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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.822]   [H-I: 100]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Tracking the behavior of Maillard browning in lysine/arginine-sugar model
           systems under high hydrostatic pressure
    • Authors: Xiao-juan Ma; Jin-yan Gao, Ping Tong, Xin Li, Hong-bing Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh pressure processing is gaining popularity in the food industry. However, its effect on the Maillard reaction during high pressure-assisted pasteurization and sterilization process is not well documented. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the Maillard reaction during these processes, using amino acid (lysine or arginine)-sugar (glucose or fructose) solution models.RESULTSHigh pressure retarded the intermediate and final stages of the Maillard reaction in the lysine-sugar model, and for lysine-glucose model, degradation rate of Amadori compounds was decelerated. Meanwhile, acceleration was observed in the arginine-sugar model. Increased temperature not only accelerated the Maillard reaction over time, but also formed fluorescent compounds with different emission wavelengths. Lysine reacted with the sugars more readily than arginine under the same conditions. In addition, it is easier for lysine to react with glucose, whereas arginine reacted more readily with fructose under high pressure.CONCLUSIONSHigh pressure exerts different effects on lysine-sugar and arginine-sugar models.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:26:37.340481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8398
  • Oxidative behavior of (+)-catechin in the presence of inactive dry yeasts:
           A comparison with sulfur dioxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione
    • Authors: Piergiorgio Comuzzo; Rosanna Toniolo, Franco Battistutta, Marion Lizee, Rossella Svigelj, Roberto Zironi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe antioxidant capacity of an inactive dry yeast preparation (YD) was investigated by conventional analytical methods (spectrophotometry, HPLC) as well as by cyclic voltammetry (CV), in a (+)-catechin model wine and compared with certain of the most common antioxidants found in wine: sulfur dioxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione.RESULTSSulfur dioxide (SO2) was the highest performing substance in protecting (+)-catechin against browning, followed by ascorbic acid and the YD preparation. Sulfites were the only antioxidant whose activity was clearly detectable in the model wines after 29 days of storage. Voltammetric studies demonstrated that the antioxidant capacity of the products tested was connected to their intrinsic characteristics and their molar concentrations (catechin/antioxidant molar ratio).CONCLUSIONThe YD preparation displayed a certain ability to protect polyphenols against browning. The antioxidant activity of YDs towards (+)-catechin appeared to be based on different mechanisms with respect to that of the other products tested: the insoluble portion of these preparations (cell wall residues) might have a non-negligible role, even if the ability of YDs to release compounds able to suppress oxidation cannot be rejected. The direct comparison of the different antioxidants led to interesting indications, concerning their mechanism of action in wine-like solution, depending on their concentration and intrinsic characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:12:18.98468-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8397
  • Hypoglycemic effect of hawthorn in type II diabetes mellitus rat model
    • Authors: Aili Aierken; Tina Buchholz, Chen Chen, Xiaoying Zhang, Matthias F Melzig
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHawthorn is a popular herb in many different traditional medicine systems, including traditional Chinese medicine, where it has long been used for the treatment of hyperglycemia. However, most of its varied biological activities remain unexplored. This study investigated the hypoglycemic effect of hawthorn extracts in type II diabetic (T2DM) rat model. A total of 54 rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group; type II diabetic model group (T2DM; these rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin); high, middle and low concentrations of hawthorn treatment (HTH, HTM and HTL T2DM rats were given hawthorn extract at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively); and positive control group (orlistat 40 mg kg−1 body weight).RESULTSTriglyceride and total cholesterol serum levels were lower in the hawthorn extract-treated groups than in the T2DM control group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, hawthorn extracts decreased blood glucose level and increased plasma insulin release from pancreas.CONCLUSIONPositive effects of hawthorn against streptozotocin-induced T2DM were demonstrated. This study suggests that hawthorn extract represents a useful agent for the prevention or treatment of T2DM. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T01:30:40.167056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8323
  • Nutrient retention values and cooking yield factors for three South
           African lamb and mutton cuts
    • Authors: Salomina M. van Heerden; Phillip E. Strydom
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNutrient content of raw and cooked foods is important for formulation healthy diets. The retention of nutrients during cooking can be influenced by various factors including animal age, carcass characteristics and cooking method and these factors are often unique to specific countries. We studied the effects of animal age (lamb and mutton), carcass cut (shoulder, loin and leg) combined with cooking method (moist-heat and dry-heat) on yield and nutrient retention of selected nutrients of South African sheep carcasses.RESULTSCooking yields and moisture retention were lower for lamb loin but higher for lamb leg. Energy and fat retention were higher for all cuts of mutton compared to lamb, while higher retention values for cholesterol were recorded for lamb. Mutton retained more iron (P = 0.10) and zinc and also more vitamin B2, B6 and B12 than lamb. Shoulder cooked according to moist-heat cooking method retained more magnesium, potassium and sodium.CONCLUSIONSIncorporating these retention and yield values into the South African Medical Research Council's Food Composition Tables provides a reliable reference to all concerned with nutrient content of food. It will also guide practitioners and primary industry to adjust animal production aimed at optimum nutrient content to specific diets.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T21:56:06.652567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8396
  • Celluclast 1.5L pretreatment enhanced aroma of palm kernels and oil after
           kernel roasting
    • Authors: Wencan Zhang; Fangju Zhao, Tiankui Yang, Feifei Zhao, Shaoquan Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO) affects its applications. Little information is available on how enzymatic modification of palm kernels (PK) affects PK and PKO aroma after kernel roasting.RESULTSCelluclast (cellulase) pretreatment of PK resulted in a 2.4-fold increment in the concentration of soluble sugars, with glucose being increased by 6-fold. Higher levels of 1.7-, 1.8- and 1.9-fold of O-heterocyclic volatile compounds were found in the treated PK after roasting at 180 °C for 8 min, 14 min and 20 min, respectively, relative to the corresponding control, with furfural, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2-furanmethanol and maltol with particularly higher amounts. Volatile differences between PKOs from control and treated PK were also found, though less obvious due to the aqueous extraction process. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on aroma-active compounds revealed that upon the proceeding of roasting, the differentiation between control and treated PK was enlarged while that of corresponding PKOs being less clear-cut. Celluclast pretreatment enabled the medium roasted PK to impart more nutty, roasty and caramelic odour, and the corresponding PKO to impart more caramelic but less roasty and burnt notes.CONCLUSIONCelluclast pretreatment of PK followed by roasting may be a promising new way of improving PKO aroma.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T21:15:36.555412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8394
  • Synergistic use of biochar, compost and plant growth promoting
           rhizobacteria for enhancing cucumber growth under water deficit conditions
    • Authors: Sajid M. Nadeem; Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Y. Khan, Maqshoof Ahmad, Zahir A. Zahir, David E. Crowley
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLimited information is available about effectiveness of biochar with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and compost. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar in combination with compost and PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) for alleviating water deficit stress. The inoculated and un-inoculated cucumber seeds were sown in soil treated with biochar, compost and biochar + compost. Three water levels [field capacity (D0), 75% field capacity (D1) and 50% field capacity (D2)] were maintained.RESULTSThe results showed that water deficit stress significantly suppressed the growth of cucumber, however, synergistic use of biochar, compost and PGPR mitigated the negative impact of stress. At D2, the synergistic use of biochar, compost and PGPR caused significant increases in shoot length, shoot biomass, root length and root biomass that were 88, 77, 89 and 74% more than un-inoculated control respectively. Significant improvements in chlorophyll and relative water contents as well as reduction in leaf electrolyte leakage demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. Moreover, the highest population of P. fluorescens was observed where biochar and compost were applied together.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that application of biochar with PGPR and/or compost could be an effective strategy for enhancing plant growth under stress.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T20:40:33.170478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8393
  • Potential use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) stover treated with
           white-rot fungi as rabbit feed
    • Authors: Ederson Andrade; Victor Pinheiro, Alexandre Gonçalves, John W Cone, Guilhermina Marques, Valéria Silva, Luis Ferreira, Miguel Rodrigues
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. In this way, treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungi to upgrade the nutritive value of cowpea stover for rabbits feeding.RESULTSThere was an increase in the crude protein content of all substrates as a result of fungi treatments reaching a net gain of 13% for Pleurotus citrinopileatus incubation. Overall, net losses of dry and organic matter occurred during fungi treatments. Although the fiber content remained identical, higher consumption of cell wall contents was measured for P. citrinopileatus incubation (between 40 to 45%). The incubation period did not influence lignin degradation for any of the fungi treatments. Differences within the fungi degradation mechanisms indicate that P. citrinopileatus treatment was the most effective treatment enhancing in vitro organic matter digestibility to an increase of around 30% when compared to the control.CONCLUSIONTreatment of cowpea stover with P. citrinopileatus led to an efficient delignification process, which resulted in higher in vitro organic matter digestibility showing its potential in the nutritional valorisation of this feedstuff.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T03:50:30.89593-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8395
  • Effect of a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
           (LipiGo®) in body weight loss: randomised, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled clinical trial in overweight and obese adults
    • Authors: Jonathan Santas; Elisabet Lázaro, Jordi Cuñé
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn the present study we evaluated the weight loss effect of a polysaccharide-rich food supplement, LipiGo®, comprising a specific β-glucan–chitin–chitosan fraction (BGCC) obtained from the chemical hydrolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting as a by-product of the brewing process.RESULTSA randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed enrolling 56 overweight and obese subjects (body mass index, BMI, 25–35 kg m−2) who were not following any specific diet, and were given placebo or BGCC (3 g d−1) for 12 weeks. Results were analysed by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) methods. Body weight increased in the placebo group compared to baseline (ITT: 1.0 kg, P < 0.001; PP: 1.5 kg, P = 0.003), while it was slightly lowered in the BGCC group (ITT: −0.8 kg, P = 0.210; PP: −1.1 kg, P = 0.182). BGCC, but not the consumption of placebo, also resulted in a reduction of waist circumference and body fat compared to baseline.CONCLUSIONSResults suggest that daily supplementation of BGCC may be useful for improving body weight and waist circumference in overweight and obese subjects, without relevant adverse effects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T05:20:48.567059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8301
  • The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making
           properties in wheat (T. aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines
    • Authors: Monika Langner; Karolina Krystkowiak, Bolesław P. Salmanowicz, Tadeusz Adamski, Paweł Krajewski, Zygmunt Kaczmarek, Maria Surma
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, and their interactions were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in HMW-GS and LMW-GS composition.RESULTSFlour quality, Reomixer, dough extension, Farinograph and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters than those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant.CONCLUSIONSThe allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, while their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 x Glu-3 loci were significant.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T02:30:33.937027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8385
  • Deodorization of arthrospira platensis biomass for further Scale-Up food
    • Authors: Sara P. Cuellar-Bermúdez; Bertha Barba-Davila, Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, José Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Sandra Morales-Davila, Koen Goiris, Koenraad Muylaert, Cristina Chuck-Hernández
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGiven the importance of A. platensis as a potential food protein source, we achieve an affordable deodorization process that does not significantly affect the nutritional value of algae biomass.RESULTSEthanol, acetone or hexane were used to deodorize algae biomass and then to identify the profile of volatile compounds associated with its distinctive odor. Sensorial characteristics were improved in the biomass cake after the proposed solvent extraction. Panelists identified the ethanolic extract with the most pronounced algae-related odor. The GG-MS analysis showed that a mixture of 20 different compounds derived from fatty acids and amino acids contributed to the characteristic smell of A. platensis biomass. Our results show that the ethanol solvent-free A. platensis biomass contained > 600 g of protein kg−1, 65% in vitro protein digestibility, similar to original biomass. The FTIR secondary protein structure was comparable among samples, indicating that the only change after ethanol extraction was the reduction of the algae smell.CONCLUSIONSThe various extraction procedures tested herein were effective in deodorizing the algae biomass. The most effective protocol was the removal of odoriferous compounds with ethanol. This particular procedure yielded an algae biomass with improved sensorial traits. This investigation helped to identify odoriferous compounds derived from fatty acids, pigments and proteins associated to A. platensis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T01:25:36.232159-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8391
  • Formation of macromolecules in wheat gluten/starch mixtures during
           twin-screw extrusion: effect of different additives
    • Authors: Kaiqiang Wang; Cheng Li, Bingzhi Wang, Wen Yang, Shuizhong Luo, Yanyan Zhao, Shaotong Jiang, Dongdong Mu, Zhi Zheng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWheat gluten comprises a good quality and inexpensive vegetable protein with an ideal amino acid composition. To expand the potential application of wheat gluten in the food industry, the effect of different additives on the physicochemical and structural properties of wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion was investigated.RESULTSMacromolecules were observed to form in wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion, which may be ascribed to the formation of new disulfide bonds and non-covalent interactions, as well as Maillard reaction products. Additionally, the water retention capacity and in vitro protein digestibility of all extruded wheat gluten/starch products significantly increased, whereas the nitrogen solubility index and free SH content decreased during twin-screw extrusion. Secondary structural analysis showed that α-helices disappeared with the concomitant increase of antiparallel β-sheets, demonstrating the occurrence of protein aggregation. Microstructures suggested that the irregular wheat gluten granular structure was disrupted, with additive addition favoring transformation into a more layered or fibrous structure during twin-screw extrusion.CONCLUSIONThe findings of this study demonstrate that extrusion might affect the texture and quality of extruded wheat gluten-based foods and suggest that this process might serve as a basis for the high-value application of wheat gluten products.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:25:46.482051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8392
  • Mass spectrometry analysis and in silico prediction of allergenicity of
           peptides in tryptic hydrolysates of the proteins from Ruditapes
    • Authors: Yue Yu; Hongwei Liu, Maolin Tu, Meiling Qiao, Zhenyu Wang, Ming Du
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe Ruditapes philippinarum is nutrient-rich and widely-distributed, but little attentions had been paid on the identification and characterization of bioactive peptides in the bivalve. In this study, we evaluated the peptides of the Ruditapes philippinarum enzymolysised by trypsin using a combination of UPLC separation and a ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS spectrometer, followed by data processing, sequence-similarity database searching. The potential allergenicity of the peptides was assessed in silico.RESULTThe enzymolysis was performed under conditions as following, E:S 3:100 (w/w), pH 9.0, 45 °C for 4 h. After separation and detection, a Swiss-Prot database and a Ruditapes philippinarum sequence database were used, totally 966 unique peptides were identified by non-error tolerant database searching, 173 peptides matched 55 precursor proteins were highly conserved cytoskeleton protein. The rest 793 peptides were identified from the Ruditapes philippinarum sequence database. Results showed that 510 peptides were labeled as allergens and 31 peptides were potential allergens, 425 peptides were predicted to be non-allergens.CONCLUSIONThe abundant peptide information would contribute to further studying the structure and potential function of the Ruditapes philippinarum. And further vitro studies would be performed in order to demonstrate and ensure correct production of the hydrolysates if used in food industry of the Ruditapes philippinarum.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T01:45:33.026718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8389
  • Effects of the addition of blood plasma proteins on physico-chemical
           properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage
    • Authors: Sungho Kim; Sangkeun Jin, Jungseok Choi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMost slaughter blood is discarded, resulting in problems related to costs for wastewater disposal and environmental pollution. However, animal blood contains various proteins such as albumin, globulin and globin and can be used as a natural emulsifier, stabiliser and colour additive. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of blood plasma proteins on the physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages stored at 4°C over 5 weeks.RESULTSThe emulsion-type pork sausages with plasma powders had higher pH than the other treatments during week 5, and higher shear force than the control (P < 0.05). The lightness values of the sausages with plasma powders were lower than the other treatments, whereas the redness and yellowness values were similar with those of the others. The sausages with plasma powders (cattle plasma powder and commercial pig plasma powder) had respectively increased texture properties. In the sensory evaluation, all proteins did not have significant impact on sensory of pork sausages.CONCLUSIONThe results confirmed that plasma protein powders can be considered as a binder for the production of excellent meat products compared to other binders. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T01:33:05.807616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8315
  • Characterization of the binding capacity of mercurial species in
           Lactobacillus strains
    • Authors: Cristina Alcántara; Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Manuel Zúñiga, Vicente Monedero
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMetal sequestration by bacteria has been proposed as a strategy to counteract metal contamination in foodstuffs. Lactobacilli can interact with metals, but studies with important foodborne metals such as inorganic [Hg(II)] or organic (CH3Hg) mercury are lacking. Lactobacilli were evaluated for their potential to bind these contaminants and the nature of the interaction was assessed by the use of metal competitors, chemical and enzymatical treatments and mutants affected in the cell-wall structure.RESULTSLactobacillus strains efficiently bound Hg(II) and CH3Hg. Mercury binding by Lactobacillus casei BL23 was independent of the cell viability. In BL23 both forms of mercury were cell-wall bound, their interaction was not inhibited by cations and it was resistant to chelating agents and protein digestion. L. casei mutants affected in genes involved in the modulation of the negative charge of the cell-wall anionic polymer lipoteichoic acid showed increased mercury biosorption. In these mutants, mercury toxicity was enhanced compared to wild-type bacteria. These data suggest that lipoteichoic acid itself or the physicochemical characteristics that it confers to the cell-wall play a major role in mercury complexation.CONCLUSIONThis is the first example of the biosorption of Hg(II) and CH3Hg in lactobacilli and it represents a first step towards their possible use as agents for diminishing mercury bioaccessibility from food at the gastrointestinal tract.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T10:58:19.458226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8388
  • High-theabrownins instant dark tea product by Aspergillus niger via
           submerged fermentation: alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibition
           and antioxidant activity
    • Authors: Yuwan Wang; Mingyue Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Hengqian Lu, Xueling Gao, Pengxiang Yue
      Abstract: BackgroundTheabrownins (TB) are bioactive components usually extracted from Chinese dark tea, where they are present in low concentrations. This study aimed to produce an instant dark tea high in theabrownins via submerged fermentation by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Three fermentation parameters that affect theabrownins content, namely inoculum size, liquid–solid ratio and rotation speed, were optimized using response surface methodology.ResultOptimum fermentation conditions were modeled to be an inoculum of 5.40 % (v/v), a liquid–solid ratio of 27.45 mL/g and a rotation speed of 184 r/min and were predicted to yield 292.99 g/kg TB. Under these conditions, the TB content of the instant dark tea was experimentally produced at 291.93 g/kg. The antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the high-TB instant black tea were higher than four other typical instant dark tea products.ConclusionOur findings show that careful management of culture conditions can produce a dark tea high in theabrownins. The results further suggested that high-theabrownins instant dark tea could serve as a source of bioactive products for use in functional foods as an ingredient imparting antioxidant properties and the ability to inhibit the enzymes pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T10:41:12.368615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8387
  • Hen egg yolk phosvitin stimulates osteoblast differentiation in the
           absence of ascorbic acid
    • Authors: Qingli Liu; Chunyan Li, Fang Geng, Xi Huang, Meihu Ma
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEgg yolk phosvitin, one of the most highly phosphorylated extracellular matrix proteins known in nature, has a strong calcium binding and reducing capacity. Here, we investigated the effects of phosvitin on osteoblast differentiation and osteogenic gene expression in cultured mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by using alkaline phosphatase activity analysis, alizarin red S staining and real-time PCR assay.RESULTSAlkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red S staining analyses demonstrated no significant difference between differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in the presence of phosvitin and those cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid after 21 days of differentiation. Our real-time PCR assay also indicated the two groups were similar in the expression of the osteogenic gene markers, collagen type I, osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, and bone morphogenetic protein-2.CONCLUSIONOur findings indicate that phosvitin plays a similar role to that of ascorbic acid in osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:16:18.847473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8320
  • Formation of oxysterols during thermal processing and frozen storage of
           cooked minced meat
    • Authors: Monika Sabolová; Barbora Pohořelá, Jakub Fišnar, Lenka Kouřimská, Diana Chrpová, Jan Pánek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCholesterol is susceptible to oxidation and formation of oxysterols, which could have a negative health effect. The formation and distribution of oxysterols was studied in meatloaves prepared under different baking regimes with increased temperature or prolonged time. The effect of frozen storage and marjoram addition on the level of oxysterols was studied as well.RESULTSThe effect of baking regime on the content and distribution of oxysterols was found. The temperature was the most important factor affecting 7-ketocholesterol formation in baked meatloaf. Its content was significantly higher after the baking at 250 °C than at 180 °C. The content of 7-ketocholesterol increased from the centre (87 µg kg−1) to the surface (122 µg kg−1) of baked meatloaf prepared under the standard conditions. The level of α-tocopherol and its distribution was also affected by the baking regime. Higher level of 7-ketocholesterol was found in the baked meatloaves after their frozen storage. The addition of marjoram did not change its level.CONCLUSIONInadequate culinary conditions used for preparation of baked meat can contribute to increased oxysterol intake in the diet. Frozen storage did not stop oxysterols formation. The inhibition effect of marjoram on sterols oxidation was not proved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:45:45.762138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8386
  • Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes
    • Authors: Yuliya Vystavna; Liubov Zaichenko, Nina Klimenko, Reelika Rätsep
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study was focused on Zn, Cu and Pb transfer in the system of soil–grape–must–juice–wine in a Chardonnay grape variety from Ukrainian vine growing regions. The analyses of soil, grape, must, pomace, juice and wine were done at the study plot in the south-west of Crimea.RESULTSCommercial white wines of Chardonnay from different vine growing regions in Ukraine were analysed for trace metals content. Results revealed that trace elements transfer was related to diverse Zn, Cu and Pb sources, trace metals bioavailability, their speciation and complexes during the wine making processes. The analysed commercial wines had lower Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations than wine from the Inkerman study plot.CONCLUSIONTrace metals concentrations were comparable to those in European wines and lower than limits recommended by International Organization of Vine and Wine. The tentative relationship between wine and soil was found for Zn at the study plot. The method can be used to describe the relationship between the soil and wine in other study areas. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T02:50:47.128167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8318
  • Interaction of copper nanoparticles and an endophytic growth promoter
           Piriformospora indica with Cajanus cajan
    • Authors: Jyoti Rajak; Manisha Bawaskar, Dnyaneshwar Rathod, Gauravi Agarkar, Dipali Nagaonkar, Aniket Gade, Mahendra Rai
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn recent years, agro-bionanotechnology has paved the way towards revolutionizing current practices in the food and agricultural fields. In the present study, the effect of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) alone and in combination with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica on 2-week-old seedlings of Cajanus cajan was evaluated. Gelatin-coated stable CuNPs were synthesized by the chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent.RESULTSCuNPs were characterized by using UV–visible spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were found to be quite spherical with a diameter within the range 40 ± 10 nm. After the application of CuNPs and P. indica to the host plant C. cajan, the vitality of plants was determined using a Handy-PEA (plant efficiency analyzer) instrument. Handy-PEA analysis (which measures chlorophyll a fluorescence) indicated that seedlings inoculated with a combination of CuNPs and P. indica were the healthiest and also showed maximum vitality as compared to seedlings inoculated with CuNPs or P. indica alone.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that CuNPs in combination with P. indica can serve as a nanobiofertilizer for enhancement of the growth and productivity of C. cajan. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T02:40:38.050768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8324
  • Integrating straw yield and quality into multi-dimensional improvement of
           lentil (Lens culinaris)
    • Authors: Ashraf Alkhtib; Jane Wamatu, T Tolemariam Ejeta, Barbara Rischkowsky
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLentil straw is an important source of fodder for livestock in Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. However, improvement programmes of lentil do not pay attention to straw traits, neither are straw traits considered in release criteria of new varieties. This study aimed to determine whether straw traits can be integrated into multi-trait improvement of lentil.RESULTSWide genotypic variation (P < 0.001) was found in grain yield, straw yield and nutritive value of straw. Urea treatment significantly (P < 0.01) improved the nutritive value of straw; however, the genotypic range was comparatively higher by 13.3 units, 56 units, 0.82 units, 106 units, 18.3 units and 1.62 units in crude protein, in vitro organic matter digestibility, metabolisable energy, potential dry matter intake, potential crude protein intake and potential metabolisable energy intake respectively. Acid detergent fibre correlated very strongly (pooled r = 0.87) with other nutritive value parameters of straw, therefore, it can be used to screen lentil varieties for fodder quality. Furthermore, acid detergent fibre can accurately predict in vitro organic matter digestibility (R2 = 0.9) and metabolisable energy (R2 = 0.8). Straw yield weakly correlated (r = 0.39, P < 0.001) with grain yield while no relation (P > 0.05) was found between grain yield.CONCLUSIONThe possibility to simultaneously improve grain yield and nutritive traits of lentil straw. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T02:25:30.468619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8282
  • An efficient process for obtaining of prebiotic oligosaccharides derived
           from lactulose using isomerised and purified whey permeate
    • Authors: Carlos Sabater; Agustín Olano, Marin Prodanov, Antonia Montilla, Nieves Corzo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOne of the most promising uses of whey permeate (WP) is the synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Herein, commercial WP was submitted to chemical isomerisation catalysed by sodium borate at an alkaline pH and subsequent purification using anion-exchange resins to remove boron. Afterwards, purified mixtures were used to synthesise prebiotic oligosaccharides using β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans.RESULTSIsomerisation of concentrated WP (200 g L−1 lactose) gave rise to levels of lactulose up to 155.5 g L−1 after 30 min of reaction (molar ratio boron/lactose 1/1; pH 12; 70 °C). Boron was removed from the isomerised WP (IWP) using the combination of a strong acid (IR-120, H+) and a weak base (IRA-743) anion-exchange resins reducing its level to less than 1 ppm, without loss of lactulose. During the transglycosylation reaction of purified IWP (lactose/lactulose ratio 1/2.4) maximum content of prebiotic compounds was achieved i.e. 690 g kg−1 WP after 3 h of reaction.CONCLUSIONThis study shows that combined chemical-enzymatic reactions together with the purification of IWP results in an efficient synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T02:10:27.462125-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8384
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in perennial
           ryegrass using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
    • Authors: Milton C Soto-Barajas; Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa, Inmaculada González-Martin, Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNear-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in forage quality control because it is faster, cleaner, and less expensive than conventional chemical procedures. In Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), one of the most important forage grasses, the infection by asymptomatic Epichloë fungal endophytes alters the plant nutritional quality due to the production of alkaloids. In this research, we developed a rapid method based on NIRS to detect and quantify endophyte alkaloids (peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline) using a heterogeneous set of L. perenne plants obtained from wild grasslands and cultivars.RESULTSNIR spectra from dried grass samples were recorded and classified according to the absence or presence of the alkaloids, based on reference methods. The best discriminant equations for detection of alkaloids classified correctly 94.4%, 87.5% and 92.9% of plants containing peramine, lolitrem and ergovaline respectively. The quantitative NIR equations obtained by modified partial least squares (MLPS) had coefficients of correlation of 0.93, 0.41, and 0.76 for peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline respectively.CONCLUSIONSNIRS spectroscopy is a suitable tool for qualitative analysis of the endophyte alkaloids in grasses and for the accurate quantification of peramine and ergovaline.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T01:55:46.136928-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8383
  • Exploring the biological activity of condensed tannins and nutritional
           value of tree and shrub leaves from native species of the Argentinean Dry
    • Authors: E.M. García; N. Cherry, B.D. Lambert, J.P. Muir, M.A. Nazareno, J.I. Arroquy
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTropical tree or shrub leaves are an important source of nutrients for ruminants and a potential source of biologically active compounds that may affect ruminal metabolism of nutrients. Therefore, eight woody species from the native flora of Argentinean Dry Chaco – rich in secondary compounds such as condensed tannins (CT), were assessed for their nutritional value, CT fractions, and in vitro true digestibility of dry matter as well as biological activity (BA).RESULTSDifferences among species were found in contents of total phenol, protein-precipitating phenols (PPP), bound proteins to PPP (BP) and BP/PPP (P
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T01:45:27.516734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8382
  • Effect of high-fat diet and growth stage on the diversity and composition
           of intestinal microbiota in healthy bovine livestock
    • Authors: Shengyin Jiao; Hui Cao, Yue Dai, Junhui Wu, Jia Lv, Renjia Du, Bei Han
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study aimed to investigate the composition of bacteria in the bovine rectum and their functions during growth, in relation to different diets. Fecal samples were collected from 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month cattle fed high-fat diet, and healthy female parents fed regular-diet. Total DNA was amplified (V3-V4 of 16S rRNA) and submitted to barcode-DNA-pyrosequencing. Then, intestinal microbiota profiles and functions were analysed.RESULTSA total of 114,512 OTUs were detected from the 1,802,243 sequences obtained. In 6-month-old and female parent groups, the top 3 abundant phyla were Bacteroidetes (37.6%, 32.2%), Firmicutes (34.4%, 48.2%) and Proteobacteria (9.1%, 6.3%); in the 12-, 18- and 24-month groups, they were Proteobacteria (45.5%, 47.1%, 38.8%), Firmicutes (27.4%, 22.2%, 20.1%) and Bacteroidetes (14.9%, 19.4%, 17.7%), respectively. Paludibacter and Desulfopila in abundance showed negative (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T01:35:27.005706-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8380
  • Effects of rare sugar d-allulose on heat-induced gelation of surimi
           prepared from marine fish
    • Authors: Masahiro Ogawa; Masaki Inoue, Shigeru Hayakawa, Siwaporn O'Charoen, Makiko Ogawa
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDd-allulose (Alu), the C3-epimer of D-fructose, is noncalorie sweetener (0.39 kcal g−1) with a suppressive effect on postprandial blood glucose elevation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Alu used as sweetener and gel improver instead of sucrose on heat-induced gelation of surimi.RESULTSThe puncture test of a heat-induced surimi gel showed that the surimi gel with 50 g kg−1. Alu had 15 and 6 % higher gel strength than the counterpart gel with sucrose (Suc) and that with sorbitol (Sor), respectively. In addition, Alu-gel had 26 and 25 % higher water-holding capacity (WHC) than Suc- and Sor-gel. Heating of myofiblillar protein with Alu, unlike Suc and Sor, facilitated the formation of both disulfide and non-disulfide cross-linkings that might be associated with the mechanical properties and WHC of Alu-gel.CONCLUSIONAlu improves the mechanical properties and WHC of the heat-induced surimi gel. Furthermore, Alu has low calories compared with Suc (4.0 kcal g−1) and Sor (3.0 kcal g−1). Thus, Alu will be an alternative of Suc or Sor for developing the surimi-based products with the health benefit.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T01:21:08.926927-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8381
  • European cowpea landraces for a more sustainable agriculture system and
           novel foods
    • Authors: Márcia Carvalho; Penelope J Bebeli, Graça Pereira, Isaura Castro, Catalina Egea-Gilabert, Manuela Matos, Efstathia Lazaridi, Isabel Duarte, Teresa Lino-Neto, Georgia Ntatsi, Miguel Rodrigues, Dimitrios Savvas, Eduardo Rosa, Valdemar Carnide
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGenetic diversity is fundamental for breeding programs and consequently has an important role to obtain new varieties. To properly use the genetic diversity present in germplasm collections, a good knowledge of the agro-morphological traits of each accession is needed. The aim of this study was to explore the production capacity of 24 cowpea landraces from Southern Europe, through phenotypic characterization and evaluation in three different locations of Greece and Portugal.RESULTSThe qualitative parameters tested presented stability among the three locations. A great difference was observed among the three locations with respect to number of days to flowering that ranged from 55 to 99 days. The quantitative traits shown a higher genotype x environment than genetic variance component. In general, an inverse relationship between σ2ge/σ2g ratio and heritability value was observed. Principal component analysis managed to group the accessions based on their origin. The first two principal components explained 97.52% of variation, being the number of seeds per plant, plant height and seed protein content the traits which contributed more to the variability.CONCLUSIONThe results show that sufficient variation exists in different traits within landraces in the studied cowpea germplasm to pursue a breeding program. However, the quantitative traits shown a higher genotype x environment component.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T01:40:28.850931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8378
  • Profiling of Anthocyanins in transgenic purple-fleshed sweet potatoes by
    • Authors: Jingqiu Ge; Yijie Hu, Hongxia Wang, Yuanshe Huang, Peng Zhang, Zhihua Liao, Min Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAnthocyanins in Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (PSP) are beneficial to human health. The leaf color (Lc) gene is a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The anthocyanin profiles of wild-type PSP of Ayamurasaki and its three Lc-transgenic lines were investigated by HPLC-MS/MS. And in vitro antioxidant activities of wild-type and Lc-transgenic lines, including reducing power activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity, ABTS free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity, were measured.RESULTSThe results showed that the total anthocyanin contents increased 1.5-1.9 times in three transgenic lines compared with that in wild-type PSP. Seventeen anthocyanins were found in wild-type PSP, while nineteen in Lc-transgenic lines including cyanidin-based, peonidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. Three pelargonidin-based anthocyanins were detected in three Lc-transgenic lines. Among them, the relative contents of cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins increased 1.9-2.0 and 3.4-4.5 times respectively, while peonidin-based anthocyanins decreased 1.8-1.9 times in Lc-transgenic lines, compared with wild-type PSP. PSP from wild-type Ayamurasaki and three Lc-transgenic lines exhibited potent antioxidant activities, whereas there was no distinct difference among them.CONCLUSIONThe transgene Lc significantly increased the contents of total anthocyanins and remarkably changed the anthocyanin profiles in Ayamurasaki. Such novel and high contents of anthocyanins obtained in the Lc-transgenic lines with potent antioxidant activities may provide unique functional products with potential helpful for human health.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T01:00:41.954273-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8379
  • Changes in the nutritional quality of five Mangifera species harvested in
           two-maturity stages
    • Authors: Ignacio Barbosa Gámez; Karla P. Caballero Montoya, Noris Ledesma, Sonia G. Sáyago Ayerdi, María de Lourdes Gacía-Magaña, Eric J von Wettberg, Efigenia Montalvo-González
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere are 69 species of edible Mangifera recognized in Southeast Asia. Most of these species have not been characterized for nutritional properties. Here we describe the nutritional quality of the pulp of several Mangifera species: Mangifera casturi, Mangifera lalijiwa, Mangifera odorata, Mangifera zeylanica and two cultivars of Mangifera indica ‘Tommy-Kent’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ at two maturity stages.RESULTSThe results show that nutritional quality varied with the maturity stage and among the species. The immature pulp of all species had higher content of total dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin E, total soluble polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. In mature pulp, the protein, ash, fat, soluble carbohydrates and B vitamin values were higher in all species. The species with the best nutritional quality were in order from highest to lowest: Mangifera casturi, Mangifera odorata, M. zeylanica, Mangifera indica cultivars and Mangifera lalijiwa.CONCLUSIONThe fruit pulp of three species had higher nutritional quality in two maturity stages, in comparison with Mangifera indica cultivars. These other Mangifera species can be nutritionally important in communities facing food insecurity, and have potential as emerging crops. The decline of these valuable species in their natural habitats is an increasing concern, and their nutritional properties justify greater efforts to protect them.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T00:41:48.044224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8377
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with a probiotic (Enterococcus faecium
           DSM 7134) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health
           status in weaning pigs
    • Authors: R. X. Lan; I. H. Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProbiotics have been suggested as desirable antibiotic alternatives to pigs by improving gut health and growth performance. However, limited studies of the effectiveness of E. faecium in weaning pigs, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E. faecium DSM 7134 supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant parameters, volatile fatty acids concentration, intestinal histomorphology, and diarrhea score in weaning pig.RESULTSE. faecium supplementation linear increased (P
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T12:52:07.820108-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8374
    • Authors: Jennifer Borreani; Isabel Hernando, Ana Salvador, Amparo Quiles
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDairy desserts are popular traditional products but because of their high calorie or fat content, they can be unsuitable for people who have certain dietary requirements. The aim of this study was to design panna cottas with similar organoleptic and textural properties to the traditional ones but with a lower fat content, by replacing part of the cream with new emulsions prepared with hydrocolloids (cellulose ethers), namely methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC).RESULTSIncorporating the MC and HPMC emulsions modified the textural properties (firmness and stiffness) of the panna cottas. Regarding the sensory results, the panna cottas prepared with the MC and HPMC emulsions were considered lumpy and soft, respectively.CONCLUSIONSConsidering the results as a whole, the cellulose type and the amount of cream are factors to take into account. Although the texture and taste of the control panna cotta are better than those of the panna cottas prepared with the MC and HPMC emulsions, it is possible to replace 75% of the cream in traditional panna cottas with HPMC emulsions and obtain good consumer acceptance and purchase intention. The panna cottas with 75% substitution by HPMC emulsion were described as creamy, with smooth appearance and moist mouth feel.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T12:51:53.829549-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8373
    • Authors: Rafaela C Pereira; João de Deus S Carneiro, Odílio B G Assis, Soraia V Borges
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn the present study, the production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated of lycopene as functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential use in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0 and 20 g.Kg−1) and lycopene (0, 60 and 120 g.Kg−1) was used. Mechanical properties (tensile and puncture tests), thermal stability analysis, FT-IR vibrational spectroscopy and film morphology of the resulting materials were evaluated.RESULTSResults indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. The films were flexible and homogeneous and a uniform dispersion of the components was achieved.CONCLUSIONInclusion of 20 g.Kg−1 of MMT in the polymeric matrix improved both mechanical and thermal properties. Lycopene in the tested concentrations, besides its red coloring ability, did not promote any detectable interference on structure or on physical properties. These findings are important in devising applications and open a new perspective on the use of these materials in bioactive packaging processing.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T10:37:30.0729-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8376
  • Obtention and characterization of dried gels prepared with whey proteins,
           honey and hydrocolloids mixture
    • Authors: Ana C. Rodriguez; Martín R. Torrez, Alba S. Navarro, Diego K. Yamul
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLarge amounts of honey and liquid whey derived from the dairy industry are produced in Argentina. Honey is exported in bulk and whey is transformed into whey protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of pH, composition and storage time on the properties of dried gels with honey, whey proteins and hydrocolloids.RESULTSColour properties varied according to pH and composition. The fracture stress of the dried gels prepared with corn starch was higher than those prepared with guar gum in all conditions assayed. The Young's modulus was higher at pH 7 for both compositions and increased with storage time. Rubbery characteristics were found in dried gels with guar gum, while corn starch and guar gum made the microstructure rougher. Multivariate analysis showed that samples could be grouped by pH. Panellists preferred pH 7 products over acidic ones and no significant differences in the sensory properties were found using either corn starch or guar gum in the formulation.CONCLUSIONSResults demonstrated that it is possible to generate a new product, which may open new applications for honey and whey in food formulations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T10:37:28.783568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8375
  • Evaluating the freezing impact on the proximate composition of immature
           cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods: classical versus spectroscopic
    • Authors: Nelson Machado; David Oppolzer, Ana Ramos, Luis Ferreira, Eduardo AS Rosa, Miguel Rodrigues, Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Ana IRNA Barros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFreezing represents a common conservation practice regarding vegetal foodstuffs. Since compositional features need to be monitored during storage, the development of rapid monitoring tools suitable for assessing nutritional characteristics arises as a pertinent issue. In this study, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods, both fresh and after 6 and 9 months of freezing at −18 °C, were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for their content of protein as well as of essential and nonessential amino acids, while their Fourier transform infrared spectra in the mid infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) ranges were concomitantly registered to assess the feasibility of this approach for the traceability of these frozen matrices.RESULTSFor the NIR interval, the application of the 1st derivative to the spectral data retrieved the best results, while for lower concentrations the application of the Savitzky–Golay algorithm was indispensable to achieve quantification models for the amino acids. MIR is also suitable for this purpose, though being unable to quantify amino acids with concentrations below 0.07 mmol g−1 dry weight, irrespective of the data treatment used.CONCLUSIONSThe spectroscopic approach constitutes a methodology suitable for monitoring the impact of freezing on the nutritional properties of cowpea pods, allowing accurate quantification of the protein and amino acid contents, while NIR displayed better performance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:56:19.014878-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8305
  • Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted
           from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingern)) residues
           with hydrochloric and sulphuric acids
    • Authors: Honggao Xu; Kedong Tai, Tong Wei, Fang Yuan, Yanxiang Gao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTransformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be a great value to the capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study.RESULTSThe extraction of hot pepper pectin was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for the maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were the following: pH of 1.0, temperature of 90 °C, extraction time of 2 h and liquid-to-solid ratio of 20. The hot pepper pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin, extracted by sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid, were further investigated. The contents of protein, degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulphuric acid solution (SP) were higher (p < 0.05) than those in that extracted with hydrochloric acid solution (HP), while the mean molecular weight of SP was lower than that of HP. Compared with HP, SP exhibited higher viscosity and better emulsifying property.CONCLUSIONBased on the yield and physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:35:25.508835-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8372
  • Is meat quality of forage-fed steers comparable to the meat quality of
           conventional beef from concentrate-fed bulls?
    • Authors: M. Blanco; I. Casasús, G. Ripoll, P. Albertí, B. Panea, M. Joy
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDReplacing concentrates with forages in the diet of finishing cattle to satisfy societal demands and for economic reasons is a target for beef farmers, but this change may affect meat acceptance. In the Mediterranean area, young bulls are usually finished on concentrates (Conventional beef). Alternatively, steers can be finished on grass with supplements (G-supp); however, if carcasses are too lean, meat quality may be negatively affected. To increase fat deposition, grazing steers were finished on a total mixed ration composed of alfalfa hay and corn (TMR). Thus, the objective of the study was to compare the quality of Longissimus muscle of the three systems.RESULTSConventional beef had low yellowness values and similar lightness and redness values compared to the beef from the forage based systems, which differed slightly. The meat of the G-supp and TMR steers had greater CLA and total PUFA n-3 and lower n-6:n-3 PUFA (more appropriate from a human health point of view ) but it was tougher than the Conventional beef.CONCLUSIONThe Conventional beef was better accepted by the consumers than beef from both forage based systems because it was the most tender. Thus, tenderness of meat from forage-fed steers should be improved to ensure consumer acceptance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:10:36.555578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8371
  • Minimising variation in aspalathin content of aqueous green rooibos
           extract – optimising extraction and identifying critical material
    • Authors: Neil Miller; Dalene De Beer, Elizabeth Joubert
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh levels of aspalathin, an antidiabetic dihydrochalcone, in green rooibos underpins interest in the production of a standardised extract. Elements of a quality-by-design approach was applied to optimise extract conditions, aiming at delivering a dry matter yield (DMY) ≥ 160 g kg−1 and an extract with an aspalathin content (AC) ≥ 80 g kg−1.RESULTSHot water extraction parameters, namely extraction time, extraction temperature and water-to-plant material ratio, was optimised for DMY and aspalathin extraction efficiency (AEE) using Design of Experiments. Good polynomial prediction models were obtained and multi-response desirability plots indicated 37 min, 93 °C and 23:1 as optimal conditions. Even when using 30 min and 10:1 instead for practical reasons, the target DMY and AC values could be achieved with the caveat that plant material with an aspalathin content ≥ 30 g kg−1 is used. Particle size distribution and stem content were identified as contributing to variation in aspalathin content of raw material.CONCLUSIONBy setting raw material specifications in terms of aspalathin content, as well as applying practical optimum extraction conditions, 160 g kg−1 extract with an aspalathin content ≥ 80 g kg−1 could be consistently achieved from green rooibos plant material.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:25:26.876807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8370
  • Stability assessment of lycopene microemulsion prepared using tomato
           industrial waste against various processing conditions
    • Authors: Atefeh Amiri-Rigi; Soleiman Abbasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGreen separation techniques are growing at a greater rate than solvent extraction owing to the constant consumer drive to “go natural”. Considering the increasing evidences of the health benefits of lycopene and massive tomato industrial waste, in the present study, using microemulsion technique the lycopene was extracted from tomato industrial waste and its mean droplet size and size distribution was determined. Moreover, the effects of pasteurization, sterilization, freeze–thaw cycles and UV irradiation on the thermodynamic stability, turbidity and lycopene concentration of the lycopene microemulsion were monitored.RESULTSFreeze–thaw cycles, pasteurization and short exposure to UV irradiation showed no or negligible influence on lycopene content and turbidity of the microemulsion. However, long exposure to UV (260 min) reduced lycopene content and turbidity by 34% and 10%, respectively. HHST (Higher-Heat Shorter-Time) and sterilization also reduced lycopene content (25%) and increased turbidity (32%).CONCLUSIONThe lycopene microemulsion showed satisfactory stability over process where its mono-dispersity and nano-size could be a potential advantage to the food and related industries. Regarding carcinogenicity of synthetic colourants, potential applications of the lycopene microemulsion can be soft drinks and minced meat which would result in their better colour and well-documented health-promoting qualities.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T00:05:57.889826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8368
  • A novel controlled release ethanol emitter: preparation and effect on some
           postharvest quality parameters of Chinese bayberry during storage
    • Authors: Honglei Mu; Haiyan Gao, Hangjun Chen, Xiangjun Fang, Qiang Han
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDReducing spoilage and prolonging the shelf-life of food materials are critically important in food industry. Among many available preservatives, ethanol has been widely used for the storage of fruits and vegetables. Although a few ethanol emitters as an antimicrobial packaging are available, these ethanol emitters are high volatility, uncontrolled release, and other disadvantages, the practical applications are limited.RESULTSA novel ethanol gel with controlled release rate was prepared by gelatification reaction between ethanol and sodium stearate to overcome the disadvantage of conventional ethanol emitters. Hardness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness of developed ethanol gels increased whereas the springiness decreased along with the increase in sodium stearate concentration. The release rate of ethanol in the gels was controlled by the concentration of sodium stearate, in which a first-order release kinetic was observed. The release rate constant (k) of the gels with 12.5, 37.5, 62.5 g kg−1 of sodium stearate was 0.58 ± 0.029 h−1, 0.49 ± 0.035 h−1 and 0.41 ± 0.021 h−1, respectively, at 25 °C. The application of the controlled release ethanol emitter on storage of Chinese bayberry fruit demonstrated its ability to reduce the decay rate, maintain firmness, and inhibit the increased of MDA content at 4 °C.CONCLUSIONIn terms of practical applications, the proper sodium stearate content can be selected according to the storage period, in order to achieve the precise storage goals. Therefore, the ethanol emitter has a potential application prospect as an active packaging in Chinese bayberry fruit as well as other perishable products.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T00:05:44.671895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8369
  • Modern Analytical Methods for the Detection of Food Fraud and Adulteration
           by Food Category
    • Authors: Eunyoung Hong; Sang Yoo Lee, Jae Yun Jeong, Jung Min Park, Byung Hee Kim, Kisung Kwon, Hyang Sook Chun
      Abstract: This review provides current information on the analytical methods used to identify food adulteration in the six most adulterated food categories: animal origin and seafood, oils and fats, beverages, spices and sweet foods (e.g. honey), grain-based food, and others (organic food and dietary supplements). The analytical techniques, both conventional and emerging, used to identify adulteration in these six food categories involve sensory, physicochemical, DNA-based, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods, and have been combined with chemometrics, making these techniques more convenient and effective for the analysis of a broad variety of food products. Despite recent advances, a need remains for suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodologies that will encompass all the various aspects of food adulteration.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T23:30:43.610832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8364
  • The application of compound-specific isotope analysis of fatty acids for
           traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in the coastal areas
           of China
    • Authors: Yu Liu; Xufeng Zhang, Ying Li, Haixia Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGeographical origin traceability is an important issue in controlling the quality of seafood and in safeguarding the interest of consumers. In this study, a new method of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acids was established to evaluate its applicability in establishing the origin traceability of Apostichopus japonicus in the coastal areas of China. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to distinguish between origins of A. japonicus to evaluate their performance on classification of A. japonicus from different groups.RESULTSThe results show that the stable carbon isotope compositions of fatty acids of A. japonicus significantly differ in terms of both season and origin. They also indicate that the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids could effectively discriminate between origins of A. japonicus, except between Changhai Island and Zhangzi Island, in the spring of 2016 because of geographical proximity or the similarity of food sources. The fatty acids have highest contribution to identify the geographical origins of A. japonicus are C22:6n − 3, C16:1n − 7, C20:5n − 3, C18:0 and C23:1n − 9, considering the fatty acid contents, the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids and the results of PCA and DA.CONCLUSIONSWe conclude that CSIA of fatty acids, combined with multivariate statistical analysis such as PCA and DA, may be an effective tool for establishing the traceability of A. japonicus in the coastal areas of China. The relevant conclusions of this study can provide a new method for determining the traceability of seafood or other food products.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T21:45:33.769221-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8367
  • Relationship between hyperspectral indices, agronomic parameters and
           phenolic composition of Vitis vinifera cv Tempranillo grapes
    • Authors: Ignacio García-Estévez; Natalia Quijada-Morín, Julián C. Rivas-Gonzalo, José Martínez-Fernández, Nilda Sánchez, Carlos M. Herrero-Jiménez, M. Teresa Escribano-Bailón
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhenolic composition of grapes is key when making decisions about harvest date in order to assure the quality of grapes. This work aimed to study the relation between the detailed phenolic composition of grapes and agronomic parameters and hyperspectral indices, these latter measured through field radiometry techniques.RESULTSGood correlations were found between phenolic composition (both anthocyanin and flavanol composition) and some hyperspectral indices related to vigor, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The strongest correlations were observed between the phenolic composition of grape skin at harvest time and variables measured from grapes at veraison time and variables determined from grapevines at harvest time. The possible usefulness of these hyperspectral indices calculated from measurements done directly on grapes or grapevines for estimating anthocyanin and flavanol composition of grape skins has been pointed out by the high coefficients of determination (R2=0.7955 and R2=0.8594, respectively) obtained by means of principal component regression.CONCLUSIONAccording to the results, hyperspectral indices calculated from measurements done directly on grapes at veraison time or on grapevines at harvest time may be useful for estimating anthocyanin and flavanol composition of grape skins. This suggests that field radiometry might provide valuable information to estimate the phenolic composition of grapes, which may be very useful to establish strategies for harvest planning.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T21:30:34.149996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8366
  • Evolution of the oxidative stability, bio-active compounds and color
           characteristics of non-thermally treated vegetable pâtés during frozen
    • Authors: Lucrezia Cosmai; Francesco Caponio, Antonella Pasqualone, Vito M. Paradiso, Carmine Summo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFew studies have investigated the effects of frozen storage on processed vegetables. This paper evaluates its effects on the quality characteristics of non-thermally stabilized tomato-based pâtés, in comparison with thermally stabilized pâtés stored at room temperature. Two different kinds of tomato-based pâtés were analyzed in terms of bio-active compounds, colorimetric parameters and oxidative degradation just after processing and for 4, 8, and 12 months’ storage.RESULTSThermal treatment mainly affected the colorimetric parameters and oxidative degradation, while its effects on bio-active compounds became more visible and significant during storage. Freezing allowed in both pâtés to maintain significantly higher a* values than storage at room temperature, while brightness - linked to residual activities of different enzymes - varied during storage according to the ingredient formulation. During storage, oxidative degradation of the lipid fraction was more marked in the pâté containing a lower quality oil, and less marked when the absence of thermal treatment was combined with frozen storage.CONCLUSIONSFreezing could represent a viable alternative way to preserve high quality products over time. An optimal combination of blanching, freezing rate, storage and thawing conditions will provide the best results in terms of quality/price ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T21:27:22.623105-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8365
  • Proximate, amino acid and lipid compositions in Sinonovacula constricta
           (Lamarck) reared at different salinities
    • Authors: Zhaoshou Ran; Shuang Li, Runtao Zhang, Jilin Xu, Kai Liao, Xuejun Yu, Yingying Zhong, Mengwei Ye, Shanshan Yu, Yun Ran, Wei Huang, Xiaojun Yan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSinonovacula constricta is an economically and nutritionally important bivalve native to the estuaries and mudflats of China, Japan and Korea. In the present study, S. constricta, cultured either under experimental conditions or collected directly from natural coastal areas with different seawater salinities, was investigated for changes in proximates, amino acids and lipids.RESULTSWhen culture salinity was increased, levels of moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein and crude lipid were significantly decreased, whereas the level of ash was significantly increased. The level of Ala was increased by 1.5- to 2-fold, whereas the contents of most lipids were significantly decreased, and the proportion of phosphatidylethanolamine was significantly increased. Notably, a high proportion of ceramide aminoethylphosphonates was detected in S. constricta reared at all salinities. The energy content appears to be higher in S. constricta reared at higher salinity. In experimental S. constricta, when the salinity was enhanced, the changes of compositions were very close to those reared at constant high salinity.CONCLUSIONSinonovacula constricta reared at higher salinities possesses a superior quality. A short period of exposure to a higher salinity for farmed S. constricta reared at a lower salinity before harvest would be useful with respect to improving its nutritive value. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:15:37.361031-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8311
  • Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on protein oxidation, calpain
           activation and desmin degradation of beef muscles
    • Authors: Qing-quan Fu; Qing-feng Ge, Rui Liu, Hai-ou Wang, Guang-hong Zhou, Wan-gang Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProtein oxidation is widespread in biochemical systems. The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in protein oxidation, μ-calpain activity, desmin proteolysis and protein solubility of beef psoas major (PM) and semi-membranosus (SM) muscles under three packaging systems during postmortem ageing. At 24 h postmortem, beef muscles were packaged respectively in air-permeable film overwrap (AP), vacuum pack (VP) or modified atmosphere (MAP, 80% O2 + 20% CO2), and then displayed for 10 days at 4 °C.RESULTSCarbonyl group values and thiol group content were significantly influenced by packaging type and storage time. The SM muscles from AP and MAP showed greater μ-calpain activity compared to VP. Desmin of PM and SM from AP and MAP samples showed decreased proteolysis compared with VP.CONCLUSIONThe results suggested that the inhibition of μ-calpain activity of beef samples from AP and MAP could be closely associated with protein oxidation which further lowered the level of desmin degradation compared to VP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T06:56:10.810041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8316
  • Dietary exposure to acrylamide from cafeteria foods in Jeddah schools and
           associated risk assessment
    • Authors: Mahmoud M El Tawila; Ahmed M Al-Ansari, Amani A Alrasheedi, Abdulateef A Neamatallah
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAcrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic food contaminant produced at high temperatures in foods that are rich in carbohydrates. Foods sold in schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are among such carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high cooking temperatures. It is crucial to determine the importance of AA exposure with respect to cafeteria foods and assess the associated risks.RESULTSThe highest mean AA level was measured in chocolate pies (439 µg kg−1), followed by custard pies (435 µg kg−1) and cheese pies (432 µg kg−1). The average and 95th percentile values of AA exposure were 0.51 and 1.17 [µg kg−1 body weight (BW) school day−1]. The average exposure significantly decreased with an increase in age, from 0.65 (µg kg−1 BW school day−1) in primary school students to 0.37 in secondary school students. Cheese and chocolate pies are the main contributors in AA intake. The contributions of cheese and chocolate pies to the average exposure among primary, middle and secondary school students were 23.1%, 24.7% and 29.4% and 16.9%, 12.1% and 11.9%, respectively. Other products with significant contributions included cheese sandwiches (10.8%, 8.9% and 12.7%), plain cookies (7.7%, 5.6% and 6.7%) and custard pies (7.7%, 4.8% and 8.9%). Other cafeteria products contributed to AA exposure at much lower percentages.CONCLUSIONThe calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the average [356 and 614 for both benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg−1 BW day−1] and 95th percentile AA exposure values (154 and 265 for both BMDL 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg−1 BW day−1) suggest that there is a health concern with respect to school-aged students. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T05:34:59.577411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8314
  • Changes in pectin characteristics during the ripening of jujube fruit
    • Authors: Shenghua Ding; Rongrong Wang, Yang Shan, Gaoyang Li, Shiyi Ou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPectin is related to fruit maturation and loss of flesh firmness. In this research, changes in pectin characteristics, including pectin content, neutral sugar composition, molecular weight (Mw) distribution and degree of methylesterification (DM), in six different growth stages (S1 to S6) of jujube fruit were assessed.RESULTSThe growth of jujube fruit corresponded to an increase in water-soluble pectin (WSP) and a decrease in sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (SSP). The chelate-soluble pectin (CSP) content reached a maximum level at S3 but decreased significantly from S3 to S4. Arabinose proved to be the principal branched neutral monosaccharide in pectin during growth and was lost from WSP, CSP and SSP in S4 to S6. The ratios of (arabinose + galactose)/rhamnose indicated that the branched chains of WSP, CSP and SSP degraded in S2, S3 and S4 respectively. SSP depolymerized from S2 and increased as jujube fruit ripened. By contrast, WSP depolymerized throughout ripening. The DM of pectins ranged from 45.38 to 92.21%. Among the obtained DMs, the lowest was observed in WSP from ripened jujube fruit (S6).CONCLUSIONThe content, neutral sugar composition, DM and Mw distribution of pectins changed markedly as jujube fruit ripened. Jujube fruit could be a promising alternative source of pectins in terms of maturation degree. WSP from S6 and CSP from S1 or S2 could be used as gelling agents in low-sugar-containing products because of their low methoxyl pectin contents. WSP from S1 could also be applied as a thickener or emulsifier owing to its high Mw distribution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:26:17.445306-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8285
  • The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless
           cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.)
    • Authors: Roberto G Costa; Michelly DA Almeida, George Rodrigo B Cruz, Edvaldo M Beltrão Filho, Neila L Ribeiro, Marta S Madruga, Rita de Cássia RE Queiroga
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used to identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets.RESULTSThe treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.): T1 = 0%, T2 = 30%, T3 = 50%, and T4 = 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus.CONCLUSIONThe use of spineless cactus in the diets of Santa Inês sheep affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers' incomes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:06:09.672353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8303
  • Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by
           Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation
    • Authors: Bin Zheng; Yu Liu, Xiaoxia He, Shiwei Hu, Shijie Li, Meiling Chen, Wei Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further.RESULTSThe inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:00:35.841612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8313
  • Preparation and bioavailability of calcium-chelating peptide complex from
           tilapia skin hydrolysates
    • Authors: Jun Chen; Xujian Qiu, Gengxin Hao, Meng Zhang, Wuyin Weng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWith the continuous improvement of material life, the fish by-product and the market demand for calcium supplements have been increasing in China. Therefore, the calcium-chelating peptide complex (CPC) from tilapia skins was prepared, and the effect of the CPC on the Ca-deficiency mice was investigated.RESULTSThe molecular weight distribution of CPC was mainly ranged from 2000 Da to 180 Da, and the contents of complete amino acids and free amino acids in the CPC were 85.30% and 8.67%, respectively. Based on the results of SEM image and FTIR data, it was revealed that calcium crystals were bound with gelatin hydrolysates via interaction between calcium ions and N-H/C-N groups. When the Ca-deficient mice were fed with CPC and CaCO3 respectively for 4-weeks, no significant differences in the serum biochemistry and bone mineral density were found. However, the length, weight, Ca and hydroxyproline content of femur, calcium absorption and body weight gain in the mice fed with CPC were significantly higher than those of CaCO3.CONCLUSIONIt is concluded that the prepared CPC could promote bone formation via the better bioavailability of Ca and the increase of bone collagen.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08T03:31:20.691773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8363
  • Beneficial effects of lipidic extracts of saladette tomato pomace and
           Serenoa repens on prostate and bladder health in obese male Wistar rats
    • Authors: Josué V Espinosa-Juárez; Juventino III Colado-Velázquez, Patrick Mailloux-Salinas, JML Medina-Contreras, P Valentín Correa-López, Norma L Gómez-Viquez, Fabián Meza-Cuenca, Fengyang Huang, Guadalupe Bravo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDObesity is associated with increased risk of a number of serious medical conditions, including urological disorders. This study investigated the effect of lipidic extracts of saladette tomato pomace (STP) and Serenoa repens (SR) on the prostate and bladder in a rat obese model induced by high-carbohydrate diet.RESULTSHigh-sucrose-fed rats showed higher prostate weight as well as increased contractility and stromal and epithelial hyperplasia in the prostate. Treatment with STP and SR improved contractility and diminished hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the prostate. Obese animals also showed impaired bladder contractility, but neither extract reversed this deterioration. In the histological study, a disarray in the process of smooth muscle cell proliferation with non-parallel fibers was observed; interestingly, treatment with STP and SR led to improvement in this derangement.CONCLUSIONThese findings indicated impaired contractility and hyperplasia in the prostate and bladder of obese rats induced by high sucrose. STP and SR could enhance prostate function by reducing contractility and hyperplasia and improve smooth muscle fiber structure and decrease cell proliferation in the bladder, suggesting their possible health-beneficial effects on lower urinary tract symptoms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T04:17:22.428473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8308
  • Protein efficiency in intensive dairy production: A Swedish example
    • Authors: Christian Swensson; Helena Lindmark-Månsson, Annika Smedman, Maria Henriksson, Anna-Karin Modin Edman
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAnimal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants, such as dairy cows, can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i.e. human-edible protein output in cow's milk per unit human-edible protein input in feed. In this study, eFPCR was calculated for five regionally adapted and realistic feed rations fed to Swedish dairy cows producing different annual milk yields typical for high-yielding, intensive dairy production.RESULTSAll scenarios except one showed a protein efficiency ratio of >1 for human-edible protein. Thus, depending on the composition of their diet, most Swedish dairy cows can convert human-inedible protein into edible, high-value protein. However, higher milk yield led to a decrease in eFPCR, regardless of diet.CONCLUSIONSDairy cows in high-yielding, intensive production systems, such as the ones used in Sweden, have the capacity to convert low-value inedible protein into high-value edible protein. However, a minor part of the dairy cow diet is edible for humans and this fraction must be minimised to justify dairy production. These results are in line with previous findings on protein conversion efficiency and add scientific input to the debate on sustainable food systems and sustainable diets.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T03:42:23.8999-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8362
  • Can sesame consumption improve blood pressure? A systematic review and
           meta-analysis of controlled trials
    • Authors: Hossein Khosravi-Boroujeni; Elham Nikbakht, Ernesta Natanelov, Saman Khalesi
      Abstract: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and renal failure. Sesame consumption may benefit blood pressure (BP) due to its high polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, phytosterol and lignans content. To clarify this, a systematically review and meta-analysis of controlled trials have been conducted. The PubMed (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Library (Central) databases were systematically searched until August 2016. Eight controlled trials with a total of 843 participants met the eligibility criteria. A random effect meta-analysis showed sesame consumption can reduce systolic BP (−7.83 mmHg, 95% CI:-14.12, −1.54; p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T03:15:54.111946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8361
  • Antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition
           of Pimpinella anisum L. as affected by zinc fertilizer
    • Authors: Vahid Tavallali; Sadegh Rahmati, Atefeh Bahmanzadegan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAntioxidant activity and essential oil content may considerably vary with respect to the environmental conditions, especially nutrient availability. Among the micronutrients, zinc is needed by plants in small amounts, but yet crucial to plant development. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc fertilization on the antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum fruit.RESULTSFoliar application of Zn fertilizer considerably increased the number of detected essential oil components up to forty five. Zinc application at the rate of 0.2% (w/v) significantly enhanced the levels of β-Bisabolene, Germacrene D, n-Decane and α-Zingiberene. While, the adverse trend was demonstrated for (E)-Anethole and Geijerene. Application of 0.2% Zn induced considerable high phenolic compounds. Chlorogenic acid had the highest level between eight detected phenolic compounds in treated plants. The maximum antioxidant activity was monitored through the application of 0.2% zinc fertilizer.CONCLUSIONOur findings indicated that the quality and quantity of anise fruit essential oil components were significantly altered by application of low levels of Zn. After foliar application of Zn, polyphenolic contents as well as antioxidant activity of anise fruit increased. Using zinc fertilizer is an efficient method to improve the pharmaceutical and food properties of anise fruit.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T03:01:29.090817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8360
  • Remote measurement of sunflower seed moisture content by the use of
    • Authors: Vitali L. Litvischenko; Igor Ya. Nikiforov, Igor V. Ershov
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe modern agriculture demands new methods and equipment that allow operators to conduct the instant control of moisture content over a wide area of agricultural fields with the purpose of providing the farmers with the optimal moment of harvesting mature seeds and crops. The authors proposed a new method and experimentally investigated the possibility to accomplish remote sensing of moisture content of sunflower seeds by using a microwave radiation of a millimeter range.RESULTSAn experimental device for measuring the coefficient of reflection of electromagnetic waves from sunflower inflorescence in a frequency range of 25.9 – 37.5 GHz was created. The obtained results show that the moisture of mature sunflower seeds affects the reflected signal. The difference in the reflected signal from the front and backside of unripe sunflower inflorescence was also found.CONCLUSIONThe obtained results show that the microwave radiation can be used to determine a degree of readiness of the seeds for harvesting. The proposed new method opens up the possibility of remote instant diagnostics of the sunflower seed ripeness on the fields.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T03:01:27.798177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8359
  • Chemical and optical characterization of white efflorescences on dry
           fermented sausages under modified atmosphere packaging
    • Authors: Felix H Walz; Monika Gibis, Kurt Herrmann, Jörg Hinrichs, Jochen Weiss
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDry fermented sausages that are packed under modified atmosphere are often affected by the formation of white crystals on the surface. These so called efflorescences are rejected by the consumers and lead to high financial losses for the meat processing industry. In this study, the distribution of efflorescence causing components was investigated over the sausage profile during 8 weeks storage under modified atmosphere at 4 °C. In addition, two visual methods (image and sensory analyses) were compared regarding the ability to quantify the efflorescence content.RESULTSThe initial formation of efflorescences was observed after 2 weeks (7%). After 4 weeks of storage, 23.4% of the sausage surface was covered with efflorescences and the amount of efflorescences did not change significantly by the end of storage. Furthermore, chemical analyses revealed that magnesium (increased by 98.1%), lactate (increased by 54.2%) and creatine (increased by 51.8%) are enriched on the sausage surface during storage.CONCLUSIONSensory and image analyses lead to comparable results (r = 0.992) and therefore both are suitable to quantify the amount of efflorescences. The moisture gradient in the interior of the sausages which is built upon drying is supposed to be the driving force for the movement of efflorescence causing compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T23:40:40.783036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8358
  • Detection of lunasin in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and the in
           vitro evaluation of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
    • Authors: Guixing Ren; Yingying Zhu, Zhenxing Shi, Jianhui Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLunasin is a novel cancer-preventive peptide that has been detected in various plants. However, the presence and bioactivity of lunasin in quinoa have not been demonstrated.RESULTSLunasin was detected in quinoa using ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography–electrosparay ionization–mass spectrometry. The content in 15 quinoa samples ranged from 1.01 × 10−3 g kg−1 dry seed to 4.89 × 10−3 g kg−1 dry seed. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in lunasin content among different cultivars (yy22, xsg86, xsg59, yy30 and yy19) from the same area and the same cultivar from different areas (Hainan, Hebei and Shanxi provinces) were observed. The lunasin isolated and purified from quinoa (QLP) exhibited a weak DPPH radical scavenging activity (no IC50 value), but a strong ABTS+ radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 1.45 g L−1) and oxygen radical scavenging activity (40.06 µmol L−1 Trolox equivalents/g QLP when the concentration was 3.20 g L−1). In addition, QLP inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by up to 44.77%, 39.81% and 33.50%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.40 g L−1.CONCLUSIONTaken together, these findings indicate that lunasin presents in quinoa and is bioactive, which strengthens the recommendations for the development of quinoa-based functional foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T10:15:59.064331-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8278
  • The plant growth-promoting bacteria Kosakonia radicincitans improves fruit
           yield and quality of Solanum lycopersicum
    • Authors: Beatrice Berger; Susanne Baldermann, Silke Ruppel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProduction and the quality of tomato fruits have a strong economic relevance. Microorganisms such as the plant growth-promoting bacteria Kosakonia radicincitans (DSM 16656) were demonstrated to improve shoot and root growth of young tomato plants, but data on yield increase and fruit quality by K. radicincitans are lacking.RESULTSHere, we investigated how K. radicincitans affects tomato fruits. After inoculating tomato seeds with K. radicincitans or a sodium chloride buffer control solution, we monitored stalk length, first flowering and the amount of ripened fruits produced by inoculated and non-inoculated plants over a period of 21 weeks. Inoculation of tomato seeds with K. radicincitans accelerated flowering and ripening of tomato fruits. We also analyzed sugars, acidity, amino acids, volatile organic compounds, and carotenoid contents in the fruits.CONCLUSIONWe found that the plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) affect the amino acid, sugar and volatile composition of ripened fruits, contributing to a more pleasant-tasting fruit without forfeiting selected quality indicators.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T03:25:16.226834-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8357
  • Antioxidant and anticancer effects of functional peptides from
           ovotransferrin hydrolysates
    • Authors: Jae Hoon Lee; Sun Hee Moon, Hyun Suk Kim, Eunju Park, Dong Uk Ahn, Hyun-Dong Paik
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEgg white is a good source for making functional peptides that can be used in food industry. Ovotransferrin (OTF) is one of the major egg white proteins with many functional properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of ovotransferrin is known to further improve the functional activities of OTF. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of functional peptides produced by two-step enzyme hydrolysis of OTF.RESULTSOTF hydrolysates were prepared using promod 278P, thermolysin and a combination of the two enzymes. OTF and OTF hydrolysates showed strong antioxidant activities when analyzed using the DPPH assay. However, only OTF hydrolysates showed a strong free radical scavenging activity when NO- or ABTS-scavenging activity was measured. OTF hydrolysates showed stronger cytotoxic activities than the natural OTF against human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, OTF hydrolysates prepared with promod 278P+thermolysin combination showed the strongest cytotoxic activity and their IC50 values were 0.79, 0.78, 0.92, and 0.78 mg mL−1 against AGS, LoVo, HT-29, and HeLa, respectively.CONCLUSIONThese results indicated that the two-step enzyme hydrolysates of OTF have a great potential to be used as a food ingredient with antioxidant and anticancer activities.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T02:30:42.398396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8356
  • Double Maturation Raisonnée: the impact of on-vine berry dehydration on
           the berry and wine composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Denis Rusjan; Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDouble Maturation Raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties.RESULTSDMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L−1) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, while the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines.CONCLUSIONChanges in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of ‘Merlot’, as one of the most promising red varieties.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T02:15:17.383127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8354
  • Effect of oak wood barrels capacities and utilization time on phenolic and
           sensorial profile evolution of an Encruzado white wine
    • Authors: Paulo Nunes; Sara Muxagata, Ana C. Correia, Fernando M. Nunes, Fernanda Cosme, António M. Jordão
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeveral works reported the influence of diverse winemaking technologies in white wine characteristics. However, the impact of the use of different oak wood barrels capacities and utilization time on the evolution of white wine phenolic content and sensorial characteristics, are not usually considered. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oak wood barrels capacities and utilization time on the evolution of phenolic compounds, browning potential index and sensorial profile of ‘Encruzado’ white wine.RESULTSFor the 180 aging days considered, the use of new oak wood barrels, induced a greater increase of global phenolic composition, including several individual compounds, such as, gallic and ellagic acid, independently of the barrel capacity. Tendency for a lesser increase of the browning potential index values was detected for white wines aged in new oak wood barrels. The sensorial profile evolution, showed significant differences only for the aroma descriptors, namely for “wood aroma” and “aroma intensity”, being white wine aged in 225 liters new oak wood barrels the highest scored.CONCLUSIONThe results show that in general, the use of different capacities and utilization time of oak wood barrels used for white wine aging could play an important role in white wine quality.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T02:03:12.404195-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8355
  • The relationship between extent of hemoglobin purification and the
           performance characteristics of a blood-based flocculant
    • Authors: Rafael A. Garcia; Lorelie P. Bumanlag, George J. Piazza
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWhole blood is a highly complex substance. Hemoglobin, the most abundant blood protein, can function as a flocculant; most of the other blood components exhibit poor flocculant activity. For the purpose of processing raw whole blood into a flocculant product, the practical value of hemoglobin purification is uncertain.RESULTSThis study compares the flocculant performance of whole blood to that of three different semi-purified hemoglobin preparations. The whole blood is processed to remove the plasma proteins, the solid cell components, or both. The flocculant performance of whole blood and each hemoglobin preparation is compared over wide ranges of flocculant dose and suspension pH. The clarified liquids are examined for increased in chemical oxygen demand and Kjeldahl nitrogen. Hemoglobin preparations that excluded plasma gave peak flocculation performance at approximately 30 mg solids per g suspended kaolin, and gave greatly reduced performance at higher doses; preparations that included plasma gave very similar peak performance, but also maintained relatively high performance at doses up to at least 200 mg/g.CONCLUSIONSIt is shown that removal of the plasma and the cell solids does not improve the flocculant performance or lessen the residual pollutants in the treated water.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T01:50:29.060294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8352
  • The origin of aliphatic hydrocarbons in olive oil
    • Authors: Manuel Pineda; María Rojas, Gregorio Gálvez-Valdivieso, Miguel Aguilar
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere are many substances that can interfere with olive oil quality. Some of them are well characterized, but many others have an unknown origin. Saturated hydrocarbons make an extraordinary complex family of numerous molecules, some of them present naturally in vegetable oils. When major natural saturated hydrocarbons are analyzed by standard chromatographic methods, this complex mixture of saturated hydrocarbons appears as a hump in the chromatogram and is commonly named as unresolved complex mixture (UCM) whose origin remains unknown.RESULTSIn this work we studied the occurrence and the origin of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons in olive oil. Hydrocarbons were analyzed in olive oil and along the industrial process of oil extraction. We also analyzed n-alkanes and UCM fraction of hydrocarbons in leaf, fruit and oil from different varieties and different locations, and we also analyzed the soils at these locations.CONCLUSIONSWe conclude that the hydrocarbons present in olive oil do not necessarily have their origin in a contamination during olive oil elaboration; they seem to have a natural origin, as a result of olive tree metabolism and/or as the result of an intake and accumulation by the olive tree directly from the environment along its entire life cycle.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T01:34:56.552262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8353
  • Influences of superheated steam roasting on changes in sugar, amino acid
           and flavour active components of cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao)
    • Authors: Wahidu Zzaman; Rajeev Bhat, Tajul Aris Yang, Azhar Mat Easa
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRoasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150–250°C) and time (10–50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated.RESULTSThe concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg−1) at 200°C for 10 min.CONCLUSIONThe superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T03:10:29.058076-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8302
  • A novel feedstuff: ensiling of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) stover and
           apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) mixtures. Evaluation of the nutritive
           value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability
    • Authors: Ederson Andrade; Alexandre Gonçalves, Ana Mendes-Ferreira, Valéria Silva, Victor Pinheiro, Miguel Rodrigues, Luis Ferreira
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAgro-industrial by-products are of low economic value as foods for human consumption but may have potential value as animal feedstuffs. This study evaluated a novel feedstuff, ensiled discarded apple (85%) and cowpea stover (15%) mixtures with two different ensiling periods (45 and 60 days), regarding the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability.RESULTSGenerally, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed between ensiling periods for nutritive value and fermentation characteristics. Silages were stable after ensiling, presenting high lactic acid (77.3 g kg−1 dry matter (DM)) and acetic acid (54.7 g kg−1 DM) and low ethanol (15.7 g kg−1 DM) and NH3-N (105.6 g kg−1 total N) concentrations. No butyric acid was detected in silages, and they were aerobically stable for up to 216 h. Lactic acid bacteria numbers were high at silo opening (7.14 log colony-forming units (CFU) g−1), while Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and yeasts/moulds were low (2.44 log CFU g−1). Yeast/mould and Enterobacteriaceae numbers grew considerably during 12 days of air exposure.CONCLUSIONA mixture of low calibre discarded apples with cowpea stover can be used as animal feed after the ensiling process owing to its nutritive value and long aerobic stability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T03:05:30.752889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8307
  • Recent advances in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) properties in pulses:
           an overview
    • Authors: Nooshin Nikmaram; BN Dar, Shahin Roohinejad, Mohamed Koubaa, Francisco J Barba, Ralf Greiner, Stuart K Johnson
      Abstract: Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of pulses that are extensively used as foods around the world due to their beneficial effects on human health including their low glycaemic index, cholesterol lowering effects, ability to decrease the risk of heart diseases and their protective effects against some cancers. These health benefits are a result of their components such as bioactive proteins, dietary fibre, slowly digested starches, minerals and vitamins, and bioactive compounds. Among these bioactive compounds, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-proteinogenic amino acid with numerous reported health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic and hypotensive effects, depression and anxiety reduction) is of particular interest. GABA is primarily synthesised in plant tissues by the decarboxylation of l-glutamic acid in the presence of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). It is widely reported that during various processes including enzymatic treatment, gaseous treatment (e.g. with carbon dioxide), and fermentation (with lactic acid bacteria), GABA content increases in the plant matrix. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of GABA in pulses with special focus on mechanisms by which GABA levels are increased and the analytical extraction and estimation methods for this bioactive phytochemical. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T02:00:38.483049-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8283
  • Influence of biofilm surface layer protein A (BslA) on the gel structure
           of myofibril protein from chicken breast
    • Authors: Niamat Ullah; Xuejiao Wang, Lin Chen, Robert M Hackman, Xinglian Xu, Zhixi Li, Xianchao Feng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDifferent techniques have been applied to alter MP structure, which further promotes protein-protein interactions and influencing the MP gelling characteristics. Influence of BslA from natto food (protein concentration, 30 mg mL−1; at 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g kg−1) on the characteristics of MP gel of chicken breast was investigated.RESULTSResults shows that cooking loss significantly (P
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:15:26.994821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8339
  • Factors influencing gelation properties of corn germ proteins
    • Authors: Xiang Dong Sun; Dan Shi, Yu Lan, Xin Miao Yao, Rui Ying Zhang, Ying Lei Zhang, Ping Su, Hong Shan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAs a by-product of the oil industry, corn germ meal is mainly applied as a high-protein ingredient in animal feeds, without any application of the specific functional properties of corn germ protein (CGP). Factors influencing the gelation properties of CGP in relation to its dynamic rheology are still unclear owing to limited information.RESULTSCGP concentrate was recovered by the isoelectric precipitation method, and factors affecting its gelation properties were investigated using a rheometer. A weak gel formed at natural pH with 0.3 mol L−1 NaCl, and the minimum gel-forming concentration was observed at 150 g kg−1. Higher CGP protein concentrations induced stiffer gels, and linear relationships were found between protein concentration and gel stiffness (G′) as well as between protein concentration and gel viscosity (G″). Lower heating and cooling rate promoted the formation of stiffer gels. CGP gelation was both NaCl- and pH-dependent. Sodium tripolyphosphate significantly increased gel stiffness with increasing concentration. No difference in gel elasticity (tanδ) was observed with the inclusion of various concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate or sodium polyphosphate.CONCLUSIONHeating and cooling rate, NaCl, protein concentration, pH and phosphates all impact the gel-forming ability of CGP concentrate. Desired gel properties can be obtained through adjustment of these factors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:00:54.573651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8304
  • Morphological and physiological responses of different wheat genotypes to
           chilling stress: a cue to explain yield loss
    • Authors: Pu-Fang Li; Bao-Luo Ma, You-Cai Xiong, Wen-Yuan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe eco-physiological mechanism of wheat yield loss resulting from chilling stress is a fundamental scientific issue. However, previous studies have focused on hexaploid wheats, and few studies on the morphological and physiological plasticity of wheat plants. Six different wheat genotypes were tested under chilling stress to investigate the physio-morphological parameters as well as the loss of grain yield in growth chambers.RESULTSChilling stress resulted in significant loss in grain yield in all genotypes. Under chilling stress, diploid wheats generated zero harvest, and tetraploid genotypes also suffered from a pronounced loss in grain yield, compared with the control group. In contrast, hexaploid genotypes acquired relatively high maintenance rate of grain yield among three species.CONCLUSIONSDiploid and tetraploid wheat genotypes maintained relatively large leaf area and high photosynthetic rates, but they were subjected to significant declines in vascular bundle number and productive tillers as a consequence of the inhibition by sink growth under chilling stress. The hexaploid wheats were found to have relatively low leaf area and photosynthetic rates. These genotypes also stored more soluble carbohydrates and exhibited stronger sink enhancement, ensuring the translocation and redistribution of assimilates. Our findings provided a new theoretical understanding of yield stabilization in the domestication process of wheat genotypes under chilling stress. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:55:28.828582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8271
  • Fruit position within the canopy affects kernel lipid composition of
    • Authors: Antonio Pannico; Chiara Cirillo, Matteo Giaccone, Pasquale Scognamiglio, Raffaele Romano, Nicola Caporaso, Raffaele Sacchi, Boris Basile
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this research was to study the variability in kernel composition within the canopy of hazelnut trees.RESULTSKernel fresh and dry weight increased linearly with fruit height above the ground. Fat content decreased, while protein and ash content increased, from the bottom to the top layers of the canopy. The level of unsaturation of fatty acids decreased from the bottom to the top of the canopy. Thus, the kernels located in the bottom layers of the canopy appear to be more interesting from a nutritional point of view, but their lipids may be more exposed to oxidation. The content of different phytosterols increased progressively from bottom to top canopy layers.CONCLUSIONMost of these effects correlated with the pattern in light distribution inside the canopy. The results of this study indicate that fruit position within the canopy is an important factor in determining hazelnut kernel growth and composition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:16:03.610721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8348
  • Modifications of soil N availability and grapevine N under cover crops
           influence on the wine biogenic amines composition
    • Authors: Eva P. Pérez-Álvarez; Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Maria Cabrita, Enrique García-Escudero, Fernando Peregrina
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDVineyard soil management can modify the nitrogen soil availability and therefore, grape amino acid content. These compounds are precursors of biogenic amines, which have negative effects to wine quality and human health. The objective was to study if the effect of conventional tillage and two cover crops (barley and clover) on grapevine nitrogen status, could be relate with wine biogenic amines. During four years, soil NO₃−-N, nitrogen content in leaf and wine biogenic amines concentration were determined.RESULTSBarley reduced soil NO₃−-N availability and clover increased it. In 2011, at bloom, nitrogen content decreased with the barley treatment in both blade and petiole. In 2012, nitrogen content, in both leaf tissues at bloom, was greater with clover than with tillage and barley treatments. Also, total biogenic amines decreased in barley respect to tillage and clover treatments. There were correlations between some individual and total biogenic amines concentration respect to the nitrogen content in the leaf tissues.CONCLUSIONThe wine biogenic amines concentration can be affected by the grapevine nitrogen status, provoked by changes in the soil NO₃−-N availability with both cover crops treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T00:45:24.671067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8349
  • Influence of extraction pH on the foaming, emulsification, oil-binding and
           visco-elastic properties of marama protein
    • Authors: Muhammad Gulzar; John R.N. Taylor, Amanda Minnaar
      Abstract: BackgroundMarama bean protein, as extracted previously at pH 8, forms a viscous, adhesive and extensible dough. To obtain a protein isolate with optimum functional properties, protein extraction under slightly acidic conditions (pH 6) was investigated.ResultsTwo-dimensional electrophoresis showed that pH 6 extracted marama protein lacked some basic 11S legumin polypeptides, present in pH 8 extracted protein. However, it additionally contained acidic high molecular weight polypeptides (approx. 180 kDa), which were disulphide cross-linked into larger proteins. pH 6 extracted marama proteins had similar emulsification properties to soy protein isolate and several times higher foaming capacity than pH 8 extracted protein, egg white and soy protein isolate. pH 6 extracted protein dough was more elastic than pH 8 extracted protein, approaching the elasticity of wheat gluten.ConclusionMarama protein extracted at pH 6 has excellent food-type functional properties, probably because it lacks some 11S polypeptides but has additional high molecular weight proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T00:40:46.138051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8351
  • Effect of 6-gingerol on physicochemical properties of grass
           carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) surimi fortified with perilla oil during
           refrigerated storage
    • Authors: Hongbo Mi; Bo Zhao, Cong Wang, Shumin Yi, Yongxia Xu, Jianrong Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSurimi is produced from deboned fish muscle through being washed to remove blood, lipids, sarcoplasmic proteins, and other impurities. There is an increasing interest in the fortification of surimi with ω-3 PUFAs because of their health benefits. However, lipid oxidation should be considered as an important factor during storage. Hence, in this study, the quality properties and oxidative stability of surimi fortified with 30 g kg−1 perilla oil (PO), or 5 g kg−1 6-gingerol (GI) or their combination (PO+GI) was investigated.RESULTSPerilla oil significantly improved whiteness of surimi gel, but negatively influenced its gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture. However, there was no significant difference in texture properties among GI, PO+GI and control group. During the whole storage period, GI and PO+GI group had higher gel strength and WHC than control and PO group. Moreover, lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), carbonyls content and total plate count (TPC) were observed in GI group, compared with other groups.CONCLUSIONPerilla oil and 6-gingerol could be applied together to effectively fortify the qualities. Additionally, 6-gingerol could prevent lipid and protein oxidation and microbial growth of surimi during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T00:20:45.959718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8350
  • Cover Image, Volume 97, Issue 7
    • Authors: Haiyan Zhou; Jie Yong, Han Gao, Tong Li, Hongshi Xiao, Yongyao Wu
      Abstract: The cover image, by Haiyan Zhou et al, is based on the Research Article Mannanase Man23 mutant library construction based on a novel cell-free protein expression system,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.8029.The cover image, by Haiyan Zhou et al, is based on the Research Article Mannanase Man23 mutant library construction based on a novel cell-free protein expression system,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.8029.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T04:43:20.337204-05:
  • In vitro fermentation of oat β-glucan and hydrolysates by fecal
           microbiota and selected probiotic strains
    • Authors: Ji-lin Dong; Xiao Yu, Liang-er Dong, Rui-ling Shen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEmerging evidence suggested that the prebiotic ability of β-glucan was intimately related to its molecular weight (Mw). However, the effect of oat β-glucan with differing Mw on gut homeostasis was inconsistent. Importantly, knowledge of the fermentation properties of oat β-glucan fractions was still limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prebiotic potential of raw and hydrolyzed oat β-glucan during in vitro fermentation by fecal microbiota and selected probiotic strains.RESULTSThe results obtained showed that both oat β-glucan (OG) and hydrolysates (OGH) comparably promoted the growth of fecal Lactobacillus counts (P < 0.05). Importantly, OGH revealed greater fermentability compared to OG as denoted by lower pH value and higher short-chain fatty acid concentration (P < 0.05). Moreover, OGH was found to be more favorable to provide growth substrates for Lactobacillus helveticus R389 (LR389), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 (BB536) than OG, and was preferentially utilized by LR389, LGG and BB536 as the sole carbon source.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study indicate that oat β-glucan hydrolysates could serve as a more promising material for developing novel symbiotic foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T04:21:22.575794-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8292
  • Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during
           heat-moisture treatments
    • Authors: Thanh-Hien Vu; Scott Bean, Chao-Feng Hsieh, Yong-Cheng Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure.RESULTSSorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg−1 w.b) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120, and 140 °C) and times (1, 2, and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg−1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg−1 vs. 56 g kg−1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg−1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction.CONCLUSIONHMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T04:00:24.463617-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8346
  • Identification of the compositional changes in Orthosiphon stamineus
    • Authors: Raghunath Pariyani; Intan Safinar Ismail, Amalina Ahmad Azam, Faridah Abas, Khozirah Shaari
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDJava tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools.RESULTSA total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.CONCLUSIONMetabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T03:25:45.247864-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8288
  • Seed priming with KNO3 mediates biochemical processes to inhibit lead (Pb)
           toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.)
    • Authors: Fahim Nawaz; M. Naeem, A. Akram, M.Y. Ashraf, KS Ahmad, B. Zulfiqar, Hasan Sardar, R.N. Shabbir, S. Majeed, M. Asif Shehzad, I. Anwar
      Abstract: BackgroundAccumulation of lead (Pb) in agricultural soils has become a major factor for reduced crop yields and poses serious threats to humans consuming agricultural products. The present study investigated the effects of KNO3 seed priming (0 and 0.5% KNO3) on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings exposed to Pb toxicity (0, 1300 and 2550 mg kg−1 Pb).ResultsPb exposure markedly reduced the growth of maize seedlings and resulted in higher Pb accumulation in roots than shoots. Pretreatment of seeds with KNO3 significantly improved the germination percentage and increased physiological indices. A stimulating effect of KNO3 seed priming was also observed on pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents) of Pb-stressed plants. Low translocation of Pb from roots to shoots caused an increased accumulation of total free amino acids and higher activities of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in roots as compared to shoot, which were further enhanced by exogenous KNO3 supply to prevent Pb toxicity.ConclusionMaize accumulates more Pb in roots than shoot at early growth stages. Priming of seeds with KNO3 prevents Pb toxicity, which may be exploited to improve seedling establishment in crop species grown under Pb contaminated soils.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T00:01:13.956208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8347
  • Effects of dehydration methods on quality characteristics of yellow
           passion fruit coproducts
    • Authors: Neiton C. Silva; Claudio R. Duarte, Marcos A. S. Barrozo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe production and processing of fruits generate a large amount of residues, which are usually disposed of or underused, representing losses of raw material and energy. The present paper investigates the effect of four dehydration techniques (convective, infrared, microwave, and freeze-drying) on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) coproducts and the influence of the main variables on moisture removal and bioactive compounds. The compounds analyzed were total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and pectin.RESULTSThe content of phenolics and flavonoids increased after dehydration in all techniques investigated and the process temperatures directly affected the ascorbic acid content. Microwave dehydration showed the best results for most bioactive compounds analyzed, if performed in suitable process conditions. However, the highest levels of pectin content were obtained by freeze-drying and convective dehydration.CONCLUSIONThis study reinforces the importance of the adequate use of passion fruit coproducts due to the high levels of bioactive compounds in this material. Microwave dehydration presented the best results, which indicates the potential use of this technique for a better exploitation of fruit coproducts. Larger quantities of pectin were extracted from samples dehydrated through methodologies with long-time process and low temperatures, such as convective drying and freeze-drying.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T23:35:21.831388-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8344
  • Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative potential
           of 10 common edible flowers from China assessed using a simulated in vitro
           digestion–dialysis process combined with cellular assays
    • Authors: Shuqin Mao; Weisu Huang, Baiyi Lu, Lufei Zheng, Fei Zhou, Yajing Zhao, Maiquan Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion–dialysis process and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 common edible flowers from China and their functional components.RESULTSGallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa, and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion–dialysis process decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95%–90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22%–87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion–dialysis process, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R2 = 0.794–0.924, p
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T23:25:24.123651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8345
  • Biological Activities of Undescribed North American Lichen Species
    • Authors: Erik A. Yeash; Lyndon Letwin, Lada Malek, Zacharias Suntres, Kerry Knudsen, Lew P Christopher
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities.RESULTSThe results from this study demonstrated the following: 1) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities which were concentration-dependent; 2) the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; the X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 ug mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 ug mL−1 against Enterococcus faecalis; 3) the acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells at with an effective concentration (EC50) of 87 µg mL−1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited.CONCLUSIONNew lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T22:00:23.483763-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8340
  • Cold sweetening diversity in Andean potato germplasm from Argentina
    • Authors: Silvana L. Colman; Gabriela A. Massa, Martín F. Carboni, Sergio E. Feingold
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of sucrose and reducing sugars in potato tubers at low temperatures. This process is central for the potato processing industry. During potato chip and French fry production, reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction to produce dark pigmented products not acceptable to consumers. Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Group Andigena) constitute an enormous wealth of potato germplasm that can contribute to increase genetic diversity in breeding programs of many traits, including CIS.RESULTSWe analyzed reducing sugar content and chip quality in freshly harvested and cold stored tubers from 48 native accessions. Andean accessions showed high variation in reducing sugar content and were classified in three types of CIS responses, I- Reducing sugar content before and after 4 °C storage was lower than the value required by industry; II- reducing sugar content before storage was acceptable, but after 4 °C storage incremented up to non-acceptable levels; and III- reducing sugar content was unacceptable before and after storage.CONCLUSIONFive Andean accessions presented acceptable reducing sugar content and good chip quality before and after 4 °C storage in a consistent manner throughout several experiments. These features make them a useful source for improving potato industry.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T21:40:22.451504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8343
  • Predicament of Chinese Legislation on GMF Labeling Management and
           Solutions—From the Perspective of the New Food Safety Law
    • Authors: Wei Li; Han Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis paper considers the background of Article 69 of the newly revised Food Safety Law in China, in combination with the current situation of Chinese legislation on genetically modified foods(GMFs)labeling management, compares with foreign genetically modified food labeling management system, reveals the deficiencies in Chinese legislation on GMFs labeling management, to note the institutionalize, systemic consider of GMFs labeling management system in China.RESULTSChina adheres to the principle of mandatory labeling based on both product and process in relation to GMFs and implements the system of process-centered mandatory labeling under the negotiation-construction form. However, China has not finally defined the supervision mode of mandatory labeling of GMFs through laws, and it's a challenge for GMFs labeling management in the event the two mandatory labeling modes coexist.CONCLUSIONThere're flaws in the mandatory labeling of GMFs in Article 69 of the newly revised Food Safety Law of China, only principle-based terms have been included in Article 69 of the newly revised Food Safety Law, it's theoretically and practically difficult for mandatory labeling of GMFs in juridical practices. Moreover, the GMFs labeling management system has been lagging behind. This paper describes and analyses the Article 69 of the newly revised Food Safety Law, through defining GMFs, adding the concept of threshold, allergization, unique code, potential toxicity, to expand the scope of the definition of GMFs and realize regulation of GMFs, and improve GMFs labeling management legislation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T21:35:25.671328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8342
  • Immunostimulatory effect of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seed
           on macrophages
    • Authors: Momoko Ishida; Kosuke Nishi, Nanami Kunihiro, Hiroyuki Onda, Sogo Nishimoto, Takuya Sugahara
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCoriandrum sativum L. seed is generally used as a spice and crude drug. Although many functions of the various components in C. sativum L. seed have been reported, the immunostimulatory effect of water-soluble components in C. sativum L. seed has not been studied. In this study, we focused on the immunostimulatory effect of C. sativum L. seed aqueous extract (CAE) on macrophages as a novel health function of C. sativum L. seed components.RESULTSCAE significantly enhanced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages by enhancing the expression levels of these cytokine genes. CAE also stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and the phagocytosis activity in RAW264.7 cells. We suggest that the activity of CAE is due to the upregulation of MAPK and NF-κB cascades via TLR4. In addition, the IL-6 production by peritoneal macrophages collected from CAE-administered mice was significantly enhanced, suggesting that CAE could stimulate macrophage activity in vivo.CONCLUSIONOur findings suggest that CAE contains a novel water-soluble component with an immunostimulatory effect on macrophages. CAE would contribute to activating host defense against pathogens by stimulating the innate immunity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T21:10:25.094339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8341
  • Purification of Lactobacillus acidophilus surface-layer protein and its
           immunomodulatory effects on RAW264.7 cells
    • Authors: Dandan Zhang; Mengting Wu, Yuxing Guo, Mingyue Xun, Wenwen Wang, Zhen Wu, Daodong Pan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSurface-layer proteins (SLP) have been found in the outermost layer of the cell wall in many types of lactobacillus are considered to be an important factor with respect to intestinal immunity.RESULTSThe present study compared the effects of SLP extracted by different concentrations of LiCl and carbamide, and subsequently identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. Furthermore, RAW 264.7 cells were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of SLP. SLP were derived from Lactobacillus acidophilus CICC6074 with a molecular weight of 46 kDa, and consisted of 16.9% α-helix, 42.3% β-sheet, 20.8% β-turns and 22.5% random coils. SLP promoted NO secretion and higher quantities of NO were produced as the SLP concentrations increased. SLP concentrations over 50 µg mL−1 significantly decreased the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α secreted by RAW264.7 cells.CONCLUSIONSLP can trigger immunomodulatory effects in RAW 264.7 cells. This provides crucial information that will enable the further use of L. acidophilus in food, medicine and other products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T07:50:40.656846-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8294
  • Occurrence of multiple mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites in animal
           feed and maize samples from Egypt using LC-MS/MS
    • Authors: Mohamed F Abdallah; Gözde Girgin, Terken Baydar, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in 156 animal feed (n = 77) and maize (n = 79) samples collected from three regions in Upper Egypt. The target analytes were quantified using the ‘dilute and shoot’ approach, followed by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.RESULTSIn total, 115 fungal and bacterial metabolites were detected in both matrices, including the regulated mycotoxins in the European Union, in addition to the modified forms such as deoxynivalenol-3-glucosid. Furthermore, some Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillum metabolites beside other fungal and bacterial metabolites were detected for the first time in Egypt. All of the samples were contaminated with at least four toxins. On average, 26 different metabolites were detected per sample with a trend of more metabolites in feed than in maize. The maximum number of analytes observed per samples was 54 analytes at maximum concentrations ranging from 0.04 µg kg−1 for tentoxin to 25 040 µg kg−1 for kojic acid.CONCLUSIONAccording to the international standards, the contamination rates in the investigated regions were not alarming, except for AFB1 in maize. The necessity of further and continuous monitoring is highly recommended to establish a database for mycotoxin occurrence. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T05:36:48.368322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8293
  • Correlating enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of
           Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids
    • Authors: Haining Xu; Xiaoming Zhang, Eric Karangwa, Shuqin Xia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUp to now, only limited research on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) has been reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. In the present study, BIC and antioxidant capacity, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ reducing power activity, of the MRPs derived from 12 different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated.RESULTSThe MRPs of cysteine (Cys), cystine, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His) showed higher BIC compared to other amino acids. Lysine (Lys)-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A420) but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC and the lowest A420. The A420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids, except Cys and Lys. MRPs from tyrosine (Tyr) showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared to other amino acids. Partial least squares regression analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe2+ reducing power of MRPs from 12 amino acids with glucose or fructose, except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, whereas neutral and alkaline pH were suitable for His and Arg, respectively. Increasing both heating temperature and time over a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, whereas any further increase deteriorates their browning inhibition efficiencies.CONCLUSIONThe types of amino acid, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There is no clear relationship between BIC and the antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of the Maillard reaction are considered as variables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T02:40:53.133048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8295
  • Genotype-by-environment effect on bioactive compounds in strawberry
           (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)
    • Authors: Luisa Palmieri; Domenico Masuero, Paolo Martinatti, Giuseppe Baratto, Stefan Martens, Urska Vrhovsek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe assessment of the relative contribution of genotype, environment and the genotype-by-environmental (G × E) interaction to the performance of varieties is necessary when determining adaptation capacity.RESULTSThe influence of temperature, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation and sunshine duration on the quality and the composition of fruits was investigated in nine strawberry cultivars grown at three different altitudes. The UV-radiation intensity affected both pH and sugar content, which were higher for most of the varieties at low altitudes, whereas total titratable acidity was less. Fruits from plants grown at low elevation generally had a higher benzoic acid derivative content. A significant correlation was found between phenylpropanoid content and UV-radiation and sunshine duration. The flavone class appeared to be affected most by the variety effect, in contrast to flavonols and ellagitannins, which were highly affected by the environment. The accumulation of a number of secondary metabolites in strawberry fruits grown in an unusual environmental condition highlighted the acclimation effects in terms of the response of plants to abiotic stress. Finally, the genetic factor only appears to be more influential for the varieties ‘Sveva’ and ‘Marmolada’ with respect to all of the parameters considered.CONCLUSIONA ‘plant environmental metabolomics’ approach has been used successfully to assess the phenotypic plasticity of varieties that showed different magnitudes with respect to the relationship between environmental conditions and the accumulation of healthy compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T02:35:43.662672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8290
  • Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation
           and degree of hydrolysis
    • Authors: Dara O'Sullivan; Alice B Nongonierma, Richard J FitzGerald
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness.RESULTSEighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38–10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05).CONCLUSIONEnzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:02:20.951552-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8306
  • Iron species determination by task specific ionic liquid based in-situ
           solvent formation dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with
           flame atomic absorption spectrometry
    • Authors: Susan Sadeghi; Vahid Ashoori
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe task specific ionic liquid (TSIL) of 1-N-ethtyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline was used as chelating agent and extracting solvent for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and subsequent determination of Fe(III) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry(FAAS). The in-situ solvent formation of the TSIL using KPF6 provided the desired water immiscible IL. The total Fe concentration could be determined after preoxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Various factors affected the proposed extraction procedure were optimized.RESULTSThe proposed analytical conditions were: sample pH 5, TSIL amount 0.3 % (w/v), KPF6 amount 0.15 % (w/v), anti-sticking 0.1% (w/v), and salt concentrations 5% (w/v). Under the optimal conditions, the linear dynamic ranges for Fe(III) and total Fe were 20–80 and 20–110 ng mL−1, respectively, with the detection limit of 6.9 ng mL−1 for Fe(III) and relative standard deviation of 2.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace Fe(III) in water (underground, tap, refined water and artificial sea water) and beverage (apple, tomato, and tea) samples.CONCLUSIONThe developed method offers advantages such as simplicity, ease of operation, and free of organic solvent for extraction of Fe(III) from aqueous solutions. It was successfully applied for iron speciation in different real samples.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T00:50:23.657578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8335
  • Determination of two potential toxicity metabolites derived from the
           disruption of the pksCT gene in Monascus aurantiacus Li As3.4384
    • Authors: Zhibing Huang; Baowei Su, Yang Xu, Laisheng Li, Yanping Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWe previously demonstrated that disruption of the pksCT gene of Monascus led to a greater than 98% decrease in its citrinin production capacity in Monascus (PHDS26). Two potentially toxic compounds, monascopyridine A (MPA) and monascopyridine B (MPB), were found in the fermentation products of the pksCT gene-disrupted Monascus. Moreover, a rapid and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of MPA and MPB. We studied the effects of various extraction parameters and designed an orthogonal experiment to investigate the importance of each factor.RESULTSThe optimal extraction conditions were: methanol concentration, 90%; extraction temperature, 40 °C; extraction time, 10 min; two extraction cycles; and a solid-liquid ratio of 1:25. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, good linearity was reached over the concentration ranges 0.5–200 µg mL−1 and 0.5–300 µg mL−1 for MPA and MPB, respectively, and the corresponding determination coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9997. The percentage relative standard deviation values of within-day and between-day precision for MPA were 2.0% and 2.1%, respectively; the corresponding values for MPB were 4.8% and 4.6%. The average recovery for MPA and MPB was 99.9% and 94%, respectively.CONCLUSIONMaximum MPA and MPB yields (2073.7 and 1961.7 µg g−1, respectively) were observed after 16 days of cultivation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:36:45.556317-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8291
  • Changes of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in germinated
           adlay seeds
    • Authors: Lei Xu; Pei Wang, Barkat Ali, Na Yang, Yisheng Chen, Fengfeng Wu, Xueming Xu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOver the years, germinated adlay products have been used as both food source and folk medicine. This study investigated the changes of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activities, and phenolic acid profiles of adlay seed during germination.RESULTSResults revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities varied with the germination stages. Germination significantly increased the free form phenolic and flavonoid contents by 112.5% and 168.3%, respectively. However, both of the bound form phenolic and flavonoid contents significantly decreased after germination. Phenolic acid compositions were quantified via HPLC analysis, and the levels of vanillic, p-coumaric, caffeic, hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids in the free phenolic extracts were found to be significantly increased. The improvement of the free and total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the germination process led to a significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities (evaluated by the ABTS, FRAP and ORAC assays). The TPC showed the highest correlation with ORAC values (r = 0.9979).CONCLUSIONGerminated adlay had higher free and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities than ungerminated adlay. This study indicates that germinated adlay could be a promising functional food, more suitable for human consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:36:36.208486-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8298
  • Analysis of α-helix unfolding in the pine nut peptide Lys-Cys-His-Lys-Pro
           induced by pulsed electric field
    • Authors: Jie Xing; Sitian Zhang, Mingdi Zhang, Songyi Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA variety of analytical techniques were applied to explore the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) on α-helix structural changes in the novel antioxidant peptide Lys-Cys-His-Lys-Pro (KCHKP, 611.76 Da).RESULTSThe relative α-helix content of the KCHKP peptide was significantly altered from 100% to 89.91 ± 0.97% when the electric pulse frequency was 1800 Hz and the field intensity was 10 kV cm−1. Moreover, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities of PEF-treated KCHKP were increased from 56.31% ± 0.74% to 84.33% ± 1.23% and from 40.56% ± 0.78% to 51.33% ± 0.27%, respectively.CONCLUSIONPEF treatment increased peptide linkage stretch vibration and altered hydrogen bonding of KCHKP. The stability of the α-helix structure was influenced by hydrogen bonds within the peptide linkage of KCHKP induced by PEF and was related to changes in antioxidant activity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:36:34.671465-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8273
  • Assessment of calcium and zinc accumulation in cultivated and wild apples
    • Authors: Liao Liao; Ting Fang, Baiquan Ma, Xianbao Deng, Li Zhao, Yuepeng Han
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDApple is one of the staple fruits worldwide which are a good source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about genetic variation for mineral nutrition in apple germplasm. In this study, the calcium and zinc contents in mature fruits of 378 apple cultivars and 39 wild relatives were assessed. Mineral concentrations were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS).RESULTSBoth calcium and zinc accumulation showed great variation among accessions tested. Overall, wild fruits were significantly richer in zinc than cultivated fruits, while the average concentration of calcium was similar between cultivated and wild fruits. The difference in zinc concentration between wild and cultivated fruits may be an indirect result of artificial selection on fruit characteristics during apple domestication. Moreover, calcium concentration in fruit showed a decreasing trend throughout fruit development of apple, while zinc concentration in fruit displayed a complex variation pattern in the late stages of fruit development.CONCLUSIONThe finding of a wild genetic variation for fruit calcium and zinc accumulation in apple germplasm could be helpful for future research on genetic dissection and improvement of calcium and zinc accumulation in apple fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T23:50:28.717345-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8289
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysates able to promote
           the proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus
    • Authors: Xiao-Nan Wang; Mei Qin, Yu-Ying Feng, Jian-Kang Chen, Yi-Shan Song
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe promotion effect on proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus by enzymatic hydrolysates of aquatic products was firstly studied. The effect of influencing factors of the hydrolysis on the growth of S. thermophilus was investigated.RESULTGrass Carp fish skin was hydrolysed to peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis using protease ProteAX, and for the S. thermophilus growth, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 60 °C, initial pH of 9.0, enzyme concentration of 10 g kg−1, hydrolysis time of 80 min, and ratio of material to liquid of 1:2. The Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysate (GCFSH) prepared under the optimum conditions was fractionated to five fragments (GCFSH 1, GCFSH 2, GCFSH 3, GCFSH 4, GCFSH 5) according to molecular weight sizes, in which the fragments GCFSH 4 and GCFSH 5, with molecular weights of less than 1000 Da, significantly promoted the growth of S. thermophilus.CONCLUSIONThe hydrolysis process of Grass Carp fish skin can be simplified, and the peptides with molecular weights below 1000 Da in the hydrolysates are the best nitrogen source for proliferation of S. thermophilus. This work can provide a fundamental theoretical basis for the production of multi-component functional foods, especially in milk drinks or yogurt. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T23:50:26.066372-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8299
  • Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for foreign substance
           detection on fresh-cut lettuce
    • Authors: Changyeun Mo; Giyoung Kim, Moon S Kim, Jongguk Lim, Hyunjeong Cho, Jinyoung Yang Barnaby, Byoung-Kwan Cho
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNon-destructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting the worms were investigated using the one-way ANOVA and correlation analyses.RESULTSThe worm detection imaging algorithms, RSI-I(492–626)/492, provided a prediction accuracy of 99.0%. The fluorescence HSI techniques indicated that the spectral images with a pixel size of 1 × 1 mm had the best classification accuracy for worms.CONCLUSIONThe overall results demonstrate that fluorescence HSI techniques have the potential to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. In the future, we will focus on developing a multi-spectral imaging system to detect foreign substances such as worms, slugs and earthworms on fresh-cut lettuce. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T23:47:31.319891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8262
  • Modification and application of an in vitro assay to examine inositol
           phosphate degradation in the digestive tract of poultry
    • Authors: Vera Sommerfeld; Margit Schollenberger, Luca Hemberle, Markus Rodehutscord
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn in vitro assay was modified to study the disappearance of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and the formation of lower inositol phosphate (InsP) isomers in the poultry digestive tract, and three experiments investigated the influence of diets with different ingredients and additives. Using the poultry diet as a matrix, the assay simulated the conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, proteolytic enzymes, water content, and retention time) of the crop, stomach, and small intestine, and extraction and analysis of InsP isomers were immediately conducted.RESULTSThe assay produced highly reproducible results with coefficients of variation ≤10% for an InsP isomer concentration ≥0.4 µmol g−1 DM (n = 3), and it was sensitive to the factors that varied in the three experiments.CONCLUSIONThe described assay is a suitable tool that can be used to screen feed enzymes and to investigate the effects of supplements in the absence of endogenous phytases. The ease of handling and high reproducibility of the assay indicated that the assay is a rapid and feasible method that can be used to examine the degradation pathway of phytate in feed under gastrointestinal conditions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T07:55:26.248444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8297
  • Physico-chemical and sensory properties of marmalades made from mixtures
           of fruits and under-exploited Andean tubers
    • Authors: Agustina M Lotufo Haddad; María Isabel Margalef, Margarita Armada, María Cristina Goldner
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work studies the added value to the Andean tuber crops through the production of jams. The objective were: (1) to study the sensory and instrumental characteristics of dietetic marmalades made with fruits and Andean tubers; (2) to research consumer's acceptability and emotional responses; (3) to assess the relationship between sensory and instrumental variables and (4) to determine sensory, instrumental and emotional variables that influence the acceptability.RESULTSPearson's correlations showed that spreadability was the variable better predicted by sensory and instrumental ones. The analysis of variance showed that sourness increased with the increase of strawberry and the decrease of apple contents (P < 0.05). The acceptability increased when the strawberry proportion was higher. The sweetness–sourness balance drove the hedonic response and some emotions changed from one feeling to its corresponding opposite when the strawberry proportion reached 50 or 60. According to a partial least square 2 and a principal components analysis of sensory/acceptability/emotion data, ‘typical’, ‘autochthonous’, ‘urban’ and ‘present’ resulted in positive emotions which favored the consumer liking.CONCLUSIONFormulating marmalades with mixtures of fruits and Andean tubers will allow giving value-added to these crops. The elaboration of products using innovative raw materials will be an incentive for farmers to cultivate them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-25T01:15:40.11578-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8280
  • The industrial applications of cassava: current status, opportunities and
    • Authors: Shubo Li; Yanyan Cui, Yuan Zhou, Zhiting Luo, Jidong Liu, Mouming Zhao
      Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries and is also extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g. feed, medicine, cosmetics and biopolymers). These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing great potential for conversion into value-added products through biorefinery. However, the community of cassava researchers is relatively small and there is very limited information on cassava. Therefore this review summarizes current knowledge on the system biology, economic value, nutritional quality and industrial applications of cassava and its wastes in an attempt to accelerate understanding of the basic biology of cassava. The review also discusses future perspectives with respect to integrating and utilizing cassava information resources for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of cassava industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T07:01:06.11832-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8287
  • Effect of fortification of milk with omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and
           soluble fibre on the sensory, physicochemical and microbiological
           properties of milk
    • Authors: Veena Nagarajappa; Surendra Nath Battula
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of the addition of flaxseed oil (FO), phytosterols (PS) and polydextrose (PDX) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk was investigated, as they are known to impart health benefits.RESULTSFor incorporating PS, a hydrophobic substance, FO and milk fat (MF) as an oil source, an emulsifier (DATEM) and PDX solution as an aqueous medium were used for the preparation of emulsion. Three emulsion formulations A (8 g PS, 8 g FO, 20 g PDX, 6 g MF), B (10 g PS, 10 g FO, 20 g PDX, 4 g MF) and C (12 g PS, 12 g FO, 20 g PDX, 2 g MF) were prepared and added individually to milk at a level of 50 g kg−1. Based on sensory evaluation, formulation B was selected for fortification of milk. The fortified milk kept well at refrigerated temperature for 1 week, and changes in sensory, physicochemical and microbiological properties were comparable to those of control milk. The level of fortificants did not decrease in the milk after 1 week of storage.CONCLUSIONAn emulsion containing FO, PS and PDX could successfully serve as a potential delivery system for enhancing the nutritional and therapeutic potential of milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T07:00:46.579266-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8286
  • Phytosterols improve immunity and exert anti-inflammatory activity in
           weaned piglets
    • Authors: Qiaoling Hu; Zhao Zhuo, Shenglin Fang, Yiwei Zhang, Jie Feng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytosterols (PS), plant-derived natural steroid compounds, are novel feed additives to regulate immune function and promote pig growth. This study was conducted to determine the effects of PS on the immune response of weaned piglets.RESULTSOne hundred and twenty crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets with an average initial weight of 9.58 ± 0.26 kg were randomly allotted to three treatments. Treatments consisted of a control, PS (0.2 g kg−1) and polymyxin E (0.04 g kg−1, antibiotic control) treatment. The results showed that PS or polymyxin E supplementation remarkably decreased diarrhea rate and elevated CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+ ratio in piglets compared with the control (P < 0.05). PS increased basophil and serum interleukin-4, and caused a shift towards Th2 profile by decreasing Th1/Th2 ratios in piglets compared with control (P < 0.05). Polymyxin E contributed to an increase in interleukin-10 compared with the control (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the amount of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium or Escherichia coli of jejunum among the three treatments (P > 0.05).CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that PS supplementation has no significant effect on growth but could remarkably decrease diarrhea rate, and improve immunity and anti-inflammatory activity in weaned piglets. In addition, PS supplementation had similar effects on growth, anti-inflammation and intestinal microorganisms as supplementation with polymyxin E in piglets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T05:15:38.087488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8277
  • Phenotypic diversity and evaluation of fresh pods of cowpea landraces from
           Southern Europe
    • Authors: Efstathia Lazaridi; Georgia Ntatsi, Juan A Fernández, Ioannis Karapanos, Valdemar Carnide, Dimitrios Savvas, Penelope J Bebeli
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCowpea fresh pods are consumed as green vegetables in many countries in Southern Europe. Among cowpea cultivated material, a relatively large number of landraces can be found, maintaining species genetic diversity. To assess the value of these landraces in breeding programs, the characterization and estimation of diversity levels is therefore required. In the present study, an estimation of the diversity and evaluation of cowpea landraces originating from Portugal, Spain and Greece, in terms of their fresh pod traits, was performed, aiming to assist with the problem of low cowpea production in Southern Europe.RESULTSA notable mean total phenotypic diversity (HT = 0.57) was observed in the whole collection. The Spanish cv. - gr. unguiculata collection exhibited the highest value of total phenotypic diversity (0.56). Landraces did not differ significantly from each other regarding the three countries of origin. Landraces such as Cp4906, Vg60 and BGE038478 presenting higher values of some traits studied could contribute to the breeding of new cowpea varieties for fresh pod production. Positive correlations were observed, indicating the feasibility of breeding for preferable traits regarding fresh pod consumption.CONCLUSIONThe present study has revealed a wide diversity among and within cowpea landraces that could enhance fresh pod production in South European countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T05:15:30.587115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8249
  • Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in
           vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation
    • Authors: Shaopu Wang; Michael Kreuzer, Ueli Braun, Angela Schwarm
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls.RESULTSAll the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g−1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg−1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C18:2:C18:3 in the seed lipids were not related.CONCLUSIONUnconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:53:03.301581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8260
  • Differences in the nutrient concentrations, in vitro methanogenic
           potential and other fermentative traits of tropical grasses and legumes
           for beef production systems in northern Australia
    • Authors: Zoey Durmic; Carlos A Ramírez-Restrepo, Chris Gardiner, Christopher J O'Neill, Eman Hussein, Philip E Vercoe
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn northern Australia, beef cattle grazed extensively on tropical rangelands are responsible for 5% of the nation's total greenhouse gas emissions. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and in grazing ruminants might be mitigated by selecting forages that, when consumed, produce less CH4 when fermented by rumen microbes. This study examined variability in the in vitro fermentation patterns, including CH4 production of selected tropical grasses and legumes, to identify candidates for CH4 mitigation in grazing livestock in northern Australia.RESULTSNutritive values and fermentation parameters varied between plant species and across seasons. Grasses with a relatively low methanogenic potential were Urochloa mosambicensis (wet summer), Bothriochloa decipiens (autumn), Sorghum plumosum (winter) and Andropogon gayanus (spring), while the legumes were Calliandra calothyrsus (wet summer and autumn), Stylosanthes scabra (winter) and Desmanthus leptophyllus (spring). There was some correlation between CH4 production and overall fermentation (volatile fatty acid concentrations) in grasses (R2 = 0.67), but not in legumes (R2 = 0.01) and there were multiple plants that had lower CH4 not associated with reduction in microbial activity.CONCLUSIONDifferences in nutrient concentrations of tropical grasses and legumes may provide opportunities for productive grazing on these pastures, while offering some CH4 mitigation options in the context of northern Australian extensive beef farming systems. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:07:40.284357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8274
  • Spectrophotometric versus NIR-MIR assessments of cowpea pods for
           discriminating the impact of freezing
    • Authors: Nelson Machado; Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Ana Ramos, Eduardo AS Rosa, Ana IRNA Barros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFreezing represents an important storage method for vegetal foodstuffs, such as cowpea pods, and thus the impact of this process on the chemical composition of these matrices arises as a prominent issue. In this sense, the phytochemical contents in frozen cowpea pods (i.e. at 6 and 9 months) have been compared with fresh cowpea pods material, with the samples being concomitantly assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), both mid-infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR), aiming to evaluate the potential of these techniques as a rapid tool for the traceability of these matrices.RESULTSA decrease in phytochemical contents during freezing was observed, allowing the classification of samples according to the freezing period based on such variations. Also, MIR and NIR allowed discrimination of samples: the use of the first derivative demonstrated a better performance for this purpose, whereas the use of the normalized spectra gave the best correlations between the spectra and specific contents. In both cases, NIR displayed the best performance.CONCLUSIONFreezing of cowpea pods leads to a decrease of phytochemical contents, which can be monitored by FTIR spectroscopy, both within the MIR and NIR ranges, whereas the use of this technique, in tandem with chemometrics, constitutes a suitable methodology for the traceability of these matrices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:03:04.119201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8251
  • Consumer acceptance and aroma characterization of navy bean (Phaseolus
           vulgaris) powders prepared by extrusion and conventional processing
    • Authors: Edward J Szczygiel; Janice B Harte, Gale M Strasburg, Sungeun Cho
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds.RESULTSConsumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P < 0.001). GC-O data showed that the commercial powder produced through conventional processing had much greater contents of several aliphatic aldehydes commonly formed via lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, octanal and nonanal with descriptors of ‘grassy’, ‘nutty’, ‘fruity’, ‘dusty’, and ‘cleaner’, compared to the extruded powder.CONCLUSIONExtrusion processed navy bean powders were preferred over commercial powders for certain navy bean powder applications. This is best explained by substantial differences in aroma profiles of the two powders that may have been caused by lipid oxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:02:53.685538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8284
  • Bioprocessing of common beans in diets for tilapia: in vivo digestibility
           and antinutritional factors
    • Authors: Francisco Valdez-González; Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Alfredo Hernández-Llamas, Manuel García-Ulloa, Luís Sánchez-Magaña, Breidy Cuevas-Rodríguez, Hervey Rodríguez-González
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBioprocessing of ingredients by solid-state fermentation is a low-cost technique for preparing diets. It is performed by adding microorganisms such as Rhizopus oligosporus to bean grains, achieving minimal degradation of nutrients and a significant improvement in digestibility. In particular, fermentation induces favorable changes in beans by reducing enzyme inhibitors, such as phytates and tannins.RESULTSFermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the protein content and digestibility of dry matter and protein compared with whole bean grains, and decreased the content of lipids, ash and phytic acid. Hardening did not have a significant (P > 0.05) effect on the chemical content of beans and digestibility of diets. The dehulled bean meal significantly (P < 0.05) increased protein and lipid content and digestibility of dry matter and protein of beans, and decreased fiber, ash and tannin content. The chemical content of beans and digestibility of ingredients compare favorably with those reported by other authors, indicating the benefits of fermentation and dehulling.CONCLUSIONWe concluded that bean meal obtained from fermentation or dehulling represents a low-cost alternative for diets for tilapia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T03:10:40.548443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8275
  • Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains on raw
    • Authors: Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa; Eduardo J Gutiérrez-Alcántara, M Refugio Torres-Vitela, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Angelica Villarruel-López, Javier Castro-Rosas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Nopalito is a cactaceous that is commonly consumed either raw or cooked in Mexico and other countries. The presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains on raw whole nopalitos (RWN, without prickles), raw nopalitos cut into squares (RNCS) and in cooked nopalitos salads (CNS) samples was determined. In addition, the behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates on RWN, RNCS and CNS at 25° ± 2 °C and 3° ± 2 °C was investigated.RESULTSOne hundred samples of RWN, 100 of RNCS and 100 more of CNS were collected from public markets. Salmonella strains were isolated and identified in 30, 30 and 10% of the samples, respectively. Seventy multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from all the nopalitos samples. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates survived at least 15 days on RWN at 25° ± 2 °C or 3° ± 2 °C. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates grew in the RNCS and CNS samples at 25° ± 2 °C. However, at 3° ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited.CONCLUSIONThis is the first report about multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolation from raw nopalitos and nopalitos salads. Nopalitos from markets are very likely to be an important factor contributing to the endemicity of multidrug-resistant Salmonella-related gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T03:05:43.790656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8279
  • Influence of different yeast/lactic acid bacteria combinations on the
           aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine
    • Authors: Marine Gammacurta; Stéphanie Marchand, Virginie Moine, Gilles de Revel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe typical fruity aroma of red Bordeaux wines depends on the grape variety but also on microbiological processes, such as alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. These transformations involve respectively the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni. Both species play a central role in red winemaking but their quantitative and qualitative contribution to the revelation of the organoleptic qualities of wine has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of sequential inoculation of different yeast and bacteria strains on the aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine.RESULTSAll microorganisms completed fermentations and no significant difference was observed between tanks regarding the main oenological parameters until 3 months' aging. Regardless of the yeast strain, B28 bacteria required the shortest period to completely degrade the malic acid, compared to the other strain. Quantification of 73 major components highlighted a specific volatile profile corresponding to each microorganism combination. However, the yeast strain appeared to have a predominant effect on aromatic compound levels, as well as on fruity aroma perception.CONCLUSIONYeasts had a greater impact on wine quality and have more influence on the aromatic style of red wine than bacteria. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T03:00:43.898447-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8272
  • A novel symbiovar (aegeanense) of the genus Ensifer nodulates Vigna
    • Authors: Anastasia P Tampakaki; Christos T Fotiadis, Georgia Ntatsi, Dimitrios Savvas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium, although a few studies have reported the isolation of fast-growing rhizobia under laboratory and field conditions. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, very limited information is available on cowpea rhizobia in European soils. The aim of this study was to study the genetic and phenotypic diversity of indigenous cowpea-nodulating rhizobia in Greece.RESULTSThe genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobia associated with cowpea was investigated through a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into three groups. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, IGS and on the concatenation of six housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, gyrB, truA, thrA and SMc00019), rhizobial isolates were classified within the species Ensifer fredii. However, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC, nifH and rhcRST genes, showed that the Ensifer isolates are markedly diverged from type and reference strains of E. fredii and formed one clearly separate cluster. The E. fredii strains were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in cowpea but not in soybean and common bean.CONCLUSIONThe present study showed that cowpea is nodulated under field conditions by fast-growing rhizobia belonging to the species E. fredii. Based on the phylogenies, similarity levels of symbiotic genes and the host range, the Ensifer isolates may constitute a new symbiovar for which the name ‘aegeanense’ is proposed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T07:40:33.732232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8281
  • Changes in sugar content and related enzyme activities in table grape
           (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to foliar selenium fertilizer
    • Authors: Shuaimeng Zhu; Yinli Liang, Xiaojuan An, Fanchao Kong, Dekai Gao, Hongfei Yin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSpraying selenium (Se) fertilizer is an effective method for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated.RESULTSAcid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, and photosynthetic rate in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control. Glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in berries, with a trace of sucrose. In both berries and leaves, neutral invertase activity was lower than AI, there was no significant difference in neutral invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase between Se fertilizer-treated and control. In berries, AI showed a significant positive correlation with glucose and fructose; also Se content was significantly correlated with sugar content.CONCLUSIONAI played an important role in the process of sugar accumulation in berries; high AI activity in berries and photosynthetic rate in leaves could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in berries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T07:40:26.965024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8276
  • Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment
    • Authors: Márcia Carvalho; Teresa Lino-Neto, Eduardo Rosa, Valdemar Carnide
      Abstract: Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include a good protein quality with a high nutritional value, its nitrogen-fixing ability, and an ability to be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, studies of cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress. The present review provides an overview of different aspects of cowpea, with a special emphasis on the molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity, as well as on biochemical and transcriptomic data with respect to evaluating cowpea drought stress tolerance. The integration of both datasets will be useful for the improvement of cowpea because research on drought stress tolerance is of major interest for this crop in a challenging environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:40:42.602566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8250
  • Natural losses in tuber weight during storage as a predictor of
           susceptibility to post-wounding blackspot in advanced potato breeding
    • Authors: Magdalena Grudzińska; Piotr Barbaś
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn potatoes, mechanical damage and the formation of black spots in the tuber flesh cause substantial economic losses and degradation of quality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of new potato genotypes (178 elite breeding lines) to blackspot damage after 7 months' storage at 5 and 8 °C, and to examine whether this susceptibility correlated with natural losses.RESULTSThe lowest index of blackspot damage after harvest was found in genotypes from the mid-late group of earliness and low-susceptibility group, and after storage in genotypes from the early group of earliness and low-susceptibility group. After storage at 5 °C tubers were characterized by a lower susceptibility to bruising compared with tubers stored at 8 °C. The storage temperature significantly affected the natural losses in advanced potato breeding materials after storage in the case of all earliness and susceptibility groups. The highest susceptibility to blackspot damage and natural losses occurred in potatoes stored at 8 °C (r = 0.85–0.91). Such a relationship was not observed in potatoes stored at 5 °C.CONCLUSIONFor potato tubers susceptible to the formation of after-wounding blackspot, the natural losses arising as a result of storage at 8 °C can be used as a subjective method to evaluate the susceptibility of potatoes to the formation of black spots in the flesh. However, this observation needs further studies and stronger proof of this theory. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T03:55:30.763016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8248
  • Influence of Japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and
           preference (a case study on deep-fried peanuts)
    • Authors: Atsushi Miyagi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDetailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data.RESULTSThe results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did.CONCLUSIONIn the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:15:35.544688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8266
  • Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on
           pH, water-holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial
           growth in beef during cold storage
    • Authors: Seung-Jae Lee; Seung Yun Lee, Gap-Don Kim, Geun-Bae Kim, Sang Keun Jin, Sun Jin Hur
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDActive packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. The aim of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging for beef. Beef loin samples were divided into three packaging groups (C, ziplock bag packaging; T1, vacuum packaging; T2, active packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days.RESULTSThe water-holding capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in C and T2 than in T1 for up to 7 days of storage. The TBARS value was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage. The counts of some microorganism were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage; the total bacterial count and Escherichia coli count were lowest in T2 at the end of storage.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that active packaging using self-CO2-generation materials can extend the shelf life similarly to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T07:30:40.438688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8223
  • Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein
           of legume and grass species during the spring growth
    • Authors: Zeinab Solati; Uffe Jørgensen, Jørgen Eriksen, Karen Søegaard
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDKnowledge of the variation of extractable protein amount in legumes and grasses as affected by harvest time is important for identifying optimal combinations to enable a high protein production in a biorefinery. The extractability of protein was estimated using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth.RESULTSThe estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3 can be extracted, white clover had the highest extractable protein amongst all species. Total yield of B1+B2 per ha was higher in white clover and red clover at the early growth while B1+B2+B3 was by far the highest for red clover through all harvests.CONCLUSIONWhite clover could be a good candidate for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend on the value of the fibre after extraction of the protein. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T10:50:33.457824-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8258
  • The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera
           intraspecific hybrids
    • Authors: Rafael Apolinar-Valiente; Encarna Gómez-Plaza, Nancy Terrier, Thierry Doco, José María Ros-García
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy.RESULTSThe total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell.CONCLUSIONThis study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:05:31.143018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8270
  • Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of
           animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine)
    • Authors: Pan Wang; Yanting Hong, Weixin Ke, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats.RESULTSFive HAs – 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) – were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine.CONCLUSIONChoice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T02:56:26.777875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8259
  • Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in
           chicken sausages
    • Authors: Gema Nieto; Lorena Martínez, Julian Castillo, Gaspar Ros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction processes (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g 100 g−1 walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g 100 g−1) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out.RESULTSThe sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT2 and HXT3) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T02:30:47.006231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8240
  • Yeast alter micro-oxygenation of wine: oxygen consumption and aldehyde
    • Authors: Guomin Han; Michael R Webb, Chandra Richter, Jessica Parsons, Andrew L Waterhouse
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicro-oxygenation (MOx) is a common winemaking treatment used to improve red wine color development and diminish vegetal aroma, amongst other effects. It is commonly applied to wine immediately after yeast fermentation (phase 1) or later, during aging (phase 2). Although most winemakers avoid MOx during malolactic (ML) fermentation, it is often not possible to avoid because ML bacteria are often present during phase 1 MOx treatment. We investigated the effect of common yeast and bacteria on the outcome of micro-oxygenation.RESULTSCompared to sterile filtered wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculation significantly increased oxygen consumption, keeping dissolved oxygen in wine below 30 µg L–1 during micro-oxygenation, whereas Oenococcus oeni inoculation was not associated with a significant impact on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The unfiltered baseline wine also had both present, although with much higher populations of bacteria and consumed oxygen. The yeast-treated wine yielded much higher levels of acetaldehyde, rising from 4.3 to 29 mg L–1 during micro-oxygenation, whereas no significant difference was found between the bacteria-treated wine and the filtered control. The unfiltered wine exhibited rapid oxygen consumption but no additional acetaldehyde, as well as reduced pyruvate. Analysis of the acetaldehyde-glycerol acetal levels showed a good correlation with acetaldehyde concentrations.CONCLUSIONThe production of acetaldehyde is a key outcome of MOx and it is dramatically increased in the presence of yeast, although it is possibly counteracted by the metabolism of O. oeni bacteria. Additional controlled experiments are necessary to clarify the interaction of yeast and bacteria during MOx treatments. Analysis of the glycerol acetals may be useful as a proxy for acetaldehyde levels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:52:06.103261-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8252
  • Positive and negative aspects of green coffee
           consumption – antioxidant activity versus mycotoxins
    • Authors: Magdalena Jeszka-Skowron; Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Stępień, Ewa Stanisz
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms that can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage.RESULTSThe antioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin–Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed higher activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica beans. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in green coffee beans was studied using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, the content of ergosterol as a marker indicating fungal occurrence was also determined. Among aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 was the dominant mycotoxin in coffee bean samples, with the highest level at 17.45 ng g−1. Ochratoxin A was detected in four samples at levels ranging from 1.27 to 4.34 ng g−1, and fungi potentially producing this toxin, namely Aspergillus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium citrinum, were isolated.CONCLUSIONSteaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increased antioxidant activities of brews in comparison with those prepared from unprocessed beans. Although toxins can be quantified in green coffee beans and novel fungi were isolated, their concentrations are acceptable according to legal limits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:50:54.149476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8269
  • Maternal cinnamon extract intake during lactation leads to sex-specific
           endocrine modifications in rat offspring
    • Authors: Thais Bento-Bernardes; Fernanda P Toste, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Karen J Oliveira
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCinnamon supplementation has been associated with an improvement in glucose disposal and a reduction in fat mass in type 2 diabetes. Maternal nutrition during lactation impacts the health of the offspring throughout life. We hypothesize that cinnamon intake by lactating rats affects maternal physiology, leading to hormonal and metabolic changes in their offspring. To investigate this hypothesis, dams received aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg cinnamon kg−1 body mass day−1) or water orally, during lactation.RESULTSMaternal cinnamon intake did not affect the body mass gain or food intake of dams or their offspring, although it decreased visceral white adipose tissue mass in dams and in their adult offspring of both sexes. Cinnamon-treated dams exhibited no differences in serum insulin, adiponectin, leptin or estradiol levels, although they presented higher serum progesterone. At weaning, cinnamon male pups exhibited lower insulinemia, whereas cinnamon female pups exhibited lower glycemia. Interestingly, in adulthood, only the female offspring exhibited an altered hormonal profile, with reduced serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin levels accompanied by lower glycemia.CONCLUSIONThe present study demonstrates that maternal cinnamon intake during lactation promotes mild changes in dams and can trigger sex-specific metabolic programming in pups that lasts into adulthood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:50:40.662502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8253
  • Issue Information - ToC
    • Pages: 1963 - 1968
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T04:43:17.376885-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7944
  • Impacts of fat from ruminants' meat on cardiovascular health and possible
           strategies to alter its lipid composition
    • Authors: Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez; Rafael E Larraín
      Pages: 1969 - 1978
      Abstract: In the last few decades there has been increased consumer interest in the fatty acid (FA) composition of ruminant meat due to its content of saturated FAs, which have been implicated in diseases associated with modern life. However, recent studies have questioned the recommendations to reduce intake of fat, saturated FAs and cholesterol as a means of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, ruminant meat has some bioactive lipids such as C18:1t11 and C18:2 c9, t11 which have been reported to have positive effects on human health. In order to improve muscle fat composition from a human health standpoint, oilseeds, plant oils and marine oils can be used in ruminant diets. On the other hand, molecular mechanisms play an important role in the alteration of the FA composition of muscle fat. Genetics offer a wide range of possibilities for improvement of muscle fat composition by identifying different loci underlying the expression of quantitative traits. While significant progress has been made in characterizing the influence of diet on the FA composition of ruminant meat, the use of genetic tools can favor genotypes that could maximize their genetic potential through the diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T04:30:05.543173-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8168
  • Authentic sheep meat in the European Union: Factors influencing and
           validating its unique meat quality
    • Authors: Sara W Erasmus; Magdalena Muller, Louwrens C Hoffman
      Pages: 1979 - 1996
      Abstract: Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensory quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T03:55:26.357096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8180
  • Progress in modification of sunflower oil to expand its industrial value
    • Authors: Saeed Rauf; Nazia Jamil, Sultan Ali Tariq, Maria Khan, Maria Kausar, Yalcin Kaya
      Pages: 1997 - 2006
      Abstract: Increasing the sunflower seed oil content as well as improving its quality makes it compatible for industrial demands. This is an important breeding objective of sunflower which increases its market value and ensures high returns for the producers. The present review focuses on determining the progress of improving sunflower seed oil content and modifying its quality by empirical and advanced molecular breeding methods. It is known that the sunflower oil content and quality have been altered through empirical selection methods and mutation breeding programmes in various parts of the world. Further improvement in seed oil content and its components (such as phytosterols, tocopherols and modified fatty acid profile) has been slowed down due to low genetic variation in elite germplasm and complex of hereditary traits. Introgression from wild species can be carried out to modify the fatty acids profile and tocopherol contents with linkage drags. Different transgenes introduced through biotechnological methods may produce novel long-chain fatty acids within sunflower oil. Bio-engineering of sunflower oil could allow it to be used in diverse industrial products such as bio-diesel or bio-plastics. These results showed that past and current trends of modifying sunflower oil quality are essential for its further expansion as an oilseed crop. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T03:30:28.124439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8214
  • Ilex paraguariensis crude extract acts on protection and reversion from
           damage induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide in human erythrocytes: a
           comparative study with isolated caffeic and/or chlorogenic acids
    • Authors: José Luiz Portela; Deividi Soares, Hemerson Rosa, Daniel Henrique Roos, Simone Pinton, Daiana Silva Ávila, Robson L Puntel
      Pages: 2007 - 2014
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStudies comparing the effects of phytochemicals under different regimens of exposure are necessary to give a better indication about their mechanism(s) of protection. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the preventive (pre-incubation), protective (co-incubation) and/or remediative (post-incubation) activity of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids, in comparison with Ilex paraguariensis crude extract, against t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced damage to human erythrocytes.RESULTSWe found that both caffeic and chlorogenic acids were able to prevent and revert the hemolysis associated with t-BHP exposure. By contrast, isolated compounds (alone or in combination) presented no effect on basal and/or t-BHP-induced non-protein thiol (NPSH) oxidation or production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBBARS). In turn, I. paraguariensis extract was effective to prevent, protect and revert the hemolysis associated with t-BHP exposure. Moreover, I. paraguariensis significantly protects and reverts t-BHP-induced NPSH oxidation and TBARS production.CONCLUSIONSWe have found that I. paraguariensis extract acts better with respect to the protection and reversion of t-BHP-associated changes, whereas isolated compounds are more active in preventing and reverting t-BHP pro-hemolytic action. Moreover, our data suggest that the pro-hemolytic activity of t-BHP may occur via mechanism(s) other(s) than lipid peroxidation and/or NPSH oxidation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T01:47:36.814087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8001
  • Non-destructive prediction of pigment content in lettuce based on
           visible–NIR spectroscopy
    • Authors: Antonio José Steidle Neto; Lorena de Oliveira Moura, Daniela de Carvalho Lopes, Lanamar de Almeida Carlos, Luma Moreira Martins, Leila de Castro Louback Ferraz
      Pages: 2015 - 2022
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important salad vegetables in the world, with a number of head shapes, leaf types and colors. The lettuce pigments play important physiological functions, such as photosynthetic processes and light stress defense, but they also benefit human health because of their antioxidant action and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study three lettuce cultivars were grown under different farming systems, and partial least squares models were built to predict the leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content.RESULTSThe three proposed models resulted in high coefficients of determination and variable importance for the projection values, as well as low estimative errors for calibration and external validation datasets. These results confirmed that it is possible to accurately predict chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content of green and red lettuces, grown in different farming systems, based on the spectral reflectance from 500 to 1000 nm.CONCLUSIONThe proposed models were adequate for estimating lettuce pigments in a quick and non-destructive way, representing an alternative to conventional measurement methods. Prediction accuracies were improved by using the detrending, smoothing and first derivative pretreatments to the original spectral signatures prior to estimating lettuce chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, respectively. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T04:50:29.294671-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8002
  • Effects of ZnO nanoparticle-coated packaging film on pork meat quality
           during cold storage
    • Authors: Biao Suo; Huarong Li, Yuexia Wang, Zhen Li, Zhili Pan, Zhilu Ai
      Pages: 2023 - 2029
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere has been limited research on the use of ZnO nanoparticle-coated film for the quality preservation of pork meat under low temperature. In the present study, ZnO nanoparticles were mixed with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) to form a nanocomposite film, to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticle-coated film on pork meat quality and the growth of bacteria during storage under low temperature.RESULTSWhen ZnO nanoparticle-coated film was used as the packaging material for pork meat for 14 days of cold storage at 4 °C, the results demonstrated a significant effect on restricting the increases in total volatile basic nitrogen and pH levels, limiting the decreases of lightness (increased L* value) and redness (increased a* value), and maintaining the water-holding capacity compared to the control pork samples (P < 0.05). The present study also discovered that the ZnO nanoparticle-coated film restrained the increase in total plate count (TPC). When Staphylococcus aureus was used as the representative strain, scanning electron microscopy revealed that ZnO nanoparticles increased the occurrence of cell membrane rupture under cold conditions.CONCLUSIONZnO nanoparticle-coated film helps retain the quality of pork meat during cold storage by increasing the occurrence of microorganism injury. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T09:15:47.614467-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8003
  • Grain quality characteristics and dough rheological properties in Langdon
           durum–wild emmer wheat chromosome substitution lines under nitrogen and
           water deficits
    • Authors: Bolesław P Salmanowicz; Monika Langner, Beata Mrugalska, Dominika Ratajczak, Andrzej G Górny
      Pages: 2030 - 2041
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWild emmer wheat could serve as a source of novel variation in grain quality and stress resistance for wheat breeding. A set of Triticum durum–T. dicoccoides chromosome substitution lines [LDN(DIC)] and the parental recipient cv. Langdon grown under contrasting water and nitrogen availability in the soil was examined in this study to identify differences in grain quality traits and dough rheological properties.RESULTSSignificant genotypic variation was found among the materials for studied traits. This variation was also considerably affected by soil treatments and G × E interactions. The substitutions LDN(DIC-1A) and LDN(DIC-1B) showed separate differentiation in the composition of glutenin sub-units. The results indicated that primarily chromosome DIC-6B is stable source of an enhanced grain protein content and advantageous dough rheological properties. Similar features seem to be shown by the substitutions with the DIC-1A, DIC-2A and DIC-6A, but not under nitrogen shortage, when generally a considerable decrease was noticed in the range of genotypic variation in grain quality.CONCLUSIONSThe substitution lines, particularly those with DIC-6B and DIC-6A and to a lesser extent DIC-1A and DIC-2A, were distinguished by advantageous grain quality traits, mixing properties and dough functionality and appear to be the most promising sources of innovative genes for wheat breeding. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-30T08:02:19.082986-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8006
  • Discrimination of botanical origins for Chinese honey according to free
           amino acids content by high-performance liquid chromatography with
           fluorescence detection with chemometric approaches
    • Authors: Hui Chen; Linghe Jin, Qiaoying Chang, Tao Peng, Xueyan Hu, Chunlin Fan, Guofang Pang, Meiling Lu, Wenwen Wang
      Pages: 2042 - 2049
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe contents of 18 free amino acids in 87 Chinese honey samples from four botanical origins (linden, acacia, vitex and rape) were determined by developing a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) method with an in-loop automated pre-column derivatization. The free amino acid profiles of these samples were used to construct a statistical model to distinguish honeys from various floral origins.RESULTSThe average contents of all free amino acids in linden honey were lower than in the other three types of honey. Phenylalanine was particularly useful in the present study because its average content in vitex honey was far higher than in any other honey samples. There is no doubt that both phenylalanine and tyrosine can be considered as the marker free amino acid in Chinese vitex honey. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted based on 15 free amino acids and showed significant differences among the honey samples. The cumulative variance for the first two components was 80.62%, and the four principal components can explain 94.18% of the total variance. In the two first component scores, the honey samples can be separated according to their botanical origins. Cluster analysis of amino acid data also revealed that the botanical origins of honey samples correlated with their amino acid content. Back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and naïve Bayes methods were employed to construct the classification models. The results revealed an excellent separation among honey samples according to their botanical origin with 100% accuracy in model training for both BP-ANN and naïve Bayes.CONCLUSIONIt indicated that the free amino acid profile determined by HPLC-FLD can provide sufficient information to discriminate honey samples according to their botanical origins. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-23T03:15:29.93709-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8008
  • Silkworm pupae oil exerts hypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in
           high-cholesterol diet-fed rats
    • Authors: Yuxiao Zou; Tenggen Hu, Ying Shi, Sentai Liao, Jun Liu, Lixia Mu, C-Y Oliver Chen
      Pages: 2050 - 2056
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSilkworm pupae is a good resource of edible oil that is especially rich in unsaturated fatty acids and is considered to be an excellent dietary supplement for hyperlipidemia.RESULTSGroups fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with silkworm pupae oil (SPO) supplementation (1, 2, or 4 mL kg−1 day−1) orally had significantly lower levels of serum total cholesterol (P 
      PubDate: 2016-09-26T02:25:28.644014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8009
  • Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) fruits: novel raw materials for
           the pectin industry
    • Authors: Sylvie Assoi; Koffi Konan, Georges N Agbo, Hortense Dodo, Ron Holser, Louise Wicker
      Pages: 2057 - 2067
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPreventing post-harvest waste of Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) fruits is possible by recovery of pectin as a value-added ingredient. Extraction conditions on yield and functionality of Palmyra palm pectin was determined at different temperatures and pH values with 30 min extraction time.RESULTSPalmyra palm fruits contain more than 650 g kg−1 galacturonic acid and produce soft gels with sucrose in acidic media despite a high degree of acetylation (∼5%). Mechanical deformation of pectin gel was similar when extracted at pH 2.5 and 70 °C or under natural pH at room temperature or 70 °C. Pectins isolated at pH 7 exhibited comparable gel softness (G′/G″) with commercial pectin. Palm pectins also showed emulsifying activity greater than 50%, attributed to high protein content of 8 g 100 g−1. For pectins extracted at pH near 5.2–5.5, molar mass ranged from 3.00 to 3.38 × 105 g mol−1; intrinsic viscosity ranged from 218 to 297 mL g−1; arabinose was the main neutral sugar; ζ-potential ranged from −23 to −25 mV.CONCLUSIONPalm fruit offers an inexpensive raw material to extract pectin in environmentally friendly and economical way and yield a pectin with unique gelling, viscosifying and emulsifying properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-16T04:12:53.105497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8010
  • Effects of a treatment with Se-rich rice flour high in resistant starch on
           enteric dysbiosis and chronic inflammation in diabetic ICR mice
    • Authors: Huaibo Yuan; Wenjuan Wang, Deyi Chen, Xiping Zhu, Lina Meng
      Pages: 2068 - 2074
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnteric dysbiosis is associated with chronic inflammation and interacts with obesity and insulin resistance. Obesity and diabetes are induced in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice fed a high-fat diet and administered a streptozocin injection. These mice were treated with normal rice (NR), normal rice with a high resistant starch content (NRRS) or Se-rich rice (selenium-enriched rice) with a high resistant starch content (SRRS).RESULTSFaecal cell counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus were significantly higher in SRRS-treated mice than in diabetic controls, while Enterobacter cloacae were lower. Similar results were also found in NRRS-treated mice. In contrast, no significant difference was found between NR-treated and diabetic control groups. The treatments with SRRS and NRRS reduced the faecal pH values of the diabetic mice. Regarding the inflammatory factor levels, lower levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor-k-gene binding (NF-κB) and leptin (LEP) and higher adiponutrin (ADPN) levels were found in the SRRS and NRRS-treated mice compared with the diabetic and NR-treated mice. In addition, the CRP, IL-6 and NF-κB levels in the SRRS-treated mice were significantly reduced compared with those observed in the NRRS-treated mice. The reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that the SRRS and NRRS-treated mice presented higher expression levels of orphan G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) and orphan G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) proteins compared with diabetic mice and NR-treated mice.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that treatments with rice high in RS exert beneficial effects by improving enteric dysbiosis and chronic inflammation. In addition, selenium and RS may exert synergistic effects on chronic inflammation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T05:31:04.776629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8011
  • Egg white powder-stabilised multiple (water-in-olive oil-in-water)
           emulsions as beef fat replacers in model system meat emulsions
    • Authors: Burcu Öztürk; Müge Urgu, Meltem Serdaroğlu
      Pages: 2075 - 2083
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDToday, multiple emulsions are believed to have a considerable application potential in food industry. We aimed to investigate physical, chemical and textural quality characteristics of model system meat emulsions (MSME) in which beef fat (C) was totally replaced by 10% (E-10), 20% (E-20) or 30% (E-30) multiple emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and egg white powder (EWP).RESULTSIncorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced fat (from 11.54% to 4.01%), increased protein content (from 13.66% to 14.74%), and modified fatty acid composition, significantly increasing mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content and decreasing saturated fatty acid content. E-20 and E-30 samples had lower jelly and fat separation (5.77% and 5.25%) compared to C and E-10 (9.67% and 8.55%). W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had higher water-holding capacity (93.96–94.35%) than C samples (91.84%), and also showed the desired storage stability over time. Emulsion stability results showed that E-20 and E-30 samples had lower total expressible fluid (14.05% and 14.53%) and lower total expressible fat (5.06% and 5.33%) compared to C samples (19.13% and 6.09%). Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions led to alterations in colour and texture parameters. TBA values of samples were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment during 60 days of storage.CONCLUSIONSOur results indicated that multiple emulsions prepared with olive oil and EWP had promising impacts on reducing fat, modifying the lipid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable meat systems. These are the first findings concerning beef matrix fat replacement with multiple emulsions stabilised by EWP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-11T03:46:40.40111-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8012
  • Characteristics, composition, and antioxidant activities in vitro and in
           vivo of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino seed oil
    • Authors: Lu Wang; Min Pang, Xiaobing Wang, Pan Wang, Yaping Xiao, Quanhong Liu
      Pages: 2084 - 2093
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to further develop and utilise Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino seeds, a detailed analysis of the characteristics of G. pentaphyllum seed oil (GPSO), including its physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid composition and unsaponifiable matter constituents, has been investigated in this study. The antioxidant potential of GPSO was evaluated by radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay in vitro, and the antioxidant activity in vivo was examined by using an aged mice model.RESULTSThe main components of the seeds are lipids (485.54 g kg−1) and proteins (203.26 g kg−1). The GPSO obtained by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (92.85%), especially conjugated linolenic acid (88.17%); and various useful compounds (squalene, tocopherol and phytosterols) were identified in the unsaponifiable matter. The overall antioxidant capacity of GPSO in vitro was shown to be comparable to that of Camellia seed oil as a positive control. GPSO could provide protection to the aged mice against oxidative stress and minimised the impact of ageing.CONCLUSIONAll the results suggest that GPSO has direct and potent antioxidant activities; it could be utilised as a functional food to supplement or replace some conventional oils. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T04:56:33.640937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8013
  • Non-destructive detection of dicyandiamide in infant formula powder using
           multi-spectral imaging coupled with chemometrics
    • Authors: Changhong Liu; Wei Liu, Jianbo Yang, Ying Chen, Lei Zheng
      Pages: 2094 - 2099
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDicyandiamide (DCD) contamination of milk and milk products has become an urgent and broadly recognised topic as a result of several food safety scares. This study investigated the potential of using multi-spectral imaging (405–970 nm) coupled with chemometrics for detection of DCD in infant formula powder. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models.RESULTSCompared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN considerably improved the prediction performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP2) = 0.935 and 0.873, residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 3.777 and 3.060 for brand 1 and brand 2 of infant formula powders, respectively. Besides, multi-spectral imaging was able to differentiate unadulterated infant formula powder from samples containing 0.01% DCD with no misclassification using BPNN model.CONCLUSIONThe study demonstrated that multi-spectral imaging combined with chemometrics enables rapid and non-destructive detection of DCD in infant formula powder. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-27T03:25:49.180727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8014
  • Molecular DNA-based detection of ionising radiation in meat
    • Authors: Ergün Şakalar
      Pages: 2100 - 2106
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIonising radiation induces molecular alterations, such as formation of ions, free radicals, and new stable molecules, and cleavage of the chemical bonds of the molecules present in food. Irradiation-treated meat should be labelled to control the process and to ensure free consumer choice. Therefore, sensitive analytical methods are required to detect the irradiation dose.RESULTSMeat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0, 0.272, 0.497, 1.063, 3.64, 8.82 and 17.42 kGy in an industrial 60Co gamma cell. Primers were designed to amplify 998, 498 and 250-base pair (bp) regions of the 18S rRNA gene of nuclear DNA from the irradiated samples. A new DNA-based method was developed to quantify the radiation exposed to the unstored meat and the meat stored at −20 °C for 3 and 6 months. The method was able to detect meat samples stored and unstored with dose limits of 1.063 and 3.64 kGy, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe level of irradiation can be detected using primer pairs that target particularly different-sized sequences for DNA amplification by PCR. This method can be widely used for the analysis of not only meat samples, but also all biological materials containing DNA. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T06:55:30.764139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8015
  • Annurca (Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca) apple as a functional food for
           the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels:
           results of a randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: Gian Carlo Tenore; Domenico Caruso, Giuseppe Buonomo, Emanuela D'Urso, Maria D'Avino, Pietro Campiglia, Luciana Marinelli, Ettore Novellino
      Pages: 2107 - 2115
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks.RESULTSThis study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 4-month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects: 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple per day among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples per day, since the weight of this cultivar is on average half that of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcome, allowing a reduction in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONOur data would reasonably indicate Annurca apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-23T02:50:24.876655-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8016
  • Effect of acid treatment on allergenicity of peanut and egg
    • Authors: Jeong-Ok Lee; Dongeun Sung, Su Hwa Park, Jinyoung Lee, Jihyun Kim, Dong-Hwa Shon, Kangmo Ahn, Youngshin Han
      Pages: 2116 - 2121
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMany food experts have studied various treatments or processing techniques in order to develop hypoallergenic foods. In a previous study, acid treatment dramatically mitigated the allergenicity of peanut, especially Ara h 2.RESULTSGel electrophoresis showed that most protein bands of acid-treated peanut were not detected, but protein bands of egg white became weaker and broader by acid treatment. In immunoblotting using a rabbit antibody, the antigenicity against ovalbumin or ovomucoid in acid-treated egg white was decreased but the antigenicity against Ara h 1 or Ara h 2 in peanut treated with pH 2 acetic acid was completely undetected. The allergenicity of ovalbumin and peanut fell significantly to 1/1022 and 1/5380, respectively, when measured as IC50 in the sample treated with pH 2.0 acetic acid.CONCLUSIONThis study showed that acid treatment was more effective in peanut and barely effective in ovomucoid. This may contribute to the development of hypoallergenic food and clinical management of food allergy. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T02:28:03.804305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8017
  • Effect of inhibition of μ-calpain on the myofibril structure and
           myofibrillar protein degradation in postmortem ovine muscle
    • Authors: Zheng Li; Xin Li, Xing Gao, Manting Du, Dequan Zhang
      Pages: 2122 - 2131
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTenderness is considered to be one of the most important attributes of meat quality. Myofibrillar protein degradation contributes to meat tenderization during postmortem ageing. In this process, calpain is the primary enzyme catalyzing the proteolysis. To further understand the action of calpain in meat tenderization, a μ-calpain inhibitor, MDL-28170, was used and its effects on sarcomere structure and myofibrillar protein degradation were determined.RESULTSThe results of the present study showed that inhibition of μ-calpain significantly reduced muscle myofibrillar fragmentation compared to the group without μ-calpain inhibitor. Meanwhile, the sarcomere structure of the μ-calpain inhibited muscle was only slightly broken and largely remained integral 48 h postmortem. Myosin heavy chain, actin, desmin, troponin T and troponin I were identified to be substrates of μ-calpain by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrocopy and western blotting, and were detected with a higher degradation degree in the control group compared to the μ-calpain inhibition group.CONCLUSIONComparatively, myosin heavy chain and actin were found to be less sensitive to μ-calpain compared to desmin, troponin T and troponin I. These findings provide a better understanding of the contribution of μ-calpain to the myofibril structure and myofibrillar protein degradation of ovine muscle. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T02:33:13.751718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8018
  • Characterization of a thermostable glycoside hydrolase (CMbg0408) from the
           hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167
    • Authors: Rebaone Letsididi; Hinawi AM Hassanin, Marwa YF Koko, Jean B Ndayishimiye, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
      Pages: 2132 - 2140
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHyperthermophilic archaea capable of functioning optimally at very high temperatures are a good source of unique and industrially important thermostable enzymes.RESULTSA glycoside hydrolase family 1 β-galactosidase gene (BglB) from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (CMbg0408) displayed optimum activity at 110 °C and pH 5.0. It also retained 92% and 70% of its maximal activity at 115 and 120 °C, respectively. The enzyme was completely thermostable and active after 120 min of incubation at 80 and 90 °C. It also showed broad substrate specificity with activities of 8876 ± 185 U mg−1 for p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside, 4464 ± 172 U mg−1 for p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, 1486 ± 68 U mg−1 for o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside, 2250 ± 86 U mg−1 for o-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside and 175 ± 4 U mg−1 for lactose. A catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 3059 ± 122 mmol L−1 s−1 and Km value of 8.1 ± 0.08 mmol L−1 were displayed towards p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside.CONCLUSIONAs a result of its remarkable thermostability and high activity at high temperatures, this novel β-galactosidase may be useful for food and pharmaceutical applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T03:41:15.193502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8019
  • Surveillance and molecular typing of Cronobacter spp. in commercial
           powdered infant formula and follow-up formula from 2011 to 2013 in
           Shandong Province, China
    • Authors: Huaning Zhang; Peibin Hou, Hui Lv, Yuzhen Chen, Xinpeng Li, Yanyan Ren, Mei Wang, Hailian Tan, Zhenwang Bi
      Pages: 2141 - 2146
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInfection with Cronobacter spp. leads to neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and bacteremia. Cronobacter spp. are reported to comprise an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF) and follow-up formula (FUF), although little is known about the contamination level of Cronobacter spp. in PIFs and FUFs in China.RESULTSIn total, 1032 samples were collected between 2011 and 2013. Forty-two samples were positive, including 1.6% in PIFs and 6.5% in FUFs. The strains were susceptible to most antibiotics except for cefoxitin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after XbaI digestion produced a total of 36 banding patterns. The 38 strains were found in 27 sequence types (STs), of which nine types (ST454 to ST462) had not been reported in other countries. The clinically relevant strains obtained from the 38 isolates in the present study comprised three ST3, two ST4, two ST8 and one ST1.CONCLUSIONThe contamination rate in the PIF and FUF has stayed at a relatively high level. The contamination rate of PIF was significantly lower than FUF. The isolates had high susceptibility to the antibiotics tested, except cefoxitin. There were polymorphisms between the Cronobacter spp. as indicated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, contamination with Cronobacter spp. remains a current issue for commercial infant formulas in China. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T02:10:26.766409-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8021
  • Effects of licury cake in young Nellore bull diets: salted sun-dried meat
           is preferred rather than fresh meat by consumers despite similar
           physicochemical characteristics
    • Authors: Ana AL Gouvêa; Ronaldo L Oliveira, André G Leão, Leilson R Bezerra, Dallyson YC Assis, Italo RR Albuquerque, Caius B Pellegrini, Tiago C Rocha
      Pages: 2147 - 2153
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSalted Sun-dried meat is a traditional process of meat salting that can improve quality and overall acceptance. The present study compared the physicochemical and sensory attributes of fresh and salted sun-dried meat from Nellore Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) bulls (n = 32) and evaluated diets containing different levels (0%, 7%, 14% and 21%) of licury cake in diets provided to Nellore finished in a feedlot.RESULTSSalted sun-dried meat decreased moisture (P 
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T05:46:39.001791-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8022
  • Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus
    • Authors: Valentina Usenik; Mojca Virscek Marn
      Pages: 2154 - 2158
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPlum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar.RESULTSPPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripened symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low sugar content.CONCLUSIONInfected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruits are not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T08:46:14.267772-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8023
  • Identification of lignin-deficient Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv.
           mutants induced by gamma radiation
    • Authors: Man Bo Lee; Jae Yoon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
      Pages: 2159 - 2165
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBrachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. is a monocotyledonous model plant that has been studied to understand a range of biological phenomena for lignocellulosic bioethanol feedstocks and other cereal crops. The lignin makes its cell walls recalcitrant to saccharification, constituting the main barrier to lignocellulosic bioethanol production. In this study, lignin-deficient mutants of B. distachyon induced by chronic radiation were selected and the effects of the mutants on fermentable glucose production were identified.RESULTSBrachypodium distachyon M2 mutants induced by chronically irradiated gamma radiation were screened by the Wiesner test. Lignin-deficient M2 mutants were further confirmed in subsequent M3 and M4 generations by determining acetyl bromide-soluble lignin. The lignin content was significantly reduced in mutant plants 135-2 (by 7.99%), 142-3 (by 13.8%) and 406-1 (by 8.13%) compared with the wild type. Moreover, fermentable glucose was significantly higher in 135-2 (by 23.91%) and 142-3 (by 36.72%) than in the wild type after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis.CONCLUSIONThree lignin-deficient B. distachyon mutants induced by chronically irradiated gamma radiation were obtained. This study will provide fundamental understanding of the B. distachyon cell wall and could contribute to increases in bioethanol production using bioenergy crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T07:36:14.985748-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8024
  • Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils
           increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables
    • Authors: Luis A Ortega-Ramirez; Brenda A Silva-Espinoza, Irasema Vargas-Arispuro, Gustavo A Gonzalez-Aguilar, M Reynaldo Cruz-Valenzuela, Filomena Nazzaro, J Fernando Ayala-Zavala
      Pages: 2166 - 2173
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy.RESULTSMajor constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L−1 respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L−1), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L−1) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L−1). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g−1), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g−1), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g−1) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g−1) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO.CONCLUSIONLeafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T04:01:59.525848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8025
  • Variability of lysozyme and lactoferrin bioactive protein concentrations
           in equine milk in relation to LYZ and LTF gene polymorphisms and
    • Authors: Jakub Cieslak; Lukasz Wodas, Alicja Borowska, Jan Sadoch, Piotr Pawlak, Kamila Puppel, Beata Kuczynska, Mariusz Mackowski
      Pages: 2174 - 2181
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEquine milk is considered to be an interesting product for human nutrition, mainly owing to its low allergenicity and significant amounts of bioactive proteins, including lysozyme (LYZ) and lactoferrin (LTF). The present study assessed the effect of genetic factors on LYZ and LTF concentration variability in mare's milk.RESULTSSignificant effects of horse breed and lactation stage on milk LYZ and LTF contents were observed. The highest level of LTF and the lowest concentration of LYZ were recorded for the Polish Warmblood Horse breed. The highest amounts of both proteins were found for the earliest investigated time point of lactation (5th week). Altogether 13 (nine novel) polymorphisms were found in the 5′-flanking regions of both genes, but they showed no significant relationship with milk LYZ and LTF contents. Several associations were found between selected SNPs and the LYZ gene relative transcript level.CONCLUSIONWhile the present study indicated the existence of intra- and interbreed variability of LYZ and LTF contents in mare's milk, this variation is rather unrelated to the 5′-flanking variants of genes encoding both proteins. This study is a good introduction for broader investigations focused on the genetic background for variability of bioactive protein contents in mare's milk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T05:25:39.96256-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8026
  • Non-targeted metabolite profiling highlights the potential of strawberry
           leaves as a resource for specific bioactive compounds
    • Authors: Anna Kårlund; Kati Hanhineva, Marko Lehtonen, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Reijo O Karjalainen
      Pages: 2182 - 2190
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe non-edible parts of horticultural crops, such as leaves, contain substantial amounts of valuable bioactive compounds which are currently only little exploited. For example, strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves may be a promising bioresource for diverse health-related applications. However, product standardization sets a real challenge, especially when the leaf material comes from varying cultivars. The first step towards better quality control of berry fruit leaf-based ingredients and supplements is to understand metabolites present and their stability in different plant cultivars, so this study surveyed the distribution of potentially bioactive strawberry leaf metabolites in six different strawberry cultivars. Non-targeted metabolite profiling analysis using LC/qTOF-ESI-MS with data processing via principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis was utilized to examine differences and commonalities between the leaf metabolite profiles.RESULTSQuercetin and kaempferol derivatives were the dominant flavonol groups in strawberry leaves. Previously described and novel caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives were among the major phenolic acids. In addition, ellagitannins were one of the distinguishing compound classes in strawberry leaves. In general, strawberry leaves also contained high levels of octadecatrienoic acid derivatives, precursors of valuable odour compounds.CONCLUSIONThe specific bioactive compounds found in the leaves of different strawberry cultivars offer the potential for the selection of optimized leaf materials for added-value food and non-food applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-04T03:39:43.128071-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8027
  • Monitoring of contaminants in recycled paperboard for food contact
    • Authors: Vanessa Giannetti; Maurizio Boccacci Mariani, Paola Mannino
      Pages: 2191 - 2198
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe lack of harmonized European legislation on food packaging led the Confederation of European Paper Industries to the proposal of a voluntary Industry Guideline for the compliance of paper and board materials for food contact applications. In the present work, a previously established method for the simultaneous determination of contaminants commonly found in recycled paperboard was improved and its applicability as a quality control tool in the paper industry was also assessed. The method involves a sample pre-treatment followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.RESULTSFor analysis, paperboard samples were collected both from three sections of the same reel and from different reels belonging to the same production run. Results highlighted no significant differences in terms of contaminant distribution among samples, which ensured good sampling representativeness. The performance of the method was considerably improved in terms of linearity range, limits of detection and quantification (5- to 2-fold lower) by using a quadrupole GC/MS system instead of an ion trap GC/MS system.CONCLUSIONThe proposed method could offer a key strategy for analysis of benzophenone derivatives, diisopropyl naphthalene and phthalates in recycled paperboard in order to assess compliance of food packaging with the voluntary limits recommended by the Industry Guideline. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T02:11:24.716846-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8028
  • Mannanase Man23 mutant library construction based on a novel cell-free
           protein expression system
    • Authors: Haiyan Zhou; Jie Yong, Han Gao, Tong Li, Hongshi Xiao, Yongyao Wu
      Pages: 2199 - 2204
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMannanases are important enzymes which are widely used as a tool in agriculture and food industries. To improve the performance of mannanase Man23, a mutant library was created with rational design, and mutations were introduced on loops around the catalytic region. The Brevibacillus brevis B16 cell-free system which was created in this experiment provided the ability to express the mutant library efficiently. The activities of mutants were measured with a multi-volume spectrophotometer.RESULTSThe mutant Man1606 gained from this system is a sextet which has mutations of N146G, S147H, S156P, T157Y, Q206S and T249H simultaneously on loops 6, 8 and 10. Man1606 showed higher activity and stability than Man23. The optimal temperature of Man1606 rose by 5 °C (from 55 to 60 °C) and the optimal pH increased slightly but its range became broader.CONCLUSIONThis experiment demonstrated the B. brevis cell-free system shortens the expression time and is an efficient tool for mannanase engineering. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T03:15:41.177708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8029
  • Using the breakage matrix approach for monitoring the break release in the
           wheat flour milling process
    • Authors: Nemanja Bojanić; Aleksandar Fišteš, Dušan Rakić, Aleksandar Takači, Tatjana Došenović
      Pages: 2205 - 2214
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe breakage matrix approach is a mathematical tool to relate input and output particle size distribution from a milling operation. Adjustment of the break release in the flour milling process is extremely important because it affects granulation and quality characteristics of the stock and hence the total results and balance of the mill. In this study the breakage matrix approach has been used for the purpose of controlling the release on the front passages of the break system in the flour milling process.RESULTSIt has been established that, for any particle size distribution of wheat, it is possible to predict break releases together with the distribution of the release size fractions by using the breakage matrices. Also, the reversibility of this approach is examined, that is the possibility to identify the wheat particle size distribution that would result in desired break releases and/or the desired yields of different sized intermediate stocks under the given set of milling conditions.CONCLUSIONIt is confirmed that the breakage matrix approach can be successfully used to predict the break releases. The reverse breakage matrix concept allows the determination of the wheat particle size distribution which would result in a targeted break release. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T06:25:46.141519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8030
  • Antioxidant activity and physico-chemical parameters for the
           differentiation of honey using a potentiometric electronic tongue
    • Authors: Marisol Juan-Borrás; Juan Soto, Luis Gil-Sánchez, Ana Pascual-Maté, Isabel Escriche
      Pages: 2215 - 2222
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work evaluates the capacity of a potentiometric electronic tongue to differentiate between types of honey (orange blossom, rosemary, thyme, sunflower, winter savory and honeydew honey) according to their antioxidant level. The classical procedures used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of honey are inappropriate for in situ monitoring on reception of batches of raw honey in the packaging industry. They are also destructive, time-consuming and very tedious, requiring highly expert analysts and specialised equipment.RESULTSThe electronic tongue system made with Ag, Ni, Co, Cu and Au was able to not only differentiate between types of honey but also to predict their total antioxidant capacity. The discrimination ability of the system was proved by means of a fuzzy ARTMAP type ANN, with 100% classification success. A prediction multiple linear regression model showed that the best correlation coefficient was for antioxidant activity (0.9666), then for electrical conductivity (0.8959) and to a lesser extent for aw, moisture and colour.CONCLUSIONThe proposed measurement system could be a quick, easy option for the honey packaging sector to provide continuous in-line information about a characteristic as important as the antioxidant level. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T08:51:10.38963-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8031
  • Colloidal gold-McAb probe-based rapid immunoassay strip for simultaneous
           detection of fumonisins in maize
    • Authors: Jingjing Yao; Yaning Sun, Qingmei Li, Fangyu Wang, Man Teng, Yanyan Yang, Ruiguang Deng, Xiaofei Hu
      Pages: 2223 - 2229
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFumonisins are a kind of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. A rapid immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for simultaneous detection of fumonisin B1, B2 and B3 (FB1, FB2 and FB3) in maize based on colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody (McAb) against FB1 probe.RESULTSThe anti-FB1 McAb (2E11-H3) was produced through immunisation and cell fusion, and identified as high affinity, specificity and sensitivity. The cross-reaction ratios with fumonisin B2 and B3 were accordingly 385% and 72.4%, while none with other analogues. The colloid gold-labelled anti-FB1 McAb probe was successfully prepared and used for establishing the immunochromatographic strip. The test strip showed high sensitivity and specificity, the IC50 for FB1 was 58.08 ng mL−1, LOD was 11.24 ng mL−1, calculated from standard curve. Moreover, the test strip exhibited high cross-reactivity with FB2 and FB3, and could be applied to the simultaneous detection of FBs (FB1:FB2:FB3 = 12:4:1) in maize sample with high accuracy and precision. The average recoveries of FBs in maize ranged from 90.42% to 95.29%, and CVs were 1.25–3.77%. The results of the test strip for FBs samples showed good correlation with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.CONCLUSIONThe immunochromatographic test strip could be employed in the rapid simultaneous detection of FB1, FB2 and FB3 in maize samples on-site. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T01:40:30.094531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8032
  • Soy protein isolate as a nanocarrier for enhanced water dispersibility,
           stability and bioaccessibility of β-carotene
    • Authors: Xi-Xiang Deng; Ning Zhang, Chuan-He Tang
      Pages: 2230 - 2237
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe incorporation of β-carotene, one of the most common pigments or bioactives, into food formulations has attracted increasing interest from the food industry, due to its good nutrition and potential health effects. However, it is poorly soluble and unstable in water, which greatly limits its applications in foods. This work presented an effective approach to improve the water dispersibility, stability and even bioaccessibility of β-carotene, using soy protein isolate (SPI) to perform as effective nanocarriers for this molecule.RESULTSThe complexation with SPI remarkably improved the water dispersibility and stability against heating and freeze-drying of β-carotene. However, the encapsulation efficiency and stability of β-carotene in the nanocomplexes with SPI were closely dependent on the applied β-carotene-to-protein ratio, at which the complexation occurred. The best improvement of stability was observed at appropriate β-carotene-to-protein ratios, e.g. 10–20 g kg−1. The complexation with β-carotene mainly occurred on the surface of SPI nanoparticles, through hydrophobic interactions. The complexation resulted in inter-particle aggregation, in a concentration-dependent manner. Almost all of the β-carotene molecules in the nanocomplexes could be progressively released into the aqueous phase.CONCLUSIONSPI exhibits a good potential to perform as a nanocarrier for enhanced water dispersibility, stability and bioaccessibility of β-carotene. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-11T01:56:41.674731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8033
  • FTIR spectroscopy as a tool to detect contamination of rocket (Eruca
           sativa and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) salad with common groundsel (Senecio
           vulgaris) leaves
    • Authors: Meta Kokalj; Marcel Prikeržnik, Samo Kreft
      Pages: 2238 - 2244
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRocket is a popular salad vegetable used all over the world and it has many health benefits. However, like with all plant material, there exists a danger of contamination with toxic substances. In the case of rocket, contamination with groundsel has occurred. Groundsel is a common weed in rocket crops, and it contains very toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. In our study infrared spectroscopy was used to distinguish groundsel samples from rocket leaves. Infrared spectroscopy is a very simple analytical technique; however, some specific conditions are more easily implemented in industrial environment than others. Some of these conditions and parameters of infrared spectroscopy were explored in detail.RESULTSWe tested for the influence of different parameters of attenuated total reflectance and transmission infrared method. Our results show that a 100 % correct classification can be obtained under conditions most suitable for industry: using fresh samples and parameters that enable fast spectral measurement.CONCLUSIONInfrared spectroscopy is a fast and easy-to-use method that has been shown to be able to differentiate between rocket and groundsel leaves. Therefore, it could be further studied for implementation in the safety control of rocket salads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T02:07:55.167888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8034
  • Decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal waste and
           poultry manure in the soil in a biofuel crops field
    • Authors: Cláudia Marques-dos-Santos Cordovil; Amarilis de Varennes, Renata Machado dos Santos Pinto, Tiago Filipe Alves, Pedro Mendes, Sílvio César Sampaio
      Pages: 2245 - 2255
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBiofuel crops are gaining importance because of the need to replace non-renewable sources. Also, due to the increasing amounts of wastes generated, there is the need to recycle them to the soil, both to fertilize crops and to improve soil physical properties through organic matter increase and microbiological changes in the rhizosphere. We therefore studied the influence of six biofuel crops (elephant grass, giant cane, sugarcane, blue gum, black cottonwood, willow) on the decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal solid waste and poultry manure. Organic amendments were incubated in the field (litterbag method), buried near each plant or bare soil. Biomass decrease and dehydrogenase, urease and acid phosphatase level in amendments was monitored over a 180-day period. Soil under the litterbags was analysed for the same enzymatic activity and organic matter fractions (last sampling). After 365 days, a fractionation of organic matter was carried out in both amendments and soil under the litterbags.RESULTSFor compost, willow and sugarcane generally led to the greatest enzymatic activity, at the end of the experiment. For manure, dehydrogenase activity decreased sharply with time, the smallest value near sugarcane, while phosphatase and urease generally presented the highest values, at the beginning or after 90 days' incubation. Clustering showed that plant species could be grouped based on biomass and enzymes measured over time.CONCLUSIONSPlant species influenced the decomposition rate and enzymatic activities of the organic amendments. Overall, mineralization of both amendments was associated with a greater urease activity in soils. Dehydrogenase activity in manure was closely associated with urease activity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T01:05:28.990886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8035
  • The structural properties and antigenicity of soybean glycinin by
           glycation with xylose
    • Authors: Guanhao Bu; Tingwei Zhu, Fusheng Chen
      Pages: 2256 - 2262
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSoybean glycinin is considered a major allergenic protein, and glycation is widely used to reduce the allergenic potential of present allergens. Glycation of soybean glycinin with xylose at 55 °C for different lengths of time was investigated. The extent of Maillard reaction was reflected through the content changing of free amino groups, color analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Alteration in the structural properties of glycinin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and antigenicity was evaluated by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTSThe changes in the color of glycinin–xylose samples and the reduction of free amino group content in proteins indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred. The degree of glycation increased in glycated samples with the increase in reaction time. Glycation induced the changes in the secondary structure of glycinin and the ordered structure of proteins increased during the glycation reaction. The antigenicity of glycinin was reduced with the increase in reaction time. After glycation for 12 h, the antigenicity of glycinin declined about 18% compared with native glycinin.CONCLUSIONThe application of glycation may be an efficient method to reduce the antigenicity of soybean glycinin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T06:45:26.723636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8036
  • Alkyl pyrazine synthesis via an open heated bath with variable sugars,
           ammonia, and various amino acids
    • Authors: Katayoun Mahdavi Ara; Larry T Taylor, Mehdi Ashraf-Khorassani, William M Coleman
      Pages: 2263 - 2270
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSemi-quantitative characteristics of headspace volatile pyrazines which constituted around 1% by weight of the final product have been previously described. The influence of reactant concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time on both the yield of total alkyl pyrazines and the distribution pattern of specific identified pyrazines has not been reported.RESULTSThe optimum synthetic conditions were 5 mol L−1 NH4OH, 2 mol L−1 rhamnose, 0.5 mol L−1 leucine at 110°C for 2 h. The greatest total amount of pyrazines obtained was 17 280 µg of extracted product which translated into 31% 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, 17% 2-methyl pyrazine, 15% 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, and 16% 2-isoamyl-6-methyl pyrazine.CONCLUSIONThe yield of synthesized pyrazines increased at higher temperatures. Quantitative total and specific pyrazine results as opposed to analysis of only headspace volatiles are more representative of pyrazine synthesis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T03:51:17.106067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8039
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