds at the end of 6 months storage. Whereas, vigour ranged from 3375.59 to 3884.60 after 6 months of storage for polymer coated seeds. Developed imidacloprid formulations retained pesticides more on soybean seed coatings compared with commercial formulation (Gaucho® 600FS). Time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12 to 9.11 hours for developed formulations and 0.41 hour for commercial formulation. Conclusion New range polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T03:39:52.878492-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7643
  • Effect of acidification on the protection of alginate‐encapsulated
           probiotic based on emulsification/internal gelation
    • Authors: Fangning Qu; Meng Zhao, Yapeng Fang, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Glyn O. Phillips, Zhengjun Wu, Chen Chen
      Abstract: Background The method of emulsification/internal gelation is commonly used to prepare alginate microspheres for lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This paper was focused on the influence of acidification parameters, i.e. acid/Ca molar ratio and acidification time, on the physical properties and cell protection efficiency of microspheres and their correlations. Results With increasing acid/Ca molar ratio and acidification time, the average diameter of microspheres decreased and their mechanical strength increased. Interestingly, wet alginate microspheres shrank in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) while they swelled in bile salts solution (BS). The shrinkage or swelling ratio decreased with increasing mechanical strength. Correlation analysis showed that the encapsulated cell survivals in both SGJ and BS were positively correlated with the mechanical strength of microspheres but negatively with the shrinkage or swelling ratio. BacLight LIVE/DEAD assay suggested that the viability of encapsulated cells in fresh, SGJ‐treated and BS‐treated microspheres was closely related to cell membrane integrity. Conclusion Acidification is a key step during microsphere preparation, which strongly affected the physical properties of alginate microspheres, resulting in different cell protection efficiency. The resulting well‐protected LAB can be applied in probiotics foods.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T03:39:06.593667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7645
  • Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) a renewed multipurpose crop for a more
           sustainable agri‐food system. Nutritional advantages and constraints
    • Abstract: The growing awareness on the relevance of food composition for human health has increased the interest of the inclusion of high proportions of fruits and vegetables in diets. To reach the objective of more balanced diets, an increased consumption of legumes, which constitutes a sustainable source of essential nutrients, particularly low cost protein, is of special relevance. However, legumes’ consumption also entails some constraints that need to be addressed to avoid a deleterious impact on consumers’ wellbeing and health. The value of legumes as a source of nutrients depends on a plethora of factors including genetic characteristics, agro‐climatic conditions, and post‐harvest management that modulate the dietary effect of edible seeds and vegetative material. Thus, a more comprehensive information regarding composition, especially their nutritional and antinutritional compounds, digestibility, and alternative processing procedures is essential. These were the challenges to write this review focused on the nutritional and antinutritional composition of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, an emerging crop all over the world intended to provide a rational support for the development of valuable foods and feeds of increased commercial value.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T03:35:21.851363-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7644
  • Proteomic and peptidomic profiling of Brazilian artisanal
           “Coalho” cheese
    • Authors: R. A. Silva; V. S. Bezerra, M. C. B. Pimentel, A. L. F. Porto, M. T. H. Cavalcanti, J. L. Lima Filho
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The artisanal “Coalho” cheese is a product typically popular in the Brazilian Northeastern region. The production of this cheese represents about 9.2% of the Internal Crude Product of the Pernambuco State. Several peptides are generated from hydrolysis of αS1, αS2, β, and κ‐caseins during manufacturing of this cheese. The commercial importance of the Brazilian artisanal “Coalho” cheese justifies the examination of both the protein and peptide profiles of cheeses from six cities of the semi‐arid region of Pernambuco State‐Brazil. RESULTS SDS‐PAGE of the aqueous extracts of “Coalho” cheeses (WSP) showed bands of lactoferrin, β‐lactoglobulin, β‐lactoglobulin (dimer), α‐lactoalbumin, bovine serum albumin, α‐casein, β‐casein, κ‐casein and para‐κ‐casein. A total of 57 to 72 peptides were confirmed by mass spectra in the different samples of “Coalho” cheese which 32 known peptides (11 from αS1‐Casein, 3 from αS2‐Casein, 15 from β‐casein and 3 from κ‐casein), comprising 7 caseinphosphopeptides. Among the unidentified peptides, three o showed high intensity peaks in all “Coalho” cheeses studied (with molecular weights of 1597, 1725/1726, 2778/2779 Da). CONCLUSION: The proteomic studies revealed peptides that may represent molecular markers or fingerprints for investigating the quality control and regional characterisation of these “Coalho” cheeses.
      PubDate: 2016-01-23T00:37:03.005939-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7640
  • Design of biocompatible immobilized Candida rugosa lipase with potential
           application in food industry
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Biocatalysts are a promising alternative for production of natural flavor compounds. Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) are particularly important biocatalysts, owing to their remarkable efficiency in both hydrolysis and synthesis. However, additional stabilization is necessary for successful industrial implementation. We present an easy and time‐saving method for immobilization of this valuable enzyme on hydroxyapatite (HAP) – biomaterial with high protein‐binding capacity. RESULTS Targeted immobilized CRL was obtained in high yield of ≥ 98 %. Significant lipase stabilization was observed upon immobilization: at 60°C immobilized lipase (HAP‐CRL) retains almost unchanged activity after 3h, while free CRL loses 50 % of initial activity after only 30 min. The same trend was observed with tested organic solvents. Methanol and hexane have most pronounced effect: after 3 h, only HAP‐CRL is stable and active, while CRL inactivates completely. Practical value of prepared catalyst was tested in synthesis of aroma ester methyl‐acetate in n‐hexane. Reaction yields were 2.6 % and 52.5 % for CRL and HAP‐CRL, respectively. CONCLUSION In the presented research, we have successfully combined industrially prominent biocatalyst ‐ CRL and biocompatible, environmentally suitable carrier – HAP into immobilized preparation with improved catalyst properties. Obtained CRL preparation has excellent recommendations for food and flavor industry – major consumers in global enzyme market.
      PubDate: 2016-01-23T00:36:41.400872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7641
  • Chromatographic fractionation and molecular mass characterization of
           Cercidium praecox (Brea) gum
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Brea gum (BG) is an exudate from Cercidium praecox tree that grows in semi‐arid regions of Argentina. Some previous studies on BG have shown physicochemical characteristics and functional features similar to those of gum Arabic. However, there is a need to elucidate BG molecular structure to understand the functionality. In this sense, BG was fractionated using hydrophobic affinity chromatography and the obtained fractions were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. RESULTS Analysis of the fractions showed that the bulk of the gum (ca. 84% of the polysaccharides) was a polysaccharide of 2.79 x 103 g mol−1. The second major fraction (ca. 16% of the polysaccharides) was a polysaccharide‐protein complex with a molecular mass of 1.92 x 105 g mol−1. A third fraction consisted of protein species with a wide range of molecular weights. The molecular weight distribution of the protein fraction was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. Comparison of the elution profile of the exudates in native vs. reducing conditions revealed that some of the proteins were forming aggregates through disulfide bridges in native conditions. Further analysis of the protein fraction by SDS‐PAGE showed proteins with molecular weight ranging from 6.5 to 43 kDa. CONCLUSIONS The findings showed that BG consists in several fractions with heterogeneous chemical composition and polydisperse molecular weight distributions.
      PubDate: 2016-01-23T00:36:19.275147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7642
  • Optimisation of ultrasound‐assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet
           potato (Ipomea batatas) using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Ayobami Olayemi Oladejo; Haile Ma
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sweet potato is a highly nutritious tuber crop that is rich in β‐carotene. Osmotic dehydration is a pretreatment method for drying of fruit and vegetables. Recently, ultrasound technology has been applied in food processing because of its numerous advantages which include time saving, little damage to the quality of the food. Thus, there is need to investigate and optimise the process parameters [frequency (20–50 kHz), time (10–30 min) and sucrose concentration (20–60% w/v)] for ultrasound‐assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet potato using response surface methodology. RESULTS The optimised values obtained were frequency of 33.93 kHz, time of 30 min and sucrose concentration of 35.69% (w/v) to give predicted values of 21.62, 4.40 and 17.23% for water loss, solid gain and weight reduction, respectively. The water loss and weight reduction increased when the ultrasound frequency increased from 20 to 35 kHz and then decreased as the frequency increased from 35 to 50 kHz. CONCLUSION The results from this work show that low ultrasound frequency favours the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato and also reduces the use of raw material (sucrose) needed for the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T09:25:46.550314-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7552
  • Effect of spice incorporated starch edible film wrapping on shelf life of
           white shrimps stored at different temperature conditions
    • Authors: M. Sivarajan; C. Chandra Mohan, K.R. Rakhavan, K. Radha krishnan, S. Babuskin, M. Sukumar
      Abstract: Background White shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) are one of major aquaculture product in the world fishery market. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clove and cinnamon assimilated starch edible films on the shelf life of white shrimps to maintain its freshness and other organoleptic properties. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory qualities of the edible film wrapped white shrimps were studied till it reaches its acceptable limit during storage at different temperature (10 °C and 4 °C) conditions. Results Shrimp samples wrapped with spice assimilated edible films showed lower bacterial counts. Shelf life extension of edible film wrapped white shrimps was estimated to be 14 days and 12 days for storage at 10°C and 4°C respectively. Reduced lipid oxidation (TBARS) and release of nitrogen base compounds (TVBN) were noted for edible film wrapped shrimp samples. Good consumer acceptance was noted for edible film wrapped shrimp samples through sensory evaluation. Conclusion The results of this study show that spice fused edible films were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations. Reduction in lipid oxidation and total volatile base nitrogen were also achieved through edible film wrapping of shrimps, which increases its consumer acceptance during sensory evaluation.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T12:06:15.974329-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7638
  • The damage of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea grains is dependent of
           the plant genotype
    • Abstract: Background Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilised with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defence mechanisms against pests. In this study, the population growth of C. maculatus reared on beans from four cowpea cultivars fertilised with different nitrogen sources was evaluated. The factors tested were beans from four cowpea cultivars and seven different nitrogen sources: mineral N fertilisation, inoculation with symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria, and soil nitrogen (absolute control). Results BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars had lower cumulative emergence and instantaneous rate of population growth of the insects compared with other cultivars, indicating antixenosis resistance against C. maculatus. Inoculation of BRS Acauã cultivar with the diazotrophic bacteria strain BR 3299 resulted in higher mortality of C. maculatus. For BRS Tapaihum cultivar, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria strains BR3267, BR 3262 and BR 3299, and nitrogen fertilisation resulted in higher mortality among C. maculatus. Conclusion BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars showed the lowest cumulative insect emergence and instantaneous rates of population growth, and the higest insect mortality, mainly when the grains were obtained from plants inoculated with rhizobial strains.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T12:05:54.210315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7639
  • Tuber proteome comparison of five potato varieties by principal component
    • Authors: Carla Souza de Mello; Jeroen P. Van Dijk, Marleen Voorhuijzen, Esther J. Kok, Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi
      Abstract: Background Data analysis of omics data should be performed by multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The way data is clustered in PCA is of major importance to develop some classification systems based on multivariate analysis, such as Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). In a previous study, a one‐class classifier based on SIMCA was built using microarray data from a set of potatoes. The PCA grouped the transcriptomic data according to varieties. The present work aimed to use PCA to verify the clustering of the proteomic profiles for same potato varieties. Results Proteomic profiles of five potato varieties (Biogold, Fontane, Innovator, Lady Rosetta and Maris Piper) were evaluated by two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis (2‐DE) performed on two IPG strip lengths: 13 and 24 cm, both under pH range of 4–7. For each strip length, two gels were prepared from each variety; in total there were 10 gels per analysis. For 13 cm strips, 199–320 spots were detected per gel, and for 24 cm strips, 365–684 spots. Conclusion All four PCAs performed with these datasets presented clear grouping of samples according to the varieties. The data presented here showed that PCA was applicable for proteomic analysis of potato and it was able to separate the samples by varieties.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T12:05:26.784258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7635
  • Rapid sensory‐directed methodology for the selection of high quality
           aroma wines
    • Abstract: Background The present work contributes by developing a rapid sensory‐directed methodology for the screening and selection of high quality wines with different sensory profiles Therefore, Verdejo and Tempranillo musts were fermented with 50 different yeasts each under controlled laboratory conditions. Resulting samples were firstly categorized according to five levels of quality by a panel of wine professionals. Higher quality samples were described by flash profiling by a semi‐trained panel and most distinctive samples were screened by gas chromatography‐olfactometry (GC‐O). Results Seven Verdejo and five Tempranillo samples were classified in the highest quality category, presenting different aroma profiles such as citrus, fruit in syrup, boxtree/vegetal, tropical or wet grain aromas for Verdejo and red fruit or fruit in syrup for Tempranillo. β‐damascenone, 3‐mercaptohexyl acetate and ethyl butyrate appeared as distinctive quality compounds linked to dried, tropical and red fruit aromas, respectively. Conclusions Categorization task followed by flash profiling and GC‐O analysis has revealed to be a rapid and effective sensory‐directed methodology for the screening of distinctive and quality wine aroma profiles in a case study of yeast selection. Wine industry could benefit from the use of this methodology as a complementary tool for optimizing technical processes along elaboration.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T12:05:05.082255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7636
  • Effect of malonaldehyde cross‐linking on the ability of shrimp
           tropomyosin to elicit the release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines
           from activated RBL‐2H3 cells
    • Authors: Yongna Song; Zhenxing Li, Qing Gao, Tushar Ramesh Pavase, Hong Lin
      Abstract: Background Malonaldehyde, the primary by‐product of lipid peroxidation in food, modifies the structural and functional properties of proteins by cross‐linking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of malonaldehyde on the allergenicity of shrimp tropomyosin. Results RBL‐2H3 cells, a model of type I allergic reactions, were sensitized with sera from patients allergic to shrimp, and were stimulated with native and cross‐linked tropomyosin. Release of inflammatory mediators such as β‐hexosaminidase, histamine, tryptase, cysteinyl leukotriene, and prostaglandin D2 was clearly suppressed in a manner that depended on the extent of tropomyosin cross‐linking. Release of interleukin‐4 (IL‐4) and IL‐13 was similarly decreased. Notably, cells sensitized with one patient's serum released IL‐4 at comparable levels in response to native and cross‐linked tropomyosin. Conclusion Cross‐linking strongly modulates the ability of shrimp tropomyosin to induce release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators from activated RBL‐2H3 cells.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T12:04:41.159225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7637
  • Social learning theory and public perception of GMOs: What Blancke et al.
           (2015) and other plant biotechnologists are missing
    • Authors: Keith Fluegge
      Abstract: There exists a strong chasm between public opinion and scientific evidence on the safety of genetically engineered food, herein referred to as GMOs. Plant biotechnologists give credit to a small community of activists negatively influencing individual minds on this issue, but this approach neglects other social contexts in which such cognition operates. The author argues here that current public opinion on GMOs is a manifestation of the constant interaction between environmental, behavioral, and cognitive influences on this issue. In order to sway public opinion and consistent with social learning theory, biotechnology advocates and plant scientists will need to move beyond their recognized expertise in order to rework the argument for GMOs in the modern day food supply, one that wholly embraces an individual‐level framing of the debate, tantamount to other successful professional trends like patient‐centered medicine.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T12:03:09.224287-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7634
  • A novel method for monitoring troponin T fragment from rabbit skeletal
           muscle during aging using quartz crystal microbalance
    • Authors: Tomohito Iwasaki; Hironobu Taniguchi, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Naoyuki Maeda, Katsuhiro Yamamoto
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Troponin T (TnT) is degraded during aging of meat. The proteolytic fragment of TnT, especially the 30 kDa fragment, is used as one of indices for estimating aging of meat. We have tried to use quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which is widely used to analyze interaction among macromolecules, to detect proteolytic fragments of TnT during aging of meat. RESULT The frequency of the QCM sensor with immobilized anti‐TnT antibody in high‐salt solution extracts of both myofibrils and whole meat decreased with time of aging. The staining intensity of the bands, including a 30 kDa fragment bound to anti‐TnT antibody, also increased with time of aging in western blotting. These results confirm that TnT is degraded during aging and released from thin filaments, and QCM analysis is sufficiently sensitive to detect the TnT fragments. CONCLUSION The QCM analysis of muscle and myofibrillar extracts using anti‐TnT antibody‐immobilized sensor can be used as a convenient tool for monitoring the extent of aging of meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T08:20:58.195384-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7558
  • Discrimination of some European vinegars with protected denomination of
           origin as a function of their amino acid and biogenic amine content
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Twenty‐three amino acids and 11 amines were quantified in 37 premium quality European vinegars (traditional balsamic vinegar of Modena, balsamic vinegars of Modena and vinegars of Jerez) by an HPLC‐DAD method after derivatisation with diethyl ethoxymethylenmalonate. Data were assessed in the light of the differences in technology and raw materials. RESULTS The total amount of amino acids ranged from 136 mg kg−1 to 1450 mg kg−1 in traditional balsamic vinegar of Modena and balsamic vinegar of Modena, respectively. Jerez vinegars had a mean content from 351 mg kg−1 to 921 mg kg−1. Proline, glycine and γ‐aminobutyric acid were the main amino acids while isoleucine was only found in balsamic vinegar of Modena at a concentration of
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T05:51:47.214514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7566
  • Cloning of genes related to aliphatic glucosinolate metabolism and the
           mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation in broccoli sprouts under jasmonic
           acid treatment
    • Authors: Liping Guo; Runqiang Yang, Zhenxin Gu
      Abstract: Background Cytochrome P450 79F1 (CYP79 F1), cytochrome P450 83A1 (CYP83A1), UDP‐glucosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74B1), sulfotransferase 18 (ST5b) and flavin‐containing monooxygenase GS‐OX1 (FMOGS‐OX1) were important enzymes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, their full‐length cDNA in broccoli was firstly cloned, and then the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was investigated. Results The full length cDNA of CYP79F1, CYP83A1, UGT74B1, ST5b and FMOGS‐OX1 is 1980 bp, 1652 bp, 1592 bp, 1378 bp and 1623 bp, respectively. The increase of aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation in broccoli sprouts treated with JA was associated with elevated expression of genes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. Application of 100 μM JA increased myrosinase activity and did not affect ESP activity in broccoli sprouts, which was supported by expression of MYR and ESP. Sulforaphane formation in 7‐day‐old sprouts treated with 100 μM of JA was 3.36 and 1.30 times of that in the control and 300 μM of JA treatment, respectively. Conclusion JA enhanced the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolate in broccoli sprouts via up‐regulating of related genes expression. Broccoli sprouts treated with 100 μM of JA contained higher sulforphane formation than that treated with 300 μM of JA due to the higher glucoraphanin content and myrosinase activity under 100 μM of JA treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T00:20:41.514436-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7629
  • Crosslinking of peanut allergen Ara h 2 by polyphenol oxidase:
           digestibility and potential allergenicity assessment
    • Authors: Zhihua Wu; Jun Lian, Yuanlong Han, Ningling Zhou, Xin Li, Anshu Yang, Ping Tong, Hongbing Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Peanut is one of the eight major food allergens. Its allergen, Ara h 2, can be recognized by over 90% of serum IgE samples from peanut‐allergic patients. Therefore, reducing the allergenicity of Ara h 2 is especially important. RESULTS In the present study, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a protein cross‐linking reaction catalyst that acts on tyrosine residue, was used to modify Ara h 2. After crosslinking, the microstructure, digestibility, IgG binding capability and IgE binding capability of Ara h 2 were analyzed. Cross‐linking decreased the potential allergenicity of Ara h 2 by masking the allergen epitope, while the antigenicity of Ara h 2 changed slightly. After crosslinking, the apparent diameter of Ara h 2 was altered from 300 to 1700 nm or 220 nm, indicating that polymerization could either be inter‐ or intramolecular. Regarding digestibility, crosslinked Ara h 2 was relatively more easily digested by gastric fluid compared with the untreated Ara h 2, but much more difficult in the intestinal fluid. CONCLUSION The crosslinking reaction catalyzed by PPO, as a non‐thermal process, may be beneficial for avoiding food allergy. The reaction could mask allergen epitopes, decreasing the allergenicity of Ara h 2. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T07:41:07.789345-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7542
  • Application of microwave for microbial load reduction in black pepper
           (Piper nigrum L.)
    • Authors: GC Jeevitha; HB Sowbhagya, H Umesh Hebbar
      Abstract: Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is exposed to microbial contamination which could potentially create public health risk and also rejection of consignments in export market due to non‐confinement to microbial safety standards. The present study is on the application of microwave (MW) radiation for microbial load reduction in black pepper and analyzing the effect on quality. Results Black pepper was exposed to MW at two different power levels (663 and 800 W) at an intensity of 40 W/g for different time intervals (1–15 min) and moisture content (110 and 260 g/kg in wet basis). The exposure of black pepper to MW at 663 W for 12.5 min was found to be sufficient to reduce the microbial load to the permissible level suggested by International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and European Spice Association. The retention of volatile oil, piperine and resin was 91.3±0.03, 87.6±0.02 and 90.7±0.05%, respectively, in MW treated black pepper. The final moisture content after MW treatment was found to be 100±1 g/kg for black pepper containing initial moisture of 260±3 g/kg. Conclusion These results suggest that MW heating can be effectively used for microbial load reduction of black pepper without significant loss in product quality.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T01:34:52.753984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7630
  • Determination of polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity and
           antibacterial properties of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz)
           a Chilean blackberry
    • Abstract: Background The aim of the present study was to determine (i) the polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins), (ii) the antioxidant using four different methodologies (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC) and (iii) the antibacterial properties of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz) (MB) grown in Chile. Results The HPLC analysis of MB showed a total of nineteen polyphenolic compounds identified as anthocyanins (eight compounds), flavonols (ten compounds) and ellagic acid. Delphinidin derivatives were the predominant anthocyanins while quercetin derivatives were the predominant flavonols. MB showed an antioxidant activity measured with DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC methods of 28.18, 18.66, 25.22 g Trolox equivalent kg−1 and 0.12 g Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent kg−1, respectively. With regard to the antibacterial activity, all strains tested were affected by MB. A. hydrophila and L. innocua showed the highest sensitivity to maqui berry extracts with MIC values of 40 and a 50 mg/mL respectively. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that maqui berry has a great potential to be employed, in the food industry, as potential food ingredient to functional food development or as bio‐preservative.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T01:33:46.518684-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7628
  • Nutritional Composition of Stevia rebaudiana‐ A sweet herb and its
           Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effect on Patients with Non Insulin
           Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
    • Authors: Mathur Ritu; Johri Nandini
      Abstract: Background The prevalence of Diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. India shelters the highest number of Diabetics and is thus known as the “Diabetes Capital of the World”. The chemical management of Diabetes has side effects and hence the present study was undertaken to assess the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effect of Stevia rebaudiana on patients with Type – 2 Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). Its nutritional composition and use as a sweetener substitute were also assessed. Results Chemical analysis of dried Stevia leaf powder revealed it to be a nutritious herb with a good iron and fibre content. Intervention trials in Diabetics revealed that it significantly lowered Fasting and Post Prandial Blood Glucose levels. The serum Triglycerides and VLDL‐C levels were also significantly reduced Conclusion Hence it can be said that Stevia can safely be used as an antidiabetic herb, as a sweetener substitute and may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with long standing Diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T01:33:25.522419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7627
  • Determination of free cholesterol oxide products in food samples by gas
           chromatography and accelerated solvent extraction. Influence of
           electron‐beam irradiation on cholesterol oxide formation
    • Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to develop an efficient method for Cholesterol Oxide Product (COP) determination in irradiated and non‐irradiated Ready‐to‐Eat foods (RTE) with high water content by Gas Chromatography‐Flame Ionization Detector (GC‐FID) after Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), and derivatization with a silylating reagent. Results The ASE solvent was an 85:15 v:v petroleum ether/chloroform mixture at 40 °C and 1500 psi followed by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). The ASE method was compared with the established lixiviation method, proving an advantageous alternative which reduces analysis time by a factor of 15 and solvent volume by 50%, and minimizes the use of chlorinated solvents. COP derivative structures were identified by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC‐MS). Analytical characteristics were determined from standards and recoveries were 63‐95%, establishing the validity of the method. Conclusion The results obtained and their analysis by chemometric techniques established COP formation in food samples after e‐beam irradiation. Increase in COP concentration depended on both irradiation doses and food composition, mainly water and fat content, although linear correlations among variables were not found.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T06:51:45.727678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7625
  • Al3+‐promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia
           sinensis) was inhibited by an anion channel inhibitor DIDS
    • Abstract: Background Generally, tea plants are grown in acid soil which is in rich of aluminum (Al) and fluoride (F). Recent publication showed that the pretreatment of Al3+ promoted F accumulation in tea plants via increasing endogenous Ca2+ and CaM. High level of F in tea leaves not only impairs the tea quality, but also might raise a healthy issue for people drinking tea regularly. Therefore, it is of importance to try to find out some clues which might be beneficial in controlling F accumulation in tea plants grown in acid soil (Al3+). Results We found that DIDS significantly reduced Al3+‐promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Additionally, Al3+ plus DIDS treatment stimulated significantly higher Ca2+ efflux and decreased CaM level in tea root compared with the Al3+ treatment. Besides, significant higher depolarization of membrane potential was showed in tea root treated with Al3+ plus DIDS than Al3+, as well as the net total of H+ efflux and plasma membrane H+‐ATPase activity. Conclusion Al3+‐promoted F accumulation in tea plants was inhibited by an anion channel inhibitor DIDS. Ca2+‐CaM and membrane potential depolarization may be the components involved in this process.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T06:51:22.497177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7626
  • Anti‐inflammatory and anti‐oxidant activity of polyphenolic
           extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de Verano) under different
           farming methods
    • Authors: Simona Adesso; Giacomo Pepe, Eduardo Sommella, Michele Manfra, Antonio Scopa, Adriano Sofo, Gian Carlo Tenore, Mariateresa Russo, Francesca Di Gaudio, Giuseppina Autore, Pietro Campiglia, Stefania Marzocco
      Abstract: Background Besides their nutritional value, vegetables are a source of healthy‐promoting compounds, such as polyphenols, and their content can be influenced by the particular farming method. In this study polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de verano) plants cultivated with different farming methods were chemically characterized and tested in vitro and ex vivo inflammation models. Results The tested extacts (250–2.5 µg/mL) were able to reduce both the inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS‐stimulated J774A.1 murine monocyte macrophage cells, by lowering the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoting nuclear traslocation of Nuclear factor (erythroid‐derived 2)‐like 2; (Nrf2) and nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB). In this regard, quantitative profiles revealed different amounts of polyphenols, in particular quercetin levels were higher in plants under mineral fertilized treatment. Those extract showed an enhanced anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Our data showed the anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Maravilla de Verano polyphenolic extracts. The effect of farming methods on polyphenolic levels was highlighted. The higher reduction of inflammatory mediators release in extracts from plants cultivated under mineral fertilization treatment was correlated to the higher amount of quercetin. These results can be useful for both nutraceutical or agronomic purposes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T06:42:07.366712-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7622
  • Long‐term toxicity study on genetically modified corn with cry1Ac
           gene in a Wuzhishan miniature pig model
    • Authors: Liang Chen; Zhe Sun, Quanwei Liu, Ruqing Zhong, Shuyi Tan, Xiaoguang Yang, Hongfu Zhang
      Abstract: Background The objective of the present study was to investigate the chronic effect of transgenic maize lines by the insertion of the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on the growth performance, immune response and health using a Wuzhishan miniature pig model through a 196‐day feeding study. Results Based on the gender and weight, 72 Wuzhishan miniature pigs were randomly assigned one of the diets containing 65% non‐transgenic isogenic corn or Bt corn at three stages of growth (day 0~69, 70~134 and 135~196). The potential toxicological effects of transgenic corn on pigs were explored. No difference between the diet treatments for growth performance and haematology parameters at any stages of growth. Although subtle differences in serum content of alanine aminotransferase, relative kidney weight and some immune response were observed between Bt group and isogenic group, they were not considered as diet treatment‐related. Conclusion Long‐term feeding Bt corn carrying cry1Ac genes to Wuzhishan miniature pigs did not indicate adverse effects on the growth, immune response and health indicators at any stages of growth.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T06:41:44.774716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7624
  • Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (EQUUS quagga burchellii)
           muscle and subcutaneous fat
    • Abstract: Background The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat, as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Results Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g 100 g−1) and low mean fat content (1.47 g 100 g−1). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α‐linolenic (C18:3n‐3) and linoleic (C18:2n‐6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and the SCF had favourable PUFA/SFA ratios (>0.4) and omega‐6/omega‐3 ratios (
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T06:41:23.484512-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7623
  • Biodegradable poly‐3‐hydroxybutyrate as a fertilizer carrier
    • Authors: T.G. Volova; S.V. Prudnikova, A.N. Boyandin
      Abstract: Background Rising levels of mineral fertilizer use can lead to accumulation of fertilizers in soil, water and foodstuffs. One of the approaches to preventing these problems is to develop controlled release forms of fertilizers. Results Experimental formulations of the nitrogen fertilizer urea loaded in degradable matrix of the natural polymer poly‐3‐hydroxybutyrate in the form of films, pellets and coated granules were constructed and investigated. Nitrogen release into soil occurred as the polymer was degraded, and it was dependent on the geometry of the carrier and the amount of nitrogen loaded in it, showing that nitrogen release can last for 30 days or longer and that release rates can be controlled by varying the fabrication technique employed. P3HB/urea formulations have a favorable effect on the soil microbial community. The use of embedded urea has a beneficial influence on the growth of the creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and lettuce (Latuca sativa) and reduces removal of nitrogen with drain water. Conclusion The slow‐release nitrogen formulations developed in this study can be buried in soil together with seeds preventing nitrogen deficiency. The use of such slow‐release formulations can decrease the amounts of chemicals in the environment and prevent their adverse effects on the biosphere.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14T04:28:50.530462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7621
  • Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of gelatin
           hydrolysate from unicorn leatherjacket skin
    • Authors: Supatra Karnjanapratum; Yvonne C O'Callaghan, Soottawat Benjakul, Nora O'Brien
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The in vitro cellular bioactivities including, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of a gelatin hydrolysate (GH) prepared from unicorn leatherjacket skin, using partially purified glycyl endopeptidase, were investigated in order to optimize the use of fish skin waste products as functional food ingredients. RESULTS GH under the tested concentrations (750–1500 µg mL−1) protected against H2O2‐induced DNA damage in U937 cells. GH also protected against the H2O2‐induced reduction in cellular antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase and catalase, in HepG2 cells. GH demonstrated immunomodulatory potential by reducing pro‐inflammatory cytokine (interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) and IL‐1β) production and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide‐stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Cell proliferation in human colon cancer (Caco‐2) cells was significantly reduced in a dose‐dependent manner following incubation with GH. CONCLUSION These results indicate that GH has several bioactivities which support its potential as a promising functional food ingredient with various health benefits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-14T04:20:47.463755-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7504
  • Effect of carrageenan addition on the rennet‐induced gelation of
           skim milk
    • Authors: Fang Wang; Wei Zhang, Fazheng Ren
      Abstract: Background Carrageenan (CG) (κ‐CG, ι‐CG, and λ‐CG) was added to skim milk and the rennet‐induced aggregation was studied. The caseinomacropeptide release, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and rheology were used to follow the structural dynamics of casein micelles during gelation. The influence of carrageenan on the nature of protein interactions in the gels was investigated using the combination of ultracentrifugation and specific dissociating agents. Results For the recombined samples containing κ‐CG and low concentrations of ι‐CG and λ‐CG, the CMP release was slowed down, however, the development of DWS and rheology parameters was similar to the control sample, and the increase in the incorporation of proteins through Ca bridges and hydrophobic interactions may be the most likely contributors. For the recombined samples containing high concentrations of ι‐CG and λ‐CG, other factors may impede the gel formation process. Conclusion High concentration of ι‐CG and λ‐CG strongly interfered with the rennet‐induced aggregation, interrupted the interaction of caseins, and therefore may contribute to good quality of low‐fat cheese.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14T02:59:50.931676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7620
  • Forage yields and feeding value of small grain winter cereals for lambs
    • Authors: G. Keles; S. Ates, B. Coskun, M. S. Alatas, S. Isik
      Abstract: Background An understanding of the dynamics that affect the nutrient content of forages with advancing growth stages is critical for designing equally dynamic feeding programs. This study compared the agronomic characteristic and feeding values of forages from barley, rye, wheat, oats and triticale weekly from tillering (Z 24–25) to dough stages of maturity (Z 83–87). Result Digestible dry matter yield of cereal species increased rapidly (P 0.05) until the dough stage when it increased to 10.4 t ha−1. The nutritive quality of cereal species decreased with advancing growth stages, and this was more pronounced in barley and rye with rapid reductions in their energy and digestibility values. Changes in the nutritive value of cereal forages indicated a strong relationship (P
      PubDate: 2016-01-14T02:59:27.665138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7619
  • Simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginger
           after inoculation with fungi by ultra‐fast liquid
           chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Ying Yang; Jing Wen, Weijun Kong, Qiutao Liu, Hongli Luo, Jian Wang, Meihua Yang
      Abstract: Background Aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were detected frequently in food, agricultural products and traditional Chinese medicines, which pose serious health and economic problems worldwide. Ginger is easy to be polluted with mycotoxins. In this study, ginger samples was cultivated 15 days after inoculation with fungi and were prepared based on ultrasound‐assisted solid–liquid extraction using methanol–water followed by immunoaffinity column cleanup and analyzed by ultra‐fast liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC‐MS/MS) for AFs and OTA. Results The limits of detection and quantification of AFs and OTA were 0.04‐0.30 µg mL−1 and 0.125‐1.0 µg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries were 82.0‐100.2%. After 15 days’ cultivation, no macroscopic mildew was found in ginger. But, the content of AFB1 expressed an increasing trend in ginger, peel (
      PubDate: 2016-01-14T02:53:18.223952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7618
  • A new allele of γ‐kafirin gene coding for a protein with high
           lysine content in Mexican white sorghum germplasm
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Low protein digestibility and lysine content of white sorghum grain limit its use as a foodstuff. The increase in γ‐kafirin cross‐linking, has an important role in the reduction of protein digestibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the γ‐kafirin gene in 12 Mexican tannin‐free white sorghum genotypes and its relationship with protein digestibility and lysine content. RESULTS Two alleles of γ‐kafirin gene were identified: alleles 1 and 7. The predicted amino acid sequence of allele 7 showed seven point mutations; six were silent, and one missense (C235G), causing the substitution P79A in the deduced amino acid sequence. In silico analysis showed that γ‐kafirin codified by allele 1 has five α‐helixes without disulfide bonds, while γ‐kafirin coding by allele 7 has four α‐helixes and three disulfide bonds. Genotypes with allele 7 had higher lysine content than those with allele 1, showing no differences in the kafirin electrophoretic profile, neither a correlation with the protein content nor the in vitro pepsin digestibility. CONCLUSIONS Mexican tannin‐free white sorghum genotypes showed two γ‐kafirin alleles, 1 and 7. Allele 7 was associated with higher lysine content; in silico analysis showed that the substitution of P79A in this allele could modify γ‐kafirin secondary structure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T05:14:55.906256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7513
  • Microbes based technology ameliorates glandular trichomes, secondary
           metabolites and antioxidant in Pelargonium graveolens L'Her
    • Authors: Rupali Gupta; Akanksha Singh, Rakesh Pandey
      Abstract: Background Despite the vast exploration of microbes for plant health, knowledge about synergism of specific microorganisms based technology in sustainable agriculture, especially in medicinal plants viz. Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. is not yet explored. In this work we evaluated how synergistic microbe's viz., Trichoderma harzianum Thu, Glomus intraradices and Bacillus subtilis CIM affected crop productivity, secondary metabolites and glandular trichome number in P. graveolens. Results The results demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) increase in growth, secondary metabolites, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrates, phenolic, flavonoid, free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity in P. graveolens treated with synergistic bioinoculants as compared to control. Most interestingly, an increase in essential oil by 32% in the treatment having all the three microbes was observed. Furthermore, the principal aroma compounds viz., citronellol and geraniol were also increased in the same treatment. A positive and direct correlation was observed in essential oil content and number of glandular trichomes in all the treatments. Conclusion The present study thus highlights an explicit amalgamation of prospective microbes showcasing potentials of synergism that act as biostimulants in enhancing plant production along with improved antioxidant and aroma profile of P. graveolens.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T02:12:41.342075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7617
  • Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty three olive cultivars from
           the World Olive Germplasm Bank Collection
    • Abstract: Background In the olive oil, the sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for the health benefits and the importance to VOO quality regulation. Results Forty three olive cultivars (Olea europaea, L.) from The Olive Germplasm Bank Collection IFAPA Centre “Alameda de Obispo” of Cordoba were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β‐sitosterol, Δ‐5 Avenasterol, Campesterol and Stigmasterol, showing high variability for most of them. Most of the cultivars showed total sterol content into the limits established by EU Regulations although 28 % of virgin olive oils analyses were out of the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. For the group of the cultivars total sterol content ranged from 855 mg/kg to 2185 mg/kg. Conclusion The high variability observed was due to the genetic component since the other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal virgin olive oils. The results can be useful for nutritionists for virgin olive oil inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in the olive breeding project to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T02:12:21.724786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7616
  • Exposure assessment of dogs to mycotoxins through consumption of dry feed
    • Authors: Bissoqui L Y; Frehse M S, Freire R L, Ono M A, Bordini J G, Hirozawa M T, Oliveira A J, Ono E Y S
      Abstract: Background The Brazilian exportation of pet food has shown high growth rates in the last two years and determination of the exposure degree is one of the most important parameters for the risk assessment of chemical compounds. Therefore, the exposure degree of dogs to mycotoxins was estimated and acceptable daily intake (ADI) and safe pet dietary level (SPDL) were calculated. Thus, the natural occurrence of fumonisins, zearalenone and aflatoxins was evaluated in 100 dry dog feed samples provided by pet owners in Paraná State, Brazil. Results Despite the high frequency of fumonisins (68%), zearalenone (95%) and aflatoxins (68%) in feed samples, the mean levels detected were low. ADI for fumonisins and zearalenone was 20.0 and 1.00 µg kg ˗1 body weight (b.w.) day˗1, respectively and SPDL for fumonisins was 2000 µg kg ˗1 feed. The probable daily intake values (1.83 µg fumonisins, 0.93 µg zearalenone, and 0.02 µg aflatoxins kg˗1˗1) were low. Conclusion The exposure degree of dogs could be assumed to be very low. However, the co‐occurrence of these three or other mycotoxins, and possible synergic or additive effects, should be taken into account when determining the maximum allowed levels or risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T02:44:52.025463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7615
  • Estimation of cotyledon isoflavone abundance by a gray
           luminance‐based model in variously hilum‐colored soybean
    • Authors: Giuseppe Barion; Giuliano Mosca, Teofilo Vamerali
      Abstract: Background The nutraceutical uses of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) have received increasing attention in recent years, due to the therapeutic effects of high seed isoflavone concentrations against heart disease, cancer and menopausal symptoms. Results We found a close correlation between seed isoflavone abundance and hilum color in a set of 17 contrasting soybean varieties. Image analysis of the hilum gray level pattern allowed us to identify a power model which approximates total cotyledon isoflavone concentrations (TCIC) at 65‐71% by the normalized modal gray level. Higher TCIC levels were assigned to darker hilum varieties and vice versa within a variety‐dependent response. Optimization of the algorithm required correction for a few specific varieties falling in the intermediate 1.1‐1.5 mg g−1 TCIC range, which were overestimated by the model, perhaps due to variations in hilar optical properties related to the geometric features of both hilum and seed. Conclusion In view of its easy, low‐cost detection, seed hilum color is a useful phenotypic trait in soybean for rapid evaluation of isoflavone abundance in food uses and for improving specific nutraceutical breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T02:38:55.105725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7613
  • Effect of Solar Radiation on the Functional Components of Mulberry (Morus
           alba L.) Leaves
    • Authors: Mari Sugiyama; Takuya Katsube, Akio Koyama, Hiroyuki Itamura
      Abstract: Background The functional components of mulberry leaves have attracted the attention of the health food industry, and increasing their concentrations is an industry goal. We investigated the effects of solar radiation, which may influence the production of flavonol and 1‐deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) functional components in mulberry leaves, by comparing a greenhouse (poor solar radiation) and outdoor (rich solar radiation) setting. Results The level of flavonol in leaves cultivated in the greenhouse was markedly decreased when compared with those cultivated outdoors. In contrast, the DNJ content in greenhouse cultivated plants was increased only slightly when compared with those cultivated outdoors. Interestingly, the flavonol content was markedly increased in the upper leaves of mulberry trees that were transferred from a greenhouse to the outdoors compared with those cultivated only in the outdoors. Conclusion Solar radiation conditions influence the synthesis of flavonol and DNJ, the functional component in mulberry leaves. Under high solar radiation, the flavonol level becomes very high but the DNJ level becomes slightly lower, suggesting that the impact of solar radiation is great on flavonol but is small on the DNJ synthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T02:37:53.21163-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7614
  • Rapid Detection of Proteins in Transgenic Crops without Protein Reference
           Standards by Targeted Proteomic Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Lindsey J. Schacherer; Weiping Xie, Michaela A. Owens, Clara Alarcon, Tiger X. Hu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is increasingly used for protein detection for transgenic crops research. Currently this is achieved with protein reference standards which may take a significant time or efforts to obtain and there is a need for rapid protein detection without protein reference standards. RESULTS a sensitive and specific method was developed to detect target proteins in transgenic maize leaf crude extract at concentrations as low as ~30 ng mg−1 dry leaf without the need of reference standards or any sample enrichment. A hybrid Q‐TRAP mass spectrometer was used to monitor all potential tryptic peptides of the target proteins in both transgenic and non‐transgenic samples. The multiple reaction monitoring‐initiated detection and sequencing (MIDAS) approach was used for initial peptide/protein identification via Mascot database search. Further confirmation was achieved by direct comparison between transgenic and non‐transgenic samples. Definitive confirmation was provided by running the same experiments of synthetic peptides or protein standards, if available. CONCLUSION a targeted proteomic mass spectrometry method using MIDAS approach is an ideal methodology for detection of new proteins in early stages of transgenic crop research and development when neither protein reference standards nor antibodies are available.
      PubDate: 2016-01-11T02:26:37.821249-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7612
  • Influence of yeast strain, priming solution and temperature on beer bottle
    • Authors: Ombretta Marconi; Serena Rossi, Fernanda Galgano, Valeria Sileoni, Giuseppe Perretti
      Abstract: Background Recently, microbreweries have shown a significant increase. Usually, craft beers are bottle conditioned, however few studies have investigated beer refermentation. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the impacts of different experimental conditions, specifically yeast strain, priming solution and temperature, on the standard quality attributes, the volatile compounds and the sensory profile of the bottle‐conditioned beer. The other aim was to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds and amino acids consumption throughout the refermentation process to check if it is possible to reduce the time necessary for bottle conditioning. Results The results indicate that the volatile profile was mainly influenced by the strain of yeast, and this may have obscured the possible impacts of the other parameters. Our results also confirm that the two yeast strains showed different metabolic activity, particularly with respect to esters production. Moreover, we found the Safbrew S‐33® strain when primed with Siromix® and refermented at 30 °C yielded the fastest formation of higher alcohols while maintaining low production of off‐flavors. Conclusions These results suggest a formulation that may reduce the time needed for bottle conditioning without affecting the quality of the final beer which may simultaneously improve efficiency and economic profits.
      PubDate: 2016-01-09T00:33:43.098612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7611
  • The effect of clove bud powder at a spice level on antioxidant and quality
           properties of emulsified pork sausage during the cold storage
    • Abstract: Background Clove bud is a widely used spice in meat and meat products, and it contains high level of phenolic compounds. It has not been fully studied the effectiveness of the clove as a spice at a general level of addition in the meat products. Therefore, in the present study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and nitrite scavenging abilities of clove bud powder (CBP) was assessed at spice level (0.1% and 0.2%) in emulsified pork sausage, during 6 weeks of the cold storage. Results CBP had DPPH radical scavenging ability, but CBP addition at 0.1% and 0.2% did not decrease TBARS value. Antimicrobial effect of CBP was also not observed during the cold storage. However, residual nitrite at the storage weeks of 4 and 6 was shown to be lower (p0.05). Conclusions The positive effect on nitrite scavenging could be expected by the addition of 0.2% CBP as a spice. However, antioxidant and antimicrobial abilities were not observed, as well as improvement in the quality of characteristics, in emulsified pork sausage.
      PubDate: 2016-01-09T00:33:22.536323-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7609
  • Physicochemical and physiological changes during fruit development and
           on‐tree ripening of two Spanish jujube cultivars (Ziziphus jujuba
    • Abstract: Background Few studies have been performed on changes in organoleptic, nutritive, functional, and physiological properties during jujube fruit development and on‐tree ripening. In this work, a comparative study on the evolution of physical, chemical, nutritive, and physiological parameters and bioactive compounds of two Spanish jujube cultivars was performed. Results Both cultivars showed a non‐climacteric ripening pattern, although the JM cultivar was smaller, sweeter, softer, and more highly coloured than the JG, which was characterised by having larger and firmer fruits, although less sweet and coloured. Both cultivars showed high TAA, which was highly correlated with the concentration of total phenols, giving them great functional properties. Conclusion This fruit has little economic importance in Spain and it is just marginally grown for self‐consumption or for ornamental purposes. Given the excellent properties of these fruits, it could be considered a fruit species of great interest, and commercial growth of these cultivars with high yields and fruits with high functional properties should be promoted.
      PubDate: 2016-01-09T00:32:58.687574-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7610
  • Obtainment and partial characterization of biodegradable gelatin films
           with tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Research studies concerning the overall effect of the addition of plasticizers, cross‐linking and strengthening agents in gelatin film‐forming mixtures are very scarce. Also, there are no studies focused on the interactions among their individual components, or showing what sort of effects they might cause all together. A gelatin film obtained from a composite consisting of tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol was evaluated. Nine gelatin films were manufactured by the casting method, using these materials, following a 23 factorial design with five replicates on the central point. RESULTS The interactions among gelatin, tannic acid and bentonite caused a decrease in hydrogen bonds, while the polar groups of the gelatin chains were less exposed to interactions with water molecules. There was an increase in temperature and enthalpy of gelatin denaturation, due to increasing tannic acid and bentonite concentration. Tactoids were found in the gelatin films, caused mainly by bentonite polydispersion. CONCLUSIONS A synergistic effect among tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol, which overall improved the measured gelatin film properties, was found. The best film formulation was that with 40, 150 and 250 g kg−1 gelatin of tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol respectively, displaying a tensile strength of 38 MPa, an elongation at break of 136%, water vapor permeability of 1.28 × 10−12 g (Pa s m)−1 and solubility of 23.4%. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T06:12:04.998988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7524
  • In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the prebiotic effect of raw and roasted
           almonds (Prunus amygdalus)
    • Authors: Zhibin Liu; Wei Wang, Guangwei Huang, Wen Zhang, Li Ni
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Almonds contain considerable amounts of potential prebiotic components, roasting process may alter these components. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fermentation properties and in vivo prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds. RESULTS In vitro, predigested raw and roasted almonds promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La‐14) and Bifidobacterium breve (JCM 1192), and no significant differences were found between these two nuts. In a 4‐week animal trial, daily intake of raw or roasted almonds promoted the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. and inhibited the growth of Enterococcus spp. in feces and cecal contains of rats. Compared with roasted almonds, raw almonds had a greater bifidobacteria promotion effect. Besides, significant higher β‐galactosidase activity and lower β‐glucuronidase and azoreductase activities in feces or cecal contains of rats were observed with raw almonds than with roasted almonds. While, in terms of metabolic effects, the ingestion of roasted almonds resulted in significantly greater intestinal lipase activities. CONCLUSION Both raw and roasted almonds exhibit potential prebiotic effects, including regulation of intestinal bacteria and improved metabolic activities. The roasting process may slightly reduce the prebiotic effects of almonds but significantly improve the metabolic effects.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T04:40:57.455022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7604
  • Soil compost amendment enhances tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) quality
    • Authors: Daniela Baldantoni; Alessandro Bellino, Anna Alfani
      Abstract: Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables in the world and represents a key crop in southern Italy. With the aim to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of tomato fruits in relation to NPK and compost fertilization, the concentrations of the main nutrients, toxic elements, primary metabolites and total phenols were determined in two varieties (Lido and San Marzano). Each variety was cultivated in a different experimental field, subjected to different agronomic techniques. Results Toxic element concentrations (Cd and Pb) were below the limits deduced by the EU Regulation (2011) in all the fruits analysed. Moreover, fruits obtained from San Marzano plants grown on organic amended soils showed a better overall quality than those obtained on mineral fertilized soil, being characterised by lower N (attributed to lower nitrate and nitrite concentrations), lower Cd, and higher soluble sugar concentrations. Higher concentrations of soluble sugars in fruits from organic amended soils were also observed in the Lido variety. Conclusions The agricultural use of quality compost represents an effective strategy to obtain high quality products in an economically and environmentally sustainable way.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T04:08:35.708613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7608
  • Women's and children's acceptance of biofortified quality protein maize
           for complementary feeding in rural Ethiopia
    • Authors: Nilupa S Gunaratna; Tafese Bosha, Demissie Belayneh, Tigist Fekadu, Hugo De Groote
      Abstract: BACKGROUND For impact of nutritionally improved biofortified crops, consumer acceptance specifically by women and children is necessary when the target beneficiaries are young children. The objective was to assess women's and children's acceptance of a biofortified crop, quality protein maize (QPM), for complementary feeding in rural Ethiopia. RESULTS Randomly sampled mothers (n = 61) of young children (6–24 months) evaluated flours from a QPM and a conventional maize variety for five sensory characteristics and overall acceptance by mother and child in a home use test with a double‐blind, randomized controlled cross‐over design. Women distinguished the varieties when used to prepare porridge, and QPM scored more favorably for texture in hand and mouth (both P < 0.05). The varieties did not differ in overall acceptance, which was, however, affected by order of presentation, mothers' number of children, and enumerators who collected data (all P < 0.05). Aroma and taste were key in mothers' acceptance, and appearance was further important for children. Women were more than twice as likely to prefer QPM over conventional maize. CONCLUSION Consumer acceptance is unlikely to impede uptake and impact of QPM on young children's nutritional status. Home use testing proved feasible for assessing acceptance in rural areas with food insecurity and limited education. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T04:04:44.240761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7526
  • Dietary burden calculations relating to fish metabolism studies
    • Authors: Christian Schlechtriem; Johannes Pucher, Britta Michalski
      Abstract: Fish farming is increasingly dependent on plant commodities as a source of feed leading to an increased risk for pesticide residues in aquaculture diets and consequently their transfer into aquaculture food products. The European pesticide regulation requires fish metabolism and fish feeding studies where residues in fish feed exceed 0.1 mg/kg of the total diet (dry weight basis) to enable the setting of appropriate maximum residue levels (MRLs) in fish commodities. Fish dietary burden calculation is therefore an important prerequisite to decide on further experimental testing as part of the consumer risk assessment. In this review, the different aquaculture production systems are compared with regard to their specific feeding practices and the principles of dietary burden calculation are described.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T04:02:06.107597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7607
  • Influence of ultrasonic nozzle in spray‐drying and storage on the
           properties of blueberry powder and microcapsule
    • Abstract: Background Recently, ultrasonic nozzle technology has been applied in spray‐drying because of its numerous advantages including providing more uniform droplets and reducing damage observed in bioactive compounds. In this study, the production of blueberry powders and microcapsules with using ultrasonic spray nozzle was investigated. Firstly, the important ultrasonic nozzle parameters were optimized by using response surface methodology and compared with conventional nozzle (control). Secondly, powder and microcapsule obtained at the optimum point were stored at 22 and 35°C at 0.32 aw. Results The optimum conditions were estimated as 125°C inlet air temperature, 9 W ultrasonic power and 8% feed pump rate. There was significantly difference (p
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T03:56:13.971708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7605
  • Aggregation of egg white proteins with pulsed electric fields and thermal
    • Authors: Li Wu; Wei Zhao, Ruijin Yang, Wenxu Yan, Qianyan Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is progressing towards application for liquid egg to ensure microbial safety. However, it usually causes protein aggregation, and the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, egg white protein was applied to investigate the changes in protein structure and mechanism of aggregates formation and a comparison was made with thermal treatment. RESULTS Soluble protein content decreased with the increase of turbidity after both treatments. Fluorescence intensity and free sulfhydryl content were increased after being treated at 70 °C for 4 min. Less‐remarkable changes of hydrophobicity were observed after PEF treatments (30 kV cm−1, 800 µs). Soluble and insoluble aggregates were observed by thermal treatment, and disulfide bonds were the main binding forces. The main components of insoluble aggregates formed by thermal treatment were ovotransferrin (30.58%), lysozyme (18.47%) and ovalbumin (14.20%). While only insoluble aggregates were detected during PEF processes, which consists of ovotransferrin (11.86%), lysozyme (21.11%) and ovalbumin (31.07%). Electrostatic interaction played a very important role in the aggregates formation. CONCLUSION PEF had a minor impact on the structure of egg white protein. PEF had insignificant influence on heat‐sensitive protein, indicating that PEF has potential in processing food with high biological activity and heat sensitive properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T11:47:21.153184-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7512
  • Effects of recombinant lipoxygenase on the rheological properties of dough
           and the quality of noodles
    • Authors: Chong Zhang; Shuang Zhang, Xiaomei Bie, Haizhen Zhao, Fengxia Lu, Zhaoxin Lu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of purified recombinant lipoxygenase (ana‐rLOX) on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of noodles made from wheat flour with low protein content (Yanmai 15) were studied. RESULTS The addition of ana‐rLOX increased dough stability time, decreased the degree of softening within 12 min, enhanced the resistance to extension, and increased the extensibility with 135 min of resting time. The mechanical spectra of the dough showed an increase in both storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) with increasing ana‐rLOX levels. The L* values of the noodle sheets increased by 2.34 compared with the control after storing for 1 h at room temperature. The textural parameters of noodles improved after ana‐rLOX addition, including hardness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness. The wheat flour treated with the ana‐rLOX had a higher cooking yield and lower cooking loss for the resulting noodles. The scanning electron microscopy results revealed that gluten was formed in the noodle samples that were treated with ana‐rLOX. CONCLUSION In this study, ana‐rLOX was applied to noodles during the noodle‐making process, and both dough rheological characteristics and noodle quality were improved. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-04T11:22:16.147027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7508
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antihypertensive
           activities of protein hydrolysate from meat of Kacang
           goat (Capra aegagrus hircus)
    • Authors: Irdha Mirdhayati; Joko Hermanianto, Christofora H Wijaya, Dondin Sajuthi, Keizo Arihara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The meat of Kacang goat has potential for production of a protein hydrolysate. Functional ingredients from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat were determined by the consistency of angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect. This study examined the potency of Kacang goat protein hydrolysate in ACE inhibition and antihypertensive activity. RESULT Protein hydrolysates of Kacang goat meat were prepared using sequential digestion of endo‐proteinase and protease complex at several concentrations and hydrolysis times. The highest ACE inhibitory activity resulted from a hydrolysate that was digested for 4 h with 5 g kg−1 of both enzymes. An ACE inhibitory peptide was purified and a novel peptide found with a sequence of Phe‐Gln‐Pro‐Ser (IC50 value of 27.0 µmol L−1). Both protein hydrolysates and a synthesised peptide (Phe‐Gln‐Pro‐Ser) demonstrated potent antihypertensive activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats. CONCLUSION Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat produced by sequential digestion with endo‐proteinase and protease complex has great potential as a functional ingredient, particularly as an antihypertensive agent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-04T11:20:43.520669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7538
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 1053 - 1053
      PubDate: 2016-02-02T11:15:48.497375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7631
  • Issue Information ‐ Info Page
    • Pages: 1054 - 1054
      PubDate: 2016-02-02T11:15:47.17059-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7632
  • Issue Information ‐ Table of Contents
    • Pages: 1055 - 1058
      PubDate: 2016-02-02T11:15:47.274056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7633
  • Human digestion – a processing perspective
    • Authors: Mike Boland
      Abstract: The human digestive system is reviewed in the context of a process with four major unit operations: oral processing to reduce particle size and produce a bolus; gastric processing to initiate chemical and enzymatic breakdown; small intestinal processing to break down macromolecules and absorb nutrients; and fermentation and water removal in the colon. Topics are highlighted about which we need to know more, including effects of aging and dentition on particle size in the bolus, effects of different patterns of food and beverage intake on nutrition, changes in saliva production and composition, mechanical effects of gastric processing, distribution of pH in the stomach, physicochemical and enzymatic effects on nutrient availability and uptake in the small intestine, and the composition, effects of and changes in the microbiota of the colon. Current topics of interest, including food synergy, gut‐brain interactions, nutritional phenotype and digestion in the elderly are considered. Finally, opportunities for food design based on an understanding of digestive processing are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28T23:52:56.645859-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7601
  • The Potential of Food‐Protein Derived Anti‐Inflammatory
           Peptides Against Various Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
    • Authors: Kaustav Majumder; Yoshinori Mine, Jianping Wu
      Abstract: Inflammation is considered as one of the major causes for the initiation of various chronic diseases such as asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis, and neurological diseases like Parkinson's disease. Increasing scientific evidence has delineated that inflammatory markers such as TNF‐α, IL‐1, IL‐6, IL‐8, and CRP and different transcription factors such as NF‐κB and STAT are the major key factors that regulate these inflammatory diseases. Food protein‐derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exhibit anti‐inflammatory activity by inhibiting or reducing the expression of these inflammatory biomarkers and/or by modulating the activity of these transcription factors. This review aims to discuss various molecular targets and underlying mechanisms of food protein‐derived anti‐inflammatory peptides and to explore their potential against various chronic inflammatory diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28T23:52:32.776365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7600
  • Role of gallic and p‐coumaric acids in the AHL‐dependent
           expression of flgA gene and in the process of biofilm formation in
           food‐associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM120
    • Abstract: Background In the process of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm formation, N‐acyl‐L‐homoserine lactones (AHL)‐mediated flagella synthesis plays a key role. Inhibition of AHL production may attenuate P. fluorescens biofilm from solid surfaces. This work validated the anti‐biofilm properties of p‐coumaric and gallic acids via the ability of phenolics to suppress AHL synthesis in P. fluorescens KM120. The dependence between synthesis of AHL molecules, expression of flagella gene (flgA) and the ability to biofilm formation by P. fluorescens KM120 on stainless steel surface (type 304L) were also investigated. Results Research was carried out in a deliberately prepared flow cells device. Limitations in AHL synthesis in P. fluorescens KM120 were observed at concentrations of 120 and 240 µmol L−1 of phenolic acids in medium. In such levels of gallic and p‐coumaric acids, the ability of P. fluorescens KM120 to 3‐oxo‐C6‐HSL synthesis was not observed. These concentrations caused decreased expression of flgA gene in P. fluorescens KM120. The changes in expression of AHL‐dependent flgA gene significantly decreased the rate of microorganisms’ colonization on stainless steel surface. Conclusion Phenolic acids are able to inhibit biofilm formation. The results obtained in the work may help to develop alternative techniques for anti‐biofilm treatment in food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28T23:52:00.403324-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7599
  • The chemical, microbial, sensory and technological effects of intermediate
           salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in fresh pork sausages
    • Authors: MacDonald Cluff; Hannes Steyn, George Charimba, Carina Bothma, Celia J. Hugo, Arno Hugo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The reduction of sodium in processed meat products is synonymous with the use of salt replacers. Rarely has there been an assessment of the use of intermediate salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in itself. In this study, 1 and 1.5% salt levels were compared to 0 and 2% controls in fresh pork sausages for effects on chemical, microbial, sensory and technological stability. RESULTS Although significant (P < 0.001 – P < 0.01) differences were found between the 0% and 2%, no significant differences could be detected between the 2%, 1.5% and 1% added NaCl treatments for total bacteria counts on days 3, 6 and 9; TBARS of pork sausages stored at 4 °C on days 6 and 9 and stored at −18 °C on days 90 and 180; taste, texture and overall liking during sensory evaluation; and % cooking loss, % total loss and % refrigeration loss. Consumers were able to differentiate between the 2% and 1% added NaCl treatments in terms of saltiness. CONCLUSIONS This study indicated that salt reduction to intermediate levels can be considered a sodium reduction strategy in itself but that further research with regards to product safety is needed.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28T23:51:37.063804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7602
  • Monitoring of glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined vegetable oils from
           retail outlets by lc–ms
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) are a newly identified class of food process contaminants. The main source of those compounds is refined oils. Because of the potential release of free glycidol, it is necessary to enable a more accurate exposure assessment. A method based on liquid chromatography single quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for the analysis of GEs in refined vegetable oils from retail outlets in Poland. RESULTS The amount of GEs detected in 20 edible oils ranged from 0.00 to 44.33 mg kg−1. Refined palm oils exhibited a several times higher contamination ratio in comparison with other oils (average 31.24 mg kg−1). The average content of esters in sunflower oils (2.46 mg kg−1) was higher than in rapeseed oils (1.04 mg kg−1). C18:2‐GE was found to be the prevailing GE in sunflower oil, with the highest concentration in all of the studied samples and C18:1‐GE was the prevailing GE in rapeseed and palm oils. In the analysed oils, no trace of C18:3‐GE was found. CONCLUSION The concentrations of major GEs were correlated with the fatty acid composition of the oils. The GE content varied with the type of oil and the producer. The tested oils had a higher or similar GE content compared with those analysed by other researchers.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28T23:51:16.682087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7603
  • Effect of natural compounds on Fusarium graminearum complex
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND A search is underway for new solutions to counter farm loss caused by fungal contamination of grains, since the active agents of fungicides can remain in the environment contribute to the development of resistant and toxigenic species. In this study, the antifungal activity of natural compounds (γ‐oryzanol, phenolic extract of neem seeds and of rice bran) was assessed on 3 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from wheat, rice and barley. Their efficacy was compared to that of synthetic fungicides. The halo diameters were measured and the susceptible pathways were determined by the levels of structural compounds and activities of enzymes involved in the primary metabolism of the microorganisms. Moreover, mycotoxin production and gene expression were examined. RESULTS Phenolic extracts were more effective at inhibiting F. graminearum than was γ‐oryzanol, as evidenced by MIC50. This work contributed to the elucidation of the mechanism of action of the natural antifungal agents. CONCLUSION Natural antifungals effectively inhibited fungal growth, especially via the inactivation of the enzymatic systems of F. graminearum. Natural antifungal inhibited mycotoxin production by the fungi. A correlation between the levels of DON and the expression of Tri5 gene was observed, indicating that the natural compounds could be considered alternatives to synthetic antifungals.
      PubDate: 2015-12-24T04:41:58.592976-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7591
  • Assays to control the development of the green staining alteration in
           Spanish‐style green olives of the Gordal variety
    • Abstract: Background Olives of the Gordal variety processed according to the Spanish‐style sometimes develop an alteration in color known as green staining (GS) due to the formation of harmless copper‐chlorophyll complexes that make the product less valuable. The aim of this study was to investigate methods to minimize the impact that this alteration supposes for the table olive industry. Results Calcium chloride, sorbic, benzoic and ascorbic acids and SO2 did not inhibit the development of the alteration in olives packed under their own fermentation brine or new fresh brine. It was also discovered that the incubation of olive samples at 45 °C for 20 days accelerates the formation of GS, and it can be a very useful tool to predict the incidence of the alteration in advance. By applying this test to numerous industrial tanks for four consecutive seasons, it was found that GS was mainly present in olives harvested at the beginning of the season. Conclusion The formation of GS in olives of the Gordal variety is time and temperature dependent, and none of the additives tested avoided or retarded the development of the alteration. However, an accelerated test to predict the development of the GS formation has been proposed that could contribute to minimize the effects of the alteration.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T22:01:54.68653-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7598
  • Spatial variance of physico‐chemical properties within mangos and
           the effect of initial ripeness stage on the quality of fresh‐cut
    • Authors: Panita Ngamchuachit; Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Diane M. Barrett
      Abstract: Background This study aimed to assess the spatial variation in physico‐chemical properties within individual mangos, as well as to investigate the influence of initial ripeness level on physico‐chemical characteristics of fresh‐cut mangos. Individual mangos were evaluated at twelve specific flesh positions in the inner and outer sides. Mango cubes of 1.5 cm prepared from three firmness stages were monitored for changes during nine days of storage at 5 °C. Results Mango fruit varied significantly in firmness and color based on spatial position, with the ripening direction from the inner flesh outward and from the stem end to blossom end. Limitations to fresh‐cut mango quality were ‘desiccation’ (dried cut surface) and ‘edge or tissue damage’ (cut edge damage or brown and bruising‐like appearance). Firmer texture and paler yellow of inner flesh were found in less mature mango fruit (P
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T22:01:35.019611-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7597
  • Ruminal degradation of cell wall associated nitrogenous compounds of
           several 15N‐labeled feeds
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Ruminal in situ effective degradability (ED) of dry matter (DM), neutral (NDF) and acid (ADF) detergent fibres, total‐N and NDF (NDIN) and ADF (ADIN) bound‐N in sunflower seed (SS), wheat grain (WG) and wheat straw (WS) were measured in three ruminally cannulated sheep, correcting microbial N‐contamination using the 15N dilution technique modified to consider the 15N supply to adherent bacteria. RESULTS The lack of correction for N‐contamination under‐evaluated ED estimates in 1.52% (total‐N), 28.0% (NDIN) and 33.3% (ADIN) in SS and in 1.02% (total‐N) and 4.43% (NDIN) in WG. In the remaining cases, this contamination prevented establishing apparent degradation kinetics and, therefore, errors were not measured. Microbial corrected ED estimates in SS were higher in total‐N (0.917) than in NDIN (0.559) and ADIN (0.520), which showed similar values. This behavior was also shown in WS (0.670, 0.386 and 0.426, respectively), whereas decreasing values were shown from total‐N (0.917) to NDIN (0.830) and ADIN (0.482) in WG. CONCLUSION Results confirm that NDF and ADF procedures failed to remove large fractions of particle adherent microorganisms, under‐evaluating the ED of NDIN and ADIN. Degradation of NDIN represented a significant part of the degraded N, whereas ADIN contribution was only negligible in WG.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:48:23.964625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7590
  • Cloning and characterization of a new ribitol dehydrogenase from
           Providencia alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011
    • Authors: Hinawi A. M. Hassanin; Xiao Wang, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Bo Jiang
      Abstract: Background A new ribitol dehydrogenase gene was cloned from Providencia alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. This study aimed to purify and characterize the ribitol dehydrogenase from Providencia alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011 and study the substrate specificity for potential use as industrial enzyme. Results The protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was noted ∼25,000 and 26,650 Da through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, respectively. The results of native molecular mass (104 kDa) suggested that the enzyme functions as a tetramer. Optimum activity of the enzyme was determined at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 35 °C. The thermal stability of the enzyme retained 72, 72, 48 and 0% of its initial activity after 4 h at 25, 30, 40 and 50 °C, respectively. The Km, kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzyme for the substrate ribitol were determined as 13.9 mM, 10.0 s−1 and 0.71 mM−1s−1, respectively. The Km of NAD+ was 0.042 mM. Conclusion Substrate specificity indicated that the ribitol dehydrogenase from Providencia alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011 can be used for direct production of allitol from D‐fructose without any by‐product.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:48:02.250171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7589
  • Detoxification and safety evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using
           alkali refining
    • Authors: Ning Ji; Enjie Diao, Xiangyang Li, Zheng Zhang, Haizhou Dong
      Abstract: Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is often detected in peanut oil, which comes from the contaminated peanuts. AFB1 in peanut oil seriously threaten the health of consumers. However, there are few methods to effectively remove AFB1 in peanut oil. This study aims to use an alkali‐refining method to degrade AFB1 in peanut oil efficiently without increasing the equipment of oil and fat refining. Results The optimum detoxifying conditions of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil with alkali refining were established using the response surface methodology (RSM), and the safety of peanut oil after being refined with alkali was evaluated based on the Ames tests and HepG2 cell viability. The results showed that AFB1 in peanut oil was decreased from 34.78 μg kg−1 to 0.37 μg kg−1 with 98.94% reduction under the optimum detoxifying conditions, i.e. the initial temperature of alkali refining was 43.51°C, amount of excess alkali was 0.30%, content of alkali solution was 23.42%, and end temperature of alkali refining was 77.07°C. The acid value and color of peanut oil refined by alkali were improved significantly, while peroxide value was increased within an acceptable level. The safety of peanut oil contaminated by AFB1 was improved significantly after being refined with alkali. Conclusion These results indicate that alkali refining is an effective method in removing AFB1 in peanut oil efficiently. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining could be used to guide the production of oil companies for ensuring food safety.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:47:40.317766-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7592
  • Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols in black currants (Ribes nigrum
           L.) by pre‐harvest methyl jasmonate treatments
    • Authors: G. Flores; M.L. Ruiz del Castillo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chemical elicitation is one of the most effective methods currently used to enrich plant foods in bioactive compounds. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) has been described as a very useful elicitor of some plant compounds, polyphenols among them. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pre‐harvest MJ application on the increase of the main flavonoids and the antioxidant properties of black currant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars. RESULTS Significant enhancement of individual and total anthocyanins was measured after elicitation with MJ, particularly when 0.2 mM concentrations were used. Total anthocyanins increased from 28288.74 ± 253.65 mg kg−1 to 43561.08 ± 145.87 mg kg−1 in Ben Hope black currants after elicitation with 0.2 mM MJ. Similarly, increases from 35986.04 ± 287.98 mg kg−1 to 41320.22 ± 145.87 mg kg−1 were estimated in Ben Alder cultivar. Black currant flavonols were not individually affected by the treatment; however, total flavonols increased from 3115.21 ± 12.11 mg kg‐1 to 3268.41 ± 145.87 mg kg‐1 in Ben Hope and from 3016.38 ± 10.07 mg kg‐1 to 3110.95 ± 8.57 mg kg‐1 in Ben Alder. Antioxidant properties of black currants as measured by DPPH and ABTS assays improved proportionally to the increase of flavonoid content after MJ elicitation. CONCLUSION The pre‐harvest elicitation with MJ is proposed as an useful tool to enhance contents of anthocyanins and flavonols as well as free radical scavenging activity of black currants. The functional black currants here obtained can be interesting for industry for consumption as fresh fruits and for production of juice and jam.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:47:18.157444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7595
  • Short and long term effects of carbohydrate limitation on sugar and
           organic acid accumulation during mandarin fruit growth
    • Authors: S Antoine; O Pailly, Y Gibon, F Luro, J Santini, J Giannettini, L Berti
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The physiological roles of organic acids in fruit cells are not fully understood especially in citrus, whereas the decline in titratable acidity during ripening shown by many citrus fruits is due to the utilization of citric acid. We induced carbohydrate depletion by removing source leaves at two key periods in mandarin development (early and full citric acid accumulation). Then, we assessed the resulting changes in the short term (within 48 hours) and long term (several weeks until ripening). RESULTS Control mature fruits were characterized by elevated fresh weight, large diameters, and high quantities of malic acid, citric acid and sucrose. At the same stage, fruits subjected to early or late defoliation had higher glucose, fructose, citric acid concentrations and lower sucrose concentrations. They differed only in their malic acid concentrations, which were higher in early defoliation fruits and similar in late defoliation fruits when compared to control fruits. Finally, fruits subjected to late defoliation were characterized by high proline and GABA concentrations, and low fructose and glucose concentrations. CONCLUSION We have shown that short‐ and long‐term carbohydrate limitation modifies sugar and organic acid metabolism during mandarin fruit growth.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:46:56.534769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7594

  •        Comparison of pinoresinol diglucoside production by Phomopsis sp. XP‐8 in different media and the characterization and product profiles of the cultivation in mung
    • Authors: Yan Zhang; Junling Shi, Zhenhong Gao, Jinxin Che, Dongyan Shao, Yanlin Liu
      Abstract: Background Phomopsis sp. XP‐8 is an endophytic fungus with the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application in biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. In order to enhance the production of PDG, 18 different natural materials were tested in solid‐state cultivation of Phomopsis sp. XP‐8. Results Most of the tested natural materials promoted the production of PDG. A supplement derived from mung beans produced the highest PDG yield and better fungal growth than the other materials. Also, pinoresinol monoglucoside, pinoresinol and other substrates (phenylalanine, p‐coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid) were obtained after fermentation on mung beans. Furthermore, PDG production was much higher when mung beans were incorporated into solid state agar vs. a liquid medium. The highest pinoresinol diglucoside production (72.1 mg kg−1 in fresh culture) was obtained in 9 days using a solid state culture of Phomopsis sp. XP‐8 on a mung bean grain medium containing 100 g kg−1 glucose. Mung bean water‐soluble polysaccharide was identified as a major promoter of PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP‐8. Conclusion Mung bean, especially its water‐soluble polysaccharide fraction was efficient nature material to promote PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP‐8.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:46:34.843-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7593
  • Synergy between bio‐based industry and feed industry through
    • Authors: Amanda M. Teekens; Marieke E. Bruins, Johannes M.N. van Kasteren, Wouter H. Hendriks, Johan P.M. Sanders
      Abstract: Processing biomass into multifunctional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio‐based non‐food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio‐based and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed ingredients. Illustrating the biorefinery concept, rapeseed was selected as a low priced feed ingredient based on market prices versus crude protein, crude fat and apparent ileal digestible lysine content. In addition it is already used as an alternative protein source in diets and can be cultivated in European climate zones. Furthermore, inclusion level of rapeseed meal in pig diet is limited because of its NAF’s. A conceptual process was developed to improve rapeseeds nutritional value and producing other biobased building blocks simultaneously. Based on the correlation between market prices of feed ingredients and its protein and fat content, the value of refined products was estimated. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, under two profit scenario, shows that the process is economically feasible. This study demonstrates that using biorefinery processes on feed ingredients can improve feed quality. In conjunction, it produces building blocks for a bio‐based industry and creates synergy between bio‐based and feed industry for more efficient use of biomass.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:46:12.912979-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7596
  • Rheology and microstructure of binary mixed gel of rice bran
           protein‐whey: Effect of heating rate and whey addition
    • Abstract: Background Rice bran protein (RBP) is a valuable plant protein, which has unique nutritional and hypoallergenic properties. Whey proteins have wide applications in the food industries such as dairy, meat and bakery products. Results Whey protein, RBP and their mixtures at different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10) were heated from 20 to 90°C at different heating rates (0.5, 1, 5 and 10°C/min). The G' and Tgel of WPC were more than RBP (81°C) indicating the high ability of WPC to develop stiffer networks. By increasing the ratio of whey protein in mixed systems, G' was increased and Tgel was reduced. Nevertheless, the elasticity of all binary mixtures was lower than the single whey protein. Tgel and the final G' of RBP‐WPC blends were increased by raising the heating rate. The RBP‐WPC mixtures developed more elastic gels than those of single RBP at different heating rates. RBP had fibril lentil‐like structure, whose fibril assembly had smaller structures than those of WPC. Conclusion The gelling structure of the mixed gel of WPC‐RBP was improved by adding whey. Indeed, by adding WPC, gels tend to show syneresis and had a lower water holding capacity. Furthermore, the gel structure was produced by adding whey to the non‐gelling RBP, which is compatible with whey and can be applied as a functional food for infants and/or adults.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:45:14.799886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7586
  • Environmental impact of mushroom compost production
    • Abstract: Background The research presented herein analyses the environmental impact of the Agaricus bisporus compost packages creation. The composting process is the intermediate stage of the mushroom production process, subsequent to the mycelium cultivation stage and prior to the fruiting bodies cultivation stage. Results A full life cycle assessment model of the Agaricus bisporus composting process has been developed through the identification and analysis of the inputs ‐ outputs and energy consumption of the activities involved in the production process. The study has been developed based on data collected from a plant during a one‐year campaign, thereby obtaining accurate information used to analyse the environmental impact of the process. Conclusion A global analysis of the main stages of the process shows that the process that has the greatest impact in most categories is the compost batch preparation process. This is due to an increased consumption of energy resources by the machinery that mixes the raw materials to create the batch. At the composting process inside the tunnel stage, the activity that has the greatest impact in almost all categories studied is the initial stage of composting. This is due to higher energy consumption during the process compared to the other stages.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:44:51.13044-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7587
  • Selection of lactic acid bacteria strains for the hydrolysis of allergenic
           proteins of wheat flour
    • Abstract: Background Wheat flour is one of the most common causative agents of food allergy. The study presents the selection and characterization of lactic acid bacteria strains capable of hydrolyzing/modifying allergenic proteins of wheat flour. Hydrolysis of wheat proteins was determined with SDS‐PAGE and immunoblotting with sera from patients with food allergy to gluten. Results The analysis of electrophoretic profiles of protein extracted from sourdough shows the capability of selected LAB strains for proteolytic degradation of wheat proteins that belong to two factions, albumin/globulin (hydrolysis of 13 polypeptides with the molecular weight between 103 and 22 kDa) and gliadin (7 polypeptides in the molecular weight range of 39 to 24 kDa). All analyzed strains were capable of hydrolyzing some IgE‐binding epitopes of wheat allergens. The lack of such changes in control samples indicates that they were induced rather by the proteolytic activity of bacterial strains than endogenous enzymes of wheat flour. The gluten proteins were susceptible to hydrolysis by sequential digestion with pepsin and trypsin. Conclusion The selected strains exhibit the proteolytic activity, which leads to a reduction in allergenicity of wheat sourdoughs. These strains may be applied as specific starter cultures to prepare bakery products of special nutritional use.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:44:04.468989-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7588
  • Impacts of ridge‐furrow rainfall concentration systems and mulches
           on corn growth and yield in the semiarid region of China
    • Authors: Ren X L; Chen X L, Jia Z K
      Abstract: Background Plastic‐covered ridge‐furrow farming systems for rainfall concentration (RC) improve the water availability for crops and increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stablilizing high yields. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semi‐arid agricultural areas. We conducted a four‐year field study to determine the RC effects on corn production of mulching in furrows with 8% biodegradable films (RCSB), liquid film (RCSL), bare furrow (RCSN), and conventional flat (CF) farming. Results We found that RC significantly (P > 0.05) increased the soil moisture in the top 0–100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0–20 cm) during the corn‐growing period. Mulching with different materials in planting furrows will be further improved the rain‐harvesting, moisture‐retaining and yield‐increasing effects of RC planting. Compared with CF, the four‐year average total dry matter amount per plant for RCSB, RCSL and RCSN treatments increased by 42.1%, 30.8% and 17.2%, respectively. The grain yield increased by 59.7%, 53.4% and 32.6%, respectively. Conclusion Plastic‐covered ridge and furrow mulched with biodegradable film and liquid film is recommended for use in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China to alleviate the effects of drought on crop production.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23T06:40:41.020959-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7585
  • Proteomic Analysis of Salt‐Responsive Proteins in Oat Roots (Avena
           sativa L.)
    • Authors: Jianhui Bai; Jinghui Liu, Weihong Jiao, Rula Sa, Na Zhang, Ruizong Jia
      Abstract: Background Oat is considered as a moderately salt tolerant crop that could be used to improve saline and alkaline soil. Previously studies focused on short‐term salt stress exposure (0.5h‐48h), while molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in oat remained unclear. Results Long‐term salt stress (16d) increased the levels of superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content, Putrescine content, Spermidine content, and soluble sugar content, and reduced catalase activity in oat roots. The stress also caused changes in protein profiles in the oat roots. At least 1400 reproducible protein spots were identified in a 2‐Dimensional Electrophoresis gel, among which 23 were differentially expressed between treated vs. control plants and 13 were identified using MALDI‐TOF MS. Conclusion These differentially expressed proteins are involved in five types of biological processes: 1) two fructose‐bisphosphate aldolases, four alcohol dehydrogenases, an enolase, a UDP‐glucuronic acid decarboxylase, and an F1‐ATPase alpha subunit related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism; (2) a choline monooxygenase related to stress and defense; (3) a lipase related to fat metabolism; (4) a polyubiquitin related to protein degradation, and (5) a 14‐3‐3 protein related to signaling.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22T03:47:22.490524-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7583
  • Principal component analysis of molecularly‐based signals from
           infant formula contaminations using LC‐MS and NMR in foodomics
    • Authors: Koichi Inoue; Chihiro Tanada, Takahiro Hosoya, Shuhei Yoshida, Takashi Akiba, Jun Zhe Min, Kenichiro Todoroki, Yutaka Yamano, Shigenori Kumazawa, Toshimasa Toyo'oka
      Abstract: Background The challenge in developing analytical assessment of unexpected excess contaminations in infant formula has been the most significant project to address the widespread issue of food safety and security. Foodomics based on metabolomics techniques provides powerful tools for the detection of tampering cases with intentional contaminations. However, the safety and risk assessments of infant formula to reveal not only the targeted presences of toxic chemicals, but also molecular changes involving unexpected contaminations, have not been reported. In this study, a huge amount of raw molecularly‐based signals from infant formula was analyzed using the reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography with time‐of‐flight MS (LC‐MS) and 1H‐nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and then processed by a principal component analysis (PCA). Results PCA plots visualized signature trends in the complex signal‐data batches from each excess contamination of detectable chemicals by LC‐MS and NMR. These trends in the different batches from a portion of excess chemical contaminations such as pesticides, melamine and heavy‐metals and out‐of‐date product can be visualized from spectrally‐discriminated infant formula samples. Conclusion PCA plots provide possible attempts to maximize the covariance between the stable lot‐to‐lot uniformity and excess exogenous contaminations and/or degradation to discriminate against the molecularly‐based signals from infant formulas.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22T02:05:23.747603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7584
  • Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on
           Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production
    • Abstract: Background This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non‐supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. Results For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided bigger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment comparing to the non‐supplemented with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt−1, when applied to the 15 g kg−1 compost dose. Supplementation has also conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fiber within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Conclusions Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for Pleurotus ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22T02:03:30.093763-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7579
  • Pilot‐scale Radio Frequency Pasteurization of Chili Powder: Heating
           Uniformity and Heating Model
    • Authors: Yukun Li; Yongdi Zhang, Yujie Lei, Hongfei Fu, Xiangwei Chen, Yunyang Wang
      Abstract: Background Microbial contamination is a vital obstacle needed to overcome for food safety of condiments. Radio frequency(RF) pasteurization is a new technology to slove this obstacle. Temperature distribution and heating uniformity of sample, which are influenced by different factors, are the most important things affecting the nutritional ingredients and microbial safety of sample in the process of RF pasteurization. This study demonstrated the location of cold spot in chili powder by analyzing temperature distribution in horizontal and vertical direction. The related models were established and the accuracy was verified. Results Cold spot located on the center of sample surface in the process of RF pasteurization. The averaged temperature of sample increased linearly. The uniformity index decreased as the averaged temperature increased. Both the correlation coefficient of two equations were greater than 0.91. The error value of heating rate and heating uniformity index was 0.54% and 0.75% between measured value and predicted value. Conclusion Electric field was not uniformly distributed between RF parallel‐plate electrodes in the RF pasteurization of chili powder. The heating models were reliable to predict experiment results with high precision and accuracy.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22T02:02:42.388206-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7581
  • Quality assessment of white mold‐ripened cheeses manufactured with
           different lactic cultures
    • Abstract: Background White mold‐ripened cheeses were evaluated with the objective of proposing a colorimetric method to monitor the surface growth of P. candidum and to evaluate the influence of the mesophilic (homofermentative and heterofermentative) and thermophilic starter cultures in the physicochemical composition and sensory description. Results The whiteness index was effective in proving the appearance of superficial mycelium and the stability of white mold growth. The lactic cultures showed significant influence in most of the physicochemical analyses. The cheese made with thermophilic lactic culture had a one‐day gain in the growth of mycelium on the surface; nevertheless, the appearance of this product was potentially not acceptable for consumers. The heterofermentative mesophilic cheese had a better appearance and texture profile. However, the homofermentative mesophilic cheese showed aspects of fresh cheeses and was acceptable for a wide range of consumers. Conclusion The whiteness index was efficient to monitor the surface growth of P. candidum. The highest proteolytic effect was found in the QMLD and QT cultures. However, the cheeses elaborated with the QMLD culture showed the best sensorial acceptance.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22T01:48:50.302614-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7577
  • p‐Coumaric acid and its conjugates: dietary sources, pharmacokinetic
           properties and biological activities
    • Authors: Kehan Pei; Juanying Ou, Junqing Huang, Shiyi Ou
      Abstract: p‐Coumaric acid (4‐hydroxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic acid that has low toxicity in mice (LD50 = 2850 mg/kg bw), serves as a precursor of other phenolic compounds, and exists either in free or conjugated form in plants. Conjugates of p‐Coumaric acid have been extensively studied in recent years due to their bioactivities. In this review, the occurrence, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of p‐Coumaric acid and its conjugates with mono‐, oligo‐ and polysaccharides, alkyl alcohols, organic acids, amine and lignin are discussed. Their biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‐cancer, anti‐microbial, anti‐virus, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐platelet aggregation, anxiolytic, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti‐arthritis activities, and their mitigatory effects against diabetes, obesity, hyperlipaemia and gout are compared. Cumulative evidence from multiple studies indicates that conjugation of p‐Coumaric acid greatly strengthens its biological activities; however, the high biological activity but low absorption of its conjugates remains a puzzle.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22T01:48:30.162604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7578
  • Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as a potential tool to differentiate
           pork from organic and conventional systems
    • Authors: Yan Zhao; Shuming Yang, Donghua Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Isotopic discrimination, dietary composition and feeding regime determine the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of animals. Accordingly, measurement of the stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen can be a potential method to identify pork producing pattern. RESULTS In the current study, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratio in pork fromorganic and conventional system. The average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for various organic tissues, including hair, blood and defatted meat, were higher than those of conventionally raised ones. The discriminant analysis results based on the combination of carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in defatted meat reached a 100% correct classification. Furthermore, the variation in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of retail organic and conventional pork has been studied over one year. The results suggested that organic pork had a higher δ13C value than that of the conventional pork in all but three fortnights. Grouping of the δ15N data showed that the δ15N value in organic pork was higher than that of the conventional one throughout the whole year. CONCLUSION The method established in the present study provides a potential detection that can be highly valuable to prevent fraudulent labeling of organic pork.
      PubDate: 2015-12-18T04:12:33.531911-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7567
  • Phytase‐mediated mineral solubilization from cereals under in vitro
           gastric conditions
    • Authors: Anne V. F. Nielsen; Anne S. Meyer
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri‐ to hexakisphosphate (InsP3‐6) degradation and iron and zinc release during microbial phytase action on wheat bran, rice bran and sorghum under simulated gastric conditions. RESULTS InsP3‐6 was depleted within 15–30 min of incubation using an Aspergillus niger phytase or Escherichia coli phytase under simulated gastric conditions with the two enzymes dephosphorylating cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase‐catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than that of the microbial phytases. No increases in soluble cadmium, lead or arsenic were observed with microbial phytase‐catalyzed phytate dephosphorylation. CONCLUSION Microbial phytase treatment abated phytate chelation hence enhanced the release of iron and zinc from the phytate‐rich cereals at the simulated gastric conditions. The data infer that acid stable microbial phytases can help improve iron bioavailability from phytate‐rich cereal substrates via post‐ingestion activity.
      PubDate: 2015-12-18T04:11:23.074235-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7564
  • Influence of soil cover and N and K fertilization on the quality of
           biofortified QPM maize in the humid tropics
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND In the humid tropics, unfavorable conditions present challenges to smallholder farmers attempting to meet the food demands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alley cropping and addition of potassium and nitrogen on the productivity and nutritional value of quality protein maize (QPM). The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme, with five treatments: Gliricidia + Acacia (GA), Gliricidia + Clitoria (GC), Leucaena + Acacia (LA), Leucaena + Clitoria (LC) and Bare soil (BS), in two cropping systems: one with addition of nitrogen and potassium (NK) and one without. RESULTS Except for in the GC + NK and LA + NK treatments, the grain yield in the LC + NK was higher relative to all of the other treatments and six times higher than that of the BS + NK. In the LC + NK, the protein content was higher than in the treatments without residue. CONCLUSION Although the mulching of tree legumes increased the yield and quality of food for smallholder agriculture, achieving this outcome requires eliminating potentially negative interactions when combining trees and crops in addition to enhancing the availability and uptake of nutrients.
      PubDate: 2015-12-18T04:09:56.833167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7574
  • Assessment of different washing treatments to mitigate imidacloprid and
           acetamaprid residues in spinach
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Agricultural crops treated with pesticides retain toxic residues that can cause various health disorders upon consumption. Present research project was designed to assess the pesticides residues in contaminated spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The efficiency of chemical solutions (acetic acid, citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate) with different concentrations along with tap water for the dissolution of pesticides residues in spinach were studied. Imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues were determined after dipping treated spinach through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS The results showed that the highest reduction of imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues were reported in T6 (acetic acid 10%) as 0.92±0.04 (83%) and 1.42±0.53 (87%) followed by T11 (citric acid 10%) as 0.79±0.01 (69%) and 0.86±0.05 (71%) while, the lowest by T20 (sodium carbonate 4%) as 0.30±0.02 (27%) and 0.35±0.02 (29%) among tested solutions. Moreover, T1 (tap water) caused 0.27±0.00 (23%) and 0.38±05 (27%) elimination of imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, respectively. CONCLUSION From findings it is inferred that acetic acid and citric acid washing treatments can be used along with tap water to minimize the pesticides residues in treated vegetables.
      PubDate: 2015-12-18T04:08:40.133977-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7563
  • ω‐3 in meat products: Benefits and effects on lipid oxidative
    • Abstract: Although ω‐3 intake has been associated with numerous health benefits, its addition to certain food matrices, and in particular meat products, may involve various technological barriers influencing the final quality of the products. Lipid oxidation must be highlighted due to the modification of both the sensory characteristics and the shelf‐life of meat products. In order to reduce the impact of chemical changes and promote oxidative stability, the use of natural antioxidants has gained ground due to the health and safety advantages linked to its effectiveness at reducing lipid oxidation. Many natural compounds have also been successfully tested in animal feed, in order to protect the raw meat materials and reduce the risk of lipid oxidation in processed products. This review aims to address the challenges and advantages of the incorporation of ω‐3 fatty acids in raw meat materials and processed meat products, and to describe the use of different compounds to enhance lipid oxidative stability.
      PubDate: 2015-12-17T02:02:37.366421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7559
  • The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties
    • Authors: Mohammad N. Rezaei; Vinay B. Jayaram, Kevin J. Verstrepen, Christophe M. Courtin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time‐dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior, introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer Rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough‐batter gluten starch separation system. RESULTS Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. CONCLUSION These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production.
      PubDate: 2015-12-17T02:02:10.420546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7562
  • Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during
           grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Shoumin Zhen; Kun Dong, Xiong Deng, Jiaxing Zhou, Xuexin Xu, Caixia Han, Wenying Zhang, Yanhao Xu, Zhimin Wang, Yueming Yan
      Abstract: Background Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B‐group vitamins and dietary fiber to human. These metabolites are important to the health of human. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied. Results In the present work, we analyzed the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175. We used a non‐targeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite‐metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids, was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. Our results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. Conclusions Our metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. Our work highlights the utility of GC/MS‐based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds.
      PubDate: 2015-12-17T01:40:02.626323-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7561
  • Comparison of fluoride effects on germination and growth of Zea mays,
           Glycine max and Sorghum vulgare
    • Authors: BL Fina; M Lupo, NM Dri, M Lombarte, A Rigalli
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fluorosis is a disease caused by overexposure to fluoride (F). Argentina's rural lands have higher fluorine content than urban lands. Evidence confirms that plants grown in fluoridated areas could have higher F content. We compared F uptake and growth of crops grown in different F concentrations. The effect of 0–8 ppm F concentrations on maize, soybeans and sorghum germination (G) and growth was compared. After 6 days seeding, the G was determined, the roots and aerial parts lengths were measured, and vigour index (V) was calculated. F content was measured in each part of the plants. Controls with equal concentrations of NaCl were carried out. RESULTS Significant decrease in roots and aerial parts lengths, and in V of maize and soybeans plants was observed with F concentrations greater than 2 ppm. This was not observed in sorghum seedlings. Also, the amount of F in all crops augmented as F increases, being higher in roots and ungerminated seeds. Sorghum was the crop with the highest F content. CONCLUSION Fluoride decreased the G and growth of maize and soybeans and therefore could influence on their production. Conversely, sorghum seems to be resistant to the action of F.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01T02:58:04.30772-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7551
  • Planting seeds for the future of food
    • Abstract: The health and wellbeing of future generations will depend on humankind's ability to deliver sufficient nutritious food to a world population in excess of 9 billion. Feeding this many people by 2050 will require science‐based solutions that address sustainable agricultural productivity and enable healthful dietary patterns in a more globally equitable way. This topic was the focus of a multi‐disciplinary international conference hosted by Nestlé in June 2015, and provides the inspiration for the present article. The conference brought together a diverse range of expertise and organisations from the developing and industrialised world, all with a common interest in safeguarding the future of food. This article provides a snapshot of three of the recurring topics that were discussed during this conference: soil health, plant science and the future of farming practice. Crop plants and their cultivation are the fundamental building blocks for a food secure world. Whether these are grown for food or feed for livestock, they are the foundation of food and nutrient security. Many of the challenges for the future of food will be faced where the crops are grown—on the farm. Farmers need to plant the right crops and create the right conditions to maximise productivity (yield) and quality (e.g. nutritional content), whilst maintaining the environment, and earning a living. New advances in science and technology can provide the tools and know‐how that will, together with a more entrepreneurial approach, help farmers to meet the inexorable demand for the sustainable production of nutritious foods for future generations.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01T02:19:06.4227-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7554
  • Improving phosphorus uptake and wheat productivity by phosphoric acid
           application in alkaline calcareous soils
    • Authors: Muhammad Akhtar; Muhammad Yaqub, Asif Naeem, Muhammad Ashraf, Vicente Espinosa Hernandez
      Abstract: Background Low phosphorus (P) efficiency from existing granular fertilizers necessitates to search for efficient alternative to improve wheat productivity in calcareous soil. Results Multi‐location trials exhibited that phosphoric acid (PA) produced 16% higher wheat grain over commercial P fertilizers i.e. DAP (Diammonium phosphate) and TSP (Triple superphosphate). Methods of P application significantly influenced grain yield and the efficiency of methods was observed in the order: PA placement below seed > PA, DAP or TSP fertigation > DAP or TSP broadcast. The subsurface application of PA produced highest grain yields (mean of all rates) i.e. 4669, 4158 and 3910 kg ha−1 in Bagh, Bhalwal and Shahpur soil series, respectively. Phosphoric acid at 66 kg P2O5 ha−1 was found more effective in increasing gain yield over that of control. Trend in grain P uptake was found similar to that observed for grain yield. Maximum P uptake by grain was recorded at the highest P rate and the lowest at zero P. The significant increase in P uptake with P rates was generally related to the increase in yield rather than its concentration in grain. Phosphorus Agronomic Efficiency (PAE) and Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency (PRE) were found higher at lower P rate (44 kg P2O5 ha−1) and decreased with P application. However, PA applied by the either method resulted in higher PAE and PRE compared to DAP and TSP. Conclusion Phosphoric acid is suggested as an efficient alternative to commercial granular P fertilizers for wheat production in alkaline calcareous soils.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01T02:16:39.291759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7555
  • Effect of seed pelleting with biocontrol agents on growth and colonization
           of roots of mungbean by root infecting fungi
    • Authors: Nadia Ramzan; Nayara Noreen, Zahida Perveen, Saleem Shahzad
      Abstract: Background Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is a leguminous pulse crop that is a major source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Root infecting fungi produce severe plant diseases like root rot, charcoal rot, damping‐off and stem rot. The soil‐borne pathogens can be control by chemicals, but these chemicals have several negative effects. Use of microbial antagonist like fungi and bacteria is a safe, effective and eco‐friendly method for the control of many soil‐borne pathogens. Biological control agents promote plant growth and develop disease resistance. Application of bacteria and fungi as seed dressing suppressed the root infecting fungi on leguminous crops. Results Seeds of mungbean pelleted with different biocontrol agents to see their effect on plant growth and colonization of roots by root infecting fungi viz., Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Treatment of mungbean seeds with fungal antagonists showed more shoot and root length as compared to bacterial antagonists. Whereas, seed treated with bacterial antagonists showed maximum shoot and root weight. Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis were the best among all the biocontrol agents since they provided the highest plant growth and greater reduction in root colonization by all root infecting fungi. Bacillus cereus, Trichoderma virens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus varians were also effective against root infecting fungi but to a lesser extinct. T. harzianum, T. virens, B. subtilis and P. fluorescens were found to be best among all biocontrol agents. Conclusion The root infecting fungi can be control by pelleting seeds with biocontrol agents as it is safe and effective method. Beside this plant growth promoted more by this method.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01T02:15:10.573041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7553
  • Color, sensory and physicochemical attributes of beef burger made using
           meat from young bulls fed levels of licuri cake
    • Abstract: Background Licuri cake is a biodiesel byproduct and has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study analyzed the color, sensory and chemical attributes of burger meatfrombovines. Thirty‐two young Nellore bulls were used, housed in individual pens and distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments: no addition or the addition of 7, 14 or 21% licuri cake in the dry matter of the diet. Results Interactionsamong the licuri cake levels and the physicochemical variables (P > 0.05) were observed. Additionally, interactions were observed between the licuri cake levels and the burger beef color parameter lightness index (L*) (P = 0.0305). The L* value was positively and linearly correlated to the proportion of licuri cake in the diet of young bulls. The level of inclusion of licuri cake did not affect (P> 0.05) the sensory characteristics; the variables were graded between 6 and 7, obtaining good overall acceptance. Conclusion Up to 21% licuri cake can be included in the diet of young bulls without negatively impacting on beef burger quality.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27T00:24:06.802651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7548
  • Effect of Different Drying Technologies on Drying Characteristics and
           Quality of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens.L): A Comparative Study
    • Abstract: Background Hot air drying and sun drying are traditional drying technologies widely used in the drying of agricultural products for a long time, but usually recognized as time‐consuming or lower quality product obtained. Infrared drying is a kind of rather effective drying technology, which has advantages against traditional drying technologies. Thus, in order to investigate the application of infrared drying in the dehydration of red pepper, the drying characteristics and quality of dried red pepper were compared with sun drying and hot air drying. Results The infrared drying technology significantly enhanced the drying rate when compared to hot air drying and sun drying. Temperature was the most important factor affecting the moisture transfer during the process of infrared drying as well as hot air drying. Effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values of infrared drying were ranged from 1.58×10−9 to 3.78×10−9 m2/s. The Ea values of infrared drying and hot air drying were 42.67 and 44.48 kJ/mol, respectively. Infrared drying and hot air drying produced color loss to a same extent. A relatively higher crispness values were observed among the infrared dried samples. Conclusion Sun drying produced the dried red pepper with best color when compared to hot air drying and infrared drying. Meanwhile infrared drying markedly improved drying rate at same drying temperature level of hot air drying, and the products obtained had relatively better quality with higher crispness values.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26T23:59:29.57114-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7549
  • Olive pomace valorization by Aspergillus species: lipase production using
           solid‐state fermentation
    • Abstract: Background Pollution by olive mill wastes is an important problem in the Mediterranean area and novel solutions for their proper management and valorization are needed. The aim of this work was to optimize a solid‐state fermentation (SSF) process to produce lipase using olive pomace (OP) as the main source of nutrients by several Aspergillus spp. Optimized variables in two different designs were: ratio between olive pomace and wheat bran (OP:WB), NaNO3, Czapek nutrients, fermentation time, moisture content (MC) and temperature. Results Results showed that the mixture OP:WB and MC were the most significant factors affecting lipase production for all fungi strains tested. With MC and temperature optimization, a 4.4‐fold increase in A. ibericus lipase was achieved (90.5± 1.5 U g−1), using a mixture of OP and WB at 1:1 ratio, 0.02 g NaNO3 per g dry substrate, absence of Czapek nutrients, 60% of MC and incubation at 30 °C for 7 days. For A. niger and A. tubingensis, highest lipase activity obtained was 56.6± 5.4 U g−1 and 7.6± 0.6 U g−1, respectively. Conclusion A. ibericus was found to be the most promising microorganism for lipase production using mixtures of OP and WB.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T00:12:19.831811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7544
  • Effect of Physico‐chemical Parameters on the Polygalacturonase of an
           Aspergillus sojae Mutant using Wheat Bran an Agro‐industrial Waste
           via Solid‐state Fermentation
    • Abstract: Background Polygalacturonases (PG) are valuable enzymes of the food industry; therefore it is of great importance to discover new and GRAS PG‐producing microbial strains. In this study, PG enzyme produced from a high PG activity producer mutant Aspergillus sojae using wheat bran at the flask scale under the pre‐optimized conditions of solid‐state fermentation (SSF) was biochemically characterized. Results The crude PG enzyme showed optimum activity at the pH range of 4.0 – 5.0 and was stable in the pH range of 3.0 – 7.0. The optimum temperature for the PG was 40 °C and it retained its 99% activity at 50 °C. The mutant Aspergillus sojae polygalacturonase could preserve more than 50% of its stability between 25 and 50 °C, both for 30 and 60 minutes and was found to be stable in the presence of most of the tested compounds and metal ions. The inactivation energy (Ed) was determined as 125.3 kJ mole−1. Enthalpy (ΔH*), free energy of inactivation (ΔG*) and entropy (ΔS*) for thermal inactivation were found to be stable with the increasing temperature. Conclusion The mutant Aspergillus sojae polygalacturonase could be suitable for the clarification (depectinization) of orange and grape juices and wine.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T00:11:57.541928-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7543
  • Extraction methods of Amaranthus sp. grain oil isolation
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Amaranthus sp. is a fast‐growing crop with well known beneficial nutritional values (rich in protein, fat, dietary fiber, ash, and minerals, especially calcium and sodium and contain a higher amount of lysine than conventional cereals). Amaranthus sp. is an underexploited plant source of squalene, compound of high importance in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. RESULTS This paper has examined the effects of the different extraction methods (Soxhlet, supercritical fluid and accelerated solvent extraction) on the oil and squalene yield of three genotypes Amaranthus sp. grain. The highest yield of the extracted oil (78.1 g kg−1) and squalene (4.7 g kg−1) in grain was obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in genotype 16. The post hoc Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between observed samples. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), were used for assessing the effect of different genotypes and extraction methods on oil and squalene yield, and also the fatty acid composition profile. Using coupled PCA and CA of observed samples, the possible directions for improving the quality of product can be realized. CONCLUSION The results of this study indicate that is very important to choose both the right genotype and the right method of extraction for optimum oil and squalene yield.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:57:11.247861-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7540
  • Recycling of Osmotic Solutions in Microwave‐Osmotic Dehydration:
           Product Quality and Potential for Creation of a Novel Product
    • Authors: Derek Wray; Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Despite osmotic dehydration being a cost effective process for moisture removal, the cost implications of making, regenerating, and properly disposing of the spent osmotic solutions contributes greatly to the economic feasibility of the drying operation. The potential for recycling of osmotic solutions and their use for creation of a novel product was explored using microwave osmotic dehydration under continuous flow spray (MWODS) conditions. RESULTS Identical runs were repeated ten times to determine the progressive physical and compositional effects of the thermal treatment and leaching from the cranberry samples. The microbiological stability and constant drying performance indicated that MWODS would be well suited for employing recycled solutions. While the anthocyanin content of the solution never approached that of cranberry juice concentrate, it is demonstrated that the spent syrup can infuse these health positive components into another product (apple). CONCLUSION This study found that re‐using osmotic solutions is a viable option to reduce cost in future MWODS applications, with no detriment to product quality and potential to use the spent solution for novel products.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T02:54:33.692578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7536
  • Nutrition recommendations and science: next parallel steps
    • Authors: Mikael Fogelholm
      Pages: 1059 - 1063
      Abstract: This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population‐based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in deriving more benefits from nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to gain more insight into how to change eating behaviour for better health at the population level. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T05:45:46.066136-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7479
  • Current and potential uses of bioactive molecules from marine processing
    • Authors: Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria; Paul Masci, Glenda Gobe, Simone Osborne
      Pages: 1064 - 1067
      Abstract: Food industries produce huge amounts of processing waste that are often disposed of incurring expenses and impacting upon the environment. For these and other reasons, food processing waste streams, in particular marine processing waste streams, are gaining popularity amongst pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical industries as sources of bioactive molecules. In the last 30 years, there has been a gradual increase in processed marine products with a concomitant increase in waste streams that include viscera, heads, skins, fins, bones, trimmings and shellfish waste. In 2010, these waste streams equated to approximately 24 million tonnes of mostly unused resources. Marine processing waste streams not only represent an abundant resource, they are also enriched with structurally diverse molecules that possess a broad panel of bioactivities including anti‐oxidant, anti‐coagulant, anti‐thrombotic, anti‐cancer and immune‐stimulatory activities. Retrieval and characterisation of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste also contributes valuable information to the vast field of marine natural product discovery. This review summarises the current use of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste in different products and industries. Moreover, this review summarises new research into processing waste streams and the potential for adoption by industries in the creation of new products containing marine processing waste bioactives. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-30T07:28:07.027369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7444
  • Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic
           compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects
    • Authors: Carla Pereira; Lillian Barros, Isabel CFR Ferreira
      Pages: 1068 - 1084
      Abstract: The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty‐five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T03:31:42.771845-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7446
  • Production of novel vinegar having antioxidant and anti‐fatigue
           activities from Salicornia herbacea L.
    • Pages: 1085 - 1092
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salicornia herbacea L. is a halophyte that grows in salt marshes and contains significant amounts of salts and minerals. Because it is known as a folk medication to treat diseases, various processed products such as powder, globular type of powder, laver and extract have been developed. However, it is difficult to process as a drink because of its high salinity. In the present study, glasswort vinegar (GV) containing high amounts of organic acids and minerals was developed via two‐step fermentation with unpolished rice substrates and investigated its antioxidant and anti‐fatigue activities. RESULTS GV showed various free radical scavenging effects, reducing power, oxidized‐LDL inhibition and superoxide dismutase‐like activities. Compared with the control group (orally administered 7 g kg−1 distilled water), the GV supplementation group showed increased running endurance and had higher glycogen accumulation in liver and muscles of rats exhausted by exercise. Furthermore, the GV‐administered group demonstrated significantly elevated lactate and ATP metabolism, promoting enzyme activities such as muscle creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, whereas serum fatigue biomarkers such as ammonia, lactate and inorganic acid were markedly decreased. CONCLUSION These results indicate that GV can be used as a functional food for the development of a dietary beverage to alleviate fatigue. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T03:20:14.782188-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7180
  • In vitro study of biological activities of anthocyanin‐rich berry
           extracts on porcine intestinal epithelial cells
    • Pages: 1093 - 1100
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins, compounds that represent the major group of flavonoids in berries, are one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological activities and comparison of anthocyanin‐rich extracts prepared from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and blueberry (V. corymbosum) on the porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC‐1 cell line. RESULTS The IC50 values calculated in the antioxidant cell‐based dichlorofluorescein assay (DCF assay) were 1.129 mg L−1 for chokeberry, 1.081 mg L−1 for elderberry, 2.561 mg L−1 for bilberry and 2.965 mg L−1 for blueberry, respectively. We found a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between cyanidin glycosides content and IC50 values. Moreover, extracts rich in cyanidin glycosides stimulated proliferation of IPEC‐1 cells and did not have cytotoxic effect on cells at an equivalent in vivo concentration. CONCLUSIONS We found that the chokeberry and elderberry extracts rich in cyanidin glycosides possess better antioxidant and anticytotoxic activities in comparison to blueberry or bilberry extracts with complex anthocyanin profiles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T05:08:32.717658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7181
  • Rice bran protein hydrolysates exhibit strong in vitro
           α‐amylase, β‐glucosidase and ACE‐inhibition
    • Authors: Chatchaporn Uraipong; Jian Zhao
      Pages: 1101 - 1110
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to systematically examine the in vitro health‐promotion activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates. Rice bran proteins were fractioned into albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin, which were subjected to hydrolysis by four protease preparations, namely Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme and Protamax, and the inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates against α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were monitored over a hydrolysis period of 240 min. Active peptides in the hydrolysates were isolated by ultra‐filtration and ion‐exchange chromatography and the peptide sequences of the active fractions were identified by LC‐MS/MS. RESULTS Hydrolysis of the proteins resulted in significant increases in these bioactivities, which were generally correlated with the degree of protein hydrolysis. In general, the highest bioactivities were found with albumin and glutelin hydrolysates, followed by globulin hydrolysates, while prolamin hydrolysates showed the lowest activities. Of the four enzymes used, Alcalase‐ and Protamax‐catalysed hydrolysates generally had the highest activities while Flavourzyme‐produced hydrolysates had the lowest activity. The MW < 3 kDa fraction of the Alcalase‐catalysed glutelin hydrolysates had the highest β‐glucosidase inhibition activity, which was identified to contain 13 peptides with six to 32 amino acid residues. CONCLUSION The α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activities of albumin and glutelin hydrolysates produced by Alcalase and Protamax were comparable in magnitude to those of the standard anti‐diabetic drug acarbose, and had the potential to be developed into a dietary or nutraceutical supplement for the management of diabetes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T03:21:29.871397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7182
  • Novel chelating agents for iron, manganese, zinc, and copper mixed
           fertilisation in high pH soil‐less cultures
    • Pages: 1111 - 1120
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies about simultaneous fertilisation with several micronutrients have increased in recent years, as Fe, Mn and Zn deficiencies may appear in the same culture conditions. In fertigation, the replacement of sulfates by synthetic chelates is essential in areas with high pH irrigation water and substrates. Ethylenediamine‐N‐(2‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid)‐N′‐(4‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (o,p‐EDDHA) and ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) are novel chelating agents whose efficacy in simultaneous fertilisation of Zn, Mn and Cu is unknown. This work evaluates the effectiveness of both ligands compared to traditional ligands (EDTA, HEEDTA and DTPA) applied as micronutrient chelate mixtures to soybean and navy bean plants grown in soil‐less cultures at high pH by analysing the SPAD and micronutrient nutritional status, including the Composition Nutritional Diagnosis (CND) analysis tool. RESULTS The application of micronutrients using o,p‐EDDHA was more effective in providing Mn and Zn than traditional ligands or sulfates. The application using EDDS increased the Zn nutrition. The results are well correlated with the chemical stability of the formulations. CONCLUSION The combined application of Mn and Zn as o,p‐EDDHA chelates can represent a more effective source than traditional chelates in micronutrient fertiliser mixtures in soil‐less cultures at a high pH. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T10:32:11.276628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7183
  • Thermal aggregation behaviour of soy protein: characteristics of different
           polypeptides and sub‐units
    • Pages: 1121 - 1131
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to the differences in structure and composition of glycinin and β‐conglycinin, they exhibit different characteristics during heat treatment. In present study, the thermal aggregation behaviour of glycinin, β‐conglycinin and their isolated sub‐units was investigated at pH 7.0. RESULTS Acidic polypeptides, basic polypeptides, αα′ and β sub‐units of soy protein were denatured during the isolation process. The degree of aggregation of protein fractions after heat treatment was in the order: denatured basic polypeptides > native glycinin > denatured β sub‐unit > native β‐conglycinin > denatured acidic polypeptides > denatured αα′ sub‐units. Glycinin, β‐conglycinin, acidic polypeptides and αα′/β sub‐units exhibited different changing trends of surface hydrophobicity with increasing temperature. The αα′ sub‐units showed higher ability to suppress thermal aggregation of basic polypeptides than β sub‐units during heat treatment. The β sub‐units were shown to form soluble aggregates with glycinin after heating. CONCLUSION The interaction mechanism of αα′ and β sub‐units heated with basic polypeptides was proposed. For the β sub‐units–basic polypeptides mixed system, more hydrophobic chains were binding together and buried inside during heat treatment, which resulted in lower surface hydrophobicity. The αα′ sub‐units–basic polypeptides mixed system was considered to be a stable system with higher surface hydrophobicity after being heated. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T03:26:37.399062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7184
  • Projected future distribution of date palm and its potential use in
           alleviating micronutrient deficiency
    • Authors: Farzin Shabani; Lalit Kumar, Amir Hadi Nojoumian, Atefeh Esmaeili, Mehdi Toghyani
      Pages: 1132 - 1140
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Micronutrient deficiency develops when nutrient intake does not match nutritional requirements for maintaining healthy tissue and organ functions which may have long‐ranging effects on health, learning ability and productivity. Inadequacy of iron, zinc and vitamin A are the most important micronutrient deficiencies. Consumption of a 100 g portion of date flesh from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) has been reported to meet approximately half the daily dietary recommended intake of these micronutrients. This study investigated the potential distribution of P. dactylifera under future climates to address its potential long‐term use as a food commodity to tackle micronutrient deficiencies in some developing countries. RESULTS Modelling outputs indicated large shifts in areas conducive to date palm cultivation, based on global‐scale alteration over the next 60 years. Most of the regions suffering from micronutrient deficiencies were projected to become highly conducive for date palm cultivation. CONCLUSIONS These results could inform strategic planning by government and agricultural organizations by identifying areas to cultivate this nutritionally important crop in the future to support the alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T05:18:56.842919-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7195
  • Effects of ditch‐buried straw return on water percolation, nitrogen
           leaching and crop yields in a rice–wheat rotation system
    • Authors: Haishui Yang; Mingmin Xu, Roger T Koide, Qian Liu, Yajun Dai, Ling Liu, Xinmin Bian
      Pages: 1141 - 1149
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Crop residue management and nitrogen loss are two important environmental problems in the rice–wheat rotation system in China. This study investigated the effects of burial of straw on water percolation, nitrogen loss by leaching, crop growth and yield. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments were conducted over the course of three simulated cropping seasons in a rice1–wheat–rice2 rotation. RESULTS Greater amounts of straw resulted in more water percolation, irrespective of crop season. Burial at 20 and 35 cm significantly reduced, but burial at 50 cm increased nitrogen leaching. Straw at 500 kg ha−1 reduced, but at 1000 kg ha−1 and at 1500 kg ha−1 straw increased nitrogen leaching in three consecutive crop rotations. In addition, straw at 500 kg ha−1 buried at 35 cm significantly increased yield and its components for both crops. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that N losses via leaching from the rice–wheat rotation may be reduced by the burial of the appropriate amount of straw at the appropriate depth. Greater amounts of buried straw, however, may promote nitrogen leaching and negatively affect crop growth and yields. Complementary field experiments must be performed to make specific agronomic recommendations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T05:23:19.261557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7196
  • Anti‐influenza virus effects of cocoa
    • Authors: Masanori Kamei; Hiroshi Nishimura, Toshio Takahashi, Nobuaki Takahashi, Koichi Inokuchi, Takashi Mato, Kazuo Takahashi
      Pages: 1150 - 1158
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cocoa contains biologically active ingredients that have broad‐spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes an inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection. RESULTS A cocoa extract (CE) was prepared by treating defatted cocoa powder with boiling water. The extract demonstrated dose‐dependent inhibition of infection in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with human influenza virus A (H1N1, H3N2), human influenza virus B and avian influenza viruses (H5N1, H5N9). CE inhibited viral adsorption to MDCK cells. Animal experiments showed that CE significantly improved survival in mice after intra‐nasal administration of a lethal dose of influenza virus. In human intervention trials, participants were allocated to two groups, one in which the participants ingested cocoa for 3 weeks before and after vaccination against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus and another in which the participants did not ingest cocoa. Neutralizing antibody titers against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus increased significantly in both groups; however, the extent of the increase was not significantly different between the two groups. Although natural killer cell activity was also elevated in both groups, the increase was more substantial in the cocoa intake group. CONCLUSION Drinking cocoa activates natural immunity and enhances vaccination‐induced immune response, providing stronger protection against influenza virus infection and disease onset. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T04:49:10.181887-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7197
  • Effects and mechanism of ultrasound pretreatment on rapeseed protein
    • Authors: Jian Jin; Haile Ma, Weiwei Wang, Min Luo, Bei Wang, Wenjuan Qu, Ronghai He, John Owusu, Yunliang Li
      Pages: 1159 - 1166
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The disadvantages which stem from the use of traditional enzymolysis of protein has necessitated the need to employ sweeping frequency and pulsed ultrasound (SFPU) in the pretreatment of rapeseed protein prior to proteolysis in order to bring about improvement in enzymolysis efficiency. Further, in order to determine the mechanism of ultrasound‐accelerated enzymolysis of RP, the effects of SFPU on the kinetics, thermodynamics, molecular conformation and microstructure of RP were investigated. RESULTS Kinetic studies showed that SFPU pretreatment on RP improved enzymolysis by decreasing the apparent constant KM significantly (P < 0.05) by 32.8% and reducing the thermodynamic parameters Ea, ΔH and ΔS by 16.6%, 17.7% and 9.2% respectively. Fluorescence spectra revealed that SFPU pretreatment induced molecular unfolding, causing more hydrophobic groups and regions inside the molecules to be exposed to the outside. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that SFPU pretreatment decreased the α‐helix content by 16.1% and increased the random coil content by 3.6%. In addition, scanning electron microscopy showed that SFPU pretreatment increased the specific surface area of RP. CONCLUSION Ultrasound pretreatment is an efficient method in RP proteolysis to produce peptides through its impact on the molecular conformation and microstructure of proteins. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T04:48:37.931664-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7198
  • Fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental assessment of the sensory
           quality of tomato juices
    • Authors: Vipavee Trivittayasil; Mizuki Tsuta, Yoshinori Imamura, Tsuneo Sato, Yuji Otagiri, Akio Obata, Hiroe Otomo, Mito Kokawa, Junichi Sugiyama, Kaori Fujita, Masatoshi Yoshimura
      Pages: 1167 - 1174
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sensory analysis is an important standard for evaluating food products. However, as trained panelists and time are required for the process, the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as a rapid instrumental method to approximate sensory characteristics was explored in this study. RESULTS Thirty‐five out of 44 descriptive sensory attributes were found to show a significant difference between samples (analysis of variance test). Principal component analysis revealed that principal component 1 could capture 73.84 and 75.28% variance for aroma category and combined flavor and taste category respectively. Fluorescence fingerprints of tomato juices consisted of two visible peaks at excitation/emission wavelengths of 290/350 and 315/425 nm and a long narrow emission peak at 680 nm. The 680 nm peak was only clearly observed in juices obtained from tomatoes cultivated to be eaten raw. The ability to predict overall sensory profiles was investigated by using principal component 1 as a regression target. Fluorescence fingerprint could predict principal component 1 of both aroma and combined flavor and taste with a coefficient of determination above 0.8. CONCLUSION The results obtained in this study indicate the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental method for assessing sensory characteristics of tomato juices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T05:20:03.834647-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7199
  • Changes in nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of total
           mixed ration silage stored at different temperatures and periods
    • Authors: Makoto Kondo; Kazuma Shimizu, Anuraga Jayanegara, Takashi Mishima, Hiroki Matsui, Shuichi Karita, Masakazu Goto, Tsutomu Fujihara
      Pages: 1175 - 1180
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Total mixed ration (TMR) is widely used for dairy cattle and needs to be prepared daily because it deteriorates rapidly. Ensiling TMR allows preservation and saves labour at the farm; however, silage fermentation may influence various nutritional components. The objectives of this study were to evaluate nutritional changes and in vitro rumen fermentation of TMR silage that was stored at different temperatures and durations on a laboratory scale in comparison with those of typical TMR before ensiling. RESULTS No distinct changes in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre and non‐fibrous carbohydrate contents were observed during silage fermentation. However, clear changes were observed in the soluble CP and soluble sugar fractions; solubilisation of the CP fraction in TMR silage was enhanced by prolonged storage and higher storage temperatures, and most soluble sugars were lost during ensiling. Short‐chain fatty acid concentrations in the in vitro rumen from TMRs before and after ensiling were not significantly different; however, throughout incubation, NH3‐N concentrations from TMR silages were significantly higher than those from TMR before ensiling. CONCLUSION A higher ruminal NH3‐N concentration from TMR silage may be a result of a shortage of fermentable sugars and enhanced deamination of CP. Feeding TMR ensiled under a high temperature must be investigated to balance proteins and carbohydrates for rumen fermentation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T04:47:59.941643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7200
  • Farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) volatile metabolites: a
           comparative study by SPME‐GC/MS
    • Pages: 1181 - 1193
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) could be distinguished by its volatile metabolites, an issue not addressed until now. The aim of this work was to study these metabolites by solid‐phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). RESULTS Both farmed and wild sea bass have a great number of volatile metabolites, most of them being in low concentrations. These include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkylfurans, acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, sulfur and nitrogen derivatives, 2,6‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐methylphenol and one derived compound, as well as 2,4,7,9‐tetramethyl‐5‐decyne‐4,7‐diol, this latter compound presumably resulting from environmental contamination. Important differences have been detected between both types of sea bass, and also among individuals inside each group. Farmed specimens are richer in volatile metabolites than the wild counterparts; however, these latter, in general, contain a high number and abundance of metabolites resulting from microbial and enzymatic non‐oxidative activity than the former. CONCLUSIONS Clear differences in the volatile metabolites of wild and farmed sea bass have been found. A great deal of valuable information on sea bass volatile metabolites has been obtained, which can be useful in understanding certain aspects of the quality and safety of raw and processed sea bass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-30T09:27:41.301335-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7201
  • Effect of commercial starter cultures on volatile compound profile and
           sensory characteristics of dry‐cured foal sausage
    • Pages: 1194 - 1201
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present work deals with the evaluation of the effect of three different commercial starter cultures (Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark) on the volatile compound profile and sensory properties, as well as some important physicochemical parameters, of dry‐fermented foal sausages at the end of ripening in order to select the most suitable starter culture for this elaboration. The sausage batches were named as follows: CO (non‐inoculated control), FS (Lactobacillus sakei + Staphylococcus carnosus), SM (L. sakei + S. carnosus + Staphylococcus xylosus + Pediococcus pentosaceus + Debaryomyces hansenii) and TR (L. sakei + S. carnosus +S. xylosus). RESULTS The pH values differed significantly among batches, with the highest values corresponding to CO followed by TR, SM and FS. The highest amounts of volatile compounds were found in FS batch. Hexanal was the most abundant compound, especially in FS and SM batches. These batches also showed higher levels of compounds derived from carbohydrate fermentation and amino acid catabolism. Sensory results showed that acid taste was significantly lower in CO batch than in inoculated batches. CONCLUSION According to most parameters, batches inoculated with FS and SM starters showed marked acidity compared with TR and CO batches, as expected from the manufacturer's indications. Therefore the most suitable starter culture for use in the manufacture of foal sausages in Mediterranean countries such as Spain with a preference for low‐acidity products was found to be TR culture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T05:52:55.682721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7203
  • Contribution of portal‐drained viscera to heat production in Iberian
           gilts fed a low‐protein diet: comparison to Landrace
    • Pages: 1202 - 1208
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In terms of whole‐body metabolism, visceral tissues have a disproportionate influence with respect to their masses, and under certain circumstances their high metabolic rate may compromise nutrient availability to the tissues of productive/economic interest. The low energy efficiency of Iberian compared to modern breeds could be partly explained by the contribution of portal‐drained viscera to heat production. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of portal‐drained viscera heat production (PDVHP) to total heat production (THP) in Iberian and Landrace gilts fed a diet with low protein content. RESULTS Compared to Landrace, Iberian gilts (29 ± 0.9 kg body weight) had lower pre‐ and postprandial portal vein blood flow (654 vs. 965, and 746 vs. 1133 mL min−1, respectively; P < 0.01), postprandial PDVHP (3.09 vs. 3.88 kJ h−1 kg−0.75; P < 0.01) and PDVHP/THP ratio (0.08 vs. 0.13; P < 0.05), and greater THP (38.5 vs. 31.8 kJ h−1 kg−0.75; P < 0.05), when offered 0.25 of their daily ration in a 6 h sampling period. CONCLUSION In spite of the low energetic efficiency and growth rate of Iberian compared to modern breeds, the contribution of PDV energy expenditure relative to THP was lower in Iberian compared to Landrace gilts in the present study. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T05:47:46.224352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7206
  • DNA damage protection against free radicals of two antioxidant neolignan
           glucosides from sugarcane molasses
    • Authors: Yonathan Asikin; Makoto Takahashi, Masami Mizu, Kensaku Takara, Hirosuke Oku, Koji Wada
      Pages: 1209 - 1215
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sugarcane molasses is a potential by‐product of the sugarcane manufacturing industry that is rich in antioxidant materials. The present study aimed to obtain antioxidative compounds from sugarcane molasses and to evaluate their ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. RESULTS Two neolignan glucosides were isolated from sugarcane molasses using bioassay and UV spectra monitoring‐guided fractionation. The compounds were elucidated as (7R,8S)‐dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol‐4‐O‐β‐d‐glucoside (1) and (7S,8R)‐simulanol‐9′‐O‐β‐d‐glucoside (2). Neolignan glucoside 2 protected against DNA damage caused by free radicals more effectively than did neolignan glucoside 1 (13.62 and 9.08 µmol L−1 for peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, compared to 48.07 and 14.42 µmol L−1). Additionally, neolignan glucoside 2 exhibited superior DNA protection against free radicals compared with various known antioxidative compounds, including p‐coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid and epigallocatechin gallate. CONCLUSION The isolated neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses are able to protect DNA from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This is the first identification of these two compounds in sugarcane molasses. The sugarcane molasses can therefore be used as potential nutraceutical preventative agents, and the findings may foster the utilization of this by‐product as a bioresource‐based product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-18T07:28:38.986655-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7208
  • Bioactive compounds in pindo palm (Butia capitata) juice and in pomace
           resulting of the extraction process
    • Pages: 1216 - 1222
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pindo palm (Butia capitata, Becc. 1916) is a tropical fruit native to South America and is relatively rich in bioactive compounds. It is often consumed as juice. The aim of this study was, first, to identify the degradation of these compounds by pasteurization and by cold storage (4 °C) of pindo palm juice. Physicochemical properties and concentrations of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C have been evaluated on fresh and pasteurized juices. Moreover, another objective was to characterize the nutritional composition and the bioactive compounds of pindo palm pomace, the by‐product of juice processing. RESULTS The results demonstrated a degradation of carotenoids with pasteurization and a degradation of vitamin C with both pasteurization and cold storage of juices. Furthermore, the evaluation of pindo palm pomace showed that it is relatively rich in total phenols (20.06 g gallic acid equivalents kg−1 dry matter) and in β‐carotene (0.22 g kg−1 dry matter). CONCLUSION Thus, from the nutrition viewpoint, it does not seem interesting to pasteurize juice. On the other hand, extraction of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from the pomace appears to be a relevant process. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-18T07:28:21.236487-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7209
  • Phosphatase activity and its relationship with physical and chemical
           parameters during vermicomposting of filter cake and cattle manure
    • Pages: 1223 - 1230
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recycling of phosphorus (P) from organic residues (ORs) is important to develop environmentally friendly agriculture. The use of this P source depends on phosphatase enzymes, which can be affected by a chain of parameters during maturation of ORs. In this study the phosphatase activity levels throughout vermicomposting of filter cake (FC) and cattle manure (CM) were correlated with different physical and chemical parameters in an effort to increase the knowledge about recycling of P from ORs. RESULTS FC presented higher total nitrogen content (TNC), total organic carbon (TOC), humic acid (HA) content, water‐soluble P (WSP), phosphatase activities and nanopore volume than CM during vermicomposting. Decreases in TOC of CM resulted from carbohydrate mineralization, which was not observed for FC. CM showed increased hydrophobic index during vermicomposting while FC showed a slight decrease. CONCLUSION Phosphatase activities correlated positively with TOC, pH and WSP and negatively with HA content for both vermicomposts. Nanopore volume was negatively correlated with phosphatase activities for FC but not for CM. No correlations between hydrophobicity and phosphatase activities were found for FC. Increased hydrophobicity throughout vermicomposting of CM could be partially associated with decreases in phosphatase levels. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:18:03.476572-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7210
  • Investigating the biometric and physicochemical characteristics of freshly
           harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): a comparative
    • Authors: Charles Odilichukwu R Okpala; Gioacchino Bono
      Pages: 1231 - 1240
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The practicality of biometrics of seafood cannot be overemphasized, particularly for competent authorities of the shrimp industry. However, there is a paucity of relevant literature on the relationship between biometric and physicochemical indices of freshly harvested shrimp. This work therefore investigated the relationship between biometric (standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and condition factor (CF)) and physicochemical (moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, water activity, water retention index, colour values and fracturability) characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) obtained from three different farms. The relationships between these parameters were determined using correlation and regression analyses. RESULTS No significant correlation (P > 0.05) was found between the biometric and physicochemical indices of the sampled L. vannamei specimens. Possibly the lack of post‐mortem and physical change(s) at day of harvest together with the absence of temporal variable may have collectively limited the degree of any significant correlation between biometric and physicochemical data points measured in this study. Although the TWs of freshly harvested L. vannamei shrimp resembled (P > 0.05), SL and CF differed significantly (P < 0.05) with minimal explained variance. Moreover, some biometric and physicochemical variables were independently correlated (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Data indicated that no significant correlation existed between biometric and physicochemical characteristics of freshly harvested L. vannamei shrimp. Across the farms studied, however, the biometric data were comparable. To best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the biometric and physicochemical properties of freshly harvested shrimp using a comparative approach, which is also applicable to other economically important aquaculture species. Overall, this work provides useful information for competent authorities/stakeholders of the fishery industry and serves as a baseline for preservative treatments. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T04:56:50.783848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7211
  • Chemical profile of major taste‐ and health‐related compounds
           of Oblačinska sour cherry
    • Pages: 1241 - 1251
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oblačinska sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian commercial orchards. Owing to its long cultivation under different agro‐ecological conditions, it is a mixture of different clones. To obtain comprehensive information on Oblačinska sour cherry fruit, the total carbohydrate composition, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity and polyphenolic profiles of 39 clones were investigated. RESULTS Fructose was found to be the dominant sugar, followed by glucose, sorbitol and sucrose. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant polyphenols. Some clones contained pinobanksin, hesperetin and galangin, which, to best knowledge, is the first time these compounds have been reported in sour cherry fruit. CONCLUSION The data obtained showed huge variation within the germplasm studied, confirming the fact that Oblačinska sour cherry is not a cultivar but a population. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T04:59:27.778642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7212
  • Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride
           in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle
    • Pages: 1252 - 1259
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low‐Na products (
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T03:10:43.311623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7213
  • Polyphenol‐rich grape pomace extracts protect against dextran
           sulfate sodium‐induced colitis in rats
    • Pages: 1260 - 1268
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Several studies have reported that polyphenols may exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of preventive consumption of polyphenol‐rich red grape pomace extracts (GPEs) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‐induced colitis in rats. Rats were fed for 21 days with a semi‐synthetic diet enriched with a GPE (Alicante‐S, Alicante‐P or Pinot‐S) and colitis was induced by DSS administration in drinking water (40 g L−1) during the last 7 days of experimentation. RESULTS GPEs attenuated clinical signs and colon shortening and Alicante GPEs limited histological lesions induced by DSS. GPEs curbed the increase in myeloperoxidase activity and modulated antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, GPEs prevented the DSS‐induced increase in pro‐inflammatory cytokine levels and the up‐regulation of various genes implicated in colitis such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM‐1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP‐9). CONCLUSION These results suggest that polyphenol‐rich red GPEs could provide prevention against colon inflammation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-08T03:05:17.387336-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7214
  • Effect of fermented medicinal plants on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions, and diarrhea score in weanling
    • Authors: Pinyao Zhao; Hanlin Li, Yan Lei, Tianshui Li, Sunki Kim, Inho Kim
      Pages: 1269 - 1274
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock have been banned in the European Union since 2006. Alternatives of antibiotics have focused on phytogenic plants, such as herbs and medicinal plants. No studies have evaluated the use of fermented medicinal plants (FMP) made up of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa and Scutellaria baicalensis in weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of FMP on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions and diarrhea score in weanling pigs. RESULTS FMP supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, gain:feed, apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy compared with NC treatment, while a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on those criteria. Ammonia, total mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) by the supplementation of FMP compared with NC. Additionally, diarrhea score was lower (P < 0.05) by FMP addition compared with NC during days 0–7 and days 8–14. CONCLUSION These results suggested that FMP could be used as an alternative to antibiotics by enhancing growth performance and nutrient digestibility, and decreasing fecal noxious gas emission and early diarrhea score of weanling pigs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T04:44:33.56822-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7217
  • Change in soil organic carbon between 1981 and 2011 in croplands of
           Heilongjiang Province, northeast China
    • Pages: 1275 - 1283
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Soil organic carbon (SOC) is fundamental for mitigating climate change as well as improving soil fertility. Databases of SOC obtained from soil surveys in 1981 and 2011 were used to assess SOC change (0–20 cm) in croplands of Heilongjiang Province in northeast China. Three counties (Lindian, Hailun and Baoqing) were selected as typical croplands representing major soil types and land use types in the region. RESULTS The changes in SOC density (SOCD) between 1981 and 2001 were −6.6, −14.7 and 5.7 Mg C ha−1 in Lindian, Hailun and Baoqing Counties respectively. The total SOC storage (SOCS) changes were estimated to be −11.3, −19.1 and 16.5% of those in 1981 in the respective counties. The results showed 22–550% increases in SOCS in rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddies in the three counties, but 28–33% decreases in dry cropland in Lindian and Hailun Counties. In addition, an increase of 11.4 Mg C ha−1 in SOCD was observed in state‐owned farms (P < 0.05), whereas no significant change was observed in family‐owned farms. CONCLUSION Soil C:N ratio and initial SOCD related to soil groups were important determinants of SOCD changes. Land use and residue returning greatly affected SOC changes in the study region. To increase the topsoil SOCD, the results suggest the conversion of dry croplands to rice paddies and returning of crop residue to soils. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T05:27:40.920751-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7219
  • Determination of florfenicol residues in broiler meat and liver samples
           using RP‐HPLC with UV–visible detection
    • Pages: 1284 - 1288
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Broilers are vulnerable to various types of microorganisms, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in multiple infections. Broad‐spectrum antibacterial drugs such as florfenicol (FF) are widely used in the treatment of such infections. Suspected residues of these drugs in body tissues of treated birds can be passed to humans through meat consumption and thus lead to serious ill effects on human health. The present study was designed to estimate the presence of FF residues in broiler meat and liver samples. RESULTS The mean residual concentrations of FF in broiler meat and liver samples were 311.42 ± 186.56 and 2585.44 ± 1759.71 µg kg−1 respectively, which are higher than their respective maximum residual limits (MRLs). The results showed that 126 and 24 samples were FF‐positive and FF‐negative respectively. Of the positive samples, 84 and 42 samples were above and below the MRL respectively. CONCLUSION The results indicate the presence of FF residues in broiler meat and liver samples. Usage of this contaminated meat causes resistance in consumers and poses a public health threat. Thus there is a need to educate farmers about the ill effects of residual drugs on human health and their withdrawal times in poultry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T03:06:56.764301-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7220
  • High‐molecular‐weight glutenin subunit‐deficient mutants
           induced by ion beam and the effects of Glu‐1 loci deletion on wheat
           quality properties
    • Authors: Lujun Zhang; Qiufang Chen, Mingjie Su, Biao Yan, Xiangqi Zhang, Zhen Jiao
      Pages: 1289 - 1296
      Abstract: BACKGROUND High‐molecular‐weight glutenin subunits (HMW‐GSs) play a critical role in determining the viscoelastic properties of wheat. Mutations induced by ion beam radiation have been applied to improve the yield and quality of crop. In this study, HMW‐GS‐deficient mutant lines were selected and the effects of Glu‐1 loci deletion on wheat quality properties were illustrated according to the analysis of dry seeds of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Xiaoyan 81 treated with a nitrogen ion beam. RESULTS Three HMW‐GS‐deficient mutant lines were obtained and then detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Large‐chromosome‐fragment deletion resulted in specific deficiencies, and the deleted region sizes were determined using molecular markers. Agronomic characters, quantity and proportion of glutenins and dough microstructure of the deletion lines all proved to be quite different from those of wild‐type Xiaoyan 81. Analysis of quality properties suggested that GluA1− had superior property parameters, while GluB1− and GluD1− both showed a significant decrease in quality properties compared with Xiaoyan 81. CONCLUSION The effects of the three Glu‐1 loci on flour and dough quality‐related parameters should be Glu‐D1 > Glu‐B1 > Glu‐A1. Ion beam radiation can be used as a mutagen to create new crop mutants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T07:17:22.807825-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7221
  • Introgression of blast resistance genes into the elite rice
           variety MR263 through marker‐assisted backcrossing
    • Authors: Muhammad M Hasan; Mohd Y Rafii, Mohd Razi Ismail, Maziah Mahmood, Md Amirul Alam, Harun Abdul Rahim, Mohammad A Malek, Mohammad Abdul Latif
      Pages: 1297 - 1305
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early‐maturing, high‐yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as donor of the blast resistance Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d(t)1 and Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 quantitative trait locus (QTL). The objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker‐assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection. RESULTS Improved MR263‐BR‐3‐2, MR263‐BR‐4‐3, MR263‐BR‐13‐1 and MR263‐BR‐26‐4 lines carrying the Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d(t)1 and Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL were developed using the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM5961 and RM263 (linked to the blast resistance genes and QTL) for foreground selection and a collection of 65 polymorphic SSR markers for background selection in backcrossed and selfed generations. A background analysis revealed that the highest rate of recurrent parent genome recovery was 96.1% in MR263‐BR‐4‐3 and 94.3% in MR263‐BR‐3‐2. CONCLUSION The addition of blast resistance genes can be used to improve several Malaysian rice varieties to combat this major disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-27T04:22:21.245771-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7222
  • Control of citrus molds using bioactive coatings incorporated with fungal
           chitosan/plant extracts composite
    • Pages: 1306 - 1312
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The ongoing postharvest loss in citrus fruits, due to fungal infection, is a chronic economic and agricultural problem. Most of citrus damage is caused by Penicillium spp., e.g. green mold (P. digitatum) and blue mold (P. italicum). Fungal chitosan, from Mucor rouxii, and plant extracts from cress seeds, olive leaves, pomegranate peels and senna pods, were evaluated as antifungal agents against the phytopathogenic fungi, P. digitatum and P. italicum, using in vitro qualitative and quantitative assays. RESULTS All natural agents tested exhibited potent antifungal activity; the most powerful agent was cress (Lepidium sativum) seed extract, followed by pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract. Fungal chitosan also had a remarkable fungicidal potentiality using both evaluation assays. Penicillium digitatum was generally more resistant than P. italicum toward all examined agents. The incorporation of each individual natural agent in coating material resulted in a great reduction in fungal growth and viability. The addition of chitosan combined with cress and pomegranate extracts, to the coating materials, prevented coated citrus fruit from decay by green and blue mold for a 2‐week storage period. CONCLUSION Natural derivatives could be recommended as powerful antifungal alternatives to protect citrus fruits from postharvest fungal decay. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T03:34:39.864045-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7223
  • Sensory and nutritional attributes of pomegranate juices extracted from
           separated arils and pressed whole fruits
    • Authors: Lina Mayuoni Kirshenbaum; Ofir Benjamin, Ron Porat
      Pages: 1313 - 1318
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study aimed to compare the sensory and nutritional attributes of ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate juices extracted from separated arils with those from pressed whole fruits. RESULTS Five different sensory tests were conducted to evaluate the flavor quality of ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate juices. Consumer acceptance tests revealed that juice from separated arils achieved significantly higher likability scores than that from whole pressed fruits. Furthermore, preference tests revealed that 84% of the tasters preferred the juice extracted from separated arils whereas only 16% preferred the juice from whole pressed fruits. Sensory discrimination tests (triangle tests) revealed that tasters significantly distinguished between the two juices at P ≤ 0.01. Descriptive tests by a trained panel and sensory analysis with an electronic tongue demonstrated that juice from whole pressed fruits was more astringent and had a stronger aftertaste than juice from separated arils. Juice from pressed whole fruits contained significantly higher levels of phenols and hydrolysable tannins, which led to higher astringency. CONCLUSIONS Pomegranate juice extracted from separated arils was less astringent and more preferred by tasters than juice from whole pressed fruits. Nonetheless, juice from separated arils has lower nutritional benefits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T12:28:13.368896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7224
  • Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic
           acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of
           ‘Kinnow’ mandarin juice
    • Authors: Samina Khalid; Aman U Malik, Ahmad S Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Shafique
      Pages: 1319 - 1325
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. ‘Kinnow’ (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60–65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75–80% RH) conditions. RESULTS Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18‐year‐old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL−1) and TAA (93.68 mg L−1), as compared to 6 and 35‐year‐old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35‐year‐old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35‐year‐old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18‐year‐old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL−1) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6‐year‐old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L−1) and TPC (115.1 µg mL−1). Large‐sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL−1) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L−1). CONCLUSION Fruit from 18‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small‐sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:53:44.829034-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7225
  • Evaluation of iron and zinc bioavailability of beans targeted for
           biofortification using in vitro and in vivo models and their effect on the
           nutritional status of preschool children
    • Pages: 1326 - 1332
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biofortified beans have been produced with higher nutrient concentrations. The objective was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo iron and zinc bioavailability of common beans Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with conventional Perola (PE) and their effects on the iron and zinc nutritional status of preschool children. RESULTS In Caco‐2 cells, PO and PE beans did not show differences in ferritin (PO, 13.1 ± 1.4; PE, 13.6 ± 1.4 ng mg−1 protein) or zinc uptake (PO, 15.9 ± 1.5; PE, 15.5 ± 3.5 µmol mg−1 protein). In the rat, PO and PE beans presented high iron bioavailability (PO, 109.6 ± 29.5; PE, 110.7 ± 13.9%). In preschool children, no changes were observed in iron and zinc nutritional status comparing before and after PO consumption (ferritin, 41.2 ± 23.2 and 28.9 ± 40.4 µg L−1; hemoglobin, 13.7 ± 2.2 and 13.1 ± 3.2 g dL−1; plasma zinc, 119.2 ± 24.5 and 133.9 ± 57.7 µg dL−1; erythrocyte zinc, 53.5 ± 13.8 and 59.4 ± 17.1 µg g−1 hemoglobin). CONCLUSION Iron and zinc bioavailability in PO and PE beans was not statistically different using either cell culture, animal or human models. Efforts should focus on increasing mineral bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:26:40.841293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7226
  • Giberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from maize and wheat in Iran:
           distribution, molecular identification and fumonisin B1 in vitro
    • Pages: 1333 - 1340
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Contamination of food and agricultural crops by Fusarium species is a major concern of food spoilage and a potential public health hazard. In the present study, natural contamination of maize and wheat samples from main cultivation areas of Iran by Fusarium species belonging to the Giberella fujikuroi species complex was evaluated, with special attention to the ability of the isolates to produce fumonisin B1 (FB1). RESULTS A total of 55 Fusarium isolates were obtained from 27/32 maize samples (84.4%) and 11/15 wheat samples (73.3%). They were identified as F. verticillioides (47.3%), F. proliferatum (47.3%), F. fujikuroi (1.8%), F. nygamai (1.8%) and F. redolens (1.8%) by sequence analysis of translation elongation factor 1‐α (TEF1‐α). Twenty‐two of 55 Fusarium isolates belonging to F. proliferatum (23.6%), F. verticillioides (14.5%) and F. fujikuroi (1.8%) produced FB1 in the concentration range 230.4–9565.0 µg mL−1. The dendrogram resulting from the TEF1‐α profile showed that the genotypes were divided into clusters I, II and III, of which cluster III contained only F. redolens, its first report from Iran. CONCLUSION On the basis of in vitro FB1 biosynthesis of the analyzed strains, the high degree of contamination of maize and wheat with Fusarium strains reported here should be considered as a potential public health threat, because a meaningful number of the isolates were found to produce hazardous levels of carcinogenic FB1. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T12:26:47.4315-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7227
  • Heterologous strategy enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence
           polarization immunoassay of clinafloxacin in goat milk
    • Authors: Jiahong Chen; Ilya A Shanin, Shuwei Lv, Qiang Wang, Chuanbin Mao, Zhenlin Xu, Yuanming Sun, Qing Wu, Sergei A Eremin, Hongtao Lei
      Pages: 1341 - 1346
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Clinafloxacin is used for the treatment of disease in food‐producing animals, e.g. Brucella melitensis, which often occurs in goats; however, the clinafloxacin residue in goat milk may harm human health and result in the development of drug‐resistant bacterial strains or allergies. Despite this, there is not a rapid, sensitive and accurate analytical method in goat milk for rapid screening or monitoring purposes. RESULTS One homologous and five heterologous tracers were designed and compared for fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) optimization. Based on the combination of a heterologous tracer (PAZ‐FITC, synthesized with pazufloxacin and FITC) and the antibody against clinafloxacin, a highly sensitive FPIA was established for the detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk for the first time. The IC50 value was 29.3 µg L−1 for clinafloxacin in the heterologous format – six times lower than that of the combination of the homologous tracers and the antibody. The recoveries ranged from 86.8% to 104.5%, with the relative standard deviation ranging from 4.1% to 7.2%. Validation by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed that the results obtained from the proposed FPIA were in agreement with those of HPLC. CONCLUSION This proposed heterologous strategy for enhanced FPIA is sensitive and rapid enough for the high‐throughput detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:37:28.838895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7228
  • In vitro functional properties of crude extracts and isolated compounds
           from banana pseudostem and rhizome
    • Authors: Saravanan Kandasamy; Sasikala Ramu, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna Aradhya
      Pages: 1347 - 1355
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pseudostem and rhizome are the significant bio‐waste generated (43.48%) from the banana plant post fruit harvest, which are usually left in the plantation or incinerated and wasted. Amounts used in production for consumption are negligible. However, the material has an important part to play in indigenous systems of medicine. Based on the huge volume of bio‐waste generated and its traditional medicinal use, it is worth exploiting it as a source of natural bioactive compounds. In the current study, sequential extracts from banana pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), and isolated compounds including chlorogenic acid, 4‐epicyclomusalenone and cycloeucalenol acetate, were tested for their antimicrobial activity, antiplatelet aggregation and cytotoxicity. RESULTS Isolated compounds and crude extracts exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, platelet aggregation induced by collagen and cytotoxicity towards human liver cancer (HepG2) cells. CONCLUSION Banana plant bio‐waste, pseudostem and rhizome may serve as a potential source of multifunctional bioactive compounds and functional ingredient in food and other allied industries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T03:18:32.54908-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7229
  • Provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu, a
           non‐alcoholic cereal‐based beverage made with provitamin
           A‐biofortified maize
    • Authors: Temitope D Awobusuyi; Muthulisi Siwela, Unathi Kolanisi, Eric O Amonsou
      Pages: 1356 - 1361
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in sub‐Saharan Africa. Amahewu is a popular southern African lactic acid fermented non‐alcoholic maize‐based beverage, which is deficient in vitamin A. In this study, provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu processed using provitamin A‐biofortified maize and three types of inoculums during fermentation (malted maize, wheat bran and Lactobacillus starter culture) were investigated. RESULTS The total provitamin A content of amahewu samples, estimated as β‐carotene, β‐cryptoxanthin and α‐carotene content, ranged from 3.3 to 3.8 g kg−1 (dry weight). Provitamin A was substantially retained (79– 90% β‐carotene equivalent) in amahewu after fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared with added starter cultures had the lowest retention of provitamin A. Consumers (approx. 69%) liked provitamin A‐biofortified amahewu either moderately or very much. Principal component analysis of amahewu sensory data showed that 71% of variation was due to maize types and 18% of variation could be due to the inoculum used during fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared using provitamin A‐biofortified maize were slightly more liked (mean score: 7.0 ± 1.2) compared to those of white maize reference samples. The use of starter culture combined with either malted maize or wheat bran as inoculum during fermentation improved the taste and aroma of amahewu and hence its acceptability. CONCLUSION Provitamin A is substantially retained in amahewu after fermentation. The slightly high acceptability of amahewu prepared using provitamin A‐biofortified maize compared to that of white maize thus suggests that fermented product like amahewu can potentially be used to deliver provitamin A to vulnerable individuals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:36:28.143782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7230
  • Age and gender differences in the influence of extrinsic product
           information on acceptability for RTD green tea beverages
    • Pages: 1362 - 1372
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The introduction of ready‐to‐drink (RTD) green tea beverage has allowed diverse consumers to consume green teas and related products. Green tea that has been traditionally consumed for its delicate flavor characteristics is also widely consumed for its recognition as a healthy product. Because it is reported that age difference exists in consideration of health‐related information, the objective of the study was to investigate how sensory and non‐sensory factors, in particular health‐related information, price and packaging, would affect the flavor acceptability of green tea beverages, depending on consumers' age and gender. RESULTS Regardless of the product information, old consumers preferred products that provided an indication of health beneficial effect. On the other hand, young consumers tended to be influenced by extrinsic product information such as packaging, brand/manufacturer and/or price, though these consumers were not so much influenced by health beneficial information as were the old consumers. CONCLUSION The findings of the study implied that the influence of non‐sensory information such as health beneficial information in flavor liking differed depending mostly on consumers' age, and little on gender, for RTD green tea beverages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T00:16:49.557772-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7232
  • Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets
           obtained from Pangasius sutchi and Nile tilapia exported to European
    • Pages: 1373 - 1379
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets from pangasius catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) exported to Poland, Germany and Ukraine and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exported to Poland and Germany were investigated by analyzing heavy metal residues, microbiological hazards, biogenic amines, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) content. RESULTS The heavy metal residues from all studied samples were far lower than the limits established by authorities. The most abundant biogenic amine found was histamine, with a maximum content of 9.6 mg 100 g−1, found in pangasius exported to Poland. The total viable counts were from 2.8 log cfu g−1 in pangasius exported to Ukraine to 4.3 log cfu g−1 in pangasius exported to Germany. Vibrio spp. were present in 70–80% of all studied pangasius groups, whereas there no Vibrio spp. were found in the studied tilapia samples. 30% of Pangasius fillets exported to Poland were contaminated with coagulase‐positive staphylococci. No E. coli was found in any of the studied samples. Although the results of TBA analysis differed significantly between studied groups, the malonic aldehyde content in all studied groups was still very low. The TVB‐N content in frozen fillets from pangasius was significantly lower than in frozen tilapia fillets. CONCLUSIONS We reported that pangasius catfish frozen fillets were widely contaminated with Vibrio spp., which could prove hazardous for the final consumer if the fish is eaten raw or undercooked. The rest of the analysis showed no other reason for concern associated with Nile tilapia and Pangasius catfish frozen fillet consumption. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T07:23:35.450875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7233
  • Hypolipidaemic and anti‐oxidative potential of encapsulated
           herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol
           fed rats
    • Authors: Pravin Digambar Sawale; Ramesh Pothuraju, Shaik Abdul Hussain, Anuj Kumar, Suman Kapila, Girdhari Ramdas Patil
      Pages: 1380 - 1385
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti‐oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. RESULTS At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, very‐low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. CONCLUSION The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-18T07:26:53.723639-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7234
  • Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows
           fed rations with different levels of phosphorus
    • Pages: 1386 - 1389
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. RESULTS The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T03:27:42.419648-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7235
  • N‐terminal truncation contributed to increasing thermal stability of
           mannanase Man1312 without activity loss
    • Authors: Haiyan Zhou; Wenjiao Yang, Yun Tian, Hanhui Peng, Yongyao Wu
      Pages: 1390 - 1395
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The disordered residues on distal loops affect the molecular structural stability and on some occasions have regulatory roles in catalytic reaction. To increase understanding of the influence of distal residue mutation, this study explored the thermostability and enzymatic activity of mannanase Man1312 deletion mutants. The focus was on residues located on the N‐terminal region because they are more disordered and changeable. The effects of N‐terminal truncation on enzymatic activity and thermal dynamics were investigated by spectrophotometry, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry assays. RESULTS The deletion mutants on V3, N7 and Q11 showed a marked increase in stability, while the enzymatic activity was significantly improved when triplet deletion was carried out. Triplet deletion MandVNQ showed around double the stability of its corresponding single‐site and double‐site deletion mutants. The Tm value of MandVNP was about 8 °C higher than that of Man1312. MandVNP had improved characteristics of Topt by 10 °C, t1/2 by 10 min and catalytic activity by 11% in comparison with Man1312. Analysis of spectra and modeling showed that MandVNQ had increased helix and strand contents. CONCLUSION N‐terminal truncation had positive effects on the thermostability and activity of mannanase. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:27:25.717915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7240
  • Effects of dietary oat proteins on cholesterol metabolism of
           hypercholesterolaemic hamsters
    • Pages: 1396 - 1401
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of present study was to investigate the hypocholesterolaemic effects of oat proteins (OP) in hamsters fed with a hypercholesterolaemic diet. The hamsters were divided into five groups and fed with the experimental diets containing oat, OP, oat β‐glucan (OG), or OP+OG for 30 days. RESULTS OP and the OG significantly lowered the concentrations of plasma low‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol and liver total cholesterol (TC), and increased the excretion of faecal bile acid and TC. Plasma and liver TC in the OP+OG group were significantly lower than those in the OP or OG groups. Both OP and OG increased the activity of liver cholesterol 7α‐hydroxylase (CYP7A1), while its activity in the OP+OG group was strongly increased compared with the OP or OG groups. CONCLUSION These results indicated that dietary OP could improve hypercholesterolaemia, while dietary OP and OG together would have better hypocholesterolaemic effects. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T10:18:42.615751-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7236
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