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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Food Safety Issues in China: A Case Study of Dairy Sector
    • Authors: Xiaoxia Dong; Zhemin Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents occured frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained attention of Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers’ response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Till 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from the influence. Using the radom effect model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consujmption. Overall, the results show that consumers in low income group are more sensitive to safety risk than high income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents’ dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption which was affected by the crime culprit of melamine incident was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for high income group even increased.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29T01:36:51.061431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7107
  • Nitrate content in a collection of higher mushrooms
    • Authors: Renáta Bóbics; Dániel Krüzselyi, János Vetter
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Data of mushroom nitrate content from scientific studies is limited. There have been two such recent investigations (mainly regarding certain cultivated species). To obtain comparable analytical data, we analyzed 134 samples of 54 taxa gathered and prepared by our Department. Results The mushroom species were evaluated according to their nutritional types: saprotrophic, mycorrhizal and wood‐decaying groups. Low and relative invariable contents were found in the mycorrhizal (216.5 mg kg−1 dry matter [D.M.] and wood‐decaying groups (228.6 mg kg−1 D.M.), but in the saprotrophic group we observed wide variability (151.4 – 12715 mg kg−1 D.M.). Conclusion Considerable nitrate contents were found in samples of seven “accumulator” species (Clitocybe nebularis, C. odora, Lepista nuda, L. personata, L. irina, Macrolepiota rachodes and M. procera). Toxicological relevance of daily uptake of acceptable nitrate content via mushrooms only is not presumable, but the “accumulator” saprotrophic species can be “contributors” of our nitrate intake by foods.
      PubDate: 2015-01-28T02:52:59.220163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7108
  • Health‐promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var
           Italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future
           climatic change environments
    • Authors: Chokri Zaghdoud; Micaela Carvajal, Diego A Moreno, Ali Ferchichi, María del Carmen Martínez‐Ballesta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased‐N fertilisation regimes (NO3−/NH4+ ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100, respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2], under non‐saline (0 mM NaCl) and saline conditions (80 mM NaCl). Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. Results In NH4+‐fed broccoli plants a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4+ toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] ‐ ameliorating adverse effects of salinity – was only observed when N was supplied as NO3−. Under reduced N‐fertilisation the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3−/NH4+ ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Conclusion Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S‐metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3−/NH4+ (50:50 ratio) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4+ toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolates content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N‐fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T01:49:09.816147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7102
  • Graphene Quantum dots as Enhanced Plant Growth Regulators: Effects on
           Coriander and Garlic plant
    • Authors: Disha Chakravarty; Manisha B. Erande, Dattatray, J. Late
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We report investigations on the use of graphene quantum dots for growth enhancement in Coriander (Coriandrum sativam L.) and Garlic plant (Allium Sativum) plants. The as received seeds of coriander and garlic were treated with 0.2 mg/ml of graphene quantum dots for 3 hrs before planting. It has been observed that the graphene quantum dots enhance the growth rate in these plants including leaves, roots, shoots, flowers, fruits with the seeds treated with graphene quantum dots. Our investigations open up the opportunity to use graphene quantum dots as plant growth regulator which can be used in a variety of other food plants for high yield.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T01:47:02.083373-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7106
  • Development of delayed bitterness and effect of harvest date in stored
           juice from two complex citrus hybrids
    • Authors: Smita Raithore; Sharon Dea, Greg McCollum, John A. Manthey, Jinhe Bai, Clotilde Leclair, Faraj Hijaz, Jan A Narciso, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Anne Plotto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mandarins and mandarin hybrids have excellent flavor and color attributes making them good candidates for consumption as fresh fruit. When processed into juice, however, they are less palatable as they develop delayed bitterness when stored for a period of time. In this study, kinetics of delayed bitterness in two citrus mandarin hybrid siblings: ‘Ambersweet’ and USDA 1‐105‐106 were explored by sensory and instrumental analyses. In addition to the bitter limonoids, other quality factors (i.e., sugars, acids, pH, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and the ratio SSC/TA) were also measured. Results The two citrus hybrid siblings had different chemical profiles, which were perceived by taste panels. USDA 1‐105‐106 developed delayed bitterness when the juice was stored for more than 4 hours, similar to juice from ‘Navel’ oranges but ‘Ambersweet’ did not. Bitterness in ‘Ambersweet’ was more affected by harvest maturity as juice from earlier harvest had lower SSC but higher TA and bitter limonoids. Conclusion Since juice of USDA 1‐105‐106 shows delayed bitterness when stored for more than 4 hours, this cultivar is not suitable for juice processing. Our finding that siblings can differ in chemical and sensory properties emphasize the importance of post‐processing storage studies before releasing cultivars for juice.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:32:45.933565-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7105
  • Impact of polyphenolic components from mulberry on apoptosis of vascular
           smooth muscle cells
    • Authors: Kuei‐Chuan Chan; Hsieh‐Hsun Ho, Ming‐Cheng Lin, Chien‐Ning Huang, Hui‐Pei Huang, Chau‐Jong Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Previous studies have shown that mulberry polyphenolic compounds have an anti‐atherosclerotic effect in rabbits. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the key determinant of the number of VSMCs in remodeling. To examine the effect of mulberry polyphenols (MPEs) on the apoptosis of VSMCs and thus the prevention of atherosclerosis, we investigated the ability of MPEs to induce apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. Results In this in vitro study, we found that mulberry polyphenol extracts initially activated JNK/p38 and p53, which in turn activated both Fas‐ligand and mitochondria pathways thereby causing mitochondria translocation of Bax and the reduction of Bcl‐2. This then triggered the cleavage of procaspases, finally resulting in apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Conclusion This study shows mulberry polyphenols may suppress atherosclerosis through stimulating apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells via activating JNK/p38 and p53 signaling.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:32:29.540571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7100
  • Nutritional aspects of gluten‐free products
    • Authors: Nicoletta Pellegrini; Carlo Agostoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In recent years, gluten free (GF) goods have become popular, fuelling a growing market as they do not only cater to individuals with medical needs, but also to consumers who seek a GF diet. In their development, it is pivotal to pay attention to nutritional quality. This review aims to provide some insights on the nutritional quality of GF products, focusing on major concerns and the strategies to overcome them. In order to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten, a large number of flours and starches and other ingredients have been used. Therefore, the different mixtures of these ingredients bring a wide difference in the nutritional composition of GF foods with respect to gluten‐containing counterparts. Several GF foodstuffs contain more fat, including saturated, and salt, but less minerals and vitamins than their equivalent with gluten. The increased fibre content and the improved technological processes have positively affected the glycemic responses from these goods. However, in order to improve their nutritional quality wholemeal GF cereals and pseudocereals with high nutritive value should replace the low nutritional GF flours and consequently the technological processes would be optimized. The improvement of the nutritional quality of GF products, and in turn that of the GF diet, should also be aimed at improving the risk of later chronic degenerative disorders, especially for infants and young children.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:30:57.42984-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7101
  • Classification of potato cultivars to establish their processing aptitude
    • Authors: Yali Yang; Isabel Achaerandio, Montserrat Pujolà
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The commercial potato cultivars are diverse, not only in their physical characteristics but also in their nutritional compositions and their content of functional compounds (resistant starch (RS), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA)), but there is little information about these differences. The aim of this study was to characterise the nutritional value (focusing in carbohydrates and functional compounds) and instrumental parameters of eight potato cultivars consumed in Spain and to determine whether these parameters are useful for classifying the cultivars. Results Significant Pearson's correlations were found due to the common and complex interactions between the constituents of potatoes and their properties (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:56.15102-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7104
  • Novel assay procedures for the measurement of α‐amylase in
           weather damaged wheat
    • Authors: Claudio Cornaggia; Ruth Ivory, David Mangan, Barry V. McCleary
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The measurement of α‐amylase (EC in sprout‐damaged grains is a crucial analysis yet a problematic one due to the typically low α‐amylase levels in these samples. A number of standardized methods such as the Falling Number Method and Ceralpha Method exist which are routinely used for the assay of α‐amylase. These methods, however, are either highly‐substrate dependent or lack the required sensitivity to assess sprout damage. Results Novel colorimetric and fluorometric reagents have been prepared (Amylase HR, Amylase SD, BzCNPG7 reagent and BzMUG7 reagent) for the direct and specific assay of α‐amylase activity in sprout‐damaged wheat. Assays employing these reagents have been developed and optimized to include a decolorisation step using activated charcoal. When used in a convenient assay format, Amylase SD ‐ containing EtNPG7, (II) as the colorimetric substrate and α‐glucosidase as the ancillary enzyme ‐ was found to be an excellent reagent for the assessment of sprout damage in wheat with incubations as short as 5 min. Conclusion The assay using Amylase SD is completely specific for α‐amylase. The use of the Amylase SD assay represents a sensitive and valid alternative to the traditionally used Falling Number values for the assessment of sprout‐damage in wheat samples.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:38.87846-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7103
  • Evaluation of Muscodor suthepensis strain CMU‐Cib462 as a
           postharvest biofumigant for tangerine fruit rot caused by Penicillium
    • Authors: Nakarin Suwannarach; Boonsom Bussaban, Wipornpan Nuangmek, Wasna Pithakpol, Bantoon Jirawattanakul, Kenji Matsui, Saisamorn Lumyong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study investigated both in vitro and in vivo biofumigant ability of the endophytic fungus, Muscodor suthepensis CMU‐Cib462 to control Penicillium digitatum, the main cause of tangerine fruit rot. Results Volatile compounds from Muscodor suthepensis inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. The most abundant compound was 2‐Methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3‐Methylbutan‐1‐ol. They showed median effective doses (ED50) on P. digitatum growth of 74.91±0.73 and 250.29±0.29 μL L−1 of airspace, respectively. Rye grain was a suitable solid medium for M. suthepensis inocula production. The result indicated that mycofumigation with 30 g rye grain culture of M. suthepensis for 12 h controlled tangerine fruit rot. The percent weight loss and soluble solids concentrations in fumigated tangerines were similar to the non‐infected and non‐fumigated treatment. Conclusion Muscodor suthepensis has potential as a biofumigant for controlling postharvest disease of tangerine fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:23.318023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7099
  • Effect of oxidant stressors and phenolic antioxidants on the
           ochratoxigenic fungus Aspergillus carbonarius
    • Authors: Ana Crespo‐Sempere; Cristina Selma‐Lázaro, Jeffrey D. Palumbo, Luis González‐Candelas, Pedro V. Martínez‐Culebras
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background There are few studies dealing with the relationship between oxidative stress and ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. In this work, we analyzed the effect of the oxidant stressor menadione and the antioxidants 3,5‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐hydroxytoluene (BHT), catechin, resveratrol and a polyphenolic extract on growth, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), OTA production and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes of Aspergillus carbonarius. Results Exposure to menadione concentrations higher than 20 μM led to increases in ROS and OTA levels and a decrease in growth rate. Exposure to 2.5‐10 mM BHT also led to higher ROS and OTA levels, although growth rate was only affected above 5 mM. Naturally occurring concentrations of catechin, resveratrol and polyphenolic extract barely affected growth rate, but they produced widely different effects on OTA production level depending on the antioxidant concentration used. In general, gene expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), was down regulated after exposure to oxidant and antioxidant concentrations that enhanced OTA production level. Conclusion A. carbonarius responds to oxidative stress increasing OTA production. Nevertheless, the use of naturally occurring concentrations of antioxidant phenolic compounds to reduce oxidative stress is not a valid approach by itself for OTA contamination control in grapes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T02:04:25.802422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7077
  • Prevention of retinoic‐acid‐induced osteoporosis in mice by
           isoflavone‐enriched soy protein
    • Authors: Juan Yang; Nana Wu, Jie Peng, Xiaoquan Yang, Jian Guo, Shouwei Yin, Jinmei Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A novel soy protein aggregate enriched with isoflavones (SPA‐IS), the mixture of soy protein and isoflavones (Mix), the isoflavones (IS), and the soy protein were obtained to investigate the preventive effects on osteoporosis (OP) induced by retinoic acid (RA) in Kunming (KM) mice. Results The serum osteocalcin (s‐BGP) levels in the Mix and SPA‐IS groups decreased compared with the model group (the RA‐induced OP mice) (p < 0.05). The trabecular analysis results prove the increased preventive effect of the SPA‐IS group over the Mix group, the IS group, and the soy protein group. The results of both left tibial maximum load and the 4th lumbar structural strength differ between the IS and the SPA‐IS groups. Conclusion The SPA‐IS exhibited obvious estrogenic activities on RA‐induced OP in KM mice compared to Mix, IS, and soy protein. The results suggest that it is potential for use of SPA‐IS in treatment of OP induced by intake of RA. The improvement of bone indicators might be attributed to the formation of aggregate particles and the improvement of IS solubility.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:31:24.413932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7098
  • Salinity thresholds and genotypic variability of cabbage (Brassica
           oleracea L.) grown under saline stress
    • Authors: Rabab Sanoubar; Antonio Cellini, Anna Maria Veroni, Francesco Spinelli, Andrea Masia, Livia Vittori Antisari, Francesco Orsini, Giorgio Gianquinto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Two botanical varieties of cabbage, namely Savoy (Brassica oleracea var. Sabauda L.) and White (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L.) were used in order to understand the morphological, physiological and biochemical elements of functional salt stress response. Thirteen salt concentrations (range 0 to 300 mM NaCl) were considered in Exp. 1# and out of them three (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) were used in Exp. 2#. Results Exp. 1# enabled to define two salinity thresholds (100 and 200 mM NaCl), associated with morphological and physiological adaptations. In Exp. 2#, moderate salinity (100 mM NaCl) had lower effects on Savoy than in White cabbage yield (respectively – 16% and −62% from control). Concurrently, 100 mM NaCl resulted in a significant increase of antioxidant enzymes from control conditions, that was greater in Savoy (+289, +423 and +88% respectively) as compared to White (+114, +356 and +28% respectively) cabbage. Ions accumulation resulted to be a key determinant in tissue osmotic adjustment (mainly in Savoy) whereas the contribution of organic osmolites was negligible. Conclusions Higher antioxidative enzymatic activities in Savoy vs White cabbage upon 100 mM NaCl were associated with improved water relations, thus suggesting a possible physiological pathway for alleviating perceived salt stress.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:29:43.351283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7097
  • Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in
           virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approach
    • Authors: Giuseppe Procida; Angelo Cichelli, Corrado Lagazio, Lanfranco S. Conte
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterized by low molecular weight compounds that vaporize at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, volatile compounds composition was determined by applying dynamic headspace, performed at room temperature, with cryogenic trap directly connected to gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer. Samples were also evaluated according to UE and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analyzed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Results Forty‐two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analyzed samples, classified as extra virgin by Panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odor properties (“green‐fruity” and “sweet”) and olfactory perception. Conclusion Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and Panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups as sweet or green types. As regards, sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odor properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms prove to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-19T05:57:59.918012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7096
  • Biogenic amines in Zamorano cheese: factors involved in their accumulation
    • Authors: Combarros‐Fuertes P; Fernández D, Arenas R, Diezhandino I, Tornadijo M.E, Fresno J.M.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ripened cheese is among fermented food the most often associated with food‐poisoning from biogenic amines. The influence of ripening time, heat treatment of milk and the effect of using milk from a different ewe breed on the biogenic amines (BA) content of Zamorano cheese was studied by HPLC. Physicochemical, proteolytic and microbiological parameters were also studied. Results BA content increased significantly during ripening and their final values were around 400 mg Kg−1. Cheeses elaborated with raw milk duplicated the concentration of BA relative to those elaborated with pasteurized milk (72 °C for 20 seconds). The average levels of putrescine, spermine and tyramine were higher in cheeses made with a greater proportion of milk from Churra breed. Significant differences in microbial counts and nitrogen soluble in 5% phosphotungstic acid (PTA5%‐SN) were observed between the different batches. Conclusion Ripening time and heat treatment applied to milk were the factors that exercised the greatest influence upon the concentration of BA in Zamorano cheese.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:51.31951-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7093
  • Effects of Amaranth Addition on the Pro‐vitamin A Content, and
           Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Pro‐Vitamin
           A‐Biofortified Maize Snacks
    • Authors: Daniso Beswa; Nomusa R. Dlamini, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, John Derera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health‐promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding Amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro‐vitamin A content of extruded pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize varieties that were composited with Amaranth leaf powder at 0, 1 and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. Results At higher Amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, whilst their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may thus need improvement. As Amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro‐vitamin A content. Conclusion Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize with added Amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro‐vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in Southern Africa‐ thus the current study serves as a baseline.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:36.008689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7092
  • Application of self‐organising maps towards segmentation of soybean
           samples by determination of inorganic compounds content
    • Authors: Hágata Cremasco; Dionísio Borsato, Karina Gomes Angilelli, Olívio Fernandes Galão, Evandro Bona, Marcos Eduardo Valle
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this study, 20 samples of soybean, both transgenic and conventional cultivars, which were planted in two different regions, Londrina and Ponta Grossa, both located at Paraná, Brazil, were analysed. In order to verify whether the inorganic compound levels in soybeans varied with the region of planting, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and B contents were analysed by an Artificial Neural network Self‐Organising Map. Results It was observed that with a topology 10 x 10, 8000 epochs, initial learning rate of 0.1 and initial neighbourhood ratio of 4.5, the network was able to differentiate samples according to region of origin. Among all of the variables analysed by the artificial neural network, the elements Zn, Ca and Mn were those which most contributed to the classification of the samples. Conclusion This means that samples planted in these two regions differ in their mineral content; however, conventional and transgenic samples grown in the same region show no difference in mineral contents in the grain.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:17.75635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7094
  • Enzymatic cell wall degradation of high pressure homogenized tomato puree
           and its effect on lycopene bioaccessibility
    • Authors: Paola Palmero; Ines Colle, Lien Lemmens, Tuyen Thi My Nguyen, Marc Hendrickx, Ann Van Loey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background High pressure homogenization disrupts cell structures assisting carotenoid release from the matrix and subsequent micellarization. However, lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato puree upon high pressure homogenization is limited by the formation of a process‐induced barrier. In this context, cell wall degrading enzymes were applied to hydrolyze the formed barrier and enhance lycopene bioaccessibility. Results The effectiveness of the enzymes in degrading their corresponding substrates was evaluated (consistency, amount of reducing sugars, molar mass distribution and immunolabeling). An in vitro digestion procedure was applied to evaluate the effect of the enzyme treatments on lycopene bioaccessibility. Enzyme treatments with pectinases and cellulase were proved to effectively degrade their corresponding cell wall polymers, however, no further significant increase of lycopene bioaccessibility was obtained. Conclusion A process‐induced barrier consisting of cell wall material is not the only factor governing lycopene bioaccessibility upon high pressure homogenization.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:42:20.79766-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7088
  • Lipid degradation and sensory characteristics of ripened sausages packed
           in modified atmosphere at different carbon dioxide concentrations
    • Authors: Carmine Summo; Antonella Pasqualone, Vito M. Paradiso, Isabella Centomani, Gerardo Centoducati, Francesco Caponio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Controversial results about the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) rich in CO2 on the quality of different kinds of meat products are present in literature. In this investigation the degree of lipid degradation and the sensory characteristics of ripened sausages packed in modified atmosphere at 3 different carbon dioxide concentrations have been evaluated during 5 months of storage. Results The degree of hydrolytic degradation of the lipid fraction was found to decrease at increasing CO2 concentrations. Similarly, the oxidative phenomena occurred at lower rate when CO2 concentration increased. The variations in CO2 concentration influenced the perception of rancid flavor in the examined sausages. Conclusion The increase of CO2 in MAP allowed to slow down the evolution of the lipid oxidation, due to the minor extent of the hydrolytic degradation, whose products have pro‐oxidant activity. This effect was more evident in the first two months of storage.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:42:06.013137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7089
  • Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen
           aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): Factors which may affect the
    • Authors: Greta Geldenhuys; Nina Muller, Lorinda Frylinck, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Baseline research investigating the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. To achieve this, the study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min – 4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca2+ dependant protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. Results No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = ‐0.806; ultimate pH = ~5.86) compared to other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20°C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the μ/m‐calpain activity remains constant during the rigor period while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepspin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. Conclusions Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during ageing is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:41:36.72472-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7090
  • Pre‐Cooking Protein Paste Gelation Conditions and Post‐Cooking
           Gel Storage Conditions on Gel Texture
    • Authors: Ilgin Paker; Kristen E. Matak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gelation conditions affect setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore, the impact of widely applied pre‐cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post‐cooking period on texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre‐cooking gelation strategies (no‐setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C, or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were either analyzed directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. Results No‐set gels were harder, gummier, and chewier (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:41:20.735096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7091
  • Application of Serratia marcescens RZ‐21 significantly enhances
           peanut yield and remediates the continuously cropped peanut soil
    • Authors: Hai‐Yan Ma; Bo Yang, Hong‐Wei Wang, Qi‐Yin Yang, Chuan‐Chao Dai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backround The continuous cropping obstacles cause severe decline of peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on the continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment under natural conditions was conducted to detect the peanut agronomic indexes, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzymes activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to the red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ‐21), a sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) or distilled water (CK). Results S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1), and apparently reduced these two pathogens population in rhizosphere soil. The RZ‐21 treatment significantly increased the peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3%, 33%, 72% and 61.4%, respectively, followed by the M treatment. And P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ‐21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at some different stages. In addition, RZ‐21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except M in the case of fungal population of Flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. Conclusion This is the first report of S. marcescens applied to continuously cropped peanut soil, suggesting that S. marcescens RZ‐21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products, and develop sustainable management practices.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:37:47.011622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7087
  • Antioxidant activity and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds during in
           vitro callus culture of Plantago ovata Forsk and effect of exogenous
           additives on accumulation of phenolic compounds
    • Authors: Pratik Talukder; Shonima Talapatra, Nirmalya Ghoshal, Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plantago ovata, commonly called psyllium, is known to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds. The present study was aimed at determining polyphenol content and studying their antioxidant activities in P. ovata during in vitro callus culture. An attempt was also made to enhance polyphenol content using external additives. The role of PAL gene in polyphenol accumulation was also studied. Result The study indicated the presence of significant amount of polyphenols including flavonoids in P. ovata callus. A gradual increase in polyphenol and flavonoid content was observed up to 3rd passage (63 days) of callus culture which declined at the next passage. The 3rd passage callus showed highest antioxidant activity. HPLC results indicated the presence of high amount of gallic acid and rutin in P. ovata calli; however, other polyphenols were also present but to a lesser extent. Additive supplementation was effective to enhance polyphenol production and in increasing antioxidant activity in P. ovata callus. Conclusion The present research reported accumulation of polyphenols in callus culture of P. ovata which could be applied for isolation of polyphenols for various beneficial purposes. It also indicated enhancement in the production of several polyphenols and also an increase in antioxidant activity in the additive treated callus.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:37:30.91367-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7086
  • Fast pyrolysis biochar from sawdust improves quality of desert soils and
           enhances plant growth
    • Authors: Mahmood Laghari; Zhiquan Hu, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat, Bo Xiao, Ahmed Ali Tagar, Mian Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Biochar has been mostly used in conventional arable soils for improving soil fertility. This study investigated the effect of biochars of different temperatures on plant growth and desert soil properties. Biochars of different temperatures (i.e., 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) were mixed in the soil with 5% by mass, and the treatments were designated as T‐400, T‐500, T‐600, T‐700, and T‐800, respectively. Sorghum was used as a test crop, and the effect of biochar on plant height, yield, and soil properties was evaluated. Results Sorghum yield increased by 19% and 32% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively, above the control. Biochar reduced depth‐wise moisture depletion in soil columns and hence improved soil water‐holding capacity by 14% and 57% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Soil hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 15% and 42%, and moisture‐retention capacity was improved by 16% and 59%. Hence, sorghum net water‐use efficiency increased by 52% and 74% in T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Biochar also improved soil total carbon, cation exchange capacity and plant nutrient content. Conclusion The addition of fast pyrolysis biochar made from pine sawdust improved the quality of Kubuqi Desert soil and enhanced plant growth. Hence, it can be used for desert modification.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:56:50.207796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7082
  • Processing barley grain with lactic and tannic acid ameliorates rumen
           microbial fermentation and degradation of dietary fibre in vitro
    • Authors: Kathrin Deckardt; Barbara U. Metzler‐Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cereal grains are important ingredients of ruminant diets, but their rapid degradation seriously impairs rumen fermentation and host's health. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether processing of barley grain with 1 or 5% lactic acid (LA) and 1 or 5% tannic acid (TA), without or with an additional heat treatment (1% LAH or 1% TAH), may affect microbial ruminal abundance, fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation in vitro. Results Processing with LA lowered (P < 0.05) the concentration of short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA), proportions of branched‐chain SCFA, and acetate to propionate ratio. Treatment with 1% TAH and 1% LAH lowered (P < 0.05) gene copy numbers of total protozoa, rumen lipopolyssacharide, and degradation of crude protein, and tended (P = 0.08) to lower the proportion of the genus Prevotella. Treatment of barley grain with 1% LA or 1% LAH stimulated Clostridium cluster XIV. Degradation of fibre was enhanced (P < 0.05) by all LA and TA treatments. Conclusion Chemical and heat treatment of barley grain modulated ruminal fermentation profile and enhanced fibre degradation; however, processing of grain with LA seems to hold superiority because this effect was not associated with concomitant depression in ruminal degradation of organic matter.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:56:31.719376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7085
  • Artificial neural networks to model the production of blood protein
           hydrolysates for plant fertilization
    • Authors: Raúl Pérez Gálvez; F. Javier Espejo Carpio, Emilia M. Guadix, Antonio Guadix
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Amino acid‐based fertilisers increase the bioavailability of nitrogen in plants and help withstand stress conditions. Besides, porcine blood protein hydrolysates are able to supply iron, which is involved in chlorophyll synthesis and improves the availability of nutrients in soil. A high degree of hydrolysis (DH) is desirable when producing a protein hydrolysate intended for fertilization, since it assures a high supply of free amino acids. Given the complexity of enzyme reactions, empirical approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANN) are preferred for modelization. Results Porcine blood meal was hydrolysed for 3 hours with subtilisin. The time evolution of the degree of hydrolysis was successfully modelled by means of a feedforward ANN comprising 10 neurons in the hidden layer and trained by the Levenberg‐Marquardt algorithm. The ANN model described adequately the influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and reaction time upon DH, and was employed to estimate the optimal operation conditions (pH 6.67, 56.9 °C, enzyme to substrate ratio of 10 g kg−1 and 3 h of reaction) leading to the maximum DH (35.12%). Conclusions ANN modeling was a useful tool to model enzymatic reactions and was successfully employed to optimise the degree of hydrolysis.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:56:16.041674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7083
  • Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium
           caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance,
           digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler
    • Authors: Hong Mei Shang; Hui Song, Ya Li Xing, Shu Li Niu, Guo Dong Ding, Yun Yao Jiang, Feng Liang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with 6 pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg−1 flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg−1 HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. Results The results revealed that the average daily gain (linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01) of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (d 1–21), finisher (d 22–42), and the overall experiment period (d 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts and inhibited Escherichia coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:47:39.55541-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7084
  • Petroselinum crispum has antioxidant properties, protects against DNA
           damage and inhibits proliferation and migration of cancer cells
    • Authors: Esther Lai‐Har Tang; Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, ShinYee Fung, M S Kanthimathi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Petroselinum crispum (English parsley) is a common herb of the Apiaceae family that is cultivated throughout the world and is widely used as a seasoning condiment. Studies have shown its potential as a medicinal herb. In this study, P. crispum leaf and stem extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage in normal 3T3‐L1 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation and migration of the MCF‐7 cells. Results The dichloromethane extract of P. crispum exhibited the highest phenolic content (42.31 ± 0.50 mg GAE g−1) and ferric reducing ability (0.360 ± 0.009 mmol g−1) of the various extractions performed. The extract showed DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 3310.0 ± 80.5 µg mL−1. Mouse fibroblasts, 3T3‐L1, pre‐treated with 400 µg mL−1 of the extract showed 50.9% protection against H2O2‐induced DNA damage, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention. The extract (300 µg mL−1) inhibited H2O2‐induced MCF‐7 cell migration by 41 ± 4%. As cell migration is necessary for metastasis of cancer cells, inhibition of migration is an indication of protection against metastasis. Conclusion P. crispum has health promoting properties with the potential to prevent oxidative stress‐related diseases and can be developed into functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:52:23.016853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7078
  • In vitro anti‐inflammatory properties of fermented pepino (Solanum
           muricatum) milk by γ‐aminobutyric Acid‐producing
           Lactobacillus brevis and an in vivo animal model for evaluating its
           effects on hypertension
    • Authors: Vincent Hung‐Shu Chang; Tsai‐Hsin Chiu, Szu‐Chieh Fu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objectives of this study were to determine the in vitro anti‐inflammatory and in vivo antihypertensive effects of fermented pepino (Solanum muricatum) milk by Lactobacillus brevis with the goal of developing functional healthy products. The inflammatory factors of fermented pepino milk with L. brevis were assessed in RAW 264.7 macrophages, including nitric oxide (NO) production. Inflammatory factor genes of cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and −2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α were also assayed by a reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). Results Results showed that fermented PE inhibited NO production in LPS‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with 150 mg/ml fermented PE completely blocking LPS‐induced NO production. The mRNA expressions of COX‐1, COX‐2, and iNOS were attenuated by treatment with higher concentrations of fermented PE (150 mg/ml). Cells treated with fermented PE (100 ng/ml) exhibited strikingly decreased LPS‐induced expression of TNF‐α mRNA. During the feeding trial, rats treated with 10% fermented pepino milk (100 µg/2.5 ml) and 100% fermented pepino milk (1000 µg/2.5 ml) exhibited significant decreases in the systolic blood pressure. Conclusion Our results showed that fermented pepino milk has wide potential applications for development as a health food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:52:08.566861-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7081
  • Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin‐rich natural extracts from
           Grape seed and Cupuassu on gastrointestinal mucosa
    • Authors: Montserrat Pinent; Anna Castell‐Auví, M. Inés Genovese, Joan Serrano, Angela Casanova, Mayte Blay, Anna Ardévol
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is constantly exposed to reactive species released by the GI tract itself, and those present in food and beverages. Phenolic compounds may help in protecting the GI tract against damage produced by the reactive species. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in two different intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco‐2, and the enter oendocrine cell line STC‐1. RESULTS: We show that GSPE prevents t‐BOOH‐induced oxidative stress in both cell lines, and that the effects are dose and time dependent. We have also analyzed whether GSPE has any in vivo effect, and found that 25 mg/kg bw cannot counteract the increase in intestinal ROS induced by the cafeteria diet. However, an acute (1 h) treatment of 1 g GSPE/kg bw reduces ROS in fasted animals and also decreases ROS induction by food. These effects were found only after a short‐term treatment. Furthermore, we have compared the in vitro GSPE effects with those of another proanthocyanidin‐rich extract from cupuassu seeds, though it has compounds with different structures. Cupuassu extract (CE) also shows antioxidant effects in both cell types, which suggests different mechanisms than those of GSPE. CONCLUSION: Natural proanthocyanidin‐rich extracts have an antioxidant effect in the gastrointestinal tract, acting on absorptive cells and enterohormone‐secreting cells, although the effects depend on the dose and period of treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:51:52.56644-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7079
  • Thyme and basil essential oils included in edible coatings as a natural
           preserving method of oilseed kernels
    • Authors: Cecilia G Riveros; Valeria Nepote, Nelson R Grosso
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sunflower seeds are susceptible to developing rancidity and off‐flavours through lipid oxidation. Edible coatings and essential oils have proven antioxidant properties in different food products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of using an edible coating and thyme and basil essential oils to preserve the chemical and sensory quality parameters of roasted sunflower seeds during storage. RESULTS: 50% DPPH inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.278 and 0.0997 µg/mL were observed for thyme and basil, respectively. On storage day 40, peroxide values were 80.68, 70.28, 68.43, 49.31 and 33.87 mEqO2Kg−1 in roasted sunflower seeds (RS), roasted sunflower seeds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (RS‐CMC), roasted sunflower seeds coated with CMC added with basil (RS‐CMC‐A), thyme (RS‐CMC‐T), and BHT (RS‐CMC‐BHT), respectively. RS‐CMC‐T and RS‐CMC‐BHT presented the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes, and p‐anisidine values during storage. RS‐CMC‐BHT, RS‐CMC‐T, and RS‐CMC‐A showed the lowest oxidized and cardboard flavour intensity ratings. On storage day 40, roasted sunflower flavour intensity ratings were higher in RS‐CMC‐T and RS‐CMC‐A. CONCLUSIONS: Thyme and basil essential oils added into the CMC coating improved the sensory stability of this product during storage, but only thyme essential oil increased their chemical stability.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:50:08.024756-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7080
  • Leaf Removal and Wine Composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Nero d'Avola.
           The volatile aroma constituents
    • Authors: Antonella Verzera; Gianluca Tripodi, Giovanna Dima, Concetta Condurso, Antonio Scacco, Fabrizio Cincotta, Dina Maria Letizia Giglio, Antonio Sparacio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Defoliation is a cultural practice for crop management in grapevines and the benefits effects have been demonstrated. Here, the influence of “early” leaf removal on the quality of Nero d'Avola wines was evaluated. Particular attention has been given to the volatile constituents responsible for the wine aroma but also to the total amount of polyphenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonoids. Results “Early” defoliation was manually applied and compared with non‐defoliated controls. The grapes were harvested in two different ripening times following their technological and phenolic maturity. Statistical quantitative differences resulted among the samples from the four theses. Both the time of harvest and the vine leaf removal determined variation in the wine composition. A large number of volatile constituents were identified and quantified; the OAV were calculated. Basal leaf removal reduced pH and increased titratable acidity, total amount of anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyphenols and color intensity in the wines from the 1st harvest. Interesting resulted the increase for fermentation and varietal aromas in the defoliated wines from the 1st harvest. Limited differences resulted between the wines from defoliated and control vines relative to the 2nd harvest. PCA which was applied to the compounds with an OAVs ≥ 0.5 allowed to distinguish the different theses. Conclusion “Early” leaf removal can lead to a positive effect on the quality of Nero d'Avola under the environmental conditions in which the present study was realized but particular attention has to be given to the time of grape harvest. The results also demonstrate that “early” defoliation can be applied to improve the wine quality also in Mediterranean area with a concentration of rainfall during winter, nearly aridity and high temperature in summer season.
      PubDate: 2015-01-10T03:31:30.116606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7075
  • Composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red
           deer, sheep, pig and cattle
    • Authors: Clara S. F. Bah; Alaa El‐Din A. Bekhit, Alan Carne, Michelle A. McConnell
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Animal blood is a large volume by‐product of the meat industry. Besides blood meal fertilizer, blood is marketed for human consumption as a supplement. Minimal comparative work on slaughterhouse animal blood fractions has been carried out. In this study, slaughterhouse deer, sheep, pig and cattle blood parameters were compared. Some blood constituents were determined. Fractionated blood was assessed for antioxidant activity (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, oxygen radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antimicrobial activity were also assessed. Results Serum iron ranged from 35.3 ± 0.6 µmol L −1 in cattle to 16.3 ± 3.1 µmol L−1 in deer. Cattle had the highest total plasma proteins (81.7 ± 1.5 g L−1). While the plasma fractions contained considerable antioxidant activity, the red blood cell fractions of all four animal species contained higher antioxidant activity (p
      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:42:30.651693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7062
  • In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate
           proportion. Relative effects of inocula and substrates
    • Authors: Amélie Serment; Sylvie Giger‐Reverdin, Philippe Schmidely, Ophélie Dhumez, Laurent P Broudiscou, Daniel Sauvant
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterize rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate (low (L): 350 g kg−1 vs. high (H): 700 g kg−1) incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acid (VFA), soluble carbohydrates (SC) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. Results In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SC and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate‐to‐propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. Conclusion The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T23:51:54.585905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7076
  • Thermal‐aided Phosvitin Extraction from Egg Yolk
    • Authors: Jiandong Ren; Jianping Wu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backgound Phosvitin is the principal phosphoprotein in egg yolk with great potential for uses as functional food ingredients in improving bone health. This study reported a thermal‐aided extraction method without using organic solvents or non‐food compatible chemicals. Results Egg yolk was two times diluted by water, and then extracted by 10% NaCl at 90 °C. Effects of pHs and heating temperatures on the extracts were examined. The phosvitin purity was increased from 75.7% at pH 8.0 to 80.1% at pH 5.0 and then started to decrease, but the yield decreased at decreasing pHs. The phosvitin purity increased at increasing temperature up to 90 °C, and then started to decrease at 95 °C, while the yield increased from 70 °C to 80 °C, and then started to decline at 85 °C. Conclusion A purity of 88.0% and a yield of 23.5 g/kg yolk dry matter were obtained at 90 °C. The purity and yield were comparable or higher than previous methods. The developed method in the study is simple, including mainly two steps: water dilution of egg yolk and NaCl extraction with heating, and can be scaled up for industrial production.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T03:49:09.68181-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7073
  • Descriptive and hedonic analyses of low‐Phe food formulations
           containing corn (Zea mays) seedling roots: toward development of a dietary
           supplement for individuals with phenylketonuria
    • Authors: Margaret A Cliff; Jessica R Law, Joost Lücker, Christine H Scaman, Allison R Kermode
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seedling roots of anthocyanin‐rich corn (Zea mays) cultivars contain high levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The development of a natural dietary supplement comprised of corn roots could provide the means to improve the restrictive diet of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients by increasing their tolerance to dietary phenylalanine (Phe). Therefore, this research was undertaken to explore the sensory characteristics of roots of four corn cultivars, as well as develop and evaluate food products (cereal bar, beverage, jam‐like spread) to which roots had been added. RESULTS Sensory profiles of corn roots were investigated using 10 trained judges. Roots of Japanese striped corn seedlings were more bitter, pungent and astringent than white or yellow cultivars, while roots from the Blue Jade cultivar had a more pronounced earthy/mushroom aroma. Consumer research using 24 untrained panelists provided hedonic (degree‐of‐liking) assessments, for products with and without roots (controls). The former had lower mean scores than the controls; however, the cereal bar had scores above 5 on the 9‐point scale for all hedonic assessments compared to the other treated products. CONCLUSION By evaluating low‐Phe food products containing corn roots, this research ascertained that the root‐containing low‐Phe cereal bar was an acceptable ‘natural’ dietary supplement for PKU‐affected individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T03:48:53.867158-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7074
  • Metabolomic applications in nutritional research: A perspective
    • Authors: A. O'Gorman; L. Brennan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Metabolomics focuses on the global study of metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. Analytical technologies such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hyphenated mass spectrometry (MS) combined with advanced multivariate statistical methods allow us to study perturbations in metabolism. The close link between metabolism and nutrition has seen the application of metabolomics in nutritional research increase in recent times. Such applications can be divided into three main categories (1) the area of dietary biomarker identification, (2) diet‐related diseases and (3) nutritional interventions. The present perspective will give an overview of these applications and an outlook to the future.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:59:32.616218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7070
  • Improving the catalytic behaviour of inulin fructotransferase under high
           hydrostatic pressure
    • Authors: Yungao Li; Ming Miao, Xiangyin Chen, Bo Jiang, Miao Liu, Biao Feng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The demand for difructose anhydride III (DFA III), a novel functional sweetener, is growing continuously. It is produced from inulin by inulin fructotransferase (IFTase). In this study, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), as a clean technology, was first applied to further improve the catalytic efficiency of IFTase in the process. Results The maximum activity of IFTase was obtained under 200 MPa and at 60 °C. Meanwhile, HHP lowered the energy barrier necessary for the enzymatic reaction, and decreased the volume between the reactants and the transition‐state. On this condition, the optimum of pH for the enzymatic reaction shifted from 5.5 to 6.0. The activity was further enhanced by 65.2 % in the presence of 1.5 mol L−1 NaCl. Conclusion The catalytic reaction of IFTase was performed under HHP for the first time. HHP, as a promising green technology for bioconversion, significantly accelerated the enzymatic reaction on the appropriate operational conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:59:17.244057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7071
  • Effect of harvest time on table grape quality during on‐vine storage
    • Authors: Piazzolla F, Pati S, Amodio M.L; Colelli G.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Postponing the harvest of grapes is a common practice in Southern Italy, in order to delay harvest up to Christmas and make higher incomes from the sales. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of harvest time (over almost 3 months) on quality of table grapes (cv. Italia). The experiment was repeated for two years (2010 and 2011). In 2010 grapes were harvested starting from October 8 and after 11, 27, and 48 days. In 2011 5 harvest times were compared over a period of 56 days. Respiration rate, firmness, colour, sensorial attributes, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), phenols and antioxidant activity were measured. In addition, in second year, volatile compounds were evaluated. Results For both years harvest time influenced most of the parameters which indicated that metabolic changes took place on the plant. In 2010, harvest time influenced the respiration rate, cluster and berry appearance score, colour attributes, crunchiness, pH, TA, total phenol content and antioxidant activity. In 2011, harvest time influenced the respiration rate, colour attributes, most of sensorial attributes, TSS andTA. Generally, late harvested grapes showed higher firmness, berry appearance score, sweetness, fruity taste score, overall sensorial evaluation scores and TSS. Regarding the volatile compounds, terpene content decreased during ripeness while C6 compounds showed a non‐linear trend. Conclusion Results showed that table grape sensorial quality could increase with delaying harvest up to a certain time of the season, while excessive delay could reduce final grape quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:58:49.658739-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7072
  • Influence of temperature during grain filling on gluten viscoelastic
           properties and gluten protein composition
    • Authors: Shiori Koga; Ulrike Böcker, Anette Moldestad, Paola Tosi, Peter R. Shewry, Ellen F. Mosleth, Anne Kjersti Uhlen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low to moderate temperatures on gluten functionality and gluten protein composition. Four spring wheat cultivars were therefore grown in climate chambers with three temperature regimes (day/night temperatures of 13/10, 18/15 and 23/20 °C) during grain filling. Results Temperatures strongly influenced grain weight and protein content. Gluten quality measured by resistance to extension (Rmax) was the highest in three cultivars grown at 13 °C. Rmax was positively correlated with the proportion of SDS‐unextractable polymeric proteins (%UPP). The proportions of ω‐gliadins and D‐type LMW‐GS were increased and the proportions of α‐ and γ‐gliadins, and B‐type LMW‐GS were decreased as temperature increased, while the proportion of HMW‐GS was constant between temperatures. The cultivar Berserk had strong and constant Rmax between the different temperatures. Conclusion Constant low temperatures, even as low as 13 °C, had no negative effects on gluten quality. The observed variation in the Rmax related to temperature could be explained more by %UPP than by changes in the proportions of HMW‐GS or other gluten proteins. The four cultivars responded differently to temperature as gluten from Berserk was stronger and more stable over a wide range of temperatures.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:55:10.470065-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7068
  • Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranate
    • Authors: Sunil Pareek; Daniel Valero, María Serrano
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pomegranate is a subtropical and tropical fruit with great importance from the health point of view. Despite the increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of pomegranate, consumption of the fruit is still limited due to poor postharvest handling, storage recommendations, short shelf life, and quality deterioration during transportation, storage and marketing. Occurrence of physiological disorders such as husk scald, splitting, and chilling injury are another challenges which reduces marketability and consumers acceptance. Recently, remarkable work on postharvest biology and technology has been done. Pomegranate is highly sensitive to low‐oxygen atmospheres (
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:54:53.151914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7069
  • Editorial
    • Authors: David Reid
      Pages: 437 - 437
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T05:25:39.399737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7017
  • Hypoglycemic effects of functional tripeptides from silk in differentiated
           adipocytes and streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice
    • Authors: Bok Kyung Han; Hyun Jung Lee, Hyun‐Sun Lee, Hyung Joo Suh, Yooheon Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Bacground In this study, the tri‐peptides Gly‐Glu‐Tyr (GEY) and Gly‐Tyr‐Gly (GYG), identified previously as active compounds from the silk peptide E5K6, significantly stimulated basal and insulin‐mediated glucose uptake by 3T3‐L1 fibroblasts in a dose‐dependent manner. RESULTS Synthetic GEY and GYG peptides at a concentration of 500 μM significantly increased glucose transporter type 4 expression by 157% and 239%, respectively. Differentiation of 3T3‐L1 cells into adipocytes leads to accumulation of intracellular fat droplets, and GEY and GYG at a concentration of 250 μM suppressed this effect by 72% and 75%, respectively. GYG improved glucose tolerance in steptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic mice in a dose‐dependent manner. CONCLUSION These results suggest that GYG isolated from E5K6 has anti‐diabetic potential and silk waste products containing bioactive peptides could be used to develop treatments to lower blood glucose.
      PubDate: 2014-12-31T05:24:10.324922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7067
  • Inhibitory effect of double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma on
           spores and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus niger contaminating date
           palm fruits
    • Authors: Salama A. Ouf; Abdulrahman H. Basher, Abdel‐Aleam H. Mohamed
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Aspergillus niger has been reported as potentially dangerous pathogen of date‐palm fruits in Saudi Arabia due to the production of fumonisin B2 (FB2) and ochratoxin A (OTA). In a trail to disinfect this product, a double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma (DAPACP) jet system was set up and evaluated against spore germination and mycotoxins production of the pathogen. Results The plasma jets were characterized photographically, electrically and spectroscopically. DAPACP jet length increases with the increase of argon flow rate, with optimum rate at 3.5 Lmin−1. The viability of A. niger spores, inoculated onto sterilized date palm fruit discs, progressively decreases with extension of the exposure time of DAPACP due to the more quantitative amount of OH and O radicals interacting with the examined samples. There was a progressive reduction of the amount of FB2 and OTA detected in date palm discs on extension of the exposure time of the plasma‐treated inoculums at flow rate of 3.5 Lmin−1. FB2 was not detected in the discs inoculated with 6‐ min plasma treated A. niger, while OTA was completely absent when the fungus was treated for 7.5‐ min. Conclusion DAPACP showed promising results in dry fruit decontamination and in inhibition of mycotoxins release by A. niger contaminating the fruits. The progress in the commercial application of cold plasma needs further investigation concerning the ideal width of the plasma output to enable it to cover wider surface of the sample and consequently inducing more plasma performance
      PubDate: 2014-12-30T02:27:20.126237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7060
  • Effects of preharvest ultraviolet‐C irradiation on fruit
           phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity in three strawberry
           (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars
    • Authors: Zhichun Xie; Marie Thérèse Charles, Jinshuan Fan, Denis Charlebois, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel, Martine Deschenes, Claudine Dube
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ultraviolet‐C (UV‐C) has proven effective in extending shelf‐life, reducing disease incidence and increasing the levels of health‐promoting compounds in several crops. While most studies were conducted at the postharvest stage, our study examined the effect of preharvest UV‐C application in three strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. ‘Albion’, ‘Charlotte’ and ‘Seascape’). UV‐C treatment was applied from the onset of flowering until the fruits reached commercial maturity on plants grown for two consecutive seasons under greenhouse conditions. The phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of the fruits were assessed at harvest. Results The ellagic acid and kaempferol‐3‐glucuronide contents were significantly increased only in fruits of the cultivar ‘Albion’ collected from UV‐C treated plants in Season 1. UV‐C did not consistently affect the other phenolic compounds that were measured. Based on the results of the FRAP (ferric‐reducing antioxidant power), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and TPC (total phenolic content) assays, the antioxidant capacity of the three strawberry cultivars was not affected by UV‐C. Season and cultivar had a decisive impact on these parameters. Conclusion The effect of preharvest UV‐C on the levels of bioactive compounds in strawberry fruits appears to be cultivar‐dependent, with season or growing conditions having a significant impact.
      PubDate: 2014-12-29T02:04:04.338619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7064
  • Huanglongbing modifies quality components and flavonoid content of
           'Valencia' oranges
    • Authors: Roberto Massenti; Riccardo Lo Bianco, Amandeep K. Sandhu, Gu Liwei, Charles Sims
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In order to evaluate the effect of HLB on quality components and flavonoid contents of ‘Valencia’ oranges, fruit from non‐infected trees (control), from infected trees but symptom‐less (asymptomatic) and from infected trees and showing clear HLB symptoms (symptomatic) were harvested in March and in May, 2013. Fruit peel, pulp and juice were separated, main quality components were determined, and hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were quantified using liquid chromatography. Results Peel color, TSS and citric acid were similar in control and asymptomatic fruits. Symptomatic fruits were smaller, yielded less juice, had higher acidity and lower sugar and peel color than control fruits. In the peel, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. Peel flavonoids decreased with fruit maturation. Also in pulp and juice, flavonoid content was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. Conclusions These results show that asymptomatic fruits are similar to control fruits more than to symptomatic fruits, suggesting that secondary metabolism and physical properties of fruits are only affected at a later and more advanced stage of HLB infection. Despite the significant loss of quality, fruit with clear HLB symptoms accumulate high quantities of flavonoids in peel and pulp.
      PubDate: 2014-12-29T02:03:32.523463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7061
  • Identification of antioxidant peptides of Jinhua ham generated in the
           products and through the simulated gastro‐intestinal digestion
    • Authors: Chao‐Zhi Zhu; Wan‐Gang Zhang, Guang‐Hong Zhou, Xing‐Lian Xu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to purify and identify antioxidant peptides present in the extract of Chinese dry‐cured Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham extracts were separated into five fractions (A‐E) by size‐exclusion chromatography. Each fraction was subjected to a simulated gastro‐intestinal (GI) digestion system and fractions showing strong antioxidant activities were collected and subjected to liquid chromatography combined with mass/mass‐spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for further purification and identification. Results Using MS/MS analysis, 33 peptides were identified in these fractions. Several key peptides were selected for synthesis and determined their antioxidant activity. The peptide showing strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was GKFNV which showed 92.7% antioxidant activity at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the peptide LPGGGHGDL showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and LPGGGT and HA showed strong inhibition activity against erythrocyte haemolysis (about 45%) before digestion. On the other hand, KEER may contribute to Fe2+‐chelating ability in fraction C after GI digestion. Conclusion In conclusion, Jinhua dry‐cured ham seems to be a potential source of antioxidant peptides generated in the products and GI digestion.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T05:06:58.304896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7065
  • Effect of drying and frying conditions on physical and chemical
           characteristics of fish maw from swim bladder of seabass (Lates
    • Authors: Sittichoke Sinthusamran; Soottawat Benjakul
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Swim bladder is generated as byproduct during evisceration. It has been used for fish maw production, in which several processing parameters determine the characteristics or quality of resulting fish maw. The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of fish maws from seabass swim bladder as influenced by drying and frying conditions. Results Expansion ratio and oil uptake content of fish maw increased as the moisture content of swim bladder increased (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T03:26:03.969813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7059
  • Engineering of a thermostable β‐1,3‐1,4‐glucanase
           from Bacillus altitudinis YC‐9 to improve its catalytic efficiency
    • Authors: Shurui Mao; Peng Gao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu, Chong Zhang, Haizhen Zhao, Xiaomei Bie
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Error‐Prone PCR is frequently used in directed revolution of enzymes to modify their quality. In this study, Error‐Prone PCR was used to improve the catalytic efficiency of β‐1,3‐1,4‐glucanase from Bacillus altitudinis YC‐9. Resultes By screening, the mutant Glu‐3060 with higher activity was selected among 5000 transformants. After induced with IPTG, the activity of the mutant Glu‐3060 reached 474.6U ml−1, resulting in 48.6% increment of the parent enzyme activity. Research on the characterization of the mutated enzyme showed the optimal pH of the mutated enzyme is 5.0, which is lower than the parent enzyme, but thermal stability are almost the same between them. The sequence analysis of the mutated enzyme revealed that there were 3 amino acids changed compared with the parent enzyme, including K142N, Q203L and N214D. Conclusion The three dimensional structure predicted by SWISS‐MODLE of the mutated enzyme Glu‐3060 showed that the three amino acids substitution made effect on the catalytic activity, the stability and the optimal pH of the enzyme, through changing the charge properties or the electron density, the forming of the secondary keys, the acidity of the amino acids and the side chain group. The sum effects of all the factors made the mutated enzyme activity increased, the optimal pH decreased and the thermostability maintain the same, all of which are more suitable for industrial use.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T02:07:28.08228-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7066
  • Wild Morchella conica Pers. from different origins: A comparative study of
           nutritional and bioactive properties
    • Authors: Vanessa Vieira; Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Jasmina Glamočlija, Ana Ćirić, Dejan Stojković, Anabela Martins, Marina Soković, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Morchella conica Pers. is a species of fungus that belongs to the Morchellaceae family and was studied in order to obtain more information about this species, by comparing Portuguese and Serbian wild samples. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques. M. conica methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The absence of hepatoxicity was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells. Results The nutrition value varied between the two samples and the Serbian one gave the highest energy contribution and content in sugars, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds, while the Portuguese sample was richer in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and organic acids. In general, the Portuguese sample revealed the highest antioxidant potential (unless lipid peroxidation inhibition), while the Serbian one displayed higher antimicrobial activity. None of the samples revealed toxicity towards liver cells. Conclusion The present study provides new data concerning chemical characterization and bioactivity of Morchella conica Pers.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T01:32:41.739377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7063
  • Discovery of kokumi peptide from yeast extract by
           LC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS and sensomics approach
    • Authors: Jianbin Liu; Huanlu Song, Ye Liu, Pei Li, Juan Yao, Jian Xiong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Yeast extract could impart the thickness, complexity and long‐lasting taste impression, coined kokumi taste to the blank chicken broth. In this research, the kokumi‐active peptide in the yeast extract was discovered by ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography and Q‐TOF‐MS/MS technologies. Furthermore, the sensory characters of these peptides were evaluated by sensomics approach. Results A total of 10 kokumi peptides were identified from yeast extract. They were γ‐Glu‐Cys‐Gly, γ‐Glu‐Leu, γ‐Glu‐Val, γ‐Glu‐Tyr, Leu‐Lys, Leu‐Gln, Leu‐Ala, Leu‐Glu, Leu‐Thr and Ala‐Leu. Apart from the well‐known kokumi‐active GSH and γ‐glutamyl dipeptides, 5 leucyl dipeptides were firstly proposed having the kokumi activity. Among them, Ala‐Leu was found with the highest kokumi threshold concentration (1.5 mmol/L) in the blank chicken broth, while Leu‐Glu was the lowest (0.3 mmol/L). Subsequent dose/response experiment indicated that the bitter tasting leucyl dipeptides could impart kokumi taste to the chicken broth at low concentration (less than bitter threshold concentrations). Interestingly, the kokumi sensation began to decrease when such peptides exceed the threshold concentration by approximate 16‐fold in the blank chicken broth. Conclusion Key kokumi‐active fractions were purified from yeast extract. Among them, 10 important kokumi peptides from yeast extract were identified.
      PubDate: 2014-12-26T03:18:50.117115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7058
  • Diosgenin reorganizes hyperglycaemia and distorted tissue lipid profile in
           high fat diet‐streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
    • Authors: Parim BrahmaNaidu; Ponnusamy Ponmurugan, Mustapha Sabana Begum, Karthick Mohan, Balaji Meriga, Ramavat RavindarNaik, Ganapathy Saravanan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diabesity is often connected with significant morbidity, mortality and also have a pivotal role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Diet intervention, particularly naturaceutical antioxidants have antidiabetic potential and avert oxidative damage linked with diabetic pathogenesis. The present study investigated the effects of diosgenin, a saponin from fenugreek, on the changes in lipid profile in plasma, liver, heart and brain in high fat diet ‐ streptozotocin (HFD‐STZ) ‐induced diabetic rats. Diosgenin was administered to HFD‐STZ induced diabetic rats by orally at 60 mg k.g‐1 b.w‐1 for a period of 30 days to assess its effects on body weight gain, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance and cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma, liver, heart and brain. Results The levels of body weight, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, VLDL‐C and LDL‐C were increased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T01:56:46.627062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7057
  • Effect of sustainability information on consumers’ liking of
           freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
    • Authors: Julia Siqueira Simoes; Eliane Teixeira Mársico, Adiano Gomes da Cruz, Mônica Queiroz de Freitas, Laís Higino Doro, Carlos Adam Conte‐Junior
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This research aimed to investigate whether consumer acceptance is affected by information on sustainable practices on the product label. Hedonic evaluations of freshwater prawns were performed by 80 consumers under three aspects. The blind condition: consumers taste samples without information; Expected: without tasting samples, consumers evaluated the message “Freshwater prawns were grown using sustainable practices, reducing environmental impacts caused by traditional breeding”; Informed where prawns were tasted and the card evaluated. Results For the entire consumer group, it was observed that the message about sustainability on packaging increased freshwater prawns acceptability (8.25, expected condition ‐ E versus 6.75, blind condition ‐ B). High scores were observed in all three‐test conditions, ranging from 6 (like slightly) to 9 (like extremely), on a 9 point scale. Conclusion It can be concluded that the use of sustainable information can influence consumers’ perception and increase their preference toward freshwater prawn, and even increase the sensory attributes of the product.
      PubDate: 2014-12-19T02:23:32.01863-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7055
  • Salicornia herbacea prevents weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in
           high fat diet fed obese ICR mice
    • Authors: P.B.Tirupathi Pichiah; Youn‐Soo Cha
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Foods that are rich in fat and or sodium chloride promote obesity and associated diseases; whereas, intake of dietary fibers averts obesity development. Salicornia herbacea (SH) is a rich source of dietary fiber and high in sodium chloride; therefore, we investigated that whether replacing common salt with SH in high fat diet could prevent the obesity development. Results Mice were divided into five groups: group ND was fed a normal diet, group HD was fed a high fat diet, group HD‐NaCl was fed a high fat diet with 1% sodium chloride 10 g kg−1, group HD‐CL was fed a high fat diet with 3% cellulose 30 g kg−1 and group HD‐SH was fed with high fat diet with 5% Salicornia herbacea powder 50 g kg−1. The amount of sodium chloride and cellulose added in the respective diet was equivalent to their amount in the 5% SH. Data from our study showed that, SH supplementation significantly decrease body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride, serum leptin and insulin along with the mRNA level of key lipid anabolic genes like SREBP‐1c, PPARγ, and FAS compared to the HD group. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that SH is a potential natural anti‐obesity agent that can be used in place of sodium chloride.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T16:01:01.23472-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7054
  • Fenugreek (Trigonella foencem graecum) Seed Protein Isolate: Extraction
           Optimization, Amino acid Composition, Thermo and Functional Properties
    • Authors: Samira Feyzi; Mehdi Varidi, Fatemeh Zare, Mohammad Javad Varidi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background With increasing the demand of new protein sources, research on plant protein extraction and evaluation the functional properties of the protein isolates is necessary. In this study pH and NaCl concentration, as two parameters effecting on protein extraction of fenugreek seed was investigated and the condition of fenugreek protein isolate (FPI) extraction was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results FPI had significantly (p< 0.05) higher protein and essential amino acids content (891.00 g kg−1 and 387.41 g kg−1, respectively) compared with soy protein isolate (SPI). FPI was rich in Asp and Glu, confirming the presence of bands in acidic region (30–39 kDa) of its electrophoretic pattern. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermograph for both FPI and SPI showed two peaks with high denaturation temperature, confirming the presence of high protein content and hydrophobic amino acids, as well. Protein solubility, foaming capacity, foam stability, and emulsion stability of FPI were higher than SPI, moreover both FPI and SPI showed pH‐dependent protein functionalities. Conclusion Fenugreek seed protein extraction was optimized by control of pH and NaCl concentration. FPI could be used as a protein source with remarkable functional properties.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T15:36:31.163155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7056
  • Profiling the quality characteristics of the butter of Pentadesma
           butyracea with reference to shea butter
    • Authors: Bernolde P Ayegnon; Adéchola PP Kayodé, Fidèle P Tchobo, Paulin Azokpota, Mohamed M Soumanou, D Joseph Hounhouigan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pentadesma butyracea is a tropical plant species. Its kernels are rich in edible butter similar to shea butter. This study evaluated the quality characteristics of the Pentadesma butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin, using quantitative survey approach and physico‐chemical and sensorial analysis methods. Results The butter of Pentadesma is mostly used for food preparation, cosmetic and therapeutic applications. It is characterized by a yellow colour, a hard‐softening texture, a relatively sweet taste and a brightly appearance. Consumers preferred the Pentadesma butter more than shea butter for the colour, the taste, the texture and the appearance. Instrumental analysis showed that the average water content (6.5 g kg−1) and peroxide value (0.74 meq O2 kg−1) of the Pentadesma butter were lower than those of shea butter for which average water content and peroxide values were 20.7 g kg−1 and 2.09 meq O2 kg−1 respectively. The fatty acid profile of the Pentadesma butter is similar to that of shea butter. Conclusion This study showed that the Pentadesma butyracea butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin exhibited quality characteristics which are better than that of the shea butter. The data generated can be used for a better exploitation of the butter in food and cosmetic industries.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T15:21:54.106347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7052
  • Rapid Monitoring of Grape Withering Using Visible Near Infrared
    • Authors: Roberto Beghi; Valentina Giovenzana, Simone Marai, Riccardo Guidetti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Wineries need new practical and quick instruments, non‐destructive and able to quantitatively evaluate during withering the parameters that impact product quality. The aim of the work was to test an optical portable system (vis/NIR spectrophotometer) in the wavelength range of 400–1000 nm for the prediction of quality parameters of grape berries during withering. Results A total of 300 red grape samples (Vitis vinifera L., Corvina cultivar) harvested in vintage year 2012 from Valpolicella area (Verona, Italy) were analyzed. Qualitative (principal component analysis, PCA) and quantitative (partial least square regression algorithm, PLS) evaluations were performed on grape spectra. PCA showed a clear sample grouping for the different withering stages. PLS models gave encouraging predictive capabilities for soluble solids content (R2val = 0.62 and ratio performance deviation, RPD = 1.87) and firmness (R2val = 0.56 and RPD = 1.79). Conclusion The work demonstrated the applicability of vis/NIR spectroscopy as a rapid technique for the analysis of the grape quality directly in barns, during withering. The sector could be provided with simple and inexpensive optical systems that can be used to monitor the withering degree of grape for a better management of wine production process.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T15:21:12.081235-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7053
  • Characterization and effect of year at harvest on the nutritional
           properties of three varieties of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.)
    • Authors: Serena Calabrò; Monica I Cutrignelli, Vittorio Lo Presti, Raffaella Tudisco, Vincenzo Chiofalo, Micaela Grossi, Federico Infascelli, Biagina Chiofalo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Three cultivars of Lupinus albus L. (Lutteur, Lublanc, Multitalia) were assessed for proximate analysis, fatty acids, alkaloids and in vitro fermentation characteristics over three harvest years. RESULTS: The chemical composition fairly varied during the harvest years (g kg−1 Dry Matter): Crude Protein content ranged from 353 to 456, Neutral Detergent Fiber from 209 to 321 and lignin from 3.0 to 63.9. The Lublanc showed the highest Crude Protein (417 g kg−1 Dry Matter) and lignin (35 g kg−1 Dry Matter) content. High levels of lipids (89.9 g kg−1 Dry Matter ) and starch (93.3 g kg−1Dry Matter) were found in all samples. Alkaloid content ranged from 3.63 to 165 mg 100 g−1. The Lutteur and Lublanc showed more favorable n‐3/n‐6 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid ratios (from 0.44 to 0.73), and lower values of the anti‐quality factor “erucic acid” (from 5.8 to 20.9 g kg−1 ) than the Multitalia. The Lutteur showed higher degradability (897 g kg−1), gas (330 ml g−1 Organic Matter) and Volatile Fatty Acids (117 mmol g−1 Organic Matter) production compared with the other varieties. CONCLUSION: Data suggest the Lutteur to be a promising crop as food thanks to its high nutritive traits and most constant yield overtime.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:32:35.769502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7049
  • Instrumental and Sensory Analyses of Quality Attributes of Grafted
           Specialty Melons
    • Authors: Wenjing Guan; Xin Zhao, Donald J. Huber, Charles A. Sims
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. Results Galia melon ‘Arava’ (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon ‘Honey Yellow’ (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root‐knot nematode resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of ‘Arava’ fruit. By contrast with grafted ‘Arava’, grafted ‘Honey Yellow’ did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and the rootstock selection. Conclusion The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scions used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on fruit quality need to be considered in selection and use of disease resistant rootstocks.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:32:02.807343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7050
  • Antioxidant and anti‐ageing activities of mycelia zinc
           polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko SW‐03
    • Authors: Lan Zheng; Min Liu, Guo‐Yin Zhai, Zhao Ma, Li‐Qin Wang, Le Jia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Edible fungi polysaccharides usually exhibited antioxidant activity, and zinc has been shown to have antioxidant properties. In the present work, Pholiota nameko SW‐03 was used as a vector of zinc biotransformation in order to obtain mycelia zinc polysaccharide (MZPS), and the structural characterization and anti‐ageing activity of MZPS were investigated. Results P. nameko SW‐03 could accumulate zinc in the form of zinc‐riched polysaccharide, and the zinc content in MZPS was 16.39 ± 0.72 mg g−1. Three fractions (MZPS‐1, MZPS‐2 and MZPS‐3) were successfully isolated. The main fraction (MZPS‐2) with the highest antioxidant activity in vitro was composed of glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid, galactose, galacturonic acid and arabinose in a molar ratio of 172.59:5.29:4.61:4.20:1.01:1.00, with the weight‐average molecular weight of 13.63 kDa. The anti‐ageing capability has been measured by building the D‐galactose‐induced ageing mice, and the results showed that MZPS could improve antioxidant status (SOD, T‐AOC, MDA and LPO), indicating that MZPS had strong anti‐ageing capability in vivo. Conclusion This study suggested that organification of zinc through edible fungi liquid fermentation provided a novel method to produce mycelia zinc polysaccharide, which might be used as natural antioxidant to slow the progression of ageing.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:17:33.057789-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7048
  • Melatonin in Mediterranean diet, a new perspective
    • Authors: Marcello Iriti; Elena Maria Varoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Health‐promoting properties of Mediterranean diet have been attributed, at least in part, to the chemical diversity of plant foods. Among phytochemicals, polyphenols represent the paradigm of the relationship between healthy foods and reduced risk of chronic‐degenerative diseases, even if, in the past few years, a new element enriched this scenario. Melatonin, and possibly other indoleamines recently discovered in some relevant Mediterranean foods, may represent a new factor contributing to the elucidation of the protective effects of diets rich in plant products. Therefore, in synergy with polyphenols and other bioactive phytochemicals (e.g., carotenoids, glucosinolates), melatonin may contribute to maximizing the benefits of healthy dietary styles. This brief survey deals with the occurrence of melatonin in the Mediterranean diet, with an emphasis on grape products, and focuses on the biological significance of dietary melatonin, an emerging and exciting topic in the field of nutritional sciences.
      PubDate: 2014-12-15T01:57:01.079333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7051
  • Composition of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green
           propolis and its phytotoxic activity
    • Authors: Caroline C. Fernandes‐Silva; Carolina A. Lima, Giuseppina Negri, Maria L. F. Salatino, Antonio Salatino, Marco A. S. Mayworm
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Propolis is a resinous material produced by honeybees, containing mainly beeswax and plant material. Despite the wide spectrum of biological activity of propolis, to our knowledge no studies have been carried out about phytotoxic properties of Brazillian propolis and its constituents. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazillian green propolis. Results Main constituents are the phenylpropanoid 3‐prenylcinnamic acid allyl ester (26.3%) and the sesquiterpene spathulenol (23.4%). Several other sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, in addition to linalool and α‐terpineol (monoterpenes), were also detected. The activity of solutions of the volatile fraction at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1% was tested on lettuce seeds and seedlings. The solution at 1% inhibited completely the seed germination and solutions at 0.1 and 0.5% reduced the germination rate index. The solution at 0.5% reduced the growth of the hypocotyl‐radicle axis and the development of the cotyledon leaf. Conclusions The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of this Brazilian green propolis is different from those previously described, and these results may contribute to a better understanding about the chemical variations in propolis. The volatile fraction of Brazilian green propolis influences both germination of seed lettuce and the growth of its seedlings, showing an phytotoxic potential.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:15:38.157646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7045
  • Cloning and functional analysis of Δ6 desaturase gene and its
           upstream region from Mortierella sp. AGED
    • Authors: Li Tan; Shue Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fuying Ma
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Δ6 desaturase belonging to membrane‐bound enzyme is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of PUFAs. This study aimed to clone and characterize Δ6 desaturase gene and its upstream regulatory region of Mortierella sp. AGED. Results Glucose and soybean meal are best for lipid and arachidonic acid accumulation of Mortierella sp. AGED. A 1375‐bp Δ6 desaturase gene AGfad6 which contains 1275‐bp ORF encoding 424 amino acids without signal peptide was cloned. The putative protein contained three conserved histidine‐rich motifs and a conserved HPGG motif, with a mass of 48.3 KDa and isoelectric point of 5.96. AGfad6 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, which exerted the effect on converting linoleic acid to γ‐linolenic acid. The 1712‐bp upstream region contained basic transcriptional elements including TATA, GC and GATA box, putative target‐binding sites for transcription factors such as TATA binding protein, transcription activator, CCAAT‐enhancer‐binding protein, activator protein 1, alcohol dehydrogenase gene regulator 1 and metabolic regulators p40x in fungi, stress‐related elements including GT‐1 (light‐responsive, salicylic acid‐inducible), stress response element (STRE), heat stress‐responsive element (HSE), which might participate in regulation of PUFAs synthesis. Conclusion The present finding could enable us to understand the evolution and regulatory mechanism of Δ6 desaturase gene.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:15:21.775875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7043
  • Water harvesting techniques and supplemental irrigation impact on sorghum
    • Authors: Abubaker B. M. A; Yu Shuang‐En, Panda S.N, Shao Guang‐Cheng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In general, rain‐fed agriculture is practiced in many areas in Western Sudan. Therefore, it is imperative to adopt appropriate rainwater harvesting and reuse technique (s) by promoting soil and water management research to sustain crop productivity. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a primary stable crop of Sudan. Extensive field experiments were conducted to study the effect of water harvesting techniques (WHTs) and supplemental irrigation (SI) on infiltration rate (IR), soil moisture content (SMC), growth and productivity of sorghum during two rainy seasons (2012 and 2013). Results The results showed that the WHTs and SI affected the soil physical properties, growth and productivity parameters of sorghum. The results indicated that the tied‐ridging with SI (TRwSI) produced the highest values of accumulative IR, SMC and sorghum productivity (115 mm, 13% and 4000 kg h−1, in season 2012, respectively. Whereas in season 2013 the values were 145 mm, 10% and 5000 kg h−1, for accumulative IR, SMC and sorghum productivity, respectively. Basin with SI (BwSI) ranked second, next to TRwSI in the both seasons. Conclusion Hence, water harvesting and SI are expected to play a significant role in terms of sustainable agricultural and socio‐economic development in Western Sudan and similar areas.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:15:06.317505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7047
  • Effect from in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on
           oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in yeast Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae and human monocyte‐derived dendritic cells
    • Authors: Karin Larsson; Katja Istenič, Tune Wulff, Rósa Jónsdóttir, Hordur Kristinsson, Jona Freysdottir, Ingrid Undeland, Polona Jamnik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Upon oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in fish oil, either before ingestion or, as recently shown, during the gastrointestinal (GI) passage, a cascade of potentially cytotoxic peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4‐hydroxy‐2‐hexenal (HHE), can form. In this study, we digested fresh and oxidized cod liver oils in vitro, monitored the levels of lipid peroxidation products and evaluated oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses to the two types of digests in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human monocyte‐derived dendritic cells. Results Digests of cod liver oil with 22‐53 μM MDA and 0.26‐3.7 μM HHE increased intracellular oxidation and cell energy metabolic activity compared to a digested blank in yeast cells and the influence of digests on mitochondrial protein expression was more pronounced for oxidized cod liver oil than fresh cod liver oil. The four differentially expressed and identified proteins were related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress response. Maturation of dendritic cells was affected in the presence of digested fresh cod liver oil compared to the digested blank, measured as lower CD86 expression. The ratio of secreted cytokines, IL‐12p40/IL‐10, suggested a pro‐inflammatory effect of the digested oils in relation to the blank (1.47‐1.67 vs 1.07). Conclusion GI digestion of cod liver oil increases the amount of oxidation products and resulting digests affect oxidation in yeast and immunomodulation of dendritic cells.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:14:38.989804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7046
  • Utilization of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipids and
           gamma‐linolenic acid production by oleaginous fungi
    • Authors: Iniya Kumar Muniraj; Liwen Xiao, He Liu, Xinmin Zhan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Microbial lipids are considered as the starting material for production of second generation biofuels and its polyunsaturated fatty acids are rich sources of neutraceuticals. Exploring cheap feedstock for producing microbial lipids is necessary. The present study examined the potential of microbial lipids and gamma linolenic acid (GLA) production by two oleaginous fungi, Aspergillus flavus I16‐3 and Mucor rouxii, with potato processing wastewater as a low‐cost or no‐cost nutrient source. Results Biochemistry and physiology of two oleaginous fungi, Aspergillus flavus I16‐3 and Mucor rouxii, on lipid accumulation showed the two fungi grew well and efficiently utilized the starch in wastewater. On average (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-11T06:14:12.191485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7044
  • Caseinate‐gelatin and caseinate‐hydrolyzed gelatin composites
           formed via transglutaminase: Chemical and functional properties
    • Authors: Zhen‐Ling Luo; Xin‐Huai Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Treatment of food proteins by enzymatic crosslinking and other reactions can confer modified properties on the treated proteins. Bovine gelatin and hydrolyzed bovine gelatin were used to generate two caseinate‐based composites via transglutaminase, and potential useful properties to food processing were investigated for both composites. Results Caseinate‐gelatin and caseinate‐hydrolyzed gelatin composites contained 33.4 and 10.3 g kg−1 protein of 4‐hydroxyproline, respectively. Caseinate conjugation with gelatin and hydrolyzed gelatin resulted in two composites with stronger absorption at five wavenumbers during FT‐IR analysis, demonstrating they were rich in hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Both composites exhibited higher viscosity values in aqueous dispersions, lower thermal stability (i.e. higher mass loss) during thermogravimetric analysis, and worse emulsifying properties than original caseinate, due to conjugation and crosslinking via transglutaminase. However, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis revealed that both composites actually had better emulsion stability, upon two weeks of storage. Conclusion The composites generated were different in chemical characteristics and better in viscosity and emulsion stability than original caseinate. They might have potential as protein thickeners and emulsifiers. CLSM is a better technique to assess emulsion stability of food proteins than the classic turbidity method.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T03:21:13.444557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7042
  • An Appraisal of Eighteen Commonly Consumed Edible Plants as Functional
           Food Based on their Antioxidant and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activities
    • Authors: Yian Hoon Lee; Candy Choo, Mindani I. Watawana, Nilakshi Jayawardena, Viduranga Y. Waisundara
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Eighteen edible plants were assessed for their antioxidant potential based on the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, vitamin C contents and various lipophilic antioxidants. The inhibitory activities of the plant extracts against the enzymatic activities of α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase were also evaluated. RESULTS The antioxidant and starch hydrolase activities of the plants varied widely across a single batch of analysis. The ORAC and DPPH radical scavenging EC50 values varied between 298 – 1984 Trolox equivalents per gram fresh weight and 91 – 533 mg per kilogram fresh weight, respectively. The total phenolics and vitamin C contents varied between 32 – 125 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram fresh weight and 96 – 285 µg per gram fresh weight, respectively. All the plants contained neoxanthin, violaxanthin, α‐ and β‐ carotene in varying amounts. Coccinia grandis, Asparagus racemosus, Costus specious, Amaranthus viridis and Annona muricata displayed the highest inhibitory activities against the starch hydrolases. They were the most efficient against the breakdown of seven starches exposed to the two enzymes as well. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the edible plants were observed to display a high antioxidant potential with starch hydrolase inhibitory properties which were beneficial in their being recognized as functional food.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T10:31:24.45685-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7039
  • A rapid and effective approach for on‐site assessment of total
           carotenoid content in wolfberry juice during processing
    • Authors: Xiaodong Zheng; Fengtao Zhu, Maoyu Wu, Xinhuan Yan, Xiaomeng Meng, Ye Song
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We have exploited an effective approach for rapid extracting caratenoid from wolfberry juice and determined TCC (total carotenoid content) by an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. Several mix solvents, adsorption wavelengths of carotenoid extracts and extraction procedure were investigated. The optimal solvent mix with broad spectrum polarity is hexane/ ethanol/ acetone (2/ 1/ 1) and wavelength is 456 nm. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference of TCC in wolfberries juice between direct extraction and saponification extraction. The developed method for assessment of TCC has been successfully employed in quality evaluation of wolfberry juice at different processing condition. This measurement have inherent advantages (simpleness, rapidity, effectiveness) that make it very appropriate to obtain almost on‐site information of TCC in wolfberries juice during processing.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T09:50:48.284934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7038
  • Physico‐chemical properties of caper spp. seed oils collected from
           two different harvest years
    • Authors: Erman Duman; Mehmet Musa Özcan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, physico‐chemical properties, fatty acid composition, sterol and tocopheol contents of caper species seed and seed oils were determined. RESULTS Brightness value (L*) of oils obtained from caper seeds changed between 36.76 and 53.48. Viscosity values of oils of Capparis spinosa species were found between 41.545 mpa and 48.656 mpa. While oleic acid amount was high in Capparis spinosa species, amount of linoleic acid was high in Capparis ovata species. Sterol amounts of crude oils were found to be between 3140 and 3272 in average 3220 mg/kg in Capparis spinosa species and between 3275 and 3312 mg/kg in average 3298 mg/kg in Capparis ovata species. α‐Tocopherol contents Capparis spinosa and Capparis ovata were found between 3.87mg/100g ‐ 2.63mg/100g, respectively. Radical activity values of crude oils were found between 29.78% (Capparis spinosa species) to 26.09% (Capparis ovata species). Total phenolic matter amounts of crude oils were in average 0.642 mg/g in Capparis ovata species (p˂0.01). CONCLUSION It can be thought that caper seed oils are natural potential vegetable oil source in terms of health and resistance against oxidation and stabilization of oils.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:58:40.20668-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7040
  • Maternal exposure to diets containing flaxseed
           flour or flaxseed oil during pregnancy
           and lactation protects
           the aortic remodeling in adult male
           offspring of diabetic rat dams
    • Authors: Gabriela Câmara Vicente; André Manoel Correia‐Santos, Akemi Suzuki, Luis Guillermo Coca Velarde, Maurício Alves Chagas, Gilson Teles Boaventura
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular complications in the fetus and extends into adulthood. Therapeutic applications of flaxseed has been studied in cardiovascular disorders, because it oilseed the best plant source of omega‐3 fatty acid, which are currently considered by researchers, essential protective against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study to evaluate the influence of flaxseed flour and oil upon the cardiovascular biochemical parameters and the histoarchitecture of the aorta in adult rats which were an offspring of diabetic mothers. RESULTS At 100 days of age in offspring was observed that maternal consumption of high fat diet containing flaxseed oil (FOG) and flaxseed flour (FFG) did not affect in the serum concentration of the MCP‐1, VEGF, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL‐c, LDL‐c, and VLDL‐c. But, the thickness of the intima‐media layer of the aorta was significantly smaller in FOG and FFG groups; the lumen area was similar amongst the groups; and, a higher percentage of the elastic fiber was founded in FOG and FFG. CONCLUSION These data suggest that both the use of flaxseed flour as its oil reduce the remodeling of the aorta, however it has not been able to modify the cardiovascular biochemical parameters.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:58:22.023943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7041
  • Polyphenolic profile in cider and antioxidant power
    • Authors: Andoni Zuriarrain; Juan Zuriarrain, Ana I. Puertas, M. Teresa Dueñas, Miren Ostra, Iñaki Berregi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of the work is to find the effect of polyphenolic compounds in Basque ciders on the following five parameters: antioxidant activity, browning, protein precipitating capacity, turbidity and reduction potential. These five parameters are highly important, as they affect the taste, the visual aspect and the preservation of cider, and are mainly related with polyphenolic compounds. Results Procyanidine B1 and procyanidine B2 show significant positive effect on antioxidant activity. p‐Coumaric acid, (−)‐epicatechin and hyperin have significant positive effect on protein precipitating capacity. Tyrosol has a significant negative effect on reduction potential. Conclusions Procyanidine B1 and procyanidine B2 are the most powerful antioxidants in Basque cider, while p‐coumaric acid, (−)‐epicatechin and hyperin are those with greatest capacity to precipitate proteins. Ciders with higher tyrosol concentration will have less reduction potential and higher antioxidant reservoir.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T01:57:49.654925-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7036
  • Carbon Isotope Ratios of Selected Volatiles in C. sinensis and in Orange
           Flavoured Food
    • Authors: Luisa Schipilliti; Ivana Bonaccorsi, Antonella Cotroneo, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Twenty genuine samples of industrially cold‐pressed sweet orange essential oils, were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC‐C‐IRMS) to determine the values of the carbon isotope ratios (δ13CVPDB) of selected volatiles and assess the corresponding range of authenticity. Successively four commercial orange flavoured products were analysed under identical conditions to evaluate the authenticity of the orange flavour. The samples were extracted by Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) under optimized conditions. The evaluation was performed by the use of the internal standard procedure to neglect the contribute due of the environment of origin to the isotopic abundance of 13C. The composition of the volatile fraction of the essential oils and of the flavoured products was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) with linear retention indices and by gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC‐FID). Results The δ13CVPDB values of seven secondary metabolites here determined were successfully used to characterize genuine orange essential oil. These values were used to evaluate the quality of orange flavoured products unveiling the presence of compounds of different origin, not compatible with the values of genuine orange secondary metabolites. Conclusions This study provides the range of authenticity of δ13CVPDB of seven different secondary metabolites in sweet orange genuine essential oil, useful to evaluate the genuineness of orange flavour. In analogy with previous study on different essential oils, the values here determined can be successfully applied for the evaluation of a large number of flavoured food stuff and correlate it with its origin.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T01:57:27.375397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7037
  • Effects of salinity and nitrogen supply on the quality and
           health‐related compounds of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa
           cv. Primoris)
    • Authors: Vanessa Cardeñosa; Evangelina Medrano, Pilar Lorenzo, Mª Cruz Sánchez‐Guerrero, Inmaculada Pradas, José M. Moreno‐Rojas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Different nitrogen inputs and/or development under adverse water conditions (water stress/low quality and/or high salinity/electrical conductivity), such as those prevailing in Almeria (Mediterranean coast, South‐East, Spain), may affect overall fruit and vegetable quality. This study evaluated the influence of salinity and nitrogen reduction in hydroponic nutrient solution (HNS) on strawberry fruit quality and nutritional compounds (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cv. Primoris). Results Strawberries obtained under salinity treatments recorded the highest values for SSC (all samplings); fruit taste was thus enhanced. Additionally, salinity improved fruit nutritional value, with higher contents of antioxidants compounds (first sampling). During first and second sampling, strawberries grown under N reduction and non‐saline conditions showed higher values for firmness compared to fruits developed under other treatments. Regarding health related compounds, few differences were found except for Total Polyphenols Concentration (TPC) and Antioxidant Activity (AA) for the first sampling, where strawberries grown under saline treatments obtained the highest values for both parameters. Conclusion The use of low quality waters, such as the ones found in Almeria (salinity, N9S and N5S) and low nitrogen inputs (N5, avoid environmental impact) for strawberry cultivation, does not exert a negative impact on overall quality. Positive differences could be found in SSC, firmness and health‐related compounds when compared against the control treatment (N9).
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:22:02.921478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7034
  • The relationship of antioxidant components and antioxidant activity of
           Sesame seed oil
    • Authors: Yin Wan; Huixiao Li, Guiming Fu, Xueyang Chen, Feng Chen, Mingyong Xie
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Though sesame seed oil contains high contents of unsaturated fatty acids and even a small amount of free fatty acids in its unrefined flavored oil, it shows remarkable stability than other dietary vegetable oils. The good stability of sesame seed oil against auto‐oxidation was ascribed not only to the inherent lignans and tocopherols, but also to the generated browning reaction products when sesame seeds were roasted. Also, there is an excellent synergistic effect among these three kinds of components. The lignans in sesame seed oil could be categorized into two types: the inherent lignans (sesamin, sesamolin) and the lignans (e.g. sesamol, sesamolinol, etc) that were mainly formed during oil production process. The highest level of tocopherols in sesame seed oil is γ‐tocopherol. This paper reviewed the antioxidant activities of lignans and tocopherols, as well as the browning reaction and its products in the sesame seed and/or its oil. It was indicated that the composition, structure of browning reaction products and their impacts on sesame ingredients need to be further studied to better explain the remaining mysteries of the sesame oil.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:21:38.192226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7035
  • Identification and Characterization of Antigenic site (epitope) on bovine
           β‐lactoglobulin: Common residues in linear and conformational
    • Authors: Xin Li; Shuilin Yuan, Shengfa He, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background β‐lactoglobulin is recognized as one of major allergens in milk and its epitopes include linear and conformational epitopes contributed to milk allergy. RESULTS: In our work, two types of epitopes have been identified. Linear epitopes identified by using SPOTTM peptide arrays approach and three common peptide sequences AA77‐82 (KIPAVF), AA126‐131 (PEVDNE) and AA142‐147 (ALPMHI) were obtained by reacting with specific sera from two rabbits. At the same time, mimotopes were screened by the panning of phage display peptide library and the corresponding conformational epitopes were calculated by web tool of Peptiope server with Mapitope algorithm. Three conformational epitopes against two specific sera were identified, in which there were 15 common residues as well and located in the different position and appeared mainly as α‐helix. Conclusion Common residues on the linear and conformational epitopes were identified in the first time, respectively, which could be regarded as informative epitopes for detection of allergen in dairy products.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T01:44:09.613891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7033
  • Production and characterization of whey protein hydrolysate having
           antioxidant activity from cheese whey
    • Authors: S Athira; Bimlesh Mann, Prerna Saini, Rajan Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, Ashish Kumar Singh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cheese whey is a rich by‐product in nutritional terms: possessing high biological value components, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. So in the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultrafiltrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolyzed with food grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions viz; pH, temperature and time were optimized for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Results Whey protein hydrolyzed for 8 hours at pH 9.00 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg−1 protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultrafiltration through 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides: β‐Lg f(123–131), β‐Lg f(122–131), β‐Lg f(124–131), β‐Lg f(123–134) , β‐Lg f(122–131),β‐Lg f(96–100) and β‐Lg f(94–100) were identified by LC‐MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolyzate. The incorporation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5–10 gl−1) raised their antioxidant activity from 76–90 % as compared to control. Conclusion Hydrolysis of ultrafiltrated retentate of whey can be an energy and cost effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T01:43:50.048208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7032
  • Phenolic content, physical and sensory properties of breads made with
           different types of barley wort
    • Authors: Antonietta Baiano; Ilaria Viggiani, Carmela Terracone, Roberto Romaniello, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Barley wort, an intermediate product of beer brewing, is rich in phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility to increase the antioxidant content of bread by replacing water with three types of wort: two of them withdrawn at the end of the mashing operation during the production of a Pilsner and a Double Malt Pilsner beer, respectively; the other collecteed in an intermediate stage of mashing of the Pilsner beer. The chemical, physical, and sensory properties of the wort‐added breads were compared to those of the control. Results All the worts allowed to increase phenolic content, volume, and specific volume of the breads, and induced significant changes in 11 of the 23 sensory descriptors. The highest phenolic contents were detected in the breads alternatively made with the Pilsner wort withdrawn at an intermediate stage of mashing or with the Double Malt Pilsner wort. The first also allowed the highest increase of volume and specific volume, but significantly reduced the scores of crunchiness, firmness, and cohesiveness. The second allowed lower increases of volume and specific volume but less significant changes of the sensory properties were associated to its use. Conclusion Worts can be conveniently used to increase the bread antioxidant content. Nevertheless, the various types of worts can modify in different extents physical and sensory properties of the products.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:40:57.624795-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7014
  • Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green
    • Authors: David Villanueva Bermejo; Ivan Angelov, Gonzalo Vicente, Roumiana P. Stateva, Mónica Rodriguez García‐Risco, Guillermo Reglero, Elena Ibañez, Tiziana Fornari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Thymol (2‐isopropyl‐5‐methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil. This compound has revealed several biological properties, such as antibacterial, anti‐inflammatory, and antioxidant. In this work, a comparison was made between the performance of different green solvents (ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction(SFE) at different conditions, to extract thymol from three different varieties of Thymus genus (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus citriodorus). Additionally, the new solubility data of thymol in limonene and ethanol at ambient pressure and temperatures in the range (30–43) °C are reported. Results T. vulgaris is the specie for which the highest thymol recoveries were attained (7–11 mg g−1). No thymol could be quantified in the PLE samples of T. citriodorus. The highest concentrations of thymol in the extracts were obtained with limonene. Thymol is very soluble in both solvents, particularly in ethanol (around 90 % wt at ≈ 40 °C). Thymol is the main compound (in terms of peak area) present in the essential oil extracts obtained. Conclusion The three solvents show good capacity to extract thymol from T. vulgaris and T. zygis by PLE. Although PLE proved to be a suitable technology to extract thymol from thyme plants, the highest concentrations of thymol were obtained by SFE with supercritical CO2
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T09:27:27.250235-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7031
  • Composition of fatty acids in virgin olive oils from cross breeding
           segregating populations by gas chromatography separation–flame
           ionization detection
    • Authors: Verónica Sánchez de Medina; Milad El Riachy, Feliciano Priego‐Capote, María Dolores Luque de Castro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Recent technological advances to improve the quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) have been focused on olive breeding programs by selecting outstanding cultivars and target progenies. Fatty acids (FAs) composition, with special emphasis on oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0), is one of the most critical quality factors to be evaluated in VOO. For this reason, the profile of FAs is frequently used as decision tool in olive breeding programs. Results A method based on gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was used to study the influence of genotype in the concentration of ten of the most important FAs in VOOs from target crosses Arbequina × Arbosana, Picual × Koroneiki and Sikitita × Arbosana and their corresponding genitors, Arbequina, Arbosana, Koroneiki, Picual and Sikitita. For this purpose, a targeted approach was selected for determination of esterified FAs (EFAs) and non esterified FAs (NEFAs), in a dual analysis by the same chromatographic method. A Pearson analysis revealed correlation between pairs of FAs, which allowed detecting metabolic connections through desaturation and elongation enzymes. An ANOVA test (with p‐values 
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T09:19:15.197737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7030
  • Quality Attributes of Pistachio Nuts as Affected by Rootstock and Deficit
    • Authors: Ángel A. Carbonell‐Barrachina; Houssem Memmi, Luis Noguera‐Artiaga, María del Carmen Gijón‐López, Rafał Ciapa, David Pérez‐López
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this work, the influence of two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and three different rootstocks on the quality of pistachios was evaluated by analyzing different parameters: morphological analysis, physico‐chemical analysis and sensory analysis. Results The results obtained in terms of the choice of either rootstock, revealed that Pistacia atlantica had increased production yields, nut weight, mineral content, higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes, and a higher degree of consumer satisfaction, than other rootstocks studied. Moreover, the results established that the application of RDI on pistachio cultivation had no significant influence on production yields, weight, size, color, water activity and mineral composition thereof. Furthermore, T1 treatment (stem water potential 
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:50:31.862378-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7027
  • CERES‐Maize model‐based simulation of climate change impacts
           on maize yields and potential adaptive measures in Heilongjiang Province,
    • Authors: Yumei Lin; Wenxiang Wu, Quansheng Ge
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Climate change would cause negative impacts on future agricultural production and food security. Adaptive measures should be taken to mitigate the adverse effects. The objectives of this study were to simulate the potential effects of climate change on maize yields in Heilongjiang Province and to evaluate two selected typical household‐level autonomous adaptive measures, including cultivar changes and planting time adjustments, for mitigating the risks of climate change based on CERES‐Maize model. Results The results showed that flowering duration and maturity duration of maize would be shortened in the future climate and thus the maize yield would reduce 11 ~ 46% during 2011 ~ 2099 relative to 1981 ~ 2010. Increased CO2 concentration would not benefit the maize production significantly. However, substituting local cultivars with later‐maturing ones and delaying the planting date could increase yields as the climate changes. Conclusion Our results provide insight regarding the likely impacts of climate change on maize yields and the efficacy of selected adaptive measures by presenting evidence‐based implications and mitigation strategies for the potential negative impacts of future climate change.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:42:24.316157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7024
  • Physicochemical and crystalline properties of heat‐moisture treated
           rice starch: Combined effects of moisture and length of heating
    • Authors: Xiangli Kong; Dan Qiu, Xiaoting Ye, Jinsong Bao, Zhongquan Sui, Jiewei Fan, Wenzhou Xiang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Nowadays there is a great interest in the application of physical modification techniques, such as heat‐moisture treatment (HMT). The effects of HMT on normal and waxy rice starches, subject to different levels of moisture content and length of heating, were investigated. Results Water solubility index (determined at 90 °C) decreased after HMT for normal and waxy rice starches, while swelling power (determined at 90 °C) showed inconsistent results (decrease for normal type, increase for waxy type) after HMT. Values in pasting parameters of normal and waxy rice starch increased initially, but the extent of increase slowed down with moisture content and length of treatment increasing. Heat moisture treatment decreased gelatinization temperatures with length of treatment as 4 h and 8 h, but when length of treatment was prolonged to 16 h, gelatinization temperature increased. Degree of crystallinity decreased for all treatments, and decreased much more at higher levels of moisture content. Conclusion Variations in levels of moisture content and length of heating had significant effects on physicochemical and crystalline properties to different extents.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:39:46.6434-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7028
  • Effect of edible chitosan/clove oil films and high pressure processing on
           the microbiological shelf life of trout fillets
    • Authors: I. Albertos; D. Rico, A. M. Diez, L. González‐Arnáiz, M. J. García‐Casas, I. Jaime
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The inhibitory effect of chitosan films with clove oil (0 to 50 g Kg−1) was evaluated on a range of ten representative food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. RESULTS: The most sensitive bacteria to the films was Shewanella putrefaciens and the most resistant resulted the Aeromonas hydrophila (inhibition showed only at 50 g Kg−1 clove essential oil ‐ CEO). Films with 20 g Kg−1 CEO inhibited 9 out of 10 of the bacteria tested. Chitosan films with 20 g Kg−1 CEO were combined with high pressure (HPP) processing as treatments for trout fillets and changes in physicochemical parameters and microbial load were evaluated at 4 °C over 22 days of storage. The films reduced the weight loss and water activity compared to fresh and treated samples (HPP and cook). Results showed that microbial load (total aerobic mesophilic, lactic acid bacteria and total coliform) of the trout fillets covered with chitosan films were lower than those for HPP treated samples, and similar to cooked samples, except for coliforms counts. Conclusion The use of 20 g Kg−1 CEO‐chitosan films showed a further improvement in the shelf‐life of trout fillets when compared to that obtained with the HPP and cooking treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:51.889394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7026
  • A real time quality control application for animal production by image
    • Authors: Cemil Sungur; Halil Özkan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The standards of hygiene and health have started to gain importance in the current food production and quality control also become an obligation in this field. Thanks to rapidly developing technologies, it is now possible to automatically and safely check the quality control of food production. For this purpose, image processing based quality control systems used in the industrial applications are being used in order to analyze the quality of food products. In this study, quality control of chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) is achieved by using real time image processing technique. In order to execute the quality control processes, a conveying mechanism is used. The eggs passing on the conveyor was continuously photographed in real‐time through the cameras located on this mechanism. Those photographs are processed through various methods and techniques to process images. By using digital instruments; the volume of the eggs was measured, broken/cracked eggs were separated and dirty eggs were determined. According to the international standards for classifying the quality of eggs, the class of separated eggs was determined through fuzzy implication model. It was observed that quality control process was possible with the accuracy of 98% during the tests carried out on the thousands of eggs.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:35.603446-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7025
  • Maintaining Functional Properties of Shell Eggs by Ultrasound Treatment
    • Authors: Cengiz Caner; Muhammed Yuceer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backround Ultrasonic treatment is one of emerging techniques that could be the alternative to existing thermal processing techniques in foods. Ultrasonic treatments may also be used to extend the shelf life of egg during storage period in ambient temperature. Effectiveness of ultrasound treatment with different power levels (200W, 300W, 450W) and treatment times (2 min and 5 min) were evaluated for enhancing functional properties of eggs during storage at 24 °C for 6 weeks. Results It was found that the ultrasound treatment power and treatment time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter, relative whipping capacity, and albumen viscosity resulting in extended shelf life. Attributes such as yolk index, Haugh unit, pH, whipping capacity, dry matter for 300 W and 450 W treatments were better than control and 200 W treatments. Longer treatment time and power showed a significant influence on functional properties. Conclusion Power levels 300 W and 450 W of ultrasound treatments had improved internal quality of fresh eggs during storage, but negative effect on shell strength. The study showed that ultrasound treatment could be an alternative and effective technique for maintaining the internal qualities of fresh eggs during long‐term storage while FT‐NIR spectroscopy could be used as a new tool for the assessment of freshness.
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:17.377931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7029
  • Emulsion stability, thermo‐rheology and quality characteristics of
           ground pork patties prepared with soy protein isolate and carrageenan
    • Authors: Xue‐qin Gao; Wan‐gang Zhang, Guang‐hong Zhou
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plant proteins and polysaccharides are often utilised in ground meat products as meat binders, gelling agents, texture stabilizers or fat substitutes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 5.7% soy protein isolate (SPI), 0.7% carrageenan (CAR) and the incorporation of SPI/CAR mixture on the quality of ground pork patties. Results Ground pork patties with individual SPI and CAR or SPI/CAR mixture showed either retaining or improving emulsion stability, physic‐chemical properties and dynamic rheology compared to control. Though the colour differences were not significantly different among all treatments, samples from SPI/CAR mixture treatment presented higher texture profile values for hardness and chewiness than other treatments (P
      PubDate: 2014-11-27T01:38:00.236207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7023
  • Shinzami Korean purple‐fleshed sweet potato extract prevents
           ischemia‐reperfusion‐induced liver damage in rats
    • Authors: Saet‐Byeol Jung; Jae‐Ho Shin, Ji Yeon Kim, Oran Kwon
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of extract from Shinzami, a variety of purple sweet potato, in rats injured by hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R). Results Pretreatment with Shinzami extract decreased the aspirate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels in our hepatic I/R rat model. The glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity level were significantly higher in the rats pretreated with the Shinzami extract compared with the hepatic I/R rats, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px) activity level was higher in pretreated rats. The total anthocyanins extracted from Shinzami, however, only increased the SOD activity level in the hepatic I/R rats. Rats pretreated with the Shinzami extract or anthocyanins demonstrated attenuated hepatic pathological changes, such as hepatic distortion, hemorrhage, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the hepatic I/R control rats. Conclusion Shinzami extract and anthocyanins have a hepatoprotective effect on the liver damage induced by hepatic I/R by improving antioxidant status. Furthermore, the Shinzami extract may have a more potent effect on the antioxidant status compared with the Shinzami anthocyanins alone.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T11:08:51.071383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7021
  • Antifungal effect of essential oil components against aspergillus niger
           when loaded into silica mesoporous supports
    • Authors: Andrea Bernardos; Teresa Marina, Petr Žáček, Édgar Pérez‐Esteve, Ramón Martínez‐Mañez, Miloslav Lhotka, Lenka Kouřimská, Josef Pulkrábek, Pavel Klouček
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Essential oil components (EOCs) are known for their antifungal properties; however, their high volatility limits their application as antimicrobial agents. Strategies used for controlling EOCs volatility include encapsulation or loading into porous materials. This study evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of selected EOCs (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and thymol) against the fungus Aspergillus niger when loaded into MCM‐41 and β‐cyclodextrin (β‐CD). Results It was found that carvacrol and thymol in Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM‐41) display remarkable enhanced antifungal properties in comparison to the pure or β‐CD‐encapsulated EOCs. In fact, carvacrol and thymol were able to maintain antifungal activity and inhibit fungal growth for 30 days, suggesting better applicability of these EOCs as natural preservatives. Conclusions The sustained antifungal effect of EOCs encapsulated into silica mesoporous supports was described.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T11:07:34.061785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7022
  • Lipoic acid mitigates oxidative stress and recovers metabolic distortions
           in salt‐stressed wheat seedlings by modulating ion homeostasis,
           osmoregulator level and antioxidant system
    • Authors: Zeynep Gorcek; Serkan Erdal
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backround Soil salinity is one of the most detrimental environmental factors affecting the growth and limiting the agricultural productivity of plants. This study investigated whether exogenous lipoic acid (LA) pretreatment plays a role in promoting salt tolerance in wheat seedlings. The seedlings were treated with LA (1.75 mM) and salt (100 mM NaCl) separately and their combination. Results Salt stress significantly reduced relative water content (RWC), leaf surface area, ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) expression, and chlorophyll content but increased the content of osmoregulators protein, carbohydrates, and proline. In addition, salinity led to an imbalance in the inorganic composition of wheat leaves. While it elevated Na+ content compared to control, Ca content and K+/Na+ ratio were reduced. Under saline conditions, despite increases in antioxidant enzyme activity and levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbate and glutathione), the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide) and malondialdehyde were higher than in control seedlings. LA significantly promoted osmoregulator level and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to stressed‐seedlings alone. Also, it both increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione and regenerated their oxidized forms, thus contributing to maintaining cellular redox status. Similarly, LA prevented excessive accumulation of Na+ and promoted K+/Na+ ratio and Ca content. ROS content was significantly reduced, and the inhibitions in the above parameters markedly recovered. Conclusion LA reduced salinity‐induced oxidative damage and thus contributed to growth and development of plants in saline soils by modulating ion homeostasis between plant and soil as well as in osmoregulator content and antioxidant system.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T11:06:58.042478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7020
  • Detection of fraudulent addition of bovine whey in Ricotta cheese by
           iso‐electric focusing
    • Authors: Fabio Fuselli; Anna Deluca, Emanuela A. Montepeloso, Giulia Ibba, Flavio Tidona, Lucia Longo, Rosa M. Marianella
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Prevention of food frauds in dairy field is actually an hard issue for researchers, industries and policymakers, both for commercial and health reasons. At the moment no analytical method allows detecting the addition of bovine whey in water buffalo Ricotta, so this fraudulent practice could not be prevented.
      Authors ’ aim was to develop such a method. Results The conditions to extract and purify denatured Ricotta whey proteins, which are unfolded and coagulated by heating during the production process, were optimized. The optimal composition of the polyacrylamide gel (pH range, type and concentration of chemical separator) was firstly evaluated and then the best conditions to perform the separation by Iso‐electric Focusing (IEF) were established. The performance of the method (precision, selectivity, robustness, sensibility) was determined. Conclusions The method was shown to be reliable and robust for detection of the presence of bovine whey added to water buffalo Ricotta at percentage above 5% (v/v). The results suggest that the differences observed between bovine and water buffalo electrophoretic profiles are due to bovine beta (β)‐lactoglobulin, isoform A, which is never detected in water buffalo samples.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T01:56:18.632996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7019
  • Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2
           and its cholesterol‐lowering effects in rats fed a high‐fat
           and high‐cholesterol diet
    • Authors: Se Yeon Jo; Eun A Choi, Jae Joon Lee, Hae Choon Chang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain the functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol‐lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health‐promoting product were explored. Results Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin‐enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high‐fat and high‐cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Conclusion Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol‐lowering effects.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26T01:47:32.599428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7018
  • Nanoemulsions as an effective medium for encapsulation and stabilization
           of Cholesterol /β‐cyclodextrin inclusion complex
    • Authors: Khushwinder Kaur
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Inclusion complex formations between β‐cyclodextrin and suitable guest molecules such as cholesterol have regularly been exploited to design self‐assembled structures. In the present study, an effective nanoemulsion medium (Lecithin/Tween 80/ethyl oleate/water) is selected for solubilizing and stabilizing cholesterol and cholesterol/ β‐cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The study is further supported by phase solubility, spectroscopy, thermodynamics, Z‐average diameter and morphological estimations. Phase solubility data analysis demonstrates increase in solubility of cholesterol at low β‐CD concentrations (0.01‐0.35 mmol L−1). TEM and Z‐average diameter data indicates the spherical nature of the droplets and confirms the formation of nanoemulsions with an average size of less than 50 nm. The negative value of ΔG obtained during analysis further indicates that the binding is spontaneous in nature. Primarily, this formulation demonstrates the use of nanoemulsion as a medium in food matrix, instead of the much reported water for hosting cholesterol in β‐cyclodextrin.
      PubDate: 2014-11-22T01:59:36.878454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7012
  • Effects of condensed tannin fractions of different molecular weights from
           a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid on in vitro methane production and rumen
    • Authors: Mookiah Saminathan; Chin Chin Sieo, Norhani Abdullah, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Yin Wan Ho
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Molecular weights (MWs) and their chemical structures are the primary factors determining the influence of condensed tannins (CTs) on animal nutrition and methane (CH4) production in ruminants. In this study, the MWs of five CT fractions from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid‐Rendang (LLR) were determined and the CT fractions were investigated for their effects on CH4 production and rumen fermentation. Results The number‐average molecular weights (Mn) of fraction F1 (1265.8 Da), which was eluted first, was the highest, followed by those of fractions F2 (1028.6 Da), F3 (652.2 Da), F4 (562.2 Da) and F5 (469.6 Da), which had the lowest Mn. The total gas (mL g−1 DM) and CH4 production decreased significantly (P 0.05) differences between the CT fractions and control on DM degradation. However, the in vitro N disappearance significantly decreased (P
      PubDate: 2014-11-22T01:55:02.389111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7016
  • Compositional and biochemical changes in Genestoso cheese, a Spanish raw
           cow's milk variety, during ripening
    • Authors: Ricardo Arenas; Leticia González, Noelia Sacristán, María E. Tornadijo, José M. Fresno
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Physico‐chemical characteristics, proteolysis and lipolysis were studied throughout the ripening of eight batches of a traditional Spanish variety made from raw cow's milk, in order to establish basis for its industrial production. Results The main compositional characteristics of this cheese after 60 days of ripening were its high proportion of Total Solids (752 g Kg−1 of cheese), an average content of protein (452.8 g Kg−1 TS) and fat (475.1 g Kg−1 TS), and presence of residual lactose (12.5 g Kg−1 TS). Its pH value (4.04) was extremely low. Phosphorus (5.13 g Kg−1 TS) and sodium (8.29 g Kg−1 TS) were the most abundant mineral elements in cheese, whereas calcium levels (1.92 g Kg−1 TS) were very low. Proteolysis extension and depth were very low, which resulted in almost zero degradation of αs1‐ and β‐casein. Fat acidity increased during ripening, reaching final values of 50.1 mg KOH Kg−1 of fat. The main free fatty acid was C16:0, followed by C18:1 and C14:0. Conclusion These results suggest that this variety undergoes a limited proteolysis and moderate lipolysis during ripening. The low pH, the low calcium content and the limited proteolysis led to a crumbly texture in this cheese variety.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T04:27:23.993171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7011
  • The impact of systemic and copper pesticide applications on the
           phyllosphere microflora of tomatoes
    • Authors: Andrea R. Ottesen; Sasha Gorham, James B. Pettengill, Steven Rideout, Peter Evans, Eric Brown
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Contamination of tomatoes by Salmonella can occur in agricultural settings. Little is currently understood about how agricultural inputs such as pesticide applications may impact epiphytic crop microflora and potentially play a role in contamination events. We examined the impact of two materials commonly used in Virginia tomato agriculture; acibenzolar‐S‐methyl (crop protectant) and copper oxychloride (pesticide) to identify effects these materials may exert on baseline tomato microflora and on the incidence of three specific genera; Salmonella, Xanthomonas and Paenibacillus. Results Approximately 186,441 16S rRNA gene and 39,381 18S rRNA gene sequences per independent replicate were used to analyze the impact of the pesticide applications on tomato microflora. An average of 3,346,677 (634892974 bases) shotgun sequences per replicate were used for metagenomic analyses. Conclusions A significant decrease in the presence of Gammapproteobacteria was observed between controls and copper treated plants, suggesting that copper is effective at suppressing growth of certain taxa in this Class. A higher mean abundance of Salmonella and Paenibacillus in control samples compared to treatments may suggest that both systemic and copper applications diminish the presence of these genera in the phyllosphere, however due to the lack of statistical significance, this could also be due to other factors. The most distinctive separation of shared membership was observed in shotgun data between the two different sampling time‐points, (not between treatments), potentially supporting the hypothesis that environmental pressures may exert more selective pressures on epiphytic microflora than certain agricultural management practices do.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:32:05.626042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7010
  • Raman spectroscopy application on frozen carrot differently cooked and the
           relationship with carotenoids
    • Authors: Paolo Camorani; Emma Chiavaro, Luigi Cristofolini, Maria Paciulli, Maria Zaupa, Attilio Visconti, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Raman spectroscopy, in its confocal micro‐Raman declination, has been recently proposed as a spatially resolved method to identify carotenoids in various food matrices being faster, non‐destructive, and avoiding the sample extraction, but no data are present in literature about its application to the evaluation of carotenoid pattern changes after thermal treatments on carrots. Results The effect of three cooking methods (i.e. boiling, steaming and microwaving) was evaluated on frozen carrot comparing changes on carotenoid profiles measured by means of Raman spectroscopy with their HPLC determinations and colour. A more pronounced detrimental effect on carotenoids was detected in steamed carrots, in accordance with colour data. Differently, the boiling and, to a lesser extent, microwaving caused an increase of carotenoid concentration. Cooking procedures affected the Raman spectral features of carotenoids causing the shift of vibration frequencies toward a higher energy, the increase of the spectral baseline and of the peak intensities as well as the broadening of their width, probably in relation with the thermal degradation of longer carotenoids (i.e., the all trans form) and the isomerisation process. In particular, steamed samples showed a significantly higher increase of centre frequency in accordance with a more pronounced isomerisation and changes of colour parameters. Conclusions This work showed that the evolution of Raman spectral parameters could give information on carotenoid bioaccessibility for carrots differently cooked. This paves the way for a future use of this technique to monitor and optimize the cooking processes aimed at maximize carotenoids bioaccessibility and bioavailability.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:30:46.592698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7009
  • Determination of bioavailability and identification of collagen peptide in
           blood after oral ingestion of gelatin
    • Authors: Lin Wang; Qing Wang, Qiufang Liang, Yuanqing He, Zhenbin Wang, Song He, Junmin Xu, Haile Ma
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gelatin has long been widely used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and others. However, there is little report on its bioavailability and bioavailable forms presently. Results The relative and absolute bioavailability of gelatin were 74.12% and 85.97%, respectively, which was indirectly evaluated by the bioavailability of total Hyp in gelatin using pharmacokinetic method after oral administration to rats. The amino acid profile of plasma indicated that 41.91% of the digested gelatin was absorbed from the intestine in the form of peptide, and there was a good linear correlation between the absorbed amount of an amino acid and its content in gelatin (R2 = 0.9566). Moreover, 17 kinds of collagen peptides were purified by multistep chromatography and identified with UPLC‐ESI‐MS. Conclusion Gelatin had high oral bioavailability. Nearly half of digested gelatin was absorbed from the intestine in the form of various collagen peptides.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:22:58.306948-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7008
  • Soluble and cell wall‐bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid
           dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: Insight into
           mechanisms of improved availability
    • Authors: Wioletta M. Dynkowska; Malgorzata R. Cyran, Alicja Ceglińska
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Bread‐making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol‐soluble (free and ester‐bound) and insoluble phenolics. Results Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three‐stage sourdough method with 12‐h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype‐dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester‐bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester‐bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan‐hydrolyzing enzymes in whole‐meal flour. Conclusion The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread‐making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:11:36.193862-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7007
  • Nutritional values and bioactive components of underutilized vegetables
           consumed by indigenous people in Malaysia
    • Authors: Norsuhaila Abdul Wahab; Rohaina Ahdan, Zabidah Ahmad Aufa, Kin Weng Kong, Mohd Hafizan Johar, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Amin Ismail
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diverse plants species in the forest are remaining underutilized owing to their consumption are only among the local. Additionally, increasing issues in food security has prompted present study to explore the nutritional and antioxidant aspects of Malaysian underutilized vegetables. The studied vegetables were Paku Nyai (Stenochlaena palustris), Cemperai (Champereia manillana), Maman Pasir (Cleome viscose), Dudung (Erechtites valerianifolia) and Semambuk (Ardisia pendula). Results Overall, these vegetables exhibited a low proximal content but they were high in vitamin C [7.07‐1263 mg kg−1 edible fresh sample (EFS)] and β‐carotene content (18.4‐43.9 mg kg−1 kg−1 EFS). Cemperai had the highest calcium content (565 mg kg−1 EFS), whereas Semambuk had the highest total phenolic content [28.21 g GAE kg−1 edible dried sample (EDS)] and antioxidant activity (86.1%) measured using β‐carotene bleaching assay. Maman Pasir contained the highest total flavonoid content (39.99 g CE kg−1 EDS) and 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity (82.2%). The extracts of these vegetables had significantly prevented the oxidation of hemoglobin and LDL, which had given a reduced production of malondialdehyde. Conclusion Semambuk and Maman Pasir are potent to be used as new food and functional food sources as they are rich in nutrients and antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T01:06:50.791218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7006
  • Development and evaluation on an intelligent traceability system for
           frozen tilapia fillet processing
    • Authors: Xinqing Xiao; Zetian Fu, Lin Qi, Mira Trebar, Xiaoshuan Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The main export varieties are brand‐name, high‐quality bred aquatic products in China. Among of them, tilapia has become the most important and fast growing species since extensive consumers market in North America and Europe has evolved due to commodity prices of year round availability and quality of fresh and frozen products. As the biggest tilapia farming country, China has over 1/3 tilapia produce for further processing and meeting foreign market demand. Results Cased by Tilapia fillet processing, this paper introduces the efforts for developing and evaluating the ITS‐TF: an intelligent traceability system integrated statistical process control (SPC) with fault tree analysis (FTA). Observations, literature review and experts’ questionnaires were used for system requirement and knowledge acquisition; scenario simulation was applied to evaluate and validate ITS‐TF’s performance. Conclusion The results shows that traceability requirement is evolved from firefighting model to proactive model for enhancing process management capacity for food safety; ITS‐TF transforms itself as an intelligent system to provide functions on early warnings and process management by integrated SPC and FTA. The valuable suggestion that automatic data acquisition and communication technology should be integrated into ITS‐TF also was achieved for further system optimization, perfection and performance improvement.
      PubDate: 2014-11-19T01:59:57.781156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7005
  • In vitro and in vivo evaluation of capsaicin‐loaded microemulsion
           for enhanced oral bioavailability
    • Authors: Yuan Zhu; Jiajia Zhang, Qianfeng Zheng, Miaomiao Wang, Wenwen Deng, Qiang Li, Caleb Kesse Firempong, Shengli Wang, Shanshan Tong, Ximing Xu, Jiangnan Yu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Capsaicin, as a food additive, has attracted worldwide concern owing to its pungency and multiple pharmacologic effects. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability limited its application. This study aims to develop capsaicin‐loaded microemulsion to enhance the oral bioavailability of the anti‐neuropathic‐pain component, capsaicin, which is poorly water soluble. Results In this study, the microemulsion consisting of Cremophor EL, ethanol, medium chain triglycerides (oil phase) and water (external phase) was prepared and characterized (particle size, morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency). The gastric mucosa irritation test of formulated capsaicin was performed in rats to evaluate its oral feasibility, followed by the pharmacokinetic study in vivo. Under these conditions, the encapsulated capsaicin revealed a faster capsaicin release in vitro coupled with a greater absorption in vivo when compared to the free capsaicin. The oral bioavailability of the formulated capsaicin‐loaded microemulsions was 2.64‐fold faster than that of free capsaicin. No significant irritation was observed on the mucosa from the pathological section of capsaicin‐loaded microemulsion treated stomach. Conclusion These results indicate that the developed microemulsion represents a safe and orally effective carrier for poorly soluble substance. And the formulation could be used for clinical trials and expand the application of capsaicin.
      PubDate: 2014-11-14T09:16:45.620442-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7002
  • Cymbopogon citratus industrial waste as a potential source of bioactive
    • Authors: Filipa Tavares; Gustavo Costa, Vera Francisco, Joana Liberal, Artur Figueirinha, Maria Celeste Lopes, Maria Teresa Cruz, Maria Teresa Batista
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), worldwide known as lemongrass, is a very important crop in the world, being bred in tropical countries. It is widely used for food and pharmaceutical industries, cosmetic and perfumery for its essential oil. Cc aqueous extracts are also commonly used in traditional medicine. They have high levels of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties. From the essential oil hydrodistillation results an aqueous waste (CcHD), which is discarded. Therefore, a comparative study between CcHD and Cc infusion (CcI) was performed to characterize its phytochemical profile and to research its antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory potential. Results HPLC‐PDA‐ESI/MSn analysis showed that CcI and CcHD have similar phenolic profiles, with CcHD presenting a higher amount of polyphenols. Additionally, both CcI and CcHD showed antioxidant activity against DPPH (EC50 of 41.72 ± 0.05 and 42.29 ± 0.05, respectively) and strong anti‐inflammatory properties, by reducing NO production and iNOS expression in macrophages, and through their NO scavenging activity, in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed. Conclusion The data of this study encourages considering the aqueous solution from Cc leaves hydrodistillation as a source of bioactive compounds, which may add great industrial value to this crop.
      PubDate: 2014-11-12T02:35:15.353499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6999
  • Phytase in non‐ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on
           phytase activities in the gastro‐intestinal tract and influencing
    • Authors: Yueming Dersjant‐Li; Ajay Awati, Hagen Schulze, Gary Partridge
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non‐ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the GI tract, and they can be divided into three main groups, i) phytase related, ii) dietary related and iii) animal related. Phytase related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3 or 6 phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, total P, Ca and Na content. Animal related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the anti‐nutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal.
      PubDate: 2014-11-08T01:30:12.978621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6998
  • Quality changes during cod (Gadus morhua) desalting at different
    • Authors: Helena Oliveira; Amparo Gonçalves, Maria L Nunes, Paulo Vaz‐Pires, Rui Costa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background To advice consumer and manufacturers to accelerate desalting of salted cod (a time consuming process), there is a need to develop knowledge about quality changes at different desalting temperatures. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality changes and their causes during cod desalting at 5, 10 and 15 °C, using a cod/water ratio of 1:9 without water changes. Influence of slices with different thickness and different desalting times was also evaluated. Results Desalting promoted a loss of TVB‐N, TBARs and FAA‐N levels. The greatest FAA‐N values were found in “thicker” samples desalted at 15 °C due to the higher proteolytic bacteria number observed in these samples, which activity compensated the leaching of soluble components to the desalting solution. The water uptake and the salt leaching out of the muscle found during the processes created conditions for the bacterial growth, contributing to the spoilage at 15 °C. Based on fresh odor and “off”‐flavors results, “thicker” samples desalted at 15 °C after 72 h were close to spoilage and on microbial levels were spoiled. Conclusion In order to extend the shelf life and safety of cod desalted products, desalting at temperatures above 10 °C is not advisable.
      PubDate: 2014-11-07T01:57:23.820069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6995
  • Food Allergy, a summary of 8 cases in the UK criminal and civil courts:
           effective last resort for vulnerable consumers?
    • Authors: M.H. Gowland; M.J. Walker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Food allergy has a forensic context. We describe 8 cases in the UK courts involving fatalities, personal injury, or criminal non‐compliance with food law from mainly ‘grey’ literature sources. Results The potentially severe consequences for people with food allergy of contraventions of labelling law have led to enforcement action up to criminal prosecution for what might otherwise be regarded as ‘trivial’ non‐compliance. Conclusions We suggest there should be central collation of such cases. Non‐compliances should be followed up in a more rapid and robust manner. Evidence of fraud in the catering supply chain supports recent calls for zero tolerance of food fraud. Businesses must guard against gaps in allergen management; there are readily available sources of training and guidance but also against fraudulent substitution in the supply chain, about which training and guidance should be developed. New allergen labelling legislation and case law appear to place responsibility on food businesses even for the forensically problematic area of allergen cross contamination. The courts can be an effective last resort for vulnerable consumers; however there is evidence of knowledge and skills gaps, both in the investigation and prosecution of potentially serious incidents of food allergen mismanagement and mislabelling. Thorough investigation of food allergy deaths is required with a tenacious and skilled approach. Early realisation that samples of the food and/or stomach contents from a post mortem examination should be retained and analysed. The supply chain must be rigorously examined to find out where adulteration or contamination with the fatal allergen occurred.
      PubDate: 2014-11-06T04:56:10.733402-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6988
  • Assessing health in agriculture – towards a common
           research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems
    • Authors: Anja Vieweger; Thomas F Döring
      Pages: 438 - 446
      Abstract: In agriculture and food systems, health‐related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-21T04:00:31.81394-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6708
  • Accounting for soil biotic effects on soil health and crop productivity in
           the design of crop rotations
    • Authors: Teresa Dias; Angela Dukes, Pedro M Antunes
      Pages: 447 - 454
      Abstract: There is an urgent need for novel agronomic improvements capable of boosting crop yields while alleviating environmental impacts. One such approach is the use of optimized crop rotations. However, a set of measurements that can serve as guiding principles for the design of crop rotations is lacking. Crop rotations take advantage of niche complementarity, enabling the optimization of nutrient use and the reduction of pests and specialist pathogen loads. However, despite the recognized importance of plant–soil microbial interactions and feedbacks for crop yield and soil health, this is ignored in the selection and management of crops for rotation systems. We review the literature and propose criteria for the design of crop rotations focusing on the roles of soil biota and feedback on crop productivity and soil health. We consider that identifying specific key organisms or consortia capable of influencing plant productivity is more important as a predictor of soil health and crop productivity than assessing the overall soil microbial diversity per se. As such, we propose that setting up soil feedback studies and applying genetic sequencing tools towards the development of soil biotic community databases has a strong potential to enable the establishment of improved soil health indicators for optimized crop rotations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-10T07:47:14.069941-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6565
  • Resilience as a universal criterion of health
    • Authors: Thomas F Döring; Anja Vieweger, Marco Pautasso, Mette Vaarst, Maria R Finckh, Martin S Wolfe
      Pages: 455 - 465
      Abstract: To promote and maintain health in agricultural and food systems, appropriate criteria are needed for the description and assessment of the health of soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems. Here we identify the concept of resilience as a universally applicable and fundamentally important criterion of health in all relevant areas of agriculture. We discuss definitions of resilience for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems, and explore ways in which resilience can be applied as a criterion of health in different agricultural contexts. We show how and why resilience can be seen as a key criterion of health. Based on this, we discuss how resilience can be used as a link between soil, plant, animal, human and ecosystem health. Finally, we highlight four key areas for future research on resilience in agriculture, namely spatial and temporal scaling of resilience; effects of diversity; the role of networks for resilience; and stakeholder involvement. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-06T04:21:56.127496-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6539
  • Heavy metals in agricultural landscapes as hazards to human and ecosystem
           health: a case study on zinc and cadmium in drainage channel sediments
    • Authors: Radovan Savic; Gabrijel Ondrasek, Jasmina Josimov‐Dundjerski
      Pages: 466 - 470
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In agricultural systems, heavy metals pose severe risks to the health of soil–plant–animal–human continuum. Drainage channels, as integral components of agricultural landscapes, contain sediment material that can be both a source and a sink of metals and other toxic/persistent elements due to its highly reactive interfaces and strong binding affinity. The drainage channel network in a case study area of Vojvodina (Serbia) is not appropriately protected from contamination, nor is it maintained regularly (e.g. by desilting), thus endangering and potentially decreasing the ecological value of surrounding water and agricultural land resources, i.e. exposing food production to potential contaminants. In this study (2004–2012), Cd and Zn concentrations were analysed in 100 samples from 46 drainage channels sediments spread along the areas of the most intensive agricultural land use in Vojvodina. RESULTS Among the samples measured, 5% had Cd and 14% had Zn concentrations above the maximally permitted levels, indicating that some drainage channel sections have been exposed to different point and non‐point source pollutants. The maximum detected concentrations of the analysed elements were >50% (Zn) and were as much as 11‐fold (Cd) higher than their remediation values. CONCLUSION There is a strong need for the establishment of qualitative monitoring of channel sediment media in agro‐ecosystems closely linked with complex pollution sources (intensive agriculture, industry, urban zones). © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-15T08:02:10.175689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6515
  • Antioxidant effects of the monoterpenes carvacrol, thymol and sabinene
           hydrate on chemical and sensory stability of roasted sunflower seeds
    • Authors: Patricia R Quiroga; Claudia M Asensio, Valeria Nepote
      Pages: 471 - 479
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oxidation products and rancid flavors decrease the sensory quality of food products, making them unacceptable to consumers. Synthetic antioxidants are used in many foods to prevent rancidity, though their safety is questioned. Monoterpenes are obtained from essential oils and many of them have shown antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with carvacrol, thymol and sabinene hydrate monoterpenes. RESULTS Five samples were prepared: control roasted sunflower seeds (RS‐C) and sunflower seeds treated with carvacrol (RS‐Car), sabinene hydrate (RS‐S), thymol (RS‐T) and butylated hydroxytoluene (RS‐BHT). The three monoterpenes (carvacrol, sabinene hydrate and thymol) provided protection to this food product, inhibiting the formation of oxidative deterioration compounds such as peroxides and hexanal and undesirable off‐flavors such as oxidized and cardboard flavors. Sabinene hydrate had greater effect preventing peroxide formation during storage than the other monoterpenes. CONCLUSION Carvacrol, sabinene hydrate and thymol could be used as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants for preserving the quality of roasted sunflower seeds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T09:17:29.948659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6744
  • The response of grain production to changes in quantity and quality of
           cropland in Yangtze River Delta, China
    • Authors: Guilin Liu; Luocheng Zhang, Qian Zhang, Zipporah Musyimi
      Pages: 480 - 489
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cropland in Yangtze River Delta has declined drastically since economic reforms in 1978 that led to rapid economic development. Such cropland loss due to population growth has led to a decline in grain production. This study aimed at analyzing the impact of land use changes on grain production. To achieve this, the spatiotemporal dynamics of cropland during 1980–2010 were analyzed. Irrigation and soil fertility data were used as additional lines of evidence. RESULTS Cropland loss had negative impacts on grain production. About 80 and 66% of grain production decreased during 1980–2005 and 2005–2010 respectively. This decline was attributed to the conversion of cropland to built‐up areas. Abandoned cropland areas were mainly concentrated in regions with high irrigation capability and high soil fertility, while cropland reclamation was mainly in areas with low irrigation and soil fertility, implying that, although cropland was reclaimed, production remained low. The decline in cropland area has reinforced the chronic food insecurity in Yangtze River Delta. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated the response of grain production to the changes in cropland quantity and quality. It also provides scientific evidence for decision makers to protect cropland and enhance grain production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-26T05:04:57.829823-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6745
  • Assessment of antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of spinach
           plants grown under low oxygen availability
    • Authors: Silvia Fornaciari; Francesco Milano, Francesca Mussi, Laura Pinto‐Sanchez, Luca Forti, Annamaria Buschini, Laura Arru
      Pages: 490 - 496
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the human diet, the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is important in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. It is known that plant‐derived food is a powerful source of chemopreventive molecules, i.e. antioxidants, and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., Chenopodiaceae) possesses a wide range of metabolites with such biological activity. Plant stress response could lead to the production of metabolites with high value for human health and this could be a tool to enhance the production of molecules with antioxidant activity in plants. RESULTS Data reported in this paper confirm the antioxidant properties of spinach plants, and show a strong antiproliferative activity of leaf extract on HT‐29 human cell line. Besides, the hypoxic stress seems to affect the pool of antioxidant molecules present in spinach leaves, as verified by means of HPLC‐MS/MS analysis and the aluminium chloride and ABTS assays. CONCLUSION Our findings represent a basis for improving the biological and pharmacological properties of spinach plants, including the use of different growth conditions to modulate the phytocomplex profile of spinach. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-26T04:32:42.728911-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6756
  • Post‐harvest control of gray mold in table grapes using volatile
           sulfur compounds from Allium sativum
    • Authors: Azucena Gándara‐Ledezma; Consuelo Corrales‐Maldonado, Marisela Rivera‐Domínguez, Miguel Ángel Martínez‐Téllez, Irasema Vargas‐Arispuro
      Pages: 497 - 503
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study proposes the use of volatile sulfur compounds derived from garlic (Allium sativum) extracts applied via gas for the control of Botrytis cinerea, which causes post‐harvest disease in table grapes. The effects of the volatile compounds emitted by garlic extract and sodium metabisulfite on conidia germination of B. cinerea were evaluated in vitro to assess their effectiveness at controlling grey mold on grapes stored at different temperatures. RESULTS Diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide and allicin were identified and quantified in a garlic extract using reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography. The volatile compounds emitted by the garlic extract in the form of allicin and diallyl trisulfide inhibited conidia germination of B. cinerea in vitro and significantly reduced the lesion diameters on stored grapes, which were similar to the effects of sodium metabisulfite, while the diallyl disulfide did not have any effect. The sulfhydryl groups of cysteine or reduced glutathione completely reversed the antifungal effect of these compounds. CONCLUSION The antifungal activity that allicin and diallyl trisulfide, which are the volatile compounds emitted by a garlic extract, exerted on conidia germination of B. cinerea may be considered as an alternative for the control of gray mold in table grapes after harvest. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-26T04:34:14.467283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6757
  • Effects of thyme as a feed additive in broiler chickens on thymol in gut
           contents, blood plasma, liver and muscle
    • Authors: Alexander Haselmeyer; Jürgen Zentek, Remigius Chizzola
      Pages: 504 - 508
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aromatic herbs as feed additives in animal production are encountering growing interest, but data on the fate of the aromatic compounds from the plant in the animal body are very scarce. In the present study, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) herb consisting of leaves and flowers without stems was used as an ingredient in the diet for broilers. The herb was fed for 35 days to five groups of broilers (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 1% w/w in the diet). Animal performance and the concentrations of the main essential oil component from thyme, thymol, were measured in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS There were no differences between the groups in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion and slaughter weight. Thymol was detected in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues. Increased intestinal thymol concentrations were found in the group with 1% thyme compared with the other groups (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-26T04:35:26.149104-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6758
  • Methoxypyrazine composition of Coccinellidae‐tainted Riesling and
           Pinot noir wine from Germany
    • Authors: Susanne Kögel; Andreea Botezatu, Christoph Hoffmann, Gary Pickering
      Pages: 509 - 514
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Harmonia axyridis (multicolored Asian ladybeetle) and Coccinella septempunctata (seven‐spot ladybeetle) (Coccinellidae) are found in many wine regions in Europe and the Americas, where they are responsible for a pronounced wine fault known as ‘ladybug taint’ when incorporated with grapes during harvest operations. Methoxypyrazines have been proposed in the literature as the compounds responsible for the taint. This study sought to expand on this identification and also determine the effectiveness of heating Coccinellidae‐affected grape must prior to fermentation as a possible remedial intervention. Riesling and Pinot noir grapes were infested with H. axyridis or C. septempunctata at different densities and fermented to dryness. The Pinot noir was either must heated prior to fermentation or processed without heating (control). All wines were analyzed for 2‐isopropyl‐, 2‐sec‐butyl‐, 2‐isobutyl‐ and 2,5‐dimethyl‐3‐methoxypyrazine using headspace solid phase microextraction/multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS Concentrations of 2‐isopropyl‐3‐methoxypyrazine increased with beetle density for both Coccinellidae species, while other methoxypyrazines showed inconsistent or no variation with infestations levels. Heating of Pinot noir grapes prior to fermentation resulted in a moderate decrease in all methoxypyrazines. CONCLUSION These results provide direction for more targeted treatments aimed at remediating musts/wines affected by Coccinellidae and indicate that winegrowers do not need to differentiate between H. axyridis and C. septempunctata when making action threshold decisions in the vineyard or winery. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-15T09:57:10.562424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6760
  • System dynamics approach for modeling of sugar beet yield considering the
           effects of climatic variables
    • Authors: Lia Pervin; Md Saiful Islam
      Pages: 515 - 521
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for computation of yields and to investigate the dependency of yields on some major climatic parameters, i.e. temperature and rainfall, for Beta vulgaris subsp. (sugar beet crops) under future climate change scenarios. RESULTS A system dynamics model was developed which takes account of the effects of rainfall and temperature on sugar beet yields under limited irrigation conditions. A relationship was also developed between the seasonal evapotranspiration and seasonal growing degree days for sugar beet crops. The proposed model was set to run for the present time period of 1993–2012 and for the future period 2013–2040 for Lethbridge region (Alberta, Canada). The model provides sugar beet yields on a yearly basis which are comparable to the present field data. It was found that the future average yield will be increased at about 14% with respect to the present average yield. CONCLUSION The proposed model can help to improve the understanding of soil water conditions and irrigation water requirements of an area under certain climatic conditions and can be used for future prediction of yields for any crops in any region (with the required information to be provided). The developed system dynamics model can be used as a supporting tool for decision making, for improvement of agricultural management practice of any region. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-16T08:44:31.300204-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6762
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and vermicompost to maximize the production
           of foliar biomolecules in Passiflora alata Curtis seedlings
    • Authors: Melquisedec S Oliveira; Maryluce AS Campos, Fábio SB Silva
      Pages: 522 - 528
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil organisms that associate with plant roots and promote plant growth, increasing the concentration of secondary metabolites, which are molecules of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Passiflora alata is a Brazilian medicinal plant that is used as a raw material for anxiolytic phytotherapeutic agents. The anxiolytic properties are related to the presence of biomolecules in the plant material, principally flavonoids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with AMF and organic fertilization on the production of soluble carbohydrates and total foliar proteins, phenols and flavonoids in P. alata seedlings. RESULTS There was an effect of the tested treatments on the analyzed variables. Seedlings inoculated and cultivated in soil to which 0.15 kg vermicompost kg−1 had been added showed increased growth and production of primary and secondary metabolites compared with treatments with lower levels of manure, which did not differ from those cultivated in soil with 0.2 kg vermicompost kg−1. CONCLUSION The inoculation of P. alata seedlings with Gigaspora albida is an alternative to maximize the production of pharmacologically important foliar biomolecules, especially flavonoids, with benefits that vary in accordance with the fertility of the soil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T06:04:07.673152-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6767
  • Fatty acid profiles and antioxidants of organic and conventional milk from
           low‐ and high‐input systems during outdoor period
    • Authors: Daniel Kusche; Katrin Kuhnt, Karin Ruebesam, Carsten Rohrer, Andreas FM Nierop, Gerhard Jahreis, Ton Baars
      Pages: 529 - 539
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Intensification of organic dairy production leads to the question of whether the implementation of intensive feeding incorporating maize silage and concentrates is altering milk quality. Therefore the fatty acid (FA) and antioxidant (AO) profiles of milk on 24 farms divided into four system groups in three replications (n = 71) during the outdoor period were analyzed. In this system comparison, a differentiation of the system groups and the effects of the main system factors ‘intensification level’ (high‐input versus low‐input) and ‘origin’ (organic versus conventional) were evaluated in a multivariate statistical approach. RESULTS Consistent differentiation of milk from the system groups due to feeding‐related impacts was possible in general and on the basis of 15 markers. The prediction of the main system factors was based on four or five markers. The prediction of ‘intensification level’ was based mainly on CLA c9,t11 and C18:1 t11, whereas that of ‘origin’ was based on n‐3 PUFA. CONCLUSION It was possible to demonstrate consistent differences in the FA and AO profiles of organic and standard conventional milk samples. Highest concentrations of nutritionally beneficial compounds were found in the low‐input organic system. Adapted grass‐based feeding strategies including pasture offer the potential to produce a distinguishable organic milk product quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-23T03:26:40.397973-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6768
  • Fusarium species, chemotype characterisation and trichothecene
           contamination of durum and soft wheat in an area of central Italy
    • Authors: Lorenzo Covarelli; Giovanni Beccari, Antonio Prodi, Silvia Generotti, Federico Etruschi, Cristina Juan, Emilia Ferrer, Jordi Mañes
      Pages: 540 - 551
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is an important disease causing yield losses and mycotoxin contamination. The aim of the work was to detect and characterise trichothecene producing Fusarium species in durum and soft wheat cultivated in an area of central Italy in 2009 and 2010 and to determine trichothecene contamination by LC‐MS/MS in the grain. RESULTS F. graminearum s. str. was the most frequent species. In 2009, the occurrence of F. avenaceum and F. poae was higher than in 2010. Among F. graminearum strains, the 15‐acetyl deoxynivalenol (15‐ADON) chemotype could be found more frequently, followed by nivalenol (NIV) and 3‐ADON chemotypes, while all F. culmorum isolates belonged to the 3‐ADON chemotype. All F. poae strains were NIV chemotypes. In vitro trichothecene production confirmed molecular characterisation. Durum wheat was characterised by a higher average DON contamination with respect to soft wheat, NIV was always detected at appreciable levels while type‐A trichothecenes were mostly found in durum wheat samples in 2009 with 6% of samples exceeding the contamination level recently recommended by the European Union. CONCLUSION Climatic conditions were confirmed to be predominant factors influencing mycotoxigenic species composition and mycotoxin contaminations. However, NIV contamination was found to occur irrespective of climatic conditions, suggesting that it may often represent an under‐estimated risk to be further investigated. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-16T08:46:37.592246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6772
  • Variations in the most abundant types of glucosinolates found in the
           leaves of baby leaf rocket under typical commercial conditions
    • Authors: Matthew K D Hall; Jenny J Jobling, Gordon S Rogers
      Pages: 552 - 559
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Changes in the concentration of the three most abundant glucosinolates were measured in the leaves of perennial wall rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.], and annual garden rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.). HPLC‐MS was used to identify glucoraphanin, 4‐hydroxyglucobrassin and glucoerucin from perennial wall rocket, and glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin and 4‐methoxyglucobrassicin from annual garden rocket. In separate experiments the responses of glucosinolates to harvest number, seasonal conditions, nitrogen supply and post‐harvest storage conditions were measured. RESULTS For perennial wall rocket, season influenced the concentration of glucoraphanin, which were highest for the spring [379 µg kg−1 fresh weight (FW)] and summer (317 µg kg−1 FW) plantings. The concentration of 4‐hydroxyglucobrassin was higher in the leaves of first harvest crops. This response was due to this glucosinolate not being detected in the leaves of second harvest crops. Thus, the parent glucosinolate was altered between the first and second harvests in response to the abiotic stresses caused by harvesting. For annual garden rocket, there was an interaction between the harvest number and season for all glucosinolates measured. However, no clear response was observed between these factors. Higher concentrations of glucobrassicin and 4‐methoxyglucobrassicin were measured for first harvest leaves when compared to the second harvest. This was due to the absence of detection of these glucosinolates in the leaves of second harvested plants; consequently higher total glucosinolate concentrations were measured for the first harvest winter (1224 µg kg−1 FW) and summer (864 µg kg−1 FW) crops. CONCLUSION The concentrations of individual glucosinolates vary greatly over typical pre‐ and post‐harvest commercial conditions. The absence of 4‐hydroxyglucobrassin for perennial wall rocket, and glucobrassicin and 4‐methoxyglucobrassicin for annual garden rocket between harvests, illustrates that abiotic stress from harvesting has the capacity to alter the types of glucosinolates in leaves. Concentrations do not generally decline during a typical storage period, indicating that the potential benefits of these compounds are not lost during post‐harvest storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-08T08:37:55.304718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6774
  • Acute anti‐hyperglycaemic effects of an unripe apple preparation
           containing phlorizin in healthy volunteers: a preliminary study
    • Authors: Elina Makarova; Paweł Górnaś, Ilze Konrade, Dace Tirzite, Helena Cirule, Anita Gulbe, Iveta Pugajeva, Dalija Seglina, Maija Dambrova
      Pages: 560 - 568
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The health‐promoting properties of apples are directly related to the biologically active compounds that they contain, such as polyphenols. The objective of this study was to prepare a low‐sugar, fibre‐ and phlorizin‐enriched powder from unripe apples and to gain insight regarding its anti‐hyperglycaemic activity in healthy volunteers. RESULTS The unripe apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were collected 30 days after the full bloom day; blanched and pressed to obtain apple pomace which was then processed with a food cutter, oven‐dried and milled to prepare apple powder. The concentrations of total sugars, water‐soluble pectin and phlorizin in the apple preparation were 153.44 ± 2.46, 27.73 ± 0.51 and 12.61 ± 0.15 g kg−1, respectively. Acute ingestion of the apple preparation improved glucose metabolism in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in six healthy volunteers by reducing the postprandial glucose response at 15 to 30 min by approximately two‐fold (P < 0.05) and by increasing urinary glucose excretion during the 2‐ to 4‐h interval of the OGTT by five‐fold (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The results obtained indicate that the dried and powdered pomace of unripe apples can be used as a health‐promoting natural product for the reduction of postprandial glycaemia and to improve the health of patients with diabetes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-04T04:14:03.770534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6779
  • Changes in the rheological properties of wheat dough during
           short‐term storage of wheat
    • Authors: Miroslav Hadnađev; Tamara Dapčević Hadnađev, Milica Pojić, Aleksandra Torbica, Jelena Tomić, Slađana Rakita, Elizabet Janić Hajnal
      Pages: 569 - 575
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of the small‐ and large‐deformation fundamental rheological tests to monitor the changes during short‐term post‐harvest storage of wheat. RESULTS At the end of wheat storage period, wet gluten quantity decreased, while gluten index increased in comparison to those of freshly harvested samples. The rheological properties of dough changed over the pre‐defined period of storage in terms of becoming more elastic and less extensible in comparison to that of freshly harvested wheat. Visco‐elastic properties of weaker flour samples changed more markedly during storage than those of stronger flours, indicating that the intensity of dough rheological changes during wheat storage might be dependent on gluten quality and were the characteristic of wheat variety. CONCLUSION It was shown that small deformation dynamic oscillation and large deformation creep‐recovery tests can be successfully employed to monitor the changes in flour quality during wheat storage and that required storage period after wheat harvesting has to be defined according to wheat variety initial rheological properties and its gluten quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-15T08:26:49.699412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6782
  • Comparison on the fatty acid profiles of liver, subcutaneous fat and
           muscle from feedlot steers finished on diets supplemented with or without
           cinnamaldehyde or monensin
    • Authors: Maolong He; Jianjie Jia, Wenzhu Yang
      Pages: 576 - 582
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) is the main active component of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) oil and has been tested as alternative feed additive in cattle production. Little information was available on the effect of dietary CIN in comparison to monensin (MO) on beef fatty acid (FA) profile. This study analyzed FA profiles of liver, subcutaneous fat and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) muscle obtained from steers (n = 70) finished on diets: control, a barley grain–silage feedlot diet; 330 mg/ MO; and 400, 800 or 1600 mg/ CIN treatments. RESULTS Inclusion of MO or CIN did not affect total saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated FA and individual FA in the various tissues with exceptions that proportion of palmitic acid in PCD muscle was increased by 800 mg/ CIN (P < 0.05). There were positive correlations (P < 0.05) on oleic, linoleic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)‐c9,t11 and 18:1‐t10 between the subcutaneous fat and PCD muscle, and on α‐linolenic acid, CLA‐c9,t11 and 18:1‐t10 between PCD muscle and liver, whereas correlations on the FA between the subcutaneous fat and liver were not significant except for 18:1‐t10 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION The results indicate that the supplementation of CIN and MO to feedlot diet has limited effect on beef FA profiles. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-15T09:50:19.214024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6786
  • Effect of pre‐harvest methyl jasmonate treatments on ethylene
           production, water‐soluble phenolic compounds and fruit quality of
           Japanese plums
    • Authors: Burhan Ozturk; Kenan Yıldız, Emine Kucuker
      Pages: 583 - 591
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of pre‐harvest methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatments on ethylene production, respiration rate, bioactive compounds and physico‐chemical parameters of plum fruits (Prunus salicina Lindell cv. ‘Fortune’ and ‘Friar’) were investigated. Whole trees were sprayed once with an aqueous solution containing MJ (0, 1120 and 2240 mg L−1) 2 weeks before the anticipated commercial harvest for each cultivar. RESULTS In both plum cultivars, 1120 mg L−1 MJ significantly increased hue angle of fruits. The fruit mass and geometric mean diameter were lower in MJ treatments while flesh firmness was higher, except at initial harvest date. Soluble solids concentration increased and titratable acidity decreased with MJ treatments. MJ‐treated fruits exhibited higher levels of ethylene production and respiration rate. MJ was more effective in increasing water‐soluble antioxidant activity, water‐soluble phenolics and individual phenolics. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, naringenin and kaempferol contents significantly increased with 2240 mg L−1 MJ. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that pre‐harvest MJ treatments were effective in delaying softening of late‐harvested fruits and increasing bioactive compounds of plum fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-15T09:10:39.755834-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6787
  • Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and
           mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens)
    • Authors: Yongxin Yang; Xiaowei Zhao, Shumin Yu, Suizhong Cao
      Pages: 592 - 597
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)‐labelled proteomics. RESULTS We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. CONCLUSION These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-16T08:46:29.126787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6791
  • Determination of 15 sedative residues in mutton by rapid resolution liquid
           chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Jinmei Wei; Yuzhu Luo, Li Zhang, Suli Fang
      Pages: 598 - 606
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of xenobiotic compounds in animal husbandry has given rise to consumer anxieties regarding residual risk and food safety. Thus, animal tissues have become main samples for residue analysis and food safety for sedatives. In this study, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC‐MS/MS) method was established for the determination of 15 sedatives residues in mutton. RESULTS After enzymolysis, sedatives residues in mutton were extracted by ammonium hydroxide–acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) and determined by RRLC‐MS/MS with quantification by standard curve method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the concentrations of 0.5–50 µg kg−1 with the correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.9639 to 0.9984. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were 0.25–2.5 and 0.5–5 µg kg−1, respectively. The average recoveries of spikes samples were in the ranges of 74.1–116.8% with relative standard deviations of intra‐ and inter‐day ranged from 2.6% to 11.2% and from 2.1% to 11.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION This method is simple, sensitive and accurate in the determination of sedative residues. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-23T03:26:44.166863-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6794
  • Soybean flour induces a greater increase of the antioxidant defenses in
           rats fed with a normocaloric diet compared with a hypercaloric diet
    • Authors: Gabriela S Razzeto; Viviana R Lucero López, María S Giménez, Nora L Escudero
      Pages: 607 - 613
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Soybeans, due to their antioxidant properties, present beneficial health effects. The objective was to evaluate if replacing casein with soy flour, modifies antioxidant defenses in rat liver, compared to animals that continued being fed with casein based diets (normocaloric and hypercaloric). RESULTS Four groups of rats were used: CC (control casein), CS (control soy), HC (hypercaloric casein) and HS (hypercaloric soy). Malondialdehyde, in serum and liver, did not present differences. In liver, when comparing CS vs. CC: increased superoxide dismutase 1 (P 
      PubDate: 2014-07-21T04:51:52.71087-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6795
  • Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit
           yield and fruit composition
    • Authors: Aye Aye Thwe; Gilles Vercambre, Hélène Gautier, Frédéric Gay, Jessada Phattaralerphong, Poonpipope Kasemsap
      Pages: 614 - 620
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition are altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. Fifty‐one‐day‐old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m−3) for 4 h. RESULTS Ozone reduced well‐developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and young fruits at the time of ozone exposure were more affected. Contents of total soluble sugars (total SS), total organic acids (total OA) and ascorbic acid (AsA) increased in fruits harvested from ozone‐treated plants. Tomato fruit composition was altered under ozone stress, leading to a lower sugar:acid ratio. These changes were mostly due to increased contents of malic acid, ascorbate and glucose despite a decrease in sucrose. CONCLUSION Acute ozone exposure up to 500 µg m−3 greatly influences tomato fruit quality. As final fruit yield was not significantly reduced, it highlighted that there may be compensatory mechanisms present in the reproductive structures of tomato. Further research would be necessary to determine how reproductive traits are affected by repeated ozone exposure or longer‐term exposure. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T09:20:19.343874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6798
  • Seasonal variability of the main components in essential oil of
           Mentha × piperita L.
    • Authors: Daniela Grulova; Laura De Martino, Emilia Mancini, Ivan Salamon, Vincenzo De Feo
      Pages: 621 - 627
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mentha × piperita is an important and commonly used flavoring plant worldwide. Its constituents, primarily menthol and menthone, change in the essential oil depending on internal and external factors, of which environmental conditions appear very important. The experiment was established in 2010 for three vegetation season, in order to observe the quantitative changes of the main components of peppermint. The determination of menthol, menthone, limonene, menthyl acetate, menthofuran and β‐caryophyllene was registered. RESULTS In the experimental season 2011 and 2012 a higher mean temperature than in 2010 and extreme rainfall in July 2011 and 2012 were recorded. Different environmental conditions affected the development of M. × piperita plants and the content and composition of the essential oil. CONCLUSION Seasonal and maturity variations are interlinked with each other, because the specific ontogenic growth stage differed as the season progressed. Fluctuations in monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns affected the quality of peppermint essential oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-23T03:29:55.713078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6802
  • The influence of acid whey and mustard seed on lipid oxidation of organic
           fermented sausage without nitrite
    • Authors: Małgorzata Karwowska; Karolina M Wójciak, Zbigniew J Dolatowski
      Pages: 628 - 634
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The influence of the addition of mustard seed and acid whey on the stability of nitrite‐free organic fermented sausage during 90 days of vacuum storage was investigated by measuring primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation, changes in fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity, as well as water activity. RESULTS The native and autoclaved mustard seed with acid whey can be used in the composition of organic fermented sausage without nitrite with beneficial effect on pH, water activity, antioxidant capacity and oxidation stability during vacuum storage. The use of the combination of acid whey and mustard seed resulted in an effective decrease in pH of organic fermented sausage during fermentation. The inclusion of mustard seed to the sausage with acid whey significantly increased the capacity of stuffing to capture the radical cation ABTS. During the whole storage period the TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of salted sausage samples with the addition of acid whey with combination of mustard seed were similar to the control sample with curing agent. CONCLUSION In general, results suggest that mustard seed with combination of acid whey can be successfully applied to protect organic fermented sausages without nitrite from lipid oxidation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-01T04:42:43.965177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6815
  • Chemical profile and antiacetylcholinesterase, antityrosinase, antioxidant
           and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of Cynometra cauliflora
           L. leaves
    • Authors: Muhammad Abubakar Ado; Faridah Abas, Intan Safinar Ismail, Hasanah M Ghazali, Khozirah Shaari
      Pages: 635 - 642
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the current study was (i) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n‐butanol (n‐BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α‐glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (ii) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions using liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS The leaf methanolic extract of C. cauliflora exhibited potent inhibition of all three enzymes and high antioxidant activity. The bioactivity was found to be concentrated in the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions. A total of 18 compounds were identified in these bioactive fractions, comprising a procyanidin trimer, procyanidin tetramer, procyanidin hexamer, taxifolin pentoside, catechin, vitexin, isovitexin, kaempferol hexoside, quercetin pentoside, quercetin hexoside, apigenin‐6‐C‐glucoside‐8‐C‐glucoside, kaempferol–coumaroyl hexoside and isorhamnetin hexoside. CONCLUSION The results indicated that C. cauliflora, the leaves in particular, is a rich source of bioactive compounds and could be beneficial for further development of high‐value phytomedicinal preparations and functional food products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:53:37.584853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6832
  • Dietary supplementation of Gracilariopsis persica is associated with some
           quality related sera and egg yolk parameters in laying quails
    • Authors: Behnam Abbaspour; Sharifi S Davood, Abdollah Mohammadi‐Sangcheshmeh
      Pages: 643 - 648
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Gracilariopsis persica (Gp) is one of the most abundant red algae distributed in the Persian Gulf, containing various bioactive components with hypolipedimic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. Therefore using laying quails as a model we aimed to investigate the effect of dietary Gp on body weight, feed conversion, estradiol, progesterone, calcium and lipid levels in serum, as well as the high‐density:low‐density lipoprotein (HDL:LDL) ratio. Yolk cholesterol and yolk lipid oxidation were also evaluated. To accomplish this, diets containing 0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg−1 Gp were fed to 5‐week‐old laying quails for 12 weeks. RESULTS Our data revealed that Gp had no effect on body weight, feed conversion, triglycerides and estradiol levels of serum. Dietary Gp decreased the serum and yolk cholesterol in a dose‐dependent manner. In addition, the sera progesterone and calcium levels and HDL:LDL ratios were increased by feeding diets containing 50 g kg−1 Gp. Our results relating to yolk lipid oxidation showed that malondialdehyde content was decreased in Gp‐fed laying quails. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study demonstrate that not only serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels, but also susceptibility of yolk lipids to oxidation, can be decreased by feeding Gp to laying quails. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-28T05:53:33.643761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6844
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