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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 300 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (14 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (68 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)

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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Image analysis‐based modelling for flower number estimation in
           grapevine
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Grapevine flower number per inflorescence provides valuable information that can be used for assessing yield. Considerable research has been conducted at developing a technological tool, based on image analysis and predictive modelling. However, it has never been evaluated the behaviour of variety‐independent predictive models and yield prediction capabilities on a wide set of varieties. RESULTS Inflorescence images from 11 grapevine Vitis vinifera L. varieties were acquired under field conditions. The flower number per inflorescence and the flower number visible in the images were calculated manually, and automatically using an image analysis algorithm. These datasets were used to calibrate and evaluate the behaviour of two linear (single‐variable and multivariable) and a non‐linear variety‐independent model. As a result, the integrated tool composed of the image analysis algorithm and the non‐linear approach showed the highest performance and robustness (RPD=8.32, RMSE=37.1). The yield estimation capabilities of the flower number in conjunction with fruit set rate (R2=0.79) and average berry weight (R2=0.91) were also tested. CONCLUSION This study proves the accuracy of flower number per inflorescence estimation using image analysis algorithm and a non‐linear model that is generally applicable to different grapevine varieties. This provides a fast, non‐invasive and reliable tool for estimation of yield at harvest.
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T04:50:47.136619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7797
       
  • Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate Peel Extracts as Affected by
           Cultivar
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Some studies have reported that different parts of pomegranate fruit, especially the peel, may act as potential antimicrobial agent and then they might be proposed as safe natural source alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial agents. The high tannins content, especially punicalagin, found in pomegranate extracts, has been reported as the main compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Because pomegranate peel chemical composition may vary with type of cultivar (sweet, sour–sweet and sour), they may also differ in their antimicrobial capacity. RESULTS Extract from PTO8 pomegranate cultivar peel had the highest antimicrobial activity as well as the highest punicalagin (α and β) and ellagic acid concentrations. In both results from antibacterial and antifungal activity studies, the sour–sweet pomegranate cultivar PTO8 showed the best antimicrobial activity, and the highest ellagic acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that the ellagic acid content is a factor with significant influence on the antimicrobial activity of the pomegranate extracts studied. The pomegranate peel of the PTO8 cultivar is a great source of antifungal and antibacterial compounds, which may represent alternative antimicrobial agents to those of synthetic origin.
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T04:50:35.389353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7799
       
  • Genetic variation of carotenoids, vitamin E and phenolic compounds in
           biofortified maize
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Biofortified maize is a good vehicle for provitamin A carotenoids for vitamin A deficient populations in developing countries but is also a source of vitamin E, tocochromanols and phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. This study analyzed by HPLC and Total Antioxidant Performance (TAP) assay the antioxidant variation and antioxidant activity of 36 improved maize hybrids and one common yellow maize hybrid. RESULTS The ranges of major carotenoids in provitamin A carotenoids biofortified maize were zeaxanthin (1.2‐13.2 µg/g), β‐cryptoxanthin (1.3‐8.8 µg/g) and β‐carotene (1.3‐8.0 µg/g dry weight [DW]). The ranges of vitamin E compounds identified in provitamin A carotenoids biofortified maize were α‐tocopherol (3.4‐34.3 µg/g), γ‐tocopherol (5.9‐54.4 µg/g), α‐tocotrienol (2.6‐19.5 µg/g), and γ‐tocotrienol (45.4 µg/g DW). The ranges of phenolic compounds were γ‐oryzanol (0.0‐0.8 mg/g), ferulic acid (0.4‐3.6 mg/g) and p‐coumaric acid (0.1‐0.45 mg/g DW). There was significant correlation between α‐tocopherol and cis isomers of β‐carotene (P< 0.01). Tocotrienols were correlated with α‐tocopherol and γ‐oryzanol (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Genotype was significant in determining the variation in β‐cryptoxanthin, β‐carotene, α‐tocopherol and γ‐tocopherol contents (P
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T04:50:31.995887-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7798
       
  • Stabilization of Red Fruit‐Based Smoothies by High Pressure
           Processing. Part B. Effects on sensory quality and selected nutrients
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Non‐thermal pasteurization by High Pressure Processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing Thermal Processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. The resulting products need to be validated from a sensory and nutritional standpoint. The objective was to assess a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit based smoothies in a wide (sensory quality and major nutrients) study. RESULTS HPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) provided “fresh‐like” smoothies, free of cooked‐fruit flavours, for at least 14 days at 4 °C, although their sensory stability was low compared with the TP‐smoothies (85 °C/7 min). In HPP‐smoothies, the loss of fresh fruit flavour and reduced sliminess were the clearest signs of sensory deterioration during storage. Furthermore, HPP permitted the higher initial retention of vitamin C, although this vitamin and, to a lesser extent, total phenols, had a higher degradation rate during storage. The content of sugar present was not affected by either processing treatment. CONCLUSION Mild HPP treatment did not alter the sensory and nutritional properties of smoothies. The sensory and nutritional losses during storage were less than might be expected, probably due to the high antioxidant content and the natural turbidity provided by red fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T04:46:03.771779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7795
       
  • Stabilization of Red Fruit‐Based Smoothies by High Pressure
           Processing. Part A. Effects on microbial growth, enzyme activity,
           antioxidant capacity and physical stability
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Non‐thermal pasteurization by High Pressure Processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing Thermal Processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. However, most of the research on HPP‐fruit products only partially address fruit‐pressure interaction, which limits their practical interest. The objective was to assess the use of a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit based smoothies in a wide (microbial, enzymatic, oxidative and physical stability). RESULTS HPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) was slightly less effective than TP (85 °C/7 min) in inactivating microbes (mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) in the smoothies kept at 4 °C for up to 28 days. The main limitation of using HPP was its low efficacy in inactivating the oxidative (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (pectin methyl esterase) enzymes. Data on antioxidant status, colour parameters, browning index, transmittance, turbidity and viscosity confirmed that the HPP‐smoothies have a greater tendency towards oxidation and clarification, which might lead to undesirable sensory and nutritional changes (see part B). CONCLUSION The microbial quality of smoothies was adequately controlled by mild HPP treatment without affecting their physical‐chemical characteristics; however, oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure‐resistant, which suggests that additional strategies should be used to stabilize smoothies.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T04:45:46.570904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7796
       
  • Univariate and multivariate comparisons of protein and carbohydrate
           molecular structural conformations and their associations with nutritive
           factors in typical byproducts
    • Authors: Hangshu Xin; Yongli Qu, Haonan Wu, Peiqiang Yu, Yonggen Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Little attention has been paid on the inherent molecular structural effects among agricultural byproducts. In this study, soybean meal , wheat bran , corn distillers dried grains with soluble , dry brewer's grain , wet brewer's grain , and apple pomace , which are widely used in animal industry were selected to explore protein and carbohydrate molecular structural conformations. RESULTS All the protein peak heights (including α‐helix and β‐sheet) and areas were exhibited highest values in SM and lowest in AP. The SM had the highest peak area intensity of cellulosic compounds (CELC); while the rest varieties were in the lowest absorbance level. The TSCHO (sum of structural carbohydrate and CELC) area exhibited variations among the samples. Multivariate comparisons showed AP had no molecular structural association with other byproducts within protein amide region. Protein amide I, II and (I+II) areas, α‐helix, β‐sheet and area ratio of protein amide and (TSCHO + TCHO) had strong relationships with CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, SCP, starch, PC, CA, CC and TDN contents. CONCLUSION Inherent molecular structures varied among the selected byproduct kinds and they might be used as potential predictors of nutritive factors, especially for protein structural information.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:30:33.433943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7791
       
  • Effect of including whole linseed and vitamin E in the diet of young bulls
           slaughtered at two fat covers on the sensory quality of beef packaged in
           two different packaging systems
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Forty‐six Pirenaica young bulls, slaughtered at two levels of fatness (3 mm and 4 mm), were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 50 g kg−1 linseed alone or with 200 IU of vitamin E kg−1 in the concentrate and the meat packaging system (vacuum and MAP) on the beef sensory quality. RESULTS The inclusion of linseed or supplementation with vitamin E in the concentrate induced no significant differences in the main meat sensory scores and overall appraisal except under MAP packaging, where small differences due to concentrate ingredients were found in juiciness and metallic flavor intensity. Extending the display time up to 4 or 8 days in high oxygen MAP had detrimental effects on sensory attributes. Meat from animals with 4 mm fat cover depth were rated more tender and juicy, less fibrous and with a higher intensity of beef flavor and rancid odor than meat from 3 mm fat cover bulls when both samples were vacuum packaged. CONCLUSION The inclusion of 50 g kg−1 linseed in the concentrate fed to bulls showed no detrimental effect on the beef sensory quality. The vacuum packaged meat of bulls slaughtered at 4 mm fat cover was rated higher on sensorial analysis than those at 3 mm fat cover.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:10:35.402618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7792
       
  • Change of Volatile Components in Six Microalgae With Different Growth
           Phases
    • Authors: Lv Zhou; Jiao Chen, Jilin Xu, Yan Li, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Head space solid‐phase microextraction (HS‐SPME)‐gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to analyze the volatile components of six marine microalgae (Thalassiosira weissflogii [T. weissflogii], Nitzschia closterium [N. closterium], Chaetoceros calcitrans [C. calcitrans], Platymonas helgolandica [P. helgolandica], Nannochloropsis sp., Dicrateria inornata [D. inornata]) from Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Chrysophyta, respectively, in different growth phases. RESULTS All volatile compounds were identified by database searching in NIST08 Mass Spectral Library and analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) with the SIMCA‐P software. The results revealed clearly that the volatile components of the 6 microalgae were significantly different in exponential, stationary, and declining phases. Aldehydes, alkanes, some esters, and dimethyl sulfide significantly changed in different growth phases. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report on the comprehensive characteristics of volatile components in different microalgae and in different growth phases, which may provide reference data for studies on the flavor of cultivated aquatic organism, the odor formation in nature water, the feeding period choice, and the microalgae species selection for artificial rearing of marine organism.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:10:25.604435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7794
       
  • Chalky part differs in chemical compositions with translucent part of
           japonica rice grains as revealed by a notched‐belly mutant with
           white‐belly
    • Authors: Zhaomiao Lin; Deyi Zheng, Xincheng Zhang, Zunxin Wang, Jinchao Lei, Zhenghui Liu, Ganghua Li, Shaohua Wang, Yanfeng Ding
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chalkiness has deleterious influence on rice appearance and milling quality. We identified a notched‐belly mutant with high percentage of white‐belly, and thereby developed a novel comparison system that can minimize the influence of genetic background and growing conditions. Using this mutant, we examined the differences in chemical compositions between chalky and translucent endosperm, with the aim of exploring relations between occurrence of chalkiness and accumulation of starch, protein, and minerals. RESULTS Comparisons showed significant effect of chalkiness on chemical components in the endosperm. In general, occurrence of chalkiness resulted in higher total starch concentration and lower concentrations of the majority of the amino acids measured. Chalkiness also had positive effect on the concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Mn, Na, Sr, and V, but was negatively correlated with those of B, Ca, Cu, Fe, and Ni. By contrast, no significant chalkiness effect on P, phytic acid‐P, K, Mg, and Zn was observed. In addition, substantial influence of the embryo on endosperm composition was detected, with the embryo showing a negative effect on total protein, amino acids like Arg, His, Leu, Lys, Phe, and Tyr, and all the 17 minerals measured excluding Ca, Cu, P, and Sr. CONCLUSION An inverse relation between starch and protein as well as amino acids was found with respect to chalkiness occurrence. Phytic acid and its colocalized elements K and Mg were not affected by chalkiness. The embryo exerted marked influence on chemical components of the endosperm, in particular the minerals, suggesting the necessity of examining the role of embryo in chalkiness formation.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:10:19.889052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7793
       
  • Genotype, Environment and G × E Interaction Influence
           (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucan Fine Structure in Barley
           (Hordeum vulgare L.)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The structure of β‐glucan influences its use in cereal‐based foods and feed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of environment (E) and genotype (G) on β‐glucan fine structure and its genetic control in two‐row, spring barley with normal starch characteristics. RESULTS A population of 89 recombinant inbred lines, derived from the cross of two‐row, spring barley genotypes Merit × H93174006 (H92076F1 × TR238), was characterized for concentration and structure of grain β‐glucan in two environments. Results showed that concentrations of β‐glucan, DP3, DP4, and DP3+DP4 were positively correlated to each other suggesting no preference for DP3 or DP4 subunit production in high or low β‐glucan lines. The concentrations of β‐glucan, DP3, DP4 and DP3:DP4 ratios were significantly influenced by genotype and environment. However, only DP3:DP4 ratio showed a significant effect of G × E interaction. Association mapping of candidate markers in 119 barley genotypes showed that marker CSLF6_4105 was associated with β‐glucan concentration, whereas Bmac504 and Bmac211 were associated with DP3:DP4 ratio. Bmac273e was associated with both β‐glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio, CONCLUSIONS The grain β‐glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio are strongly affected by genotype and environment. Single marker analyses suggested that the genetic control of β‐glucan concentration and DP3:DP4 ratio was linked to separate chromosomal regions on barley genome.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T05:11:23.401276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7789
       
  • Effects of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc extract and its biopolymer
           encapsulation on a mouse model of colitis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Prunus mume suppress various diseases caused by inflammation response and exhibit antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Therefore, this study determined the effect of an aqueous Prunus mume (PM) extract in a mouse colitis model and investigated the value of biopolymer encapsulation, facilitating targeted delivery to the colon. Colitis was induced by administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium to male BALB/c mice for 7 days prior to treatment with vehicle, 50 mg kg−1 PM extract or biopolymer‐encapsulated PM extract, or 50 mg kg−1 sulfasalazine. RESULTS Histological examination of the colon in BALB/c mice showed epithelial destruction and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. These changes were attenuated in PM‐treated mice, which had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase 2, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgE), compared to the vehicle‐treated colitis group. The PM extract showed concentration‐dependent radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase‐like anti‐oxidant activities. CONCLUSION These results indicated that the effects of the PM extract on colitis were not influenced by biopolymer encapsulation and that this PM extract could be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T05:11:05.551666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7790
       
  • Characterization of specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) in
           vacuum‐packed ham by culture‐plating techniques and MiSeq
           next‐generation sequencing technologies
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The knowledge regarding microaerophilic and anaerobic Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) is crucial for an appropriate evaluation of vacuum‐packed ham. The objective of this study was to characterize the SSO community in vacuum‐packed ham by culture‐dependent technique and MiSeq next generation sequencing (NGS) platform. The relation between changes among the SSO group in the ham and changes of sensory characteristics of the product was also assessed. RESULTS In the study, conventional microbiological analyses were employed in order to establish the participation of several groups of microorganisms in the deterioration of vacuum‐packed ham. The diversity of the SSO group in the product was further assessed with the use of MiSeq NGS technology. The bacteria identified in sliced cooked ham belonged mostly to 4 phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The temperature of 4 °C favoured the development of mesophilic and psychrophilic/psychrothropic flora, mainly Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae families. A high ratio of Brochothrix thermosphacta species and new, cold‐tolerant Clostridium spp. was also observed. The growth of these microorganisms facilitated the changes in the pH value and organoleptic characteristics of the product. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that the combination of culturing and MiSeq NGS technology techniques improves the microbial evaluation of food.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:52:47.940238-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7785
       
  • Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum dy‐1 fermented
           barley suppresses body weight gain in high fat diet‐induced obese
           rats
    • Authors: Jiayan Zhang; Xiang Xiao, Ying Dong, Tian Xu, Fei Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cereal fermentations showed significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In the present study, the effect of supplementary Lactobacillus plantarum dy‐1 fermented barley (LFB) on obesity in high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese rats was investigated. RESULTS The LFB treatment showed a lower rate of increase of body weight and percentage of body fat and a reversal of HFD‐induced glucose intolerance, with ameliorated hyperinsulinemia, decreased levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and inhibited concentration of IL‐1β, IL‐6 and TNF‐α. Moreover, the LFB treatment also showed the strongest inhibition of NF‐kB activation and exhibited the greatest effects in blocking the degradation of the inhibitor of NF‐kB and inhibiting p38 and JNK1 phosphorylation compared with HFD and raw barley treatment. CONCLUSIONS It was clear that the Lactobacillus plantarum dy‐1 fermentation significantly improves the anti‐obesity properties of barley. The results establish the foundation for ameliorating diet‐induced obesity of product with LFB as nutritional supplements.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:52:23.74929-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7786
       
  • Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the overall quality of minimally
           processed globe artichoke heads
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Although nitrogen (N) fertilization is essential for promoting crop yield, it may also affect the produce quality. Here, the influence of three N fertilizer rates (0 kg ha−1 as a control, 200 kg ha−1 and 400 kg ha−1 referred to as N0, N200 and N400, respectively) on the overall quality of minimally processed globe artichoke heads was investigated during refrigerated storage for 12 days. RESULTS Throughout the storage time, N fertilized samples had a higher inulin content than those unfertilized. In addition, the respiratory quotient of N200 and N400 samples was 2 and 2.5‐fold lower than N0 ones, whose values were close to the normal range for vegetables. All the samples reported good microbiological standards, although N200 and N400 achieved lower mesophilic and psychotropic counts than N0 throughout the storage time. After 8 and 12 days of refrigerated storage, the N200 samples showed the highest scores of positive sensory descriptors. CONCLUSION A fertilizer level of 200 kg N ha−1 is suitable for obtaining minimally processed globe artichoke heads with good nutritional, sensory and microbiological quality, characterised by low endogenous oxidase activities. Proper packaging systems and procedures are, however, crucial for extending the product shelf‐life and, thus, promoting its exportation on a wider scale.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:51:54.098916-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7784
       
  • Portal‐drained viscera heat production in Iberian pigs fed betaine
           and conjugated linoleic acid supplemented diets
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may alter growth and body composition in pigs although their mode of action is not well understood. Portal‐drained viscera (PDV) have a disproportionate influence with respect to their masses and this fact may affect the productivity of more profitable tissues. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of betaine and/or CLA in the diet affects PDV heat production. RESULTS Postprandial portal blood flow (PBF) was greater (19.0%, P = 0.004) for control compared to the other three diets. The lowest (P < 0.001) value for postprandial PDV O2 consumption corresponded to betaine + CLA followed by betaine, CLA and control diet (32.7, 25.4 and 17.7%, respectively, with respect to the latter). Postprandial PDV heat production value was greater (26.4%, P < 0.001) for control with respect to the other three diets corresponding the minimum value to betaine + CLA (34.1% lower than the control). CONCLUSION Supplementation with betaine and/or CLA reduced the PBF, O2 consumption and, therefore, PDV heat production with respect to the control diet. This effect was more pronounced when betaine and CLA were supplemented together potentially increasing the energy availability for the rest of body tissues.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:51:35.14761-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7788
       
  • Physicochemical, antioxidant, and anti‐inflammatory properties and
           stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins
           microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after microencapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, −20 °C, −80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. RESULTS Samples before and after microencapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (−)‐epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of microencapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at −20 °C and −80 °C concentrations of them increased. CONCLUSION The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3.
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T04:51:30.653742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7787
       
  • Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards
    • Authors: Dilip Ghosh
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T03:50:55.497786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7746
       
  • Optimization of a method for preparing solid complexes of essential clove
           oil with β‐cyclodextrins
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Clove oil (CO) is and aromatic oily liquid used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to their functional properties. However its disadvantages as pungent taste, volatility, light sensitivity and poor water solubility can be solved by applying microencapsulation or complexation techniques. RESULTS Essential CO was successfully solubilized in aqueous solution by forming inclusion complexes with β‐cyclodextrins (β‐CDs). Moreover, phase solubility studies demonstrated that essential CO also forms insoluble complexes with β‐CDs. Based on these results, essential CO‐β‐CD solid complexes were prepared by the novel approach of microwave irradiation (MWI) followed by three different drying methods: vacuum oven drying (VO), freeze drying (FD) or spray drying (SD). FD was the best option for drying the CO‐β‐CD solid complexes, followed by VO and SD. CONCLUSION MWI can be used efficiently to prepare essential CO‐β‐CDs complexes with good yields on an industrial scale.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T00:51:30.879868-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7781
       
  • Environment and genotype effects on antioxidant properties of
           organically‐grown wheat varieties. A three year study
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses significant amounts of antioxidants that contribute to the dietary antiradical protection against a number of chronic diseases. Despite the increasing interest towards organic food among both consumers and scientists, the availability of literature studies concerning the environment effect under organic management is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat varieties by considering the genotype response to different environmental factors under biodynamic management. RESULTS The soluble fraction of phenolic compounds was mainly determined by the environment, whereas a major genotypic effect was observed for the bound forms, which were present at higher amounts in the red grain varieties. Moreover, a predominant effect of the genotype was observed for yellow pigment content and antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP method. Despite some changes induced by environment, most of the genotypes had stable antioxidant properties and different phenolic profiles as determined by HPLC‐MS, excepting for the old variety Inallettabile which was the most sensitive to environmental fluctuations. CONCLUSIONS The red grain varieties Andriolo, Gentil rosso and Verna were identified as the most promising breeding material for the development of varieties with high nutraceutical value under low input management.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T00:51:10.020134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7782
       
  • Natural variation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents in Colombian
           genotypes of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja at harvest
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Potato frying quality is a complex trait influenced by sugar content in tubers. Good frying quality requires low content of reducing sugars to avoid the formation of dark pigments. Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja is a valuable genetic resource for breeding and for genetic studies. The sugar contents after harvest were analyzed in a germplasm collection of Group Phureja to contribute to the understanding of the natural variation of this trait. RESULTS Sucrose, glucose, and fructose genotypic mean values ranged from 6.39 to 29.48 g kg−1 tuber dry weight (DW), from 0.46 to 28.04 g kg ‐1 tuber DW, and from 0.29 to 27.23 g kg ‐1 tuber DW, respectively. Glucose/fructose and sucrose/reducing sugars ratios ranged from 1.01 to 6.67 mol mol−1 and from 0.15 to 7.78 mol mol−1, respectively. Five clusters of genotypes were recognized, three of them with few genotypes and extreme phenotypic values. CONCLUSIONS Sugar contents showed a wide variation that represents the available variability useful for potato breeding. The results provide a quantitative approach to analyze the frying quality trait and they are consistent with frying color. The analyzed germplasm presents extreme phenotypes, which will contribute to the understanding of the genetic basis of this trait. Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T00:50:48.784818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7783
       
  • Modulation of in vitro rumen biohydrogenation by Cistus ladanifer tannins
           compared with other tannin sources
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Tannins are polyphenolic compounds capable to modify the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of unsaturated fatty acids but their activity may vary among different tannin sources. The effect of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer) on BH has never been compared with other more common tannin sources. Tannins extracts (100 g kg−1 substrate dry matter) from chestnut (CH), quebracho (QB), grape seed (GS) and rockrose (CL) were incubated in vitro for 6 h with ruminal fluid using as substrate a feed containing 60 g kg−1 of sunflower oil. A control treatment, with no added tannins, was also included. RESULTS Compared to control, GS and CL, but not CH and QB, increased (P < 0.05) the disappearance of c9,c12‐18:2 with a consequent larger production of c9,t11‐18:2 and t11‐18:1. However, no differences among treatments (P > 0.05) were observed for the disappearance of c9‐18:1 and c9,c12,c15‐18:3. The production of 18:0 was not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, although its proportion in the total BH products was lower (P < 0.05) for GS than for the other treatments. CONCLUSIONS Condensed tannins from GS and, in less extent, from CL stimulates the first steps of BH, without a clear inhibition of 18:0 production.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T06:06:11.279033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7777
       
  • The impact of canopy managements on grape and wine composition of cv.
           'Istrian Malvasia' (Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The interest of producing wines, preferred by the consumers, increases the need of improving practices to modify grape and wine composition. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of three different canopy management measures; early leaf removal in the cluster zone, removal of young leaves above the second pair of wires and Double Maturation Raisonnée on yield and chemical composition of 'Istrian Malvasia' grape and wine. RESULTS Double Maturation Raisonnée revealed a significantly greater impact on phenolic compounds, while the highest soluble solids (24.3 and 23.5 °Brix) and titratable acidity (7.0 and 7.1 g L−1) were measured at early leaf removal. Leaf removal at véraison caused an unexpected augmentation of flavonols in the berry skin. Early leaf removal resulted in significantly lower extracts of wine. Nevertheless, they reached the highest mark (16.5 from 20.0 points) in sensory evaluation, compared to leaf removal at véraison and Double Maturation Raisonnée (15.0 points) and control (16.0 points). CONLUSION Leaf removal at véraison and Double Maturation Raisonnée improved the phenolic composition of wine, producing a full‐bodied wine. On the other hand early leaf removal significantly augmented the yield and titratable acidity, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols of wine, which might have led to a more fresh, but less bodied wine.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T05:13:53.567284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7778
       
  • Comparative analysis of genetic polymorphisms among Monascus strains by
           ISSR and RAPD markers
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The genus Monascus includes several species of fungi valued across Asia for their culinary uses and diverse medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter‐simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers in characterizing the genetic diversity in 41 Monascus strains collected from various regions of Fujian Province, the leading producer of Monascus in China. RESULTS Seven screened ISSR primers generated 56 polymorphic bands, of which 93.33% were polymorphic. The genetic similarity coefficients (GSC) of the strains ranged from 0.50 to 1.00. Comparative sequence analysis using seven screened RAPD primers amplified a total of 49 polymorphic bands, of which 81.67% were polymorphic; GSC values ranged from 0.62 to 1.00. CONCLUSION Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation in genetic distances assessed using above two markers, which indicated they were suitable for Monascus species characterization. ISSR markers were more suitable for the classification and determination of Monascus species. While RAPD markers appear to be preferable for analyzing the differences among strains within the same species. Our study revealed that Monascus possesses rich genetic diversity, and that the genetic relationships among the selected strains were, to a very limited extent, correlated to their geographical variation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T05:05:46.930967-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7780
       
  • Metabolic profiles of cow's blood; a review
    • Abstract: The term “metabolic profile” is addressed to the analysis of blood biochemical parameters that are useful to assessment and prevent metabolic and nutritional disorders in dairy herds. In the higher standards of milk production, the priority in modern breeding is keeping dairy cows in high lactation and healthy. The proper analysis, as well as control of their feeding and metabolic status is immensely important for the health condition of the herd. The disproportion between the genetically determined ability for milk production and the limitations in improving the energy value of the ration may be the cause of the metabolic disorders. Negative energy balance has a major impact on the body's hormonal balance and the organs functions and mostly appears during transition periods: from 3 to 2 wk prepartum until 2 to 3 wk postpartum. The term transition is to underscore the important physiological, metabolic, and nutritional changes occurring in this time. The manner in which these changes occur and how they are diagnosed and detected are of extremely important as they are closely related to clinical and subclinical postpartum diseases, lactation and reproductive performance; factors that significantly shape the profitability of production. Therefore, the priority for intensive milk production is prevention of metabolic diseases and other disorders. It is the intent of this review, to synthesize and summarize the information currently available to metabolic status and physiological changes in cow's body which occurs during the lactation, as well as to discuss interpretation of the results, which will be a useful diagnostic tool in nutritional evaluations of the dairy herd.
      PubDate: 2016-04-30T05:00:46.192046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7779
       
  • Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from selected cereal grains and legumes as
           influenced by food acidulants
    • Authors: Gavirangappa Hithamani; Krishnapura Srinivasan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Polyphenols in food are valued for their health beneficial influences. Food acidulants lime juice and amchur, used in Indian culinary were evaluated for their influence on polyphenol bioaccessibility from food grains. RESULTS Lime juice increased bioaccessible flavonoids by 25% in roasted finger millet, while there was no change in total bioaccessible polyphenols in pressure‐cooked, open‐pan boiled and roasted finger millet in presence of food acidulants. Addition of amchur to pressure‐cooked and microwave‐heated pearl millet increased the bioaccessible flavonoids by 30% and 53%, while lime juice increased the same by 46% in pressure‐cooked millet. Increased bioaccessibility of specific phenolic acids from finger millet and pearl millet was observed upon addition of these food acidulants. Presence of either lime juice or amchur increased bioaccessible flavonoids from both the legumes. Addition of lime juice and amchur however exerted a negative effect on the bioaccessibility of several phenolic compounds from food grains in native and under certain processing conditions. CONCLUSIONS Thus, food acidulants ̶ lime juice and amchur had significant influence on the bioaccessibility of health beneficial phenolic compounds from food grains. Use of food acidulants in food preparations could be a strategy to enhance the bioavailability of polyphenols, especially flavonoids from grains.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T23:25:41.85355-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7776
       
  • Recent developments in biochar as an effective tool for agricultural soil
           management ‐ a review
    • Authors: Mahmood Laghari; Ravi Naidu, Bo Xiao, Zhiquan Hu, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat, Mian Hu, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zhihua Chen, Dabin Guo, Qamardudin Jogi, Zaidun Naji Abudi, Saima Fazal
      Abstract: In recent years biochar has been demonstrated to be a useful amendment to sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emission from the soil to atmosphere. Hence, it can help to mitigate global environment change. Some studies have shown that biochar addition to agricultural soils increases crop production. The mechanisms involved are: increased soil aeration and water‐holding capacity (WHC), enhanced microbial activity and plant nutrient status in soil, and alteration of some important soil chemical properties. This review provides an in‐depth consideration of the production, characterization and agricultural use of different biochars. Biochar is a complex organic material and its characteristics vary with production conditions and the feedstock used. The agronomic benefits of biochar solely depend upon the use of particular types of biochar with proper field application rate under appropriate soil types and conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:50:40.518567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7753
       
  • Sequence characterization and in silico structure prediction of fatty acid
           
    • Authors: Ashwini V. Rajwade; Rakesh S. Joshi, Narendra Y. Kadoo, Vidya S. Gupta
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Linseed is the richest agricultural source of alpha‐linolenic acid (ALA), an omega‐3 fatty acid, which offers several nutritional benefits. In the present study, we performed sequence characterization of six desaturase genes (SAD1, SAD2, FAD2, FAD2‐2, FAD3A and FAD3B) and 3D structure prediction of their proteins from ten Indian linseed varieties differing in ALA contents, to determine whether the nucleotide and amino acid (AA) sequence variants have any functional implications in differential accumulation of ALA or other fatty acids in linseed. RESULTS The SAD and FAD2 genes exhibited few sequence variations among the ten varieties, forming only one or two protein isoforms. Alternatively, FAD3A and FAD3B genes showed more sequence variations and three or four protein isoforms. Interestingly, the two high ALA varieties ‘NL260’ and ‘Padmini’ had the same FAD3B nucleotide and protein isoforms, which were different from all the other varieties. Surprisingly, no AA changes altered the 3D structures of the desaturase proteins. CONCLUSIONS We observed several nucleotide and AA sequence variations in desaturase genes; however, they did not alter the 3D structure of any desaturase protein and were not correlated with fatty acid levels among the ten linseed varieties, which had different ALA contents. This suggests complex regulatory process of biosynthesis of fatty acids in linseed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25T02:05:49.522272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7775
       
  • Seed oil extraction from red prickly pear using hexane and supercritical
           CO2: Assessment of phenolic compound composition, antioxidant and
           antibacterial activities
    • Abstract: Background Investigating Opuntia species for their seed oil contents is of high importance due to its potential use for food and cosmetic applications. These oils have an important content in unsaturated fatty acids as well as antioxidant compounds (e.g. polyphenols, vitamin E), which have been associated with the prevention of some chronic diseases. Moreover, Opuntia stricta oils possess important antimicrobial activities. For instance, the main focus of this study was to compare the effectiveness of conventional (hexane extraction) and novel (supercritical CO2) extraction methods for oil and phenolic compounds recovery from O. stricta seeds. The oil yield of both extracts was then compared and the polyphenol content and composition of both extracts was determined by liquid chromatography‐high resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, the antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antimicrobial activities (disc diffusion's method) of O. stricta seed oils were determined. Results The oil yield (based on Soxhlet's method) of O.stricta seeds was determined using SC‐CO2 (49.9 ± 2.2%), and hexane (49.0 ± 1.5%). Although obtaining similar oil extraction yields using the two methods, the extracted oil using SC‐CO2 was more enriched in polyphenols (172.2 ± 11.9 µg GAE g−1 of oil) than that extracted using hexane (76.0 ± 6.9 µg GAE g−1 of oil). Polyphenol profiles showed that SC‐CO2 process led to yield more compounds (45) than that using hexane extraction (11). Moreover, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of SC‐CO2 extract showed high percentage of inhibitions. Conclusion SC‐CO2 extraction of Opuntia stricta seed oil lead to extract oil with similar yield than that with hexane extraction, but with higher polyphenol content. The extract containing polyphenols exhibited high antioxidant and antibacterial properties demonstrating their great potential as feedstock for high oil quality.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23T01:51:05.807555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7774
       
  • Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on
           acetylated starch and cellulose from barley
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. RESULT The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. CONCLUSION The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapour permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23T01:50:43.276986-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7773
       
  • Implications of climate change predictions for uk cropping and prospects
           for possible mitigation: A review of challenges and potential responses
    • Abstract: The UK, like the rest of the world, is confronting the impacts of climate change. Further changes are expected and they will have a profound effect on agriculture. Future crop production is going to be taking place against increasing CO2 levels and temperatures; decreasing water availability, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events. This review contributes to research on agricultural practices for climate change, but with a more regional perspective. The present study explores climate change impacts on UK agriculture, particularly food crop production, and how to mitigate and build resilience to climate change by adopting and/or changing soil management practices, including fertilisation and tillage systems; new crop adoption and variety choice. Some mitigation can be adopted in the shorter‐term, such as changes in crop type and reduction in fertiliser‐use, but in other cases the options will need greater investment and longer adaptation period. This is the case for new crop variety development and deployment, and possible changes to soil cultivations. Uncertainty of future weather conditions, particularly extreme weather, also affect decision‐making for adoption of practices by farmers to ensure more stable and sustainable production. Even when there is real potential for climate change mitigation, it can sometimes be more difficult to accomplish with certainty on‐farm. Better future climate projections and long‐term investments will be required to create more resilient agricultural systems in the UK in the face of climate change challenges.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22T03:40:45.195258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7767
       
  • Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on 137Cs
           concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima
           Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident
    • Authors: Keiko Tagami; Shigeo Uchida, Nobuyoshi Ishii
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in mushrooms have been of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set the guideline level of radiocesium concentration in bed‐logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear at the time. RESULTS The effects of indoor and out door cultivations to the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for analysis. No statistical 137Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137Cs data in shiitake, geometric means from each prefecture were less than 1/4 of the standard limit (100 Bq kg−1) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. CONCLUSIONS It was suspected that re‐suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or radiocesium might have been absorbed from soil to the mushrooms in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:36:04.216082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7771
       
  • Effect of different lignocellulosic wastes on Hericium americanum yield
           and nutritional characteristics
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using cottonseed hulls (CSH) and olive press cake (OPC) as new supplement materials for substrate preparation in Hericium americanum cultivation. Some chemical properties of the substrates prepared by mixtures of oak sawdust (OS) with wheat bran (WB), CSH and OPC in different ratios were determined. In addition, the effect of mixtures of OS:CSH and OS:OPC on spawn run time, yield and biological efficiency (BE), average mushroom weight and nutrition content of the fruit body were compared with the control substrate (8OS:2WB). RESULTS The yield, BE and average mushroom weight of substrates containing CSH and OPC were higher than the control substrate and increased with an increase in the rate of CSH and OPC in the mixtures. H. americanum showed (on a dry weight basis) 8.5‐23.7% protein, 9.9‐21.2 g kg−1 P, 26.6‐35.8 g kg−1 K, 0.63‐1.33 g kg−1 Mg, 0.19‐0.23 g kg−1 Ca, 1.34‐1.78 g kg−1 Na, 49.5‐72.2 mg kg−1 Fe, 6.22‐10.11 mg kg−1 Mn, 32.8‐82.8 mg kg−1 Zn and 8.6‐11.2 mg kg−1 Cu on different growing substrates. The nutritional value of mushrooms was greatly affected by the growing media. CONCLUSION The results revealed that CSH and OPC could be used as new supplement materials for substrate preparation in H. americanum cultivation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:35:42.330726-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7772
       
  • Delayed post‐harvest ripening‐associated changes in Manilkara
           zapota L. var. Kalipatti with composite edible coating
    • Authors: Vishwasrao Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan Laxmi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There has been limited research on extension of shelf‐life of sapota (Manilkara zapota L. var. Kalipatti) fruit. Edible coating made up of methyl cellulose (MC) and palm oil (PO) was applied to study extension in shelf‐life. Changes in physical and chemical properties of fruit were studied along with peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and pectin methylesterase (PME) enzyme activities during post‐harvest ripening of sapota. RESULTS The fruits coated with 15 g l−1 MC and 11.25 g l−1 PO showed significant (p 
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T07:25:45.524883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7758
       
  • Viticultural and chemical characteristics of muscat hamburg preselected
           clones grown for table grapes
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Clonal selection is one of the tools used for grapevine improvement and therefore is very important for obtaining the clones with better characteristics than the variety population. The aim of this study was to select superior grapevines of Vitis vinifera L. cv Muscat Hamburg grown for fresh consumption. RESULTS The viticultural parameters and fruit composition of thirty‐five selected vines were determined during a 5‐year period. The evaluated parameters showed high variability among selected vines. The significant effect of vintage was observed for all descriptors with the exception of the number of seeds per berry and sugar concentration. Additionally, all vines were examined for their tolerance to low temperatures and the results showed 73% and 90% of primary bud injury at −20 °C and −25 °C, respectively. In relation to berry classification, the percent of the first class grapes ranged from 60% to 69% for all selected grapevines. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to classify grapevines based on their performances. CONCLUSION Fourteen grapevines were identified as the most promising among the 35 vines initially planted based on the high yield, bunch and berry weight, sugar content and the percentage of the first grade grapes. Those grapevines were selected for the next phase of the clonal selection. This study highlighted the importance of clonal selection for improvement of the variety population.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:35:42.077414-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7769
       
  • Effects on Functional Groups and Zeta Potential of SAP1       Treated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Technology
    • Authors: Rong Liang; Xuenan Li, Songyi Lin, Jia Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND SAP1
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:25:38.956622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7768
       
  • Induction of Antroquinonol Production by Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide in
           the Fermentation of Antrodia camphorata S‐29
    • Authors: Yongjun Xia; Xuan Zhou, Guangqiang Wang, Bobo Zhang, Ganrong Xu, Lianzhong Ai
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antroquinonol have significantly anti‐tumor effects on various cancer cells. There is still lack of reports on regulation of environmental factors on antroquinonol production by Antrodia camphorata. RESULTS An effective submerged fermentation method was employed to induce antroquinonol with adding H2O2. The production of antroquinonol was 57.81 mg L−1 after fermentation for 10 days when adding 25 mM H2O2 at day four of the fermentation process. Then, antroquinonol was further increased to 80.10 mg L−1 with cell productivity of 14.94 mg g−1 dry mycelium when the feeding rate of H2O2 was adjusted to 0.2 mM h−1 in the 7 L fermentation bioreactor. After inhibiting ROS generation with the inhibitor DPI, the synthesis of antroquinonol from A. camphorata was significantly reduced, and the yield was only 3.3 mg L−1. CONCLUSION The results demonstrated that addition of H2O2 was a very effective strategy to induce and regulate the synthesis of antroquinonol in submerged fermentation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by H2O2 during fermentation caused oxidative stress, which induced the synthesis of antroquinonol and other chemical compounds. Moreover, it is very beneficial process to improve production and diversity of the active compounds during liquid fermentation of A. camphorata mycelium.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:48.961569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7770
       
  • Physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous
           series of antioxidants in emulsions are due to differences in their
           distribution
    • Abstract: Background The relationships between the hydrophilic‐lipophilic balance (HLB) of antioxidants (AOs) and their distributions and efficiencies in emulsions are not fully understood. Recent reports indicate that, for series of homologous antioxidants (AOs) of different hydrophobicity, the variation of their efficiency with the HLB of the AO increases with the alkyl chain length up to a maximum (C3 – C8 ester) followed by a decrease (cut‐off effect). Results We determined the distributions of a series of caffeic acid derivatives in intact soybean emulsions by employing a specifically designed chemical probe located in the interfacial region of the emulsion. We also determined the AO efficiencies in the very same emulsions. We demonstrate that the variation of the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of soybean oil‐in‐water emulsions with the AO HLB parallels that of their antioxidant efficiency. Conclusions Results provide physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous series of antioxidants in emulsions are due to differences in their distribution. Results confirm that, other things being equal, there is a direct relationship between the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of the emulsions and their efficiency, providing a natural explanation, based on molecular properties, to the cut‐off effect.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:47.995045-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7765
       
  • Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of gluten‐free pasta
           enriched with resistant starch
    • Authors: Martina Foschia; Paola Beraldo, Donatella Peressini
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective was to examine the potential use of resistant starch (RS) as a fibre‐enriching ingredient in gluten‐free pasta. Pasta was enriched with commercial RS type II (Hi‐MaizeTM 260) at 100–200 g kg−1 substitution of rice flour. The effects on the rheological properties of dough and pasta quality as a result of RS addition and the loss in RS due to the process were evaluated. RESULTS Dough water‐absorption was not influenced by the addition of RS. The cooking loss (CL) of RS‐enriched samples was 30% lower than reference without fibre. The addition of RS significantly increased firmness of cooked pasta and above 100 g kg−1 RS level of substitution, samples showed a lower stickiness value. Dynamic rheological tests on pasta dough showed higher storage modulus for fibre samples indicating a higher number of elastically physical interactions. Loss in RS in uncooked pasta was about 31% compared with the initial amount added to the product. CONCLUSIONS The addition of RS improved the quality of gluten‐free pasta due to its ability to increase the firmness and decrease the CL and stickiness of cooked pasta. The product enriched with 200 g kg−1 RS can be considered a source of DF.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:07:06.118386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7766
       
  • The practicality of using ozone with fruit and vegetables
    • Authors: Marcin Glowacz; Deborah Rees
      Abstract: The fresh produce industry is constantly growing, due to increasing consumer demand. The food quality and safety management are still the major issue for the supply chain. The use of ozone has been identified as a feasible solution to reduce microorganisms present in food, and in this way extending the shelf‐life of fresh produce. A number of factors that may affect efficiency of ozone treatment have been identified, e.g. microbial populations, ozone concentration and time of exposure, type of produce, temperature, relative humidity, and packaging material, and they are briefly discussed. Furthermore, the practical information coming from the studies with ozone conducted by the authors and from their knowledge of the subject, directs the reader's attention to the key aspects of ozone use under commercial conditions, i.e. from the practical point of view. Finally, one of the possible directions for the future research with the postharvest use of ozone, i.e. the important role of fruit cuticle in response to this postharvest treatment, is given.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:01:28.965407-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7763
       
  • Short‐ and Long‐term Antihypertensive Effect of egg
           protein‐derived Peptide QIGLF
    • Authors: Zhipeng Yu; Wenzhu Zhao, Ding Long, Yaqi Wang, Feng Chen, Jingbo Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The purpose of this research work was to investigate in vivo antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) induced by egg protein‐derived peptide QIGLF, which has been previously characterized in vitro as a potent ACE inhibitor. RESULTS In vivo antihypertensive effect of QIGLF orally administered was evaluated by the tail‐cuff method. The systolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure of rats were measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 h after the administration every day. Subsequently, effect of QIGLF on ACE mRNA expression of the kidney of SHRs was evaluated by PCR. It was found that systolic blood pressure was reduced markedly in the SHRs after a single oral administration. CONCLUSION The results showed that QIGLF (50 mg/kg bw) exhibited a similar effect as Captopril (10 mg/kg bw) in lowering SBP in SHRs. Therefore, egg white protein‐derived peptide QIGLF may be useful to prevent or treat hypertension.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:01:04.960651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7762
       
  • Effect of prebiotics of Agave salmiana fed to healthy Wistar rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Inulin and other fructans are synthesized and stored in mezcal agave (Agave salmiana). Fructans provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. RESULTS Here, we studied the physiological effects of fructans obtained from A. salmiana when added in the diet of Wistar rats. Results evidence favorable changes on Wistar rats when the fructans was added to their diet, including the decrease of the pH in the faeces and the increase of the number of lactic acid bacteria (CFU g−1) (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.), even these changes were enhanced with the synbiotic diet (fructans plus B. animalis spp. lactis). Synbiotic diet, developed changes in the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum, with statistical differences (p 
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:00:42.828214-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7764
       
  • Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical,
           and sensory properties of winter melon juice
    • Authors: Xiuxiu Sun; Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Anne Plotto, John A. Manthey, Yongping Duan, Jinhe Bai
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. RESULTS The juices had low sugars (
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:55:44.030752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7761
       
  • Optimization of Process Parameters for Supercritical Fluid Extraction of
           Cholesterol from Whole Milk Powder using Ethanol as Co‐solvent
    • Authors: Indira DeyPaul; Chitra Jayakumar, Hari Niwas Mishra
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In spite of being highly nutritious, the consumption of milk is hindered owing to its high cholesterol content which is responsible for numerous cardiac diseases. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using ethanol as co‐solvent was employed to extract cholesterol from whole milk powder (WMP). This study was undertaken to optimize the process parameters of supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) viz., extraction temperature, pressure and volume of ethanol. RESULTS The cholesterol content of WMP was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The impact of the extraction conditions on the fat content (FC), solubility index (SI) and lightness (L*) of the SCFE treated WMP were also investigated. The process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). About 46% reduction in cholesterol was achieved at the optimized condition of 48 °C, 17 MPa and 31 mL of co‐solvent; flow rate of expanded CO2, static time and dynamic time of extraction were 6 L min−1, 10 min and 80 min respectively. The treated WMP retained its FC, SI, and L* at moderate limits of 183.67 g kg−1, 96.3% and 96.90 respectively. CONCLUSION This study pointed at the feasibility of ethanol modified SCFE of cholesterol from WMP with negligible changes in its physico‐chemical properties.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:53:11.631905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7760
       
  • Changes in volatile composition and sensory attributes of wines during
           alcohol content reduction
    • Authors: Rocco Longo; Peter J. Torley, Suzy Y. Rogiers, John W. Blackman, Leigh M. Schmidtke
      Abstract: A desirable sensory profile is a major consumer driver for wine acceptability and should be considered during the production of reduced alcohol wines. Although various viticultural practices and microbiological approaches show promising results, separation technologies such as membrane filtration, in particular reverse osmosis, evaporative perstraction, and vacuum distillation represent the most common methods employed at the commercial scale to produce this wine. However, ethanol removal from wine can result in a significant loss of compounds such as esters that contribute positively to the overall perceived aroma. Such losses can reduce the acceptability of the wine to consumers and decrease their willingness to purchase wines that have had their alcohol level reduced. The change in aroma as a result of the ethanol removal processes is influenced by a number of factors: the type of alcohol reduction process, the chemical‐physical properties (volatility, hydrophobicity, steric hindrance) of the aroma compounds, the composition of the non‐volatile matrix (through π‐π stacking), and the ethanol level. This review identifies and summarises possible deleterious influences of the dealcoholisation process and describes best practice strategies to facilitate the minimisation of the modifications to the original wine composition.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:52:53.15986-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7757
       
  • Glycolipid Biosurfactants; Main Properties and Potential Applications in
           Agriculture and Food Industry
    • Abstract: Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol‐lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They are receiving much practical attention as biopesticides to control plant diseases and to protect stored products. Owing their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit to preserve plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, owing their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. As well, valorization of food by‐products through the production of glycolipid biosurfactant received much attention as it permits the bioconversion of by‐products on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from the fermentation media. In this aim, different strategies were developed to extract and purify glycolipids.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:52:23.646499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7759
       
  • Physicochemical variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) from a
           same orchard, from different locations and at different ripening stages
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study evaluated the variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) cultivated in São Paulo State in the towns of Mogi das Cruzes, Paraibuna, Paranapiacaba, and Rio Grande da Serra, and characterized it at different maturity stages regarding size, firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, phenolic content, ethylene production, respiration rate, and in vitro antioxidant capacity. RESULTS Ripe fruit from the same locality, Paraibuna, showed large variations in size and acidity. Ripe fruit from different towns showed significant variation of total phenolics and, consequently, variation in antioxidant capacity. During maturation, the phenolic content and firmness decreased from unripe to ripe stages. The TSS/TA ratio can be a parameter to differentiate cambuci at different maturity stages. The decrease in firmness combined with the absence of an ethylene climacteric peak does not allow us to conclude if cambuci is climacteric or non‐climacteric though. CONCLUSION Genetic and soil composition studies are needed to assess the reasons for the differences found among fruit from the same location, and the variability among fruit harvested in four localities. The best parameters to assess cambuci's maturity stages of are the rounding of its corners and its firmness, as the more mature the pulp, the softer the fruit.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T05:45:57.135551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7756
       
  • Determination of four different purines and their changing rules in
           seafood by high performance liquid chromatography
    • Authors: Xin Qu; Jianxin Sui, Nasha Mi, Hong Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seafood is regarded as a high purine food that may induce gout, which has attracted extensive attentions about its safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method to determine the purine content in seafood and its changing rules during storage to guide consumers with referenced content at different freshness. RESULTS Chromatographic separation was carried out using Waters Atlantis dC18 column, and potassium phosphate monobasic solution (0.02 mol/L, pH=3.6) as a mobile phase. The average recovery yields of 4 purines were 91.5 % ~ 105.0 %, and RSD values were around 1.8 % ~ 6.5 %. Shrimp and snail contained higher amounts of purine than fish and bivalve; the livers and skins of fish contained higher amounts of purine than muscles; and main purine varied depending on the type of seafood. Besides, purine content of seafood was changing during storage. CONCLUSION The purine content of seafood was different depending on species, body parts and fresh degrees, which could recommend consumers a healthy diet, especially for people with hyperuricemia and gout.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:50:41.887004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7755
       
  • Planting seeds for the future of food
    • PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:26:52.664502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7734
       
  • Species identification of bivalve molluscs by Pyrosequencing ™
    • Authors: Miriam Abbadi; Sabrina Marciano, Federica Tosi, Cristian De Battisti, Valentina Panzarin, Giuseppe Arcangeli, Giovanni Cattoli
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The increase in seafood consumption and the presence of different species of bivalves on the global markets has given rise to several commercial frauds based on species substitution. To prevent and detect wilful or unintentional frauds, reliable and rapid techniques are required to identify seafood species in different products. In the present work, a pyrosequencing‐based technology has been used for the molecular identification of bivalve species. RESULTS Processed and unprocessed samples of 15 species belonging to the bivalve families Pectinidae, Mytilidae, Donacidae, Ostreidae, Pharide and Veneridae were analysed and correctly identified by the developed pyrosequencing‐based method according to the homology between query sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes and their correspondent reference libraries. This technique exhibits a great potential in automated and high‐throughput processing systems, allowing the simultaneous analysis of 96 samples in shorter execution and turnaround times. CONCLUSIONS The correct identification of all the species shows how useful this technique may prove to differentiate species from different products, providing an alternative, simple, rapid and economical tool to detect seafood substitution frauds.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T04:41:08.420207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7754
       
  • Nitrogen removal in Myriophyllum aquaticum wetland microcosms for swine
           wastewater treatment: 15N‐labelled nitrogen mass balance analysis
    • Authors: Shunan Zhang; Feng Liu, Runlin Xiao, Yang He, Jinshui Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ecological treatments are effective for treating agricultural wastewater. In this study, the wetland microcosms vegetated with Myriophyllum aquaticum were designed for nitrogen (N) removal from two strengths swine wastewater, and 15N‐labeled ammonium (NH4+‐N) was added to evaluate the dominant NH4+‐N removal pathway. RESULTS The results showed 98.8% of NH4+‐N and 88.3% of TN (TN: 248.6 mg L−1) were removed from low strength swine wastewater (SW1) after an incubation of 21 days, with corresponding values for high strength swine wastewater (SW2) being 99.2% of NH4+‐N and 87.8% of TN (TN: 494.9 mg L−1). Plant uptake and soil adsorption respectively accounted for 24.0% and 15.6% of the added 15N. Meanwhile, the aboveground tissues of M. aquaticum had significantly higher biomass and TN content than belowground (p
      PubDate: 2016-04-11T03:55:40.43214-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7752
       
  • Rich Haplotypes of Viviparous‐1 in T. aestivum ssp. spelta with
           Different Abscisic Acid Sensitivities
    • Authors: Yumei Feng; Ruoduan Qu, Simeng Liu, Yan Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Viviparous‐1 (Vp‐1) is a major gene affecting pre‐harvest sprouting (PHS) in common wheat, and improving PHS tolerance is a crucial factor for wheat breeding. Spelt wheat is always used as the donor parent to improve resistance and quality in wheat breeding: however, the roles of the Vp‐1 genes in spelt wheat and their relationship to common wheat remain uncertain. The current study aimed to isolate and characterize Vp‐1 haplotypes in spelt wheat (T. aestivum ssp. spelta). RESULTS In spelt wheat, a total of 8 new Vp‐1 haplotypes were identified: TaVp‐1Ap, TaVp‐1Aq and TaVp‐1Ar in the A genome; TaVp‐1Bj, TaVp‐1Bh and TaVp‐1Bi in the B genome; and TaVp‐1Da and TaVp‐1Db in the D genome. According to RT‐PCR results, correctly spliced transcripts were more highly expressed in some haplotypes than in others, and their expression was highly associated with their distinct responsiveness to abscisic acid (ABA) exposure. The mis‐splicing of Vp‐1 transcripts and several indel variations detected in spelt wheat appear to have been retained through the hybridization process. CONCLUSION Certain haplotypes detected in spelt wheat might be valuable in the breeding and selection of germplasm to improve PHS issues in wheat.
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T01:45:48.118872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7751
       
  • Phytochemical composition and in vitro antitumor activities of selected
           tomato varieties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous studies indicated that tomato is a rich source of phytochemicals that act on different tumors. In this research, the phytochemical composition of selected tomato varieties was assessed by GLC and UHPLC/HPLC‐MS, as well as their antitumor activities on HT‐29 colorectal cancer cells. RESULTS Significant differences were found among tomato varieties; lycopene was high in Racimo; phenolics in Pera; sterols in Cherry; and linoleic acid predominated in all varieties. The MTT and LDH assays showed significant time‐ and concentration‐dependent inhibitory/cytotoxic effects of all tomato varieties on HT‐29 cells. Furthermore, the joint addition of tomato carotenoids and olive oil to HT‐29 cell cultures induced inhibitory effects significantly higher than those obtained from each of them acting separately, while no actions were exercised in CCD‐18 normal cells. CONCLUSION Tomato fruits constitute a healthy source of phytochemicals, although differences exist among varieties. In vitro, all of them inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation with Racimo variety in the top, and exercising a selective action on cancer cells by considering the lack of effects on CCD‐18 cells. Furthermore, synergy was observed between olive oil and tomato carotenoids in inhibiting HT‐29 cancer cell proliferation; conversely, phenolics showed no significant effects and hindered carotenoids actions.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T09:21:18.988148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7750
       
  • Spatial accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature
           and mature watermelon fruits
    • Authors: Kinya Akashi; Yuki Mifune, Kaori Morita, Souichi Ishitsuka, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki Ishihara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) originates from arid regions of southern Africa, and its fruit contains a large amount of the amino acid citrulline, an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger. Citrulline is implicated in the production of nitric oxide in human endothelium, and potential health benefits including vasodilatation and antioxidant functions have been suggested. However, citrulline metabolism in watermelon fruits is poorly understood. RESULTS This study examined the accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits. In mature fruits, highest citrulline concentration was observed in the outer peel, followed by the central portion of the flesh and inner rinds, whereas the level was lower in the peripheral portion of the flesh. Citrulline content was generally low in immature fruits. Spatial and developmental patterns of citrulline accumulation were largely different from those of the antioxidant lycopene, total proteins, and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Principal component analysis suggested a clear distinction of the central flesh and outer peels in mature fruits from other tissues in terms of the levels of major nutrients. CONCLUSION These observations suggested that citrulline accumulation may be regulated in a distinct manner from other nutrients during watermelon fruit maturation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:38:29.356394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7749
       
  • Fungal bioremediation of olive mill wastewater: Using a multi‐step
           approach to model inhibition or stimulation
    • Authors: Antonio Bevilacqua; Francesca Cibelli, Maria Luisa Raimondo, Antonia Carlucci, Francesco Lops, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) possess a strong environmental impact; the use of fungi as tools for bioremediation could be a promising way. RESULTS Twenty‐nine fungi were grown on minimal media supplemented with 5 different kinds of OMWW (5‐15%). Radial growth was assessed for 21 days and the data were modeled through the Dantigny‐logistic like function to estimate τ, i.e. the time to attain ½ of the maximum diameter. Growth on Potato Dextrose Agar and WA (Water Agar, minimal medium without supplementation) was used as reference. The differences in τ between PDA/WA and minimal media with OMWW were modeled through a multi‐factorial ANOVA, using the concentration of OMWW, the kind of wastes and fungi as categorical predictors. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis was run to group and divide resistant and sensitive fungi. Some fungi experienced a positive Δτ, thus suggesting an inhibition by OMWW, whereas other isolates were enhanced. CONLUSIONS Some isolates (for example Aspergillus ochraceus) showed a promising trend and could be possible candidates for a validation on a real scale.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:36:02.555875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7747
       
  • Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye
           blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensorial attributes in not‐from‐concentrate (NFC) ‘Tifblue’ rabbiteye blueberry juices. RESULTS Processing prior to pasteurization generally resulted in increased L* and hue angle color, while a*, b*, and C* decreased. After 4 months pasteurized storage, non‐clarified juice (NCP) lost 73.8% of total volatiles compared with 70.9% in clarified juice (CJP). There was a total anthocyanidin decrease of 84.5% and 85.5% after 4 mo. storage in NCP and CJP, respectively. Storage itself resulted in only 14.2% and 7.2% anthocyanidin loss after pasteurization in NCP and CJP. Storage significantly affected nine flavor properties in juices, however, there were no significant differences in the blueberry, strawberry, purple grape, floral, sweet aroma, or sweet tastes between processed and stored juices. CONCLUSIONS NFC pasteurized blueberry juices maintained desirable flavors even though highly significant volatile and anthocyanidin losses occurred through processing. Maintenance of color and flavor indicate that NFC juices could have an advantage over more abusive methods often used in commercial juice operations.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:33:31.402083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7748
       
  • Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory
           analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation
    • Abstract: Background The influence of 3 irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers’ acceptance of table olives, cv. “Manzanilla”, was evaluated. Results A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green color, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. Conclusion The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmental‐friendly and simultaneously maintains or even improves the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:23:39.220036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7744
       
  • Edible coating composed of chitosan and Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract for
           the control of gray mold of table grapes
    • Authors: Loukas Kanetis; Vassiliki Exarchou, Zinovia Charalambous, Vlasios Goulas
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Consumer concerns regarding high quality produce, free of pesticide residues, direct research towards disease management strategies that minimize or even exclude the use of synthetic chemistries in crop production. The efficacy of a chitosan‐based edible coating combined with the acetonic extract of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (ASF) was assessed against the gray mold of table grapes. RESULTS HPLC‐SPE‐NMR and q‐NMR analyses defined major constituents of ASF to be the flavonoids hispidulin, salvigenin, and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol, and 12‐methoxycarnosic acid. The extract was found to be efficacious in reducing spore germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro at 10 and 25 °C. However, the combination of the ASF with chitosan 1% (w/v; CHIT) significantly improved fungal inhibition. Similarly, in fruit inoculation trials at 10 °C, the efficacy of the combined application of the ASF at 500 mg L−1 with CHIT against gray mold was statistically equal to the synthetic fungicide thiabendazole, ranging from 98.4 to 92.7% at 12 and 21 days post‐inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, chitosan coating alone and in combination with ASF decreased the rate of weight loss during cold storage, while preserved soluble solids content and titratable acidity. Chitosan‐based coatings did not affect quality attributes and the bioactive compounds in table grapes. CONCLUSION The combined application of the ASF in the form of an edible coating with chitosan could effectively control B. cinerea without deteriorating quality and physicochemical properties of grapes.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:23:11.510361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7745
       
  • Improving the emulsifying properties of
           β‐lactoglobulin‐wild almond gum (Amygdalus scoparia
           Spach) exudate complexes by heat
    • Authors: Abdolkhalegh Golkar; Ali Nasirpour, Javad Keramat
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study aims to investigate the advantageous effects of wet heating, BLG (β‐lactoglobulin)/Ang (Angum gum) ratio, and pH (normal pH of mixed BLG and Ang solutions, pHc>pH>pHΦ1) on the emulsifying properties of wet‐heated β‐lactoglobulin‐wild almond gum exudate (Amygdalus scoparia Spach) mixture over those of electrostatic counterparts. RESULTS Covalent linkage of BLG‐Ang conjugates was confirmed by SDS‐PAGE and FT‐IR analysis. Emulsion activity (EA), emulsion stability (ES), and droplet size characteristics of emulsions were significantly (P pHΦ1 exhibited higher EA and ES values for all the biopolymer ratios investigated than their electrostatic counterparts with pH after mixing. However, these values for the wet‐heated samples at pH after mixing were found to be higher than those of the samples subjected to heat treatment at pHc>pH>pHΦ1. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that E/1:2/3.80 and W/1:2/6.69 were the two complexes with finer droplet size distributions after preparation (26.72 ± 3.71and15.27 ± 1.01 µm, respectively) and after one week of storage at 4 °C (30.71 ± 1.57and28.79 ± 0.56 µm, respectively) than others. Apparent viscosities of electrostatic and wet‐heated complexes and emulsions made with the complexes were measured. CONCLUSION Protein‐polysaccharide interactions can be used as an efficient way for producing novel emulsifiers/stabilizers after heat treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:12:05.297842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7741
       
  • Identification and Safety Evaluation of a Product from Biodegradation of
           Ochratoxin A by an Aspergillus Strain
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Ochratoxin A (OTA)poses a serious health hazard throughout the worldand is often reported in food commodities.At present, biological approaches to detoxifyingOTA are now widely consideredto be the most promising methods. RESULTS: In thisstudy, a strain that was identified as Aspergillus niger (A.niger) was isolated, and it has a strong ability to detoxify OTA. The degradation product(compound 1) of OTA was treated with crude enzyme. Theproduct has been isolated and identified asC11H9O5Cl (Ochratoxin α), which is a weak lipophilic molecule, in contrast to fat‐soluble OTA. The cytotoxic response of compound 1 was revealed to be different from that of OTA. Compound 1 does not induce cellular oxidative damage in comparison with OTA, which may cause lipid peroxidation (MDA), reduce SOD activity and induce DNA damage. CONCLUSION: This study indicates thatA.nigerhas the ability to detoxify OTA.The OTA degradation product,Ochratoxin α, does not exertcytotoxic effects on cell metabolism. A.nigerhas prospective uses for theOTA decontaminationof food and agricultural fields.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:11:14.956912-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7742
       
  • Protection of sunflower seed and sunflower meal protein with malic acid
           
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Combined malic acid‐heat treatments of protein supplements have been shown to reduce the ruminal protein degradation, but there is no information on their possible influence on ruminal fermentation and methane emissions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) with malic acid and subsequent drying at 150 °C for 1 (MAL1) or 3 h (MAL3) on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane emission using ruminal fluid from sheep as inoculum. RESULTS Compared with untreated samples, the MAL3 treatment reduced (P  0.05) total volatile fatty acid production for any feed. This treatment also increased (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:10:44.268682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7743
       
  • Electrospun nanofibers in agriculture and food industry: A review
    • Authors: Masumeh Noruzi
      Abstract: The interesting characteristics of electrospun nanofibers such as high surface‐to‐volume ratio, nanoporosity, and high safety make them suitable candidates for use in a variety of applications. In the recent decade, electrospun nanofibers have been applied to different potential fields such as filtration, wound dressing, drug delivery, etc. and a significant number of review papers have been published in these fields. However, the use of electrospun nanofibers in agriculture is comparatively novel and is still in its infancy. In this paper, the specific applications of electrospun nanofibers in agriculture and food science, including plant protection using pheromone‐loaded nanofibers, plant protection using encapsulation of biocontrol agents, preparation of protective clothes for farm workers, encapsulation of agrochemical materials, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction in agricultural research studies, preconcentration and measurement of pesticides in crops and environmental samples, preparation of nanobiosensors for pesticide detection, encapsulation of food materials, fabrication of food packaging materials, and filtration of beverage products are reviewed and discussed. This paper may help researchers develop the use of electrospun nanofibers in agriculture and food science to address some serious problems like the intensive use of pesticides.
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T00:01:13.311449-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7737
       
  • Cell Wall Chemical Characteristics of Whole‐Crop Cereal Silages
           Harvested At Three Maturity Stages
    • Authors: Johanna Wallsten; Ronald Hatfield
      Abstract: Background In cooler climates such as found in Scandinavian countries cereals are important feedstuffs for ruminants often ensiled as whole‐crop cereal silages (WCCS) to preserve nutrients. Animal performance varies with the type of cereal forage and stage of cereal development being ensiled. Cell wall isolation and analysis was undertaken to determine differences among cereal silages harvested at different stages of maturity. Results A set of 27 WCCS samples of barley, wheat and oats harvested at heading, early milk, and dough stages of maturity were analyzed for cell wall (CW) composition and compared to previous NDF analyses. Total CW concentrations of the WCCS were higher than the NDF concentration. The lignin concentration was higher (P 
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T00:00:49.345102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7736
       
  • Safety assessment of selected medicinal food plants used in Ayurveda
           through CYP450 enzyme inhibition study
    • Authors: Amit Kar; Subrata Pandit, Kakali Mukherjee, Shiv Bahadur, Pulok K. Mukherjee
      Abstract: Background Andrographis paniculata, Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica are mentioned in Ayurveda for the management of neurodegenerative disorders. These plants and their phytomolecules like andrographolide, bacoside A and asiaticoside were studied for their inhibition potential on pooled CYP450 as well as human CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2 by CYP‐CO Complex assay and Fluorogenic assay respectively followed by IC50 determination. Quantification of bioactive compounds present in the extracts was done by RP‐HPLC. Heavy metal content in the selected medicinal plants was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Result CYP‐CO Complex assay indicate significantly lesser inhibition potential than standard inhibitor (p 
      PubDate: 2016-03-30T23:56:12.972404-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7739
       
  • Oxidation‐reduction potential and lipid oxidation in
           ready‐to‐eat blue mussels in red sauce: Criteria for Package
           Design
    • Authors: Kanishka Bhunia; Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Barbara Rasco, Juming Tang, Shyam S. Sablani
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ready‐to‐eat in‐package pasteurized blue mussels in red sauce requires refrigerated storage or in combination with aerobic environment to prevent the growth of anaerobes. A low barrier packaging may create aerobic environment, however, it causes lipid oxidation in mussels. Thus, evaluation of oxidation‐reduction potential (Eh) (aerobic/anaerobic nature of food) and lipid oxidation is essential. Three packaging materials with oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 62 (F‐62), 40 (F‐40) and 3 (F‐3) cc/m2‐day were selected for this study. Lipid oxidation was measured by color changes in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 532 (TBARS@532) and 450 nm (TBARS@450). RESULTS Significantly higher (P0.05) by OTR and remained negative (
      PubDate: 2016-03-30T23:55:55.125012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7738
       
  • Detection of Aflatoxin and Surface Mould Contaminated Figs by Using
           Fourier‐Transform Near‐Infrared (FT‐NIR) Reflectance
           Spectroscopy
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites that are mainly produced by members of the Aspergillus section Flavi on many agricultural products. Certain agricultural products such as figs are known to be high risk products for aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contaminated figs may show a bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 365 nm. Traditionally, BGYF positive figs are manually selected by workers. However, manual selection depends on the expertise level of the workers and it may cause them skin‐related health problems due to UV radiation. RESULTS In this study, we propose a non‐invasive approach to detect aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier‐Transform Near‐Infrared (FT‐NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. A classification accuracy of 100% is achieved for classifying the figs into aflatoxin contaminated/uncontaminated and surface mould contaminated/uncontaminated categories. In addition, a strong correlation has been found between aflatoxin and surface mould. CONCLUSION Combined with pattern classification methods, the NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect aflatoxin contaminated figs non‐invasively. Furthermore, a positive correlation between surface mould and aflatoxin contamination leads to a promising alternative indicator for the detection of aflatoxin‐contaminated figs.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T03:20:45.103778-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7735
       
  • Novel Technologies for Monitoring the In‐Line Quality of Virgin
           Olive Oil during Manufacturing and Storage
    • Abstract: The quality of Virgin Olive Oil is related to the agronomic conditions of the olive fruits and the process variables of the production process. Nowadays food markets demand better products in terms of safety, health and organoleptic properties with competitive prices. Innovative techniques for process control, inspection and classification have been developed in order to to achieve these requirements. This paper presents a review of the most significant sensing technologies which are increasingly used in the olive oil industry to supervise and control the virgin olive oil production process. Throughout the present work, the main research studies in the literature that employ non‐invasive technologies such as infrared spectroscopy, computer vision, machine olfaction technology, electronic tongues and dielectric spectroscopy are analysed and their main results and conclusions are presented. These technologies are used on olive fruit, olive slurry and olive oil to determine parameters such as acidity, peroxide indexes, ripening indexes, organoleptic properties and minor components, among others.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:40:43.217615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7733
       
  • Influence of gas–liquid two‐phase flow on angiotensin‐I
           
    • Authors: Narin Charoenphun; Wirote Youravong
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Membrane fouling is a major problem in ultrafiltration system which two‐phase flow is a promising technique for permeate flux enhancement. The objective of this research was to study the use of ultrafiltration (UF) system enrich ACE inhibitory peptides from tilapia protein hydrolysate. To select the most appropriate membrane and operating condition, the effects of membrane molecular weight cut off (MWCO), transmembrane pressure (TMP) and cross flow velocity (CFV) on permeate flux and ACE inhibitory peptide separation were studied. Additionally, gas–liquid two‐phase flow technique was also applied to investigate its effect on the process capability. RESULTS The results showed that the highest ACE inhibitory activity was obtained from permeate of the 1 kDa membrane. In term of TMP and CFV, the permeate flux tended to increase with TMP and CFV. The use of gas–liquid two‐phase flow as indicated by shear stress number could reduce membrane fouling and increase the permeate flux up to 42 %, depending on shear stress number. Moreover, the use of shear stress number of 0.039 led to an augmentation in ACE inhibitory activity of permeates. CONCLUSIONS Thus operating conditions using shear stress number of 0.039 was recommended for enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:31:06.393233-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7732
       
  • Functional, bioactive and antigenicity properties of blue whiting protein
           hydrolysates: Effect of enzymatic treatment and degree of hydrolysis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish discards represent an important underutilization of marine resources. This study evaluated the up‐grading of the protein fraction of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) discards by the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) exhibiting functional, antioxidant, angiotensin‐I converting enzyme (ACE)‐inhibitory and antigenicity properties. RESULTS FPH with low DH (4%) showed better emulsifying, foaming and oil binding capacities, particularly those obtained using only trypsin. FPH with DH 4% exhibited also the stronger antioxidant activity, especially the one obtained using only subtilisin (IC50=1.36 mg protein mL−1). The presence of hydrophobic residues at the C‐terminal of the FPH produced using subtilisin also led to the stronger ACE‐inhibitory activity. However, FPH with high DH (12%), which implies a higher proportion of short peptides, was required to enhance ACE‐inhibition (IC50=172 µg protein mL−1). The antigenic levels of the FPH were also reduced with DH independently of the enzymatic treatment. Nevertheless, the highest degradation of fish allergens (e.g. parvalbumin) was also obtained when using only subtilisin. CONCLUSION These results suggest that added‐value products for food applications can be produced from the protein fraction of discards.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:30:44.003812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7731
       
  • Shelf‐life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts
           during refrigerated storage
    • Authors: Yingchang Li; Zhongyan Yang, Jiangrong Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Shrimp is a low‐fat, high‐protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L−1 polyphenols, and 8 g L−1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), K‐value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation. RESULTS The results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K‐value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf‐life of shrimp by three to four days compared with the control group. CONCLUSION PP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf‐life during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:26:06.680244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7730
       
  • Biological and therapeutic properties of bee pollen. A review
    • Abstract: Natural goods, including bee products, are particularly appreciated by consumers and are used for therapeutic purposes as alternative drugs. However, it is not known whether treatments with bee products are safe and how to minimize the health risks of such products. Among others, bee pollen is a natural honeybee product promoted as a valuable source of nourishing substances and energy. Health‐enhancing value of bee pollen is expected due to the wide range of secondary plant metabolites (tocopherol, niacin, thiamine, biotin and folic acid, polyphenols, carotenoid pigments, phytosterols), besides enzymes and coenzymes, contained in bee pollen. The promising reports on the anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐cariogenic anti‐bacterial, anti‐fungicidal, hepatoprotective, anti‐atherosclerotic, immune enhancing potential require long‐term and large cohort clinical studies. The main difficulty in application of bee pollen in modern phytomedicine is related to the wide species‐specific variation in its composition. Therefore, the variations may differently contribute to bee‐pollen properties and biological activity and thus in therapeutic effects. In principle, we can unequivocally recommend bee pollen as a valuable dietary supplement. Although the bee‐pollen components have potential bioactive and therapeutic properties, extensive research is required before bee pollen can be used in therapy.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:25:43.59832-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7729
       
  • Comparative Study on Fermentation Performance in the Genome Shuffled
           Candida versatilis and Wil‐type Salt Tolerant Yeast Strain
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The fermentation performance of genome‐shuffled strain of Candida versatilis S3‐5, isolated for improved tolerance to salt, and wild type strain were analyzed. The fermentation parameter such as growth, reducing sugar, ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds were detected during soy sauce fermentation process. RESULTS The results showed that ethanol produced by the genome shuffled strain S3‐5 was increasing at a faster rate and to a greater extent than WT. At the end of the fermentation, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid formed in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) after S3‐5 treatment elevated by 39.20%, 6.85% and 17.09% compared to WT, respectively. Moreover, flavour compounds such as phenethyl acetate, ethyl vanillate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl myristate, ethyl pentadecanoate, ethyl palmitate and phenylacetaldehyde produced by S3‐5 were 2.26, 2.12, 2.87, 34.41, 6.32, 13.64, 2.23 and 78.85 times as compared to WT. CONCLUSIONS S3‐5 exhibited enhanced metabolic ability as compared to the wild type strain, improved conversion of sugars to ethanol, metabolism of organic acid and formation of volatile compounds, especially esters, Moreover, S3‐5 might be ester‐flavour type salt‐tolerant yeast.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T02:20:43.446767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7728
       
  • Contrasting effects EDTA applications on the fluxes of methane and nitrous
           oxide emissions from straw‐treated rice paddy soils
    • Authors: Prabhat Pramanik; Pil Joo Kim
      Abstract: Submerged rice paddy soils are the major anthropogenic source of methane (CH4) emission to the atmosphere. Straw incorporation for sustaining soil organic C pool increases CH4 emission flux from rice paddy soils. Though the rate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission is much less than CH4, the former has 298 times higher global warming potential (GWP) than equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide. Effect of chelating agent like EDTA on N2O emission and on GWP due to CH4 and N2O emissions was not evaluated before. The emission of CH4 gas from submerged soil may be mitigated by EDTA application; however, it also increases concentration of nitrate‐N in soil, the precursor of N2O gas formation under anaerobic condition. In this experiment, irrespective of straw application, EDTA treated soils emitted less CH4 to the atmosphere than corresponding control. Though N2O emission was increased from soil due to EDTA applications, total GWP was at least 15% reduced in EDTA treated soils during rice cultivation. The plant growth and rice grain yield was not affected by EDTA application. Therefore, EDTA application at 5.0 ppm might be used to reduce total global warming potential during rice cultivation.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24T02:20:44.9787-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7727
       
  • Field‐based Experimental Water Footprint Study of Sunflower Growth
           in a Semiarid Region of China
    • Authors: Lijie Qin; Yinghua Jin, Peili Duan, Hongshi He
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Field‐scale changes in the water footprint during crop growth play an important role in formulating sustainable water utilization strategies. This study aimed to explore field‐scale variation in the water footprint of growing sunflowers in the western Jilin Province, China, during a 3‐year field experiment. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the components of the “blue” and “green” water footprints for sunflowers sown with water and (2) analyse variations in water footprints and soil water balance under different combinations of temperature and precipitation. Specific actions could be adopted to maintain sustainable agricultural water utilization in the semiarid region based on this study. RESULTS The green, blue, and grey water footprints accounted for 93.7–94.7%, 0.4–0.5%, and 4.9–5.8%, respectively, of the water footprint of growing sunflowers. The green water footprint for effective precipitation during the growing season accounted for 58.8% in a normal drought year but 48.2% in an extreme drought year. When the effective precipitation during the growing season could not meet the green water use, a moisture deficit arose. This increase in the moisture deficit can have a significant impact on soil water balance. CONCLUSION Green water was the primary water source for sunflower growth in the study area, where a scarcity of irrigation water during sunflower growth damaged the soil water balance, particularly in years with continuous drought. The combination of temperature and precipitation effected the growing environment, leading to differences in yield and water footprint. The field experiments in this area may benefit from further water footprint studies at the global, national and regional scale.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T01:51:51.221153-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7726
       
  • Prediction of methane emission from lactating dairy cows using milk fatty
           acids and mid‐infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: Sanne van Gastelen; Jan Dijkstra
      Abstract: Enteric methane (CH4) production is among the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A simple, robust and inexpensive measurement technique applicable on large scale to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cattle would therefore be valuable. Milk fatty acids (MFA) are related to CH4 production because of the common biochemical pathway among CH4 and fatty acids in the rumen. A summary of studies that investigated the predictive power of MFA composition for CH4 emission indicated good potential, with predictive power ranging between 47 and 95%. Until recently, gas chromatography (GC) was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but GC is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of mid‐infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The major advantages of using MIR spectroscopy to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application at large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for CH4 prediction, and the moderate predictive power for CH4 emission. It may not be sufficient to predict CH4 emission based on MIR alone. Integration with other factors, like feed intake, nutrient composition of the feed, parity, and lactation stage may improve the prediction of CH4 emission using MIR spectra.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:40:41.642608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7718
       
  • Chromium VI bioremediate by probiotics
    • Abstract: Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent state, chromium (VI), through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and it is one commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to this metal, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species such as Lactobacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Bacillus spp and Bifidobacterium spp present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods, have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to chromium (VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics, as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by chromium (VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganism that may lead to discoveries that will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to chromium (VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by oral route.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:22:27.109459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7725
       
  • Effects of pulsed light treatments and pectin edible coatings on the
           quality of fresh‐cut apples: a hurdle technology approach
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Pulsed light treatments (PL) stand as an alternative for the shelf‐life extension of fresh‐cut products. The antimicrobial effects of pulsed light are well known; however, influence on quality attributes needs to be assessed. This study was aimed at evaluating the application of PL treatments in combination with pectin‐based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber for the preservation of fresh‐cut apples. RESULTS Dipping of fresh‐cut apples in ascorbic acid/chloride calcium solution, prior to pectin coating and PL treatments, was effective to minimize browning and softening in apple surfaces. Incorporation of fiber in the pectin coating did not cause any change in microbial loads and sensory acceptability of apple cubes. Pectin‐coated PL‐treated apple pieces exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity values than fresh and PL‐control samples. At the end of storage, the combination of both treatments resulted into almost a 2 log CFU g−1 reduction of microbial counts. Sensory attribute scores did not fall below the rejection limit throughout 14 days, although the presence of off‐odors limited the acceptability of the pectin‐coated samples. CONCLUSIONS Results demonstrate that PL treatments applied to pectin‐coated fresh‐cut apples may be used to maintain quality attributes, thus conferring prebiotic potential and extending the shelf‐life of the product.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:22:02.7634-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7723
       
  • Integration of antimicrobial pectin‐based edible coating and active
           modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety
           of fresh‐cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh‐cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin‐based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh‐cut ‘Rojo Brillante’ persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh‐cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL−1 nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg−1 citric acid and 10 g kg−1 calcium chloride as antibrowning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. RESULTS Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective to reduce browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. CONCLUSION The combination of the pectin‐based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:21:40.02716-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7722
       
  • Effect of Different Production Techniques on Bioactive Compounds and
           Antioxidant Capacity of Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) and Durum
           (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Bulgur
    • Abstract: Background Influence of cooking (traditional, microwave, autoclave) and drying techniques (microwave and hot air) on bioactive compounds in production of einkorn and durum bulgur were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC), total yellow pigment (TYP), total antioxidant capacity (DPPH., ABTS.+, FRAP), soluble free (SF), soluble conjugated (SC) and insoluble bound (IB) phenolic acid contents of the samples were determined. Results For both wheats, significant amount of antioxidant capacity preserved after bulgur production. TPC was found higher in einkorn but it was exposed to more loss during bulgur production than durum. TYP was found twice more in einkorn than durum. Ferulic was recorded the most, chlorogenic was the least phenolic acid in both wheats. The maximum loss during bulgur production was determined in SC fraction for einkorn and SF fraction for durum. Conclusıon In respect to the results of the analysis, microwave cooking + hot air drying treatment could be favorable for bulgur production for both wheats.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:21:16.348455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7724
       
  • Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in
           combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus
           
    • Authors: Hanne Damgaard Poulsen; Karoline Blaabjerg
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To increase self‐supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilisation of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a RSM/SBM/FB combination. RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB>RSM/SFM/FB>SFM>RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB>RSM>SFM>FB) was greatest from day 0 to 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB>RSM/SFM/FB>SFM>RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. CONCLUSION Fermentation of RSM, FB, SFM and RSM/FB/SFM without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:05:41.940826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7721
       
  • Recent developments in identifying and quantifying emotions during food
           consumption
    • Authors: Erica Kenney; Koushik Adhikari
      Abstract: Emotions and the consumption of food and beverages are inextricably intertwined. As the fields of sensory and consumer science seek to better conceptualize the consumer experience, interest in emotion measurement is growing. Emotions can provide key information to differentiate between products and predict consumer choice as well as give more detail about product perception. There are several emotion measurement instruments, including physiological methods and facial‐recognition, self‐reported verbal emotion measurement, and self‐reported visual emotion measurement. This review discusses the purpose of measuring emotions, what is the definition of an emotion, what different instruments are available, and touches upon some promising research to deepen the connection between food and emotions.
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T04:51:29.642501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7717
       
  • Iodide and Iodate Effects on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Strawberry
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Iodine deficiency is an environmental health problem affecting one‐third of the global population. An iodine biofortification hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the iodide and iodate uptake characteristics of strawberry plants, to measure the dosage effects of iodine on plant growth, and to evaluate the influence of I− or IO3− application on fruit quality. RESULTS After biofortification,the iodine contents of the fresh strawberry fruits were 600–4000 µg · kg−1, covering the WHO dietary iodine allowance of 150 µg · d−1 for adults. The iodine uptake of the strawberry plants increased with increasing I− or IO3− concentration of the culture solution. At the same iodine concentration, the iodate uptakes of various plant organs under I− treatments were apparently more than that under IO3− treatments. Low‐level exogenous iodine (I− ≤ 0.25 mg · L−1, or IO3− ≤ 0.50 mg · L−1) not only promoted plant growth and increased biomass per plant, but also improved fruit quality by enhancing vitamin C and soluble sugar content of the strawberry fruits. Nevertheless, excessive exogenous iodine inhibited plant growth and reduced biomass per plant. IO3− uptake apparently increased the total acidity and nitrate content of the fruits, reducing the quality of the strawberry fruits. Conversely, I− uptake obviously decreased the total acidity and nitrate content of the strawberry fruits, improving the fruit quality. CONCLUSION The strawberry can be used as a target crop for iodine biofortification. Furthermore, applying appropriate dose of KI can improve fruit quality of the strawberry plants.
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T04:51:06.912545-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7719
       
  • Influence of genetic and vintage factors in flavan‐3‐ol
           composition of grape seeds of a segregating Vitis vinifera population
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Flavan‐3‐ol compounds are important secondary metabolites which show high antioxidant activity and are responsible for bitterness and astringency of food products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential for selecting grape materials with higher seed flavanol content from a breeding population. The composition and content of flavan‐3‐ols from 151 genotypes obtained from crossing wine grape varieties was evaluated by UPLC in three consecutive years. RESULTS Chromatograms of flavan‐3‐ol compounds showed the same 12 compounds for all samples, but quantitative differences were observed between genotypes as well as parental varieties. The most abundant compounds were (−)‐epicatechin and (+)‐catechin followed by proanthocyanidins A2 and B2. Progeny showed higher values than the parental genotypes for every detected compound indicating directional transgressive segregation. With these results genotypes with as much as 5 times more flavanols than their parents could be identified. The year effect was significant, however high correlations between years for each compound indicated that there is a strong genetic component in the determination of flavanol content. CONCLUSION Higher contents of seed flavan‐3‐ols can be obtained by hybridization, and those genotypes could be used for extracting healthy phytochemicals, adding value to seeds as a sub‐product in wine elaboration.
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T04:50:43.807061-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7720
       
  • Valorization of untreated cane molasses for enhanced phytase production by
           Bacillus subtilis K46b and its potential role in dephytinization
    • Abstract: BACKGROUNDS High cost of phytase production is the most limiting factor in its application in animal feeds. Present study aimed to develop a low‐cost medium for production of a novel phytase in submerged fermentation using inexpensive agro‐industrial by‐products. The applicability of phytase in dephytinization of commonly used food/feed ingredients i.e. soybean meal and wheat bran was also investigated. RESULTS Using one‐factor‐at‐a‐time approach, soybean meal and cane molasses were identified as significant agro‐industrial by‐products and these factors were subsequently optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was employed to further enhance phytase yield. Under optimum conditions of soybean meal 22.3 g L−1, cane molasses 100 g L−1 and 39 h fermentation, phytase production increased to 56.562 U/mL, indicating more than 27‐fold enhancement. The enzyme efficiently dephytinized wheat bran and soybean meal after 24 h incubation at 56.5 °C and increased inorganic phosphate content by 240% and 155%, respectively. CONCLUSION Soybean meal and cane molasses were successfully used for enhancement of phytase production as economical carbon, nitrogen and phytic acid sources using RSM. The phytase showed a good capability to dephytinize wheat bran and soybean meal demonstrating that the enzyme can be considered as a potential candidate for industrial food and feed applications.
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T03:16:31.170248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7716
       
  • Actein protects against methylglyoxal‐induced oxidative damage in
           osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 cells
    • Authors: Kwang Sik Suh; Suk Chon, Eun Mi Choi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Methylglyoxal (MG) is an endogenous product of glucose metabolism known to be toxic to cells and to be present in elevated concentrations under certain pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effect of actein isolated from black cohosh on MG‐induced cytotoxicity was investigated in MC3T3‐E1 osteoblastic cells. RESULTS Treatment of MC3T3‐E1 osteoblastic cells with actein prevented MG‐induced cell death and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, inflammatory cytokines, and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). In addition, actein increased the activity of glyoxalase I and levels of reduced glutathione and of the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2). These findings suggest that actein protects against MG‐induced cell damage by reducing oxidative stress and by increasing MG detoxification. Treatment with actein prior to MG exposure reduced MG‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and ATP loss. Additionally, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 α (PGC‐1α), nuclear respiratory factor‐1 (NRF‐1), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased by actein, suggesting that actein may induce mitochondrial biogenesis. CONCLUSION Our studies demonstrate that actein reduces MG‐induced damage in osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 cells by enhancing antioxidant defenses, the glyoxalase system, and mitochondrial biogenesis.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:22:25.867651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7713
       
  • Evolution and perspectives of cultivar identification and traceability
           from tree to oil and table olives by means of DNA markers
    • Authors: Antonella Pasqualone; Cinzia Montemurro, Valentina di Rienzo, Carmine Summo, Vito Paradiso, Francesco Caponio
      Abstract: In recent years an increasing number of typicality marks has been awarded to high quality olive oils produced from local cultivars. In this case, quality control requires effective varietal checks of the starting materials. Moreover, accurate cultivar identification is essential in vegetative‐propagated plants distributed by nurseries, and is a pre‐requisite to register new cultivars. Food genomics provides many tools for cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives. The results of the application of different classes of DNA markers to olive with the purpose of checking cultivar identity and variability of plant material are extensively discussed in this review, with special regard to repeatibiliy issues and polymorphism degree. The characterization of olive germplasm from all countries of the Mediterranean basin and from less studied geographic areas is described, and innovative high‐throughput molecular tools to manage reference collections are reviewed. Then, the transferability of DNA markers to processed products ‐ virgin olive oils and table olives ‐ is overviewed to point out strengths and weaknesses, with special regard to: i) the influence of processing steps and storage time on quantity and quality of residual DNA; ii) recent advances to overcome the bottle‐neck of DNA extraction from processed products; iii) factors affecting whole comparability of DNA profiles between fresh plant materials and end‐products; iv) drawbacks in the analysis of multi‐cultivar vs single‐cultivar end‐products; v) potential of quantitative PCR‐based techniques.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:22:03.697419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7711
       
  • Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction
           residues in the stabilization of sesame seed paste (tahini)
    • Authors: Anthi Evlogimenou; Adamantini Paraskevopoulou, Vassilios Kiosseoglou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which tends to exhibit upon long time storage undesirable phenomena of oiling off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich‐in‐fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated. RESULTS The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilizers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilizing ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. Instead, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilizing the sesame paste. Shear stress ‐ rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilizing behaviour of the three powders. CONCLUSION The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling off upon long time storage.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:21:40.006841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7714
       
  • Enzymatic characterization of the immobilized Alcalase to hydrolyze egg
           white protein for potential allergenicity reduction
    • Authors: Anshu Yang; Caiyun Long, Jiaheng Xia, Ping Tong, Youfei Cheng, Yan Wang, Hongbing Chen
      Abstract: Background This study examined technique characteristics of the immobilized Alcalase to hydrolyze egg white protein for potential allergenicity reduction. Alcalase was immobilized covalently on carboxyl‐functionalized magnetic beads by carbodiimide activation. The technique characteristics of the immobilized Alcalase were investigated, followed by determining the degrees of hydrolysis (DH), IgG binding, and IgE binding of the digested egg white protein by immobilized Alcalase. Results Enzymatic activity, enzyme loading, and immobilization yield of the prepared immobilized Alcalase were 20.55 U mg−1, 925 mg g−1, and 45%, respectively. Immobilized Alcalase showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 60 °C. Compared with free Alcalase, immobilized Alcalase exhibited better thermal and storage stability. Moreover, immobilized Alcalase can be reused 10 times and still maintained 55% of its initial activity. Partial hydrolysis of egg white protein by immobilized Alcalase can effectively reduce IgG and IgE binding of the hydrolysates. Conclusion This study indicates that the immobilized Alcalase can be used to hydrolyze continuously egg white protein for potential allergenicity reduction.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:21:18.550841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7712
       
  • Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood products from
           hypermarkets in Shanghai
    • Authors: Zhaohuan Zhang; Yang Lou, Suping Du, LiLi Xiao, Ben Niu, Yingjie Pan, Yong Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important gastroenteritis pathogen contaminating seafood in China. In this study, a total of 992 seafood samples from major hypermarkets in Shanghai were monitored for prevalence and burden of V. parahaemolyticus from January 2011 to December 2012. Additionally, appropriate probability distribution for describing V. parahaemolyticus concentrations was investigated based on these surveillance data. RESULTS Seventeen of 992 samples were positive for V. parahaemolyticus and the geometric mean was 0.1581 Most Probable Number per gram (MPN g−1). The variation in prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was seasonal and the burden of contamination in August (0.1942 MPN g−1) was significant (p < 0.01) between 2011 and 2012. And the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was higher in shellfish and cephalopods than that in other seafood (p < 0.05). By comparison, the lognormal distribution and integrated distribution had no obvious difference for characterizing V. parahaemolyticus contamination. CONCLUSION The low prevalence and burden indicated that seafood from hypermarkets may not be an important risk source for V. parahaemolyticus infection in Shanghai, P. R. China, and more attention should be paid on other areas for selling seafood, such as farmlands or farmers markets. The simple and effective lognormal distribution was recommended as a better choice for describing V. parahaemolyticus contamination in future risk assessment researches.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:21:09.890445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7715
       
  • Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli
           strains from a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 78 genetically different Escherichia coli recovered from the air and exudate samples of a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings in Spain, in order to gain insight into the flow of antimicrobial resistance through the environment and food supply. RESULTS Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 21.8% of the 78 E. coli isolates analyzed (resistance for at least one of the 14 agents tested). The highest resistance rates were recorded for ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. The resistance genes detected were as follows [antibiotic (number of resistant strains), gene (number of strains)]: ampicillin (9), blaTEM‐1(6); tetracycline (15), tet(A) (7), tet(B) (4), tet(A)+ tet(B) (1); chloramphenicol (5), cmlA (2), floR(2); trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10), sul2 (4), sul1 (3), sul3 (2), sul1+ sul2 (1); gentamicin‐tobramycin (1), ant(2”) (1). About 14% of strains showed a multidrug‐resistant phenotype and, of them, 7 strains carried class 1 integrons containing predominantly the dfrA1‐aadA1 array. One multidrug‐resistant strain was found in both inside and outside air, suggesting that the airborne spread of multidrug‐resistant bacteria from the animal housing facilities to the surroundings is feasible. CONCLUSIONS This study gives a genetic background of the antimicrobial resistance problem in a dairy cattle farm and shows that air can act as a source for dissemination of antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:24:47.018873-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7709
       
  • Screening of the anthocyanin profile and in vitro pancreatic lipase
           inhibition by anthocyanin‐containing extracts of fruits, vegetables,
           legumes and cereals
    • Authors: Simona Fabroni; Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Flora V. Romeo, Paolo Rapisarda
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The phytotherapic treatment of overweight and/or moderate obesity is largely growing, thus there is a great interest towards the phenolic compounds of fruits and vegetables which may inhibit pancreatic lipase enzyme. In this study, we report the chemical composition and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of 13 freeze‐dried anthocyanin‐containing extracts of different Mediterranean plants: fruits (blood orange, pomegranate, blackberry, mulberry and sumac), citrus by‐products (blood orange peel), citrus vegetative tissues (young lemon shoots); vegetables (red cabbage and violet cauliflower), legume seeds (black bean), cereals (black rice), and cereal processing by‐products (black rice hull). Total phenols and anthocyanins were determined. Individual anthocyanins were identified by UHPLC‐PDA‐ESI/MSn. RESULTS Results revealed a wide variation in the distribution of anthocyanin compounds. Blood orange and pomegranate juice extracts had the highest total anthocyanin content and exhibited the strongest inhibition of pancreatic lipase in vitro. CONCLUSION Inhibitory activity was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. In appropriate formulations, anthocyanin‐containing extracts could find use as anti‐obesity agents.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:24:35.811484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7708
       
  • Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch‐aroma
           compound inclusion complexes
    • Authors: Shu Zhang; Yibin Zhou, Shanshan Jin, Xin Meng, Liping Yang, Haisong Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. RESULTS The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2, and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol, and menthol, respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures, and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of C = O at 1,771 cm‐1 and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. XRD analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch‐polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on CP‐MAS 13CNMR results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. CONCLUSION Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:23:45.229589-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7707
       
  • The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on
           the color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model
           wine solution and red wine
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. RESULTS The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. And the second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. CONCLUSION It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:23:30.597099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7706
       
  • A new genotype of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with decreased
           susceptibility to fat oxidation: consequences to hematological and
           biochemical profiles of blood indices
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Flaxseed is an alternative to marine products that provide the traditional dietary sources of ω‐fatty acids. A new genotype of flax (W92) is rich in natural antioxidants, as well as reduced amounts of alpha‐linolenic acid, and therefore has decreased susceptibility to fat oxidation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a diet supplemented with W92 flaxseed on hematological and biochemical blood indices. RESULTS A positive impact of diet with the addition of flaxseed was observed on erythrocyte indices, including RBC, HCT, MCH and MCHC values. There were no significant differences for WBC, total protein and glucose values. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase estimations in serum were also carried out and no obvious toxicity to the liver was shown. Moreover, a lipid profile was performed in serum samples and a decrease in total and LDL‐C, accompanied by an increase in HDL‐C content, was observed in rabbits fed flaxseed diets. CONCLUSION Based on the results obtained, it appeared that the inclusion of a new genetically‐modified type of flaxseed into the diet altered cholesterol metabolism and could reduce the possibility of cardiovascular diseases. Diet enrichment with W92 flaxseed may be a solution to the health issues that are a result of improper diet in humans and animals.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T03:51:40.643745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7705
       
  • Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climate has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers’ expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost‐effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. RESULTS With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. CONCLUSIONS The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost‐effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T03:30:38.125866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7704
       
  • Rapid screening of Alternaria mycotoxins using MALDI‐TOF mass
           spectrometry
    • Abstract: BACKROUND Members of the Alternaria genus produce various toxins and their occurrence in agricultural commodities is a major concern for humans and the environment. The present study developed a simple and efficient MALDI‐TOF MS method for the rapid detection of Alternaria toxins. RESULTS A new method for the detection of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tentoxin (TEN) was developed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight (MALDI‐TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Different solid phase extraction (SPE) clean‐up method were tried to optimize the purification of wheat matrix and an optimum extraction method was designed to recover the three Alternaria toxins. In addition, various MALDI matrices were examined and α‐cyano‐4‐hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix gave a good repeatability for all three Alternaria toxins. CONCLUSION This is the first study to report the detection of three important Alternaria toxins concurrently using MALDI‐TOF MS and this study opens up the possibility of rapid screening of Alternaria toxins in several other cereals and food products.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T03:26:31.155881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7703
       
  • Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the amino acid digestibility of
           different triticale genotypes in caecectomised laying hens
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The influence of nitrogen fertilisation and genotype on the amino acid (AA) digestibility of triticale grain was investigated in cecectomised laying hens. Three genotypes: Grenado, EAW6002, and Lasko, were cultivated with and without nitrogen fertilisation at the end of the heading stage. The six triticale variants as well as a basal diet were each used to feed 7 laying hens in a 7°7 Latin square design. RESULTS Nitrogen fertilisation influenced the digestibility of Cys, Glu, Phe, and Ser in some triticale genotypes, and reduced Ala, Ile, Lys, Met, and Val digestibility in all genotypes (P < 0.05). Nitrogen fertilisation increased the concentration of all AAs in the grain. Consequently, the concentration of digestible AAs in the grains was increased for most AAs upon nitrogen fertilisation. Overall, Lys had the lowest digestibility, whereas that of Glu and Pro was the highest. For the triticale genotypes, the level of AA digestibility was highest for EAW6002 followed by Lasko and Grenado, with significant differences (P < 0.05) between genotypes for some but not all AA. CONCLUSION The results indicated that the accuracy of the digestible AA supply for hen feeding might benefit from considering fertilisation and genotype‐specific digestibility data in feed formulation.
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T01:30:45.970796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7701
       
  • Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein
           isolate and comparison of its physicochemical properties with commercial
           animal and plant protein isolates
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. RESULTS BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has got a well conserved protein arrangement and lower thermo stability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mildly and neutral pH. CONCLUSION BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or to development of new products of its own.
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T01:30:23.087246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7702
       
  • Mechanisation of large‐scale agricultural fields in developing
           countries‐a review
    • Authors: Daniel I. Onwude; Rafia Abdulstter, Chandima Gomes, Norhashila Hashim
      Abstract: Mechanisation of large scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production amongst others. Thus, this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanization, present day technology, its management and application to large scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/ gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary, and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large scale‐agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large‐ scale farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:40:20.868889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7699
       
  • Food‐derived immunomodulatory peptides
    • Abstract: Food proteins contain specific amino acid sequences within their structures that may positively impact bodily functions and have multiple immunomodulatory effects. The functional properties of these specific sequences, also referred to as bioactive peptides, are revealed only after the degradation of native proteins during digestion processes. Currently, milk proteins have been the most explored source of bioactive peptides, which presents an interesting opportunity for the dairy industry. However, plant‐ and animal‐ derived proteins have also been shown to be important sources of bioactive peptides. Hence, in this review we summarize the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the role of various food proteins as sources of immunomodulatory peptides and discuss the possible pathways involving these properties.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:39:27.505851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7697
       
  • Physiologically Induced Changes in Bound Phenolics and Antioxidant,
           DNA/Cytoprotective Potentials in Pectic poly/oligosaccharides of Tomato
           (Solanum lycopersicum)
    • Authors: Sabeeta Kapoor; Shylaja M Dharmesh
      Abstract: Background Antioxidant, cyto/DNA protective potentials are known to offer significant protection against free radical induced injury to cells or tissues and cellular damages that are envisaged in various diseases including chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, etc, while galectin‐3 inhibitory potentials are known to block or delay the process of metastasis in cancer. Antioxidnat, cyto/DNA protection and galectin‐3 inhibitory potentials were examined in pectic polysaccharides (PPs) and pectic oligosaccharides (POs) from four types of two varieties of tomatoes such as Sour (Mallika local vr.) raw (SrRT– SrRTPP, SrRTPO), Sour ripen (SrRIT‐ SrRITPP, SrRITPO), Sweet (Rashmi local vr.) raw (SwRT‐ SwRTPP, SwRTPO) and Sweet ripen (SwRIT– SwRITPP and SwRITPO) Results Results indicate that unripen PPs and POs show ~ 4–5 folds better galectin‐3 inhibitory property than ripe ones. ~9‐10 folds increase in galectin‐3 inhibitory activity in sour vr. was observed. IC50 as determined by Free Radical Scavenging (FRS), Red Blood Cells (RBC) and DNA protection assays revealed reduction in FRS and RBC protective potencies in POs than PPs, supporting the fact that phenolics contribute towards these activities. Loss of activity could be attributed to the hydrolysis of certain phenolics during ripening process as well during conversion of PPs to POs. Conclusion This study, for the first time showed changes in bioactivity profiling in unripened and ripened conditions in tomato. Precise alterations in biomolecular components such as bound cinnamyl/ ferulyl and vanillic acid derivatives along with alterations in sugar composition that reflect changes in antioxidant, cyto/DNA protective and antimetastatic potentials have been delineated.
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:39:20.610753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7696
       
  • Over‐expression of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucanase
           isoenzymes EII gene Results in decreased
           (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucan content and increased starch
           level in barley grains
    • Authors: Ning Han; Chenglong Na, Yuqiong Chai, Jianshu Chen, Zhongbo Zhang, Bin Bai, Hongwu Bian, Yuhong Zhang, Muyuan Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND High content of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐D‐glucan of barley grains is regarded as an undesirable factor affecting malting potential, brewing yield and feed utilization. Production of thermostable bacterial (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase in transgenic barley grain or the supplementation exogenous bacterial (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase have been used to improve malt and feed quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of over‐expression of an endogenous (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase on β‐glucan content and grain composition in barley. RESULTS A construct containing full‐length of HvGlb2 cDNA encoding barley (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase isoenzymes EII under the control of a promoter of barley D‐Hordein gene Hor3‐1 was introduced into Barley cultivar Golden Promise via Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation, and transgenic plants were regenerated after hygromycin selection. T2 generation of proHor3:HvGlb2 transgenic lines showed increased activity of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase in grains. Total β‐glucan content was reduced by more than 95.73% in transgenic grains compared to that of wild‐type control. Meanwhile, over‐expression of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase led to an increase in the thousand grain weight, which might be due to elevated amounts of starch in grain. CONCLUSION Manipulating the expression of (1,3;1,4)‐β‐glucanase EII can control the β‐glucan content in grain with no apparent harmful effects on grain quality of transgenic plants.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T01:35:33.261895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7695
       
  • Crystalline, thermal and swelling properties of starches from
           single‐segment substitution lines with different Wx alleles in rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)
    • Authors: Bin Teng; Ying Zhang, Shiyun Du, Jingde Wu, Zefu Li, Zhixiang Luo, Jianbo Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In rice, five common Wx alleles, wx, Wxt, Wxg1, Wxg2, and Wxg3, had been identified according to their apparent amylose content (AAC) phenotypes. Previous studies revealed that this Wx allelic variation may also affects other starch properties. However, so far, to what extent the five Wx alleles influence the crystalline structure, thermal and swelling properties of rice starch is still unclear. For this purpose, a set of single‐segment substitution lines (SSSLs) harboring five different Wx alleles, varying widely in AAC, were used for comparative studies. RESULTS Of this study, crystalline structure, thermal properties, and swelling behaviors of starches from the SSSLs varied widely depending on Wx genotypes. Effects of different Wx alleles on relative crystallinity followed the order: wx > Wxt > Wxg1 = Wxg2 > Wxg3. The glutinous and Wxt genotype starches showed higher gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy compared to other Wx genotypes. The order for swelling powers was wx > Wxt > Wxg1 > Wxg2 > Wxg3, while the degree of solubilities was Wxg3 > Wxg1 > Wxg2 > Wxt = wx. Correlation analysis results indicate that AAC is significantly and negatively correlated with relative crystallinity (r = −0.996, P < 0.01) and swelling power (r = −0.982, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION The present results might provide new knowledge about the influence of different Wx alleles on structural and physicochemical properties of rice starch.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T01:30:16.92197-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7693
       
  • Encapsulation of (−)‐epigallocatechin gallate into liposomes
           and into alginate or chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND (−)‐Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was encapsulated into liposomes that were further incorporated into alginate and chitosan microparticles. Stability of free and encapsulated EGCG in all the three systems was evaluated at different pH and in fruit nectar. Furthermore, the interactions between EGCG and the compounds of the microparticles were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. RESULTS All the three encapsulation systems showed high encapsulation efficiency (>97%) and sustained release; in 14 days no more than 15% of EGCG was released. The encapsulation systems successfully protected EGCG against degradation at alkaline pH. For non‐encapsulated EGCG, >70% was degraded after 14 days, while there was no significant degradation of the encapsulated EGCG in these three systems. In fruit nectar, >30% of non‐encapsulated EGCG was degraded in 14 days, while only 6% of EGCG encapsulated into liposomes or chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes was degraded at the same time. The DSC and FTIR analyses showed that the main interactions occurred between the liposomes and the EGCG. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that liposomes as well as alginate and chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes have the potential to enhance EGCG stability in food products during storage.
      PubDate: 2016-02-27T03:26:52.710906-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7691
       
  • Increasing Anti‐Aβ‐induced Neurotoxicity Ability of
           Antrodia camphorata‐fermented Product with Deep Ocean Water
           Supplementary
    • Authors: Yeuching Shi; Shuyuan Yang, David Yuewei Lee, Chunlin Lee
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antrodia camphorata is proven to probably inhibit the neurotoxicity of amyloid β‐protein (Aβ) known as the risk factor toward the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Deep ocean water (DOW), drawn from an ocean depth of more than 200 meters, has proven to stimulate the growth and metabolite biosynthesis of fungi due to its rich minerals and trace elements. Based on the advantages of DOW, this study used statistical response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the effects of DOW on the growth and anti‐Aβ‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability of A. camphorata. RESULTS The results shown that DOW was useful for A. camphorata biomass raising and the neuro‐protection capability enhancing. The anti‐Aβ40‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability of filtrate was increased via raising the mycelium‐secreted components. Furthermore, the anti‐Aβ40‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability of mycelium was also raised by the DOW‐stimulated intracellular antioxidants. However, using suitable DOW concentration at 80%, initial pH at 3.3 and inoculum size at 20% as the optimal culture condition of A. camphorata significantly stimulated the biomass and mycelium‐mediated Aβ40‐induced cell viability (%) from 302 ‐±14 mg/100 mL and 49.2 ± 2.2% to 452 ± 33 mg/100 mL and 65.0 ± 7.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION This study indicated that DOW was used as a promising supplementary for A. camphorata secondary metabolites production, due to those strong antioxidant activity to perform anti‐Aβ40‐induced neurocytotoxicity ability.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T02:07:45.718224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7687
       
  • Glucosinolate composition of Colombian accessions of mashua (tropaeolum
           tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón), structural elucidation of the
           predominant glucosinolate and assessment of its antifungal activity
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The content of individual and total glucosinolates in 65 mashua tuber accessions (Tropaeolum tuberosum) from the germplasm bank at Universidad Nacional de Colombia was determined by RP‐HPLC on enzymatically desulphated extracts. The predominant glucosinolate was identified and the possible structure of the glucosinolate present in lower proportion was postulated from the evidence obtained by HPLC‐MS, 1H and 13C NMR and bidimensional experiments. The biological action of the hydrolysis products generated from the glucosinolates in the accessions that showed a higher content of these compounds was assessed in the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora infestans. RESULTS The total content of glucosinolates ranged between >3.00x10−1 and 25.8 µmol g−1 dry matter. p‐methoxybenzylglucosinolate was identified as the predominant glucosinolate in Colombian mashua accessions and besides, the possible presence of p‐hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was postulated. In vitro assays allowed to establish an important fungal growth inhibition of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. CONCLUSIONS The biological action from p‐methoxybenzylglucosinolate and p‐hydroxybenzylglucosinolate found in Colombian mashua accessions depends on their concentration, being Tt30 accession, characterized for showing the highest content of glucosinolates, the most promising to control the assessed pathogens.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T02:07:14.027478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7689
       
  • The effect of oregano essential oil on microbial load and sensory
           atributes of dried meat
    • Abstract: Background Microbial load can be controlled using either synthetic or natural preservatives. Particular interest has been focused on the potential application of plant essential oils as safer additives for meat. However, there is no applied research about the use of essential oils during the meat drying process. This study is focused on enhancing the meat drying process, a value‐added dried meat product by using oregano essential oil (OEO) to inhibit the growth of bacteria, and the sensorial response from assessors are presented. Results It was found that the application of the OEO in meat is effective in inhibiting Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. After 6 hours of drying at 55 °C, 2 ml (0.038 ml l−1 air vapours) and 1.5 ml (0.028 ml l−1 air vapours) of OEO are considered the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. enteritidis and E. coli, respectively. The samples treated with 0.75 ml of OEO are more attractive for consuming compare to the original one and with a higher concentration of OEO the sensory quality of the food is affected. Conclusions A value‐added meat product by using oregano essential oil for enhancement the food safety and an acceptable sensorial response from consumers is presented.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T02:06:21.794368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7685
       
  • Health‐promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit
           peels (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton and Rose) as affected
           bycarbohydrate encapsulation
    • Authors: Evelyn B. Rodriguez; Mark Louis P. Vidallon, David Joram R. Mendoza, Charisse T. Reyes
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Betalains, which are red‐purple and yellow pigments, are ideal alternatives to synthetic colorants as they possess strong coloring potential and excellent health‐contributing properties. However, the instability of betalains toward normal storage and biological conditions, in addition to the limited number of betalain sources, impedes their food application and diminishes their bioactivities. This study aimed to evaluate the health‐promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit peels (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton and Rose) as affected by encapsulation in maltodextrin‐gum Arabic and maltodextrin‐pectin matrices. RESULTS Encapsulation in maltodextrin‐gum Arabic and maltodextrin‐pectin matrices afforded dry betalain powders after lyophilization. Optical microscopy imaging showed that the betalain powders consisted of matrix‐type and shard‐like microparticles. ABTS antioxidant assay revealed that maltodextrin‐gum Arabic‐betalain (MGB) and maltodextrin‐pectin‐betalain (MPB) microparticles possessed higher antioxidant capacities (195.39 ± 8.63 and 201.76 ± 4.06 µmol Trolox per g microparticles, respectively) compared with the non‐encapsulated betalain extract (151.07 ± 2.57 µmol Trolox per g extract). Duck embryo CAM vascular irritation assay showed that the anti‐inflammatory activity of encapsulated betalains was five‐ to six‐ fold higher than non‐encapsulated betalains (P ≤ 0.05). Anti‐angiogenic activity, as evaluated by duck embryo CAM assay, was enhanced two‐ to four‐fold by carbohydrate encapsulation. Glutathione‐S‐transferase‐inducing activity of betalains was likewise improved four‐ to five‐fold. CONCLUSION The study showed that the anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐angiogenic and glutathione‐S‐transferase‐inducing activities of betalains from red dragon fruit peels were enhanced through carbohydrate encapsulation.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:59:53.913177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7681
       
  • Gelation Properties of Myofibrillar Protein under Malondialdehyde Induced
           Oxidative Stress
    • Authors: Lin Wang; Min Zhang, Zhongxiang Fang, Bhesh Bhandari
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Structure of myofibrillar protein (MP) can be readily altered by oxidation, leading to the unfolding of MP structure, which further promote protein‐protein interactions, and thus influence the MP gelling properties. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of malondialdehyde induced oxidative stress on the gelation properties of myofibrillar protein (MP). Structural changes of the oxidized myofibrillar proteins were evaluated by the contents of carbonyl and total sulfhydryls, surface hydrophobicity, SDS‐PAGE and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidative stability of the MP gels as indicated by lipid hydroperoxide was also determined. RESULTS With the addition of MDA concentration less than 10 mM, the MP gels showed an improved elasticity, gel strength, water holding capacity, and oxidative stability. Nevertheless, higher MDA concentration (25–50 mM) significantly reduced the gel quality, probably due to the formation of excessive covalent bonds in the system. CONCLUSION Results suggested that protein aggregation was occurred in the oxidized system. Myosin was involved in gel formation through non‐disulfide covalent bond.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:59:31.060037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7680
       
  • Grape and environmental mycoflora monitoring in old,
           traditionally‐cultivated vineyards on Mount Etna, southern Italy
    • Authors: Cinzia Oliveri; Patrizia Bella, Matilde Tessitori, Vittoria Catara, Rosa La Rosa
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Grape contamination by several fungal species occurs during a vineyard's pre‐harvest and harvest. The agronomic management and microclimatic conditions can affect fungi occurrence and epidemiology thus explaining the qualitative differences in the mycoflora composition, including the presence of phytopathogenic or mycotoxigenic fungi. A two‐year grape and air and soil mycoflora monitoring programme was undertaken in vineyards on Mount Etna (eastern Sicily, Italy). The mycoflora composition was investigated at pea berry and veraison phenological phases from air and soil, and at ripening from sample grapes. RESULTS Mycoflora in air and soil varied according to the phenological stages. In the air samples, Penicillia were dominant over Aspergillia at the pea berry phase however the proportion was inverted at early veraison. Black Aspergilli (BA) were isolated from the vine environment and grape samples where BA were represented mainly by Aspergillus niger aggregate, which showed no or low OTA production. A. carbonarius was either not identified or with a low frequency, although most of the isolates produced OTA. CONCLUSION Monitoring focused on the environmental mycoflora composition and highlighted the good health profile of various Sicilian autochthonous grape cultivars. In addition, data suggest that the lower relative humidity occurring at the highest altitudes reduces BA incidence.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T01:57:44.759216-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7683
       
  • Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of
           biopolymer‐oregano essential oil coatings
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film‐forming‐dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro‐Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre‐harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. RESULTS The application of the FFDs at “3 Leaves” stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer‐EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the “Fruit” stage the pre‐harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer‐EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non‐treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. CONCLUSION The application of biopolymer‐oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit.
      PubDate: 2016-02-12T01:27:20.602581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7666
       
  • Vulnerability of maize production under future climate change: possible
           adaptation strategies
    • Authors: Bannayan Mohammad; Paymard Parisa, Ashraf Batoul
      Abstract: Background Climate change can affect the productivity and geographic distribution of crops. Therefore, evaluation of adaptive management options is very crucial in dealing with negative impacts of climate change. The objectives of this study were to simulate the impacts of climate change on maize production in the northeast of Iran. Moreover, vulnerability index which indicated that how much of the crop yield loss is related to the drought was computed for each location to identify where adaptation and mitigation strategies are effective. Different sowing dates were also applied as an adaptation approach to decrease the negative impacts of climate change in study area. Results The results showed that the maize yield would decline during 21st century from −2.6% to −82% at all study locations in comparison with the baseline. The result of vulnerability index also indicated that using the adaptation strategies could be effective in all of the study areas. Using different sowing dates as an adaptation approach showed that delaying the sowing date will be advantageous in order to obtain higher yield in all study locations in future. Conclusion This study provided insight regarding the climate change impacts on maize production and the efficacy of adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T01:45:56.996921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7659
       
  • Oil Quality parameters and Quantitative Measurement of Major Secoiridoid
           Derivatives in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins using qNMR
           
    • Authors: Amir Ben Mansour; Boutheina Gargouri, Eleni Melliou, Prokopios Magiatis, Mohamed Bouaziz
      Abstract: Background Olive oil contains compounds with interesting biological activities which are influenced by the cultivar, the geographic origin and other factors. The aim of this work was to investigate these factors in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins. The aim of this work was to attest the influence of geographic conditions on phenolic composition of Neb Jmel olive oil and consequently on the antioxidant compounds, and to verify if it is permit to discriminate the geographical origin. Results The characterization of extra‐virgin Neb Jmel olive oil produced in their original place has been conducted. Owing to the effect of the genotype and environmental, agronomic and technological factors on the chemical composition of olive oil and its quality, all studied olives were collected at the same season, and their oil obtained under the same processing technique. Many analyses were carried out to characterize the different olive oils: free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Rancimat assay, pigments content and phenolic compounds by 1H NMR. A recently developed method for the direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative 1H NMR was applied. The method was applied to the study of four Neb Jmel olive oils samples, and a broad variation of concentrations of all four secoiridoids was recorded. The concentration of each one ranged from 55 to 529 mg/kg and the sum of the four major secoiridoids (known as D3) ranged from 436 to 1063 mg/kg. Conclusion The quantification of major phenolic compounds of olive oil by NMR method indicated that environmental conditions influence the production of qualitative phenolic fractions. All these compounds can be used as base '' markers' to characterize and differentiate these olive oil on geographic origin.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T00:28:44.988752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7654
       
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 2597 - 2597
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T09:05:14.294041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7414
       
  • Issue Information ‐ Info Page
    • Pages: 2598 - 2598
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T09:05:19.211264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7415
       
  • Issue Information ‐ Table of Contents
    • Pages: 2599 - 2602
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T09:05:25.370917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7416
       
  • Synergy between bio‐based industry and the feed industry
           through biorefinery
    • Authors: Amanda M Teekens; Marieke E Bruins, Johannes MN van Kasteren, Wouter H Hendriks, Johan PM Sanders
      Pages: 2603 - 2612
      Abstract: Processing biomass into multi‐functional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio‐based non‐food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio‐based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed ingredients. Illustrating the biorefinery concept, rapeseed was selected as a low priced feed ingredient based on market prices versus crude protein, crude fat and apparent ileal digestible lysine content. In addition it is already used as an alternative protein source in diets and can be cultivated in European climate zones. Furthermore, inclusion level of rapeseed meal in pig diet is limited because of its nutritionally active factors. A conceptual process was developed to improve rapeseeds nutritional value and producing other bio‐based building blocks simultaneously. Based on the correlation between market prices of feed ingredients and its protein and fat content, the value of refined products was estimated. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, under two profit scenario, shows that the process is economically feasible. This study demonstrates that using biorefinery processes on feed ingredients can improve feed quality. In conjunction, it produces building blocks for a bio‐based industry and creates synergy between bio‐based and feed industry for more efficient use of biomass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T10:23:23.066161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7596
       
  • Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non‐target plant‐associated
           insects and soil organisms
    • Authors: Amina Yaqoob; Ahmad Ali Shahid, Tahir Rehman Samiullah, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan, Sana Tahir, Safdar Ali Mirza, Tayyab Husnain
      Pages: 2613 - 2619
      Abstract: Transgenic plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes are being cultivated worldwide to express toxic insecticidal proteins. However, the commercial utilisation of Bt crops greatly highlights biosafety issues worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risks caused by genetically modified crops prior to their commercial cultivation is a critical issue to be addressed. In agricultural biotechnology, the goal of safety assessment is not just to identify the safety of a genetically modified (GM) plant, rather to demonstrate its impact on the ecosystem. Various experimental studies have been made worldwide during the last 20 years to investigate the risks and fears associated with non‐target organisms (NTOs). The NTOs include beneficial insects, natural pest controllers, rhizobacteria, growth promoting microbes, pollinators, soil dwellers, aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, mammals and humans. To highlight all the possible risks associated with different GM events, information has been gathered from a total of 76 articles, regarding non‐target plant and soil inhabiting organisms, and summarised in the form of the current review article. No significant harmful impact has been reported in any case study related to approved GM events, although critical risk assessments are still needed before commercialisation of these crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T03:55:43.729319-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7661
       
  • ω‐3 in meat products: benefits and effects on lipid oxidative
           stability
    • Pages: 2620 - 2634
      Abstract: Although ω‐3 intake has been associated with numerous health benefits, its addition to certain food matrices, and in particular meat products, may involve various technological barriers influencing the final quality of the products. Lipid oxidation must be highlighted due to the modification of both the sensory characteristics and the shelf‐life of meat products. In order to reduce the impact of chemical changes and promote oxidative stability, the use of natural antioxidants has gained ground owing to the health and safety advantages linked to its effectiveness at reducing lipid oxidation. Many natural compounds have also been successfully tested in animal feed, in order to protect the raw meat materials and reduce the risk of lipid oxidation in processed products. This review aims to address the challenges and advantages of the incorporation of ω‐3 fatty acids in raw meat materials and processed meat products, and to describe the use of different compounds to enhance lipid oxidative stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T03:59:21.198083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7559
       
  • Cloning and characterization of a new ribitol dehydrogenase from
           Providencia alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011
    • Authors: Hinawi AM Hassanin; Xiao Wang, Wanmeng Mu, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang
      Pages: 2917 - 2924
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A new ribitol dehydrogenase gene was cloned from Providencia alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. This study aimed to purify and characterize the ribitol dehydrogenase from P. alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011 and investigate its substrate specificity for potential use as an industrial enzyme. RESULTS The protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined as ∼25 000 and 26 650 Da through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry respectively. The result for native molecular mass (104 kDa) suggested that the enzyme functions as a tetramer. Optimum activity of the enzyme was determined at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 35 °C. Regarding its thermal stability, the enzyme retained 72, 72, 48 and 0% of its initial activity after 4 h at 25, 30, 40 and 50 °C respectively. The Km, kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzyme for the substrate ribitol were determined as 13.9 mmol L−1, 10.0 s−1 and 0.71 L mmol−1 s−1 respectively. The Km of NAD+ was 0.042 mmol L−1. CONCLUSION The substrate specificity indicated that the ribitol dehydrogenase from P. alcalifaciens RIMD 1656011 can be used for direct production of allitol from d‐fructose without any by‐product formation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T05:39:32.829525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7589
       
  • Ingenane‐type diterpene compounds from Euphorbia kansui modulate
           IFN‐γ production through NF‐κB activation
    • Pages: 2635 - 2640
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Euphorbia kansui, a traditional medical herb, has been shown to have anti‐tumour and anti‐viral activities. Previously, we have reported that E. kansui increases interferon‐gamma (IFN‐γ) production in natural killer (NK) cells. However, it is not clear how E. kansui regulates IFN‐γ secretion by NK cells. RESULTS In this study, E. kansui was separated into six individual compounds from the same chloroform fraction so that the activity of each compound could be compared. E. kansui compounds induced IFN‐γ secretion through the phosphorylation of protein kinase D and IκB kinase pathways. Furthermore, E. kansui compounds activated the translocation of p65, a sub‐unit of nuclear factor kappa‐light‐chain‐enhancer of activated B cells (NF‐κB), to the nucleus and induced NF‐κB at the transcriptional level. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that E. kansui enhances IFN‐γ secretion through the NF‐κB pathway in NK cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T03:44:09.041714-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7380
       
  • Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the
           under‐utilised Prunus mahaleb L. fruit
    • Authors: Federica Blando; Clara Albano, Yazheng Liu, Isabella Nicoletti, Danilo Corradini, Noemi Tommasi, Carmela Gerardi, Giovanni Mita, David D Kitts
      Pages: 2641 - 2649
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The identification of novel plant‐based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). RESULTS We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg−1 fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so‐called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol Trolox equivalents kg−1 FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T11:31:33.457525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7381
       
  • Contributions of long‐term tillage systems on crop production and
           soil properties in the semi‐arid Loess Plateau of China
    • Authors: Yining Niu; Renzhi Zhang, Zhuzhu Luo, Lingling Li, Liqun Cai, Guang Li, Junhong Xie
      Pages: 2650 - 2659
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study determined the long‐term effect of tillage systems on soil properties and crop yields in a semi‐arid environment. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were alternately grown in six tillage systems at Dingxi (35° 28′ N, 104° 44′ E), north‐west China starting in 2001. RESULTS After the first 6 years of experiments, conventional tillage with stubble incorporating (TS) and no‐till with stubble cover (NTS) increased soil organic matter by 9.9% and 13.0%, respectively, compared to the conventional tillage with stubble removed (T); both TS and NTS also increased soil microbial counts, available K and P, and total N. No‐till with stubble removed (NT), NTS and NTP (no‐till with plastic mulching) had 20.7%, 62.6% and 43.7% greater alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the T treatment. Soil catalase, urease and invertase activities were all greater in the no‐till treatments than in the T treatment. Averaged across 6 years, both wheat and pea achieved highest grain yields under NTS treatment. CONCLUSION No‐till with stubble retention is the most promising system for improving soil physical, biological and chemical properties, and increasing crop yields, and thus, this system can be adopted in areas with conditions similar to the semi‐arid north‐west China. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T03:28:41.147106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7382
       
  • Preparation and evaluation of a sustained‐release buckwheat noodle
    • Pages: 2660 - 2667
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Different carbohydrates elicit various effects on the digestibility and the glucose release rate, so it is of interest to develop a sustained‐release noodle based on the combination of different carbohydrates and reveal the sustained‐release mechanism. RESULTS The data obtained suggest that xanthan and konjac gum exhibited excellent and synergistic sustained‐release properties, whereas cornstarch showed the lowest average digestion rate. The sustained release was particularly evident when the noodle consisted of the following components: 50 g of 25 g kg−1 hydrophilic colloid mixture solution composed of a 1:1 mass ratio of xanthan:konjac gum and 100 g of reconstructed flour consisting of 200 g kg−1 buckwheat flour, 400 g kg−1 cornstarch, and 400 g kg−1 plain flour. The morphological structure of noodles revealed that the composite hydrophilic colloids strengthened the interaction between the gluten network and starch granules. This buried starch within the three‐dimensional structure thereby releasing glucose in a slow and sustained way. The most suitable model to describe glucose release from noodles was the Ritger–Peppas equation, which revealed that matrix erosion contributed to the release mechanism. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the controlled use of hydrophilic colloids and starches in manufacturing noodles could modulate the glucose sustained‐release. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T04:41:28.036568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7383
       
  • Decontamination of poultry feed from ochratoxin A by UV and sunlight
           radiations
    • Authors: Gul Ameer Sumbal; Zahid Hussain Shar, Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Sirajuddin, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani, Safaraz Ahmed Mahesar
      Pages: 2668 - 2673
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mycotoxin‐contaminated feed is very dangerous for the growth and even life of poultry. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultra‐violet irradiation for decontamination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in spiked and naturally contaminated poultry feed samples. Spiked and naturally contaminated feed samples were irradiated with ultra‐violet light (UV) at distance of 25 cm over the feed samples. In vitro, the effect of UV intensity (0.1 mW cm−2 at 254 nm UV‐C) on different types of poultry feeds contaminated with OTA was evaluated. The same samples were also irradiated with sunlight and analysed for OTA by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS Poultry feed samples containing 500 µg kg−1 were 100% decontaminated in 180 min with UV radiation while OTA was decreased to 70–95 µg kg−1 using the same poultry feed samples after 8 h sunlight irradiation. Therefore, UV light was found to be more effective. Only 1 h of UV irradiation was found to be sufficient to bring the OTA level to the maximum regulatory limit suggested for poultry feeds (100 µg kg−1), while 8 h were needed to obtain this level using sunlight radiations. CONCLUSION The proposed approach is a viable option to reduce the level of OTA in contaminated poultry feeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-28T04:43:21.706567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7384
       
  • Evaluation of alginate–whey protein microcapsules for intestinal
           delivery of lipophilic compounds in pigs
    • Authors: Yonggang Zhang; Qi C Wang, Hai Yu, Julia Zhu, Kees de Lange, Yulong Yin, Qi Wang, Joshua Gong
      Pages: 2674 - 2681
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In animal care and management, there is an increasing demand for convenient methods of oral delivery of bioactive compounds to specific segments of an animal's gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to test the suitability of microcapsules made with alginate and whey proteins of two different sizes (250 and 800 µm; containing 72 and 76 g kg−1 of carvacrol respectively) for intestinal delivery of carvacrol in pigs. RESULTS Encapsulated carvacrol was completely released from the microcapsules after 5 h incubation in simulated intestinal fluids or 6 h in (ex vivo) ileal digesta, whereas release in simulated gastric fluid was minimal. Tests with growing pigs showed over 95% of unencapsulated carvacrol was absorbed or metabolized in the stomach and the duodenum. Encapsulation effectively minimized carvacrol absorption in the stomach (P < 0.05), and increased carvacrol recovery in the small intestine (P < 0.05). Encapsulated carvacrol was completely released from both small and large size capsules within the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Larger size microcapsules showed a slower in vitro release and greater in vivo recovery of carvacrol in the small intestine (P < 0.05) than the smaller ones. CONCLUSION This study indicates alginate–whey protein microencapsulation is a feasible approach for targeted oral delivery of hydrophobic compounds to pig intestines; increasing capsule size increased delivery of carvacrol to the end of the small intestine. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T09:40:16.612588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7385
       
  • Physico‐chemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory
           profile of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits
    • Pages: 2682 - 2691
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Jujube fruit is eaten mostly fresh, but may be dried (Chinese dates and tea) or processed into confectionary recipes in bread, cakes, compotes, and candy. Given that the quality of jujube available on the market differs on account of various factors such as geographical environment, cultivar, processing conditions, and storage conditions, and that, for consumers, flavour and nutrition properties of jujube represent the major parameters in determining the quality of jujube, the main goal of this study were to determine the main physico‐chemical properties of jujube fruits, sugars and organic acids profiles, protein, mineral constituents, volatile composition and sensory profile of jujube fruits. This would allow breeders to select cultivars with higher levels of nutrients and also enable increasing dietary intake by consumers. RESULTS Investigations showed that jujube fruit weight ranged from 4.8 to 29.3 g fruit−1. Four sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and four organic acids (citric, malic, ascorbic and succinic acids) were identified and quantified by high‐performance liquid chromatography in jujube fruits. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. Fifteen volatiles compounds were found in the aroma profile of jujube fruits (nine were aldehydes, three terpenes, one ester, one ketone and one linear hydrocarbon). CONCLUSION The results showed that Spanish jujube cultivars studied are a good source of vitamin C, and they have a low content of Na. The jujube cultivar with the most appreciated quality by consumers was GAL; the GAL fruits were sweet, crunchy, and had high intensities of jujube ID and apple flavour a long after‐taste. Therefore, jujube grown in Spain has a great potential to be exploited for functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:37:21.19247-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7386
       
  • Characterization of Cu/Zn‐SOD enzyme activities and gene expression
           in soybean under low nitrogen stress
    • Authors: Xiaobo Wang; Haowei Zhang, Yali Gao, Wenming Zhang
      Pages: 2692 - 2697
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays an important role in antioxidant defense in nearly all cells, and is speculated to be closely related to plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, salt, heavy metal and pathogen attack. However, little is known about the effects of SOD activity and its isoenzymes on low nitrogen stress tolerance and its effects on adaptability of plants to nitrogen limitation. RESULTS Ten SOD isoenzymes were identified in soybean root, stem, leaf and mature seed, and were classified into three families (α.1, β.1–4 and γ.1–5). SOD activity was significantly elevated in soybean leaf and root. Conversely, under low‐nitrogen conditions, only β.2 isoenzyme activity, belonging to the Cu/Zn‐SOD family, was induced obviously in the root of soybean cultivar cv. WS01‐15. Moreover, the expression of three Cu/Zn‐SOD genes was analyzed under low nitrogen stress. GmCZ‐SOD1 gene was induced significantly in soybean root under low nitrogen stress. Interestingly, evolutionary analysis showed that this gene underwent a strong artificial selection during soybean domestication, suggesting that the Cu/Zn‐SOD gene plays an essential role in the adaptive evolution of soybean nitrogen limitation resistance. CONCLUSION GmCZ‐SOD is important for adaptability of soybean to nitrogen limitation and these results provide useful information to unravel its biological role in low nitrogen resistance in plants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-22T08:08:26.781337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7387
       
  • Morpho‐physiological evaluation of tomato genotypes under high
           temperature stress conditions
    • Authors: Muhammad R Shaheen; Choudhary M Ayyub, Muhammad Amjad, Ejaz A Waraich
      Pages: 2698 - 2704
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important but heat‐sensitive vegetable crop. The losses in tomato production associated with heat stress are aggravating further under a global warming scenario. The present study was designed to investigate the comparative performance of tomato genotypes under high temperature stress. Tomato genotypes (191) were exposed to the controlled conditions of high temperature (40/32 °C day/night temperature). Different morphological (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and number of leaves), physiological (photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance to water, sub‐stomatal CO2 and leaf temperature) and SPAD value (chlorophyll content) were recorded to check the diversity among genotypes against heat stress. RESULTS All the genotypes showed a significantly variable response in almost all the attributes under high‐temperature conditions. Correlation among the variables provided a clear understanding of the phenomena involved. Based on all the attributes studied, genotypes L00090 and L00091 were found to be the most heat tolerant compared to other genotypes, whereas CLN1462A and CLN 1466E were found to be comparatively sensitive. CONCLUSION It was concluded that the studied attributes were genotype dependent, and significant diverse performance was noted. The findings of this study pave the way towards the selection of tolerant genotypes, not only for use under high‐temperature conditions but also to employ them in breeding programs to produce heat‐tolerant hybrids. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-21T05:24:04.214274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7388
       
  • Load dissipation by corn residue on tilled soil in laboratory and
           field‐wheeling conditions
    • Pages: 2705 - 2714
      Abstract: Crop residues may partially dissipate applied loads and reduce soil compaction. We evaluated the effect of corn residue on energy‐applied dissipation during wheeling. The experiment consisted of a preliminary laboratory test and a confirmatory field test on a Paleaudalf soil. In the laboratory, an adapted Proctor test was performed with three energy levels, with and without corn residue. Field treatments consisted of three 5.1 Mg tractor wheeling intensities (0, 2, and 6), with and without 12 Mg ha−1 corn residue on the soil surface. Corn residue on the soil surface reduced soil bulk density in the adapted Proctor test. By applying energy of 52.6 kN m m−3, soil dissipated 2.98% of applied energy, whereas with 175.4 kN m m−3 a dissipation of 8.60% was obtained. This result confirms the hypothesis that surface mulch absorbs part of the compaction effort. Residue effects on soil compaction observed in the adapted Proctor test was not replicated under subsoiled soil field conditions, because of differences in applied pressure and soil conditions (structure, moisture and volume confinement). Nevertheless, this negative result does not mean that straw has no effect in the field. Such effects should be measured via stress transmission and compared to soil load‐bearing capacity, rather than on bulk deformations. Wheeling by heavy tractor on subsoiled soil increased compaction, independently of surface residue. Two wheelings produced a significantly increase, but six wheelings did not further increase compaction. Reduced traffic intensity on recently tilled soil is necessary to minimize soil compaction, since traffic intensity show a greater effect than surface mulch on soil protection from excessive compaction. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:39:25.217226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7389
       
  • Influence of phosphorus management on melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit
           quality
    • Authors: Maria Martuscelli; Carla Di Mattia, Fabio Stagnari, Stefano Speca, Michele Pisante, Dino Mastrocola
      Pages: 2715 - 2722
      Abstract: BACKGROUND At harvest time, melon quality is related to internal and external parameters, which are very important for consumer attractiveness and marketable yield. Several agronomic factors can affect the quality of melon fruits and among them mineral availability may play a significant role. Therefore the aim of the work was to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertigation on melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) qualitative characteristics, such as fruit size and yield, pulp colour and firmness, aroma and taste, as well as the accumulation of bioactive antioxidant compounds, namely phenols and carotenoids, and their antiradical properties. RESULTS Results allowed us to extrapolate the optimal P doses to be used for melon fertigation, to achieve high yield and fruit quality characteristics. Modelling the optimal P dose allowed us to maximize yield and resulted in around 257 kg P2O5 ha−1, even if the quality indices relating to carotenoid content, texture and colour of the melon flesh were not significantly different between samples fertigated with the two highest levels tested. CONCLUSION It can be assumed that the level of 200 kg P2O5 ha−1 would be a good compromise between optimization of agronomic performance and melon fruit quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-28T04:44:30.887843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7390
       
  • Anti‐adhesion activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract, thyme
           post‐distillation waste, and olive (Olea europea L.) leaf extract
           against Campylobacter jejuni on polystyrene and intestine epithelial cells
           
    • Pages: 2723 - 2730
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In order to survive in food‐processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to the human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. RESULTS Phytochemical analysis of thyme ethanolic extract (TE), thyme post‐hydrodistillation residue (TE‐R), and olive leaf extract (OE) using high‐performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array indicates that the major compounds in TE and TE‐R are flavone glucuronides and rosmarinic acid derivatives, and in OE verbascoside, luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside and oleuroside. TE and TE‐R reduced C. jejuni adhesion to abiotic surfaces by up to 30% at 0.2–12.5 µg mL−1, with TE‐R showing a greater effect. OE from 3.125 to 200 µg mL−1 reduced C. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene by 10–23%. On the other hand, C. jejuni adhesion to PSI cl1 cells was inhibited by almost 30% over a large concentration range of these extracts. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that TE, the agro‐food waste material TE‐R, and the by‐product OE represent sources of bioactive phytochemicals that are effective at low concentrations and can be used as therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial adhesion. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:41:14.247392-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7391
       
  • Looseness in bovine leather: microstructural characterization
    • Authors: Hannah C Wells; Geoff Holmes, Richard G Haverkamp
      Pages: 2731 - 2736
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A substantial proportion of bovine leather production may be of poor quality, with the leather suffering from a characteristic known as looseness. This defect results in a poor visual appearance and greatly reduced value. The structural mechanism of looseness is not well understood. RESULTS Samples of loose and tight bovine leather are characterized using small‐angle X‐ray scattering, ultrasonic imaging, and electron microscopy. The density of fibre packing and orientation of the fibrils are analysed. Tensile strength is also measured. Loose leather is characterized by more highly aligned collagen fibrils. This results in a weaker connection between the layers. There is a looser packing of the fibres in loose leather than in tight leather, with more gaps between fibre bundles, particularly in a region in the lower grain. This region is visible with in situ ultrasonic imaging. Loose leather has a higher tensile strength than tight leather. CONCLUSION While a high degree of collagen fibril alignment is normally associated with strong leather, it has been shown that too much alignment results in loose leather. Understanding the physical basis of looseness is the first step in identifying looseness in hides and learning how to prevent looseness from developing during leather manufacture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T07:05:48.338294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7392
       
  • In ovo trace element supplementation enhances expression of growth genes
           in embryo and immune genes in post‐hatch broiler chickens
    • Authors: Akshat Goel; Subrat K Bhanja, Manish Mehra, Asitbaran Mandal, Veena Pande
      Pages: 2737 - 2745
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Differential expression of growth‐ and immunity‐related genes and post‐hatch performances were evaluated in in ovo zinc (Zn), iodine (I) or selenium (Se) supplemented chicken embryos. RESULT There was about 9–18% reduction in hatchability of Zn, I or Se supplemented eggs. In ovo trace element supplementation did not improve post‐hatch growth. Two‐way analysis of data revealed significant effect (P > 0.01) of period, trace elements and their interactions. Expression of hepatic somatotropin, insulin‐like growth factor‐II and mucin gene was highest at 20th embryonic day but decreased during post‐hatch periods. In ovo Zn or I supplemented embryos had higher expression of growth‐related genes compared to the Se or un‐injected control group. Expression of interleukin‐6 was higher (P < 0.01) in in ovo I supplemented chicks (2.5‐fold) but lower in the Zn and Se groups than in the un‐injected control group. However, Zn and Se supplemented chicks had higher cellular immune gene expression. In vivo response to mitogen phytohaemaglutinin was also higher (P < 0.01) in Zn or Se supplemented chicks CONCLUSION In ovo supplementation of Zn, I and Se did not improve the post‐hatch growth, but increased growth‐related gene expression. Iodine improved humoral immune gene expression whereas Zn and Se enhanced cell‐mediated immune gene expression in broiler chickens. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T06:43:25.843803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7438
       
  • Effect of drought stress on the development of endosperm starch granules
           and the composition and physicochemical properties of starches from soft
           and hard wheat
    • Authors: Xurun Yu; Bo Li, Leilei Wang, Xinyu Chen, Wenjun Wang, Yunjie Gu, Zhong Wang, Fei Xiong
      Pages: 2746 - 2754
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to: (1) observe the effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (2) investigate the effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; and (3) compare the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. RESULTS DS resulted in large A‐type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B‐type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000‐grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose‐to‐amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B‐type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A‐type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α‐amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinised, and retrograded starches. CONCLUSION Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T11:16:50.358964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7439
       
  • Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance
           shelf life during storage
    • Pages: 2755 - 2763
      Abstract: BACKROUND Eggs have long been recognised as a source of high‐quality proteins. Many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment, which is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces in the food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 min during storage for 6 weeks at 24 °C. The effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs is also reported. RESULTS Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 min can be applied to fresh eggs and extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24 °C storage period. CONCLUSION Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results in maintaining internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) caused a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone treatments of 2, and especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-20T05:05:58.449412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7440
       
  • Antioxidant properties of salmon (Salmo salar L.) protein fraction
           hydrolysates revealed following their ex vivo digestion and in vitro
           hydrolysis
    • Pages: 2764 - 2772
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salmon (Salmo salar L.) myofibryllar protein (MP) and sarcoplasmic protein (SP) were digested with human gastric and duodenal juices and hydrolysed in vitro with commercial pepsin and Corolase PP. RESULTS The digestion after duodenal juice/Corolase PP caused almost complete breakdown of peptide bonds in MP and SP. The DPPH• scavenging activity of proteins decreased during both ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis. The highest value of DPPH• scavenging activity was shown for the gastric digest of SP (8.88 ± 0.87%). The ABTS+• scavenging activity of MP and SP increased during digestion/hydrolysis. The duodenal digest of SP was characterised by the highest value of ABTS+• scavenging activity (72.7 ± 1.2%). In turn, the highest value of ferric‐reducing power was determined for the gastric digest of SP (84.8 ± 0.2%). Salmon antioxidant peptides Phe‐Ile‐Lys‐Lys, His‐Leu, Ile‐Tyr, Pro‐His‐Leu, Pro‐Trp, Val‐Pro‐Trp were identified in both ex vivo digested and in vitro hydrolysed MP and SP. An antioxidant peptide, Val‐Tyr, was additionally detected in the in vitro hydrolysate of SP. CONCLUSION The results indicate the salmon myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions as potential sources of antioxidant peptides that could be released in the gastrointestinal tract but their amino acid sequence and quantification vary. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-24T10:54:07.561094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7441
       
  • Physico‐chemical and microbiological characterisation of Italian
           fermented sausages in relation to their size
    • Authors: Giulia Tabanelli; Eleonora Bargossi, Aldo Gardini, Rosalba Lanciotti, Rudy Magnani, Fausto Gardini, Chiara Montanari
      Pages: 2773 - 2781
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to study the physico‐chemical and microbiological parameters of 10 Italian fermented sausages, produced industrially, in order to highlight the differences in relation to their size. The sausages were classified as small, medium and large and the data concerning every feature considered were analysed with some statistical explorative tools: ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). RESULTS Significant differences in relation to the sausage size were found regarding microbial populations (in particular, enterobacteria and staphylococci). The pH was higher in the small sausages, and consequently the presence of lactate and acetate was higher in the bigger one. Also the biogenic amine content (particularly tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine) was influenced by the size. CONCLUSIONS In spite of the extreme variability of the sausage types at the end of ripening, this work showed that it was possible to find a strict relationship between sausages diameter and some essential physico‐chemical parameters. Thus, the cross‐sectional size of the product is an essential parameter, which can drive the biochemical processes during ripening, not only by affecting the kinetics of water losses, but also by influencing the microbiota enzymatic activity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T11:13:03.231415-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7442
       
  • Stability of flavoured phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts during
           storage as affected by different packaging materials
    • Pages: 2782 - 2787
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different packaging materials on storage stability of flavoured phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts. White vanilla (WV) and blood orange (BO) phytosterol‐enriched drinking yogurts conditioned in mono‐layer and triple‐layer co‐extruded plastic bottles were stored at +6 ± 1 °C for 35 days (under alternating 12 h light and 12 h darkness) to simulate shelf‐life conditions. Samples were collected at three different storage times and subjected to determination of total sterol content (TSC), peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). RESULTS TSC was not significantly affected by packaging material or storage time and met the quantity declared on the label. PV was significantly influenced by yogurt type × packaging material × storage time interaction and TBARs by packaging material × storage time interaction. CONCLUSION Between the two packaging materials, the triple‐layer plastic mini bottle with black coloured and completely opaque intermediate layer offered the best protection against lipid oxidation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T11:14:33.534358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7443
       
  • Strain selection and medium optimization for glucoamylase production from
           industrial potato waste by Aspergillus niger
    • Authors: Gulten Izmirlioglu; Ali Demirci
      Pages: 2788 - 2795
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Glucoamylase is one of the most common enzymes used in the food industry to break down starch into its monomers. Glucoamylase production and its activity are highly dependent on medium composition. Starch is well known as a glucoamylase inducer, and utilization of industrial starchy potato waste is an inexpensive way of improving glucoamylase production. Since glucoamylase production is highly dependent on medium composition, in this study medium optimization for glucoamylase production was considered to enhance glucoamylase activity. RESULTS Among the evaluated microbial species, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was found to be the best glucoamylase‐producing fungus. The Plackett–Burman design was used to screen various medium ingredients, and malt extract, FeSO4.7H2O and CaCl2·2H2O were found to have significant effects on glucoamylase production. Finally, malt extract, FeSO4.7H2O and CaCl2.2H2O were optimized by using a central composite design of response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal medium composition for A. niger van Tieghem was 50 g L−1 industrial waste potato mash supplemented with 51.82 g L−1 malt extract, 9.27 g L−1 CaCl2·2H2O and 0.50 g L−1 FeSO4.7H2O. CONCLUSION At the end of optimization, glucoamylase activity and glucose production were improved 126% and 98% compared to only industrial waste potato mash basal medium; 274.4 U mL−1 glucoamylase activity and 41.7 g L−1 glucose levels were achieved, respectively. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-29T05:37:41.722581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7445
       
  • Effects of soaking and acidification on physicochemical properties of
           calcium‐fortified rice
    • Authors: Porntip Sirisoontaralak; Pailin Limboon, Sujitra Jatuwong, Arusa Chavanalikit
      Pages: 2796 - 2804
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Calcium‐fortified rice was prepared by soaking milled rice in calcium lactate solution, steaming and drying, and physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate effects of calcium concentration (0, 30, 50 g L−1), soaking temperature (ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C) and acidification. RESULTS Calcium‐fortified rice had less lightness. More total solid loss was observed, especially at high soaking temperature. Harder texture was detected with increased calcium concentration. Calcium fortification lowered pasting viscosity of milled rice. Panelists accepted all fortified rice; however, only rice soaked at 50 g L−1 concentration could be claimed as a good source of calcium. Increasing of soaking temperature induced more penetration of calcium to rice kernels but calcium was lost more easily after washing. With addition of acetic acid to the soaking solution, enriched calcium content was comparable to that of high soaking temperature but with better retention after washing and calcium solubility was improved. Acid induced reduction of lightness and cooked rice hardness but increased total solid loss and pasting viscosity. Although the taste of acetic acid remained, panelists still accepted the fortified rice. CONCLUSION Calcium‐fortified rice (190.47–194.3 mg 100 g−1) could be successfully produced by soaking milled rice in 50 g L−1 calcium lactate solution at 40 °C or at ambient temperature with acidification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-09-30T07:29:02.128872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7447
       
  • Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut
           (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by
           HPLC
    • Authors: Suellen Gomes; Alexandre G Torres
      Pages: 2805 - 2814
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by‐product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. RESULTS The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved under the following conditions: ethanol–water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization; and 1 h extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4‐dihydroxybenzoic acid, p‐hydroxybenzoic acid, p‐coumaric acid and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)‐catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg−1. CONCLUSION Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-15T10:35:23.434425-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7448
       
  • Drying of restructured chips made from the old stalks of Asparagus
           officinalis: impact of different drying methods
    • Authors: Zhenbin Liu; Min Zhang, Yuchuan Wang
      Pages: 2815 - 2824
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Old stalks of Asparagus officinalis, which account for one third of the total length of each spear, are always discarded as waste. To make full use of the resource, a kind of restructured Asparagus officinalis chip was made. The effects of pulse‐spouted microwave‐assisted vacuum drying (PSMVD), microwave‐assisted vacuum drying (MVD) and vacuum drying (VD) on texture, color and other quality parameters of restructured chips were then studied to obtain high‐quality dried chips. RESULTS Results indicated that the drying time was significantly affected by drying methods, and PSMVD had much better drying uniformity than MVD. The expansion ratio and crispness of chips increased with increasing microwave power and vacuum degree. The browning reaction of samples in VD was more serious, which was confirmed by the results of color test and electronic nose. CONCLUSIONS The PSMVD drying method showed much better drying uniformity than MVD. The dried chips obtained by PSMVD showed optimal quality and were more readily accepted by consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T06:49:12.881202-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7449
       
  • Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape
           tannins
    • Authors: Kenneth J Olejar; Sudip Ray, Paul A Kilmartin
      Pages: 2825 - 2831
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A natural antioxidant derived from an agro‐waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high‐density polyethylene, linear low‐density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. RESULTS Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin–grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. CONCLUSION Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro‐waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T11:28:41.863536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7450
       
  • Isolation of cytotoxic diterpenoids from the Chilean medicinal plant
           Azorella compacta Phil from the Atacama Desert by high‐speed
           counter‐current chromatography
    • Pages: 2832 - 2838
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Azorella compacta (Apiaceae) is a native Chilean cushion shrub which produces a resin containing mulinane and azorellane diterpenoids. This plant has been used since pre‐Colombian times to treat inflammation and dental neuralgias. In this work the first preparative fractionation of diterpenoids present in this plant by means of high‐speed counter‐current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied, and cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated for the first time against a panel of MCF7 cells. RESULTS The major compounds isolated were identified by means of spectroscopy as azorellanol, 13α, 14α‐dihydroxymulin‐11‐en‐20‐oic acid, mulinolic acid, mulin‐11,13‐dien‐20‐oic acid, 17‐acetoxy‐mulin‐11,13‐dien‐20 oic acid, and 17‐acetoxy‐mulinic acid (compounds 7, 9–11 and 13, respectively), and four minor diterpenoids [7‐deacetyl‐azorellanol (6), 13‐epi‐azorellanol, 7‐acetoxy‐mulin‐9,12‐diene, and 17‐acetoxy‐mulin‐11,13‐dien‐20‐oic acid (compounds 4, 8 and 12)], together with three new minor diterpenoids: 13β,14β‐dihydroxymulin‐11‐en‐20‐oic acid (1), 13‐epiazorellanone (2) and 13‐epi‐7‐deacetyl‐azorellanol (3) were identified. Besides, compounds 4, 6, 7, 8 and 11 displayed good cytotoxic activity (less than 50% cell viability at 100 µM). Among them, compound 7, an acetylated azorellane, was the most active. CONCLUSIONS HSCCC allowed the isolation of 13 diterpenoids present in A. compacta. Three compounds are reported for the first time. Isolated azorellanes are more potent cytotoxic agents than are mulinanes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T11:30:23.493799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7451
       
  • The effect of ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides on iron deficiency
           and intestinal flora in rats
    • Pages: 2839 - 2844
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chelating agents, such as small peptides, can decrease free iron content and increase iron bioavailability. They may have promising therapeutic potential and may prevent the pro‐oxidant effects of low molecular weight iron. Hairtail is a species of fish that is rich in easily digestible proteins. We extended this strategy for iron delivery by using an enzymatic hydrolysate of hairtail as the chelating agent and found that the ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides have anti‐anaemic activity in Sprague–Dawley rats with anaemia. RESULTS The anti‐anaemic activity of ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of the hairtail and ferrous chelation was studied in rat models of iron deficiency anaemia. After the end of the 35 d experiment, we noted significant differences in haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin distribution width, and ferritin concentrations between those animals supplemented with ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides and FeSO4 and healthy animals. There were no negative side effects on the animals' growth or behaviour. There was no obvious inflammation in the intestinal mucosa lamina propria and no unbalance of intestinal flora. CONCLUSION The novel ferrous‐chelating hairtail peptides may be a suitable fortificant for improving iron‐deficiency status. Our findings demonstrated that this multi‐tracer technique has many applications in nutritional research. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T10:53:36.971808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7452
       
  • Sugar and phenol content in apple with or without watercore
    • Pages: 2845 - 2850
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Watercore is a physiological disorder affecting fruit of some apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars. Intercellular spaces are filled with fluid, which reduces intercellular air space volume. In this study individual phenolic content, sugars and organic acids in watercore affected flesh have been identified and quantified. Peroxidase activity was also measured, as a potential stress indicator. The study was performed on three cultivars prone to watercore development ‘Delicious’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Fuji’. RESULTS Total phenolic content was higher in flesh of fruit without watercore in all three cultivars, which was mainly due to higher individual and total flavanol content. In contrast, total and individual dihydrochalcone content was higher in watercore flesh, where it was up to 2.4 times higher from the flesh of fruit without watercore. Also, peroxidase activity was higher in watercore flesh. CONCLUSION Higher peroxidase activity and total and individual dihydrochalcone content leads us to believe that oxidative stress occurred. These results show that watercore has an influence on apple fruit sugar and phenol content even before any visual signs of internal breakdown and browning. With the development of non‐destructive techniques for phenol content determination, the knowledge about phenolic changes in watercore affected fruits could aid with apple fruit sorting. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T04:40:40.24583-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7453
       
  • Effect of postharvest ultraviolet‐C treatment on the proteome
           changes in fresh cut mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan)
    • Authors: Dominic Soloman George; Zuliana Razali, Vicknesha Santhirasegaram, Chandran Somasundram
      Pages: 2851 - 2860
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Postharvest treatments of fruits using techniques such as ultraviolet‐C have been linked with maintenance of the fruit quality as well as shelf‐life extension. However, the effects of this treatment on the quality of fruits on a proteomic level remain unclear. This study was conducted in order to understand the response of mango fruit to postharvest UV‐C irradiation. RESULTS Approximately 380 reproducible spots were detected following two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis. Through gel analysis, 24 spots were observed to be differentially expressed in UV‐C treated fruits and 20 were successfully identified via LCMS/MS. Postharvest UV‐C treatment resulted in degradative effects on these identified proteins of which 40% were related to stress response, 45% to energy and metabolism and 15% to ripening and senescence. In addition, quality and shelf‐life analysis of control and irradiated mangoes was evaluated. UV‐C was found to be successful in retention of quality and extension of shelf‐life up to 15 days. Furthermore, UV‐C was also successful in increasing antioxidants (total flavonoid, reducing power and ABTS scavenging activity) in mangoes. CONCLUSION This study provides an overview of the effects of UV‐C treatment on the quality of mango on a proteomic level as well as the potential of this treatment in shelf‐life extension of fresh‐cut fruits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T04:53:25.528806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7454
       
  • Authentication of the origin of sucrose‐based sugar products using
           quantitative natural abundance 13C NMR
    • Authors: Yulia B Monakhova; Bernd WK Diehl
      Pages: 2861 - 2866
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to possible falsification of sugar cane products with cheaper alternative (sugar beet) on the market, a simple analytical methodology needs to be developed to control the authenticity of sugar products. RESULTS A direct 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method has been validated to differentiate between sucrose‐based sugar products produced from sugar beet (C3 plant) and sugar cane (C4 plant). The method is based on calculating relative 13C content of the C1, C2, C5, and the C1, C4, C5, C6 positions of the glycosyl and fructosyl moieties of the sucrose molecule, respectively. NMR acquisition parameters and data processing have been optimized to reach a high level of intraday and interday precision (
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T07:38:10.644444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7456
       
  • Rapid and sensitive screening of some acidic micronutrients in infant
           foods by HPLC with fluorescent detector
    • Authors: Guoliang Li; Weiheng Kong, Guangsen Fan, Wenli Wang, Na Hu, Guang Chen, Xianen Zhao, Jinmao You
      Pages: 2867 - 2873
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Currently, commercially prepared complementary foods have become an important part of the diet of many infants and toddlers. But the method for simultaneous analysis of different types of micronutrient remains poorly investigated, which hinders the rapid and comprehensive quality control of infant foods. In the presented study, we first tried to employ the fluorescence labeling strategy combined with high‐performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection for simultaneous determination of some acidic micronutrients including biotin, nicotinic acid, linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in infant foods. RESULTS 2‐(5‐Benzoacridine) ethyl‐p‐toluenesulfonate was used as the fluorescence labeling reagent for simultaneous labeling of the seven components. The labeling conditions were optimized systematically by response surface methodology. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves of the tested compounds ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9998. Limits of detection were in the range of 1.99–3.05 nmol L−1. Relative standard deviation values of retention time and peak area of seven compounds were less than 0.05% and 0.75%, respectively. The intra‐ and inter‐day precision was in the range of 1.81–3.80% and 3.21‐4.30%, respectively. When applied to analysis of several infant foods it showed good applicability. CONCLUSION The developed method has been proven to be simple, inexpensive, selective, sensitive, accurate and reliable for analysis of some acidic micronutrients in infant foodstuffs. Furthermore, this developed method also has powerful potential in the analysis of many other complementary foodstuffs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-15T10:33:59.468299-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7457
       
  • Simultaneous decontamination and drying of rough rice using combined
           pulsed light and holding treatment
    • Pages: 2874 - 2881
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pulsed light (PL) technology has been proven effective in food disinfection. However, increasing the light intensity or treatment time could swiftly increase the temperature of the food product. Using the thermal effect in an appropriate way may achieve a simultaneous disinfection and drying effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous disinfection and drying of rough rice using PL and holding treatment. RESULTS Freshly harvested rice samples were inoculated by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and treated using PL under different intensities and durations followed by holding treatment. The PL treatment under intensity of 1.08 W cm−2 for 21 s led to a reduction of 0.29 log cfu g−1 on the population size of A. flavus spores. After holding treatment, a 5.2 log cfu g−1 reduction was achieved. The corresponding total moisture removal reached 3.3% points. No adverse effect on milling quality was detected after the treatment. CONCLUSION The obtained results revealed that the combined PL and holding treatment had good potential for successful application in the rice industry to simultaneously achieve disinfection and drying. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-13T02:44:17.206353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7458
       
  • Quality changes of cuttlefish stored under various atmosphere
           modifications and vacuum packaging
    • Authors: Achilleas D Bouletis; Ioannis S Arvanitoyannis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Christos Neofitou, Foteini F Parlapani, Dimitrios C Gkagtzis
      Pages: 2882 - 2888
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seafood preservation and its shelf life prolongation are two of the main issues in the seafood industry. As a result, and in view of market globalization, research has been triggered in this direction by applying several techniques such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging (VP) and active packaging (AP). However, seafood such as octopus, cuttlefish and others have not been thoroughly investigated up to now. The aim of this research was to determine the optimal conditions of modified atmosphere under which cuttlefish storage time and consequently shelf life time could be prolonged without endangering consumer safety. RESULTS It was found that cuttlefish shelf life reached 2, 2, 4, 8 and 8 days for control, VP, MAP 1, MAP 2 and MAP 3 (20% CO2‐80% N2, 50% CO2‐50% N2 and 70% CO2‐30% N2 for MAP 1, 2 and 3, respectively) samples, respectively, judging by their sensorial attributes. Elevated CO2 levels had a strong microbiostatic effect, whereas storage under vacuum did not offer significant advantages. All physicochemical attributes of MAP‐treated samples were better preserved compared to control. CONCLUSION Application of high CO2 atmospheres such as MAP 2 and MAP 3 proved to be an effective strategy toward preserving the characteristics and prolonging the shelf life of fresh cuttlefish and thereby improving its potential in the market. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-13T02:43:48.958431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7459
       
  • Cinnamon intake reduces serum T3 level and modulates tissue‐specific
           expression of thyroid hormone receptor and target genes in rats
    • Pages: 2889 - 2895
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cinnamon has several effects on energy metabolism. However, no data exist on the impact of cinnamon intake on thyroid hormone serum concentrations and action, since thyroid hormones (THs) play a major role in metabolism. RESULTS Male rats were treated with cinnamon water extract (400 mg kg−1 body weight, 25 days). Cinnamon supplementation resulted in a lower serum total T3 level accompanied by normal serum T4 and TSH levels. The cinnamon‐treated rats did not exhibit significant differences in TSHβ subunit, TRβ or deiodinase type 2 mRNA expression in the pituitary. In the liver, cinnamon did not change the TRβ protein expression or the deiodinase type 1 mRNA expression, suggesting that there were no changes in T3 signaling or metabolism in this organ. However, mitochondrial GPDH, a target gene for T3 in the liver, exhibited no changes in mRNA expression, although its activity level was reduced by cinnamon. In the cardiac ventricle, T3 action was markedly reduced by cinnamon, as demonstrated by the lower TRα mRNA and protein levels, reduced SERCA2a and RyR2 and increased phospholamban mRNA expression. CONCLUSION This study has revealed that TH action is a novel target of cinnamon, demonstrating impairment of T3 signaling in the cardiac ventricles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T06:40:06.136351-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7460
       
  • Chemical composition, nutritional value and in vitro starch digestibility
           of roasted chickpeas
    • Pages: 2896 - 2905
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chickpea is considered a wholesome and nutritious food due to its nutritional properties and glycemic response. Such properties can be influenced by the thermal treatment used to cook this legume and produce a snack named leblebi. From the consumers' point of view, it is desirable to improve texture and palatability of the chickpea by the processing steps used to make leblebi. However, consumers are increasingly concerned with the nutritional value of snack foods. RESULTS Nutritional components and digestibility properties of single and double heat‐treated chickpea, single and double roasted leblebi and white leblebi were studied. High sodium, starch damage and soluble dietary fiber content were observed in white leblebi; while the other samples showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher insoluble dietary fiber content. Heat treatment and processing significantly (P < 0.05) altered the viscosity and starch properties of the samples. High resistant starch content (28.28% to 30.20%) and low estimated glycemic index (38.67 to 41.28) in heat‐treated chickpeas and roasted leblebi were observed. CONCLUSION The results indicate that heat‐treated chickpea and roasted leblebi have good nutritional quality and low glycemic response. White leblebi had relatively high sodium content and glycemic response. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-16T05:12:56.368063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7461
       
  • Within‐season yield prediction with different nitrogen inputs under
           rain‐fed condition using CERES‐Wheat model in the northwest of
           China
    • Authors: Zhengpeng Li; Mingdan Song, Hao Feng, Ying Zhao
      Pages: 2906 - 2916
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Yield prediction within season is of great use to improve agricultural risk management and decision making. The objectives of this study were to access the yield forecast performance with increasing nitrogen inputs and to determine when the acceptable predicted yield can be achieved using the CERES‐Wheat model. RESULTS the calibrated model simulated wheat yield very well under various water and nitrogen conditions. Long‐term simulation demonstrated that nitrogen input enlarged the annual variability of wheat yield generally. Within‐season yield prediction showed that, regardless of nitrogen inputs, yield forecasts in the later growing season improved the accuracy and reduced the uncertainty of yield prediction. In a low‐yielding year (2011–2012) and a high‐yielding year (1991–1992), the date of acceptable predicted yield was achieved 62 and 65 days prior to wheat maturity, respectively. In a normal‐yielding year (1983–1984), inadequate precipitation after the jointing stage in most historical years led to the underestimation of wheat yield and the date of accurate yield prediction was delayed to 235–250 days after simulation (7–22 days prior to maturity) for different N inputs. CONCLUSION Yield prediction was highly influenced by the distribution of meteorological elements during the growing season and may show great improvement if future weather can be reliably forecast early. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T08:54:38.001783-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7467
       
  • Extraction, partial purification and characterisation of vanillic acid
           decarboxylase from Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3923
    • Authors: Rui Cai; Dongyu Li, Yahong Yuan, Zhouli Wang, Chunfeng Guo, Bin Liu, Tianli Yue
      Pages: 2925 - 2931
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vanillic acid decarboxylase (VAD) is the key enzyme responsible for guaiacol production in Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris; however, information related to this enzyme is currently unavailable. The aim of this study is to characterise the VAD from A. acidoterrestris. RESULTS Specific activity of VAD in vanillic acid‐induced A. acidoterrestris DSM 3923 cells was highest in the early stage of the log phase, and almost undetectable in the stationary and death phases. Of the four techniques used to extract VAD, sonication was found to be the most effective and recovered 3.23 U mg−1 of VAD. Through optimisation of the crucial parameters for sonication, the recovery of VAD had more than doubled (6.81 U mg−1). The crude enzyme extract was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a 9.87‐fold purification was obtained. The partially purified VAD exhibited optimum activity at pH 6.0–6.5, 45°C and was stable at pH 5.0–7.5, 20–45°C. The Km and Vmax values of the VAD were 0.53 mmol L−1 and 96 U mg−1 protein, respectively. VAD activity was stimulated by Co2+ and Mn2+, but was inhibited by Ni2+, Cu2+, Ba2+ and Fe3+. Cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin and rutin at the concentration of 1 mmol L−1 could completely inhibit the activity of VAD. CONCLUSION The present study provides the first report on the characteristics of the VAD from A. acidoterrestris, which will contribute to the development of more effective control methods to minimise A. acidoterrestris‐related spoilage in fruit juices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-10-01T11:33:41.157473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7455
       
 
 
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