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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 300 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (217 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (217 journals)

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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.822]   [H-I: 100]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1612 journals]
  • Anti-hypercholesterolemic influence of the spice cardamom (Elettaria
           cardamomum) in experimental rats
    • Authors: Shamarao Nagashree; Kottangada K. Archana, Pullabhatla Srinivas, Krishnapura Srinivasan, Halagur B. Sowbhagya
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is an aromatic seed spice grown extensively in India and used as a flavoring in sweets. The anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of cardamom was evaluated in Wistar rats by inducing hypercholesterolemia with a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made with (a) Cardamom powder (50 g.kg−1), (b) Cardamom oil (3 g.kg−1) (equivalent to 50 g.kg−1 cardamom), and (c) de-oiled cardamom powder (50 g.kg−1).RESULTSSignificant reduction in the blood total cholesterol (31%) and LDL cholesterol (44%) was observed by oral administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats accompanied by a marked decrease in serum triglycerides by 42%. Cholesterol content of cardiac muscle was beneficially lowered by 39% with administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats. Liver triglycerides were reduced by 33%. Incorporation of cardamom oil/powder in diet did not alter the feed consumption in rats. Compromised activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes under hypercholesterolemic situation were generally countered by dietary cardamom. Treatment with de-oiled cardamom as well as cardamom oil countered the diminished activity of catalase in hypercholesterolemic animals. Cardamom also enhanced the activity of heart superoxide dismutase in hypercholesterolemic situation. Ascorbic acid concentration in circulation was significantly increased by dietary cardamom or its fractions in hypercholesterolemic situation.CONCLUSIONSThis animal study has thus established the potential of cardamom oil in restoring the alteration in lipid homeostasis in conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Significant reduction of atherogenicity index by dietary intervention with cardamom powder and cardamom oil indicates the potential cardio protective effect of cardamom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26T04:20:22.344244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8165
       
  • Phytate/calcium molar ratio does not predict accessibility of calcium in
           ready-to-eat dishes
    • Authors: Daniela Erba; Federica Manini, Erika Meroni, Maria C. Casiraghi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytic acid (PA), a naturally occurring compound of plant food, is generally considered to affect mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the PA/calcium molar ratio as a predictive factor of calcium accessibility in composed dishes and their ingredients.RESULTSWe chose dishes whose ingredients were rich in Ca (milk or cheese) or in PA (whole-wheat cereals) in order to consider a range of PA/Ca ratios (from 0 to 2.4) and measure Ca solubility using an “in vitro” approach. The amounts of soluble Ca in composed dishes were consistent with the sum of soluble Ca from ingredients (3 out of 5 meals) or higher. Among the whole-wheat products, bread showed higher Ca accessibility (71%, PA/Ca = 1.1) than biscuits (23%, PA/Ca = 0.9) and pasta (15%, PA/Ca = 1.5), and among Ca-rich ingredients, semi-skimmed milk displayed higher Ca accessibility (64%) than sliced cheese (50%) and Parmesan (38%). We found no significant correlation between PA/Ca ratio and Ca accessibility (p = 0.077).CONCLUSIONThe reliability of the PA/Ca ratio for predicting the availability of calcium in composed dishes is unsatisfactory; data emphasized the importance of the overall food matrix influence on mineral accessibility.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T05:40:26.571145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8163
       
  • Valorization of functional properties of extract and powder of olive
           leaves in raw and cooked minced beef meat
    • Authors: Fathia Aouidi; Aicha Okba, Moktar Hamdi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive leaves (OL), resulting with a huge amount from pruning, were known to be a useful source for biologically active compounds. This paper investigates the potential application of OL as a supplement to minced beef meat, in order to develop a functional product. The effect of OL extract or powder (100, 150 µg phenols g−1of meat) on quality and stability of raw and cooked meat, during refrigerated storage, was examined.RESULTSMicrowave drying at 600w gave OL with the highest antioxidant quality (evaluated by TEACphenols and by DPPHphenols , compared to other methods. OL showed an ability to inhibit (P
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T05:40:25.041601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8164
       

  •        Effect of deamidation-induced modification on umami and bitter taste
           of wheat gluten hydrolysates
    • Authors: Bo-Ye Liu; Ke-Xue Zhu, Xiao-Na Guo, Wei Peng, Hui-Ming Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBitter taste is the main limiting factor for various applications of protein hydrolysates. Frequently-used physicochemical methods for debittering protein hydrolysates came with some undesired side effects. Deamidation-induced modification method would be a very promising technique to improve the flavor of wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). This study was designed to determine the effect of deamidation with certain enzymes or acid treatment on the chemical composition, bitterness and umami properties of WGHs. The difference between umami peptide and free glutamic acid on the suppression of bitterness was emphatically discussed. The optimal scheme was proposed based on the flavor of WGHs and the yield of peptides.RESULTSThe generation of umami substances suppressed bitter signal transduction. When the content of umami substances was relatively high, the umami-enhancing properties of umami peptides were obviously effective. The intensity of umami taste was high enough to further suppress bitter taste in course of neurocognitive functioning.CONCLUSIONWhen WGHs were treated for 180 min by Glutaminase, the umami taste score had increased from 1.62 to 4.27 and the bitter taste score had decreased from 1.33 to 0.65.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T00:05:20.86814-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8162
       
  • Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the enzymatic hydrolysis of Bovine
           Serum Albumin
    • Authors: Serena De Maria; Giovanna Ferrari, Paola Maresca
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe extent of the enzymatic proteolysis mainly depends on the accessibility of the peptide bonds, which stabilize the protein structure. High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) process is able to induce, at certain operating conditions, protein displacement, thus suggesting that this technology can be used to modify protein resistance to the enzymatic attack. This work aims at investigating the mechanism of the enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by HHP performed at different processing conditions (pressure level, treatment time). Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was selected for the experiments, solubilized in Sodium Phosphate Buffer (25 mg/mL, pH=7.5) with α-chymotrypsin or trypsin (E/S ratio = 1/10) and treated in HPP processes (100–500 MPa, 15–25 min).RESULTSHHP treatments enhanced the extent of the hydrolysis reaction of globular proteins, being more effective than conventional hydrolysis. At HHP treatment conditions maximizing the protein unfolding, the hydrolysis degree of proteins was increased, as a consequence of the increased exposure of peptides bonds to the attack of proteolytic enzymes. The maximum hydrolysis degree (10 % and 7% respectively for the samples hydrolyzed with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin) was reached after a treatment at 400 MPa for 25 minutes) was observed for the samples processed at 400 MPa for 25 minutes. At pressure levels higher than 400 MPa the formation of aggregates was likely to occur, thus the degree of hydrolysis decreased.CONCLUSIONSProtein unfolding represents the key-factor controlling the efficiency of the HHP assisted hydrolysis treatments. The peptide produced under high pressure showed lower dimensions and a different structure with respect to those of the hydrolysates obtained when the hydrolysis was carried out at atmospheric pressure, thus opening new frontiers of application in food science and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:35.247459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8157
       
  • The effect of pH and amino acids on the formation of methylglyoxal in
           glucose-amino acid model system
    • Authors: Pei Yu; Xian-Bing Xu, Shu-Juan Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMethylglyoxal (MGO) as a α-dicarbonyl compound not only affects food flavor and color but also contributes to the loss of nutrition and the generation of toxic compounds. The study was carried out using glucose-amino acids model system incubated at 120 °C to investigate the effect of amino acids and pH on the formation of MGO. MGO derivative (2-methylquinoxaline) was detected by a high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Changes of glucose, amino acids and products such as acetic acid were tested using a high performance anion exchange chromatography with an electrochemical detector or an electrical conductivity detector.RESULTSLysine and glycine had higher reactivity to form MGO and melanoidins than arginine and proline. More acetic acid was produced and a higher consumption of arginine was observed in glucose-arginine solution. Moreover, higher pH significantly accelerated the formation of MGO.CONCLUSIONAmino reactivity and pH were two important factors to affect the formation of MGO in the Maillard reaction.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:32.638067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8158
       
  • Chemical composition of microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis and
           Dunaliella tertiolecta with emphasis on carotenoids
    • Authors: Andressa Bacalau Diprat; Tania Menegol, Juliana Ferreira Boelter, Ariane Zmozinski, Maria Goreti Rodrigues Vale, Eliseu Rodrigues, Rosane Rech
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicroalgae have been used as food supplements due their high protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoid contents. As different carotenoids have distinct properties, and carotenoid composition from microalgae were poorly explored in the literature, this study determined the complete carotenoid composition from two microalgae species, Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and a mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS2). Additionally, the proximate composition and major minerals were evaluated.RESULTSThe carotenoid composition of both the microalgae was similar. Thirteen carotenoids were found in H. luteoviridis and twelve in D. tertiolecta. The major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (1.18 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 1.59 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta), all-trans-violaxanthin (0.52 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.45 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta) and all-trans-β-carotene (0.50 mg g−1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.62 mg g−1 in D. tertiolecta). All-trans-lutein was the predominant carotenoid in both microalgae, representing around 40 % (mass fraction) of the total carotenoids. The lutein content found in these microalgae was significantly higher (2-40 times) than other important food sources of lutein (e.g. parsley, carrots, red peppers, broccolis).CONCLUSIONThe microalgae H. luteoviridis and D. tertiolecta are excellent sources of lutein that could be commercially exploited by food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, it was confirmed that both the microalgae are good sources of protein, lipids and calcium.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:44:23.688895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8159
       
  • Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for
           characterization of geographical origin and agronomic practices of table
           grape
    • Authors: Francesco Longobardi; Grazia Casiello, Valentina Centonze, Lucia Catucci, Angela. Agostiano
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported about the geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios.This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. 2H/1H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 18O/16O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional vs. organic farming) and the provenance of table grape.ResultsIn order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t-test was carried out in light of which, only δ13C and δ18O provide statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) for the discrimination of geographical origin and farming method. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed no good separation of samples different for geographical area and agronomic practice, therefore, for classification aims, supervised approaches were carried out. In particular, General Discriminant Analyses (GDA) was used, resulting in prediction abilities of 75.0% and 92.2% for the discrimination of farming methods and origin, respectively.ConclusionThe present findings suggest that stable isotopes (i.e. δ18O, δ2H and δ13C) combined with chemometrics, can be successfully applicable to discriminate the provenance of table grape. However, the use of bulk nitrogen isotopes was not effective for the farming discrimination.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:12:54.063704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8161
       
  • Effect of high pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall
           quality parameters of white grape juice
    • Authors: Yin-Hsuan Chang; Sz-Jie Wu, Bang-Yuan Chen, Hsiao-Wen Huang, Chung-Yi Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP) over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage.RESULTSResults showed that HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeast counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences when compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids, and remained less than 50% of PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice.CONCLUSIONThis study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf-life during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:00:22.289252-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8160
       
  • Water dynamics of Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn powder and effects of moisture
           absorption on its chemical properties
    • Authors: Songyi Lin; Peiyu Xue, Shuailing Yang, Xingfang Li, Xiuping Dong, Feng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study has elucidated moisture dynamics in the soybean peptide, Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn (SHECN) powder by using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) and NMR. We also tried to investigate the effects of moisture absorption on the biological activity and chemical properties of SHECN with some effective methods such like mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and GC-MS.RESULTSThe DVS results showed the maximum moisture absorption of SHECN could reached 33% and the SHECN powder after synthesis actually existed in a trihydrate state of SHECN·3H2O. LF-NMR revealed that four water proportions were involved in SHECN moisture absorption and combined water was dominant in its hygroscopicity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MIR results indicated moisture absorption could change the morphology and structure of SHECN. After moisture absorption at 50% and 75% relative humidity, 19 volatiles were identified by GC-MS analysis. Additionally, this study showed a part of reductive groups in SHECN was oxidized and its antioxidant ability declined significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T10:25:30.641017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8154
       
  • Laboratory-Scale Milling of Whole-Durum Flour Quality: Effect of Mill
           Configuration and Seed Conditioning
    • Authors: Lingzhu Deng; Frank A Manthey
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDResearch was conducted to develop a laboratory milling procedure to make whole-durum flour. An ultra-centrifugal mill was evaluated by determining the effect of mill configuration and seed conditioning on particle size distribution and quality of whole-wheat flour.RESULTSParticle size of whole-wheat flour decreased as screen aperture decreased from 1,000 to 250 µm; as rotor speed increased from 6,000 to 18,000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg−1. Feed rate during milling did not affect particle size distribution. Starch damage decreased as screen aperture increased; as rotor speed increased from 6,000 to12,000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg−1. Flour temperature varied with milling parameters but did not exceed 34 °C.CONCLUSIONUltra-centrifugal mill configured with rotor speed of 12,000 rpm, screen aperture of 250 µm, and seed conditioning moisture of 90 g kg−1 resulted in a fine whole-wheat flour where 82 % of particles were
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T22:35:20.812468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8156
       
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant peptides from
           digestion of larvae and pupae of Asian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina,
           Fabucious
    • Authors: Werawich Pattarayingsakul; Arjaree Nilavongse, Onrapak Reamtong, Pamorn Chittavanich, Idsada Mungsantisuk, Yuvadee Mathong, Wipoo Prasitwuttisak, Watanalai Panbangred
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMixed larvae and pupae of weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) are widely used as an important food ingredient in regions of Thailand. They have high nutritional values and comprise 53% protein and 13% lipid. Peptides derived from food proteins have been shown to possess biological activities.RESULTSPeptides derived from pepsin and trypsin digestion of these weaver ant larvae and pupae were purified based on ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities, and their amino acid sequences identified by LC-MS/MS. In silico docking of peptides with ACE successfully predicted the inhibitory peptides as confirmed by their chemical synthesis. Two peptides with sequences of FFGT and LSRVP showed IC50 values for ACE inhibition of 19.5 ± 1.7 and 52.7 ± 4.0 µmol L−1, respectively. In addition, one potent antioxidant peptide with a sequence of CTKKHKPNC showed IC50 values of 48.2 ± 2.1 µmol L−1 for DPPH assay and 38.4 ± 0.2 µmol L−1 for ABTS assay, respectively.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that proteins from larvae and pupae of weaver ants are potential sources of peptides with anti-ACE and antioxidation bioactivities.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:45:33.903885-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8155
       
  • Study of heat-moisture treatment of potato starch granules by chemical
           surface gelatinization
    • Authors: Josiane Bartz; Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNative potato starch was heat-moisture treated (HMT) at 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 % of moisture content at 110 °C for 1 h and the effects on morphology, structure, thermal and physicochemical properties were investigated. To reveal the internal structure, 30 and 50 % of the granular surface were removed by chemical surface gelatinization in concentrated LiCl solution.RESULTSAt moisture contents of 12 and 15 %, the HTM reduced the gelatinization temperatures and relative crystallinity of the starches while at moisture contents of 21 and 24 % both increased. The alterations on morphology, X-ray pattern, physicochemical properties and increase of amylose content were more intense with the increase of moisture content of HMT.CONCLUSIONThe removal of granular layers showed that the changes promoted by HMT occur throughout the whole granule and was pronounced at the core or peripheral region depending of the moisture content applied during HMT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:45:28.547157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8153
       
  • Processing black mulberry into jam: Effects on antioxidant potential and
           in vitro bioaccessibility
    • Authors: Merve Tomas; Gamze Toydemir, Dilek Boyacioglu, Robert D. Hall, Jules Beekwilder, Esra Capanoglu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBlack mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, percent polymeric color, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples.RESULTSJam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (p 
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T21:40:23.466369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8152
       
  • Kinetics of volatile marker compounds during ripening of cured loins
           inoculated with Staphylococcus carnosus
    • Authors: Ramona Bosse (née Danz); Melanie Wirth, Monika Gibis, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Weiss
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe current study was designed to investigate the influence of ripening time (12 weeks, 15 °C) on the volatile compounds and sensory acceptance for North European cured loins inoculated with a proteolytic Staphylococcus carnosus starter culture.RESULTSThe results demonstrated that the trend of volatile compounds, sensory acceptance and proteolytic activity increased during a ripening of 7 to 9 weeks. A further ripening led to a plateau phase for sensory attributes and aroma-relevant volatile compounds such as benzaldehyde, nonanone and acetophenone. The inoculation of the proteolytic S. carnosus LTH 3838 significantly increased aroma-relevant volatile compounds (3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, acetophenone, 1-octen-3-ol) and sensory acceptance up to a score 3.5 and 3.6 for the overall odor and taste by week 9. In addition, compounds such as nonanal, hexanal, 2-pentanone and nonanone, which originate from lipid oxidation, were significantly limited by S. carnosus LTH 3838.CONCLUSIONA ripening time of 7 to 9 weeks seems to be an optimal period for the production of aroma intensive smoked North European cured loins.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22T10:05:22.865357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8150
       
  • Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed
           extracts of cv. sangiovese(Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Giuseppe Bombai; Federica Pasini, Vito Verardo, Onur Sevindik, Michele Di Foggia, Paola Tessarin, Anna Maria Bregoli, Paola Taddei, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Adamo Domenico Rombolà
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically-cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines.RESULTSLinoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerization ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total proanthocyanidins concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening.CONCLUSIONSFatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds considerably swung during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased.The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of monomers and oligomeric proanthocyanidins greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T23:40:21.367851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8151
       
  • Incorporation of conjugated fatty acids into Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: Elton G. Bonafé; Luana C. Figueiredo, Alessandro F. Martins, Johny P. Monteiro, Oscar O. S. Junior, Edmilson A. Canesin, Swami Arêa Maruyama, Jesuí V. Visentainer
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to improve the nutritional quality of Nile tilapia meat through enriched diets with conjugated isomers of linolenic acid from tung oil. The transfer process of conjugated fatty acids (CFA) into fish muscle tissue was evaluated by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (EASI-MS). The results showed that conjugated fatty acids were transferred from enriched diet for muscle tissue of Nile tilapia. Conjugated linoleic acids biosynthesis from conjugated linolenic acids was also observed after ten days. Other important fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and arachidonic (AA) acids were also identified over time, however, DHA showed the highest concentration when compared with EPA and AA compounds. Therefore, the nutritional quality of Nile tilapia was improved through feeding with enriched diets. The ingestion of these fish may contribute to reach adequate levels of daily CFA consumption. Furthermore, other important substances which play an important role in human metabolism, such as EPA, DHA, and AA, can also be ingested together with CFA.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T23:15:29.705906-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8149
       
  • Characterization of a novel cellobiose 2-epimerase from thermophilic
           Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis for lactulose production
    • Authors: Qiuming Chen; Roman Levin, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLactulose, a bioactive lactose derivative, has been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Isomerization of lactose to lactulose by cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) has recently attracted increasing attention, since CE produces lactulose with high yield from lactose as a single substrate. In this study, a new lactulose-producing CE from Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis was extensively characterized.RESULTSThe recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 70 °C. It displayed high thermostability with Tm of 86.7 °C. The half-life was calculated to be 8.1, 2.8, and 0.6 h at 75, 80, and 85 °C, respectively. When lactose was used as substrate, epilactose was rapidly produced in a short period, and afterwards both epilactose and lactose were steadily isomerized to lactulose, with a final ratio of 35: 11: 54 for lactose: epilactose: lactulose. When the reverse reaction was investigated using lactulose as substrate, both lactose and epilactose appeared to be steadily produced from the start.CONCLUSIONThe recombinant CE showed both epimerization and isomerization activities against lactose, making it an alternative promising biocatalyst candidate for lactulose production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T22:21:13.441405-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8148
       
  • Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic
           yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii
    • Authors: Suprama Datta; David J. Timson, Uday S. Annapure
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSaccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastro-intestinal disorders. In this paper, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed in order to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced.RESULTSS. cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance when compared with S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a 6-10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the DPPH assay), with 70-fold higher total phenolic content and 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further elucidated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites viz. vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B6 which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain.CONCLUSIONThis study presents a new perspective of differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the work also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T02:01:12.486445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8147
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induces disease resistance against Monilinia
           fructicola through activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit
    • Authors: Guangjin Li; ShuHua Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Chang Zhang, Yong Peng, Qingguo Wang, Jingying Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitric Oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in plant-induced resistance to disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between disease resistance induced by NO and phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit. The effect of NO on the main enzymes and metabolites of phenylpropanoid pathway of harvested peach probably related to disease resistance against M. fructicola was investigated in the present study.RESULTSThe results showed that treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) and their genes expression. Furthermore, NO treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, lignin over the whole storage and maintained higher total anthocyanins, phenolic acids and individual anthocyanins contents during earlier storage period.CONCLUSIONThese results suggested that NO treatment could activate the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance the activity of related enzymes as well as the contents of phenylpropanoid metabolites in peach to improve the disease resistance and prevent pathogenic invasion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:25:37.948656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8146
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induces disease resistance against Monilinia
           fructicola through activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit
    • Authors: Guangjin Li; ShuHua Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Chang Zhang, Yong Peng, Qingguo Wang, Jingying Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitric Oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in plant-induced resistance to disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between disease resistance induced by NO and phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit. The effect of NO on the main enzymes and metabolites of phenylpropanoid pathway of harvested peach probably related to disease resistance against M. fructicola was investigated in the present study.RESULTSThe results showed that treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) and their genes expression. Furthermore, NO treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, lignin over the whole storage and maintained higher total anthocyanins, phenolic acids and individual anthocyanins contents during earlier storage period.CONCLUSIONThese results suggested that NO treatment could activate the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance the activity of related enzymes as well as the contents of phenylpropanoid metabolites in peach to improve the disease resistance and prevent pathogenic invasion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:25:37.948656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8146
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induces disease resistance against Monilinia
           fructicola through activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit
    • Authors: Guangjin Li; ShuHua Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Chang Zhang, Yong Peng, Qingguo Wang, Jingying Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitric Oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in plant-induced resistance to disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between disease resistance induced by NO and phenylpropanoid pathway in peach fruit. The effect of NO on the main enzymes and metabolites of phenylpropanoid pathway of harvested peach probably related to disease resistance against M. fructicola was investigated in the present study.RESULTSThe results showed that treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) and their genes expression. Furthermore, NO treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, lignin over the whole storage and maintained higher total anthocyanins, phenolic acids and individual anthocyanins contents during earlier storage period.CONCLUSIONThese results suggested that NO treatment could activate the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance the activity of related enzymes as well as the contents of phenylpropanoid metabolites in peach to improve the disease resistance and prevent pathogenic invasion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:25:37.948656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8146
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed
           product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil
    • Authors: David L. Compton; Kervin O. Evans, Michael Appell
      Abstract: BackgroundFeruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency.ResultsThe formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22 day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products.ConclusionThe quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:05:20.980075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8145
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed
           product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil
    • Authors: David L. Compton; Kervin O. Evans, Michael Appell
      Abstract: BackgroundFeruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency.ResultsThe formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22 day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products.ConclusionThe quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:05:20.980075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8145
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed
           product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil
    • Authors: David L. Compton; Kervin O. Evans, Michael Appell
      Abstract: BackgroundFeruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency.ResultsThe formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22 day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products.ConclusionThe quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T02:05:20.980075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8145
       
  • Aflatoxins and Food Pathogens: Impact of Biologically Active Aflatoxins
           and their Control Strategies
    • Authors: S Umesha; H. M. Manukumar, B. Chandrasekhar, P. Shivakumara, J. Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, P. Avinash, M. Shirin, T. R. Bharathi, S. B. Rajini, M. Nandhini, G. Vinaya Rani, M. Shobha, H. S. Prakash
      Abstract: Globally disease outbreaks are due to consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff is regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms paicularly fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in human and animals. Moreover, the terrible conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue within the country. For that reason, mycotoxin illness of nutrition with exceeding stages represents a major health hazard for the neighborhood population. Government policies should be strong in making regulations to avoid aflatoxin entry into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by the regulatory authorities. There is a need of attention from farmers, scientists, government, and collaborative minds throughout the country to change into aflatoxin free food. This overview is supposed to be informative, just not only for health-conscious of consumers but in addition for authorities in the area to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our talents with regard to mycotoxins and food security.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T01:50:39.032333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8144
       
  • Aflatoxins and Food Pathogens: Impact of Biologically Active Aflatoxins
           and their Control Strategies
    • Authors: S Umesha; H. M. Manukumar, B. Chandrasekhar, P. Shivakumara, J. Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, P. Avinash, M. Shirin, T. R. Bharathi, S. B. Rajini, M. Nandhini, G. Vinaya Rani, M. Shobha, H. S. Prakash
      Abstract: Globally disease outbreaks are due to consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff is regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms particularly fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in human and animals. Moreover, the terrible conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue within the country. For that reason, mycotoxin illness of nutrition with exceeding stages represents a major health hazard for the neighborhood population. Government policies should be strong in making regulations to avoid aflatoxin entry into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by the regulatory authorities. There is a need of attention from farmers, scientists, government, and collaborative minds throughout the country to change into aflatoxin free food. This overview is supposed to be informative, just not only for health-conscious of consumers but in addition for authorities in the area to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our talents with regard to mycotoxins and food security.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T01:50:39.032333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8144
       
  • Aflatoxins and Food Pathogens: Impact of Biologically Active Aflatoxins
           and their Control Strategies
    • Authors: S Umesha; H. M. Manukumar, B. Chandrasekhar, P. Shivakumara, J. Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, P. Avinash, M. Shirin, T. R. Bharathi, S. B. Rajini, M. Nandhini, G. Vinaya Rani, M. Shobha, H. S. Prakash
      Abstract: Globally disease outbreaks are due to consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff is regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms particularly fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in human and animals. Moreover, the terrible conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue within the country. For that reason, mycotoxin illness of nutrition with exceeding stages represents a major health hazard for the neighborhood population. Government policies should be strong in making regulations to avoid aflatoxin entry into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by the regulatory authorities. There is a need of attention from farmers, scientists, government, and collaborative minds throughout the country to change into aflatoxin free food. This overview is supposed to be informative, just not only for health-conscious of consumers but in addition for authorities in the area to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our talents with regard to mycotoxins and food security.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T01:50:39.032333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8144
       
  • Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: A literature review
    • Authors: G. Banias; Ch. Achillas, Ch. Vlachokostas, N. Moussiopoulos, M. Stefanou
      Abstract: Production of olive oil is considered one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite their importance, environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. This paper aims to present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications in the field of use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration farming of olive trees, manufacturing of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded, while also the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees –with pesticides’ use and waste/by-products production being the “hottest” topics– and manufacturing of olive oil –concentrating mostly on waste/by-products production and management– are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly on fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:30:21.957569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8143
       
  • Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: A literature review
    • Authors: G. Banias; Ch. Achillas, Ch. Vlachokostas, N. Moussiopoulos, M. Stefanou
      Abstract: Production of olive oil is considered one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite their importance, environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. This paper aims to present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications in the field of use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration farming of olive trees, manufacturing of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded, while also the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees –with pesticides’ use and waste/by-products production being the “hottest” topics– and manufacturing of olive oil –concentrating mostly on waste/by-products production and management– are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly on fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:30:21.957569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8143
       
  • Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: A literature review
    • Authors: G. Banias; Ch. Achillas, Ch. Vlachokostas, N. Moussiopoulos, M. Stefanou
      Abstract: Production of olive oil is considered one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite their importance, environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. This paper aims to present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications in the field of use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration farming of olive trees, manufacturing of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded, while also the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees –with pesticides’ use and waste/by-products production being the “hottest” topics– and manufacturing of olive oil –concentrating mostly on waste/by-products production and management– are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly on fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:30:21.957569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8143
       
  • Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in
           modified atmosphere
    • Authors: Ilija Djekic; Jovana Vunduk, Igor Tomašević, Maja Kozarski, Predrag Petrovic, Miomir Niksic, Predrag Pudja, Anita Klaus
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP); low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP); and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR).RESULTSThis research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. As of the second period, the odor intensities were stronger for all four packaging. Color difference and browning index showed that significantly lower color changes were on AIR and LOP compared to HNP and LCP mushrooms.CONCLUSIONTotal quality index showed that the best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are worthy, in respect to examining two component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O2 and CO2) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and total quality index of A. bisporus mushroom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:15:24.442073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8142
       
  • Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in
           modified atmosphere
    • Authors: Ilija Djekic; Jovana Vunduk, Igor Tomašević, Maja Kozarski, Predrag Petrovic, Miomir Niksic, Predrag Pudja, Anita Klaus
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP); low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP); and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR).RESULTSThis research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. As of the second period, the odor intensities were stronger for all four packaging. Color difference and browning index showed that significantly lower color changes were on AIR and LOP compared to HNP and LCP mushrooms.CONCLUSIONTotal quality index showed that the best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are worthy, in respect to examining two component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O2 and CO2) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and total quality index of A. bisporus mushroom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:15:24.442073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8142
       
  • Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in
           modified atmosphere
    • Authors: Ilija Djekic; Jovana Vunduk, Igor Tomašević, Maja Kozarski, Predrag Petrovic, Miomir Niksic, Predrag Pudja, Anita Klaus
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP); low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP); and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR).RESULTSThis research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. As of the second period, the odor intensities were stronger for all four packaging. Color difference and browning index showed that significantly lower color changes were on AIR and LOP compared to HNP and LCP mushrooms.CONCLUSIONTotal quality index showed that the best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are worthy, in respect to examining two component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O2 and CO2) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and total quality index of A. bisporus mushroom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T00:15:24.442073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8142
       
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
       
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
       
  • Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of
           margarines during storage
    • Authors: Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro; Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigatedRESULTSThe extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g−1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g−1, respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g−1, and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g−1 for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic and acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the extract pecan nut shell extract. Values between 3.75 and 4.43 mEq kg−1 and 1.22 and 2.73 for peroxide and p-Anisidine, respectively; between 9.88 and 10.8 for Totox value, and between 4.38 and 4.59 and 0.92 and 0.94, for specific extinction, at 232 and 268 nm respectively, were observed after eight months of storage in the studied samples.CONCLUSIONSMargarines supplemented with either pecan nut shell extract or rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:55.855386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8141
       
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
           properties
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
       
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
           properties
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
       
  • Microwave drying of germinated corn and its effect on phytochemical
           properties
    • Authors: Oraporn Bualuang; Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100–700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source.RESULTSWith increasing microwave drying power from 100 to 700 W, the effective diffusivity (Deff) was in the ranges of 1.50 × 10−6 to 1.81 × 10−5 m2 s−1, BCC ranged from 614.20 ± 3.10 to 229.90 ± 1.00 µg BCE g−1 dw and decreased gradually by 62.57 %. Meanwhile, TPC and TFC of samples dried at 300 W were the highest ones with amounts of 315.94 ± 0.69 mg GAE g−1 dw and 190.16 ± 1.33 mg CAE g−1 dw, respectively which were higher by 8.66 % and 98.97 % as compared to samples dried at 100 W. Similar development was found in antioxidant ability of germinated corn.CONCLUSIONDrying at microwave power of 300 W provided the highest nutritive and antioxidant values. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimum drying conditions during microwave drying of germinated corn, as a baseline for other agricultural crops.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T11:00:29.866048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8140
       
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
       
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
       
  • Citral stabilization and characterization of nanoemulsions stabilized by a
           mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 in an acidic system
    • Authors: Huaixiang Tian; Danfeng Li, Ting Xu, Jing Hu, Yuzhi Rong, Bo Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitral is one of the most important flavor compounds in fresh juice and lemon oil. Unfortunately, citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions. Here, citral nanoemulsions including a mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers were produced in an effort to maintain the stability of citral in an acidic system.RESULTSThe mean droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the citral nanoemulsions were 467.83 nm and 0.259, respectively, when the mass ratio of gelatin/Tween 20 was 3:1, and the total emulsifier concentration of the emulsion system was 10 g kg−1. The citral nanoemulsion remained stable during storage for 14 days at 30 °C. Thus, this nanoemulsion system effectively protected citral from degradation and decreased the formation of off-flavor compounds (e.g., p-cymene, p-cresol and p-methylacetophenone) relative to a single emulsifier.CONCLUSIONThe mixture of gelatin and Tween 20 enhanced the stability of citral under acidic conditions and could be used as an effective emulsifier to protect citral from degradation under acidic environments in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:50:25.486063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8139
       
  • Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion
           varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems
    • Authors: Feiyue Ren; Kim Reilly, Michael Gaffney, Joseph P. Kerry, Mohammad Hossain, Dilip K. Rai
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOnions contain a number of bioactive compounds - in particular polyphenols. They are a rich source of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion.RESULTSWe examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over four years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year on year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in generally were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:41:33.864421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8138
       
  • Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion
           varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems
    • Authors: Feiyue Ren; Kim Reilly, Michael Gaffney, Joseph P. Kerry, Mohammad Hossain, Dilip K. Rai
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOnions contain a number of bioactive compounds - in particular polyphenols. They are a rich source of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion.RESULTSWe examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over four years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year on year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in generally were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:41:33.864421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8138
       
  • Absolute quantification of microRNAs in green tea (Camellia sinensis) by
           stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR
    • Authors: Ying-Hui Hou; Anburaj Jeyaraj, Xiao Zhang, Chao-Ling Wei
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere are some studies to show that food-derived plant microRNAs (miRNAs) may be detected in mammals. The research evidence has being provoked a considerable debate whether plant-derived miRNAs exert the same regulatory functions as endogenous animal miRNAs. To test the hypothesis, the methods of highly sensitive absolute quantification miRNAs have been developed. However, absolute miRNA quantification of green tea has not yet been reported. In this study, it is the first to build an absolute quantification method to detect miRNAs level in green tea using stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).RESULTSTwo miRNAs, csn-miR164 (a conserved miRNA) and csn-miRn329 (a tea-specific miRNA), were selected as examples for the detection and absolute quantification of miRNAs in green tea samples using stem-loop qRT-PCR. The content of csn-miR164 was significantly higher in the Yuexi Cuilan (YX) samples than in the Shucheng Orchid (SC) samples. The content of csn-miRn329 was found to be high at the start of processing in leaf tissues in both the withering and soaking experiments, after which it gradually decreased with time.CONCLUSIONTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to absolutely quantify the miRNAs present in green tea. This method is help to further investigate the possibility that tea-derived miRNAs may play an important role on defending against various diseases in human.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:20:42.910672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8137
       
  • Absolute quantification of microRNAs in green tea (Camellia sinensis) by
           stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR
    • Authors: Ying-Hui Hou; Anburaj Jeyaraj, Xiao Zhang, Chao-Ling Wei
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere are some studies to show that food-derived plant microRNAs (miRNAs) may be detected in mammals. The research evidence has being provoked a considerable debate whether plant-derived miRNAs exert the same regulatory functions as endogenous animal miRNAs. To test the hypothesis, the methods of highly sensitive absolute quantification miRNAs have been developed. However, absolute miRNA quantification of green tea has not yet been reported. In this study, it is the first to build an absolute quantification method to detect miRNAs level in green tea using stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).RESULTSTwo miRNAs, csn-miR164 (a conserved miRNA) and csn-miRn329 (a tea-specific miRNA), were selected as examples for the detection and absolute quantification of miRNAs in green tea samples using stem-loop qRT-PCR. The content of csn-miR164 was significantly higher in the Yuexi Cuilan (YX) samples than in the Shucheng Orchid (SC) samples. The content of csn-miRn329 was found to be high at the start of processing in leaf tissues in both the withering and soaking experiments, after which it gradually decreased with time.CONCLUSIONTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to absolutely quantify the miRNAs present in green tea. This method is help to further investigate the possibility that tea-derived miRNAs may play an important role on defending against various diseases in human.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T02:20:42.910672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8137
       
  • Content of cadmium and lead in raw, fried and baked commercial frozen
           fishery products consumed in Poland
    • Authors: Anna Winiarska-Mieczan; Eugeniusz R. Grela
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study aimed to verify whether the consumption of frozen fishery products was safe in terms of Cd and Pb content. The study material was 31 frozen fishery products (15 breaded products and 16 fillets). Immediately before the analyses the products were subject to culinary treatment according to the recommendations of the producer: fried in colza oil or baked in a gas oven. The level of Cd and Pb was determined using the GF AAS method.RESULTSThe analysed frozen products contained on average 14.0 µg Cd and 18.5 µg Pb per kg. Compared to raw products, baked fish contained 56 % more Cd and 72 % more Pb, whereas fried fish contained 16 % more Cd and 15 % more Pb. Compared to fried products, baked fish contained 34 % more Cd and 49 % more Pb.CONCLUSIONThe content of Cd and Pb in the products did not exceed the acceptable standard. However, it cannot be clearly stated which method of culinary treatment of frozen fishery products is the best with regard to the level of Cd and Pb in the final products.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T01:55:43.808368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8136
       
  • A POSSIBLE APPROACH TO ASSESS ACIDIFICATION OF MEAT STARTER CULTURES: A
           CASE STUDY FROM SOME WILD STRAINS OF Lactobacillus plantarum
    • Authors: Barbara Speranza; Antonio Bevilacqua, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Milena Sinigaglia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe performances of four autochthonous isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum were assessed to study the most important variables acting on acidification and propose a possible step-by-step approach for the validation at lab-scale. This main topic was addressed through three intermediate steps: (i) evaluation of acidification in liquid and solid media, as a function of salt, nitrites, nitrates, lactose, pepper and temperature; (ii) assessing acidification in a pork-meat preparation; iii) designing a protocol to improve the performances at sub-optimal temperatures. The concentration of the ingredients and the temperature were combined through a 3k-p Fractional Factorial Design. Acidification and viable count were assessed and modeled through a multi-factorial ANOVA.RESULTSIn model systems acidification was affected by lactose and was maximum (ΔpH of ca. 2.8-3.0) in the combinations containing 0.4% lactose, 250 mg/kg nitrates or 150 mg/kg nitrites, 5% salt, and at 30 °C. Solid media caused a higher acidification. In the pork meat preparation, the effect of salt and nitrites was significant. At 10 °C the strains could not reduce pH, but this ability could be induced using an adaptation step.CONCLUSIONSAcidification was affected by lactose in the model system, whereas in meat preparation the other variables were significant. In addition, a protocol to improve acidification at 10 °C was optimized.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T01:15:24.116056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8135
       
  • Saffron: a promising natural medicine in the treatment of metabolic
           syndrome
    • Authors: Bibi Marjan Razavi; Hossein Hosseinzadeh
      Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses with obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Although several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, however, because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors.Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Iridaceae family. Saffron is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste and has been widely used in traditional as well as modern medicine to treat several illnesses including cardiovascular diseases. Most of unique properties of this plant are attributed to the presence of three major components including crocin, safranal and crocetin. It has been proved that saffron has an important role in the management of metabolic syndrome because of its marvelous activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypotensive and hypolipidemic properties. In this review article, we discussed the beneficial properties of saffron and its active components to treat different components of metabolic syndrome and most relevant animal and human studies regarding the use of this plant in cardiovascular disease with focuses on the metabolic risk factors. This review also suggested that after randomized clinical trials, saffron may be implicated as a preventive or therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T01:00:30.475945-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8134
       
  • Amino acids profile and sensory characteristic of dry fermented pork loins
           produced with the mixture of the probiotic starter cultures
    • Authors: Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska; Anna Okoń, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska, Zbigniew Dolatowski
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProteolysis is a biochemical processes in dry-aged meat products where proteins are metabolized and broken down to polypeptides, peptides and free amino acids. In the literature are presented that the proper choice of probiotic starter cultures limits proteolytic changes in dry fermented meat products. In this study the combined effect of the mixture of probiotic starter cultures on the free amino acid profile, total count of lactic acid bacteria, and the sensory quality of dry-aged pork loins after fermentation and after storing the vacuum-packed samples was evaluated.RESULTSLOCK900 and BB12 probiotic strains were the technologically best two-species mixture of starter cultures for the production of probiotic dry-aged pork loins. They allowed to obtain products with high and stable bacterial count and acceptable sensory quality, both after 21 days of fermentation and after 2 months of cold storage. Changes in the free amino acid profile and the increased intensity of selected sensory attributes result from the significant share of probiotics in the meat proteolysis of the occurring fermentation and storage.CONCLUSIONThe obtained study results suggest the relevance of using probiotic bacteria as the two-species starter cultures for the production of dry-aged products.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T16:03:28.78286-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8133
       
  • Non-destructive analysis of sensory traits of dry-cured loins by
           MRI-computer vision techniques and data mining
    • Authors: Daniel Caballero; Teresa Antequera, Andrés Caro, María del Mar Ávila, Pablo G. Rodríguez, Trinidad Perez-Palacios
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with computer vision techniques have been proposed as an alternative or complementary technique to determine the quality parameters of food in a non-destructive way. The aim of this work was to analyze the sensory attributes of dry-cured loins using this technique. For that, different MRI acquisition sequences (spin echo (SE), gradient echo (GE) and turbo 3D (T3D)), algorithms for MRI analysis (GLCM, NGLDM, GLRLM and GLCM-NGLDM-GLRLM) and predictive data mining techniques (multiple linear regression, MLR, and isotonic regression, IR) were tested.RESULTSThe correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the prediction results. The combination of SE, GLCM and IR produced the most accurate results. In addition, the MRI data from dry-cured loins seems to be more suitable than the data from fresh loins.CONCLUSIONSThe application of predictive data mining techniques to extract computational texture features from the MRI data of loins enables the determination of the sensory traits of dry-cured loins in a non-destructive way.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T16:03:27.709745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8132
       
  • QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED OKARA AS A SOURCE OF PRODUCTION OF GLUTEN-FREE
           FLOUR
    • Authors: María V. Ostermann-Porcel; Ana N. Rinaldoni, Laura T. Rodriguez-Furlán, Mercedes E. Campderrós
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOkara is a by-product of soymilk and of tofu elaboration which is rich in protein, fiber and vegetable oils as a source of gluten-free flour. In order to take advantage of the nutritional characteristics of Okara and to be able to determine an appropriate drying methodology, a microwave, a rotary dryer and freeze-drying were assessed. Furthermore, flour with an enzymatic treatment was characterized as well as its functional, physicochemical and textural properties.RESULTSThe results showed that the physiochemical characteristics of the flour were affected by the drying process, reaching adequate water content, high protein and fiber content. The freeze–drying process produced clearer flours with porous structure and high water absorption capacity, with a higher protein denaturation. Okara dried by microwave and rotary dryer exhibited a more dense structure with similar functional properties and improved textural characteristics such as firmness and consistency. The microwave produced darker flour due to the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The enzymatic treatment employed improved the consistency of the flour.CONCLUSIONIt was possible to choose the drying process to be applied according to the feasible use of the flour, intended to preserve the favorable nutritional aspects of the Okara flour. Based in the results, it can be affirmed that the physicochemical properties and attributes of okara are influenced by the dried processes employed. The okara dried by freeze-drying resulted in a better product because it had a low final moisture content and the highest whiteness index (WI). The flour presented a porous structure with a high solubility which is an indicator of potential applications in foods developments.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T05:56:03.120996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8131
       
  • Improving the water solubility of Monascus pigments in acidic conditions
           with gum arabic
    • Authors: Wenjie Jian; Yuanming Sun, Jian-Yong Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonascus pigments (Mps) are natural food colorants and their stability in acidic solutions is important for application in the food industry. This study was to evaluate the use of gum arabic (GA) as a stabilizer for maintaining the solubility of Mps in an acidic aqueous solution exposed to a high temperature, and to analyze the molecular interactions between GA and Mps.RESULTSMps dispersed (0.2 g kg−1) in deionized water at pH 3.0-4.0 without GA formed precipitates but remained in a stable solution in the presence of GA (1 g kg−1). The significant improvement of Mps water solubility in acidic conditions was attributed to the formation of Mps-GA complexes, as indicated by a sharp increase in the fluorescence intensity. The results on particle size, zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopy further suggested that molecular binding of Mps to GA, electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance of GA were contributing factors to preventing the aggregation of Mps in acidic solutions. A mechanistic model was presented for GA-Mps interactions and complex structures.CONCLUSIONGA was proven an effective stabilizer of natural food colorants in acidic solutions.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T10:06:00.315886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8130
       
  • Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on carbon and nitrogen
           distribution and grain yield and nutritional quality in rice (Oryza sativa
           L.)
    • Authors: Xue Zhang; Li Wang, Fang Ma, Jixian Yang, Meng Su
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for nutrient uptake and growth in rice has been widely recognized. However, little is known about the distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in rice under AMF inoculation, which can affect grain yield and quality. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of C and N within rice plants under AMF inoculation and the effects on grain yield and quality.RESULTSAMF inoculation significantly increased N accumulation and distribution in vegetative tissues at tillering and N translocation into seeds from heading to maturity. Consequently, AMF inoculation more strongly impacted the distribution of N than that of C in seeds, with significantly reduced C-to-N ratios and increased protein content (by 7.4%). Additionally, AMF inoculation significantly increased grain yield by 28.2% through increasing the grain-to-straw ratio by 18.4%. In addition, the roots of inoculated rice exhibited greater change in C distribution, with significantly higher C concentrations, C accumulations, and C-to-N ratios at tillering and maturity.CONCLUSIONAMF inoculation affected the distribution of N in seeds and C in roots. As such, AMF inoculation may be a potential method for improving grain yield and quality.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T10:01:26.453683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8129
       
  • Cover Image, Volume 97, Issue 1
    • Authors: Rocco Longo; John W Blackman, Peter J Torley, Suzy Y Rogiers, Leigh M Schmidtke
      Abstract: The cover image, by Rocco Longo et al., is based on the Review Changes in volatile composition and sensory attributes of wines during alcohol content reduction,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7757.The cover image, by Rocco Longo et al., is based on the Review Changes in volatile composition and sensory attributes of wines during alcohol content reduction,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7757.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T02:37:52.89728-05:0
       
  • Non-targeted metabolite profiling highlights the potential of strawberry
           leaves as a resource for specific bioactive compounds
    • Authors: Anna Kårlund; Kati Hanhineva, Marko Lehtonen, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Reijo O Karjalainen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe non-edible parts of horticultural crops, such as leaves, contain substantial amounts of valuable bioactive compounds which are currently only little exploited. For example, strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves may be a promising bioresource for diverse health-related applications. However, product standardization sets a real challenge, especially when the leaf material comes from varying cultivars. The first step towards better quality control of berry fruit leaf-based ingredients and supplements is to understand metabolites present and their stability in different plant cultivars, so this study surveyed the distribution of potentially bioactive strawberry leaf metabolites in six different strawberry cultivars. Non-targeted metabolite profiling analysis using LC/qTOF-ESI-MS with data processing via principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis was utilized to examine differences and commonalities between the leaf metabolite profiles.RESULTSQuercetin and kaempferol derivatives were the dominant flavonol groups in strawberry leaves. Previously described and novel caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives were among the major phenolic acids. In addition, ellagitannins were one of the distinguishing compound classes in strawberry leaves. In general, strawberry leaves also contained high levels of octadecatrienoic acid derivatives, precursors of valuable odour compounds.CONCLUSIONThe specific bioactive compounds found in the leaves of different strawberry cultivars offer the potential for the selection of optimized leaf materials for added-value food and non-food applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-04T03:39:43.128071-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8027
       
  • The impact of a cold chain break on the survival of Salmonella enterica
           and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed ‘Conference’ pears
           during their shelf life
    • Authors: Pilar Colás-Medà; Inmaculada Viñas, Isabel Alegre, Maribel Abadias
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn recent years, improved detection methods and increased fresh-cut processing of produce have led to an increased number of outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. During fruit and vegetable processing, natural protective barriers are removed and tissues are cut, causing nutrient rich exudates and providing attachment sites for microbes. Consequently, fresh-cut produce is more susceptible to microbial proliferation than whole produce.RESULTSThe aim of this study was to examine the impact of storage temperature on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on a fresh-cut ‘Conference’ pear over an eight day storage period. Pears were cut, dipped in antioxidant solution, artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, packed under modified atmospheric conditions simulating commercial applications and stored in properly refrigerated conditions (constant storage at 4 °C for 8 days) or in temperature abuse conditions (3 days at 4 °C plus 5 days at 8 °C). After 8 days of storage, both conditions resulted in a significant decrease of S. enterica populations on pear wedges. In contrast, when samples were stored at 4 °C for 8 days, L. monocytogenes populations increased 1.6 logarithmic units, whereas under the temperature abuse conditions, L. monocytogenes populations increased 2.2 logarithmic units.CONCLUSIONListeria monocytogenes was able to grow on fresh-cut pears processed under the conditions described here, despite low pH, refrigeration and use of modified atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04T02:30:17.180417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8127
       
  • Outbreaks and factors influencing microbiological contamination of fresh
           produce
    • Authors: Yukiko Wadamori; Ravi Gooneratne, Malik A Hussain
      Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables are nutritionally well-recognized as healthy components in diets. The microbiological foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have been increasing. Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate fresh produce. This review discusses recent foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce, factors that affect microbiological contamination and measures that could be adopted to reduce the foodborne illnesses.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03T01:10:32.674822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8125
       
  • The effect of governance mechanisms on food safety in the supply chain:
           Evidence from the Lebanese dairy sector
    • Authors: Gumataw K. Abebe; Ali Chalak, Mohamad G. Abiad
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood safety is a key public health issue worldwide. This study aims to characterize existing governance mechanisms – governance structures (GS) and food safety management systems (FSMS) – and analyze the alignment thereof in detecting food safety hazards, based on empirical evidence from Lebanon.RESULTSFirm-to-firm and public baseline are the dominant FSMS applied in a large-scale, while chain-wide FSMS are observed only in a small-scale. Most transactions involving farmers are relational and market-based in contrast to (large-scale) processors, which opt for hierarchical GS. Large-scale processors use a combination FSMS and GS to minimize food safety hazards albeit potential increase in coordination costs; this is an important feature of modern food supply chains. The econometric analysis reveals contract period, on-farm inspection and experience having significant effects in minimizing food safety hazards. However, the potential to implement farm-level FSMS is influenced by formality of the contract, herd size, trading partner choice, and experience.CONCLUSIONPublic baseline FSMS appears effective in controlling food safety hazards; however, this may not be viable due to the scarcity of public resources. We suggest public policies to focus on long-lasting governance mechanisms by introducing incentive schemes and farm-level FSMS by providing loans and education to farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T23:20:31.239293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8128
       
  • New Functionalities of Maillard Reaction Products As Emulsifier and
           Encapsulating Agent and Its Processing Parameters: A Brief Review
    • Authors: Yee-Ying Lee; Teck-Kim Tang, Eng-Tong Phuah, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed Alitheen, Chin-Ping Tan, Oi-Ming Lai
      Abstract: Non enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavor, taste, and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction product as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifier as well as a superior encapsulating matrix for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that are needed to be taken into consideration when conducting Maillard reaction.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T07:21:00.753387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8124
       
  • Study of the terpene profile at harvest and during berry development of
           Vitis vinifera L. aromatic varieties Aleatico, Brachetto, Malvasia di
           Candia aromatica and Moscato bianco
    • Authors: Claudio D'Onofrio; Fabiola Matarese, Angela Cuzzola
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn this work, we evaluated the aromatic composition of berries at harvest and during the whole berry development of Aleatico, Brachetto, Malvasia di Candia aromatica and Moscato bianco grapevine varieties, which were cultivated in the same vineyard and agricultural conditions.RESULTSMalvasia had a total concentration of aroma which was significantly higher than the other grapes that showed comparable amounts with each other. The class of monoterpenes was quantitatively predominant for all four grapes, in the free and in the most plentiful bound form. In Malvasia and Aleatico there was a high prevalence of geraniol derivatives throughout the entire berry development while in Brachetto and in Moscato there was a prevalence of linalool derivatives during the green phase and geraniol derivatives during ripening.CONCLUSIONThe study of the monoterpene profile allowed us to highlight similarities and differences among the four aromatic varieties and to make hypothesis about their biosynthetic dynamics. This information is useful for further studies on gene functional characterization and the regulation of these important berry pathways.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T07:20:59.819004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8126
       
  • Alkyl pyrazine synthesis via an open heated bath with variable sugars,
           ammonia, and various amino acids
    • Authors: Katayoun Mahdavi Ara; Larry T Taylor, Mehdi Ashraf-Khorassani, William M Coleman
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSemi-quantitative characteristics of headspace volatile pyrazines which constituted around 1% by weight of the final product have been previously described. The influence of reactant concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time on both the yield of total alkyl pyrazines and the distribution pattern of specific identified pyrazines has not been reported.RESULTSThe optimum synthetic conditions were 5 mol L−1 NH4OH, 2 mol L−1 rhamnose, 0.5 mol L−1 leucine at 110°C for 2 h. The greatest total amount of pyrazines obtained was 17 280 µg of extracted product which translated into 31% 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, 17% 2-methyl pyrazine, 15% 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, and 16% 2-isoamyl-6-methyl pyrazine.CONCLUSIONThe yield of synthesized pyrazines increased at higher temperatures. Quantitative total and specific pyrazine results as opposed to analysis of only headspace volatiles are more representative of pyrazine synthesis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T03:51:17.106067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8039
       
  • Monitoring of contaminants in recycled paperboard for food contact
           applications
    • Authors: Vanessa Giannetti; Maurizio Boccacci Mariani, Paola Mannino
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe lack of harmonized European legislation on food packaging led the Confederation of European Paper Industries to the proposal of a voluntary Industry Guideline for the compliance of paper and board materials for food contact applications. In the present work, a previously established method for the simultaneous determination of contaminants commonly found in recycled paperboard was improved and its applicability as a quality control tool in the paper industry was also assessed. The method involves a sample pre-treatment followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.RESULTSFor analysis, paperboard samples were collected both from three sections of the same reel and from different reels belonging to the same production run. Results highlighted no significant differences in terms of contaminant distribution among samples, which ensured good sampling representativeness. The performance of the method was considerably improved in terms of linearity range, limits of detection and quantification (5- to 2-fold lower) by using a quadrupole GC/MS system instead of an ion trap GC/MS system.CONCLUSIONThe proposed method could offer a key strategy for analysis of benzophenone derivatives, diisopropyl naphthalene and phthalates in recycled paperboard in order to assess compliance of food packaging with the voluntary limits recommended by the Industry Guideline. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T02:11:24.716846-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8028
       
  • Bromelain: From Production to Commercialisation
    • Authors: Aizi Nor Mazila Ramli; Tuan Norsyalieza Tuan Aznan, Rosli Md. Illias
      Abstract: Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants. Bromelain can be found in several parts of the pineapple plant, including the stem, fruit, leaves and peels. High demand from bromelain has resulted in gradual increases in bromelain production. Such increases in production have led to the need for a bromelain production strategy that yields more purified bromelain at a lower cost and with fewer productions steps. Previously, bromelain was purified using conventional centrifugation, ultrafiltration and lyophilisation. Recently, the developments of more modern purification techniques such as gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, aqueous two phase extraction and reversed micelle chromatography have resulted in increased industrial bromelain production worldwide. In addition, recombinant DNA technology has emerged as an alternative strategy for producing large amounts of ultrapure bromelain. An up-to-date compilation of data regarding the commercialisation of bromelain in the clinical, pharmaceutical and industrial fields is provided in this review.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:26:28.48745-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8122
       
  • The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing L-carnitine and
           Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched designer eggs
    • Authors: Namhyeon Park; Tae-Kyung Lee, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Eun-Bae An, Nahyun M. Kim, Young-Hyun You, Tae-Sub Park, Doman Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe potential of fermented buckwheat as feed additives was studied to increase L-carnitine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine, and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of L-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce L-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects like enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity, and blood pressure control.RESULTSA novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting L-carnitine and GABA was developed using LC/MS and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 fold-increased L-carnitine and GABA, respectively, than normal buckwheat. Compared to control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched L-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk. However, only L-carnitine was significantly different (p 
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:25:24.19546-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8123
       
  • Sakacin-A antimicrobial packaging for decreasing Listeria contamination in
           thin-cut meat: preliminary assessment
    • Authors: Alberto Barbiroli; Alida Musatti, Giorgio Capretti, Stefania Iametti, Manuela Rollini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMinimally processed ready-to eat products are considered a high-risk food because of the possibility of contamination with pathogenic bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes from the animal reservoir, and the minimal process they undergo. In this study a sakacin-A anti-Listeria active package was developed and tested on thin-cut veal meat slices (namely, carpaccio).RESULTSEnriched food-grade sakacin-A was obtained from a cell-free supernatant of a Lactobacillus sakei culture, and applied (0.63 mg cm−2) onto the surface of polyethylene-coated paper sheets, to obtain an active antimicrobial package. The coating retained antimicrobial features, indicating that the process did not affect sakacin-A functionality, as evidenced in tests carried out in vitro. Thin-cut veal meat slices inoculated with Listeria innocua (surrogate of the pathogenic L. monocytogenes) were laid on active paper sheets. After 48 h incubation at 4 °C, Listeria population was found 1.5 log cycles lower with respect to controls (3.05 vs. 4.46 log cfu g−1).CONCLUSIONThis study demonstrates the possibility of using an antimicrobial coating containing sakacin-A to inhibit or decrease Listeria population in ready-to-eat products, thus lowering the risk of food-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:21:04.194544-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8120
       
  • Whole lactation production responses in high-yielding dairy cows using
           high-quality grass/clover silage
    • Authors: Mikaela Patel; Ewa Wredle, Eva Spörndly, Jan Bertilsson
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLimiting the use of purchased concentrate for livestock and replacing it with home-grown forage without compromising milk production can offer benefits in both organic and conventional dairy systems. A full lactation trial was conducted with 92 cows over two years comparing three diets, each differing in the mean forage proportion over the lactation, 500 (50F), 600 (60 F) and 700 (70 F) g kg−1 dry matter (DM), respectively. The diets were designed to represent common conventional feeding, current regulations for organic production and more extreme high-forage based production, respectively. The aims were to determine the effects of forage proportion in the diet on milk production and feed utilisation.RESULTSCompared with 50F, daily milk yield did not differ in 60 F but was lower in 70 F (31.3, 31.1 and 29.2 kg energy corrected milk, respectively). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between treatments (20.3, 20.4 and 19.9 kg in 50F, 60 F and 70F, respectively).CONCLUSIONIncreasing the forage proportion from 500 to 600 g kg−1 DM did not have any adverse effects on milk production or DMI. Thus it is possible to produce the same quantity of milk with less concentrate and reduce use of potential human feeds in dairy production.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T02:15:24.13307-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8119
       
  • The application of NMR-based milk metabolites analysis in milk
           authenticity identification
    • Authors: Qiangqiang Li; Zunbo Yu, Dan Zhu, Xianghe Meng, Xiumei Pang, Yue Liu, Russell Frew, He Chen, Gang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMilk is an important food component in human diet and is a target for fraud, including many unsafe practices. For example, the unscrupulous adulteration of soymilk into bovine and goat milk, or bovine milk into goat milk in order to gain profit without declaration is a health risk as the adulterants source and sanitary history in unknown. A robust and fit-for-purpose technique is required to enforce market surveillance and hence protect consumers’ health. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique for characterization of food products based on measuring the profile of metabolites. In this study, 1D NMR in conjunction with multivariate chemometrics as well as 2D NMR was applied to differentiate the milk types, and to identify milk adulteration.RESULTSTen metabolites were found which differed among milk types hence providing characteristic markers for identifying the milk. These metabolites were used to establish the mathematical model for milk type differentiation. The LOQ of adulteration was 2 % for soymilk in bovine milk, 2 % for soymilk in goat milk, and 5 % for bovine milk in goat milk, RSD≤10 %, which can meet the needs of daily inspection.CONCLUSIONThe NMR method described here is effective for milk authenticity identification, and our study demonstrates that NMR-based milk metabolites analysis approach provides a means of detecting the adulteration at these expected levels and can be used for dairy quality monitoring.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T01:05:31.015509-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8118
       
  • Increasing meat products functionality by the addition of milled flaxseed
           Linum usitatissimum.
    • Authors: Zając Marzena; Kulawik Piotr, Tkaczewska Joanna, Migdał Władysław, Pustkowiak Henryk
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFunctional meat products are still rare on the market, since it is difficult to incorporate new ingredients and gain both healthy and acceptable product. Flaxseed is known for its beneficial properties and it was used as an ingredient in the production of homogenized and liver sausages in this study (0, 5 and 10% flaxseed addition).RESULTSThe homogenized and liver sausages with 5% flaxseed addition were given the highest scores by the consumers, although the colour changed with flaxseed addition. The spreadability and hardness of the liver sausages increased with the flaxseed addition while the texture of homogenized sausages did not change. Flaxseed addition improved the fatty acids profile from the health point of view for both products, by increasing the n3 fatty acids and overall PUFA content. The TBARS values were higher in products with flaxseed and increased during storage.CONCLUSIONThe results indicate, that it is possible to obtain products which would be acceptable by consumers and more healthy at the same time. High level of α-linolenic acid in the sausages with 5% addition level allows to label the product with information about high omega-3 fatty acid content. However, those products are more susceptible for oxidation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:36:11.328422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8116
       
  • Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and quinolone resistance
           factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E.
           faecium isolates obtained from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients
           
    • Authors: Min-Chan Kim; Gun-Jo Woo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients was analyzed.RESULTSAmong the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multi-drug resistance profiles. The virulence factors esp and hyl were identified in 27 (58.7%) and 25 (54.3%) isolates, respectively. Sequence type analysis showed that 35 strains of HLCR E. faecium were clonal complex 17. Eleven strains of HLCR E. faecalis were confirmed as ST 28, ST 64, and ST 125. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutation was identified in HLCR Enterococcus isolates; serine changed to others in gyrA83, gyrA87, parC80. This result showed that gyrA and parC mutations could be important factors for high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones.CONCLUSIONNo significant differences in antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics among the isolates from fresh produce and fecal samples were observed. Therefore, good agricultural practices in farming and continuous monitoring of patients, food, and the environment for Enterococcus spp. should be performed to prevent antimicrobial resistance and reduction of resistance rates.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:20:28.758554-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8115
       
  • Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture
    • Authors: Massimiliano Marvasi
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, NO release rate is dependent upon the chemical structure of the donor itself and the chemical environment. Despite NO’s powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not achieved and research is mainly at the experimental level.Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope, to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening, and increasing shelf life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified.This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. We provide insights into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) potential use of donors in animal production, and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T06:20:25.455311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8117
       
  • Influence of growing altitude, shade and harvest period on quality and
           biochemical composition of Ethiopian specialty coffee
    • Authors: Kassaye Tolessa; Jolien D'heer, Luc Duchateau, Pascal Boeckx
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCoffee quality is key characteristic for the international market, cup quality and chemical bean constituents describe it. In Ethiopia, using total specialty cup scores, coffees are grouped into Q1 (specialty 1) ≥85 and Q2 (80-84.75). This classification results in market segmentation and higher prices. Although different studies evaluated effects of altitude and shade on bean quality, optimum shade levels along different altitudinal ranges are not clearly indicated. Information on effects of harvest periods on coffee quality is also scanty. This study examined influences of these factors and their interactions on Ethiopian coffee qualityRESULTSCoffee from high altitude with open or medium shade and early to middle harvest periods gave superior bean quality. These growing conditions also favoured production of beans with lower caffeine. Increasing altitude from mid to high, ca. 400m decreased caffeine content by 10%. At high altitude, dense shade decreased Q1 coffee by 50%. Compared to late harvesting, early harvesting increased the percentage from 27 to 73%. At mid altitude >80% is Q2 coffee.CONCLUSIONSChanges of quality scores driven by altitude, shade and harvest period are small, though may induce dramatic switches in the fraction Q1 vs. Q2 coffee. The latter affects farmers’ profit and competitiveness in the international markets.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T06:05:23.941484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8114
       
  • Effect of sulfur-containing spices on the bioaccessibility of trace
           minerals from selected cereals and pulses
    • Authors: Meena Kumari; Kalpana Platel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGarlic and onion, rich in organo-sulfur compounds, are reported to enhance the bioaccessibility of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn; however, there is lack of similar information on the bioaccessibility of copper, manganese and chromium. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of exogenous garlic and onion on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from selected food grains. The effect of two levels of garlic (0.25 and 0.5 g/10 g of grain) and onion (1.5 and 3 g/10 g of grain) on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from two representative cereals and pulses was determined by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure.RESULTSBoth garlic and onion significantly improved the bioaccessibility of Cu, especially when added at the higher level, in most of the foods examined. The enhancing effect of garlic on Mn bioaccessibility was found in cooked sorghum and chickpea, while onion significantly improved Mn bioaccessibility in cooked rice and chickpea. Addition of both the spices did not exert any enhancing effect on Cr bioaccessibility from the cereals and pulses.CONCLUSIONHence, bioaccessibility of Cu, and to a lesser extent, Mn, from vegetarian diets can be significantly improved by incorporating garlic and onion to the diet.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T05:50:29.584018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8113
       
  • Inhibitory properties of bambara groundnut protein hydrolysate and peptide
           
    • Authors: Abimbola K. Arise; Adeola M. Alashi, Ifeanyi D. Nwachukwu, Sunday A. Malomo, Rotimi E. Aluko, Eric O. Amonsou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIncreased rate of high blood pressure has led to critical human hypertensive conditions in most nations. In this study, bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs) obtained using three different proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), and their peptide fractions (molecular weight: 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa) were investigated for antihypertensive and antioxidant activities.RESULTSAlcalase hydrolysate contained the highest amount of low molecular weight (LMW) peptides compared to pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates. LMW peptides fractions (
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T05:40:18.874269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8112
       
  • Influence of Brewing Conditions on Taste Components in Fuding White Tea
           Infusions
    • Authors: Haihua Zhang; Yulin Li, Yangjun Lv, Yulan Jiang, Junxian Pan, Yuwei Duan, Yuejin Zhu, Shikang Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWhite tea has received increasing attention of late due to its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The objective of this work was to study the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature.RESULTSBrewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids content generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Condition with a time of 7 min, brewing temperature 100 °C, the ratio of tea and water 1:30 or 1:40, and second brewing steps, were respectively proved to obtain the highest content of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, condition with an infusion time of 3 min, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, a temperature of 100 °C and a first brewing step resulted in the highest sensory score as comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste.CONCLUSIONThe results revealed differences in the content of various taste compounds including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids with different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T04:55:20.037686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8111
       
  • Effect of Probiotics on Patulin Removal from Synbiotic Apple Juice
    • Authors: Alaleh Zoghi; Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Sarah Sohrabvandi, Hossein Attar, Sayed Abolhasan Alavi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStudies have reported the occurrence of mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. Impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks cold storage.RESULTSResults showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T02:35:05.532065-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8082
       
  • The effects of entanglement concentration on the hydrodynamic properties
           of cereal starches
    • Authors: Li Guo; Juanjuan Zhang, Jian Hu, Xianfeng Du, Bo Cui
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe hydrodynamic properties of four cereal starches in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were investigated using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope and steady shear rheological measurements.RESULTSThe results indicated that the starch solutions showed the non-linear shape of the ηsp/c versus c curves in dilute solutions, followed by a linear increase to different extents thereafter. The intrinsic viscosity might be positively correlated with the entanglement concentration (ce). Compared to normal maize and wheat starch solutions, ce influences more significantly the network formation of normal and waxy rice starch solutions. At concentrations ≤ ce, the gelatinized cereal starch solutions hardly exhibit shear thinning behaviour, whereas shear thinning behavior developed at concentrations > ce, at which the solutions were pseudoplastic and thixotropic.CONCLUSIONThe obtained information will be very useful, based on ce as a reference value, to regulate the starch concentration suitable to different industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T01:55:25.811604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8107
       
  • Physiochemical, texture properties, and the microstructure of set yogurt
           using whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate aggregates as thickening agents
           
    • Authors: Jianjun Cheng; Siyu Xie, Yuan Yin, Xianmin Feng, Shuai Wang, Mingruo Guo, Chunlei Ni
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPolymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in acidic environment provided during fermentation. The varieties of the thicken agent has influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting the consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharides stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate may be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set-yogurt.RESULTSWhey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI, and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile, and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T22:10:37.616291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8110
       
  • Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes
           into the cultivated MR219 rice variety
    • Authors: Gous Miah; Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohd R. Ismail, Adam B. Puteh, Harun A. Rahim, Mohammad A. Latif
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor.RESULTSMarker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of thirteen improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219.CONCLUSIONThe research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease resistant rice varieties, which in turn, will match the rising demand and food security worldwide.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T22:10:32.731575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8109
       
  • Preliminary investigation of mineral content of pollen collected from
           different Serbian maize hybrids – is there any potential nutritional
           value?
    • Authors: Aleksandar Ž. Kostić; Lazar M. Kaluđerović, Biljana P. Dojčinović, Miroljub B. Barać, Vojka B. Babić, Marina P. Mačukanović-Jocić
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBee pollen has already proved to be a good supplement rich in content of iron and zinc. Studies about application of flower pollen in food industry and medicine have been started. Bearing in mind prevalence of maize as crop culture its pollen will be easily available. The mineral composition of pollen of seven Serbian maize hybrids was analyzed in order to establish its nutritional value and benefits of its implementation in the human diet using ICP method.RESULTSPresence of twenty four different macro- (nine) and micronutrients (fifteen) was detected. The most common minerals were phosphorus and potassium, while arsenic, cobalt, lead, nickel and molybdenum were found in some samples.CONCLUSIONComparing obtained results with recommended or tolerable dietary intake references for adults it was found that maize pollen can be used as very good source of zinc, iron, chromium and manganese for humans. According to selenium content pollen samples proved to be moderately good source of this important micronutrient. Contents of some elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Se, Al and V) showed significant differences depending on hybrid type. In some samples increased concentrations of aluminum and vanadium were recorded which may pose a potential problem due to their toxicity.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T21:25:21.431042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8108
       
  • Characterization of autochthonous sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.)
           of Southern Italy for fruit quality, bioactive compounds and antioxidant
           activity
    • Authors: Antonio Di Matteo; Rosa Russo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Claudio Di Vaio
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCharacterizing germplasm collections of autochthonous cultivars for fruit quality traits could be a successful approach for selection, enhance the organoleptic quality and the level of antioxidants of crop produce, develop new market opportunity and coherent strategies of conservation and valorization. The aim of the study was the evaluation of fruit physico-chemical traits as well as the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in 25 sweet cherry autochthonous cultivars.RESULTSCultivars were source of statistically significant variation for all evaluated traits. Notably, the average fruit ascorbate levels ranged from 34.45 to 244.68 µg g FW−1, total flavonoids from 1396.40 to 4694.75 µg QE g FW−1, monomeric anthocyanins from 4.80 to 360.90 µg g FW−1, the total antioxidant capacity from 1.53 to 2.58 nmol trolox eq. mg FW−1. Fruit profiling of eight cultivars by high resolution mass spectrometry identified a total of eight different anthocyanins and twenty-five non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds, mostly coumaroylquinic acid and neochlorogenic acid.CONCLUSIONAmong better performing cultivars for fruit quality traits, Mulegnana Nera and Pagliarella shared high fruit level in phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. This is a forerunner work on the characterization of genetic resources which is critical for its use and conservation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T23:40:23.410921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8106
       
  • Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition
           and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage
    • Authors: Gema Flores; Gracia Patricia Blanch, María Luisa Ruiz del Castillo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage.RESULTSContents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (ie, from 50.8 to 64.5%, from 7.2 to 9.1% and from 1.5 to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg−1, chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg−1, vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg−1, caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg−1, p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg−1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg−1 were obtained.CONCLUSIONMethyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as a postharvest technique alternative to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:25:25.029282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8104
       
  • TIMING FOR A SUSTAINABLE FERTILIZATION WITH HBED/Fe3+ AND EDDHA/Fe3+
           CHELATES OF Glycine max
    • Authors: Clara Martín-Fernández; Sandra López-Rayo, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza, Juan J Lucena
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn efficient use of Fe chelates is crucial to avoid environmental risks and reduce economic losses. The HBED/Fe3+ has been recently approved by the EU for soil fertilization, but studies delving into the best timing for its application are necessary. In this work, a batch incubation experiment and two biological experiments were developed to determine the optimal physiological stage for a sustainable application of HBED/Fe3+ in soil fertilization compared with EDDHA/Fe3+ fertilizers using 57Fe.RESULTSThe HBED/Fe3+ demonstrated a high durability in soils and soil materials, maintaining more than 80% of Fe chelated after 70 days, and its application at an early physiological stage resulted in a high Fe accumulation in soybean and soil after 36 days. In contrast, the stability of EDDHA/Fe3+ decreased because of the retention of its lowest stable isomers. The best timing for chelates application was confirmed in a 52 days experiment. The application of HBED/Fe3+ at the early stage increased the Fe translocation to fruits; while the o,oEDDHA/Fe3+ accumulated more Fe in fruits when added at the fructification stage.CONCLUSIONThe high HBED/Fe3+ stability in calcareous soil requires a differentiate application timing, and its addition at early physiological stages leads into the most efficient fertilization.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:25:22.868387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8105
       
  • Effects of 4 short-chain fatty acids or salts on dynamics of nitrogen
           transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage
    • Authors: XianJun Yuan; AiYou Wen, Seare T. Desta, ZhiHao Dong, Tao Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDShort-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of 4 chemical compounds with antimicrobial property on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage.RESULTSPotassium diformate and formic acid rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage. The free amino acid N contents in potassium diformate (PD) and formic acid (FA) treated silages were lower than other silages at all intervals of ensilage. The ammonia N concentrations in FA and PD silages were the lowest, followed by SD and CAP silages. As ensiling progressed, the aminopeptidase activity was completely lost by day 5 for FA and PD silages and inactive by day 7 for SD silage, while it remained active after day 7 for control and CAP silage. The carbxypeotidase activities in FA and PD silages were already reduced below 50% by day 1 of ensiling.CONCLUSIONThe potassium diformate was as effective as formic acid in depressing the proteolysis, while sodium diacetate and calcium propionate were inferior to formic acid in protecting alfalfa proteins from being hydrolyzed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:20:31.762728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8103
       
  • Effects of different depth of grain color on antioxidant capacity during
           water imbibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Oon Ha Shin; Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesized that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration.RESULTSThe results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat. Total phenol content was slightly increased in all groups compared to their initial state, but the levels of other phytochemicals varied among groups. It is revealed that anthocyanin was significantly degraded during the water imbibition stage. Also, the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in each grain color group did not correlated with germination speed. Overall antioxidant activity reduced as imbibition progressed in each group. Generally, darker grain groups showed higher total antioxidant activities than did lighter grain groups.CONCLUSIONThese findings suggested that the reduced activity of reactive oxygen species, as controlled by internal antioxidant enzymes and phytochemicals, related with germination speed during the water imbibition stage in grains with greater depth of purple coloring.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T03:30:39.392857-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8102
       
  • Growth of wheat and lettuce and enzyme activities of soils under garlic
           stalk decomposition for different durations
    • Authors: Xu Han; Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGarlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered to be a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilise this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development.RESULTSThe effect of decomposed garlic stalk for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) as test plants. Garlic stalk in early stages of decomposition inhibited the shoots and roots length of wheat and lettuce, but promoted the shoots and roots length in later stages; longer durations of garlic stalk decomposition significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weight of wheat and lettuce, whereas shorter decomposing durations significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh weight; and garlic stalk at different decomposition durations increased the activities of urease, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase of soil that wheat or lettuce was planted.CONCLUSIONGarlic stalk decomposed for 30 days or 40 days could promote the growth of wheat and lettuce plants as well as soil enzyme activities. These results may provide a scientific basis for the study and application of garlic stalk.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T22:10:33.621782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8099
       
  • Using an enzymatic galactose assay to detect lactose glycation extents of
           two proteins caseinate and soybean protein isolate via the Maillard
           reaction
    • Authors: Xiao-Peng Wang; Xin-Huai Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGlycation of food proteins via the Maillard reaction is widely studied in the recent years; however, saccharide amount connected into proteins is usually not determined. An enzymatic galactose assay was proposed firstly in this study to detect lactose glycation extents of caseinate and soybean protein isolate (SPI) during the Maillard reaction at two temperatures and different times.RESULTSThe separated glycated proteins were hydrolyzed to release galactose necessary for the enzymatic assay and glycation calculation. Caseinate and SPI both obtained the highest lactose glycation extents at 100 °C or 121 °C by a reaction time of 180 or 20 min. Short- and long-time reaction resulted in lower glycation extents. During the reaction, three chemical indices (absorbencies at 294/490 nm and fluorescence intensities) of reaction mixtures increased continually, but another index reactable –NH2 of glycated proteins showed opposite trend. In general, changing profiles of the four indices were inconsistent with those profiles of lactose glycation extents of glycated proteins, implying practical limitation of the four indices in studies.CONCLUSIONThis proposed enzymatic assay could directly detect lactose glycation of the two proteins, and thus was more useful than the four chemical indices to monitor glycation of the two proteins.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T05:07:24.588333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8084
       
  • Grape yield and quality responses to simulated year 2100 expected climatic
           conditions under different soil textures
    • Authors: Urtzi Leibar; Inmaculada Pascual, Fermín Morales, Ana Aizpurua, Olatz Unamunzaga
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGlobal warming influence on grape quality is a great concern among grapegrowers and enologists. The effects of simulated year 2100 expected CO2, T and RH conditions (FCC; 700 µmol CO2/mol air, 28/18 °C day/night and 33/53% RH, day/night) vs. the current condition situation (Curr; 390 µmol CO2/mol air, 24/14 °C and 45/65% RH); well-irrigated vs. expected future water deficits and three soils with different clay contents (41, 19 and 8%) on yield and berry quality of grapevine cv. Tempranillo were evaluated.RESULTSFCC shortened the time between fruit set and veraison and between fruit set and maturity up to 7 and 10 days, respectively. This faster maturity led to higher must pH and tonality and reduced malic and tartaric acid concentrations, total anthocyanin concentration and colour intensity. Water deficit delayed ripeness for up to 9 days and reduced vegetative growth and malic acid concentration of grapes. However, this malic acid reduction did not happen with the clayey soils. These soils induced the lowest root fresh weight and berries with lower total anthocyanin concentration.CONCLUSIONAmong the adaptation techniques to cope with the described effects on fruit composition, soil selection should be considered with attention in addition to irrigation practices.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T05:07:16.958358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8086
       
  • Effect of nursing or mentoring by adult cows on physical activity,
           performance and meat quality of fattening beef calves kept on alpine
           pastures
    • Authors: Isabelle DM Gangnat; Pierre-Alain Dufey, Paolo Silacci, Jessika Messadene-Chelali, Michael Kreuzer, Joel Berard
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCompared to weaned calves, nursed calves benefit from access to milk as nutrient-dense feed and mentoring by their dams. Both may be decisive for growth under difficult conditions such as grazing on alpine pastures, where experience will play an essential role. These factors were investigated separately by comparing nursed calves with calves weaned at 3 months of age and grazing with or without mentor cow (n = 8 calves).RESULTSWeaned calves with mentor cows spent less time lying and walked more than nursed calves. Irrespective of whether they had a mentor cow or not the weaned calves grew slower than the nursed calves (357, 428 and 1324 g day−1, respectively). This also adversely affected slaughter weight, dressing percentage, conformation and fat cover at slaughter. In general mentoring had no effect. Meat quality did not differ whether weaned calves were mentored or not. Nursed calves were superior in intramuscular fat content, tenderness and water-holding capacity.CONCLUSIONThe availability of milk appeared to be much more important to the calves under demanding grazing conditions than mentoring. The differences in growth rate were accompanied with unexpectedly large differences in meat quality, showing that early weaning was not suitable for this system.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:52:33.19852-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8101
       
  • Strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap of household farms through
           precision fertigation under irrigated conditions using CERES-Maize model
    • Authors: Jiangang Liu; Guangyao Wang, Qingquan Chu, Fu Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe nitrogen significantly increases the maize yield; however, the unreasonable use of nitrogen is common in China. An analysis of crop yield gaps can reveal the limiting factors for yield improvement; however, there's a lack of practical strategies for narrowing the yield gaps of household farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the yield gap of summer maize using an integrative method and to develop strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap through precise nitrogen fertilization.RESULTSThe results indicated that there's a significant difference in the maize yield among fields, with a low level of variation. Additionally, significant differences in the N application rate were observed among fields, with high variability. Based on the long-term simulation results, the optimum nitrogen application rate was 193 kg ha−1 with a corresponding maximum attainable yield (AYmax) of 10318 kg ha−1. There was a considerable difference observed between the farmers’ yield and AYmax. There exhibited a low agronomic efficiency of applied N fertilizer (AEN) in farmers’ fields.CONCLUSIONThe integrative method lays a foundation for exploring the specific factors constraining crop yield gaps at the field scale and for developing strategies for rapid site-specific nitrogen management. Optimization strategies to narrow maize yield gap include increasing N application rates and adjusting the N application schedule.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:30:27.848802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8100
       
  • Improvement of skin condition by oral administration of collagen
           hydrolysates in chronologically aged mice
    • Authors: Zhenbin Wang; Qing Wang, Lin Wang, Weidong Xu, Yuanqing He, Yunliang Li, Song He, Haile Ma
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCollagen hydrolysates (CHs) has been demonstrated to have positive effect on skin photo-aging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there's little report about its influence on skin chronological aging so far.RESULTSNine-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing the CHs (2.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the survival rate, viscera indexes and the contents of moisture, fat and non-collagenous protein of skin didn't changed (p > 0.05). The color, luster and quantity of hair were obviously ameliorated. Moreover, the structure of epidermis and dermis, density and distribution of collagen fibers and ratio of type I to type III collagen were obviously improved in a dose-dependent manner showed by histochemical staining.CONCLUSIONThe oral ingestion of CHs increased the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes activities, and improved the appearance and structure of skin. These suggested its potential to be developed into nutraceuticals or functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:16:23.203666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8098
       
  • Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting
           bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris
    • Authors: Qunying Lin; Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control.RESULTSCS and CCP were suitable for the fruit body formation of C. militaris, with yields of 22 g bottle−1 and 20 g bottle−1 respectively. The fruit bodies grown on CCP showed the highest levels of cordycepin and adenosine up to 9.45 mg g−1 and 5.86 mg g−1, respectively. The content of D-mannitol in fruit body obtained on CS was 120 mg g−1 (80% of the control group), followed by that on CCP, 100 mg g−1. The fruit bodies cultivated on CCP displayed a high crude polysaccharide level of 26.9 mg g−1, which was the mostly close to the control group (34.5 mg g−1).CONCLUSIONCS and CCP are effective substrates for the production of fruit body and bioactive compounds by C. militaris. This study provides a new approach of decreasing the cost of C. militaris cultivation and dealing with these agricultural wastes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:11.614437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8097
       
  • The Interactive Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable
           Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and Hydrogen Sulfide Production during
           Cider Fermentation
    • Authors: Thomas F. Boudreau; Gregory M. Peck, Sean F. O'Keefe, Amanda C. Stewart
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation, but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. This study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S0), (known to result in increased H2S in wine), fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples).RESULTSOnly S0 led to increased H2S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L−1) resulted in decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed, whereby increasing YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics.CONCLUSIONSCidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L−1) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when YAN concentration is below 250 mg L−1. These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:56:22.482695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8096
       
  • High intensity ultrasound enhances the IgG and IgE binding of ovalbumin
    • Authors: Wen-hua Yang; Zong-cai Tu, Hui Wang, Xue Li, Ming Tian
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHen's egg is widely used in food industry due to its excellent nutritional and processing properties, and Ovalbumin (OVA) is the major allergen of hen's egg white. Ultrasound has been widely used in food processing industry, but effect of high intensity ultrasound on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding and conformational structure of OVA remains unclear.RESULTSUltrasound treatment at 600 - 800 W dramatically increased the IgG and IgE binding of OVA with the highest values observed at 600 W. The free sulphydryl content, surface hydrophobicity and UV absorption were gradually increased when the power was improved from 200 to 600 W, implying the occurrence of molecule unfolding. When the power was 800 W, the binding ability was slightly decreased associated with the aggregation of OVA molecule. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis implied that ultrasound treatment at 800 W could induce the aggregation of OVA molecule through disulfide bonds and/or hydrophobic interaction.CONCLUSIONHigh intensity ultrasound can increase the potential allergenicity of OVA. Therefore, high intensity ultrasound processing of some egg products alone may improve the risk of allergenic reaction of egg allergy patients to some extend.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:30:44.976005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8095
       
  • Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera
           L.). Effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile
    • Authors: Massimiliano Alessandrini; Federica Gaiotti, Nicola Belfiore, Fabiola Matarese, Claudio D'Onofrio, Diego Tomasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnvironmental factors have been acknowledged as greatly influencing grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has been scarcely debated in literature, to date. In this study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy).RESULTSThe site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest one (200 m a.s.l.) and, even with differences in temperature in the range of 1.5 – 2°C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site evidenced slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all main classes of aroma compounds typical of Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance.CONCLUSIONAltitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in subsequent sparkling wines. Moreover, this study underscored the fact that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:12:01.353557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8093
       
  • Occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 in Baby Foods Marketed in Iran
    • Authors: Ehsan Mottaghianpour; Firouzeh Nazari, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as a toxic fungal metabolite, can be found in baby foods, which can lead to serious complications for children's health. In this study, 48 commercial baby foods available in the Iranian market were investigated for the presence of AFB1, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with post-column photochemical derivatization and a fluorescence detector.RESULTSIn this study, 33 out of 48 samples (68.7%) were contaminated with AFB1 at median, maximum and mean concentration levels of 0.11, 15.15, and 2.602 ± 4.065 µg kg −1, respectively. The AFB1 concentration in 39.6% of the samples was higher than the maximum level established in Iran for AFB1 within baby foods containing milk (0.5 µg kg −1). The AFB1 incidence in rice, wheat, and multigrain infant cereal samples was 90%, 25% and 100%, respectively, while the rice-based baby foods contained the highest levels of AFB1.CONCLUSIONIn this study, the findings of both high rates and high levels of AFB1 in cereal baby foods indicated the need to reduce AFB1 contamination in these products. Therefore, further monitoring and control of pre- and post-harvest, storage, and manufacturing processes are required.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:16:17.202248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8092
       
  • Correlation between three glycometabolic-related hormones and muscle
           glycolysis as well as meat quality in three pig breeds
    • Authors: J. Luo; L. Y. Shen, H. G. Lei, K.P. Zhu, Y. Z. Jiang, L. Bai, M. Z. Li, G. Q. Tang, X. W. Li, S. H. Zhang, L. Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations among muscle concentration of three glycometabolic-related hormones (insulin, epinephrine and glucagon), muscle glycolysis and meat quality in representative muscles of either glycolytic or oxidative types. Moreover, the relative glycometabolic-related gene expression was measured. One Western crossbreed DLY (Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), one crossbreed with half-Chinese native-pig origin DL (Duroc × LiangShan) and one pure Chinese native pig TP (Tibetan pig) were used in this study.RESULTSAmong the three breeds, DLY had the greatest glucagon and epinephrine (P < 0.01). Compared with DLY, TP and DL had lower lactic acid concentration, showing lower glycolytic potentials (GP), greater ultimate pH values (P < 0.01), and lower relative expression levels of glycometabolic-related genes (GYS1, PRKAG3 and PKM2). Compared with the glycolytic muscle (m. longissimus dorsi), oxidative muscle PM (m. psoas major ) had lower glucagon and epinephrine contents, lower GP and better meat quality. Concentration of glycometabolic-related hormones in the muscle had significant correlations with muscle glycolysis, meat pH and lightness.CONCLUSIONThese results implied that glucagon and epinephrine levels could be used to indicate early glycolytic metabolism during postmortem. These findings may be helpful in identifying pork with undesirable quality traits.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15T00:20:46.452064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8094
       
  • Ceratonia siliqua L. (Immature carob bean) inhibits intestinal glucose
           absorption, improves glucose tolerance and protects against
           alloxan-induced diabetes in rat
    • Authors: Kaïs Rtibi; Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Khouloud Saidani, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Bruno Eto, Lamjed Marzouki
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study was designed to investigate the effects of immature carob pods aqueous extract (ICPAE) on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro and in vivo using an oral glucose tolerance test as well as the potential anti-diabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried by administering of glucose (2g kg−1, p.o.) and after treatment with extract (50, 100 and 200mg kg−1, b.w.). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150mg kg−1). However, the extracts at various doses or glibenclamide (GLB, 10mg kg−1, b.w.) were given by oral administration for two weeks.RESULTSThe aqueous extract of carob pods (50 to 2000μg mL−1) exerted dose-dependent reduction of sodium-dependent glucose transport across isolated mice jejunum and the maximal inhibition exceeded 50%.The ICPAE treatment improved glucose tolerance. More importantly, ICPAE at various doses showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and biochemical profiles in diabetic rats.CONCLUSIONOur findings confirm that the degree of maturity of carob characterized by a different phytochemical composition may be responsible for these actions. Therefore, these compounds may be used as a food supplement in hyperglycemia and diabetes treatments.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T02:45:57.095281-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8091
       
  • Identification of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) heartwood as a rich source
           of bioactive stilbenes by qNMR
    • Authors: Kostas Ioannidis; Eleni Melliou, Paraskevi Alizoti, Prokopios Magiatis
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecently published studies have demonstrated the strong anti-inflammatory properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood extracts, related to its stilbene content. In order to find alternative sources of Pinus heartwood extracts rich in stilbenes, a large number of samples was investigated, using a new developed high throughput screening method based on qNMR.RESULTSThe new method enabled us to measure the levels of pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether and pinosylvin dimethylether in heartwood extracts in only 45 seconds per sample. The method was applied to 260 Pinus nigra trees originating from Peloponnese (southern Greece) from four different natural populations of the species. The results obtained showed that the total stilbenoids per dry heartwood weight varied greatly, ranging from 10.9 mg/gdrywood to 128.2 mg/gdrywood (average 59.92 ± 21.79 mg/gdrywood). The major stilbene in all cases was pinosylvin monomethylether (40.32 ± 15.55 mg/gdrywood), followed by pinosylvin (17.07 ± 6.76 mg/gdrywood) and pinosylvin dimethylether (2.54 ± 1.22 mg/gdrywood). The highest stilbene content of P. nigra samples was found 6.3 times higher than the highest reported for P. sylvestris L.CONCLUSIONP. nigra heartwood is the richest source of pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether identified up today and can be considered as the best natural resource for production of bioactive extracts.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T02:00:43.646094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8090
       
  • Multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds in organic
           juices with high antioxidant capacity
    • Authors: Dariusz Nowak; Michał Gośliński, Artur Szwengiel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate).RESULTSAll the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L−1). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (approx. 5000 mg of Trolox equivalents L−1). Other samples had lower TP and TAC. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds.CONCLUSIONChokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them for further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular diseases prophylaxis.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T01:46:28.693591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8089
       
  • Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the
           technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L.
           ‘Siska’)
    • Authors: Maja Turinek; Martina Bavec, Milan Repič, Matjaž Turinek, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Christian Moellers, Alba Tres, Franc Bavec
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOrganic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. ‘Siska’ seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed.RESULTSThe BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content.CONCLUSIONBecause quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, the production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation, presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T01:06:18.414616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8088
       
  • Increase of protein extraction yield from rapeseed meal through a
           pretreatment with phytase
    • Authors: Ivo M. Rodrigues; M. Graça V. S. Carvalho, Jorge M. S. Rocha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRapeseed meal is a good source of high-quality vegetal protein but contains antinutritional compounds which limit its use for human and animal feed. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to enhance alkaline protein extraction of rapeseed meal and to produce protein rich products with low levels of phytic acid. Different phytase dosages and operating conditions were used for rapeseed meal pretreatment followed by alkaline extraction at different temperatures, time, pH and solid/liquid ratios (S/L).RESULTSThe highest protein extraction yield attained was 72.1%, for 2 h at 55 °C with a phytase dosage of 0.8 U g−1 when the alkaline extraction was performed at 75 °C, pH 12.5, 60 min for S/L ratio of 10 g/100 mL water. The extraction yields were higher than those previously obtained without enzymatic pretreatment.CONCLUSIONPhytase pretreatment enhanced alkaline extraction yield of proteins from rapeseed meal. This procedure allowed also the production of rapeseed protein concentrates with very low levels of phytic acid, c.a. 1 g kg−1, improving their nutritional properties and commercial value. Moreover, after the pretreatment, the amount of phytic acid in the remaining rapeseed meal decreases about 25%.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T00:31:14.148872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8087
       
  • The higher the better? Differences in phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides
           in Sambucus nigra leaves, flowers and berries from different altitudes
    • Authors: Mateja Senica; Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDElderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) possesses high antioxidant activity and has been used to ail numerous medicinal disorders. In addition to their antioxidant properties, elderberry parts accumulate toxic cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). It has been proven that altitude influences the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. In the present study we investigated the change of phenolics and CGG in elder leaves, flowers, and berries induced by different altitudes and locations.RESULTSThe data indicate that the accumulation of CGG and phenolics is affected by the altitude of the growing site. An increase of anthocyanin content was recorded in elder berries collected at higher elevations in both locations. Fruit collected at the foothill of location 2 contained 3343 µg g−1 anthocyanins as opposed to fruit from the hilltop, which contained 7729 µg g−1. Elder berries contained lowest levels of harmful CGG compared to other analyzed plant parts. However, more cyanogenic glycosides were always present in plant parts collected at the hilltop. Accordingly, berries accumulated 0.11 µg g−1 CGG at the foothill and 0.59 µg g−1 CGG at the hilltop.CONCLUSIONElder berries and flowers collected at the foothill were characterized by lowest levels of both beneficial (phenolics) and harmful compounds (CGG) and are suitable for moderate consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T03:35:46.322386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8085
       
  • Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae
           reared on different organic waste substrates
    • Authors: Thomas Spranghers; Matteo Ottoboni, Cindy Klootwijk, Ann Ovyn, Stefaan Deboosere, Bruno De Meulenaer, Joris Michiels, Mia Eeckhout, Patrick De Clercq, Stefaan De Smet
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBlack soldier fly (BSF) larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed.RESULTSProtein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg−1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg−1 DM respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg−1 DM respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg−1 DM respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg−1 DM respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments.CONCLUSIONSince protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, BSF could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T02:51:02.921855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8081
       
  • POP LEVELs IN BEANS FROM MEDITERRANEAN AND TROPICAL AREAS
    • Authors: Giuseppa Di Bella; Imen Haddaoui, Vincenzo Lo Turco, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Maria Rita Fede, Giacomo Dugo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDespite the importance of beans as food, few works are conducted to control their contamination by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), compounds of highly importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by beans consumption a monitoring program was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with Accelerated Solvents Extractor (ASE) in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode.RESULTSResults revealed concentrations of ƩPAHs ranged from 7.31 µg/kg to 686 µg/kg, ƩPCBs between 1.85 µg/kg and 43.1 µg/kg and ƩPOCs ranged from 1.37 µg/kg to 71.8 µg/kg.CONCLUSIONOur results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed at risk contamination by always investigated pollutants.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T02:07:52.193282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8083
       
  • Computer vision-based method for classification of the wheat grains using
           artificial neural network
    • Authors: Kadir Sabanci; Ahmet Kayabasi, Abdurrahim Toktas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying the wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread wheat grains and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high resolution camera and they are subjected to a pre-processing. The main visual features of 4 dimensions, 3 colours and 5 texture are acquired using image processing techniques (IPTs). A total number of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model. The data sets of visual features are considered as input parameters of the ANN model. The ANN with four different input data sub-sets is modelled to classify the wheat grains into bread or durum. The ANN model is trained via 180 grains and the accuracy of the models are tested through 20 grains of 200 bread and durum wheat.RESULTSThe numbers of 7 input parameters being the most effective on the classifying results are determined by using correlation-based CfsSubsetEval algorithm for simplifying the ANN model. The results of the ANN model are compared against each other in terms of accuracy rate. The best result is achieved with mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.8x10−6 by the simplified ANN model.CONCLUSIONIt shows that the proposed classifier based on computer vision can be successfully exploited to automatically classify a variety of grains.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T02:05:26.584534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8080
       
  • Production of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase from agro-industrial
           wastewater and its application in raw food cleaning
    • Authors: Qin He Xi-hui Xu; Fan Zhang, Yu-kai Tai, Yan-fei Luo, Jian He, Qing Hong, Jian-dong Jiang, Xin Yan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo reduce the fermentation cost for industrialization of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase (Chd), agro-industrial wastewater including molasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermentation wastewater were used to substitute the expensive carbon and nitrogen sources and fresh water for lab preparation.RESULTSThe results showed that molasses and CSL could replace 5% carbon source and 100% organic nitrogen source to maintain the same fermentation level. Refermentation from raffinate of ultra-filtered fermentation wastewater could achieve 61.03% of initial Chd activity and reach 96.39% activity when cultured in mixture of raffinate and 50% of original medium constituent. Typical raw foods were chosen to evaluate the chlorothalonil removal ability of Chd. After Chd treatment for 2 h at room temperature, 97.40% and 75.55% of the 30 mg kg−1 chlorothalonil on cherry tomato and strawberry were reduced respectively, and 60.29% of the 50 mg kg−1 chlorothalonil on Chinese cabbage was removed. Furthermore, the residual enzyme activity remained 78 ~ 82% after treatment, suggesting its potential for reuse.CONCLUSIONThis study proved the cost-feasibility of large-scale production of Chd from agro-industrial wastewater and demonstrated the potential of Chd in raw food cleaning.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T01:35:32.451131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8079
       
  • Determination of norfloxacin in food by an enhanced spectrofluorimetric
           method
    • Authors: Ruilin Duan; Junze Jiang, Shaopu Liu, Jidong Yang, Man Qiao, Ying Shi, Xiaoli Hu
      Abstract: In this work, based on norfloxacin (NFLX) - Nd3+ - CTAB system for detection of norfloxacin, a simple and sensitive method was developed by fluorescence enhancement. In pH 7.0 BR solution, NFLX reacted with Nd3+ and formed the complex which resulted in the fluorescence enhancement of NFLX and the maximum emission peak shifted from 415 nm for NFLX to 450 nm for NFLX - Nd3+. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity further increased when CTAB was added in NFLX - Nd3+ system since the effect of surfactant. Under the optimum conditions, the enhancement fluorescence intensity was linearly correlated with the concentration of norfloxacin in the range from 0.038-10.0 µmol L−1, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9997. The detection limit (3σ/k) was 0.021 µmol L−1, indicating that this method can be applied to detect trace norfloxacin. Besides, the method was used to detect the norfloxacin in fish, chicken samples with satisfying results. Additionally, the mechanism of fluorescence enhancement was also discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T00:36:16.014664-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8077
       
  • Effects of a diet containing dried grape pomace on blood metabolites and
           milk composition of dairy cows
    • Authors: Veronica Sanda Chedea; Rodica Stefania Pelmus, Cristina Lazar, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Loredana Georgeta Calin, Smaranda Mariana Toma, Catalin Dragomir, Ionelia Taranu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of a diet containing 15% grape pomace (GP) on the general health status and milk quality of dairy cows was assessed by plasma biochemistry and total polyphenols (TP) content, milk polyphenols, composition and protein fractions.RESULTSAmong the polyphenols, measured by LC-MS, in GP, in feed containing GP (GP+) or not (GP-), gallic acid and epicatechin were present in the highest concentration (67.58 µg/mL and 19.23 µg/mL, respectively). Higher amounts of TP were also detected in the blood plasma of GP+ cows (114.06 mg GAE/L and 83.93 mg GAE/L, respectively) but not in their milk (233.17 mg GAE/L and 245.75 mg GAE/L, respectively). Also a significant increase was found for lactose and β –lactoglobulin but there was no effect on α-lactalbumin, albumin, secretory components and caseins.CONCLUSION15% GP inclusion in the diets of dairy cows is beneficial for overall normal blood constituent metabolism and helps to maintain cow health. The milk of cows fed with a GP diet preserves the normal levels of fat, protein and caseins, whilst increasing levels of components that make this milk a versatile ingredient material for food industry (e.g. model whey powders, stability of lactose-rich powders).
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T10:01:47.805733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8068
       
  • Paper-based 1-MCP treatment suppresses cell wall metabolism and delays
           softening of Huanghua pears during storage
    • Authors: Yihui Chen; Junzheng Sun, Hetong Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Shen Zhang, Yifen Lin, Ting Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHuanghua pear will loss its firmness quickly during postharvest storage at ambient temperature, and hence with limited storage and marketing potential. In this study, Huanghua pears treated with paper containing 0 (control) or 0.9 μL L−1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 h, and then stored at (25 ± 1) °C for 30 days were investigated on the effect of a paper-based 1-MCP treatment on fruit firmness, cell wall composition and activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes.RESULTSHuanghua pears without 1-MCP treatment softened rapidly during room temperature storage and cell wall composition analyses shown an increase in water-soluble pectin (WSP) and decreases in cell wall materials (CWM) and cell wall components such as Na2CO3-soluble pectin (NSP), cellulose and hemicellulose. In contrast, the 1-MCP-treated fruits maintained higher firmness than the control and prevented the formation of WSP and reduced the degradation of CWM and cell wall components including NSP, cellulose and hemicellulose. The 1-MCP treatment also significantly lowered the activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes like pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG), β-galactosidase and cellulase during storage.CONCLUSION1-MCP treatment can slow down the softening of Huanghua pears through reducing cell wall-degrading enzymes activities and hence maintain the integrity of the cell wall structure.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T10:20:55.645064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8072
       
  • Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with
           iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study
    • Authors: Bahareh Nikooyeh; Tirang R. Neyestani
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBread, as the staple food of Iranians with average per capita consumption of 300 g/d, could be potentially a good vehicle for many fortificants including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in caco-2 cell model.RESULTSDespite having lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads were calculated 5.0% to 8.0%. Whole wheat bread (~8%), as compared with the fortified breads (~5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability.CONCLUSIONIron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron fortified breads.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T10:15:23.73414-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8071
       
  • Evaluation of browning ratio in an image analysis of apple slices at
           different stages of instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air
           drying (AD-DIC)
    • Authors: Kun Gao; Linyan Zhou, Jinfeng Bi, Jianyong Yi, Xinye Wu, Mo Zhou, Xueyuan Wang, Xuan Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDComputer vision-based image analysis system is widely used in food processing to evaluate the quality changes recently. It could objectively measure surface colour of various products since it provide some obvious advantages with its objectivity and quantitative capabilities. In this study, computer vision-based image analysis system was used to investigate the colour changes of apple slices dried by instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air drying (AD-DIC).RESULTSThe CIE L* value and PPO activity in apple slices decreased during entire drying process, while other color indexes including CIE a*, b*, △E, C* value increased. The browning ratio calculated by image analysis increased during drying process, and sharply increment was observed for DIC process. The change of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and Fluorescent compounds (FIC) showed the same trend with browning ratio due to Maillard reaction. Moreover, the concentration of 5-HMF and FIC both had a good quadratic correlation (R2>0.998) with the browning ratio.CONCLUSIONThus, browning ratio was a reliable indicator of 5-HMF and FIC changes in apple slices during drying. The image analysis system could be used to monitor color changes, 5-HMF and FIC in dehydrated apple slices during AD-DIC process.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T10:05:26.913488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8070
       
  • Effect of two doses of urea foliar application on leaves and grape
           nitrogen composition during two vintages
    • Authors: Eva P. Pérez-Álvarez; Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Enrique García-Escudero, José María Martínez-Vidaurre
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitrogen affects the grapevine growth and also the yeast metabolism, which influence directly on the fermentation kinetic and on the formation of different volatile compounds. Throughout grapevine cycle, soil nitrogen availability and grape nitrogen composition can vary as a consequence of different factors. Nitrogen foliar applications can contribute to enhance the grapevine nitrogen status and to minimize the problem of leaching that the traditional N-soil applications can provoke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urea foliar applications on the grapevine nitrogen status and on the grape amino acid content. For this purpose, two different doses of urea were applied over the leaves of a “Tempranillo” vineyard.RESULTSThe highest urea doses affected nitrogen content on blade leaf tissues after veraison. Must amino acid profiles were modified by the urea applications and some of the compounds increased their concentrations. The effect of the year on the increase of must total amino acid concentrations was more important than the effect of the doses applied.CONCLUSIONUrea foliar applications can be an interesting tool to decrease grapevine nitrogen deficiencies. This N-inplementation in the vineyard could avoid sluggish fermentations problems during winemaking, enhance must nitrogen composition, and may contribute to improve wine quality.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T04:25:31.454128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8069
       
  • Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the polyphenols and antioxidant
           activity of plantain pulp (Musa paradisiaca AAB)
    • Authors: Miriam C. Jiménez-Martínez; Efigenia Montalvo-González, Sonia G. Sáyago-Ayerdi, Gil Mercado-Mercado, José A. Ramírez- León, Paz-Gamboa Ernestina, Maria A. Vivar-Vera
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe impact of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on the polyphenol (PP) content and antioxidant activity (AOX) of plantain pulp was evaluated. Pressures of 400, 500 and 600 MPa were applied to plantain pulp for 90 and 180 s at room temperature (25 °C). The polyphenoloxidase activity, extractable (EPP) and non-extractable PP (NEPP) contents, flavonoid content and AOX (FRAP, ABTS•+) were evaluated. In addition, PP identification was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).RESULTSThe polyphenoloxidase activity was inhibited after HPP under all the studied conditions. Increases of 110.80 and 137.40 % in the EPP contents at 500 MPa/180 s and 600/90 s were observed with a simultaneous improvement in the AOX which increments of up to 128.71 %. The 500 MPa/90 s treatment had the highest total PP content including the highest content of flavonoids (0.22 g EAE "kg− 1" DW) and proportion of NEPP which contained hydrolysable PPs (91.12 g GAE "kg− 1" DW) with high AOX. The identified PPs included catechin, quercetin, gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids.CONCLUSIONThe HPP performed at a room temperature can be used for improving the total content of PP compounds in plantain pulp under specific pressure and time conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:47:35.086813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8067
       
  • The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and
           public health
    • Authors: Barel S; Elad D, Cuneah O, Shimshoni J.A.
      Abstract: The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970's, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table.In February 2014 a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service (PPIS) to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health (VSAH). In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed hereby.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:46:44.77201-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8064
       
  • Grape by-products extracts against microbial proliferation and lipid
           oxidation: a review
    • Authors: Gabriela N. Mattos; Renata V. Tonon, Angela A.L. Furtado, Lourdes M.C. Cabral
      Abstract: The wine industry is responsible for the production of million tons of waste, such as grape skin, stalk, sludge and seeds, which can be considered inexpensive phenolic compounds sources, due to incomplete extraction during wine production. Phenolic compounds, also called as polyphenols, are the most abundant bioactive compounds in grape composition and are recognized by their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Because of their functional properties, extracts obtained from grape wastes, which are rich in phenolic compounds, can be employed in development of many products ranging from medical to food applications, decreasing the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and inhibiting lipid oxidation. These characteristics are motivating the research for alternative sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents, aiming at decreasing the use of artificial additives, which have been associated to some toxic effects. This article provides a review on the use of grape by-products extracts and their bioactive compounds as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food products.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:45:42.239832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8062
       
  • Nutrient profiles of the hybrid grape cultivar Isabel during berry
           maturation and ripening
    • Authors: Aynur Kurt; Hülya Torun, Nesrin Colak, Gerald Seiler, Sema Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Faik Ahmet Ayaz
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe hybrid grape cultivar Isabel (Vitis labrusca x V. vinifera) is widely grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey and constitutes an important part of the diet of its inhabitants. Phenological and ampelographical studies of the grape have previously been performed, but there are no data concerning nutrient composition. Its nutrient content needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic and nutritional uses in the region.RESULTSThe concentrations (range, g kg−1 fresh weight) of major soluble sugars (fructose; 2.08 – 79.70, glucose; 3.71 – 66.74) increased and those of organic acids (tartaric acid; 0.05 – 6.60, malic acid; 2.38 – 9.92) decreased in the skin and pulp during ripening. The major fatty acid was linoleic acid in the skin (50.13), pulp (18.11) and seed (704), while the main minerals (dry weight) were potassium (2.70 – 19.70), followed by phosphorus (0.53 – 3.40) and calcium (0.42 – 5.90) in the parts.CONCLUSIONBerry maturation and ripening significantly influenced the concentrations of sugars and organic acids the most in the skin and pulp, but did not significantly affect the concentrations of fatty acids and minerals in the ′Isabel′ grape. Our findings also suggest an optimal harvest time in terms of levels of the nutrients.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:40:23.696084-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8061
       
  • Impact of a novel synbiotic supplementation during gestation and lactation
           on immune responses in the Swiss albino mice offspring
    • Authors: Himaja N; Hemalatha R, K. Narendra Babu, Shujauddin Mohd
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPrebiotics from various regularly consumed cereals and novel substrates are currently being utilized as functional foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of synbiotic, formulated with prebiotic extracted from natural resources like green gram (Vigna radiata) along with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in modulating immune responses in the offspring when supplemented during gestation and lactation.RESULTSSynbiotic supplementation was effective in improving cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity among F0 dams. Among F1 pups (F1 Syn + and F1 Syn-), synbiotic supplementation showed significantly heightened (p 
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:35:53.260577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8059
       
  • Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array with Chemiluminescent Detection for
           Mycotoxins in Barley
    • Authors: Li Li; Liru Xia, Yongfu Zhao, Min Wang, Xizhi Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMycotoxins are produced by fungi as secondary metabolites. They often multi-contaminate food and feed commodities posing a health risk to humans and animals. Fast and easy multiplex screening could be thought as a useful tool for detection of multi-contaminate food and feed commodities.RESULTSA highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic arrays for detecting mycotoxins zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1 were fabricated using UV induced copolymerization. The mycotoxins antibodies firstly reacted with functional monomer to form antibody/functional monomer bio-conjugates. Subsequently, the antibody/functional monomer bio-conjugates copolymerized with cross-linker to form mycotoxins immune-affinity arrays. With optimal fabrication conditions, all mycotoxins immune-affinity monolithic arrays exhibited a linear response spanning for three orders of magnitude. And the immune-affinity monolithic array has a low detection limit and has a good uniformity (intra-assay CV, and inter-assay CV both
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:21:11.494482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8056
       
  • Effect of Reciprocating Agitation Thermal Processing (RA-TP) on Quality of
           Canned Tomato Puree (Solanum lycopersicum)
    • Authors: Anubhav Pratap Singh; Anika Singh, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDReciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) is a recent innovation in the field of canning for obtaining high quality canned food. The objective of this study is to compare RA-TP processing with conventional non-agitated (still) processing with respect to the impact on quality (color, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, carotenoid and lycopene content) of canned tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) puree.RESULTSDue to 63-81% reduction in process times as compared to still process, tomato puree with a brighter red color (closer to fresh) was obtained during RA-TP. At 3 Hz reciprocation frequency, the loss in antioxidant, lycopene and carotenoid contents could be reduced to 34%, 8% and 8% respectively, as compared to 96%, 41% and 52%, respectively during still process. In fact, the phenolic content for RA-TP at 3 Hz was 5% higher than in fresh puree. Quality retention generally increased with an increase in frequency, although the differences were less significant at higher reciprocation frequencies (between 2 Hz and 3 Hz).CONCLUSIONSResearch findings indicate that RA-TP can be effective to obtain thermally processed foods with high quality attribute retention. It can also be concluded that a very high reciprocation frequency (>3Hz) is not necessarily needed and significant quality improvement can be obtained at lower frequencies (~2Hz).
      PubDate: 2016-09-27T06:22:42.389102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8054
       
  • The effects of animal age, feeding regime and a dietary beta‐agonist on
           tenderness of three beef muscles
    • Authors: Ennet Moholisa; Arno Hugo, Phillip E Strydom, Ina van Heerden
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAnimal age as determined by number of permanent incisors (p.i) is used in classification of beef carcasses to describe expected meat tenderness. However, animals differing in age are reared under different production systems (pasture or feedlot). In addition to age, other factors associated with particular production systems may also influence the palatability of meat. Therefore, the effects of age combined with feeding regime and the supplementation of a beta‐agonist (zilpaterol) on the tenderness of M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semitendinosus (ST) and M. biceps femoris (BF) muscles were investigated.RESULTSTenderness of LL cuts was least affected by age but zilpaterol significantly decreased tenderness and ageing potential. Tenderness of high collagen cuts (BF and ST) were negatively affected by age due to reduced collagen solubility. The effect of zilpaterol on these cuts was less significant and BF and ST cuts of the grain‐fed A‐age animals (0 p.i.) supplemented with zilpaterol (AZ) were more tender than the same cuts of grass‐fed animals with 1‐2 p.i (AB‐age) and grass‐fed animals with 1‐2 p.i (B‐age) according to Warner‐Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sensory analysis for tenderness.CONCLUSIONThis study indicates that beta‐agonists may influence variation in tenderness within an age class more than age or feeding regime.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T08:05:22.135191-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8049
       
  • The Effects of Licorice Flavonoid Oil on Increasing Muscle Mass: A
           Randomized, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Tetsu Kinoshita; Akio Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Yoshino, Shinya Furukawa
      Abstract: BackgroundThe current study evaluated the effects of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) on increasing the muscle mass of elderly populations using a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study. Fifty participants aged 54–90 (male 7, female 43), who underwent rehabilitation treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, were examined and assigned to either the LFO group (n = 26) or the placebo group (n = 24). The LFO group consumed 300 mg of LFO per day, while the placebo group consumed one placebo capsule per day for 16 weeks. We measured muscle mass, body fat percentage, and the score of the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter.ResultsIn the LFO group, muscle mass in the body trunk increased significantly after 16 weeks of LFO intake (+0.38 kg, P = 0.02). The trunk muscle mass weight of the LFO group increased significantly compared with that of the placebo group (p 
      PubDate: 2016-09-19T10:20:27.13565-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8044
       
  • Drying based on temperature-detection-assisted control in
           microwave-assisted pulse-spouted vacuum drying
    • Authors: Xiaohuang Cao; Min Zhang, He Qian, Arun S. Mujumdar
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOnline temperature-detection-assisted control system of microwave-assisted pulse-spouted vacuum drying was newly developed. Used this system, temperature control can be automatically and continuously adjusted based on detection of drying temperature and preset temperature. Various strategies of constant temperature controlled, linear temperature controlled and 3-steps temperature controlled had been applied to dry carrot cubes. Drying kinetics and quality of various temperature controlled strategies online are evaluated for new drying technology as well as a suitable alternative.RESULTSDying time in 70 °C mode1 had the shortest drying time and lowest energy consumption in all modes. Suitable color, highest re-hydration ratio and fracture-hardness, longest drying time had an occurrence in 30-40-50 °C mode3. Number of hot spots was reduced in 40-50-60°Cmode3. Accepted carrot snack had been obtained in 50-60-70 °C mode3 and 70 °C mode2. All temperature curves showed that the actual temperatures followed the preset temperatures appropriately.CONCLUSIONSWith this system, Linear temperature controlled strategy and 3-steps temperature controlled strategy can improve product quality and heating non-uniformity compared to constant temperature controlled, but need more energy consumption and drying time. Temperature-detection-assisted control system was developed newly for providing various drying strategies for a suitable alternative in snack product.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T04:01:41.302245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8040
       
  • Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart) fruits: Novel raw materials for the
           pectin industry
    • Authors: Sylvie Assoi; Koffi Konan, Georges N. Agbo, Hortense Dodo, Ron Holser, Louise Wicker
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPreventing post-harvest waste of Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart) fruits is possible by recovery of pectin as a value added ingredient. Extraction conditions on yield and functionality of Palmyra palm pectin was determined at different temperatures and pH with 30 min extraction time.RESULTSPalmyra palm fruits contain more than 650 g kg−1 of GalA acid and produce soft gels with sucrose in acidic media despite a high degree of acetylation (≈5%). Mechanical deformation of pectin gel was similar, when extracted at pH 2.5 and 70 °C or under natural pH at room temperature or 70 °C. Pectins isolated under pH 7 exhibited comparable gel softness (G’/G”) with commercial pectin. Palm pectins also showed emulsifying activity greater than 50%, attributed to high protein content of 8 g /100 g. For pectins extracted at pH near 5.2-5.5, molar mass ranged from 3.00 to 3.38*105 g mol−1; intrinsic viscosity ranged from 218 to 297 ml g−1; arabinose was the main neutral sugar; ζ-potential ranged from −23 to −25 mV.CONCLUSIONPalm fruit offers an inexpensive raw material to extract pectin in environmentally friendly and economical way and yield a pectin with unique gelling, viscosifying and emulsifying properties.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29T04:15:20.789333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8010
       
  • Issue Information - ToC
    • Pages: 1 - 6
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T02:37:50.623728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7926
       
  • Innovations in Publishing
    • Authors: Andrew Waterhouse; Mark Shepherd
      Pages: 7 - 7
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T02:38:02.196137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8073
       
  • Changes in volatile composition and sensory attributes of wines during
           alcohol content reduction
    • Authors: Rocco Longo; John W Blackman, Peter J Torley, Suzy Y Rogiers, Leigh M Schmidtke
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: A desirable sensory profile is a major consumer driver for wine acceptability and should be considered during the production of reduced-alcohol wines. Although various viticultural practices and microbiological approaches show promising results, separation technologies such as membrane filtration, in particular reverse osmosis and evaporative perstraction, in addition to vacuum distillation, represent the most common commercial methods used to produce reduced-alcohol wine. However, ethanol removal from wine can result in a significant loss of volatile compounds such as esters (ethyl octanoate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate) that contribute positively to the overall perceived aroma. These losses can potentially reduce the acceptability of the wine to consumers and decrease their willingness to purchase wines that have had their alcohol level reduced. The change in aroma as a result of the ethanol removal processes is influenced by a number of factors: the type of alcohol reduction process; the chemical-physical properties (volatility, hydrophobicity, steric hindrance) of the aroma compounds; the retention properties of the wine non-volatile matrix; and the ethanol level. This review identifies and summarises possible deleterious influences of the dealcoholisation process and describes best practice strategies to maintain the original wine composition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T02:17:15.982121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7757
       
  • Implications of climate change predictions for UK cropping and prospects
           for possible mitigation: a review of challenges and potential responses
    • Authors: Karen Rial-Lovera; W Paul Davies, Nicola D Cannon
      Pages: 17 - 32
      Abstract: The UK, like the rest of the world, is confronting the impacts of climate change. Further changes are expected and they will have a profound effect on agriculture. Future crop production will take place against increasing CO2 levels and temperatures, decreasing water availability, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events. This review contributes to research on agricultural practices for climate change, but with a more regional perspective. The present study explores climate change impacts on UK agriculture, particularly food crop production, and how to mitigate and build resilience to climate change by adopting and/or changing soil management practices, including fertilisation and tillage systems, new crop adoption and variety choice. Some mitigation can be adopted in the shorter term, such as changes in crop type and reduction in fertiliser use, but in other cases the options will need greater investment and longer adaptation period. This is the case for new crop variety development and deployment, and possible changes to soil cultivations. Uncertainty of future weather conditions, particularly extreme weather, also affect decision-making for adoption of practices by farmers to ensure more stable and sustainable production. Even when there is real potential for climate change mitigation, it can sometimes be more difficult to accomplish with certainty on-farm. Better future climate projections and long-term investments will be required to create more resilient agricultural systems in the UK in the face of climate change challenges. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T02:11:32.407751-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7767
       
  • Recent applications of NMR in food and dietary studies
    • Authors: Venkatesh Ramakrishnan; Devanand L Luthria
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Over the last decade, a wide variety of new foods have been introduced into the global marketplace, many with health benefits that exceed those of traditional foods. Simultaneously, a wide range of analytical technologies has evolved that allow greater capability for the determination of food composition. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), traditionally a research tool used for structural elucidation, is now being used frequently for metabolomics and chemical fingerprinting. Its stability and inherent ease of quantification have been exploited extensively to identify and quantify bioactive components in foods and dietary supplements. In addition, NMR fingerprints have been used to differentiate cultivars, evaluate sensory properties of food and investigate the influence of growing conditions on food crops. Here we review the latest applications of NMR in food analysis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T03:58:57.069456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7917
       
  • Synthesis of raffinose by transfructosylation using recombinant
           levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206
    • Authors: Wenjing Li; Shuhuai Yu, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRaffinose, a functional trisaccharide of α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1  6)-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1  2)-β-d-fructofuranoside, is a prebiotic that shows promise for use as a food ingredient.RESULTSIn this study, the production of raffinose from melibiose and sucrose was studied using whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring the levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206. The reaction conditions were optimized for raffinose synthesis. The optimal pH, temperature and washed cell concentration were pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mmol L−1), 55 °C and 3% (w/v), respectively. High substrate concentrations, which led to low water activity and thus reduced levansucrase hydrolysis activity, strongly favored the production of raffinose through the fructosyl transfer reaction. Additionally, high concentrations of excess acceptor and donor glycosides favored raffinose production. When 30% (w/v) sucrose and 30% (w/v) melibiose were catalyzed using 3% (w/v) whole cells at pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mmol L−1) and 55 °C, the highest raffinose yield was 222 g L−1 after a 6 h reaction. The conversion ratio from each substrate to raffinose was 50%.CONCLUSIONRaffinose could be effectively produced with melibiose as an acceptor and with sucrose as a fructosyl donor by whole recombinant E. coli cells harboring C. arbusti levansucrase. The yield from E. coli was significantly higher than those of the previously reported Bacillus subtilis levansucrase and fungal α-galactosidases. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-08T06:35:28.154643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7903
       
  • Gelation properties of myofibrillar protein under malondialdehyde-induced
           oxidative stress
    • Authors: Lin Wang; Min Zhang, Zhongxiang Fang, Bhesh Bhandari
      Pages: 50 - 57
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe structure of myofibrillar protein (MP) can be readily altered by oxidation, leading to the unfolding of MP structure, which further promotes protein–protein interactions, and thus influences the MP gelling properties. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of malondialdehyde-induced oxidative stress on the gelation properties of myofibrillar protein (MP). Structural changes of the oxidised MPs were evaluated by the contents of carbonyl and total sulfhydryls, surface hydrophobicity, SDS-PAGE and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidative stability of the MP gels as indicated by lipid hydroperoxide was also determined.RESULTSWith the addition of an MDA concentration less than 10 mmol L−1, the MP gels showed an improved elasticity, gel strength, water holding capacity, and oxidative stability. Nevertheless, higher MDA concentration (25–50 mmol L−1) significantly reduced the gel quality, probably due to the formation of excessive covalent bonds in the system.CONCLUSIONResults suggested that protein aggregation occurred in the oxidised system. Myosin was involved in gel formation through non-disulfide covalent bond. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:51:13.057354-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7680
       
  • Modified properties of a glycated and cross-linked soy protein isolate by
           transglutaminase and an oligochitosan of 5 kDa
    • Authors: Miao Fu; Xin-Huai Zhao
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSoy protein is an important protein ingredient for the food industry; however, its properties can be improved by enzymatic and chemical modifications. This study applied a new enzymatic glycation and cross-linking to modify soy protein isolate (SPI), using an oligochitosan of 5 kDa and transglutaminase. Properties of the obtained glycated and cross-linked SPI (GC-SPI) were unknown and thus assessed.RESULTSGC-SPI contained glucosamine of 13.6 g kg−1 protein, but less reactable &bond;NH2 than SPI (0.42 vs. 0.50 mol kg−1 protein). Infrared spectra and circular dichroism results showed that GC-SPI other than SPI and cross-linked SPI had more &bond;OH in molecules, and was more disordered in secondary structure. In comparison with SPI, GC-SPI showed enhanced water-binding capacity, could form aggregates with enlarged hydrodynamic radius (180.2 vs. 82.9 nm) and negative zeta-potential (−31.2 vs. −27.7 mV) in dispersion, but exhibited lower thermal stability (e.g. greater mass loss) upon heating at a temperature above 288 °C. GC-SPI also had lower in vitro proteolytic digestibility than SPI due to the protein cross-linking.CONCLUSIONOligochitosan of 5 kDa and transglutaminase can be used to glycate and cross-link SPI. This approach is applicable to generate potential protein ingredient with good hydration and dispersive stabilisation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T04:30:50.266633-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7682
       
  • Grape and environmental mycoflora monitoring in old, traditionally
           cultivated vineyards on Mount Etna, southern Italy
    • Authors: Cinzia Oliveri; Patrizia Bella, Matilde Tessitori, Vittoria Catara, Rosa La Rosa
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGrape contamination by several fungal species occurs during a vineyard's preharvest and harvest. Agronomic management and microclimatic conditions can affect fungi occurrence and epidemiology, thus explaining qualitative differences in mycoflora composition, including the presence of phytopathogenic or mycotoxigenic fungi. In this study a two-year grape, air and soil mycoflora monitoring programme was undertaken in vineyards on Mount Etna (eastern Sicily, Italy). The mycoflora composition was investigated at pea berry and veraison phenological phases from air and soil and at ripening from sample grapes.RESULTSMycoflora in air and soil varied according to the phenological stage. In the air samples, penicillia were dominant over aspergilli at the pea berry phase, but their ratio was inverted at early veraison. Black aspergilli (BA) were isolated from the vine environment and grape samples, where BA were represented mainly by Aspergillus niger aggregate, which showed no or low ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Aspergillus carbonarius was either not identified or identified at low frequency, although most of the isolates produced OTA.CONCLUSIONMonitoring focused on the environmental mycoflora composition and highlighted the good health profile of various Sicilian autochthonous grape cultivars. In addition, data suggest that the lower relative humidity occurring at the highest altitudes reduces BA incidence. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-14T02:10:48.629064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7683
       
  • Meat batter production in an extended vane pump–grinder injecting curing
           salt solutions to reduce energy requirements: variation of curing salt
           amount injected with the solution
    • Authors: Stefan B Irmscher; Eva-Maria Terjung, Monika Gibis, Kurt Herrmann, Reinhard Kohlus, Jochen Weiss
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump–grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0–100%) on protein solubilisation, water-binding, structure, colour and texture of emulsion-type sausages.RESULTSThe amount of myofibrillar protein solubilised during homogenisation varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg−1. Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L* ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a* from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b* from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two-thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump–grinder system by up to 23%.CONCLUSIONThe injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and colour negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an ‘ice-free’ meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-01T07:40:53.013196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7684
       
  • The effect of oregano essential oil on microbial load and sensory
           attributes of dried meat
    • Authors: Helga Hernández; Adéla Fraňková, Tomáš Sýkora, Pavel Klouček, Lenka Kouřimská, Iva Kučerová, Jan Banout
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: BackgroundMicrobial load can be controlled using either synthetic or natural preservatives. Particular interest has been focused on the potential application of plant essential oils as safer additives for meat. However, there is no published research on the use of essential oils during the meat drying process. This study was focused on enhancing the meat drying process by using oregano essential oil (OEO) to inhibit the growth of bacteria and thus obtain a value-added dried meat product. The sensory response from assessors is presented.ResultsIt was found that the application of OEO in meat was effective in inhibiting Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. After 6 h of drying at 55 °C, 2 mL (0.038 mL L−1 air) and 1.5 mL (0.028 mL L−1 air) of OEO were considered as the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. enteritidis and E. coli respectively. Samples treated with 0.75 mL of OEO were more attractive for consumption compared with the control; at a higher concentration of OEO, the sensory quality of the food was affected.ConclusionA value-added dried meat product obtained by using OEO to enhance food safety received an acceptable sensory response from consumers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T02:35:58.326943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7685
       
  • Elicitation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cell
           suspension culture for enhancement of inulin production and altered degree
           of polymerisation
    • Authors: Chunquan Ma; Dong Zhou, Haitao Wang, Dongming Han, Yang Wang, Xiufeng Yan
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPlant cell suspension cultures have emerged as a potential source of secondary metabolites for food additives and pharmaceuticals. In this study inulin accumulation and its degree of polymerisation (DP) in the treated cells in the same medium were investigated after treatment with six types of elicitors.RESULTSAn in vitro cell suspension culture of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was optimised by adding an extra nitrogen source. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 5.48 g L−1 was obtained from the optimal cell suspension medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog basic medium (MS) + 1.0 mg L−1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg L−1 proline + 1.0 mg L−1 glutamine. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 µmol L−1) treatment for 15 days led to the highest levels of inulin (2955.27 ± 9.81 mg L−1 compared to control of 1217.46 ± 0.26 mg L−1). The elicited effect of five elicitors to the suspension cells of Jerusalem artichoke is as follows: AgNO3 (Ag, 10 µmol L−1), salicylic acid (SA, 75 µmol L−1), chitosan (KJT, 40 mg L−1), Trichoderma viride (Tv, 90 mg L−1), yeast extract (YE, 0.25 mg L−1), and the corresponding content of inulin is increased by 2.05-, 1.93-, 1.76-, 1.44- and 1.18-fold compared to control, respectively. The obvious effect on the percentage of lower DP in inulin was observed in cells treated with 40 mg L−1 KJT, 0.25 mg L−1 YE and 10 µmol L−1 Ag.CONCLUSIONSAmong the six types of elicitors, the descending order of inulin content is MeJA > Ag > SA > KJT > Tv > YE. For the purpose inulin with lower DP and its application to prebiotic food, three elicitors, including KJT, YE and Ag, can be used for the elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T05:13:09.838348-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7686
       
  • Heterologous expression and characterisation of the Aspergillus aspartic
           protease involved in the hydrolysis and decolorisation of red-pigmented
           proteins
    • Authors: Shinji Takenaka; Mayo Umeda, Hisanori Senba, Dai Koyama, Kosei Tanaka, Ken-ichi Yoshida, Mikiharu Doi
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAspergillus repens strain MK82 produces an aspartic protease (PepA_MK82) that efficiently decolorises red-pigmented proteins during dried bonito fermentation. However, further expansion of the industrial applications of PepA_MK82 requires the high-level production and efficient preparation of the recombinant enzyme.RESULTSThe genomic DNA and cDNA fragments encoding the protease were cloned from strain MK82 and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of PepA_MK82 and comparisons with previously reported fungal aspartic proteases showed that PepA_MK 82 clusters with different groups of these enzymes. Heterologous expression of PepA_MK82 in Pichia pastoris yielded preparations of higher purity than obtained with an Escherichia coli expression system. Total protease activity in a 100-mL culture of the P. pastoris transformant was 14 times higher than that from an equivalent culture of A. repense MK82. The recombinant PepA_MK82 was easily obtained via acetone precipitation; the final recovery was 83%. PepA_MK82 and its recombinant had similar characteristics in terms of their optimal pH, thermostability, and decolorisation activity. The recombinant was also able to decolorise flaked, dried bonito and to bleach a blood-stained cloth.CONCLUSIONGiven its ability to hydrolyse and decolorise red-pigmented proteins, recombinant PepA_MK8 can be exploited in the food industry and as a stain-removal agent in laundry applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T03:21:18.934867-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7688
       
  • Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in sunflower
           oil
    • Authors: Elisabetta Bravi; Giuseppe Perretti, Caterina Falconi, Ombretta Marconi, Paolo Fantozzi
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLipid oxidation causes changes in quality attributes of vegetable oils. Synthetic antioxidants have been used to preserve oils; however, there is interest in replacing them with natural ones. Garlic and its thiosulfinate compound allicin are known for their antioxidant activities. This study assesses a novel formulation, the supercritical fluid extract of garlic, on sunflower oil oxidation during an accelerated shelf-life test.RESULTSThree quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide values, and p-anisidine values) were evaluated in each of the six oil samples. The samples included sunflower oil alone, sunflower oil supplemented with BHT, the undiluted supercritical fluid extract of garlic, and sunflower oils supplemented with three levels of garlic extract. The oils were also investigated for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH and the FRAP assays. The results were compared with the effect of the synthetic BHT. Our results underlined that the highest level of garlic extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving sunflower oil.CONCLUSIONThe oxidative degradation of oily samples can be limited by using supercritical fluid extract of garlic as it is a safe and an effective natural antioxidant formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-01T07:55:47.407794-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7690
       
  • Crystalline, thermal and swelling properties of starches from
           single-segment substitution lines with different Wx alleles in rice (Oryza
           sativa L.)
    • Authors: Bin Teng; Ying Zhang, Shiyun Du, Jingde Wu, Zefu Li, Zhixiang Luo, Jianbo Yang
      Pages: 108 - 114
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn rice, five common Wx alleles, wx, Wxt, Wxg1, Wxg2 and Wxg3, have been identified according to their apparent amylose content (AAC) phenotypes. Previous studies revealed that this Wx allelic variation may also affect other starch properties. However, so far, to what extent the five Wx alleles influence the crystalline structure, thermal and swelling properties of rice starch is still unclear. For this purpose, a set of single-segment substitution lines (SSSLs) harboring five different Wx alleles, varying widely in AAC, was used for comparative studies.RESULTSThe crystalline structure, thermal properties and swelling behavior of starches from the SSSLs varied widely depending on Wx genotype. Effects of different Wx alleles on relative crystallinity followed the order wx > Wxt > Wxg1 = Wxg2 > Wxg3. The glutinous and Wxt genotype starches showed higher gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy compared with other Wx genotypes. The order for swelling power was wx > Wxt > Wxg1 > Wxg2 > Wxg3, while the order for degree of solubility was Wxg3 > Wxg1 > Wxg2 > Wxt = wx. Correlation analysis indicated that AAC was significantly and negatively correlated with relative crystallinity (r = −0.996, P < 0.01) and swelling power (r = −0.982, P < 0.01).CONCLUSIONThe present results provide new knowledge about the influence of different Wx alleles on the structural and physicochemical properties of rice starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T03:00:55.204893-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7693
       
  • Specification of a new de-stoner machine: evaluation of machining effects
           on olive paste's rheology and olive oil yield and quality
    • Authors: Roberto Romaniello; Alessandro Leone, Antonia Tamborrino
      Pages: 115 - 121
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn industrial prototype of a partial de-stoner machine was specified, built and implemented in an industrial olive oil extraction plant. The partial de-stoner machine was compared to the traditional mechanical crusher to assess its quantitative and qualitative performance. The extraction efficiency of the olive oil extraction plant, olive oil quality, sensory evaluation and rheological aspects were investigated.RESULTSThe results indicate that by using the partial de-stoner machine the extraction plant did not show statistical differences with respect to the traditional mechanical crushing. Moreover, the partial de-stoner machine allowed recovery of 60% of olive pits and the oils obtained were characterised by more marked green fruitiness, flavour and aroma than the oils produced using the traditional processing systems.CONCLUSIONThe partial de-stoner machine removes the limitations of the traditional total de-stoner machine, opening new frontiers for the recovery of pits to be used as biomass. Moreover, the partial de-stoner machine permitted a significant reduction in the viscosity of the olive paste. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-01T05:06:09.991966-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7694
       
  • Over-expression of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucanase isoenzyme EII gene results in
           decreased (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan content and increased starch level in
           barley grains
    • Authors: Ning Han; Chenglong Na, Yuqiong Chai, Jianshu Chen, Zhongbo Zhang, Bin Bai, Hongwu Bian, Yuhong Zhang, Muyuan Zhu
      Pages: 122 - 127
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh content of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan in barley grains is regarded as an undesirable factor affecting malting potential, brewing yield and feed utilization. Production of thermostable bacterial (1,3;1,4)-β-glucanase in transgenic barley grain or supplementation of exogenous bacterial (1,3;1,4)-β-glucanase has been used to improve malt and feed quality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of over-expression of an endogenous (1,3;1,4)-β-glucanase on β-glucan content and grain composition in barley.RESULTSA construct containing full-length HvGlb2 cDNA encoding barley (1,3;1,4)-β-glucanase isoenzyme EII under the control of a promoter of barley D-Hordein gene Hor3-1 was introduced into barley cultivar Golden Promise via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and transgenic plants were regenerated after hygromycin selection. The T2 generation of proHor3:HvGlb2 transgenic lines showed increased activity of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucanase in grains. Total β-glucan content was reduced by more than 95.73% in transgenic grains compared with the wild-type control. Meanwhile, over-expression of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucanase led to an increase in 1000-grain weight, which might be due to elevated amounts of starch in the grain.CONCLUSIONManipulating the expression of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucanase EII can control the β-glucan content in grain with no apparent harmful effects on grain quality of transgenic plants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:31:09.352951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7695
       
  • Effect of corona discharge plasma jet on surface-borne microorganisms and
           sprouting of broccoli seeds
    • Authors: Je-Wook Kim; Pradeep Puligundla, Chulkyoon Mok
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDifferent pathogenic microorganisms have been reported to cause sprouts-associated outbreaks. In order to sterilise and enhance the germination of seeds, non-thermal plasma has been increasingly investigated in the field of agricultural science as an alternative to the traditional pre-sowing seed treatments. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) on disinfection of the natural bio-contaminants of broccoli seed and also studied the plasma effect on sprout seed germination rate and physico-chemical properties of sprouts.RESULTSAerobic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, B. cereus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. were detected on the broccoli seed surface. After 0–3 min treatment using CDPJ, the detected microorganisms were reduced in the range of 1.2–2.3 log units. Inactivation patterns were better explained using pseudo-first-order kinetics. The plasma treatment of seeds up to 2 min exhibited a positive effect on germination rate, seedling growth. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of sprouts were unaffected due to the CDPJ treatment of their respective seeds.CONCLUSIONCorona discharge plasma jet can potentially be used for microbial decontamination of broccoli seeds. In addition, the plasma treatment of broccoli sprout seeds has enabled a significant enhancement in their germination rate and seedling growth without compromising physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of their corresponding sprouts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T08:51:45.839478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7698
       
  • Changes in volatile profile of soybean residue (okara) upon solid-state
           fermentation by yeasts
    • Authors: Weng Chan Vong; Shao-Quan Liu
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: BackgroundSoybean residue (okara), a by-product of soymilk, is produced in large volumes by the soy food industry and is often discarded due to its undesirable flavour. As it contains a considerable amount of protein and fats, biotransformation of okara to improve its flavour presents an opportunity for alternative utilisation. This paper evaluated 10 yeasts in the solid-state fermentation of okara based on their volatile profiles as analysed with HS-SPME GC-MS/FID. Four ‘dairy yeasts’ (Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces lactis) and six ‘wine yeasts’ (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Williopsis saturnus) were studied.ResultsThe main off-odourants in okara, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, significantly decreased after fermentation due to their bioconversion into methyl ketones and/or esters. The okara fermented by dairy yeasts contained greater proportions of methyl ketones, while that by wine yeasts contained more ethyl and acetyl esters. Notably, the okara fermented by W. saturnus contained 13 esters and the total GC-FID peak area of esters was about 380 times that in fresh okara, leading to a perceptible fruity note.ConclusionOkara can be exploited as an inexpensive substrate for bioflavour extraction and/or a more pleasant food ingredient via yeast fermentation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-01T05:43:37.503474-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7700
       
  • Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the amino acid digestibility of
           different triticale genotypes in caecectomised laying hens
    • Authors: Wolfgang Siegert; Jeannette Boguhn, Hans Peter Maurer, Jochen Weiss, Tobias Zuber, Jens Möhring, Markus Rodehutscord
      Pages: 144 - 150
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe influence of nitrogen fertilisation and genotype on the amino acid (AA) digestibility of triticale grain was investigated in caecectomised laying hens. Three genotypes, Grenado, EAW6002 and Lasko, were cultivated with and without nitrogen fertilisation at the end of the heading stage. The six triticale variants as well as a basal diet were each used to feed seven laying hens in a 7 × 7 Latin square design.RESULTSNitrogen fertilisation influenced the digestibility of Cys, Glu, Phe and Ser in some triticale genotypes and reduced Ala, Ile, Lys, Met and Val digestibility in all genotypes (P < 0.05). Nitrogen fertilisation increased the concentration of all AAs in the grain. Consequently, the concentration of digestible AAs in the grains was increased for most AAs upon nitrogen fertilisation. Overall, Lys had the lowest digestibility, whereas that of Glu and Pro was the highest. For the triticale genotypes, the level of AA digestibility was highest for EAW6002 followed by Lasko and Grenado, with significant differences (P < 0.05) between genotypes for some but not all AAs.CONCLUSIONThe results indicated that the accuracy of the digestible AA supply for hen feeding might benefit from considering fertilisation and genotype-specific digestibility data in feed formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T01:41:11.473132-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7701
       
  • Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein
           isolate and comparison of its physico-chemical properties with commercial
           animal and plant protein isolates
    • Authors: Ângela A Nunes; Simone P Favaro, Cesar H B Miranda, Valdir A Neves
      Pages: 151 - 157
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry.RESULTSBPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has a well-conserved protein arrangement and lower thermostability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mild and neutral pH.CONCLUSIONBPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or in the development of new products of its own. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:50:52.170976-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7702
       
  • Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping
    • Authors: Esteban Vicente; Gastón Ares, Gustavo Rodríguez, Pablo Varela, Franco Bologna, Joanna Lado
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIncreasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climates has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers' expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost-effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective.RESULTSWith the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified.CONCLUSIONSThe evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost-effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:45:48.981883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7704
       
  • A new genotype of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with decreased
           susceptibility to fat oxidation: consequences to hematological and
           biochemical profiles of blood indices
    • Authors: Bożena Króliczewska; Dorota Miśta, Jarosław Króliczewski, Wojciech Zawadzki, Rafał Kubaszewski, Edyta Wincewicz, Magdalena Żuk, Jan Szopa
      Pages: 165 - 171
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFlaxseed is an alternative to marine products that provide the traditional dietary sources of ω-fatty acids. A new genotype of flax, W92, is rich in natural antioxidants as well as having a reduced content of α-linolenic acid and therefore shows decreased susceptibility to fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a diet supplemented with W92 flaxseed on hematological and biochemical blood indices.RESULTSA positive impact of diet with the addition of flaxseed was observed on erythrocyte indices, including red blood cell (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values. There were no significant differences for white blood cell (WBC), total protein and glucose values. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase estimations in serum were also carried out and no obvious toxicity to the liver was shown. Moreover, a lipid profile was performed in serum samples and a decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), accompanied by an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was observed in rabbits fed flaxseed diets.CONCLUSIONBased on the results obtained, it appeared that the inclusion of a new genetically modified type of flaxseed in the diet altered cholesterol metabolism and could reduce the possibility of cardiovascular diseases. Diet enrichment with W92 flaxseed may be a solution to the health issues that are a result of improper diet in humans and animals. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:40:47.111841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7705
       
  • The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on
           the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model
           wine solution and red wine
    • Authors: Elena González-Royo; Mireia Esteruelas, Nikolaos Kontoudakis, Francesca Fort, Joan Miquel Canals, Fernando Zamora
      Pages: 172 - 181
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved.RESULTSThe results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent.CONCLUSIONIt can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T03:01:52.251086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7706
       
  • Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch–aroma
           compound inclusion complexes
    • Authors: Shu Zhang; Yibin Zhou, Shanshan Jin, Xin Meng, Liping Yang, Haisong Wang
      Pages: 182 - 190
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSix corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes.RESULTSThe resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm−1 and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch–polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS 13C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes.CONCLUSIONSmall nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-09T02:25:39.179461-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7707
       
  • Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen yeast-dough with added
           wheat fiber
    • Authors: Vivian Adams; Sanaa M Ragaee, El-Sayed M Abdel-Aal
      Pages: 191 - 198
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe rheological characteristics of frozen dough are of great importance in bread-making quality. The effect of addition of commercial wheat aleurone and bran on rheological properties and final bread quality of frozen dough was studied. Wheat aleurone (A) and bran (B) containing 240 g kg−1 and 200 g kg−1 arabinoxylan (AX), respectively, were incorporated into refined wheat flour at 150 g kg−1 substitution level (composite A and B, respectively). Dough samples of composite A and B in addition to two reference dough samples, refined flour (ref A) and whole wheat flour (ref B) were stored at −18°C for 9 weeks.RESULTFrozen stored composite dough samples contained higher amounts of bound water, less freezable water and exhibited fewer modifications in gluten network during frozen storage based on data from differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bread made from composite frozen dough had higher loaf volume compared to ref A or ref B throughout the storage period.CONCLUSIONThe incorporation of wheat fiber into refined wheat flour produced dough with minimum alterations in its rheological properties during 9 weeks of frozen storage compared to refined and 100% wheat flour dough samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T04:10:43.578693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7710
       
  • Enzymatic characterisation of the immobilised Alcalase to hydrolyse egg
           white protein for potential allergenicity reduction
    • Authors: Anshu Yang; Caiyun Long, Jiaheng Xia, Ping Tong, Youfei Cheng, Yan Wang, Hongbing Chen
      Pages: 199 - 206
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study examined technique characteristics of the immobilised Alcalase to hydrolyse egg white protein for potential allergenicity reduction. Alcalase was immobilised covalently on carboxyl-functionalised magnetic beads by carbodiimide activation. The technique characteristics of the immobilised Alcalase were investigated, followed by determining the degrees of hydrolysis (DH), immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding, and IgE binding of the digested egg white protein by immobilised Alcalase.RESULTSEnzymatic activity, enzyme loading, and immobilisation yield of the prepared immobilised Alcalase were 20.55 U mg−1, 925 mg g−1, and 45%, respectively. Immobilised Alcalase showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 60 °C. Compared with free Alcalase, immobilised Alcalase exhibited better thermal and storage stability. Moreover, immobilised Alcalase can be reused 10 times and still maintained 55% of its initial activity. Partial hydrolysis of egg white protein by immobilised Alcalase can effectively reduce IgG and IgE binding of the hydrolysates.CONCLUSIONThis study indicates that the immobilised Alcalase can be used to hydrolyse continuously egg white protein for potential allergenicity reduction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T01:40:53.364799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7712
       
  • Actein protects against methylglyoxal-induced oxidative damage in
           osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells
    • Authors: Kwang Sik Suh; Suk Chon, Eun Mi Choi
      Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMethylglyoxal (MG) is an endogenous product of glucose metabolism known to be toxic to cells and to be present in elevated concentrations under certain pathophysiological conditions. In the present study the effect of actein isolated from black cohosh on MG-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.RESULTSTreatment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells with actein prevented MG-induced cell death and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, inflammatory cytokines and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE). In addition, actein increased the activity of glyoxalase I and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). These findings suggest that actein protects against MG-induced cell damage by reducing oxidative stress and increasing MG detoxification. Treatment with actein prior to MG exposure reduced MG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) loss. Additionally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased by actein, suggesting that actein may induce mitochondrial biogenesis.CONCLUSIONThis study demonstrates that actein reduces MG-induced damage in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by enhancing antioxidant defenses, the glyoxalase system and mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:55:46.315397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7713
       
  • Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction
           residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini)
    • Authors: Anthi Evlogimenou; Adamantini Paraskevopoulou, Vassilios Kiosseoglou
      Pages: 215 - 221
      Abstract: BackgroundSesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study.ResultsThe extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders.ConclusionThe intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:35:54.948737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7714
       
  • Valorisation of untreated cane molasses for enhanced phytase production by
           Bacillus subtilis K46b and its potential role in dephytinisation
    • Authors: Karim Rocky-Salimi; Maryam Hashemi, Mohammad Safari, Maryam Mousivand
      Pages: 222 - 229
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe high cost of phytase production is the most limiting factor in its application in animal feeds. The present study aimed to develop a low-cost medium for production of a novel phytase in submerged fermentation using inexpensive agro-industrial by-products. The applicability of phytase in dephytinisation of commonly used food/feed ingredients, i.e. soybean meal and wheat bran, was also investigated.RESULTSUsing a one-factor-at-a-time approach, soybean meal and cane molasses were identified as significant agro-industrial by-products and these factors were subsequently optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was employed to further enhance phytase yield. Under optimum conditions of soybean meal 22.3 g L−1, cane molasses 100 g L−1 and 39 h fermentation, phytase production increased to 56.562 U mL−1, indicating more than 28-fold enhancement. The enzyme efficiently dephytinised wheat bran and soybean meal after 24 h incubation at 56.5 °C and increased inorganic phosphate content by 240% and 155%, respectively.CONCLUSIONSoybean meal and cane molasses were successfully used for enhancement of phytase production as economical carbon, nitrogen and phytic acid sources using RSM. The phytase showed a good capability to dephytinise wheat bran and soybean meal, demonstrating that the enzyme can be considered as a potential candidate for industrial food and feed applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:36:11.812483-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7716
       
  • Iodide and iodate effects on the growth and fruit quality of strawberry
    • Authors: Rui Li; Hui-Ping Liu, Chun-Lai Hong, Zi-Xi Dai, Jia-Wei Liu, Jun Zhou, Chun-Qing Hu, Huan-Xin Weng
      Pages: 230 - 235
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIodine deficiency is an environmental health problem affecting one-third of the global population. An iodine biofortification hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the iodide and iodate uptake characteristics of strawberry plants, to measure the dosage effects of iodine on plant growth and to evaluate the influence of I− or IO3− application on fruit quality.RESULTSAfter biofortification, the iodine contents of the fresh strawberry fruits were 600–4000 µg kg−1, covering the WHO dietary iodine allowance of 150 µg · day−1 for adults. The iodine uptake of the strawberry plants increased with increasing I− or IO3− concentration of the culture solution. At the same iodine concentration, the iodate uptakes of various plant organs under I− treatments were apparently more than those under IO3− treatments. Low-level exogenous iodine (I− ≤ 0.25 mg L−1 or IO3− ≤ 0.50 mg L−1) not only promoted plant growth and increased biomass per plant, but also improved fruit quality by enhancing the vitamin C and soluble sugar contents of the strawberry fruits. Nevertheless, excessive exogenous iodine inhibited plant growth and reduced biomass per plant. IO3− uptake apparently increased the total acidity and nitrate content of the fruits, reducing the quality of the strawberry fruits. Conversely, I− uptake obviously decreased the total acidity and nitrate content of the strawberry fruits, improving the fruit quality.CONCLUSIONThe strawberry can be used as a target crop for iodine biofortification. Furthermore, applying an appropriate dose of KI can improve the fruit quality of the strawberry plants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-28T02:11:10.386201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7719
       
  • Influence of genetic and vintage factors in flavan-3-ol composition of
           grape seeds of a segregating Vitis vinifera population
    • Authors: Maria M Hernández; Shiren Song, Cristina M Menéndez
      Pages: 236 - 243
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFlavan-3-ol compounds are important secondary metabolites which show high antioxidant activity and are responsible for bitterness and astringency of food products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential for selecting grape materials with higher seed flavanol content from a breeding population. The composition and content of flavan-3-ols from 151 genotypes obtained from crossing wine grape varieties was evaluated by UPLC in three consecutive years.RESULTSChromatograms of flavan-3-ol compounds showed the same 12 compounds for all samples, but quantitative differences were observed between genotypes as well as parental varieties. The most abundant compounds were (−)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin followed by proanthocyanidins A2 and B2. Progeny showed higher values than the parental genotypes for every detected compound indicating directional transgressive segregation. With these results genotypes with as much as five times more flavanols than their parents could be identified. The year effect was significant; however, high correlations between years for each compound indicated that there is a strong genetic component in the determination of flavanol content.CONCLUSIONHigher contents of seed flavan-3-ols can be obtained by hybridisation, and those genotypes could be used for extracting healthy phytochemicals, adding value to seeds as a sub-product in wine elaboration. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T02:46:42.158827-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7720
       
  • Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in
           combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus
           
    • Authors: Hanne Damgaard Poulsen; Karoline Blaabjerg
      Pages: 244 - 251
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB).RESULTSProtein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB > RSM > SFM > FB) was greatest from day 0 to day 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility, while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility.CONCLUSIONFermentation of RSM, SFM, FB and RSM/SFM/FB without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T02:55:42.356894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7721
       
  • Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active
           modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety
           of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante)
    • Authors: Elena Sanchís; Christian Ghidelli, Chirag C Sheth, Milagros Mateos, Lluís Palou, María B Pérez-Gago
      Pages: 252 - 260
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut ‘Rojo Brillante’ persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL−1 nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg−1 citric acid and 10 g kg−1 calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage.RESULTSCoating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes.CONCLUSIONThe combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T03:41:16.720938-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7722
       
  • Effects of pulsed light treatments and pectin edible coatings on the
           quality of fresh-cut apples: a hurdle technology approach
    • Authors: María R Moreira; María V Álvarez, Olga Martín-Belloso, Robert Soliva-Fortuny
      Pages: 261 - 268
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPulsed light (PL) treatments stand as an alternative for the shelf-life extension of fresh-cut products. The antimicrobial effects of PL are well known; however, its influence on quality attributes needs to be assessed. This study was aimed at evaluating the application of PL treatments in combination with pectin-based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber for the preservation of fresh-cut apples.RESULTSDipping of fresh-cut apples in ascorbic acid/calcium chloride solution prior to pectin coating and PL treatments was effective to minimize browning and softening of apple surfaces. Incorporation of fiber in the pectin coating did not cause any change in microbial loads and sensory acceptability of apple cubes. Pectin-coated PL-treated apple pieces exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity values than fresh and PL control samples. At the end of storage, the combination of both treatments resulted in an almost 2 log CFU g−1 reduction of microbial counts. Sensory attribute scores did not fall below the rejection limit throughout 14 days, although the presence of off-odors limited the acceptability of the pectin-coated samples.CONCLUSIONThe results demonstrate that PL treatments applied to pectin-coated fresh-cut apples may be used to maintain quality attributes, thus conferring prebiotic potential and extending the shelf-life of the product. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-28T02:16:02.114695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7723
       
  • Effect of different production techniques on bioactive compounds and
           antioxidant capacity of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) and durum
           (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) bulgur
    • Authors: Volkan Arif Yilmaz; Ahmet Faik Koca
      Pages: 269 - 277
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe influence of cooking (traditional, microwave, autoclave) and drying techniques (microwave and hot air) on bioactive compounds in the production of einkorn and durum bulgur were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC), total yellow pigment (TYP), total antioxidant capacity (DPPH•, ABTS•+, FRAP), soluble free (SF), soluble conjugated (SC) and insoluble bound (IB) phenolic acid contents of the samples were determined.RESULTSFor both wheats, a significant amount of antioxidant capacity was preserved after bulgur production. TPC was found to be higher in einkorn but it was exposed to greater loss during bulgur production than durum. The amount of TYP was found to be two-fold higher in einkorn than in durum. Ferulic acid was recorded as the most phenolic acid, and chlorogenic was the least phenolic acid in both wheats. The maximum loss during bulgur production was determined in the SC fraction for einkorn and in the SF fraction for durum.CONCLUSIONIn respect of the results of the analysis, microwave cooking + hot air drying treatment could be favourable for bulgur production for both wheats. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T03:20:45.797743-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7724
       
  • Contrasting effects of EDTA applications on the fluxes of methane and
           nitrous oxide emissions from straw-treated rice paddy soils
    • Authors: Prabhat Pramanik; Pil Joo Kim
      Pages: 278 - 283
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSubmerged rice paddy soils are the major anthropogenic source of methane (CH4) emission to the atmosphere. Straw incorporation for sustaining soil organic C pool increases CH4 emission flux from rice paddy soils. Though the rate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission is much less than CH4, the former has 298 times higher global warming potential (GWP) than equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide. The effect of chelating agents, such as EDTA, on N2O emission and on GWP due to CH4 and N2O emissions has not been evaluated before.RESULTSThe emission of CH4 gas from submerged soil may be mitigated by EDTA application; however, it also increases concentration of nitrate-N in soil, the precursor of N2O gas formation under anaerobic condition. In this experiment, irrespective of straw application, EDTA-treated soils emitted less CH4 to the atmosphere than the corresponding control. Though N2O emission was increased from soil due to EDTA applications, total GWP was at least 15% reduced in EDTA treated soils during rice cultivation. The plant growth and rice grain yield was not affected by EDTA application.CONCLUSIONEDTA application at 5.0 ppm might be used to reduce total global warming potential during rice cultivation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-25T03:42:54.654238-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7727
       
  • Comparative study on fermentation performance in the genome shuffled
           Candida versatilis and wild-type salt tolerant yeast strain
    • Authors: Wei Qi; Hong-Lian Guo, Chun-Ling Wang, Li-Hua Hou, Xiao-Hong Cao, Jin-Fu Liu, Fu-Ping Lu
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe fermentation performance of a genome-shuffled strain of Candida versatilis S3-5, isolated for improved tolerance to salt, and wild-type (WT) strain were analysed. The fermentation parameters, such as growth, reducing sugar, ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds, were detected during soy sauce fermentation process.RESULTSThe results showed that ethanol produced by the genome shuffled strain S3-5 was increasing at a faster rate and to a greater extent than WT. At the end of the fermentation, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid formed in tricarboxylic acid cycle after S3-5 treatment elevated by 39.20%, 6.85% and 17.09% compared to WT, respectively. Moreover, flavour compounds such as phenethyl acetate, ethyl vanillate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl myristate, ethyl pentadecanoate, ethyl palmitate and phenylacetaldehyde produced by S3-5 were 2.26, 2.12, 2.87, 34.41, 6.32, 13.64, 2.23 and 78.85 times as compared to WT.CONCLUSIONSS3-5 exhibited enhanced metabolic ability as compared to the wild-type strain, improved conversion of sugars to ethanol, metabolism of organic acid and formation of volatile compounds, especially esters, Moreover, S3-5 might be an ester-flavour type salt-tolerant yeast. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:15:52.485783-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7728
       
  • Shelf-life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts during
           refrigerated storage
    • Authors: Yingchang Li; Zhongyan Yang, Jianrong Li
      Pages: 291 - 298
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDShrimp is a low-fat, high-protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L−1 polyphenols, and 8 g L−1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), K-value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation.RESULTSThe results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K-value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf-life of shrimp by 3–4 days compared with the control group.CONCLUSIONPP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T03:50:52.230506-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7730
       
  • Functional, bioactive and antigenicity properties of blue whiting protein
           hydrolysates: effect of enzymatic treatment and degree of hydrolysis
    • Authors: Pedro J García-Moreno; Raúl Pérez-Gálvez, F Javier Espejo-Carpio, Cristina Ruiz-Quesada, Ana I Pérez-Morilla, Olga Martínez-Agustín, Antonio Guadix, Emilia M Guadix
      Pages: 299 - 308
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFish discards represent an important under-utilisation of marine resources. This study evaluated the up-grading of the protein fraction of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) discards by the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) exhibiting functional, antioxidant, angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antigenicity properties.RESULTSFPHs with low DH (4%) showed better emulsifying, foaming and oil binding capacities, particularly those obtained using only trypsin. FPHs with DH 4% exhibited also the stronger antioxidant activity, especially the one obtained using only subtilisin (IC50 = 1.36 mg protein mL−1). The presence of hydrophobic residues at the C-terminal of the FPH produced using subtilisin also led to the stronger ACE-inhibitory activity. However, FPHs with high DH (12%), which implies a higher proportion of short peptides, was required to enhance ACE-inhibition (IC50 = 172 µg protein mL−1). The antigenic levels of the FPH were also reduced with DH independently of the enzymatic treatment. Nevertheless, the highest degradation of fish allergens (e.g. parvalbumin) was also obtained when using only subtilisin.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that added-value products for food applications can be produced from the protein fraction of discards. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T03:40:48.536805-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7731
       
  • Influence of gas–liquid two-phase flow on angiotensin-I converting
           enzyme inhibitory peptides separation by ultra-filtration
    • Authors: Narin Charoenphun; Wirote Youravong
      Pages: 309 - 316
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMembrane fouling is a major problem in ultra-filtration systems and two-phase flow is a promising technique for permeate flux enhancement. The objective of this research was to study the use of an ultra-filtration (UF) system to enrich angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from tilapia protein hydrolysate. To select the most appropriate membrane and operating condition, the effects of membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), transmembrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV) on permeate flux and ACE inhibitory peptide separation were studied. Additionally, the gas–liquid two-phase flow technique was applied to investigate its effect on the process capability.RESULTSThe results showed that the highest ACE inhibitory activity was obtained from permeate of the 1 kDa membrane. In terms of TMP and CFV, the permeate flux tended to increase with TMP and CFV. The use of gas–liquid two-phase flow as indicated by shear stress number could reduce membrane fouling and increase the permeate flux up to 42%, depending on shear stress number. Moreover, the use of a shear stress number of 0.039 led to an augmentation in ACE inhibitory activity of permeates.CONCLUSIONSOperating conditions using a shear stress number of 0.039 were recommended for enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T02:41:09.054533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7732
       
  • Detection of aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using
           Fourier transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy
    • Authors: Efkan Durmuş; Ali Güneş, Habil Kalkan
      Pages: 317 - 323
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAflatoxins are toxic metabolites that are mainly produced by members of the Aspergillus section Flavi on many agricultural products. Certain agricultural products such as figs are known to be high risk products for aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contaminated figs may show a bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 365 nm. Traditionally, BGYF positive figs are manually selected by workers. However, manual selection depends on the expertise level of the workers and it may cause them skin-related health problems due to UV radiation.RESULTSIn this study, we propose a non-invasive approach to detect aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. A classification accuracy of 100% is achieved for classifying the figs into aflatoxin contaminated/uncontaminated and surface mould contaminated/uncontaminated categories. In addition, a strong correlation has been found between aflatoxin and surface mould.CONCLUSIONCombined with pattern classification methods, the NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect aflatoxin contaminated figs non-invasively. Furthermore, a positive correlation between surface mould and aflatoxin contamination leads to a promising alternative indicator for the detection of aflatoxin-contaminated figs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T02:06:01.468044-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7735
       
  • Oxidation–reduction potential and lipid oxidation in ready-to-eat blue
           mussels in red sauce: criteria for package design
    • Authors: Kanishka Bhunia; Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Barbara Rasco, Juming Tang, Shyam S Sablani
      Pages: 324 - 332
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDReady-to-eat in-package pasteurized blue mussels in red sauce requires refrigerated storage or in combination with an aerobic environment to prevent the growth of anaerobes. A low barrier packaging may create an aerobic environment; however, it causes lipid oxidation in mussels. Thus, evaluation of the oxidation–reduction potential (Eh) (aerobic/anaerobic nature of food) and lipid oxidation is essential. Three packaging materials with oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 62 (F-62), 40 (F-40) and 3 (F-3) cm3 m−2 day−1 were selected for this study. Lipid oxidation was measured by color changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 532 nm (TBARS@532) and 450 nm (TBARS@450).RESULTSSignificantly higher (P < 0.05) TBARS@532 was found in mussels packaged in higher OTR film. TBARS@450 in mussels packaged with F-62 and F-40 gradually increased during refrigerated storage (3.5 ± 0.5 °C), but remained constant after 20 days of storage for mussels packaged with F-3. The Eh of pasteurized sauce was not significantly affected (P > 0.05) by OTR and remained negative (< −80 mV) during storage. Negative Eh values can support the growth of anaerobes such as Clostridium botulinum. The headspace oxygen concentration was reduced by about 50% from its initial value during pasteurization, and then further declined during storage. The headspace oxygen concentration was higher in trays packaged with higher OTR film.CONCLUSIONMussels packed with high OTR film showed higher lipid oxidation, indicating that high barrier film is required for packaging of mussels. Pasteurized mussels must be kept in refrigerated storage to prevent growth of anaerobic proteolytic C. botulinum spores under temperature abuse. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T02:56:06.749681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7738
       
  • Safety assessment of selected medicinal food plants used in Ayurveda
           through CYP450 enzyme inhibition study
    • Authors: Amit Kar; Subrata Pandit, Kakali Mukherjee, Shiv Bahadur, Pulok K Mukherjee
      Pages: 333 - 340
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAndrographis paniculata, Bacopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are mentioned in Ayurveda for the management of neurodegenerative disorders. These plants and their phytomolecules, such as andrographolide, bacoside A and asiaticoside, were studied for their inhibition potential on pooled CYP450 as well as human CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2 by CYP-CO complex assay and fluorogenic assay respectively followed by IC50 determination. Quantification of bioactive compounds present in the extracts was done by RP-HPLC. Heavy metal content in the selected medicinal plants was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy.RESULTCYP-CO complex assay indicated significantly less inhibition potential than standard inhibitor (P < 0.05 and above). A. paniculata showed highest inhibitory activity against CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 (IC50 = 63.06 ± 1.35 µg mL−1; 88.80 ± 3.32 µg mL−1), whereas C. asiatica and B. monnieri showed least inhibitory activity against CYP1A2 (IC50 = 288.83 ± 1.61 µg mL−1) and CYP2C9 (184.68 ± 3.79 µg mL−1), respectively. In all cases the extract showed higher inhibition than the single bioactive compounds. The heavy metals content in the plant extracts were within the permissible limits.CONCLUSIONThe findings suggested that selected food plants and bioactive compounds contributed negligible interaction potential with CYP isozymes and may not possess any harmful effect with regard to their therapeutic application. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-09T02:51:11.746742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7739
       
  • Improving the emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin–wild almond gum
           (Amygdalus scoparia Spach) exudate complexes by heat
    • Authors: Abdolkhalegh Golkar; Ali Nasirpour, Javad Keramat
      Pages: 341 - 349
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aims to investigate the advantageous effects of wet heating, BLG (β-lactoglobulin)/Ang (Angum gum) ratio, and pH (normal pH of mixed BLG and Ang solutions, pHc > pH > pHΦ1) on the emulsifying properties of wet-heated β-lactoglobulin–wild almond gum exudate (Amygdalus scoparia Spach) mixture over those of electrostatic counterparts.RESULTSCovalent linkage of BLG-Ang conjugates was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and FTIR analysis. Emulsion activity (EA), emulsion stability (ES), and droplet size characteristics of emulsions were significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) affected by electrostatic/wet-heating, biopolymer ratio, pH, and their interactions. The electrostatic complexes with pHc > pH > pHΦ1 exhibited higher EA and ES values for all the biopolymer ratios investigated than their electrostatic counterparts with pH after mixing. However, these values for the wet-heated samples at pH after mixing were found to be higher than those of the samples subjected to heat treatment at pHc > pH > pHΦ1. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that E/1:2/3.80 and W/1:2/6.69 were the two complexes with finer droplet size distributions after preparation (26.72 ± 3.71 and 15.27 ± 1.01 µm, respectively) and after one week of storage at 4 °C (30.71 ± 1.57 and 28.79 ± 0.56 µm, respectively) than others. Apparent viscosities of electrostatic and wet-heated complexes and emulsions made with the complexes were measured.CONCLUSIONProtein–polysaccharide interactions can be used as an efficient way for producing novel emulsifiers/stabilisers after heat treatment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T02:00:25.958526-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7741
       
  • Protection of sunflower seed and sunflower meal protein with malic acid
           
    • Authors: Jorge Leonardo Vanegas; Maria Dolores Carro, Maria Remedios Alvir, Javier González
      Pages: 350 - 356
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCombined malic acid–heat treatments of protein supplements have been shown to reduce ruminal protein degradation, but there is no information on their possible influence on ruminal fermentation and methane emissions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) with malic acid and subsequent drying at 150°C for 1 (MAL1) or 3 h (MAL3) on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane emission using ruminal fluid from sheep as inoculum.RESULTSCompared with untreated samples, the MAL3 treatment reduced (P < 0.05) the dry matter effective degradability (DMED) by 78% and 46% for SS and SM, respectively, indicating heat damage. The MAL1 treatment reduced the DMED of SS by 22%, but did not affect (P > 0.05) total volatile fatty acid production for any feed. This treatment also increased (P < 0.05) the propionate proportion (by 17.7% and 15.6% for SS and SM, respectively) and decreased (P < 0.05) methane production (by 15.5% and 11.3%, respectively) and ammonia-N concentrations (by 26.5% and 14.5%, respectively).CONCLUSIONThe MAL1 treatment was effective in reducing both ammonia-N concentrations and methane emissions without depressing SS and SM fermentation, but more research is needed to formulate environmentally cleaner diets for ruminants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-18T09:08:30.566962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7743
       
  • Rapid screening of Alternaria mycotoxins using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Kumaran Sivagnanam; Emy Komatsu, Christoph Rampitsch, Hélène Perreault, Tom Gräfenhan
      Pages: 357 - 361
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMembers of the Alternaria genus produce various toxins whose occurrence in agricultural commodities is a major concern for humans and the environment. The present study developed a simple and efficient matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method for the rapid detection of Alternaria toxins.RESULTSA new method for the detection of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) by MALDI-TOF MS was developed. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up methods were tried to optimize the purification of wheat matrix, and an optimal extraction method was designed to recover the three Alternaria toxins. In addition, various MALDI matrices were examined and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix gave good repeatability for all three Alternaria toxins.CONCLUSIONThis is the first study to report the detection of three important Alternaria toxins concurrently using MALDI-TOF MS and opens up the possibility of rapid screening of Alternaria toxins in several other cereals and food products. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T10:15:45.70133-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7703
       
  • Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli
           strains from a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings
    • Authors: Enrique Víctor Navajas-Benito; Carla Andrea Alonso, Susana Sanz, Carmen Olarte, Roberto Martínez-Olarte, Sara Hidalgo-Sanz, Sergio Somalo, Carmen Torres
      Pages: 362 - 365
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 78 genetically different Escherichia coli recovered from air and exudate samples of a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings in Spain, in order to gain insight into the flow of antimicrobial resistance through the environment and food supply.RESULTSAntimicrobial resistance was detected in 21.8% of the 78 E. coli isolates analyzed (resistance for at least one of the 14 agents tested). The highest resistance rates were recorded for ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. The resistance genes detected were as follows (antibiotic (number of resistant strains), gene (number of strains)): ampicillin (9), blaTEM-1 (6); tetracycline (15), tet(A) (7), tet(B) (4), tet(A) + tet(B) (1); chloramphenicol (5), cmlA (2), floR (2); trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10), sul2 (4), sul1 (3), sul3 (2), sul1 + sul2 (1); gentamicin-tobramycin (1), ant(2″) (1). About 14% of strains showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype and, of them, seven strains carried class 1 integrons containing predominantly the dfrA1-aadA1 array. One multidrug-resistant strain was found in both inside and outside air, suggesting that the airborne spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from the animal housing facilities to the surroundings is feasible.CONCLUSIONSThis study gives a genetic background of the antimicrobial resistance problem in a dairy cattle farm and shows that air can act as a source for dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T02:45:45.375616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7709
       
 
 
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