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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Effects of probiotics supplementation in different nutrient density diets
           on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal
           microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Probiotics can serve as alternatives to increasing performance in weaning pigs and the intake of probiotics affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. RESULTS From d 22 to 42, both high‐nutrient‐density and probiotics complex supplementation diets increased (P
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:15:20.55505-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7871
  • Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas
           made from different botanical materials by comprehensive
           two‐dimensional gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on
           the technology of ultra‐fast gas chromatography
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Vodka is a spirit‐based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin were costly, time‐consuming and insufficient to distinguish between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests. RESULTS In the present work, we employed the comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and electronic nose based on the technology of ultra‐fast gas chromatography with chemometric methods such as PLSDA, DFA and SIMCA. CONCLUSION Both techniques allowed to distinguish between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose, however e‐nose allowed to significantly faster analysis of vodkas.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:10:25.945194-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7868
  • Influence of lactose hydrolysis on galacto‐oligosaccharides,
           lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different
           yogurt varieties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Different types of reduced‐lactose yogurt, obtained by lactose hydrolysis using β‐galactosidase enzyme, are commercially available. The breakdown of lactose modifies the carbohydrate profile, including the production of prebiotic galacto‐oligosaccharides (GOS), which could affect the survival and activity of starter and probiotic cultures and the parameters of yogurt quality. The extension of these changes is dependent on the yogurt matrix composition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lactose hydrolysis on GOS, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties during storage. RESULTS The presence of β‐galactosidase enzyme did not affect neither the global composition nor the survival of cultures. Overall, the hydrolyzed products had lower acidity than traditional ones. GOS were found at similar levels in fresh hydrolyzed yogurts, whereas in traditional yogurts were not detected. The proportion of ketones, acids and aldehydes seems to be more dependent on yogurt variety than the addition of the enzyme. Likewise, the storage period affected the volatile fraction in different degree; the increase in acid compounds was more pronounced in hydrolyzed than traditional yogurts. CONCLUSION This work shows that it is possible to obtain different varieties of reduced‐lactose yogurt, some of them with additional benefits to health such as reduced‐fat, reduced‐calories, added with probiotic/inulin and enriched in GOS, with similar characteristics to traditional products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:10:20.68794-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7870
  • Effect of ultrasonic processing on the changes in activity, aggregation,
           and the secondary and tertiary structure of polyphenol oxidase in oriental
           sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)
    • Authors: Siyu Liu; Yan Liu, Xingjian Huang, Wenjin Yang, Wanfeng Hu, Siyi Pan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Polyphenol oxidase mainly contributes to the browning reaction of fruits and vegetables, and confers serious damages to the quality of sweet melon products. However, traditional methods to inactivate the browning may induce more unexpected risks than ultrasonic processing. Meanwhile there are no reports on the effect of ultrasound on the polyphenol oxidase directly purified from sweet melon. RESULTS In this study, the PPO activity in original juice got less inactivation than the purified form when treated by ultrasound. As for purified PPO, superior to thermal treatment, less heat was needed to inactivate the PPO with ultrasonic treatment. At intensity lower than 200 W, ultrasound did not significantly affect the structure and activity of PPO (P>0.05) and latent PPO activity was activated. At intensity higher than 200 W, ultrasound inactivated PPO, induced aggregation and dissociation of PPO particles, and significantly decreased α‐helix structure content. CONCLUSIONS Low‐frequency high‐intensity ultrasound showed inactivation effect and conformational changes of purified PPO in oriental sweet melons. Changes in the PPO structure induced by ultrasound eventually inactivated PPO activity. Ultrasound may be a potential method to inactivate PPO in oriental sweet melons.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:25.216325-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7869
  • Traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activities of
           Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr
    • Authors: Valeria Romanucci; Giovanni Di Fabio, Daniele D'Alonzo, Annalisa Guaragna, Giovanni Scapagnini, Armando Zarrelli
      Abstract: Sideritis species have been used in folk medicine for their antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, digestive and anti‐inflammatory properties. Over the years, the phytochemistry of the genus Sideritis has been studied, and various terpenoids, sterols, coumarins, and especially flavonoid aglycones and glycosides, have been identified. In particular, species from the Balkan Peninsula have been studied and found to be rich in flavonoids, with valuable antioxidant activity. In the folk medicine of the Balkan countries, Sideritis raeseri is used as an herbal tea in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, and coughs and as a tonic, while extracts are used as a component of dietary supplements for anaemia. Its dried inflorescences are used to prepare a beverage called Mountain tea. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry, pharmacological properties and commercial value of Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., we have undertaken this review in an effort to summarise the available literature on these plants. The review will detail the chemical composition of the essential oil, its mineral and polyphenol content, the naming of these plants and their physicochemical characterisation, and NMR spectral data and biological properties associated with the plant extracts, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:23.052975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7867
  • Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on growth
           performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial and noxious gas
           emission in weaning pigs
    • Authors: Ruixia Lan; Jinmo Koo, Inho Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock have been banned in European Union since 2006. Antibiotics alternatives have focused on probiotics, such as L. acidophilus. The concentration of L. acidophilus is considered crucial to obtain the desired effects. However, limited studies have conducted to test the dose dependent effects of L. acidophilus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the dose dependent effects of L. acidophilus on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial flora, and fecal noxious gas emission in weaning pig. RESULTS L. acidophilus supplementation increased (P
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:21.116539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7866
  • In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation,
           levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen
    • Authors: Shengyong Mao; Wenjie Huo, Junhua Liu, Ruiyang Zhang, Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diets containing high levels of carbohydrates provoke a fast decrease of rumen pH and high levels of biogenic amines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which severely impair the health and performance of ruminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (BC) buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota using in vitro rumen cultures. RESULTS Sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the final pH levels and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and LPS, as well as the proportions of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate, and it decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of butyrate and the levels of lactic acid, methylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16 s rRNA gene showed that BC inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the bacterial diversity index compared with the control. Adding BC also decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Butyrivibrio and increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio, and Prevotella. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate supplementation has beneficial effects in the reduction of bioamine levels and the increase in ruminal pH, and in modifying the microbial ecology of the rumen; however, it results in an accumulation of LPS under high‐grain diet conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:00:22.177993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7861
  • Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance, and
           some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of
           metabolizable energy
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND High‐energy diets of laying hens may improve the productive performance but some negative effects may also appear on egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. RESULTS Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality through improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:25:35.534333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7862
  • Ascorbate pool, sugars and organic acids in black currant (Ribes nigrum
           L.) berries are strongly influenced by genotype and post‐flowering
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Marked effects of the climatic environment on fruit chemical composition has often been demonstrated in field experiments. However, complex covariations of several climatic factors in the natural environment complicates the interpretation of such experiments and the identification of the causal factors. This can better be done in a phytotron where the various climatic factors can be varied systematically. Therefore, we grew four black currant cultivars of contrasting origin in a phytotron under controlled post‐flowering temperature and photoperiod conditions and analysed the berries for their contents of ascorbic acids, sugars and organic acids. RESULTS The analyses revealed significant effects of genotype on all investigated compounds. Particularly large cultivar differences were observed in the concentrations of L‐ascorbic acid (AA) and sucrose. The concentrations of both AA and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), as well as the concentrations of all major sugars decreased consistently with increasing temperature over the 12 ‐ 24 °C range. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars with concentrations several fold higher than those for sucrose. AA was the main contributor to the total ascorbate pool in black currant berries, the AA/DHAA ratio varied from 5.6 to 10.3 among the studied cultivars. The concentration of citric acid, which was the predominant organic acid in black currant berries, increased with increasing temperature, while the opposite trend was observed for malic and shikimic acid. Quninic acid was always present at relatively low concentrations. On the other hand, photoperiod had no significant effect on berry content of any of the investigated compounds. CONCLUSION It is concluded that post‐flowering temperature has marked effects on the concentration of important chemical compounds responsible for taste and nutritional value of black currant berries, whereas photoperiod has no such effect in the studied cultivars.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:25:26.027566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7864
  • Sodium alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose films containing pyrogallic
           acid:Physical and antibacterial properties
    • Authors: Yingying Han; Lijuan Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibacterial films were prepared by using sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a matrix, glycerin as plasticizer, and CaCl2 as a cross‐linking agent, and by incorporating the natural antibacterial agent pyrogallic acid (PA). The present study describes the microstructure and the physical, barrier, mechanical, optical, and antibacterial properties of blended films prepared by incorporating different concentrations of PA into the SA/CMC matrix. RESULTS The microstructure of the films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that PA interacts with the SA/CMC matrix through hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the incorporation of PA increased the moisture content, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability of SA/CMC films. Films containing 40 g kg‐1 of PA had the highest elongation at break result, at 39.60%. Compared with pure SA/CMC films, the incorporation of PA improved the barrier properties against UV light; however, it decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the films. Furthermore, films with PA, especially at higher concentrations, were more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION Antibacterial SA/CMC films incorporated with PA are promising and have good potential to enhance the safety of foods and food products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:21:20.881361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7863
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Ochratoxin A Contamination in
           Green Coffee Beans using Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    • Authors: Panchita Taradolsirithitikul; Panmanas Sirisomboon, Cheewanun Dachoupakan Sirisomboon
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination is highly prevalent in a variety of agricultural products including the commercially important coffee bean. As such rapid and accurate detection methods are considered necessary for the identification of OTA in green coffee beans. The goal of this research was to apply FT‐NIR spectroscopy to detect and classify OTA contamination in green coffee beans in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. RESULTS PLSR models were generated using pretreated spectroscopic data to predict the OTA concentration. The best model displayed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814, a standard error of prediction (SEP) and bias of 1.965 µg kg‐1 and 0.358 µg kg‐1, respectively. Additionally, a PLS‐DA model was also generated, displaying a classification accuracy of 96.83% for non OTA contaminated model and 80.95% for OTA contaminated model, with an overall classification accuracy of 88.89%. CONCLUSION The results demonstrate that the developed model could be used for detecting OTA contamination in green coffee beans in either a quantitative or qualitative manner.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:40:51.414093-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7859
  • Nebulized water cooling of the canopy affects leaf temperature, berry
           composition and wine quality of Sauvignon blanc
    • Authors: P. Paciello; F. Mencarelli, A. Palliotti, B. Ceccantoni, C. Thibon, P. Darriet, M. Pasquini, A. Bellincontro
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present paper details a new technique based on spraying nebulized water on vine canopy to counteract the negative impact of the current wave of hot summers with temperatures above 30 °C which usually determine a negative effects on vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. RESULTS the automatized spraying system was able to maintain air temperature at below 30 °C (the threshold temperature to start spraying) for all of August 2013, when in the canopy of uncooled vines the temperature was as high as 36 °C. The maintenance of temperature below 30 °C reduced leaf stress linked to high temperature and irradiance regimes as highlighted by the decrease of H2O2 content and catalase activity in the leaves. A higher amount of total polyphenols and organic acids and lower sugars characterized the grapes of cooled vines. Wine from these grapes had a higher content of some volatile thiols like 3‐sulfanylhexanol (3SH), and 3‐sulfanylhexylacetate (3SHA) and lower content of 4‐methyl‐4‐sulfanylpentan‐2‐one (4MSP). CONCLUSION: in conditions of high temperature and irradiance regimes, water nebulization on the vine canopy can represent a valid solution to reduce and/or avoid oxidative stress and associated effects in the leaves, ensure a regular berry ripening and maintain high wine quality. The consumption of water during nebulization was acceptable, being 180 L ha‐1 min‐1 which lasted an average of about 1 min to reduce the temperature below the threshold value of 30 °C. A total of 85‐90 hectoliters (from 0.8 to 0.9 mm) of water per hectare per day was required.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:40:50.393017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7860
  • Relationships between botanical and chemical composition of forages: a
           multivariate approach to grasslands in the Western Italian Alps
    • Authors: Simone Ravetto Enri; Manuela Renna, Massimiliano Probo, Carola Lussiana, Luca M Battaglini, Michele Lonati, Giampiero Lombardi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Plant composition of species‐rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituent and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi‐natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps. RESULTS Mesophilic and dry grasslands were comparable in terms of phenology, biodiversity indices and proportion of botanical families. The content of total fatty acids and that of the most abundant fatty acids (alpha‐linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acids) were mainly associated to nutrient‐rich plant species, belonging to the mesophilic grassland ecological group. Mesophilic grasslands showed also higher values of crude protein, lower values of fibre content and they were related to higher pastoral values of vegetation compared to dry grasslands. The proximate composition and fatty acid profile appeared mainly single species dependent rather than botanical family dependent. CONCLUSION These findings highlight that forage from mesophilic grasslands can provide higher nutritive value for ruminants and may be associated to ruminant‐derived food products with a healthier fatty acid profile.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:30:46.55148-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7858
  • Optimum Condition of Producing Crisp Osmotic Banana Using Superheated
           Steam Puffing
    • Authors: Surapit Tabtiang; Somkiat Prachayawarakon, Somchart Soponronnarit
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Puffing can improve textural property of snacks. Nevertheless, high temperature puffing accelerates non‐enzymatic browning reactions. The osmotic treatment using sucrose solution potentially retards the browning, but the high amount of sucrose gain causes hard texture. The objective of this work was therefore to study the effects of osmotic time, puffing time and puffing temperature on banana qualities such as colour, shrinkage and textural property. RESULTS The experimental results showed that puffing temperature, puffing time and osmotic time significantly affected colour, shrinkage and textual properties. CONCLUSION The optimization using response surface methodology was used for a trade‐off between colour and textural properties. To obtain a good quality product, the puffed osmotic banana should be operated at the osmotic time of 43 min and puffing temperature of 220 °C and puffing time of 2 min.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T09:46:12.62292-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7857
  • Optimal pretreatment determination of kiwifruit drying via online
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Pre‐treating is a crucial stage of drying process. The best pretreatment for hot air drying of kiwifruit was investigated using a computer vision system (CVS), for online monitoring of drying attributes including drying time, color changes and shrinkage, as decision criteria and using clustering method. Slices were dried at 70 °C with hot water blanching (HWB), steam blanching (SB), infrared blanching (IR) and acid ascorbic 1% w/w (AA) as pretreatments each with three durations of 5, 10 and 15 min. RESULTS The results showed that the cells in HWB‐pretreated samples stretched without any cell wall rupture, while the highest damage was observed in AA‐pretreated kiwifruit microstructure. Increasing duration of AA and HWB significantly lengthened the drying time while SB showed opposite results. The drying rate had a profound effect on the progression of the shrinkage. The total color change of pretreated samples was higher than those with no pretreatment except for AA and HWB. The AA could well prevent color change during the initial stage of drying. Among all pretreatments, SB and IR had the highest color changes. CONCLUSION It is concluded that HWB with duration of 5 min is the optimum pretreatment method for kiwifruit drying.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T09:46:03.489117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7856
  • Viscoelastic properties evaluation of conditioned wheat kernels and their
           doughs using a compression test under small strain
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this research was to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of conditioned wheat kernels and their doughs by applying the compression test under a small strain. Conditioned wheat kernels and their doughs, from soft and hard wheat classes were evaluated for total work (Wt), elastic work (We) and plastic work (Wp). RESULTS Soft wheat kernels showed lower We than Wp, while the hard wheat kernels had a We that was higher than Wp. Regarding dough viscoelasticity, cultivars from soft and hard wheat showed higher Wp than We. The degree of elasticity (DE%) of the conditioned wheat kernel related to its dough decreased ~46% in both wheat classes. The Wt, We and Wp from the soft wheat kernel and dough correlated with physicochemical and farinographic flour tests. The Wt, Wp and the maximum compression force (Fmax) of the dough from hard wheat class presented highly significant negative correlations with wet gluten. CONCLUSION The viscoelasticity parameters from compression test presented significant differences among conditioned wheat classes and their doughs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T09:31:24.734426-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7855
  • Combined Effects of Wx and SSIIa Haplotypes on Rice Starch Physicochemical
    • Authors: Xunchao Xiang; Cuifang Kang, Shunju Xu, Bowen Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wx and SSIIa are central genes for determining starch physicochemical properties and rice endosperm starch is composed of linear amylose, which is entirely synthesized by granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI, encoded by Wx) and branched amylopectin. In this study, different hanplotypes of rice were examined to investigate combined effects of pivotal genes in the metabolic chain of starch, Wx and SSIIa. RESULTS Wx haplotypes differed in terms of apparent amylose content (AAC) and gel consistency (GC). The I‐3 [haplotype I (Int1T/Ex10C) of Wx and haplotype 3 (A‐G‐TT) of SSIIa] and the I‐4 combinations of rice had better eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) with lower AAC, lower gelatinization temperature (GT) and softer GC. CONCLUSION The characteristic parameters of RVA could distinguish differences in AAC and GC, but not GT. The I‐3 and I‐4 haplotype combinations of Wx and SSIIa represent key targets for the production of rice with better ECQs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:45.635797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7854
  • Physicochemical, Agronomical and Microbiological Evaluation of Alternative
    • Authors: Francesco Di Gioia; Palmira De Bellis, Carlo Mininni, Pietro Santamaria, Francesco Serio
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Peat‐based mixes and synthetic mats are the main substrates used for microgreens production. However, both are expensive and non‐renewable. Recycled fibrous materials may be low‐cost and renewable alternative substrates. Recycled textile‐fiber (TF, polyester, cotton and polyurethane traces) and jute‐kenaf‐fiber (JKF, 85% jute‐, 15% kenaf‐fibers) mats were characterized and compared to peat and Sure‐to‐Grow® (STG, 100% polyethylene‐terephthalate) for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.; Broccoletto group) microgreens. RESULTS All substrates had suitable physicochemical properties for the production of microgreens. Microgreens fresh‐yield was on average 1,502 g m−2 in peat, TF and JKF, and was 13.1% lower with STG. Peat‐grown microgreens shoots had higher concentration of K+ and SO42−, and two‐fold higher NO3− concentration [1,959 vs 940 mg kg−1 of fresh weight (FW)] than those grown on STG, TF, and JKF. At harvest, substrates did not influence microgreens aerobic‐bacterial populations (log 6.48 CFU g−1 FW). Peat‐ and JKF‐grown microgreens had higher yeast‐mould counts than TF‐ and STG‐microgreens (log 2.64 vs 1.80 CFU g−1 FW). Peat‐grown microgreens had the highest population of Enterobacteriaceae (log 5.46 ± 0.82 CFU g−1), and E. coli (log 1.46 ± 0.15 CFU g−1). E. coli was not detected in microgreens grown on other media. CONCLUSION TF and JKF may be valid alternatives to peat and STG, as both assured competitive yield, low nitrate content, and similar or higher microbiological quality.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:38.233283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7852
  • Reveal interrelationship between processing‐induced molecular
           structure features and metabolic and digestive characteristics in hulled
           and hulless barley (hordeum vulgare) grains with altered carbohydrate
    • Authors: Xiaogang Yan; Fangyu Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains in relation to truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. Samples from hulled and hulless cultivars of barley, harvested in consecutive years from four replicate plots, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated with microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). The truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems was evaluated with the DVE/OEB system. The processing molecular structure changes were revealed by vibrational molecular spectroscopy in mid‐infrared EM radiation region (VMS). RESULTS Compared to the raw, the MIR processing decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:34.315703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7851
  • Preharvest Salicylic Acid and Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatments Preserve
           Quality and Enhance Antioxidant Systems during Postharvest Storage of
           Sweet Cherry Cultivars
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Sweet cherries are very appreciated by consumers due to its organoleptic quality attributes and antioxidant properties, although they deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Different preharvest strategies have been carried out to increase their quality at time of harvest. We present data for the first time regarding the effect of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) treatments on sweet cherry quality during postharvest storage. RESULTS At harvest and during postharvest storage sweet cherry fruits (‘Sweet Heart’, ‘Sweet Late’ and ‘Lapins’) from SA (0.5 mM) and ASA (1 mM) treated trees had higher colour (lower chroma index), firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolics, total anthocyanins and hydrophilic total antioxidant activity (H‐TAA). In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase was also enhanced in SA‐ and ASA‐treated cherries. CONCLUSION Both SA and ASA preharvest treatments could be promising tools for improving sweet cherry quality at harvest and after storage, with an additional effect on delaying the postharvest ripening process throughout increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:31.974123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7853
  • Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout
           bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
    • Authors: Li Wang; Chuanyue Chen, Wanjing Liu, Hu Xia, Jian Li, Xuezhen Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of organic biomass with cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. Ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia cause grave hazards to fish. The present study tried to assess the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). RESULTS Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impacts on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, but significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness, gumminess and increased fillet ultimate pH (pHu) as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH (pHi), thaw loss and protein carbonyl content while ammonia exposure didn't. CONCLUSION These results indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:45:50.158043-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7850
  • Health Beneficial Properties of Potato and Compounds of Interest
    • Authors: Visvanathan Rizliya; Jayathilake Chatuni, Jayawardana Barana, Liyanage Ruvini
      Abstract: Potatoes have shown promising health promoting properties in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies including antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antiobesity, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. Compounds present such as the phenolics, fiber, starch, and proteins as well the compounds considered antinutritional such as glycoalkaloids, lectins and proteinase inhibitors are believed to contribute to the health benefits of potatoes. However, epidemiologic studies exploring the role of potatoes in human health have been inconclusive. Some studies support a protective effect of potato consumption in weight management and diabetes while other studies demonstrate no effect, and a few studies suggest a negative effect. Because there are many biological activities attributed to the compounds present in potato, some of which could be beneficial or detrimental depending on specific circumstances, a long term study investigating the association between potato consumption and diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer while controlling for fat intake is needed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T04:00:34.180012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7848
  • Effect of added nitrogen fertilizer on pyrazines of roasted chicory
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The coffee substitutes made of roasted chicory are affected by the formation of acrylamide whose main precursor is asparagine. One of the strategies for limiting the formation of acrylamide is to reduce free asparagine in the chicory roots by lessening the supply of nitrogen in the field. However, decreasing nitrogen fertilizer could affect the formation of the volatile compounds and, as a consequence, the sensory characteristics of the roasted chicory. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen supply in five commercial varieties on their aroma profile. RESULTS The addition of 120 kg ha−1 of nitrogen fertilizer in the field resulted in a greater amount of pyrazines in the roasted chicory. Triangle tests were performed to determine the effect of the nitrogen level on the sensory quality of the five varieties. The results revealed that the chicory aroma was modified in two out of five varieties. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the strategy to limit the amount of acrylamide could affect the sensory quality of some varieties of chicory. Further acceptance tests need to be conducted to assess the effect, whether favourable or otherwise, on the sensory quality of the coffee substitutes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:53.89509-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7845
  • Inactivation kinetics of invertase in honey and honey‐glucose syrup
           formulations: effects of temperature and water activity
    • Authors: M Sramek; B Woerz, H Horn, J Weiss, R Kohlus
      Abstract: BACKROUND Honey in natural state causes due to its high viscosity and stickiness handling difficulties, therefore demand on honey powder is continuously increasing. Powder preparation has to be performed gently to preserve thermo‐ and oxidative sensitive nature of honey. The aim of our study was to determine degradation of invertase during drying, which was an indirect measure for retention of honey valuable nutrients. RESULTS The reaction kinetics were estimated in polyfloral honey and honey‐glucose syrup (GS) formulation and the impact of temperature (40 – 70 °C) and water activity aw (0.23 – 0.81) was established. The honey‐GS formulation (55:45 w/w) was intended for preparation of high‐grade honey powders using the vacuum‐drying method. Invertase inactivation at temperatures below 60 °C followed first order kinetics. At 60 °C high dilutions (aw = 0.81) and at 70 °C heterogeneous inactivation behaviour was observed. The best fit of invertase heterogeneous inactivation kinetic was achieved with the Cerf two fraction model. The GS‐addition showed a stabilizing effect on invertase during thermal degradation. CONCLUSION The data on invertase inactivation gathered here can be utilised to select optimal parameters for honey vacuum‐drying and other thermal processes in order to achieve maximum invertase retention.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:50.163882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7846
  • Freshwater Clam extract supplementation improves wound healing by
           decreasing TNF alpha level in blood
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The freshwater clam (Corbicula Fluminea) is a widely consumed functional food in Asia and is traditionally used to improve health and either prevent or treat inflammation related diseases. Numerous studies have proposed that freshwater clams act to prevent and attenuate inflammatory responses, and serve as a possible inhibitor to systemic inflammation. However, there is limited information about the effects of freshwater clams on wound healing. RESULTS Our study investigated the influence of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on wound healing and inflammatory responses in a cutaneous incision model. Sixteen rats were used and divided into two groups: the FCE group and the normal saline (NS) group. The rats underwent dorsal full‐thickness skin excisional wounds (20 × 10 mm in diameter). FCE or NS was administered for oral feeding twice daily for 14 days after wounding. Blood samples were taken and analyzed, and wound areas were measured at several time points during the two weeks after excision. On day 14 after wounding, skin biopsies from the wound sites were sent for histological examination. Treatment with FCE (71.63  ±9.51 pg/mL) decreased TNF‐α levels compared with the NS group (109.86 ± 12.55 pg/mL) after wounding at 3 h (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of WBC, IL‐6, or IL‐10. The wound areas of the NS group (23.9%) were larger than those in the FCE group (8.26%) on day 14 (P < 0.05). Numerous fibroblasts and collagen fiber organization were observed in the FCE group. CONCLUSION FCE supplementation improves the wound healing process.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:48.139282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7849
  • Viable bacterial population and persistence of foodborne pathogens on the
           pear carpoplane
    • Authors: Francois J. Duvenage; Stacey Duvenage, Erika M. Du Plessis, Quinton Volschenk, Lise Korsten
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Knowledge on the culturable bacteria and foodborne pathogen presence on pears is important to understand the impact of postharvest practices on food safety assurance. Pear fruit bacteria were investigated from the point of harvest, following chlorine drenching and after controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to assess the impact on the natural bacterial populations and potential foodborne pathogens. RESULTS Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected on freshly harvested fruit in Season 1. During season one chemical drenching and CA storage did not have a significant effect on the bacterial load of orchard pears, except for two farms where the populations were lower “after CA storage”. During season two bacterial populations of orchard pears from three of the four farms increased significantly following drenching, however the bacterial load decreased “after CA storage”. Bacteria isolated following enumeration included Enterobacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Bacillaceae, with richness decreasing “after drench” and “after CA storage”. CONCLUSION Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not detected after postharvest practices. Postharvest practices resulted in decreased bacterial species richness. Understanding how postharvest practices impact on the viable bacterial populations of pear fruit will contribute to develop crop specific management systems for food safety assurance.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:44.620895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7847
  • The kinetic of key phytochemical compounds of non heading and heading
           leafy Brassica oleracea landraces as affected by traditional cooking
    • Authors: Elisa Giambanelli; Ruud Verkerk, L. Filippo D'Antuono, Teresa Oliviero
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Kales are often a key ingredient of traditional foods, containing high amount of indolic glucosinolates (precursors of indole‐3‐carbinol and ascorbigen), carotenoids and phenolics. The present trend to associate traditional foods crops with health promoting properties, suggested to investigate the degradation kinetic of three Brassica oleracea landraces’ phytochemicals, subjected to boiling, steaming and stir frying. RESULTS Boiling determined substantial losses, due to leaching. Glucosinolates followed a second order degradation kinetic (20% of their initial values after 10 minutes in Nero di Toscana). Phenolic content in leaves + cooking water remained unchanged, whereas however, their antioxidant capacity was reduced. Carotenoid content increased during the first minutes of boiling. Steaming showed the highest retention of phytochemicals, with often zero order degradation kinetic, having however a strong effect on colour. Stir frying produced high losses for all measured compounds; also β‐carotene reduced its content to 10‐23%, independently on variety. Conversion values for indole‐derived compounds ranged from non‐detectable to 23.5%. CONCLUSION Variety strongly affected observed degradation rates, because of a different glucosinolate composition and leaf structure. With this research more information are gained on the kinetic degradation of Brassica oleracea landraces’ phytochemical compounds upon cooking, highlighting the possibility of improving bioactive component retention.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:42.340339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7844
  • Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis
           in pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition
    • Authors: Magaji G. Usman; Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohammad Y. Martini, Yusuff Oladosu, Pedram Kashiani
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in breeding program. Experiment was carried out to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and work out direct and indirect effects of yield‐related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty‐six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. RESULTS Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (p 
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:56:41.300086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7843
  • Effects of long‐term intake of Antarctic krill oils on artery blood
           pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in research of krill oil (KO) for its health benefits. However, the action of KO on lowering blood pressure (BP) has not been studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the ability of long‐term KO supplementation to lower systolic BP (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. RESULTS When compared to the blank control (BC) SHR administered with edible soybean oil, the high‐dose (500 mg kg−1 BW) KO‐supplemented SHR on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th week following oral administration, the mid‐dose (100 mg kg−1 BW) KO‐supplemented SHR on the 4th and 5th week following oral administration, and the low‐dose (20 mg kg−1 BW) KO‐supplemented SHR on the 5th week following oral administration showed significantly lower SBP (P < 0.05). However, the supplementation of KO had no significant effect on the SBP of healthy SD rats. Meanwhile, the five weeks of KO administration significantly increased the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and total NO synthase of SHR (P < 0.05). CONLUSION KO has an antihypertensive effect in SHR that is associated with a NO‐related mechanism.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:50:49.222929-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7840
  • Intervention of pumpkin seed oil on metabolic disease revealed by
           metabonomics and transcript profile
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Understanding the metabolic and transcription basis of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) intervention on metabolic disease (MD) is essential to daily nutrition and health. RESULTS Here, we analyzed the liver metabolic variations from Wistar rats with normal diet (CON), high fat diet (HFD) and high fat plus PSO diet (PSO) to establish the relationship between the liver metabolite compositions/transcript profile and the effects of PSO on MD. By using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy accompanied with multivariate data analysis, we found that compared with CON, the HFD rats showed clear dysfunctions of choline metabolism, glucose metabolism, nucleotide and amino acid metabolisms. Using qPCR, we found that compared with HFD, the PSO rats showed alleviated endoplasmic reticulum stress, accompanied by lowered unfolded protein response. CONCLUSION These findings provide useful information to understand the metabolic alterations triggered by MD and to evaluate the effects of PSO intervention.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:50:40.938341-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7842
  • Isolation and evaluation of endophytic Streptomyces endus OsiSh‐2
           with potential application for biocontrol of rice blast disease
    • Authors: Ting Xu; Yan Li, Xiadong Zeng, Xiaolu Yang, Yuanzhu Yang, Shanshan Yuan, Xiaochun Hu, Jiarui Zeng, Zhenzhen Wang, Qian Liu, Yuqing Liu, Hongdong Liao, Chunyi Tong, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biocontrol is a promising strategy in the control of rice blast disease. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel antagonist to the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae from rice endophytic actinomycetes. RESULTS Out of 482 endophytic actinomycetes isolated from rice blast infected and healthy rice, Streptomyces endus OsiSh‐2, exhibited a remarkable in vitro antagonistic activity. Scanning electron microscopy observation of M.oryzae treated by OsiSh‐2 revealed significant morphological alterations in hyphae. In two‐year's field tests, spraying OsiSh‐2 spore solution (107 spores mL−1) is capable of reducing rice blast disease severity by 59.64%. In addition, both fermentation broth of OsiSh‐2 and its cell‐free filtrates could inhibit growth of M.oryzae, suggesting the presence of active enzymes and secondary metabolites. OsiSh‐2 is tested positive for PKS‐I and NRPS genes and can produce cellulase, protease, gelatinase, siderophore, IAA and ACC deaminase. Preliminary separation indicated that the methanol extract of OsiSh‐2 could suppress growth of pathogen; its major active component was identified as nigericin. CONCLUSION Endophytic Streptomyces endus OsiSh‐2 has potential as a biocontrol agent against rice blast in agriculture.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:50:33.079226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7841
  • Structural characterization and bioactivity of proanthocyanidins from
           indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Barks and twigs of common species of cinnamon with abundant proanthocyanidins are used as a spice, fold medicine or supplement. Cinnamomum osmophloeum is an endemic species in Taiwan and coumarin was not detected in the oil of the C. osmophloeum twig. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the bioactivities and proanthocyanidins of C. osmophloeum twig extracts (CoTE). The n‐butanol soluble fraction from CoTE was divided into 10 subfractions (F1–F10) by Sephadex LH‐20 gel chromatography. The antihyperglycemic activities were examined by α‐glucosidase, α‐amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory assays. Total antioxidant activities were examined by 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and ferrous ion‐chelating assays. RESULTS The results revealed that subfractions F6–F10, with high proanthocyanidin contents, showed excellent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Subfractions F6–F10 were analyzed further by matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization‐time of flight/mass spectrometry and thiolysis‐reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. The results showed that the mean degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins in subfractions F6–F10 ranged from 3.5 to 5.1, with the highest degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins reaching 8 in subfractions F8–F10. Two compounds in F6 were identified as cinnamtannin B1 and parameritannin A1. These proanthocyanidins contained at least one A‐type and major B‐type linkages. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that proanthocyanidins are associated with their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in CoTE. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T03:00:30.431621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7802
  • Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its
           effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. RESULTS The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g−1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography‐mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p‐anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. CONCLUSION The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T02:35:27.42363-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7808
  • Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α‐tocopherol, and
           ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince
           (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage
    • Authors: Tiantian Wang; Zhenxing Li, Fangzhou Yuan, Tushar Ramesh Pavase
      Abstract: Background Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α‐tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at −18 °C were investigated. Results All added antioxidants at 1 g kg−1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α‐tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca2+‐ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. Conclusion These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α‐tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:42:26.844229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7835
  • Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: The
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physicochemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA‐5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. RESULTS The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log cfu ml−1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavour, colour and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. CONCLUSION The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:42:25.803355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7836
  • Studies on optimum harvest time for hybrid rice seed
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Timely harvest is critical for hybrid rice to achieve maximum seed viability, vigor and yield. However, how to predict the optimum harvest time has been rarely reported so far. RESULTS The seed vigor of Zhuliangyou 06 (ZLY06) increased and reached the highest level at 20 days after pollination (DAP), when seed moisture content had the lower value and kept it until final seed maturation. For Chunyou 84 (CY84), seed vigor, fresh and dry weight had relatively high values at 25 DAP, when seed moisture content reached the lowest value and changed slightly from 25 to 55 DAP. In both hybrid rice varieties, seed glume chlorophyll content declined rapidly from 10 to 30 DAP and kept very low level after 35 DAP. Starch content exhibited an increasing trend during seed maturation; while both of soluble sugar content and amylase activity decreased significantly at early stages of seed development. Moreover, correlation analyses showed that seed dry weight, starch content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity had significantly positive correlation with seed vigor. In contrast, chlorophyll content, moisture content, soluble sugar, soluble protein, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA3) content, electrical conductivity (EC), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were significantly negative correlated with seed vigor. Physiological and biochemical parameters related obviously closer with seed vigor than seed germinability during seed development. CONCLUSION Seed vigor could be better used as comprehensive factor to predict the optimum seed harvest time. It suggested that for ZLY06, seeds could be harvested as early as 20 DAP; while for CY84, the earliest optimum harvest time was 25 DAP.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:42:00.691464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7838
  • Effects of water stress on the composition and immunoreactive properties
           of gliadins from two wheat cultivars Nawra and Tonacja
    • Authors: Bartosz Brzozowski; Katarzyna Stasiewicz
      Abstract: Background Water shortage during wheat vegetation causes changes in the composition of gliadins in grains, which can lead to changes in their immunoreactive properties. Results The investigated wheat cultivars exposed to water stress accumulated significantly lower amounts (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:41:58.941348-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7839
  • Effects of nano‐TiO2‐LDPE packaging on postharvest quality and
           antioxidant capacity of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) stored at
           refrigeration temperature
    • Authors: Dongdong Li; Qingyang Ye, Lei Jiang, Zisheng Luo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Nano‐TiO2‐low density polyethylene (NTLDPE) packaging was prepared, and the effects of NTLDPE packaging on quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits were investigated. RESULTS With increased barrier properties, NTLDPE packaging quickly formed a relative lower O2 and higher CO2 air composition in comparison with LDPE. It was also more efficient in maintaining the overall quality of strawberry fruit, as reflected by lower decay rate and weight loss, as well as retarding the decrease in firmness and titratable acid. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in NTLDPE‐packed fruits were 10.8% and 21.9% lower, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in ROS scavenging in NTLDPE‐packed fruits were significantly higher at the later period of storage time. Anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited, whereas ascorbic acid and total phenolics contents were better retained and 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 13.2% higher in NTLDPE‐packed fruit by the end of storage. CONCLUSION These data indicate that the beneficial effects of NTLDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry are probably associated with the promotion of ROS scavenging and related antioxidant enzyme activities, and NTLDPE packaging together with refrigeration storage is a promising way for strawberry fruit preservation.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:37:16.65139-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7837
  • The effect of Pentosanase on the solubilization and degradation of
           Arabinoxylan extracted from whole and refined wheat flour
    • Authors: Wei Yang; Zhijian Jiang, Liya Liu, Yanjun Lin, Li Wang, Sumei Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The quality improvement capability of Pentosanase (Pn) for whole wheat Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is not as efficient as that for refined CSB. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this work, water‐extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and water‐unextractable solids (WUS) were extracted from whole and refined wheat flour, and then treated with Pn under the conditions similar to CSB‐making. Solubilization and degradation of arabinoxylan (AX) caused by Pn treatment were determined. RESULTS WEAX from whole flour exhibited higher molecular weight than that from refined flour before and after the treatment with equivalent Pn. Compared with WUS from refined flour, WUS from whole flour had a much lower dissolution degree but the degradation of AX released from the WUS was more efficiently. Moreover, AX released from WUS for refined flour showed a higher Ara/Xyl ratio and the percentage of residual ferulic acid in WUS decreased more significantly. CONCLUSION The difference in quality improvement degree for Pn in whole wheat and refined CSB might be mainly explained by its effect on WUS. That is Pn contributed much more to the solubilization of WUS from refined flour but provoked degradation predominantly on AX solubilized from WUS isolated from whole flour.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T04:15:37.777343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7833
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) applied to the generation of casein
           hydrolysates with antioxidant and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP‐IV)
           inhibitory properties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Hydrolysis parameters affecting the release of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP‐IV) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides from milk proteins have not been extensively studied. Therefore, a multifactorial (i.e., pH, temperature and hydrolysis time) composite design was used to optimise the release of bioactive peptides (BAPs) with DPP‐IV inhibitory and antioxidant (oxygen radical absorbance capacity ‐ ORAC) properties from sodium caseinate (NaCN). RESULTS Fifteen NaCN hydrolysates (H1‐H15) were generated with ProtamexTM, a bacillus proteinase activity. Hydrolysis time (1 to 5 h) had the highest influence on both DPP‐IV inhibitory properties and ORAC activity (p < 0.05). Alteration of incubation temperature (40 to 60 °C) and pH (6.5 to 8.0) had an effect on the DPP‐IV inhibitory properties but not the ORAC activity of the Protamex NaCN hydrolysates. A multifunctional hydrolysate, H12, was identified having DPP‐IV inhibitory (actual: 0.82 ± 0.24 vs. predicted: 0.68 mg mL−1) and ORAC (actual: 639 ± 66 vs. predicted: 639 µmol TE g−1) activity of the same order (p > 0.05) as the response surface methodology (RSM) predicted optimum bioactivities. CONCLUSION Generation of milk protein hydrolysates through multifactorial design approaches may aid in the optimal enzymatic release of BAPs with serum glucose lowering and antioxidant properties.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T04:15:34.574482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7834
  • Interaction of light quality and fertility on biomass, shoot pigmentation
           and xanthophyll cycle flux in Chinese kale
    • Authors: Dean A Kopsell; Carl E Sams, Robert C Morrow
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Nutritionally important carotenoids in 21‐day‐old brassica microgreens increase following short and long‐term exposure to narrow‐band wavelengths from light‐emitting diodes (LED). The present study aimed to measure the impact of: (1) fluorescent/incandescent light and different percentages of blue/red LED light and (2) different levels of nutrient fertility on biomass and pigment concentrations in 30‐day‐old ‘Green Lance’ Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra). Kale plants were exposed to four light treatments and two fertility levels and were harvested 30 days after seeding and analyzed for nutritionally important shoot pigments. RESULTS Kale under the fluorescent/incandescent light treatment had a significantly higher shoot fresh and dry mass. The shoot tissue concentrations of most pigment were significantly higher under blue/red LED light treatments. The higher fertility level resulted in higher concentrations for most pigments. Interestingly, the pool of xanthophyll cycle pigments and de‐epoxidized xanthophylls was higher under all LED treatments. CONCLUSION The results obtained in the present study support previous data demonstrating the stimulation of nutritionally important shoot tissue pigment concentrations following exposure to sole source blue/red LEDs compared to traditional lighting. Xanthophyll cycle flux was impacted by LEDs and this may support the role of zeaxanthin in blue light perception in leafy specialty crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T02:21:00.41887-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7814
  • Non‐destructive evaluation of bacteria‐infected watermelon
           seeds using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND It is needed to minimize the economic damage by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infection seeds such as seedling grow‐out, enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real‐time polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) have a critical drawback that are time‐consuming, labor‐intensive, and destructive procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds. RESULTS A hyperspectral Vis/NIR reflectance imaging system (spectral region of 400–1000 nm) was constructed to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images for 336 bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds which consequently subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) and least‐squares support vector machine (LS‐SVM) to classify bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds from healthy watermelon seeds. The developed system detected bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds with accuracy above 90% (PLS‐DA: 91.7%, LS‐SVM: 90.5%), suggesting that Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system is effective for quarantining bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds. CONCLUSION These results showed it is possible to use Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detection bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds.
      PubDate: 2016-06-06T06:08:49.957892-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7832
  • Sustainable Intensification: A multifaceted, systemic approach to
           international development
    • Authors: Jennifer Himmelstein; Adrian Ares, Emily van Houweling
      Abstract: Sustainable intensification (SI) is a term increasingly used for a type of approach applied to international agricultural projects. Despite its widespread use, many still do not understand or know about the various facets of this composite paradigm. A review of the literature has led to the formalization of three principles, which convey the current characterization of SI‐a whole system, participatory, agroecological approach. Specific examples of potential bottlenecks to the SI approach are cited, as are various technologies and techniques that can be applied to overcome these obstacles. Models of similar, succcessful approaches to agricultural development are examined, along with higher level processes. Additionally, this article explores the desired end points of SI and argues for the inclusion of gender and nutrition, throughout the process. In order to properly apply the SI approach, its various aspects need to be understood and adapted to differential cultural and geographic situations. New modeling systems and examples of effective execution of SI strategies can assist with successful application of the SI paradigm within complex developing communities.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:30:49.248877-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7831
  • Safety assessment of a natural tomato oleoresin containing high amounts of
           Z‐isomers of lycopene prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide
    • Authors: Masaki Honda; Takuma Higashiura, Tetsuya Fukaya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Z‐isomers of lycopene, abundantly present in processed tomato products, are more bioavailable than (all‐E)‐lycopene found predominantly in raw tomatoes. Despite extensive studies on the bioavailability and biological activities of Z‐isomers of lycopene, detailed studies on their safety and toxicology are limited. RESULTS The geno‐, acute, and subacute toxicity of tomato oleoresin that contained high amounts of lycopene Z‐isomers (10.9% lycopene, with 66.3% Z‐isomer content) and was prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. The oleoresin was non‐mutagenic in the Ames test with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The LD50 of the oleoresin in rats, determined by a single‐dose oral test, was more than 5000 mg kg−1 body weight (bw) (361 mg (Z)‐lycopene kg−1 bw). In the 4‐week repeated‐dose oral toxicity test, rats were administered the oleoresin at 4500 mg kg−1 day−1 (325 mg (Z)‐lycopene kg−1 bw day−1). There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs, physical examinations, and laboratory test values during the test period. CONCLUSION Based on our findings and supported by its long history of consumption, tomato oleoresin that contains high amounts of Z‐isomers of lycopene prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide can be considered safe for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:30:45.478684-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7830
  • Effect of ionic strength on the interfacial viscoelasticity and stability
           of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface
    • Authors: Xiaoxiao Tang; Xiuying Qiao, Reinhard Miller, Kang Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The amphiphilic character and surface activity endows silk fibroin the ability to reside at fluid interfaces and effectively stabilize emulsions. However, the influence factors and their actual effects for the interfacial viscoelasticity and stability of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface were less reported. In this paper, effect of ionic strength on the interfacial viscoelasticity, emulsification effectiveness and stability of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface was investigated in detail. RESULTS Higher ion concentration facilitates greater adsorption, stronger molecular interaction and faster structure reorganization of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface, thus causing quicker interfacial saturation adsorption, greater interfacial strength and lower interfacial structural fracture at large deformation. However, the presence of concentrated ions screens charges in silk fibroin molecules, and zeta potential decreases due to the electrostatic screening and ion binding effects, which may result in emulsion droplet coalescence and decrease of emulsion stability. CONCLUSION The positively charged ions significantly affect the interfacial elasticity and stability of silk fibroin layers at the oil/water interface due to the strong electrostatic interactions between counterions and negatively charged groups of silk fibroin.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:30:40.542023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7829
  • Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. This three years’‐work was made in an ‘Arbequina’ orchard (1667 trees ha−1) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year−1 of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replacing 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the virgin olive oils (VOO) extracted were analyzed. RESULTS In general, 30RDI oils had greater contents in pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, in spite of their lower tocopherol contents. FI oils showed higher (E)‐2‐hexenal, 1‐penten‐3‐one, Ocimene, E‐2‐pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents in (E)‐2‐pentenol, and volatile esters. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield nor the rest of quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can override these effects of 30RDI on oil quality.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T03:00:31.228149-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7828
  • Development of soybeans with low P34 allergen protein concentration for
           reduced allergenicity of soy‐foods
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND In soybean, at least 16 seed proteins have been identified as causing allergenic reactions in sensitive individuals. As a soybean genebank accession low in the immunodominant protein P34 (Gly m Bd 30K) has recently been found, introgression of the low‐P34 trait into adapted soybean germplasm has been attempted in order to improve the safety of food products containing soybean protein. Therefore, marker assisted selection and proteomics were applied to identify and characterize low‐P34 soybeans. RESULTS In low‐P34 lines selected from a cross population, concentrations of the P34 protein as identified with a polyclonal antibody were reduced by 50‐70% as compared to P34‐containing controls. Using 2D‐electrophoresis and immunoblotting, the reduction of P34 protein was verified in low‐P34 lines. This result was confirmed by LC‐MS/MS analysis, which revealed either a reduction or complete absence of the authentic P34 protein as suggested from presence or absence of a unique peptide useful for discriminating between conventional and low‐P34 lines. CONCLUSIONS Marker‐assisted selection proved useful for identifying low‐P34 soybean lines for the development of hypoallergenic soy‐foods. The status of the P34 protein in low‐P34 lines needs further characterization. In addition, the food safety relevance of low‐P34 soybeans should be tested in clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T03:00:25.149704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7827
  • Microwave flow and conventional heating effects on the physicochemical
           properties, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of tomato puree
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Thermal processing causes a number of undesirable changes in physicochemical and bioactive properties of tomato products. Microwave (MW) technology is an emergent thermal industrial process that offers a rapid and uniform heating, high energy efficiency, and high overall quality of the final product. The main quality changes of tomato puree after a pasteurization at 96 ± 2 °C for 35 s, provided by a semi industrial continuous microwave oven (MWP) under different doses (low power/long time to high power/short time) or by conventional method (CP) were studied. RESULTS The results showed that all heat treatments reduced color quality, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C, with a greater reduction in CP than in MWP. On the other hand, use of a MWP, in particular, high power/short time (1900 W/180 s, 2700 W/160 s and 3150 W/150 s) enhanced the viscosity, lycopene extraction and decreased the enzyme residual activity better than with CP samples. For tomato puree, polygalacturonase was the more thermos resistant enzyme, and could be used as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency. CONCLUSION MWP was an excellent pasteurization technique that provided tomato puree with improved nutritional quality, reducing process times compared to the standard pasteurization process.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:50.747825-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7824
  • Development of a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody based
           enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of a new
           β‐agonist phenylethanolamine A in food samples
    • Authors: Danni Jiang; Biyun Cao, Meiyu Wang, Hong Yang, Kang Zhao, Jianguo Li, Mingxin Li, Lulu Sun, Anping Deng
      Abstract: BACKGROUND All β‐agonists are banned as feed additives for growth promotion in animals due to toxic effects on human being after consuming the β‐agonist contaminated meats. Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a new emerged β‐agonist. Thus it is required to develop highly sensitive and specific analytical methods for the detection of PA in food samples. In this study, the monoclonal antibody (mAb) against PA was produced by hybridoma technology and used for the development of enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS The IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) of the ELISA using homogeneous combination of coating antigen/antibody for PA were 0.16 ng mL−1 and 0.011 ng mL−1, respectively. The cross‐reactive (CR) values of the assay with fourteen structurally related β‐agonists were lower than 0.59%. Swine liver and meat samples were spiked with PA at different content and analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 91.40–105.51% and intra‐assay coefficients of variation of 1.56–9.92% (n = 3) were obtained. The ELISA for seven spiked samples was confirmed by LC–MS/MS with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9881. CONCLUSION The proposed mAb based‐ELISA exhibited highly sensitive and specific for PA and could be used as a quantitative/screening method for PA analysis in food samples.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:46.977504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7826
  • Unraveling the target genes of RIN transcription factor during tomato
           fruit ripening and softening
    • Authors: Ling Li; Xiaoguang Wang, Xinhua Zhang, Mei Guo, Tieling Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The RIN transcription factor is one of the MADS box family members and predominantly controls fruit ripening. In this study, effort was made to demonstrate the regulation network of RIN transcription factor during tomato fruit ripening and softening. Novel RIN target genes were identified by proteomics, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. RESULTS Over 700 protein spots were achieved by two‐dimensional electrophoresis (2‐DE) and forty‐two of them were finally identified. Among them, 1‐aminocyclopropane‐1‐carboxylate oxidase (LeACO4, ethylene synthesis, Spot 3) and alpha‐galactosidase‐like isoform 2 (α‐Gal, cell wall metabolism, Spot 26) exhibited varied expression levels in different tomato fruit. Particularly high expression levels of LeACO4 and α‐Gal were observed in wild type but not in the rin mutant. Additionally, CArG box, a RIN binding site, was discovered at the promoter regions of both LeACO4 and α‐Gal gene, suggesting that RIN possibly directly regulates their transcriptions, and this assume was further confirmed by EMSA and ChIP assay. CONCLUSION Functional annotations of RIN targeting genes demonstrated the specific role of RIN in the process of fruit ripening and softening, especially on cell wall degradation and ethylene biosynthesis. This study will further illuminate the mechanism of tomato ripening and softening.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:29.514235-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7825
  • Effect of elicitors on the evolution of grape phenolic compounds during
           ripening period
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of the application of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ) at veraison on the phenolic composition of grapes from three varieties (Monastrell, Syrah and Merlot) was studied during the ripening period, using HPLC techniques to measure flavonols, anthocyanins and tannins . RESULTS The effects of the treatments differed in the three varieties, and the maximum concentration of phenolic compounds was not always reached at the end of the ripening period but some days before harvest. At the end of ripening boht treated Syrah grapes only differed from control grapes in the flavonol concentration, whereas MeJ‐treated Merlot grapes presented higher anthocyanin and skin tannin contents than the control and BTH‐treated grapes. Only the anthocyanin content was significantly higher in treated Monastrell grapes at the moment of harvest. CONCLUSION The results indicate that the moment of elicitor treatment should be more studied since differences between treated and control grapes were, in general greater several days before harvest in all three varieties.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T07:15:29.132106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7823
  • Optimization of the Process of Aromatic and Medicinal Plant (AMP)
           Maceration in Grape Marc Distillates to Obtain Herbal Liqueurs and Spirits
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Herbal liqueurs are alcoholic beverages produced by maceration or distillation of aromatic and medicinal plants, highly valued by their medicinal properties, in alcohol. The process conditions, the number and quantity of plant employed will have a great influence in the quality of the liqueur obtained. The aim of this research was to optimize these important variables. RESULTS A Box‐Benhken experimental design was used to evaluate the independent variables: alcohol content, amount of plant and time during the experimental maceration of plants in grape marc distillate. Four plants were assessed, being the main compound of each plant the dependent variables evaluated to follow the evolution of the maceration process. Bisabolol oxide A in Matricaria recutita L., linalool in Coriander sativum L. and eucalyptol in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. were quantified by GC‐FID; meanwhile glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra L was determined by HPLC‐DAD. Other dependent variables were also evaluated: total phenolic content, color parameters and consumers’ preference (appearance). CONCLUSIONS The experimental designs allowed selecting optima maceration conditions for each parameter, including the preference score of consumers. 70% (v/v) of ethanol, 40 g/L of plant concentration and a maceration process of three weeks.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T07:15:25.23412-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7822
  • Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility
           and estimated glycemic index of cooked non‐waxy long grain rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)
    • Authors: Natthawuddhi Donlao; Yukiharu Ogawa
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e., hot air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated. RESULTS Cooked rice obtained from hot air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun‐drying. Among samples from hot air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI. CONCLUSION The results indicated that the cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T01:20:27.699301-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7812
  • Influence of different salting processes on the evolution of the volatile
           metabolites of vacuum‐packed fillets of farmed and wild sea bass
           (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored under refrigeration conditions. A study by
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish shelf‐life extension is a topic of great interest. In this study the behaviour of salted and unsalted farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets during storage was analyzed through the evolution of their volatile metabolites. Farmed and wild sea bass fillets were brine‐salted for 15 or 75 min, or dry‐salted, vacuum‐packed and stored at 4 °C for up to one month, and their headspaces were studied by Solid Phase Microextraction‐Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). RESULTS At the same storage time, unsalted wild fillets contained, in general, a higher number and abundance of volatile compounds coming from microbiological or endogenous enzymatic activity than unsalted farmed ones. The more intense the salting, the lower the number and abundance of microbiological spoilage metabolites, especially in wild samples. The appearance of oxidation metabolites only in dry‐salted wild samples evidences that this kind of salting provokes a certain oxidation in these samples. CONCLUSIONS The better performance of farmed than wild fillets suggests that salted farmed fillets, vacuum‐packed and stored under refrigeration conditions, could be a successful alternative to diversify the presence of sea bass in the market.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T02:10:37.898396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7821
  • Vermicompost and farm yard manure improves food quality,
           anti‐oxidant and anti‐bacterial potential of Cajanus cajan (L,
           Mill sp.) leaves
    • Authors: Subhasish Das; Nazneen Hussain, Bhaskarjyoti Gogoi, Alak Kumar Buragohain, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) leaves are a good source of nutrition and health benefitting phenolic compounds. However, its importance has not yet been effectively addressed. Presently, a two‐year field experiment was attempted in an alluvial soil to comprehend the role of various organic and inorganic fertilizers and their combinations not only on soil quality, but also on production of foremost phenolic compounds and imparting antioxidant and antibacterial properties in C. Cajan under vermicompost treatments. RESULTS Notable enhancements in crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, ash content and total flavonoid content were recorded in Cajanus leaves under vermicompost treatments. We detected a significant rise in carlinoside content in C.cajan leaves, which is known to reduce bilirubin concentration in hepatitis affected human blood. Farmyard manure treatments result a high crude fibre content coupled with a substantially high concentration of total phenols, and chlorophyll. In addition, incorporation of vermicompost with or without inorganic fertilizer in the soil had a significant impact on antioxidant and anti‐bacterial properties of C.cajan leaves. Above and beyond, farmyard manure and vermicompost positively influenced the physico‐chemical health of the soil. CONCLUSION The present nutrient management scheme based on organic input not only induced a higher yield of C. Cajan endowed with improved antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but also enhanced the production of various phenolic compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T02:05:38.987695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7820
  • Compost biofortification with diazotrophic and P‐solubilizing
           bacteria improves maturation process and P‐availability
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Phosphorus containing fertilizers play an important role in tropical agriculture due to the well documented shortage of plant‐available P in soils. Traditional P fertilizer production is based on chemical processing of insoluble rock phosphate (RP), which includes an acid treatment at high temperature. Processing the RP increases fertilizer costs, making it unavailable for the undercapitalized and typically family‐based farmers. Biotechnological methods have been proposed as alternative to increase phosphate availability in RP. In this study, Burkholderia silvatlantica and Herbaspirillum seropedicae were co‐inoculated in a RP enriched compost aiming to determine the effects of this technology on the levels of phosphatase activities and release of plant available P. RESULTS Inoculation of both microorganisms resulted in higher organic matter decomposition and higher HA formation in composting. H. seropedicae was the most promising microorganism for the production of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. Both microorganisms presented potential to increase the supply of P from poorly soluble sources due their increased levels of water‐soluble P and citric acid. CONCLUSION B. silvatlantica and H. seropedicae in RP enriched compost may represent an important biotechnological tool to reduce the overall time required for composting and increase the supply of P from poorly soluble sources.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T02:05:28.839865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7819
  • Application of a stir bar sorptive extraction method for the determination
           of volatile compounds in different grape varieties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) has been employed for the analysis of aroma compounds directly from Spanish and Italian grape extracts. The extraction conditions have been optimised using a statistical approach, obtaining results that improve the current state of the art. RESULTS The proposed analytical conditions were: sample volume 40 mL, extraction time 80 min, 25% (w/v) of NaCl, and stirring speed 750 rpm using 20 mm × 0.5 mm stir bars. Performance characteristics of SBSE procedure were further studied and showed correlation coefficients, detection and quantification limits, linear ranges, recoveries and precision values adequate for analysing these compounds in grapes. Twenty‐four grape varieties (aromatic and non‐aromatic) were analysed. Statistically significant differences (p 
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T01:40:32.531786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7818
  • Edible coatings with essential oils effect on the quality of red
           raspberries over shelf‐life
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for raising the shelf‐life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. RESULTS Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red colour verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1 % or 0.2 % were very efficient to control the yeasts and moulds growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. CONCLUSION The application of the film improved post‐harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters.
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T01:40:28.352626-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7817
  • Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus enriched with selenium, zinc and copper
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) is an important culinary and medicinal species of worldwide importance. The present study investigated for the first time whether it may be grown on substrates supplemented with Se alone or in combination with Cu and/or Zn (0.1‐0.8 mM) to produce fruiting bodies of increased nutritional value. RESULTS As found, substrate supplementation did not affect yielded biomass up to 0.6 mM element concentrations regardless cultivation model. At 0.8 mM Se + Cu and Se + Zn supplementation still developed biomass comparable with controls. The accumulation of trace elements in the fruiting bodies generally increased over concentration gradient reaching its maximum at 0.6 mM (for Se + Zn and Se + Cu + Zn) and 0.8 mM (for Se and Se + Cu). The organic Se constituted the greatest share in total Se quota. As calculated, each 10 g of dried fruiting bodies of A. bisporus obtained from 0.6 or 0.8 mM supplementation would represent 342‐469% of Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for Se, 43.4‐48.5% for Cu and 5.2‐5.8% for Zn. CONCLUSION Considering an inexpensive methods of A. bisporus cultivation, global popularity and use of this mushroom, its biofortification with Se, Cu and Zn could have a practical application in deficiency prevention and assisted treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T02:00:53.325907-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7816
  • Thinned stone fruits are a source of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Thinned fruits are agricultural by‐products that contain large quantities of interesting compounds due to their early maturity stage. In this work, the phenolic profile and the antioxidant activity of 6 thinned stone fruits (apricot, cherry, flat peach, peach, plum and nectarine) have been investigated, focussing on proanthocyanidins. RESULTS Thinned nectarine had the highest content of total phenols (67.43 mg GAE g−1 DW) and total flavonoids (56.97 mg CE g−1 DW) as well as the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging (133.30 mg TE g−1 DW) and FRAP assay (30.42 mg TE g−1 DW). Proanthocyanidins were very abundant in these by‐products, and the main phenolic group quantified in cherry (10.54 mg g−1 DW), flat peach (33.47 mg g−1 DW) and nectarine (59.89 mg g−1 DW), while hydroxycinnamic acids predominate in apricot, peach and plum (6.67, 22.04 and 23.75 mg g−1 DW, respectively). The low mean degree of polymerisation of proanthocyanidins suggests that their bioavailability could be very high. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that thinned stone fruit extracts might be used as antioxidants in foods or as a source of compounds with health related benefits that can be used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T02:00:50.395029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7813
  • Isolation and identification of anti‐proliferative peptides from
           Spirulina platensis using three‐step hydrolysis
    • Authors: Zhujun Wang; Xuewu Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDS Spirulina platensis is an excellent source of proteins (>60%) that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. RESULTS In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina platensis were extracted and hydrolyzed using three gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin). Subsequently, gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates, and four fractions Tr1‐Tr4 were obtained. Among them, Tr2 showed the strongest anti‐proliferation activities on three cancer cells (MCF‐7, HepG‐2 and SGC‐7901), with the IC50 values of
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T02:00:31.73721-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7815
  • Agroindustrial Composts to reduce the use of peat and fungicides in the
           cultivation of muskmelon seedlings
    • Authors: Ana Belen Morales; Margarita Ros, Luis Miguel Ayuso, Maria de los Angeles Bustamante, Raul Moral, Jose Antonio Pascual
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Environmental concerns about peat extraction in wetland ecosystems have risen. Therefore, there is an international effort to evaluate alternative organic substrates, for the partial substitution of peat. The aim of this work was to use different compost (C1‐C10) obtained from fruit and vegetable processing industry (pepper, carrot, broccoli, orange, artichoke residues, sewage sludge (citric and pepper) and vineyard pruning wastes) to produce added‐value composts as growing media with suppressive effect against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (FOM) in muskmelon. RESULTS Composts showed values of water soluble carbon fractions, and dehydrogenase activity that allowed them to be considered mature and stabilized. All compost treatments produced significantly (F = 7.382; P 
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:06:05.744782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7809
  • A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in
           gingerbread without compromising sensory quality
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The present experiment tested a hypothesis that a replacement of a leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread. RESULTS The type of a leavening agent, and presence of Ca2+ and citric acid accounted for 33.6, 13.2 and 53.2 % of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P 
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:05:55.862001-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7811
  • Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa
           (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Alfalfa is considered a potential feedstock for biofuels; co‐products with value‐added uses would enhance process viability. This work evaluated dried alfalfa leaves for protein production and describes the functional properties of the protein. RESULTS Dried alfalfa leaves contained 260 g kg−1 db crude protein, with albumins being the major fraction (260 g kg−1 of total protein). Alkali solubilization for 2 h at 50 °C, acid precipitation, dialysis, and freeze‐drying produced a protein concentrate (600 g kg−1 db crude protein). Alfalfa leaf protein concentrate showed moderate solubility (maximum 500 g kg−1 soluble protein from pH 5.5 to 10), excellent emulsifying properties (activity 158–219 m2/g protein, stability 17–49 min) and minimal loss of solubility during heating at pH ≥ 7.0. CONCLUSIONS It is technically feasible to extract protein with desirable emulsifying and heat stability properties from dried alfalfa leaves; however, the dried form may not be a practical starting material for protein production, given the difficulty of achieving high yields and high‐purity protein product.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:05:46.225051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7810
  • Influence of deficit irrigation on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa
           Duch.) fruit quality
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Three different irrigation regimes (upper limit of field capacity‐UFC (‐12 hPa), lower limit of field capacity‐LFC (‐33 hPa) and deficit irrigation‐DI (‐70 hPa)) were established on silty‐loam soil and monitored with tensiometers. Yield and fruit quality of ‘Flamenco’ and ‘Eva's Delight’ ever‐bearing strawberry cultivars have been monitored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimes on the content of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds using HPLC/HPLC‐MS. RESULTS Deficit irrigation significantly increased the content of sugars (from 1.1 to 1.3 fold), organic acids (from 1.1 to 1.3 fold), their ratio (from 1.1 to 1.2 fold) and the content of most identified phenolics in cv. ‘Flamenco’. Oppositely, higher amounts of total sugars and organic acids (1.7 to 1.8 fold) were detected in ‘Eva's Delight’ strawberries at UFC and LFC irrigation. Deficit irrigation generally decreased strawberry yield of cv. ‘Eva's Delight’. CONCLUSION The results suggest superior fruit quality and taste of strawberries grown under minor deficit irrigation at cv. ‘Flamenco’.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:01:50.192767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7806
  • Effects of carbohydrate/protein ratio on the microstructure and the
           barrier and sorption properties of wheat starch–whey protein blend
           edible films
    • Abstract: Backgrounds Starch and whey protein isolate and their mixtures were used for making edible films. Moisture sorption isotherms, water vapour permeability, sorption of aroma compounds, microstructure, water contact angle and surface properties were investigated. Results With increasing the protein content, the microstructure changes toward a more homogeneous. The water vapour permeability increases with both the humidity gradient and the starch content. For all films, the hygroscopicity increases with starch content. Surface properties change according to the starch/whey protein ratio and are mainly related to the polar component of the surface tension. 80% starch‐20% whey protein films have more hydrophobic surfaces than the other films due to specific interactions. Conclusions The effect of carbohydrate/protein ratio significantly influences the microstructure, the surface wettability and the barrier properties of wheat starch–whey protein blend films.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:01:45.822842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7807
  • Preparation of five 3‐MCPD fatty acid esters, and the effects of
           their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice
    • Authors: Man Liu; Jie Liu, Yizhen Wu, Boyan Gao, Pingping Wu, Haiming Shi, Xiangjun Sun, Haiqiu Huang, Thomas T. Y. Wang, Liangli (Lucy) Yu
      Abstract: Background 3‐monochloro‐1, 2‐propanediol fatty acid esters (3‐MCPDEs) are a group of food toxicants formed during food processing. 3‐MCPDEs have obtained more and more attention for its potential negative effects on human health. However, reports on the toxicity of 3‐MCPD esters are still limited. To elucidate the effects of fatty acid substitutions on the toxicity of their esters, 1‐stearic, 1‐oleic, 1‐linoleic, 1‐linoleic‐2‐palmitic and 1‐palmitic‐2‐linoleic acid esters of 3‐MCPD were synthesized and evaluated for their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice, respectively. Results 3‐MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3‐MCPD and fatty acid chlorides, and their purities and structures were characterized by UPLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS, IR, 1H and 13C spectroscopic analyses. Medial lethal doses (LD50) of 1‐stearic, 1‐oleic, 1‐linoleic, 1‐linoleic‐2‐palmitic, and 1‐palmitic‐2‐linoleic acid esters were 2973.8, 2081.4, 2016.3, 5000 and greater than 5000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). For the first time, 3‐MCPDEs were observed for their toxic effects in thymus and lung. In addition, major histopathological changes, and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were examined for the five 3‐MCPDEs. Conclusion The results from this study suggested that the degree of unsaturation, chain length, number of substitution, and relative substitution locations of fatty acids might alter the toxicity of the 3‐MCPDEs.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:20:26.328495-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7805
  • High‐sensitive Chemiluminescent immunoassay investigation and
           application for the detection of T‐2 toxin and major metabolite
           HT‐2 toxin
    • Authors: Yanshen Li; Jing Zhang, Yongtao Wu, Gongzhen Liu, Liting Song, Yonggang Li, Jianrong Yang, Yanli You
      Abstract: BACKGROUND T‐2 toxin is a widely distributed mycotoxin in cereals. HT‐2 toxin is the major metabolites which is metabolic and contaminant in cereals as well. T‐2 toxin and HT‐2 toxin has been identified as carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic toxins. To reduce the risk of contamination, a rapid, high‐sensitive and inexpensive assay for the detection is required. RESULTS In this study a high‐sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme‐linked immunoassay (CL‐ELISA) of T‐2 toxin and HT‐2 toxin was developed. With the help of the chemiluminescent sbustrate, this protocol exhibited a high‐sensitive character with IC50 as low as 33.28 ng mL−1 and 27.27 ng mL−1 for T‐2 and HT‐2, respectively. In addition, this method had no cross‐reaction with other structure related mycotoxins. CONCLUSION These results indicated that the developed CL‐ELISA could be applied for the T‐2 toxin and HT‐2 toxin detection in actual samples without complicated steps.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:15:52.966956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7801
  • Calcium Hydroxide as a Processing Base in Alkali‐Aided
           pH‐Shift Protein Recovery Process
    • Authors: Ilgin Paker; Jacek Jaczynski, Kristen E. Matak
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Protein may be recovered by using pH shifts to solubilize and precipitate protein. Typically, sodium hydroxide is used as the processing base; however, this has been shown to significantly increase sodium in the final recovered protein. RESULTS Protein was extracted from black bullhead catfish (Ameiurus melas) using a pH‐shift method. Protein was solubilized using either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and precipitated at pH 5.5 using hydrochloric acid (HCl). Protein solubility was greater when Ca(OH)2 was used compared to NaOH during this process. Using Ca(OH)2 as the processing base yielded the greatest lipid recovery (p 
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:15:48.776414-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7800
  • Food Safety in Thailand 3: Pesticide Residues detected in Mangosteen
           (Garcinia mangostana L.), Queen of Fruits
    • Authors: Kamonrat Phopin; Sompon Wanwimolruk, Virapong Prachayasittikul
      Abstract: Background For developing countries like Thailand, regulation of pesticide usage exists but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study aimed to determine the pesticide residues in mangosteen fruits sold in Thailand. The mangosteen samples (n = 111) were purchased and the content of 28 pesticides were analyzed by GC‐MS/MS method. Results Of pesticides tested, 8 pesticides were found in 100% of the mangosteen samples. However, in 97% of these samples, either chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their maximum residue limits (MRLs), representing a 97% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL. This rate is much higher than those found in other fruits sold in developed countries. However, this conclusion excludes the fresh Thai mangosteens grown for export, as these are generally cultivated and harvested to GAP standards. Since the edible part of the mangosteen is the pulp, washing the fruits with running water can reduce the risk of pesticide residues contaminating the pulp which would be eaten by the consumer. Conclusion The findings strongly suggest that routine monitoring of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables is required to reduce the health risks associated with consuming contaminated food.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:15:44.598933-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7804
  • A Combination of Quantitative Marinating and Maillard Reaction to Enhance
           Volatile Flavor in Chinese Marinated Chicken
    • Authors: Xiuli Wei; Chunqing Wang, Chunhui Zhang, Xia Li, Jinzhi Wang, Hai Li, Chunhong Tang
      Abstract: BACKGROUD A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reactionwas investigated by adding D‐xylose, L‐cysteine and thiamine into the marinated brine of quantitative marinating, which was expected to enhance the volatile flavor of Chinese marinated chicken. Response surface methodology was used to optimize parameters, in which response was sensory evaluation scores of marinated chicken. Box‐Behnken center design was applied to the optimized added contents. The optimized contents were D‐xylose (1‰‐5‰), L‐cysteine (1‰‐5‰) and thiamine (1‰‐3‰), respectively. RESULTS Analysis of variance indicted that a second‐order polynomial equation could predict the experimental data well (R2=0.94), and sensory evaluation scores were significantly affected by the added amount of D‐xylose, L‐cysteine and thiamine. The optimum conditions that maximized the sensory evaluation score of Chinese marinated chicken were found to be 4.96‰ D‐xylose, 2.28‰ L‐cysteine and 2.66‰ thiamine (w/w). Given this optimal condition, a number of meat‐like flavor compounds such as 2‐pentyl‐furan, benzothiazole and 4‐methyl‐5‐thiazoleethanol were identified by GC‐MS analysis. CONCLUSION Our results suggested that a combination of Quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction might be a promising method to enhance the volatile flavor, especially meat‐like flavor of Chinese marinated chicken.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:15:34.353473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7803
  • Image analysis‐based modelling for flower number estimation in
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Grapevine flower number per inflorescence provides valuable information that can be used for assessing yield. Considerable research has been conducted at developing a technological tool, based on image analysis and predictive modelling. However, it has never been evaluated the behaviour of variety‐independent predictive models and yield prediction capabilities on a wide set of varieties. RESULTS Inflorescence images from 11 grapevine Vitis vinifera L. varieties were acquired under field conditions. The flower number per inflorescence and the flower number visible in the images were calculated manually, and automatically using an image analysis algorithm. These datasets were used to calibrate and evaluate the behaviour of two linear (single‐variable and multivariable) and a non‐linear variety‐independent model. As a result, the integrated tool composed of the image analysis algorithm and the non‐linear approach showed the highest performance and robustness (RPD=8.32, RMSE=37.1). The yield estimation capabilities of the flower number in conjunction with fruit set rate (R2=0.79) and average berry weight (R2=0.91) were also tested. CONCLUSION This study proves the accuracy of flower number per inflorescence estimation using image analysis algorithm and a non‐linear model that is generally applicable to different grapevine varieties. This provides a fast, non‐invasive and reliable tool for estimation of yield at harvest.
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T04:50:47.136619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7797
  • Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate Peel Extracts as Affected by
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Some studies have reported that different parts of pomegranate fruit, especially the peel, may act as potential antimicrobial agent and then they might be proposed as safe natural source alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial agents. The high tannins content, especially punicalagin, found in pomegranate extracts, has been reported as the main compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Because pomegranate peel chemical composition may vary with type of cultivar (sweet, sour–sweet and sour), they may also differ in their antimicrobial capacity. RESULTS Extract from PTO8 pomegranate cultivar peel had the highest antimicrobial activity as well as the highest punicalagin (α and β) and ellagic acid concentrations. In both results from antibacterial and antifungal activity studies, the sour–sweet pomegranate cultivar PTO8 showed the best antimicrobial activity, and the highest ellagic acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that the ellagic acid content is a factor with significant influence on the antimicrobial activity of the pomegranate extracts studied. The pomegranate peel of the PTO8 cultivar is a great source of antifungal and antibacterial compounds, which may represent alternative antimicrobial agents to those of synthetic origin.
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T04:50:35.389353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7799
  • Genetic variation of carotenoids, vitamin E and phenolic compounds in
           biofortified maize
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Biofortified maize is a good vehicle for provitamin A carotenoids for vitamin A deficient populations in developing countries but is also a source of vitamin E, tocochromanols and phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. This study analyzed by HPLC and Total Antioxidant Performance (TAP) assay the antioxidant variation and antioxidant activity of 36 improved maize hybrids and one common yellow maize hybrid. RESULTS The ranges of major carotenoids in provitamin A carotenoids biofortified maize were zeaxanthin (1.2‐13.2 µg/g), β‐cryptoxanthin (1.3‐8.8 µg/g) and β‐carotene (1.3‐8.0 µg/g dry weight [DW]). The ranges of vitamin E compounds identified in provitamin A carotenoids biofortified maize were α‐tocopherol (3.4‐34.3 µg/g), γ‐tocopherol (5.9‐54.4 µg/g), α‐tocotrienol (2.6‐19.5 µg/g), and γ‐tocotrienol (45.4 µg/g DW). The ranges of phenolic compounds were γ‐oryzanol (0.0‐0.8 mg/g), ferulic acid (0.4‐3.6 mg/g) and p‐coumaric acid (0.1‐0.45 mg/g DW). There was significant correlation between α‐tocopherol and cis isomers of β‐carotene (P< 0.01). Tocotrienols were correlated with α‐tocopherol and γ‐oryzanol (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Genotype was significant in determining the variation in β‐cryptoxanthin, β‐carotene, α‐tocopherol and γ‐tocopherol contents (P
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T04:50:31.995887-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7798
  • Stabilization of Red Fruit‐Based Smoothies by High Pressure
           Processing. Part B. Effects on sensory quality and selected nutrients
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Non‐thermal pasteurization by High Pressure Processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing Thermal Processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. The resulting products need to be validated from a sensory and nutritional standpoint. The objective was to assess a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit based smoothies in a wide (sensory quality and major nutrients) study. RESULTS HPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) provided “fresh‐like” smoothies, free of cooked‐fruit flavours, for at least 14 days at 4 °C, although their sensory stability was low compared with the TP‐smoothies (85 °C/7 min). In HPP‐smoothies, the loss of fresh fruit flavour and reduced sliminess were the clearest signs of sensory deterioration during storage. Furthermore, HPP permitted the higher initial retention of vitamin C, although this vitamin and, to a lesser extent, total phenols, had a higher degradation rate during storage. The content of sugar present was not affected by either processing treatment. CONCLUSION Mild HPP treatment did not alter the sensory and nutritional properties of smoothies. The sensory and nutritional losses during storage were less than might be expected, probably due to the high antioxidant content and the natural turbidity provided by red fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T04:46:03.771779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7795
  • Stabilization of Red Fruit‐Based Smoothies by High Pressure
           Processing. Part A. Effects on microbial growth, enzyme activity,
           antioxidant capacity and physical stability
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Non‐thermal pasteurization by High Pressure Processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing Thermal Processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. However, most of the research on HPP‐fruit products only partially address fruit‐pressure interaction, which limits their practical interest. The objective was to assess the use of a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit based smoothies in a wide (microbial, enzymatic, oxidative and physical stability). RESULTS HPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) was slightly less effective than TP (85 °C/7 min) in inactivating microbes (mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) in the smoothies kept at 4 °C for up to 28 days. The main limitation of using HPP was its low efficacy in inactivating the oxidative (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (pectin methyl esterase) enzymes. Data on antioxidant status, colour parameters, browning index, transmittance, turbidity and viscosity confirmed that the HPP‐smoothies have a greater tendency towards oxidation and clarification, which might lead to undesirable sensory and nutritional changes (see part B). CONCLUSION The microbial quality of smoothies was adequately controlled by mild HPP treatment without affecting their physical‐chemical characteristics; however, oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure‐resistant, which suggests that additional strategies should be used to stabilize smoothies.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T04:45:46.570904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7796
  • Univariate and multivariate comparisons of protein and carbohydrate
           molecular structural conformations and their associations with nutritive
           factors in typical byproducts
    • Authors: Hangshu Xin; Yongli Qu, Haonan Wu, Peiqiang Yu, Yonggen Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Little attention has been paid on the inherent molecular structural effects among agricultural byproducts. In this study, soybean meal , wheat bran , corn distillers dried grains with soluble , dry brewer's grain , wet brewer's grain , and apple pomace , which are widely used in animal industry were selected to explore protein and carbohydrate molecular structural conformations. RESULTS All the protein peak heights (including α‐helix and β‐sheet) and areas were exhibited highest values in SM and lowest in AP. The SM had the highest peak area intensity of cellulosic compounds (CELC); while the rest varieties were in the lowest absorbance level. The TSCHO (sum of structural carbohydrate and CELC) area exhibited variations among the samples. Multivariate comparisons showed AP had no molecular structural association with other byproducts within protein amide region. Protein amide I, II and (I+II) areas, α‐helix, β‐sheet and area ratio of protein amide and (TSCHO + TCHO) had strong relationships with CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, SCP, starch, PC, CA, CC and TDN contents. CONCLUSION Inherent molecular structures varied among the selected byproduct kinds and they might be used as potential predictors of nutritive factors, especially for protein structural information.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:30:33.433943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7791
  • Effect of including whole linseed and vitamin E in the diet of young bulls
           slaughtered at two fat covers on the sensory quality of beef packaged in
           two different packaging systems
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Forty‐six Pirenaica young bulls, slaughtered at two levels of fatness (3 mm and 4 mm), were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 50 g kg−1 linseed alone or with 200 IU of vitamin E kg−1 in the concentrate and the meat packaging system (vacuum and MAP) on the beef sensory quality. RESULTS The inclusion of linseed or supplementation with vitamin E in the concentrate induced no significant differences in the main meat sensory scores and overall appraisal except under MAP packaging, where small differences due to concentrate ingredients were found in juiciness and metallic flavor intensity. Extending the display time up to 4 or 8 days in high oxygen MAP had detrimental effects on sensory attributes. Meat from animals with 4 mm fat cover depth were rated more tender and juicy, less fibrous and with a higher intensity of beef flavor and rancid odor than meat from 3 mm fat cover bulls when both samples were vacuum packaged. CONCLUSION The inclusion of 50 g kg−1 linseed in the concentrate fed to bulls showed no detrimental effect on the beef sensory quality. The vacuum packaged meat of bulls slaughtered at 4 mm fat cover was rated higher on sensorial analysis than those at 3 mm fat cover.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:10:35.402618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7792
  • Change of Volatile Components in Six Microalgae With Different Growth
    • Authors: Lv Zhou; Jiao Chen, Jilin Xu, Yan Li, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Head space solid‐phase microextraction (HS‐SPME)‐gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to analyze the volatile components of six marine microalgae (Thalassiosira weissflogii [T. weissflogii], Nitzschia closterium [N. closterium], Chaetoceros calcitrans [C. calcitrans], Platymonas helgolandica [P. helgolandica], Nannochloropsis sp., Dicrateria inornata [D. inornata]) from Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Chrysophyta, respectively, in different growth phases. RESULTS All volatile compounds were identified by database searching in NIST08 Mass Spectral Library and analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) with the SIMCA‐P software. The results revealed clearly that the volatile components of the 6 microalgae were significantly different in exponential, stationary, and declining phases. Aldehydes, alkanes, some esters, and dimethyl sulfide significantly changed in different growth phases. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report on the comprehensive characteristics of volatile components in different microalgae and in different growth phases, which may provide reference data for studies on the flavor of cultivated aquatic organism, the odor formation in nature water, the feeding period choice, and the microalgae species selection for artificial rearing of marine organism.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:10:25.604435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7794
  • Chalky part differs in chemical compositions with translucent part of
           japonica rice grains as revealed by a notched‐belly mutant with
    • Authors: Zhaomiao Lin; Deyi Zheng, Xincheng Zhang, Zunxin Wang, Jinchao Lei, Zhenghui Liu, Ganghua Li, Shaohua Wang, Yanfeng Ding
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chalkiness has deleterious influence on rice appearance and milling quality. We identified a notched‐belly mutant with high percentage of white‐belly, and thereby developed a novel comparison system that can minimize the influence of genetic background and growing conditions. Using this mutant, we examined the differences in chemical compositions between chalky and translucent endosperm, with the aim of exploring relations between occurrence of chalkiness and accumulation of starch, protein, and minerals. RESULTS Comparisons showed significant effect of chalkiness on chemical components in the endosperm. In general, occurrence of chalkiness resulted in higher total starch concentration and lower concentrations of the majority of the amino acids measured. Chalkiness also had positive effect on the concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Mn, Na, Sr, and V, but was negatively correlated with those of B, Ca, Cu, Fe, and Ni. By contrast, no significant chalkiness effect on P, phytic acid‐P, K, Mg, and Zn was observed. In addition, substantial influence of the embryo on endosperm composition was detected, with the embryo showing a negative effect on total protein, amino acids like Arg, His, Leu, Lys, Phe, and Tyr, and all the 17 minerals measured excluding Ca, Cu, P, and Sr. CONCLUSION An inverse relation between starch and protein as well as amino acids was found with respect to chalkiness occurrence. Phytic acid and its colocalized elements K and Mg were not affected by chalkiness. The embryo exerted marked influence on chemical components of the endosperm, in particular the minerals, suggesting the necessity of examining the role of embryo in chalkiness formation.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:10:19.889052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7793
  • Genotype, Environment and G × E Interaction Influence
           (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucan Fine Structure in Barley
           (Hordeum vulgare L.)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The structure of β‐glucan influences its use in cereal‐based foods and feed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of environment (E) and genotype (G) on β‐glucan fine structure and its genetic control in two‐row, spring barley with normal starch characteristics. RESULTS A population of 89 recombinant inbred lines, derived from the cross of two‐row, spring barley genotypes Merit × H93174006 (H92076F1 × TR238), was characterized for concentration and structure of grain β‐glucan in two environments. Results showed that concentrations of β‐glucan, DP3, DP4, and DP3+DP4 were positively correlated to each other suggesting no preference for DP3 or DP4 subunit production in high or low β‐glucan lines. The concentrations of β‐glucan, DP3, DP4 and DP3:DP4 ratios were significantly influenced by genotype and environment. However, only DP3:DP4 ratio showed a significant effect of G × E interaction. Association mapping of candidate markers in 119 barley genotypes showed that marker CSLF6_4105 was associated with β‐glucan concentration, whereas Bmac504 and Bmac211 were associated with DP3:DP4 ratio. Bmac273e was associated with both β‐glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio, CONCLUSIONS The grain β‐glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio are strongly affected by genotype and environment. Single marker analyses suggested that the genetic control of β‐glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio was linked to separate chromosomal regions on barley genome.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T05:11:23.401276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7789
  • Effects of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc extract and its biopolymer
           encapsulation on a mouse model of colitis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Prunus mume suppress various diseases caused by inflammation response and exhibit antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Therefore, this study determined the effect of an aqueous Prunus mume (PM) extract in a mouse colitis model and investigated the value of biopolymer encapsulation, facilitating targeted delivery to the colon. Colitis was induced by administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium to male BALB/c mice for 7 days prior to treatment with vehicle, 50 mg kg−1 PM extract or biopolymer‐encapsulated PM extract, or 50 mg kg−1 sulfasalazine. RESULTS Histological examination of the colon in BALB/c mice showed epithelial destruction and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. These changes were attenuated in PM‐treated mice, which had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase 2, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgE), compared to the vehicle‐treated colitis group. The PM extract showed concentration‐dependent radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase‐like anti‐oxidant activities. CONCLUSION These results indicated that the effects of the PM extract on colitis were not influenced by biopolymer encapsulation and that this PM extract could be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T05:11:05.551666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7790
  • Characterization of specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) in
           vacuum‐packed ham by culture‐plating techniques and MiSeq
           next‐generation sequencing technologies
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The knowledge regarding microaerophilic and anaerobic Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) is crucial for an appropriate evaluation of vacuum‐packed ham. The objective of this study was to characterize the SSO community in vacuum‐packed ham by culture‐dependent technique and MiSeq next generation sequencing (NGS) platform. The relation between changes among the SSO group in the ham and changes of sensory characteristics of the product was also assessed. RESULTS In the study, conventional microbiological analyses were employed in order to establish the participation of several groups of microorganisms in the deterioration of vacuum‐packed ham. The diversity of the SSO group in the product was further assessed with the use of MiSeq NGS technology. The bacteria identified in sliced cooked ham belonged mostly to 4 phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The temperature of 4 °C favoured the development of mesophilic and psychrophilic/psychrothropic flora, mainly Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae families. A high ratio of Brochothrix thermosphacta species and new, cold‐tolerant Clostridium spp. was also observed. The growth of these microorganisms facilitated the changes in the pH value and organoleptic characteristics of the product. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that the combination of culturing and MiSeq NGS technology techniques improves the microbial evaluation of food.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:52:47.940238-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7785
  • Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum dy‐1 fermented
           barley suppresses body weight gain in high fat diet‐induced obese
    • Authors: Jiayan Zhang; Xiang Xiao, Ying Dong, Tian Xu, Fei Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cereal fermentations showed significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In the present study, the effect of supplementary Lactobacillus plantarum dy‐1 fermented barley (LFB) on obesity in high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese rats was investigated. RESULTS The LFB treatment showed a lower rate of increase of body weight and percentage of body fat and a reversal of HFD‐induced glucose intolerance, with ameliorated hyperinsulinemia, decreased levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and inhibited concentration of IL‐1β, IL‐6 and TNF‐α. Moreover, the LFB treatment also showed the strongest inhibition of NF‐kB activation and exhibited the greatest effects in blocking the degradation of the inhibitor of NF‐kB and inhibiting p38 and JNK1 phosphorylation compared with HFD and raw barley treatment. CONCLUSIONS It was clear that the Lactobacillus plantarum dy‐1 fermentation significantly improves the anti‐obesity properties of barley. The results establish the foundation for ameliorating diet‐induced obesity of product with LFB as nutritional supplements.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:52:23.74929-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7786
  • Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the overall quality of minimally
           processed globe artichoke heads
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Although nitrogen (N) fertilization is essential for promoting crop yield, it may also affect the produce quality. Here, the influence of three N fertilizer rates (0 kg ha−1 as a control, 200 kg ha−1 and 400 kg ha−1 referred to as N0, N200 and N400, respectively) on the overall quality of minimally processed globe artichoke heads was investigated during refrigerated storage for 12 days. RESULTS Throughout the storage time, N fertilized samples had a higher inulin content than those unfertilized. In addition, the respiratory quotient of N200 and N400 samples was 2 and 2.5‐fold lower than N0 ones, whose values were close to the normal range for vegetables. All the samples reported good microbiological standards, although N200 and N400 achieved lower mesophilic and psychotropic counts than N0 throughout the storage time. After 8 and 12 days of refrigerated storage, the N200 samples showed the highest scores of positive sensory descriptors. CONCLUSION A fertilizer level of 200 kg N ha−1 is suitable for obtaining minimally processed globe artichoke heads with good nutritional, sensory and microbiological quality, characterised by low endogenous oxidase activities. Proper packaging systems and procedures are, however, crucial for extending the product shelf‐life and, thus, promoting its exportation on a wider scale.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:51:54.098916-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7784
  • Portal‐drained viscera heat production in Iberian pigs fed betaine
           and conjugated linoleic acid supplemented diets
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may alter growth and body composition in pigs although their mode of action is not well understood. Portal‐drained viscera (PDV) have a disproportionate influence with respect to their masses and this fact may affect the productivity of more profitable tissues. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of betaine and/or CLA in the diet affects PDV heat production. RESULTS Postprandial portal blood flow (PBF) was greater (19.0%, P = 0.004) for control compared to the other three diets. The lowest (P < 0.001) value for postprandial PDV O2 consumption corresponded to betaine + CLA followed by betaine, CLA and control diet (32.7, 25.4 and 17.7%, respectively, with respect to the latter). Postprandial PDV heat production value was greater (26.4%, P < 0.001) for control with respect to the other three diets corresponding the minimum value to betaine + CLA (34.1% lower than the control). CONCLUSION Supplementation with betaine and/or CLA reduced the PBF, O2 consumption and, therefore, PDV heat production with respect to the control diet. This effect was more pronounced when betaine and CLA were supplemented together potentially increasing the energy availability for the rest of body tissues.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:51:35.14761-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7788
  • Physicochemical, antioxidant, and anti‐inflammatory properties and
           stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins
           microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after microencapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, −20 °C, −80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. RESULTS Samples before and after microencapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (−)‐epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of microencapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at −20 °C and −80 °C concentrations of them increased. CONCLUSION The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:51:30.653742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7787
  • Environment and genotype effects on antioxidant properties of
           organically‐grown wheat varieties. A three year study
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses significant amounts of antioxidants that contribute to the dietary antiradical protection against a number of chronic diseases. Despite the increasing interest towards organic food among both consumers and scientists, the availability of literature studies concerning the environment effect under organic management is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat varieties by considering the genotype response to different environmental factors under biodynamic management. RESULTS The soluble fraction of phenolic compounds was mainly determined by the environment, whereas a major genotypic effect was observed for the bound forms, which were present at higher amounts in the red grain varieties. Moreover, a predominant effect of the genotype was observed for yellow pigment content and antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP method. Despite some changes induced by environment, most of the genotypes had stable antioxidant properties and different phenolic profiles as determined by HPLC‐MS, excepting for the old variety Inallettabile which was the most sensitive to environmental fluctuations. CONCLUSIONS The red grain varieties Andriolo, Gentil rosso and Verna were identified as the most promising breeding material for the development of varieties with high nutraceutical value under low input management.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T00:51:10.020134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7782
  • Natural variation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents in Colombian
           genotypes of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja at harvest
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Potato frying quality is a complex trait influenced by sugar content in tubers. Good frying quality requires low content of reducing sugars to avoid the formation of dark pigments. Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja is a valuable genetic resource for breeding and for genetic studies. The sugar contents after harvest were analyzed in a germplasm collection of Group Phureja to contribute to the understanding of the natural variation of this trait. RESULTS Sucrose, glucose, and fructose genotypic mean values ranged from 6.39 to 29.48 g kg−1 tuber dry weight (DW), from 0.46 to 28.04 g kg ‐1 tuber DW, and from 0.29 to 27.23 g kg ‐1 tuber DW, respectively. Glucose/fructose and sucrose/reducing sugars ratios ranged from 1.01 to 6.67 mol mol−1 and from 0.15 to 7.78 mol mol−1, respectively. Five clusters of genotypes were recognized, three of them with few genotypes and extreme phenotypic values. CONCLUSIONS Sugar contents showed a wide variation that represents the available variability useful for potato breeding. The results provide a quantitative approach to analyze the frying quality trait and they are consistent with frying color. The analyzed germplasm presents extreme phenotypes, which will contribute to the understanding of the genetic basis of this trait. Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T00:50:48.784818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7783
  • Modulation of in vitro rumen biohydrogenation by Cistus ladanifer tannins
           compared with other tannin sources
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Tannins are polyphenolic compounds capable to modify the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of unsaturated fatty acids but their activity may vary among different tannin sources. The effect of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer) on BH has never been compared with other more common tannin sources. Tannins extracts (100 g kg−1 substrate dry matter) from chestnut (CH), quebracho (QB), grape seed (GS) and rockrose (CL) were incubated in vitro for 6 h with ruminal fluid using as substrate a feed containing 60 g kg−1 of sunflower oil. A control treatment, with no added tannins, was also included. RESULTS Compared to control, GS and CL, but not CH and QB, increased (P < 0.05) the disappearance of c9,c12‐18:2 with a consequent larger production of c9,t11‐18:2 and t11‐18:1. However, no differences among treatments (P > 0.05) were observed for the disappearance of c9‐18:1 and c9,c12,c15‐18:3. The production of 18:0 was not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, although its proportion in the total BH products was lower (P < 0.05) for GS than for the other treatments. CONCLUSIONS Condensed tannins from GS and, in less extent, from CL stimulates the first steps of BH, without a clear inhibition of 18:0 production.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T06:06:11.279033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7777
  • The impact of canopy managements on grape and wine composition of cv.
           'Istrian Malvasia' (Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The interest of producing wines, preferred by the consumers, increases the need of improving practices to modify grape and wine composition. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of three different canopy management measures; early leaf removal in the cluster zone, removal of young leaves above the second pair of wires and Double Maturation Raisonnée on yield and chemical composition of 'Istrian Malvasia' grape and wine. RESULTS Double Maturation Raisonnée revealed a significantly greater impact on phenolic compounds, while the highest soluble solids (24.3 and 23.5 °Brix) and titratable acidity (7.0 and 7.1 g L−1) were measured at early leaf removal. Leaf removal at véraison caused an unexpected augmentation of flavonols in the berry skin. Early leaf removal resulted in significantly lower extracts of wine. Nevertheless, they reached the highest mark (16.5 from 20.0 points) in sensory evaluation, compared to leaf removal at véraison and Double Maturation Raisonnée (15.0 points) and control (16.0 points). CONLUSION Leaf removal at véraison and Double Maturation Raisonnée improved the phenolic composition of wine, producing a full‐bodied wine. On the other hand early leaf removal significantly augmented the yield and titratable acidity, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols of wine, which might have led to a more fresh, but less bodied wine.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T05:13:53.567284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7778
  • Comparative analysis of genetic polymorphisms among Monascus strains by
           ISSR and RAPD markers
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The genus Monascus includes several species of fungi valued across Asia for their culinary uses and diverse medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter‐simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers in characterizing the genetic diversity in 41 Monascus strains collected from various regions of Fujian Province, the leading producer of Monascus in China. RESULTS Seven screened ISSR primers generated 56 polymorphic bands, of which 93.33% were polymorphic. The genetic similarity coefficients (GSC) of the strains ranged from 0.50 to 1.00. Comparative sequence analysis using seven screened RAPD primers amplified a total of 49 polymorphic bands, of which 81.67% were polymorphic; GSC values ranged from 0.62 to 1.00. CONCLUSION Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation in genetic distances assessed using above two markers, which indicated they were suitable for Monascus species characterization. ISSR markers were more suitable for the classification and determination of Monascus species. While RAPD markers appear to be preferable for analyzing the differences among strains within the same species. Our study revealed that Monascus possesses rich genetic diversity, and that the genetic relationships among the selected strains were, to a very limited extent, correlated to their geographical variation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T05:05:46.930967-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7780
  • Metabolic profiles of cow's blood; a review
    • Abstract: The term “metabolic profile” is addressed to the analysis of blood biochemical parameters that are useful to assessment and prevent metabolic and nutritional disorders in dairy herds. In the higher standards of milk production, the priority in modern breeding is keeping dairy cows in high lactation and healthy. The proper analysis, as well as control of their feeding and metabolic status is immensely important for the health condition of the herd. The disproportion between the genetically determined ability for milk production and the limitations in improving the energy value of the ration may be the cause of the metabolic disorders. Negative energy balance has a major impact on the body's hormonal balance and the organs functions and mostly appears during transition periods: from 3 to 2 wk prepartum until 2 to 3 wk postpartum. The term transition is to underscore the important physiological, metabolic, and nutritional changes occurring in this time. The manner in which these changes occur and how they are diagnosed and detected are of extremely important as they are closely related to clinical and subclinical postpartum diseases, lactation and reproductive performance; factors that significantly shape the profitability of production. Therefore, the priority for intensive milk production is prevention of metabolic diseases and other disorders. It is the intent of this review, to synthesize and summarize the information currently available to metabolic status and physiological changes in cow's body which occurs during the lactation, as well as to discuss interpretation of the results, which will be a useful diagnostic tool in nutritional evaluations of the dairy herd.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T05:00:46.192046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7779
  • Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from selected cereal grains and legumes as
           influenced by food acidulants
    • Authors: Gavirangappa Hithamani; Krishnapura Srinivasan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Polyphenols in food are valued for their health beneficial influences. Food acidulants lime juice and amchur, used in Indian culinary were evaluated for their influence on polyphenol bioaccessibility from food grains. RESULTS Lime juice increased bioaccessible flavonoids by 25% in roasted finger millet, while there was no change in total bioaccessible polyphenols in pressure‐cooked, open‐pan boiled and roasted finger millet in presence of food acidulants. Addition of amchur to pressure‐cooked and microwave‐heated pearl millet increased the bioaccessible flavonoids by 30% and 53%, while lime juice increased the same by 46% in pressure‐cooked millet. Increased bioaccessibility of specific phenolic acids from finger millet and pearl millet was observed upon addition of these food acidulants. Presence of either lime juice or amchur increased bioaccessible flavonoids from both the legumes. Addition of lime juice and amchur however exerted a negative effect on the bioaccessibility of several phenolic compounds from food grains in native and under certain processing conditions. CONCLUSIONS Thus, food acidulants ̶ lime juice and amchur had significant influence on the bioaccessibility of health beneficial phenolic compounds from food grains. Use of food acidulants in food preparations could be a strategy to enhance the bioavailability of polyphenols, especially flavonoids from grains.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T23:25:41.85355-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7776
  • Sequence characterization and in silico structure prediction of fatty acid
    • Authors: Ashwini V. Rajwade; Rakesh S. Joshi, Narendra Y. Kadoo, Vidya S. Gupta
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Linseed is the richest agricultural source of alpha‐linolenic acid (ALA), an omega‐3 fatty acid, which offers several nutritional benefits. In the present study, we performed sequence characterization of six desaturase genes (SAD1, SAD2, FAD2, FAD2‐2, FAD3A and FAD3B) and 3D structure prediction of their proteins from ten Indian linseed varieties differing in ALA contents, to determine whether the nucleotide and amino acid (AA) sequence variants have any functional implications in differential accumulation of ALA or other fatty acids in linseed. RESULTS The SAD and FAD2 genes exhibited few sequence variations among the ten varieties, forming only one or two protein isoforms. Alternatively, FAD3A and FAD3B genes showed more sequence variations and three or four protein isoforms. Interestingly, the two high ALA varieties ‘NL260’ and ‘Padmini’ had the same FAD3B nucleotide and protein isoforms, which were different from all the other varieties. Surprisingly, no AA changes altered the 3D structures of the desaturase proteins. CONCLUSIONS We observed several nucleotide and AA sequence variations in desaturase genes; however, they did not alter the 3D structure of any desaturase protein and were not correlated with fatty acid levels among the ten linseed varieties, which had different ALA contents. This suggests complex regulatory process of biosynthesis of fatty acids in linseed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25T02:05:49.522272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7775
  • Seed oil extraction from red prickly pear using hexane and supercritical
           CO2: Assessment of phenolic compound composition, antioxidant and
           antibacterial activities
    • Abstract: Background Investigating Opuntia species for their seed oil contents is of high importance due to its potential use for food and cosmetic applications. These oils have an important content in unsaturated fatty acids as well as antioxidant compounds (e.g. polyphenols, vitamin E), which have been associated with the prevention of some chronic diseases. Moreover, Opuntia stricta oils possess important antimicrobial activities. For instance, the main focus of this study was to compare the effectiveness of conventional (hexane extraction) and novel (supercritical CO2) extraction methods for oil and phenolic compounds recovery from O. stricta seeds. The oil yield of both extracts was then compared and the polyphenol content and composition of both extracts was determined by liquid chromatography‐high resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, the antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antimicrobial activities (disc diffusion's method) of O. stricta seed oils were determined. Results The oil yield (based on Soxhlet's method) of O.stricta seeds was determined using SC‐CO2 (49.9 ± 2.2%), and hexane (49.0 ± 1.5%). Although obtaining similar oil extraction yields using the two methods, the extracted oil using SC‐CO2 was more enriched in polyphenols (172.2 ± 11.9 µg GAE g−1 of oil) than that extracted using hexane (76.0 ± 6.9 µg GAE g−1 of oil). Polyphenol profiles showed that SC‐CO2 process led to yield more compounds (45) than that using hexane extraction (11). Moreover, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of SC‐CO2 extract showed high percentage of inhibitions. Conclusion SC‐CO2 extraction of Opuntia stricta seed oil lead to extract oil with similar yield than that with hexane extraction, but with higher polyphenol content. The extract containing polyphenols exhibited high antioxidant and antibacterial properties demonstrating their great potential as feedstock for high oil quality.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23T01:51:05.807555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7774
  • Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on
           acetylated starch and cellulose from barley
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. RESULT The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. CONCLUSION The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapour permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23T01:50:43.276986-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7773
  • Implications of climate change predictions for uk cropping and prospects
           for possible mitigation: A review of challenges and potential responses
    • Abstract: The UK, like the rest of the world, is confronting the impacts of climate change. Further changes are expected and they will have a profound effect on agriculture. Future crop production is going to be taking place against increasing CO2 levels and temperatures; decreasing water availability, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events. This review contributes to research on agricultural practices for climate change, but with a more regional perspective. The present study explores climate change impacts on UK agriculture, particularly food crop production, and how to mitigate and build resilience to climate change by adopting and/or changing soil management practices, including fertilisation and tillage systems; new crop adoption and variety choice. Some mitigation can be adopted in the shorter‐term, such as changes in crop type and reduction in fertiliser‐use, but in other cases the options will need greater investment and longer adaptation period. This is the case for new crop variety development and deployment, and possible changes to soil cultivations. Uncertainty of future weather conditions, particularly extreme weather, also affect decision‐making for adoption of practices by farmers to ensure more stable and sustainable production. Even when there is real potential for climate change mitigation, it can sometimes be more difficult to accomplish with certainty on‐farm. Better future climate projections and long‐term investments will be required to create more resilient agricultural systems in the UK in the face of climate change challenges.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22T03:40:45.195258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7767
  • Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on 137Cs
           concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima
           Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident
    • Authors: Keiko Tagami; Shigeo Uchida, Nobuyoshi Ishii
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in mushrooms have been of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set the guideline level of radiocesium concentration in bed‐logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear at the time. RESULTS The effects of indoor and out door cultivations to the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for analysis. No statistical 137Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137Cs data in shiitake, geometric means from each prefecture were less than 1/4 of the standard limit (100 Bq kg−1) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. CONCLUSIONS It was suspected that re‐suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or radiocesium might have been absorbed from soil to the mushrooms in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:36:04.216082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7771
  • Delayed post‐harvest ripening‐associated changes in Manilkara
           zapota L. var. Kalipatti with composite edible coating
    • Authors: Vishwasrao Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan Laxmi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There has been limited research on extension of shelf‐life of sapota (Manilkara zapota L. var. Kalipatti) fruit. Edible coating made up of methyl cellulose (MC) and palm oil (PO) was applied to study extension in shelf‐life. Changes in physical and chemical properties of fruit were studied along with peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and pectin methylesterase (PME) enzyme activities during post‐harvest ripening of sapota. RESULTS The fruits coated with 15 g l−1 MC and 11.25 g l−1 PO showed significant (p 
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:25:45.524883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7758
  • Effects on Functional Groups and Zeta Potential of SAP1       Treated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Technology
    • Authors: Rong Liang; Xuenan Li, Songyi Lin, Jia Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND SAP1
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:25:38.956622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7768
  • Induction of Antroquinonol Production by Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide in
           the Fermentation of Antrodia camphorata S‐29
    • Authors: Yongjun Xia; Xuan Zhou, Guangqiang Wang, Bobo Zhang, Ganrong Xu, Lianzhong Ai
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antroquinonol have significantly anti‐tumor effects on various cancer cells. There is still lack of reports on regulation of environmental factors on antroquinonol production by Antrodia camphorata. RESULTS An effective submerged fermentation method was employed to induce antroquinonol with adding H2O2. The production of antroquinonol was 57.81 mg L−1 after fermentation for 10 days when adding 25 mM H2O2 at day four of the fermentation process. Then, antroquinonol was further increased to 80.10 mg L−1 with cell productivity of 14.94 mg g−1 dry mycelium when the feeding rate of H2O2 was adjusted to 0.2 mM h−1 in the 7 L fermentation bioreactor. After inhibiting ROS generation with the inhibitor DPI, the synthesis of antroquinonol from A. camphorata was significantly reduced, and the yield was only 3.3 mg L−1. CONCLUSION The results demonstrated that addition of H2O2 was a very effective strategy to induce and regulate the synthesis of antroquinonol in submerged fermentation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by H2O2 during fermentation caused oxidative stress, which induced the synthesis of antroquinonol and other chemical compounds. Moreover, it is very beneficial process to improve production and diversity of the active compounds during liquid fermentation of A. camphorata mycelium.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:48.961569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7770
  • Physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous
           series of antioxidants in emulsions are due to differences in their
    • Abstract: Background The relationships between the hydrophilic‐lipophilic balance (HLB) of antioxidants (AOs) and their distributions and efficiencies in emulsions are not fully understood. Recent reports indicate that, for series of homologous antioxidants (AOs) of different hydrophobicity, the variation of their efficiency with the HLB of the AO increases with the alkyl chain length up to a maximum (C3 – C8 ester) followed by a decrease (cut‐off effect). Results We determined the distributions of a series of caffeic acid derivatives in intact soybean emulsions by employing a specifically designed chemical probe located in the interfacial region of the emulsion. We also determined the AO efficiencies in the very same emulsions. We demonstrate that the variation of the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of soybean oil‐in‐water emulsions with the AO HLB parallels that of their antioxidant efficiency. Conclusions Results provide physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous series of antioxidants in emulsions are due to differences in their distribution. Results confirm that, other things being equal, there is a direct relationship between the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of the emulsions and their efficiency, providing a natural explanation, based on molecular properties, to the cut‐off effect.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:47.995045-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7765
  • Effect of prebiotics of Agave salmiana fed to healthy Wistar rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Inulin and other fructans are synthesized and stored in mezcal agave (Agave salmiana). Fructans provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. RESULTS Here, we studied the physiological effects of fructans obtained from A. salmiana when added in the diet of Wistar rats. Results evidence favorable changes on Wistar rats when the fructans was added to their diet, including the decrease of the pH in the faeces and the increase of the number of lactic acid bacteria (CFU g−1) (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.), even these changes were enhanced with the synbiotic diet (fructans plus B. animalis spp. lactis). Synbiotic diet, developed changes in the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum, with statistical differences (p 
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:00:42.828214-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7764
  • Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical,
           and sensory properties of winter melon juice
    • Authors: Xiuxiu Sun; Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Anne Plotto, John A. Manthey, Yongping Duan, Jinhe Bai
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. RESULTS The juices had low sugars (
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:55:44.030752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7761
  • Optimization of Process Parameters for Supercritical Fluid Extraction of
           Cholesterol from Whole Milk Powder using Ethanol as Co‐solvent
    • Authors: Indira DeyPaul; Chitra Jayakumar, Hari Niwas Mishra
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In spite of being highly nutritious, the consumption of milk is hindered owing to its high cholesterol content which is responsible for numerous cardiac diseases. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using ethanol as co‐solvent was employed to extract cholesterol from whole milk powder (WMP). This study was undertaken to optimize the process parameters of supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) viz., extraction temperature, pressure and volume of ethanol. RESULTS The cholesterol content of WMP was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The impact of the extraction conditions on the fat content (FC), solubility index (SI) and lightness (L*) of the SCFE treated WMP were also investigated. The process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). About 46% reduction in cholesterol was achieved at the optimized condition of 48 °C, 17 MPa and 31 mL of co‐solvent; flow rate of expanded CO2, static time and dynamic time of extraction were 6 L min−1, 10 min and 80 min respectively. The treated WMP retained its FC, SI, and L* at moderate limits of 183.67 g kg−1, 96.3% and 96.90 respectively. CONCLUSION This study pointed at the feasibility of ethanol modified SCFE of cholesterol from WMP with negligible changes in its physico‐chemical properties.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:53:11.631905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7760
  • Glycolipid Biosurfactants; Main Properties and Potential Applications in
           Agriculture and Food Industry
    • Abstract: Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol‐lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They are receiving much practical attention as biopesticides to control plant diseases and to protect stored products. Owing their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit to preserve plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, owing their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. As well, valorization of food by‐products through the production of glycolipid biosurfactant received much attention as it permits the bioconversion of by‐products on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from the fermentation media. In this aim, different strategies were developed to extract and purify glycolipids.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:52:23.646499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7759
  • Physicochemical variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) from a
           same orchard, from different locations and at different ripening stages
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study evaluated the variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) cultivated in São Paulo State in the towns of Mogi das Cruzes, Paraibuna, Paranapiacaba, and Rio Grande da Serra, and characterized it at different maturity stages regarding size, firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, phenolic content, ethylene production, respiration rate, and in vitro antioxidant capacity. RESULTS Ripe fruit from the same locality, Paraibuna, showed large variations in size and acidity. Ripe fruit from different towns showed significant variation of total phenolics and, consequently, variation in antioxidant capacity. During maturation, the phenolic content and firmness decreased from unripe to ripe stages. The TSS/TA ratio can be a parameter to differentiate cambuci at different maturity stages. The decrease in firmness combined with the absence of an ethylene climacteric peak does not allow us to conclude if cambuci is climacteric or non‐climacteric though. CONCLUSION Genetic and soil composition studies are needed to assess the reasons for the differences found among fruit from the same location, and the variability among fruit harvested in four localities. The best parameters to assess cambuci's maturity stages of are the rounding of its corners and its firmness, as the more mature the pulp, the softer the fruit.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:45:57.135551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7756
  • Phytochemical composition and in vitro antitumor activities of selected
           tomato varieties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous studies indicated that tomato is a rich source of phytochemicals that act on different tumors. In this research, the phytochemical composition of selected tomato varieties was assessed by GLC and UHPLC/HPLC‐MS, as well as their antitumor activities on HT‐29 colorectal cancer cells. RESULTS Significant differences were found among tomato varieties; lycopene was high in Racimo; phenolics in Pera; sterols in Cherry; and linoleic acid predominated in all varieties. The MTT and LDH assays showed significant time‐ and concentration‐dependent inhibitory/cytotoxic effects of all tomato varieties on HT‐29 cells. Furthermore, the joint addition of tomato carotenoids and olive oil to HT‐29 cell cultures induced inhibitory effects significantly higher than those obtained from each of them acting separately, while no actions were exercised in CCD‐18 normal cells. CONCLUSION Tomato fruits constitute a healthy source of phytochemicals, although differences exist among varieties. In vitro, all of them inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation with Racimo variety in the top, and exercising a selective action on cancer cells by considering the lack of effects on CCD‐18 cells. Furthermore, synergy was observed between olive oil and tomato carotenoids in inhibiting HT‐29 cancer cell proliferation; conversely, phenolics showed no significant effects and hindered carotenoids actions.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T09:21:18.988148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7750
  • Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye
           blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensorial attributes in not‐from‐concentrate (NFC) ‘Tifblue’ rabbiteye blueberry juices. RESULTS Processing prior to pasteurization generally resulted in increased L* and hue angle color, while a*, b*, and C* decreased. After 4 months pasteurized storage, non‐clarified juice (NCP) lost 73.8% of total volatiles compared with 70.9% in clarified juice (CJP). There was a total anthocyanidin decrease of 84.5% and 85.5% after 4 mo. storage in NCP and CJP, respectively. Storage itself resulted in only 14.2% and 7.2% anthocyanidin loss after pasteurization in NCP and CJP. Storage significantly affected nine flavor properties in juices, however, there were no significant differences in the blueberry, strawberry, purple grape, floral, sweet aroma, or sweet tastes between processed and stored juices. CONCLUSIONS NFC pasteurized blueberry juices maintained desirable flavors even though highly significant volatile and anthocyanidin losses occurred through processing. Maintenance of color and flavor indicate that NFC juices could have an advantage over more abusive methods often used in commercial juice operations.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:33:31.402083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7748
  • Shelf‐life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts
           during refrigerated storage
    • Authors: Yingchang Li; Zhongyan Yang, Jiangrong Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Shrimp is a low‐fat, high‐protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L−1 polyphenols, and 8 g L−1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), K‐value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation. RESULTS The results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K‐value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf‐life of shrimp by three to four days compared with the control group. CONCLUSION PP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf‐life during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:26:06.680244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7730
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 3621 - 3621
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:20:02.075027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7423
  • Issue Information ‐ Info Page
    • Pages: 3622 - 3622
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:20:01.397247-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7424
  • Issue Information ‐ Table of Contents
    • Pages: 3623 - 3626
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:19:54.166263-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7425
  • Recent developments in identifying and quantifying emotions during
           food consumption
    • Authors: Erica Kenney; Koushik Adhikari
      Pages: 3627 - 3630
      Abstract: Emotions and the consumption of food and beverages are inextricably intertwined. As the fields of sensory and consumer science seek to better conceptualize the consumer experience, interest in emotion measurement is growing. Emotions can provide key information to differentiate between products and predict consumer choice as well as give more detail about product perception. There are several emotion measurement instruments, including physiological methods and facial recognition, self‐reported verbal emotion measurement and self‐reported visual emotion measurement. This review discusses the purpose of measuring emotions, what is the definition of an emotion, what different instruments are available, and touches upon some promising research to deepen the connection between food and emotions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T02:47:13.604849-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7717
  • Food‐derived immunomodulatory peptides
    • Pages: 3631 - 3641
      Abstract: Food proteins contain specific amino acid sequences within their structures that may positively impact bodily functions and have multiple immunomodulatory effects. The functional properties of these specific sequences, also referred to as bioactive peptides, are revealed only after the degradation of native proteins during digestion processes. Currently, milk proteins have been the most explored source of bioactive peptides, which presents an interesting opportunity for the dairy industry. However, plant‐ and animal‐derived proteins have also been shown to be important sources of bioactive peptides. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the role of various food proteins as sources of immunomodulatory peptides and discusses the possible pathways involving these properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:33:45.928329-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7697
  • Evolution and perspectives of cultivar identification and traceability
           from tree to oil and table olives by means of DNA markers
    • Authors: Antonella Pasqualone; Cinzia Montemurro, Valentina di Rienzo, Carmine Summo, Vito Michele Paradiso, Francesco Caponio
      Pages: 3642 - 3657
      Abstract: In recent years, an increasing number of typicality marks has been awarded to high‐quality olive oils produced from local cultivars. In this case, quality control requires effective varietal checks of the starting materials. Moreover, accurate cultivar identification is essential in vegetative‐propagated plants distributed by nurseries and is a pre‐requisite to register new cultivars. Food genomics provides many tools for cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives. The results of the application of different classes of DNA markers to olive with the purpose of checking cultivar identity and variability of plant material are extensively discussed in this review, with special regard to repeatability issues and polymorphism degree. The characterization of olive germplasm from all countries of the Mediterranean basin and from less studied geographical areas is described and innovative high‐throughput molecular tools to manage reference collections are reviewed. Then the transferability of DNA markers to processed products – virgin olive oils and table olives – is overviewed to point out strengths and weaknesses, with special regard to (i) the influence of processing steps and storage time on the quantity and quality of residual DNA, (ii) recent advances to overcome the bottleneck of DNA extraction from processed products, (iii) factors affecting whole comparability of DNA profiles between fresh plant materials and end‐products, (iv) drawbacks in the analysis of multi‐cultivar versus single‐cultivar end‐products and (v) the potential of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)‐based techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:51:08.792908-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7711
  • The impact of elevated CO2 and temperature on grain quality of rice grown
           under open‐air field conditions
    • Authors: Liquan Jing; Juan Wang, Shibo Shen, Yunxia Wang, Jianguo Zhu, Yulong Wang, Lianxin Yang
      Pages: 3658 - 3667
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rising atmospheric CO2 is accompanied by global warming. However, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature have not been well studied on grain quality of rice. A japonica cultivar was grown in the field using a free‐air CO2 enrichment facility in combination with a canopy air temperature increase system in 2014. The gas fumigation (200 µmol mol−1 above ambient CO2) and temperature increase (1 °C above ambient air temperature) were performed from tillering until maturity. RESULTS Compared with the control (ambient CO2 and air temperature), elevated CO2 increased grain length and width as well as grain chalkiness but decreased protein concentrations. In contrast, the increase in canopy air temperature had less effect on these parameters except for grain chalkiness. The starch pasting properties of rice flour and taste analysis of cooked rice indicated that the palatability of rice was improved by CO2 and/or temperature elevation, with the combination of the two treatments showing the most significant changes compared with ambient rice. CONCLUSION It is concluded that projected CO2 in 2050 may have larger effects on rice grain quality than the projected temperature increase. Although deterioration in milling suitability, grain appearance and nutritional quality can be expected, the taste of cooked rice might be better in the future environment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-04T10:22:22.975322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7545
  • Color, sensory and physicochemical attributes of beef burger made using
           meat from young bulls fed levels of licuri cake
    • Pages: 3668 - 3672
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Licuri cake is a biodiesel byproduct and has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study analyzed the color, sensory and chemical attributes of burger meat from bovines. Thirty‐two young Nellore bulls were used, housed in individual pens and distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments: no addition or the addition of 7, 14 or 21% (w/w) licuri cake in the dry matter of the diet. RESULTS: Interactions between the licuri cake level and the physicochemical variables (P > 0.05) were observed. Additionally, an interaction was observed between the licuri cake level and the burger beef color parameter lightness index (L*) (P = 0.0305). The L* value was positively and linearly correlated with the proportion of licuri cake in the diet of young bulls. The level of inclusion of licuri cake did not affect (P > 0.05) the sensory characteristics; the variables were graded between 6 and 7, indicating good overall acceptance. CONCLUSION: Up to 21% (w/w) licuri cake can be included in the diet of young bulls without negatively impacting on beef burger quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T11:46:06.08175-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7548
  • Comparison of fluoride effects on germination and growth of Zea mays,
           Glycine max and Sorghum vulgare
    • Authors: Brenda L Fina; Maela Lupo, Nicolas Dri, Mercedes Lombarte, Alfredo Rigalli
      Pages: 3679 - 3687
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fluorosis is a disease caused by over‐exposure to fluoride (F). Argentina's rural lands have higher fluorine content than urban lands. Evidence confirms that plants grown in fluoridated areas could have higher F content. We compared F uptake and growth of crops grown in different F concentrations. The effect of 0–8 ppm F concentrations on maize, soybeans and sorghum germination and growth was compared. After 6 days seeding, the germination was determined, the roots and aerial parts lengths were measured, and vigor index was calculated. F content was measured in each part of the plants. Controls with equal concentrations of NaCl were carried out. RESULTS Significant decrease in roots and aerial parts lengths, and in vigor index of maize and soybeans plants was observed with F concentrations greater than 2 ppm. This was not observed in sorghum seedlings. Also, the amount of F in all crops augmented as F increases, being higher in roots and ungerminated seeds. Sorghum was the crop with the highest F content. CONCLUSION Fluoride decreased the germination and growth of maize and soybeans and therefore could influence on their production. Conversely, sorghum seems to be resistant to the action of F. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T03:20:37.516653-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7551
  • Optimisation of ultrasound‐assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet
           potato (Ipomea batatas) using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Ayobami Olayemi Oladejo; Haile Ma
      Pages: 3688 - 3693
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sweet potato is a highly nutritious tuber crop that is rich in β‐carotene. Osmotic dehydration is a pretreatment method for drying of fruit and vegetables. Recently, ultrasound technology has been applied in food processing because of its numerous advantages which include time saving, little damage to the quality of the food. Thus, there is need to investigate and optimise the process parameters [frequency (20–50 kHz), time (10–30 min) and sucrose concentration (20–60% w/v)] for ultrasound‐assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet potato using response surface methodology. RESULTS The optimised values obtained were frequency of 33.93 kHz, time of 30 min and sucrose concentration of 35.69% (w/v) to give predicted values of 21.62, 4.40 and 17.23% for water loss, solid gain and weight reduction, respectively. The water loss and weight reduction increased when the ultrasound frequency increased from 20 to 35 kHz and then decreased as the frequency increased from 35 to 50 kHz. CONCLUSION The results from this work show that low ultrasound frequency favours the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato and also reduces the use of raw material (sucrose) needed for the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T09:25:46.550314-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7552
  • Effect of seed pelleting with biocontrol agents on growth and colonisation
           of roots of mungbean by root‐infecting fungi
    • Authors: Nadia Ramzan; Nayara Noreen, Zahida Perveen, Saleem Shahzad
      Pages: 3694 - 3700
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is a leguminous pulse crop that is a major source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Root‐infecting fungi produce severe plant diseases like root rot, charcoal rot, damping‐off and stem rot. The soil‐borne pathogens can be controlled by chemicals, but these chemicals have several negative effects. Use of microbial antagonist such as fungi and bacteria is a safe, effective and eco‐friendly method for the control of many soil‐borne pathogens. Biological control agents promote plant growth and develop disease resistance. Application of bacteria and fungi as seed dressing suppressed the root‐infecting fungi on leguminous crops. RESULTS Seeds of mungbean were pelleted with different biocontrol agents to determine their effect on plant growth and colonisation of roots by root‐infecting fungi, viz. Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Treatment of mungbean seeds with fungal antagonists showed more shoot and root length as compared to bacterial antagonists, whereas seed treated with bacterial antagonists showed maximum shoot and root weight. Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis were the best among all the biocontrol agents since they provided the highest plant growth and greater reduction in root colonisation by all root‐infecting fungi. Bacillus cereus, Trichoderma virens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus varians were also effective against root‐infecting fungi but to a lesser extent. T. harzianum, T. virens, B. subtilis and P. fluorescens were found to be best among all biocontrol agents. CONCLUSION The root‐infecting fungi can be controlled by pelleting seeds with biocontrol agents as it is safe and effective method. Additionally, plant growth was promoted more by this method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T03:47:18.849118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7553
  • Improving phosphorus uptake and wheat productivity by phosphoric acid
           application in alkaline calcareous soils
    • Authors: Muhammad Akhtar; Muhammad Yaqub, Asif Naeem, Muhammad Ashraf, Vicente Espinosa Hernandez
      Pages: 3701 - 3707
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Low phosphorus (P) efficiency from existing granular fertilisers necessitates searching for efficient alternatives to improve wheat productivity in calcareous soil. RESULTS Multi‐location trials have shown that phosphoric acid (PA) produced 16% higher wheat grain over commercial P fertilisers, i.e. diammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple superphosphate (TSP). Methods of P application significantly influenced grain yield and the efficiency of methods was observed in the order: PA placement below seed > PA, DAP or TSP fertigation > DAP or TSP broadcast. The sub‐surface application of PA produced highest grain yields (mean of all rates), i.e. 4669, 4158 and 3910 kg ha−1 in Bagh, Bhalwal and Shahpur soil series, respectively. Phosphoric acid at 66 kg P2O5 ha−1 was found more effective in increasing gain yield over that of control. Trend in grain P uptake was found similar to that observed for grain yield. Maximum P uptake by grain was recorded at the highest P rate and the lowest at zero P. The significant increase in P uptake with P rates was generally related to the increase in yield rather than its concentration in grain. Phosphorus agronomic efficiency (PAE) and phosphorus recovery efficiency (PRE) were found higher at lower P rate (44 kg P2O5 ha−1) and decreased with P application. However, PA applied by the either method resulted in higher PAE and PRE compared to DAP and TSP. CONCLUSION Phosphoric acid is suggested as an efficient alternative to commercial granular P fertilisers for wheat production in alkaline calcareous soils. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-04T11:12:31.430883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7555
  • Serum metabolomics analysis of rat after intragastric infusion of
           Pu‐erh theabrownin
    • Pages: 3708 - 3716
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim was to study the effects of Pu‐erh theabrownin (TB) (Mw > 50 kDa) on the metabolism of rat serum by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)‐based metabolomics and identify candidate marker metabolites associated with Pu‐erh TB, and thus provide fundamental information for a better understanding of the metabolism of Pu‐erh tea in animals. RESULTS TB infusion induced different changes in endogenous serum metabolites depending on the type of diet. Compared with the control group, the TB infusion group showed significantly reduced serum glycine and choline levels, as well as significantly increased taurine, carnitine and high‐density lipoprotein (all P < 0.05). Compared with the high‐lipid group, the high‐lipid TB infusion group exhibited significantly reduced low‐density lipoprotein and acetate levels, as well as significantly increased inositol, carnitine and glycine levels (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Examination of the variations of these differential expressed metabolites and their individual functions revealed that the TB extract accelerated lipid catabolism in rats and might affect glucose metabolism. Of these, carnitine level significantly increased after intragastric infusion of TB regardless of the type of diet, and activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferases I and II changed significantly, suggesting carnitine may be a candidate serum marker for tracking the metabolism of TB in rats. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T09:22:20.710032-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7556
  • Antihyperlipidemic effect of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim)
           Harms leaves in high‐fat‐diet fed mice
    • Authors: Miyako Nishida; Momoko Kondo, Taro Shimizu, Tetsuo Saito, Shinji Sato, Masao Hirayama, Tetsuya Konishi, Hiroshi Nishida
      Pages: 3717 - 3722
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for a variety of obesity‐related diseases. Recently, the effects of functional foods have been investigated on lipid metabolism as a means to reduce lipid content in the blood, liver and adipose tissues associated with carnitine O‐palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (AS) is a medicinal herb possessing a wide spectra of functions including antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and anti‐fatigue actions. Despite much research being focused on the cortical roots of AS, little information is available regarding its leaves, which are also expected to promote human health, for example by improving abnormal lipid metabolism. Here, we explored whether AS leaves affect lipid metabolism in mice fed a high‐fat diet. RESULTS The administration of AS to BALB/c mice fed a high‐fat diet significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (TG). CPT activity in the liver of these mice was significantly enhanced by AS treatment. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that AS leaves have the potential to alleviate increase in plasma TG levels due to high‐fat diet intake in mice, possibly by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β‐oxidation, especially via CPT activation. Consequently, daily intake of AS leaves could promote beneficial health effects including the prevention of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T03:59:58.94432-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7557
  • Microbial community, and biochemical and physiological properties of
           Korean traditional black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar
    • Pages: 3723 - 3730
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in microbial community and biochemical and physiological properties of traditional Muju black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar (TMBV) during fermentation by culture‐independent methods. RESULTS During vinegar fermentation, ethanol produced up to 120 g L−1 until day 35, with continuously increasing yeast concentration to a total of log 7.6 CFU mL−1. After day 35, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) concentrations rose to log 5.8 CFU mL−1 until day 144. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected until day 87 of the fermentation, at which point Acetobacter pasteurianus gradually took over as the dominant species. Total sugar was reduced to 6.6 °Brix and total acidity produced up to 44 g L−1. CONCLUSION In this study, we established the physicochemical analysis and growth dynamics of yeast and AAB during alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of black raspberry by a traditional method. Overall, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus species appeared to dominate the TMBV fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for TMBV by the static surface method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T04:01:53.312547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7560
  • Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during
           grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Shoumin Zhen; Kun Dong, Xiong Deng, Jiaxing Zhou, Xuexin Xu, Caixia Han, Wenying Zhang, Yanhao Xu, Zhimin Wang, Yueming Yan
      Pages: 3731 - 3740
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B‐group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non‐targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. RESULTS In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite–metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. CONCLUSION The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS‐based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T05:22:47.412823-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7561
  • The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties
    • Authors: Mohammad N Rezaei; Vinay B Jayaram, Kevin J Verstrepen, Christophe M Courtin
      Pages: 3741 - 3748
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time‐dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough‐batter gluten starch separation system. RESULTS Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. CONCLUSION These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T04:55:03.398718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7562
  • Assessment of different washing treatments to mitigate imidacloprid and
           acetamaprid residues in spinach
    • Pages: 3749 - 3754
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Agricultural crops treated with pesticides retain toxic residues that can cause various health disorders upon consumption. The present research project was designed to assess pesticide residues in contaminated spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The efficiency of chemical solutions (acetic acid, citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate) of different concentrations (% w/v) along with tap water for the dissolution of pesticide residues in spinach was studied. After various dipping treatments (T0–T22) of treated spinach, imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues were determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS Among the solutions tested, the highest reductions in imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues respectively were 0.92 ± 0.04 mg kg−1 (83%) and 1.42 ± 0.53 mg kg−1 (87%) in treatment T6 (10% acetic acid), followed by 0.79 ± 0.01 mg kg−1 (69%) and 0.86 ± 0.05 mg kg−1 (71%) in treatment T11 (10% citric acid), while the lowest were 0.30 ± 0.02 mg kg−1 (27%) and 0.35 ± 0.02 mg kg−1 (29%) in treatment T20 (4% sodium carbonate). Moreover, treatment T1 (tap water) caused 0.27 ± 0.00 mg kg−1 (23%) and 0.38 ± 05 mg kg−1 (27%) elimination of imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues respectively. CONCLUSION From these findings it is inferred that acetic acid and citric acid washing treatments can be used along with tap water to minimize pesticide residues in treated vegetables. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T06:03:41.84476-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7563
  • Phytase‐mediated mineral solubilization from cereals under in vitro
           gastric conditions
    • Authors: Anne VF Nielsen; Anne S Meyer
      Pages: 3755 - 3761
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri‐ to hexakisphosphate (InsP3–6) degradation and iron and zinc release during microbial phytase action on wheat bran, rice bran and sorghum under simulated gastric conditions. RESULTS InsP3–6 was depleted within 15–30 min of incubation using an Aspergillus niger phytase or Escherichia coli phytase under simulated gastric conditions, with the two enzymes dephosphorylating cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase‐catalyzed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. However, for wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than that of the microbial phytases. No increases in soluble cadmium, lead or arsenic were observed with microbial phytase‐catalyzed phytate dephosphorylation. CONCLUSION Microbial phytase treatment abated phytate chelation hence enhanced the release of iron and zinc from phytate‐rich cereals under simulated gastric conditions. The data infer that acid‐stable microbial phytases can help improve iron bioavailability from phytate‐rich cereal substrates via post‐ingestion activity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T07:40:04.129483-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7564
  • Discrimination of some European vinegars with protected denomination of
           origin as a function of their amino acid and biogenic amine content
    • Pages: 3762 - 3771
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Twenty‐three amino acids and 11 amines were quantified in 37 premium quality European vinegars (traditional balsamic vinegar of Modena, balsamic vinegars of Modena and vinegars of Jerez) by an HPLC‐DAD method after derivatisation with diethyl ethoxymethylenmalonate. Data were assessed in the light of the differences in technology and raw materials. RESULTS The total amount of amino acids ranged from 136 mg kg−1 to 1450 mg kg−1 in traditional balsamic vinegar of Modena and balsamic vinegar of Modena, respectively. Jerez vinegars had a mean content from 351 mg kg−1 to 921 mg kg−1. Proline, glycine and γ‐aminobutyric acid were the main amino acids while isoleucine was only found in balsamic vinegar of Modena at a concentration of
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T05:51:47.214514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7566
  • Oregano (Lippia graveolens) essential oil added within pectin edible
           coatings prevents fungal decay and increases the antioxidant capacity of
           treated tomatoes
    • Pages: 3772 - 3778
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato is a fruit widely consumed due to its flavor and nutritional value; however, it is susceptible to fungi contamination. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is a fungicide whose constituents are volatile; therefore, their incorporation within edible coatings can protect them and maintain their efficacy. In this context, this study evaluated the effect of OEO applied within pectin coatings on the inhibition of Alternaria alternata growth, antioxidant content and sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. RESULTS The major volatile compounds of OEO were carvacrol (47.41%), p‐cymene (26.44%) and thymol (3.02%). All the applied OEO concentrations (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 g L−1) inhibited the in vitro growth of A. alternata, whereas the in vivo effective concentrations were 25.9 and 36.1 g L−1. Additionally, there was an increment of total phenols and antioxidant activity in coated tomatoes compared to controls. Aroma acceptability of tomatoes was not affected by the pectin–OEO coating; additionally, the pectin, pectin–OEO 15.7 g L−1 treatments and control tomatoes showed higher flavor acceptability than those coated with pectin–OEO 25.9 and 36.1 g L−1. CONCLUSION Pectin–OEO coatings showed antifungal effect and increased the antioxidant activity without negative effects on the sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T11:16:40.221606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7568
  • Enrichment of two isoflavone aglycones in black soymilk by Rhizopus
           oligosporus NTU 5 in a plastic composite support bioreactor
    • Pages: 3779 - 3786
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A plastic composite support (PCS) bioreactor was implemented to evaluate the effects on isoflavone deglycosylation in black soymilk fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus NTU 5. RESULTS Evaluation for the optimal PCS for mycelia immobilisation was conducted, which led to the significant results that the most mycelium weight (0.237 g per PCS, P < 0.05) is held by an S‐type PCS; therefore, it was selected for black soymilk fermentation. It was found that the PCS fermentation system without pH control exhibits better efficiency of isoflavone bioconversion (daidzin to daidzein, and genistin to genistein) than the one with pH control at pH 6.5. As for the long‐run fermentation, those without pH control indeed accelerate the isoflavone bioconversion by continuously releasing β‐glucosidase into soymilk. Deglycosylation can be completed in 8 to 24 h and sustained for at least 34 days as 26 batches. The non‐pH‐control fermentation system also exhibits the highest total phenolic content (ranged from 0.147 to 0.340 mg GAE mL−1 sample) when compared to the pH‐controlled and suspended ones. Meanwhile, the black soymilk from the 22nd batch with 8 h fermentation demonstrated the highest DPPH radical scavenging effect (54.7%). CONCLUSION A repeated‐batch PCS fermentation system was established to accelerate the deglycosylation rate of isoflavone in black soymilk. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T03:47:02.329131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7569
  • Development of an SPME‐GC‐MS method for the specific
           quantification of dimethylamine and trimethylamine: use of a new ratio for
           the freshness monitoring of cod fillets
    • Pages: 3787 - 3794
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish is a highly perishable food, so it is important to be able to estimate its freshness to ensure optimum quality for consumers. The present study describes the development of an SPME‐GC‐MS technique capable of quantifying both trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA), components of what has been defined as partial volatile basic nitrogen (PVB‐N). This method was used, together with other reference methods, to monitor the storage of cod fillets (Gadus morhua) conserved under melting ice. RESULTS Careful optimisation enabled definition of the best parameters for extracting and separating targeted amines and an internal standard. The study of cod spoilage by sensory analysis and TVB‐N assay led to the conclusion that the shelf‐life of cod fillet was between 6 and 7 days. Throughout the study, TMA and DMA were specifically quantified by SPME‐GC‐MS; the first was found to be highly correlated with the values returned by steam distillation assays. Neither TMA‐N nor DMA‐N were able to successfully characterise the decrease in early freshness, unlike dimethylamine/trimethylamine ratio (DTR), whose evolution is closely related to the results of sensory analysis until the stage where fillets need to be rejected. CONCLUSION DTR was proposed as a reliable indicator for the early decrease of freshness until fish rejection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T08:26:30.221671-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7570
  • Triple helical structure of acid‐soluble collagen derived from Nile
           tilapia skin as affected by extraction temperature
    • Authors: Mantaka Thuanthong; Nualpun Sirinupong, Wirote Youravong
      Pages: 3795 - 3800
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish skin has become a new source of collagen. It is usually extracted at low temperature. Increasing the extraction temperature can increase the collagen yield. However, high temperature might cause degradation of the triple helical structure of collagen, which is related to its functional biomaterial. This work thus aimed to investigate the effect of extraction temperature on the extraction efficiency and characteristics of acid‐soluble collagen (ASC), particularly its triple helical structure. RESULTS ASC was extracted at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1 and 25 ± 1 °C for 0–24 h with 0.3 or 0.5 mol L−1 acetic acid. The results showed that extraction with 0.5 mol L−1 acetic acid gave a higher extraction efficiency than that in 0.3 mol L−1 acetic acid (P < 0.5). Extraction at 25 ± 1 °C for 5 h with 0.5 mol L−1 acetic acid gave a higher extraction efficiency (73.73 ± 1.28%), which is higher than that of 5 ± 1 °C by about 1.7‐fold. All ASC obtained were identified as type I collagen and showed similar physicochemical properties. CONCLUSION The results showed that extraction temperature strongly affected extraction efficiency. Extraction at 25 °C did not affect the triple helical structure, which was confirmed by the results of Fourier transform infrared, circular dichroism spectrum and collagen self‐assembly. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-10T03:27:39.519394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7572
  • How ‘ground‐picked’ olive fruits affect virgin olive oil
           ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality
    • Pages: 3801 - 3806
      Abstract: Background Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground‐picked olives, tree‐picked fruits and their mixture. Results Ground‐picked olives produced ‘Lampante’ virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree‐picked olives gave oils classified as ‘virgin’ because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the ‘extra’ category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground‐ picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree‐picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Conclusion Ground‐picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low‐quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground‐picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T08:34:13.451584-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7573
  • Influence of soil cover and N and K fertilization on the quality of
           biofortified QPM in the humid tropics
    • Pages: 3807 - 3812
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the humid tropics, unfavorable conditions present challenges to smallholder farmers attempting to meet food demands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alley cropping and addition of potassium and nitrogen on the productivity and nutritional value of quality protein maize (QPM). The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme, with five treatments, Gliricidia + Acacia (GA), Gliricidia + Clitoria (GC), Leucaena + Acacia (LA), Leucaena + Clitoria (LC) and bare soil (BS), in two cropping systems, one with addition of nitrogen and potassium (NK) and one without. RESULTS The grain yield of LC + NK was significantly higher than that of all other treatments except GC + NK and LA + NK, and six times higher than that of BS + NK. The protein content of LC + NK was higher than that of the treatments without residue. CONCLUSION Although the mulching of tree legumes increased the yield and quality of food for smallholder agriculture, achieving this outcome requires eliminating potentially negative interactions when combining trees and crops in addition to enhancing the availability and uptake of nutrients. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T06:04:31.741176-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7574
  • Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in A549 cells by compounds
           from oxheart cabbage extract
    • Authors: Nan Wang; Wei Wang, Caiqin Liu, Jianchang Jin, Bo Shao, Lianqing Shen
      Pages: 3813 - 3820
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oxheart cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is a member of the Brassica genus. Although some studies on the anticancer effects of extracts from oxheart cabbage have been reported, comprehensive information on the bioactive fractions and components from oxheart cabbage extracts is still lacking. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the bioactive fractions and components from oxheart cabbage seeds using activity‐guided isolation methods. RESULTS The cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of fraction II, fraction III, iberverin, sulforaphane and iberin from oxheart cabbage seed extract were investigated. The results showed that all five components had inhibitory effects on the in vitro growth of A549 cells which were dose‐dependent. These compounds also changed the morphology of A549 cells, and their inhibitory activity on A549 cells was as follows: sulforaphane > iberin > iberverin > fraction III > fraction II. The IC50 values were 3.53 ± 0.63, 4.93 ± 1.02, 7.07 ± 0.51, 15.56 ± 0.24 and 27.32 ± 0.63 µg mL−1 respectively. Fraction II, fraction III, iberverin, sulforaphane and iberin induced cell apoptosis by increasing early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis, and activation of caspase‐3, −8 and −9. CONCLUSION These results indicated that the decrease in A549 cell viability by active compounds from oxheart cabbage seed extract was due to the induction of apoptosis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T09:12:02.641086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7575
  • Effect of high pressure processing on dispersive and aggregative
           properties of almond milk
    • Authors: Santosh Dhakal; M Monica Giusti, VM Balasubramaniam
      Pages: 3821 - 3830
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A study was conducted to investigate the impact of high pressure (450 and 600 MPa at 30 °C) and thermal (72, 85 and 99 °C at 0.1 MPa) treatments on dispersive and aggregative characteristics of almond milk. Experiments were conducted using a kinetic pressure testing unit and water bath. Particle size distribution, microstructure, UV absorption spectra, pH and color changes of processed and unprocessed samples were analyzed. RESULTS Raw almond milk represented the mono model particle size distribution with average particle diameters of 2 to 3 µm. Thermal or pressure treatment of almond milk shifted the particle size distribution towards right and increased particle size by five‐ to six‐fold. Micrographs confirmed that both the treatments increased particle size due to aggregation of macromolecules. Pressure treatment produced relatively more and larger aggregates than those produced by heat treated samples. The apparent aggregation rate constant for 450 MPa and 600 MPa processed samples were k450MPa,30°C = 0.0058 s−1 and k600MPa,30°C = 0.0095 s−1 respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that dispersive and aggregative properties of high pressure and heat‐treated almond milk were different due to differences in protein denaturation, particles coagulation and aggregates morphological characteristics. Knowledge gained from the study will help food processors to formulate novel plant‐based beverages treated with high pressure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-10T03:28:04.096867-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7576
  • Quality assessment of white mold‐ripened cheeses manufactured with
           different lactic cultures
    • Pages: 3831 - 3837
      Abstract: BACKGROUND White mold‐ripened cheeses were investigated with the objective of proposing a colorimetric method to monitor the surface growth of Penicillium candidum and to evaluate the influence of the mesophilic (homofermentative (QMO) and heterofermentative (QMLD)) and thermophilic (QT) starter cultures on the physicochemical composition and sensory description. RESULTS The whiteness index was effective in proving the appearance of superficial mycelium and the stability of white mold growth. The lactic cultures showed significant influence on most of the physicochemical analyses. The cheese made with thermophilic lactic culture had a 1 day gain in the growth of mycelium on the surface; nevertheless, the appearance of this product was potentially not acceptable for consumers. The heterofermentative mesophilic cheese had a better appearance and texture profile. However, the homofermentative mesophilic cheese showed aspects of fresh cheese and was acceptable for a wide range of consumers. CONCLUSION The whiteness index was efficient to monitor the surface growth of P. candidum. The highest proteolytic effect was found in the QMLD and QT cultures. However, the cheese elaborated with the QMLD culture showed the best sensory acceptance. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T07:31:04.233449-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7577
  • Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on
           Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production
    • Pages: 3838 - 3845
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non‐supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. RESULTS For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non‐supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt−1, when applied to the 15 g kg−1 compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. CONCLUSIONS Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T04:13:20.305822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7579
  • Discrimination of Polygonatum species and identification of novel markers
           using 1H NMR‐ and UPLC/Q‐TOF MS‐based metabolite
    • Pages: 3846 - 3852
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rhizomes of Polygonatum species are commonly used as herbal supplements in Asia. They have different medicinal effects by species but have been misused and mixed owing to their similar taste and smell. Therefore accurate and reliable analytical methods to discriminate between Polygonatum species are required. RESULTS In this study, global and targeted metabolite profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and ultra‐performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q‐TOF MS) was applied to discriminate between different Polygonatum species. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) models were used to classify and predict species of Polygonatum. Cross‐validation derived from PLS‐DA revealed good predictive accuracy. Polygonatum species were classified into unique patterns based on K‐means clustering analysis. 4‐Hydrobenzoic acid and trigonelline were identified as novel marker compounds and quantified accurately. CONCLUSION The results demonstrate that metabolite profiling approaches coupled with chemometric analysis can be used to classify and discriminate between different species of various herbal medicines. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T08:06:43.420845-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7580
  • Pilot‐scale radio frequency pasteurisation of chili powder: heating
           uniformity and heating model
    • Authors: Yukun Li; Yongdi Zhang, Yujie Lei, Hongfei Fu, Xiangwei Chen, Yunyang Wang
      Pages: 3853 - 3859
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microbial contamination is a vital obstacle needed to overcome for food safety of condiments. Radio frequency (RF) pasteurisation is a new technology to solve this obstacle. Temperature distribution and heating uniformity of sample, which are influenced by different factors, are the most important things affecting the nutritional ingredients and microbial safety of sample in the process of RF pasteurisation. This study demonstrated the location of cold spot in chili powder by analysing temperature distribution in horizontal and vertical direction. The related models were established and the accuracy was verified. RESULTS Cold spot located on the centre of sample surface in the process of RF pasteurisation. The averaged temperature of sample increased linearly. The uniformity index decreased as the averaged temperature increased. Both the correlation coefficient of two equations were greater than 0.91. The error value of heating rate and heating uniformity index was 0.54% and 0.75% between the measured value and predicted value. CONCLUSION Electric field was not uniformly distributed between RF parallel‐plate electrodes in the RF pasteurisation of chili powder. The heating models were reliable to predict experiment results with high precision and accuracy. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T04:48:55.781127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7581
  • Application of a Box–Behnken design for optimizing the extraction
           process of agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul)
    • Pages: 3860 - 3866
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul) is an industrially important crop in México since it is the only raw material appropriate to produce tequila, an alcoholic beverage. Nowadays, however, these plants have also a nutritional interest as a source of functional food ingredients, owing to the prebiotic potential of agave fructans. In this study, a Box–Behnken design was employed to determine the influence of temperature, liquid:solid ratio and time in a maceration process for agave fructan extraction and optimization. RESULTS The developed regression model indicates that the selected study variables were statistical determinants for the extraction yield, and the optimal conditions for maximum extraction were a temperature of 60 °C, a liquid:solid ratio of 10:1 (v/w) and a time of 26.7 min, corresponding to a predicted extraction yield of 37.84%. Through selective separation via precipitation with ethanol, fructans with a degree of polymerization of 29.1 were obtained. CONCLUSION Box–Behnken designs are useful statistical methods for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans. A mixture of carbohydrates was obtained from agave powder. This optimized method can be used to obtain fructans for use as prebiotics or as raw material for obtaining functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T03:39:19.885651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7582
  • Proteomic analysis of salt‐responsive proteins in oat roots (Avena
           sativa L.)
    • Authors: Jianhui Bai; Jinghui Liu, Weihong Jiao, Rula Sa, Na Zhang, Ruizong Jia
      Pages: 3867 - 3875
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oat is considered as a moderately salt‐tolerant crop that could be used to improve saline and alkaline soil. Previous studies have focused on short‐term salt stress exposure (0.5–48 h), while molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in oat remain unclear. RESULTS Long‐term salt stress (16 days) increased the levels of superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content, putrescine content, spermidine content and soluble sugar content and reduced catalase activity in oat roots. The stress also caused changes in protein profiles in the roots. At least 1400 reproducible protein spots were identified in a two‐dimensional electrophoresis gel, among which 23 were differentially expressed between treated vs control plants and 13 were identified using matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry. CONCLUSION These differentially expressed proteins are involved in five types of biological process: (1) two fructose‐bisphosphate aldolases, four alcohol dehydrogenases, an enolase, a UDP‐glucuronic acid decarboxylase and an F1‐ATPase alpha subunit related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism; (2) a choline monooxygenase related to stress and defense; (3) a lipase related to fat metabolism; (4) a polyubiquitin related to protein degradation; (5) a 14‐3‐3 protein related to signaling. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T05:04:13.9951-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7583
  • Principal component analysis of molecularly based signals from infant
           formula contaminations using LC‐MS and NMR in foodomics
    • Authors: Koichi Inoue; Chihiro Tanada, Takahiro Hosoya, Shuhei Yoshida, Takashi Akiba, Jun Zhe Min, Kenichiro Todoroki, Yutaka Yamano, Shigenori Kumazawa, Toshimasa Toyo'oka
      Pages: 3876 - 3881
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The challenge in developing analytical assessment of unexpected excess contaminations in infant formula has been the most significant project to address the widespread issue of food safety and security. Foodomics based on metabolomics techniques provides powerful tools for the detection of tampering cases with intentional contaminations. However, the safety and risk assessments of infant formula to reveal not only the targeted presence of toxic chemicals, but also molecular changes involving unexpected contaminations, have not been reported. In this study, a huge amount of raw molecularly based signals from infant formula was analysed using reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography with time‐of‐flight MS (LC‐MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and then processed by a principal component analysis (PCA). RESULTS PCA plots visualised signature trends in the complex signal‐data batches from each excess contamination of detectable chemicals by LC‐MS and NMR. These trends in the different batches from a portion of excess chemical contaminations such as pesticides, melamine and heavy metals and out‐of‐date products can be visualised from spectrally discriminated infant formula samples. CONCLUSION PCA plots provide possible attempts to maximise the covariance between the stable lot‐to‐lot uniformity and excess exogenous contaminations and/or degradation to discriminate against the molecularly based signals from infant formulas. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T07:28:15.455781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7584
  • Impacts of ridge–furrow rainfall concentration systems and mulches
           on corn growth and yield in the semiarid region of China
    • Pages: 3882 - 3889
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Plastic‐covered ridge–furrow farming systems for rainfall concentration (RC) improve the water availability for crops and increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semiarid agricultural areas. We conducted a 4‐year field study to determine the RC effects on corn production of mulching in furrows with 8% biodegradable films (RCSB), liquid film (RCSL), bare furrow (RCSN) and conventional flat (CF) farming. RESULTS We found that RC significantly (P > 0.05) increased the soil moisture in the top 0–100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0–20 cm) during the corn‐growing period. Mulching with different materials in planting furrows further improved the rain‐harvesting, moisture‐retaining and yield‐increasing effects of RC planting. Compared with CF, the 4‐year average total dry matter amount per plant for RCSB, RCSL and RCSN treatments increased by 42.1%, 30.8% and 17.2%, respectively. The grain yield increased by 59.7%, 53.4% and 32.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION Plastic‐covered ridge and furrow mulched with biodegradable film and liquid film is recommended for use in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China to alleviate the effects of drought on crop production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T05:15:57.098529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7585
  • Rheology and microstructure of binary mixed gel of rice bran
           protein–whey: effect of heating rate and whey addition
    • Pages: 3890 - 3896
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rice bran protein (RBP) is a valuable plant protein which has unique nutritional and hypoallergenic properties. Whey proteins have wide applications in the food industry, such as in dairy, meat and bakery products. RESULTS Whey protein concentrate (WPC), RBP and their mixtures at different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 w/w) were heated from 20 to 90 °C at different heating rates (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 °C min−1). The storage modulus (G′) and gelling point (Tgel) of WPC were higher than those of RBP, indicating the good ability of WPC to develop stiffer networks. By increasing the proportion of WPC in mixed systems, G′ was increased and Tgel was reduced. Nevertheless, the elasticity of all binary mixtures was lower than that of WPC alone. Tgel and the final G′ of RBP–WPC blends were increased by raising the heating rate. The RBP–WPC mixtures developed more elastic gels than RBP alone at different heating rates. RBP had a fibrillar and lentil‐like structure whose fibril assembly had smaller structures than those of WPC. CONCLUSION The gelling structure of the mixed gel of WPC–RBP was improved by adding WPC. Indeed, by adding WPC, gels tended to show syneresis and had lower water‐holding capacity. Furthermore, the gel structure was produced by adding WPC to the non‐gelling RBP, which is compatible with whey and can be applied as a functional food for infants and/or adults. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T04:40:32.478999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7586
  • Selection of lactic acid bacteria strains for the hydrolysis of allergenic
           proteins of wheat flour
    • Pages: 3897 - 3905
      Abstract: Background Wheat flour is one of the most common causative agents of food allergy. The study presents the selection and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains capable of hydrolyzing/modifying allergenic proteins of wheat flour. Hydrolysis of wheat proteins was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with sera from patients with food allergy to gluten. Results The analysis of electrophoretic profiles of protein extracted from sourdough shows the capability of selected LAB strains for proteolytic degradation of wheat proteins that belong to two factions: albumin/globulin (hydrolysis of 13 polypeptides with a molecular weight between 103 and 22 kDa); and gliadin (seven polypeptides with a molecular weight between 39 and 24 kDa). All analyzed strains were capable of hydrolyzing some IgE‐binding epitopes of wheat allergens. The lack of such changes in control samples indicates that they were induced rather by the proteolytic activity of bacterial strains than endogenous enzymes of wheat flour. The gluten proteins were susceptible to hydrolysis by sequential digestion with pepsin and trypsin. Conclusion The selected strains exhibit proteolytic activity, which leads to a reduction in allergenicity of wheat sourdoughs. These strains may be applied as specific starter cultures to prepare bakery products of special nutritional use. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-02T08:53:40.292237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7588
  • Short‐ and long‐term effects of carbohydrate limitation on
           sugar and organic acid accumulation during mandarin fruit growth
    • Pages: 3906 - 3914
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The physiological roles of organic acids in fruit cells are not fully understood, especially in citrus, whereas the decline in titratable acidity during ripening shown by many citrus fruits is due to the utilization of citric acid. We induced carbohydrate depletion by removing source leaves at two key periods in mandarin development (early and full citric acid accumulation). Then, we assessed the resulting changes in the short term (within 48 h) and long term (several weeks until ripening). RESULTS Control mature fruits were characterized by elevated fresh weight, large diameters and high quantities of malic acid, citric acid and sucrose. At the same stage, fruits subjected to early or late defoliation had higher glucose, fructose, citric acid concentrations and lower sucrose concentrations. They differed only in their malic acid concentrations, which were higher in early defoliation fruits and similar in late defoliation fruits when compared to control fruits. Finally, fruits subjected to late defoliation were characterized by high proline and γ‐aminobutyric acid concentrations, and low fructose and glucose concentrations. CONCLUSION We have shown that short‐ and long‐term carbohydrate limitation modifies sugar and organic acid metabolism during mandarin fruit growth. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T03:45:50.365195-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7594
  • Effect of solar radiation on the functional components of mulberry (Morus
           alba L.) leaves
    • Authors: Mari Sugiyama; Takuya Katsube, Akio Koyama, Hiroyuki Itamura
      Pages: 3915 - 3921
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The functional components of mulberry leaves have attracted the attention of the health food industry, and increasing their concentrations is an industry goal. This study investigated the effects of solar radiation, which may influence the production of flavonol and 1‐deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) functional components in mulberry leaves, by comparing a greenhouse (poor solar radiation) and outdoor (rich solar radiation) setting. RESULTS The level of flavonol in leaves cultivated in the greenhouse was markedly decreased when compared with those cultivated outdoors. In contrast, the DNJ content in greenhouse‐cultivated plants was increased only slightly when compared with those cultivated outdoors. Interestingly, the flavonol content was markedly increased in the upper leaves of mulberry trees that were transferred from a greenhouse to the outdoors compared with those cultivated only in the outdoors. CONCLUSION Solar radiation conditions influence the synthesis of flavonol and DNJ, the functional components of mulberry leaves. Under high solar radiation, the flavonol level becomes very high but the DNJ level becomes slightly lower, suggesting that the impact of solar radiation is great on flavonol but small on DNJ synthesis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T03:58:45.426644-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7614
  • Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (Equus quagga burchellii)
           muscle and subcutaneous fat
    • Pages: 3922 - 3927
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these species, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. RESULTS Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100 g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α‐linolenic (C18:3n‐3) and linoleic (C18:2n‐6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega‐6/omega‐3 ratios (
      PubDate: 2016-02-24T08:13:39.105123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7623
  • Tuber proteome comparison of five potato varieties by principal component
    • Authors: Carla Souza de Mello; Jeroen P Van Dijk, Marleen Voorhuijzen, Esther J Kok, Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi
      Pages: 3928 - 3936
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Data analysis of omics data should be performed by multivariate analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA). The way data are clustered in PCA is of major importance to develop some classification systems based on multivariate analysis, such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In a previous study a one‐class classifier based on SIMCA was built using microarray data from a set of potatoes. The PCA grouped the transcriptomic data according to varieties. The present work aimed to use PCA to verify the clustering of the proteomic profiles for the same potato varieties. RESULTS Proteomic profiles of five potato varieties (Biogold, Fontane, Innovator, Lady Rosetta and Maris Piper) were evaluated by two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis (2‐DE) performed on two immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strip lengths, 13 and 24 cm, both under pH range 4–7. For each strip length, two gels were prepared from each variety; in total there were ten gels per analysis. For 13 cm strips, 199–320 spots were detected per gel, and for 24 cm strips, 365–684 spots. CONCLUSION All four PCAs performed with these datasets presented clear grouping of samples according to the varieties. The data presented here showed that PCA was applicable for proteomic analysis of potato and was able to separate the samples by varieties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-22T05:17:31.97777-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7635
  • A novel method for monitoring troponin T fragment from rabbit skeletal
           muscle during aging using quartz crystal microbalance
    • Authors: Tomohito Iwasaki; Hironobu Taniguchi, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Naoyuki Maeda, Katsuhiro Yamamoto
      Pages: 3944 - 3949
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Troponin T (TnT) is degraded during aging of meat. The proteolytic fragment of TnT, especially the 30 kDa fragment, is used as one of indices for estimating aging of meat. We have tried to use quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which is widely used to analyze interaction among macromolecules, to detect proteolytic fragments of TnT during aging of meat. RESULT The frequency of the QCM sensor with immobilized anti‐TnT antibody in high‐salt solution extracts of both myofibrils and whole meat decreased with time of aging. The staining intensity of the bands, including a 30 kDa fragment bound to anti‐TnT antibody, also increased with time of aging in western blotting. These results confirm that TnT is degraded during aging and released from thin filaments, and QCM analysis is sufficiently sensitive to detect the TnT fragments. CONCLUSION The QCM analysis of muscle and myofibrillar extracts using anti‐TnT antibody‐immobilized sensor can be used as a convenient tool for monitoring the extent of aging of meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T08:20:58.195384-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7558
  • Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as a potential tool to differentiate
           pork from organic and conventional systems
    • Authors: Yan Zhao; Shuming Yang, Donghua Wang
      Pages: 3950 - 3955
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Isotopic discrimination, dietary composition and feeding regime determine the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of animals. Accordingly, measurement of the stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen can be a potential method to identify patterns of pork production. RESULTS In the current study, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratio in pork from organic and conventional systems. The average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for various organic tissues, including hair, blood and defatted meat, were higher than those of conventionally raised ones. The discriminant analysis results based on the combination of carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in defatted meat reached a 100% correct classification. Furthermore, the variation in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of retail organic and conventional pork has been studied over 1 year. The results suggested that organic pork had a higher δ13C value than that of the conventional pork in all but three fortnights. Grouping of the δ15N data showed that the δ15N value in organic pork was higher than that of the conventional one throughout the whole year. CONCLUSION The method established in the present study provides a potential detection that can be highly valuable to prevent fraudulent labelling of organic pork. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T05:54:15.706204-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7567
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