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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1603 journals]   [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]
  • Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) in
           Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation,
           intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response
    • Authors: Lipismita Samal; Vishwa Bandhu Chaturvedi, Guttula Saikumar, Ramesh Somvanshi, Ashok Kumar Pattanaik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics like inulin or fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS like Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Results Seventy‐two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tuber at 0, 20, 40 and 60 g kg−1 levels. Enhanced cell‐mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P=0.082) and CD4+ T‐lymphocyte population (P=0.002) was observed in JA‐supplemented groups as compared to control. Blood haemoglobin (P=0.017), glucose (P=0.001), urea (P=0.004) and calcium (P=0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P=0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA‐fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P=0.069) and colon (P=0.003) was increased in JA groups accompanying higher (P=0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and that of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA‐supplemented groups. Conclusion The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T06:12:25.008198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6873
  • A comparative study of aroma‐active compounds between dark and milk
           chocolate: relationship to sensory perception
    • Authors: Jianbin Liu; Mengya Liu, Congcong He, Huanlu Song, Jia Guo, Ye Wang, Haiying Yang, Xiaoxia Su
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The most important aroma‐active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry (GC‐O‐MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. RESULTS A total of 32 major aroma‐active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27–729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur‐containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. CONCLUSION Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma‐active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:24:26.885871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6831
  • Biochar–manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution
           alleviated salt stress and improved leaf bioactivity of maize in a saline
           soil from central China: a 2‐year field experiment
    • Authors: Muhammad Siddique Lashari; Yingxin Ye, Haishi Ji, Lianqing Li, Grace Wanjiru Kibue, Haifei Lu, Jufeng Zheng, Genxing Pan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salinity is a major stress threatening crop production in dry lands. A 2‐year field experiment was conducted to assess the potential of a biochar product to alleviate salt‐stress to a maize crop in a saline soil. The soil was amended with a compost at 12 t ha−1 of wheat straw biochar and poultry manure compost (BPC), and a diluted pyroligneous solution (PS) at 0.15 t ha−1 (BPC‐PS). Changes in soil salinity and plant performance, leaf bioactivity were examined in the first (BPC‐PS1) and second (BPC‐PS2) year following a single amendment. RESULTS While soil salinity significantly decreased, there were large increases in leaf area index, plant performance, and maize grain yield, with a considerable decrease in leaf electrolyte leakage when grown in amendments. Maize leaf sap nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increased while sodium and chloride decreased, leaf bioactivity related to osmotic stress was significantly improved following the treatments. These effects were generally greater in the second than in the first year. CONCLUSION A combined amendment of crop straw biochar with manure compost plus pyroligneous solution could help combat salinity stress to maize and improve productivity in saline croplands in arid/semi‐arid regions threatened increasingly by global climate change. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:18:42.667136-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6825
  • Wine evolution and spatial distribution of oxygen during storage in
           high‐density polyethylene tanks
    • Authors: María del Alamo‐Sanza; V Felipe Laurie, Ignacio Nevares
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Porous plastic tanks are permeable to oxygen due to the nature of the polymers with which they are manufactured. In the wine industry, these types of tanks are used mainly for storing wine surpluses. Lately, their use in combination with oak pieces has also been proposed as an alternative to mimic traditional barrel ageing. RESULTS In this study, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in a wine‐like model solution, and the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of high‐density polyethylene tanks (HDPE), was analysed by means of a non‐invasive opto‐luminescence detector. Also, the chemical and sensory evolutioof red wine, treated with oak pieces, and stored in HDPE tanks was examined and compared against traditional oak barrel ageing. The average OTR calculated for these tanks was within the commonly accepted amounts reported for new barrels. With regards to wine evolution, a number of compositional and sensory differences were observed between the wines aged in oak barrels and those stored in HDPE tanks with oak barrel alternatives. CONCLUSION The use of HDPE tanks in combination with oak wood alternatives is a viable alternative too for ageing wine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:16:11.605769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6824
  • Study on reducing antigenic response and IgE‐binding inhibitions of
           four milk proteins of Lactobacillus casei 1134
    • Authors: Minjing Yao; Qian Xu, Yongkang Luo, Jing Shi, Zheng Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cow's milk allergy has aroused public concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fermentation by Lactobacillus casei 1134 on the antigenicity and allergenicity (IgE‐binding inhibitions) of milk proteins. The effects of pH value on the antigenicity and allergenicity of four milk proteins (α‐lactalbumin, β‐lactoglobulin, α‐casein and β‐casein) were examined by indirect competitive enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. The free amino acids which were produced in the fermentation process were analysed and the proteolysis of milk proteins was detected. RESULTS Fermentation by L. casei 1134 could significantly reduce the antigenicity and allergenicity of the four proteins in reconstituted milk. The allergenicity of milk proteins was further reduced in the process of simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Moreover, we could deduce that one of the potential factors of antigenicity was lactic acid with the comparison of the antigenicity of the four proteins between L. casei 1134 fermented milk and lactic acid milk at different pH values. CONCLUSION There are many factors which can affect the milk proteins allergen, including lactic acid and proteolytic enzymes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:07:16.287848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6823
  • Lipase‐mediated lipid removal from propolis extract and its
           antiradical and antimicrobial activity
    • Authors: Hyein Park; Song Hwan Bae, Yooheon Park, Hyeon‐Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Propolis contains many antioxidants such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, propolis–derived lipid components interrupt an efficient isolation of antioxidants from propolis extract. We examined the effectiveness of various lipase treatments for the removal of lipids from propolis extract, and evaluated the biological features of the extract. Result Lipase OF and Novozyme 435 treatments did not reduce fatty acid level in propolis extract. However, the Lipozyme TL IM‐treated propolis extract showed a significant decrease of fatty acid level, suggesting the removal of lipids. Lipozyme RM IM also significantly decreased the fatty acid level of the extract, but the reduction of polyphenols and flavonoids, which are antioxidants, was accompanied. In Lipozyme TL IM treatment, an increase of active flavonoids, such as Artepillin C and kaempferide, was observed with a slight increase of ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) radical scavenging activity. In addition, antimicrobial activity toward skin health‐related bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes was enhanced by Lipozyme TL IM treatment. Conclusion Lipozyme TL IM treatment effectively removes lipids from propolis extract and enhances antibacterial activity. Therefore, we suggest that Lipozyme TL IM is a useful lipase for lipid removal of propolis extract.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T04:59:44.728468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6874
  • The effect of hazelnut roasted skin from different cultivars on the
           quality attributes, polyphenol content and texture of fresh egg pasta
    • Authors: Giuseppe Zeppa; Simona Belviso, Marta Bertolino, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Barbara Dal Bello, Daniela Ghirardello, Manuela Giordano, Marta Giorgis, Arianna Grosso, Luca Rolle, Vincenzo Gerbi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Hazelnut skin is the perisperm of the hazelnut kernel. Hazelnut skin is separated from the kernel during the roasting process and is normally discarded. Recent studies have reported that hazelnut skin is a rich source of dietary fibre, as well as of natural antioxidants, due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the use of hazelnut skins obtained from different cultivars for enhancing the nutritional value of fresh egg pasta. Results Skins obtained from roasted hazelnuts of four different varieties were used at three concentrations as a flour replacement in fresh egg pasta. Hazelnut skin concentration significantly influenced all evaluated physicochemical parameters, as well as consumers’ appreciation for the pasta, but significant differences were also observed between the four varieties. Although pasta produced with 10% and 15% hazelnut skin displayed the highest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in vitro, pasta containing 5% Tombul hazelnut skin showed maximum consumer preference. Conclusions The results obtained in the present study highlighted that it is possible to use hazelnut skin in fresh pasta production to obtain a fortified food with high fibre content and antioxidant activity. The characteristics of the resulting pasta were strictly correlated with the hazelnut varieties used for skin production and, of course, to the percentage of skin that was added.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T04:56:33.401702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6871
  • Techniques to measure sorption and migration between small molecules and
           packaging. A critical review
    • Authors: Ashish A. Kadam; Thomas Karbowiak, Andrée Voilley, Frédéric Debeaufort
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The mass transfer parameters, diffusion and sorption, in food and packaging or between them, are the key parameters for assessing the food product's shelf‐life in reference to consumers’ safety. This has become of paramount importance due to the legislations set by the regulated markets. The technical capabilities have been growing rapidly, that can be exploited for analyzing product‐package interactions. Different techniques, categorized according to the state of the diffusant (gas or liquid) in contact with a packaging material are emphasized in this review. Depending on the diffusant and on the analytical question under review, the different ways to study sorption and/or migration are presented and compared. Some examples have been suggested to reach the best possible choice consisting of a single technique or a combination of different approaches.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T03:00:30.169637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6872
  • Co‐inoculation of Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma atroviride
           acts as a biostimulant to promote growth, yield and nutrient uptake of
           vegetable crops
    • Authors: Giuseppe Colla; Youssef Rouphael, Elena Di Mattia, Christophe El‐Nakhel, Mariateresa Cardarelli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The application of beneficial microorganisms at transplanting can promote rapid transplant establishment (starter effect) for achieving early and high yields. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant effects of Glomus intraradices BEG72 (G) and Trichoderma atroviride MUCL 45632 (T) alone or in combination on plant growth parameters, yield, chlorophyll index (SPAD), chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral composition of several vegetable crops. Results The T. atroviride strain was capable of producing siderophores and auxin‐like compounds under a wide range of substrate pH conditions (5.5‐8.0). The highest shoot, root dry weight, SPAD, and chlorophyll fluorescence in lettuce, tomato, and zucchini was observed in the G + T combination, followed by a single inoculation of G or T, whereas the lowest values were recorded in the uninoculated plants. Under greenhouse conditions, the shoot dry weight was significantly increased by 167%, 56%, 115%, 68%, and 58% in lettuce, melon, pepper, tomato, and zucchini, respectively, when supplied with both beneficial microorganisms in comparison with the control. This increase in root and shoot weight was associated with an increased level of nutrient uptake (e.g., P, Mg, Fe, Zn and B). Under open field conditions, the lettuce shoot and root dry weight increased by 61% and 57%, respectively, with biostimulant microorganism application in field conditions. For zucchini, early and total yields were significantly increased by 59% and 15%, respectively, when plants were inoculated with both microorganisms. Conclusions The application of the biostimulant tablet containing both G and T can promote transplant establishment and vegetable crop productivity in a sustainable way.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T02:53:44.007882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6875
  • Fungal diversity, incidence and mycotoxin contamination in grapes from two
           agro‐climatic Spanish regions with emphasis on Aspergillus species
    • Authors: E. García‐Cela; A. Crespo‐Sempere, J. Gil‐Serna, A. Porqueres, S. Marin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fourteen vineyards from two different agro‐climatic regions in Spain were sampled in two consecutive years in order to determinate the grape mycobiota and diversity indexes with the final aim to define the potential mycotoxigenic species from both regions and their relationship. Results The most common fungal Genera encountered were Aspergillus (30.0%), Alternaria (53.2%), Cladosporium (11.9%) and Penicillium (2.9%). Black aspergilli presence in the hotter region (South) was significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T02:51:34.657121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6876
  • Stage specific metabolization of triacylglycerides during seed germination
           of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.)
    • Authors: Umashankar Chandrasekaran; Aizhong Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A detailed study was carried out in Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) to investigate the mobilization of storage lipids during seed germination. The TLC analysis of total lipids showed a rapid decline in the TAG and DAG contents after the early stages (3–10 DAI) followed by a steady breakdown during the later stages (20, 30 DAI) of germination. Trace amount of MAG content was identified during the final stage (30 DAI). Further, gas chromatography analysis showed an increase in the major unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic and linolenic acid) content from 3 to 10 DAI followed by a slow decline. In addition, the major saturated fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acid) showed a decrease during the early stages (3–10 DAI) and an increase in their contents during the later stages (20, 30 DAI). The present study, therefore, provides the first report on the metaboilization of triacylglycerols along with fatty acid changes during the seed germination of Sacha Inchi.
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T10:50:32.350628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6855
  • Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with
           non‐aqueous capillary electrophoresis for the determination of
           imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole in apples, cherry tomatoes and
           grape juice
    • Authors: Lina Xu; Feng Luan, Huitao Liu, Yuan Gao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fruit and vegetables are frequently treated with fungicides to reduce possible spoilage. As a result, fungicide residues may be accumulated in derived products. This important group of chemical compounds has been heavily regulated because of their potential toxicity. Therefore, a simple and rapid method to determine fungicides is desired. RESULTS A simple non‐aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for the determination of imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole fungicides in fruits and juice samples. Separation buffer consisted of a methanol–acetonitrile mixture (35:65, v/v) containing 30 mmol L−1 ammonium chloride and 0.5% phosphoric acid. The optimum DLLME conditions were 80 µL trichloromethane as extraction solvent, 0.5 mL tetrahydrofuran as disperser solvent, sample solution pH at 6.0, 5% (w/v) NaCl and 10 s extraction time. Recoveries obtained for various samples ranged from 72% to 102%, with relative standard deviation lower than 6.4%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.47 to 0.72 µg kg−1. CONCLUSION The proposed method takes the advantages of DLLME and NACE. It is rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible for the determination of imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole in fruit samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T05:02:36.411039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6834
  • Chemical profile and antiacetylcholinesterase, antityrosinase, antioxidant
           and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of Cynometra cauliflora
           L. leaves
    • Authors: Muhammad Abubakar Ado; Faridah Abas, Intan Safinar Ismail, Hasanah M Ghazali, Khozirah Shaari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the current study was (i) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n‐butanol (n‐BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α‐glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (ii) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions using liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS The leaf methanolic extract of C. cauliflora exhibited potent inhibition of all three enzymes and high antioxidant activity. The bioactivity was found to be concentrated in the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions. A total of 18 compounds were identified in these bioactive fractions, comprising a procyanidin trimer, procyanidin tetramer, procyanidin hexamer, taxifolin pentoside, catechin, vitexin, isovitexin, kaempferol hexoside, quercetin pentoside, quercetin hexoside, apigenin‐6‐C‐glucoside‐8‐C‐glucoside, kaempferol–coumaroyl hexoside and isorhamnetin hexoside. CONCLUSION The results indicated that C. cauliflora, the leaves in particular, is a rich source of bioactive compounds and could be beneficial for further development of high‐value phytomedicinal preparations and functional food products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:53:37.584853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6832
  • Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using
           supercritical carbon dioxide: a review
    • Authors: Md. Salim Uddin; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker, Sahena Ferdosh, Md. Jahurul Haque Akanda, Mst. Sabina Easmin, Siti Hadijah Bt Shamsudin, Kamaruzzaman Bin Yunus
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC‐CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC‐CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC‐CO2. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:53:19.678781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6833
  • Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented
           with a diet rich in bioactive compounds
    • Authors: Dorota Cais‐Sokolińska; Jan Pikul, Jacek Wójtowski, Romualda Danków, Joanna Teichert, Grażyna Czyżak‐Runowska, Emilia Bagnicka
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d−1 per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. RESULTS The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n‐3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. CONCLUSION Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n‐3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:15:39.646721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6828
  • Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and
           viscosity of Brazilian red wines
    • Authors: Flávia SPP Neto; Maurício BM de Castilhos, Vânia RN Telis, Javier Telis‐Romero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 26 °C). RESULTS Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full‐bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. CONCLUSION The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:35:53.746484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6835
  • Production of an anthocyanin‐rich food colourant from Thymus
           moroderi and its application in foods
    • Authors: Miriam Cristina Díaz‐García; María Rosario Castellar, José María Obón, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Diego Rivera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from flowers and bracts of Thymus sp. are studied. An anthocyanin‐rich food colourant with interesting high antioxidant activity from Thymus moroderi has been obtained, and applied to colour foods. RESULTS Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from T. moroderi and another five Thymus sp. were extracted in methanol/hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol L−1 (50/50, v/v) 2 h stirring at 50 °C. They were identified and quantified by HPLC‐PDA‐MS and UHPLC‐PDA‐fluorescence, as total individual polyphenols. Total polyphenols were also determined. Flowers had higher anthocyanins and other polyphenols concentrations than bracts; for example, total polyphenols content of T. moroderi were 131.58 and 61.98 g GAE kg−1 vegetal tissue, respectively. A liquid concentrated colourant was obtained from T. moroderi using water/citric acid as solvent. It was characterised and compared with other two commercial anthocyanin‐rich food colourants from red grape skin and red carrot (colour strength of 1.7 and 3.6 AU, respectively). T. moroderi colourant had 1.2 AU colour strength, and high storage stability (>97.1% remaining colour after 110 days at 4 °C). It showed a higher polyphenols content than commercial colourants. Its antioxidant activity was 0.707 mmol Trolox eq. g−1 plant dry weight, 69.5 times higher than red carrot. The three colourants were applied to colour yogurts, giving pinky tonalities. The colour did not change evidently (ΔE*ab 
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:33:28.117731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6821
  • Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the
           nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean
    • Authors: Elena Bartkiene; Vita Krungleviciute, Grazina Juodeikiene, Daiva Vidmantiene, Zita Maknickiene
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The ability of bacteriocin‐like inhibitory substance (BLIS)‐producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce l(+) and d(−)‐lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupin and soya bean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. RESULTS Protein digestibility of fermented lupin and soya bean was found higher on average by 18.3% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly l‐lactic acid in soya bean and lupin (d/l ratio 0.38–0.42 and 0.35–0.54, respectively), while spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (d/l ratio 0.82–0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were able to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, whereas they were able to produce putrescine, histamine and tyramine. CONCLUSIONS SSF improved lupin and soya bean protein digestibility. BLIS‐producing LAB in lupin and soya bean medium produced a mixture of d‐ and l‐lactic acid with a major excess of the latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupin and soya bean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non‐producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:33:10.474531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6827
  • Assessment of cluster yield components by image analysis
    • Authors: Maria P Diago; Javier Tardaguila, Nuria Aleixos, Borja Millan, Jose M Prats‐Montalban, Sergio Cubero, Jose Blasco
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Berry weight, berry number and cluster weight are key parameters for yield estimation for wine and tablegrape industry. Current yield prediction methods are destructive, labour‐demanding and time‐consuming. In this work, a new methodology, based on image analysis was developed to determine cluster yield components in a fast and inexpensive way. RESULTS Clusters of seven different red varieties of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) were photographed under laboratory conditions and their cluster yield components manually determined after image acquisition. Two algorithms based on the Canny and the logarithmic image processing approaches were tested to find the contours of the berries in the images prior to berry detection performed by means of the Hough Transform. Results were obtained in two ways: by analysing either a single image of the cluster or using four images per cluster from different orientations. The best results (R2 between 69% and 95% in berry detection and between 65% and 97% in cluster weight estimation) were achieved using four images and the Canny algorithm. The model's capability based on image analysis to predict berry weight was 84%. CONCLUSION The new and low‐cost methodology presented here enabled the assessment of cluster yield components, saving time and providing inexpensive information in comparison with current manual methods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:21:17.346537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6819
  • Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient
           release patterns
    • Authors: Yakindra Prasad Timilsena; Raju Adhikari, Phil Casey, Tim Muster, Harsharn Gill, Benu Adhikari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fertilisers are one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. The application of fertilisers in agricultural practices has markedly increased the production of food, feed, fuel, fibre and other plant products. However, a significant portion of nutrients applied in the field is not taken up by plants and is lost through leaching, volatilisation, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss increases the cost of fertiliser and severely pollutes the environment. To alleviate these problems, enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEFs) are produced and used in the form of controlled release fertilisers and nitrification/urease inhibitors. The application of biopolymers for coating in EEFs, tailoring the release pattern of nutrients to closely match the growth requirement of plants and development of realistic models to predict the release pattern of common nutrients have been the foci of fertiliser research. In this context, this paper intends to review relevant aspects of new developments in fertiliser production and use, agronomic, economic and environmental drives for enhanced efficiency fertilisers and their formulation process and the nutrient release behaviour. Application of biopolymers and complex coacervation technique for nutrient encapsulation is also explored as a promising technology to produce EEFs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry Formulation and nutrient release aspects of enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) are reviewed Selection of coating material depends on the characteristics and intended use of fertilizer Biopolymers are preferred coating materials due to their environmental friendliness Relatively higher cost of EEFs is the main barrier for their wider application in agriculture Complex coacervation can potentially offer high payload and desirable release patterns in fertilizers
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:20:08.455212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6812
  • Effect of genetic and climatic variability on the metabolic profiles of
           black gram (Vigna mungo L.) seeds and sprouts
    • Authors: Kriskamol Na Jom; Wasaporn Chanput, Sumana Ngampongsai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Black gram is becoming increasingly of interest for consumers worldwide. The metabolomics have been conducted to reflect the life history of each individual plant. The metabolic pattern of black gram seeds and sprouts was profiled to investigate genetic and climatic influences on a broad range of chemical constituents. Results Distinct differences in metabolite profiles amoung three black gram varieties for both intact seeds and sprouts was observed. The differential impact of climate on metabolite profiles of the variety Chai Nat 80 during both dry and rainy seasons was investigated. Univariate statistical analysis demonstrated that greater maturity due to adequate moisture in the rainy season led to a higher content of nutritionally relevant polar metabolites, whereas the dry season resulted in a high relative amount of storage lipid because of immaturity due to insufficient rain and water supply. Conclusion The investigation confirmed the potential of metabolite profiling to assist in breeding and farming practices.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T03:55:49.915588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6869
  • The effect of ZnCl2 on green Spanish‐style table olive packaging, a
           presentation style dependant behaviour
    • Authors: J. Bautista‐Gallego; F.N. Arroyo‐López, V. Romero‐Gil, F. Rodríguez‐Gómez, A. Garrido‐Fernández
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Zinc chloride has been used previously as a preservative in directly brined olives with promising results. However, this is the first time that the effects of ZnCl2 addition (0–1 g L−1) on green Spanish‐style table olive (Manzanilla cv.) packaging has been studied. Results The presence of ZnCl2 affected the physicochemical characteristics of the products; the presence of the Zn led to lower pH values (particularly just after packaging) and titratable and combined acidity values than the control but did not produce clear trends in the colour parameters. No Enterobacteriaceae were found in any of the treatments evaluated. At the highest ZnCl2 concentrations, the lactic acid bacteria were inhibited while, unexpectedly, its presence showed a lower effect than potassium sorbate against the yeast population. Regardless of the use of potassium sorbate or ZnCl2, the packages had a reduced microbial biodiversity because only Lactobacillus pentosus and Pichia galeiformis were found at the end of the shelf life. With respect to organoleptic characteristics, the presentations containing ZnCl2 were not differentiated from the traditional product. Conclusion Zn chloride was less efficient than potassium sorbate as a yeast inhibitor in green Spanish‐style olives, showing clear presentation style dependant behaviour for this property. Its presence produced significant changes in chemical parameters but scarcely affected colour or sensory characteristics.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T03:01:22.494846-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6870
  • Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the
           Taiwanese tea industry
    • Authors: Mao‐Chang Wang; Chin‐Ying Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. RESULTS The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi‐rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non‐organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. CONCLUSION This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T09:28:31.081114-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6814
  • Purification and characterization of α‐acetolactate
           decarboxylase (ALDC) from newly isolated Lactococcus lactis DX
    • Authors: Yuxing Guo; Daodong Pan, Haibing Ding, zhen Wu, Yangying Sun, Xiaoqun Zeng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diacetyl (2,3‐butanedione) is a common flavor aroma from fermented dairy product. It is needed to screen new microorganisms which can efficiently produce large amounts of diacetyl. Results A new lactic acid bacteria, which produced high concentrations of diacetyl, was identified based on gram staining, microscopic examination and its 16S rDNA sequence as Lactococcus lactis DX. α‐acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) was purified using 0.45 g mL−1 ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephacryl S‐300 and S‐200 HR, and Native‐PAGE. The purified ALDC displayed a monomer structure and had a molecular mass of about 73.1 KDa, which was estimated using SDS‐PAGE. IR analysis showed that ALDC had a typical protein structure. The optimum temperature and pH for ALDC activity was 40 ° C and 6.5 pH. The ALDC of Lactococcus lactis DX was activated by Fe2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, and Ca2+, while Cu2+ significantly inhibited ALDC activity. Leucine, valine and isoleucine activated the ALDC. Conclusion The strain that had high ability to produce diacetyl was identified as Lactococcus lactis DX. The difference in diacetyl production may be due to the ALDC, which is different from other ALDCs.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T04:40:52.040466-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6868
  • Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds and
           antioxidant properties in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)
    • Authors: Karent Bravo; Stella Sepulveda‐Ortega, Oscar Lara‐Guzman, Alejandro A Navas‐Arboleda, Edison Osorio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit with high valued for its organoleptic properties and bioactive compounds. Considering that the presence of phenolics and ascorbic acid could contribute to their functional capacity, it is important to investigate the quality parameters and bioactive contents and functional properties with respect to genotype and ripening time. In this study, the genotype effect was evaluated in fifteen cultivars for two different harvest times. The changes during maturation were recorded in two commercial cultivars within seven levels of maturity. Results Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phenolic content and ORAC values were mainly affected by the harvest time and that ascorbic acid content and DPPH levels were mainly affected by genotype. In addition, the acidity, phenolic content, ORAC value and inhibition of LDL oxidation decreased with maturity, but soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, β‐carotene and DPPH‐scavenging activity were higher in mature fruits. Conclusions The phenolic content, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of Cape gooseberry fruit were strongly affected by cultivars, harvest time and maturity state. Consequently, the harvest time must be scheduled carefully to gain the highest portion of bioactive compounds according to the specific cultivar and the environment where it is grown.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T04:40:47.943451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6866
  • A novel pectin‐degrading enzyme complex from Aspergillus sojae ATCC
           20235 mutants
    • Authors: Marco A. Mata‐Gómez; Doreen Heerd, Iñigo Oyanguren‐García, Francis Barbero, Marco Rito‐Palomares, Marcelo Fernández‐Lahore
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In food industry, the use of pectinase preparations with high pectin esterase (PE) activity leads to the release of methanol, which is strictly regulated in food products. Herein, a pectin‐degrading enzymes (PDEs) complex exhibiting low PE activity of three Aspergillus sojae ATCC 20235 mutants (M3, DH56 and Guserbiot 2.230) was investigated. Production of exo‐/endo‐polygalacturonase (PG), exo‐polymethylgalacturonase (PMG) and pectin lyase (PL) by mutant M3 and A. sojae using two different carbon sources was evaluated in solid‐state fermentation. Finally, experimental preparations obtained from the mutants and commercial pectinases standardized to the same potency were screened for PDEs. Results The mutant M3 grown on sugar beet was found to be the best producer of exo‐PG, endo‐PG, exo‐PMG and PL, with maximum yields of 1111, 449, 130 and 123 U g−1, respectively. All experimental preparations exhibited low PE activity, at least 21.5 times less than commercial pectinases, and higher endo‐PG (40 U ml−1). Conclusion The mutant M3 was the best PDEs producer using sugar beet. The mutant strains presented a PDE complex featuring high endo‐PG and very low PE activities. This novel complex with low desterifying activity can be exploited in food industry to degrade pectin without releasing methanol.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:30:18.099167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6864
  • Rapid screening of low molecular weight phenols from persimmon (Diospyros
           kaki) pulp using liquid chromatography‐UV/Vis‐electrospray
           mass spectrometry analysis
    • Authors: Enrique Sentandreu; Manuela Cerdán‐Calero, John M. Halket, José L. Navarro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Persimmon fruits have largely been used by traditional medicine due to their phenolic composition. This research aims to perform a rapid, detailed and affordable study of the profile of low molecular weight phenols from persimmon pulp. Methods Two different HPLC‐DAD‐ESI−/MSn analyses were performed by a routine three‐dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the ethanolic extract of persimmon pulp: (1) an untargeted data dependent analysis to identify the majority of small phenols that included a full MS and MS2 scan events; and (2) a targeted data dependent analysis to identify the polymerized phenols (dimmers and formic acid adducts) through a Source Induced Dissociation analysis that included full MS and MS2 scan events. Results A total of thirty‐two low molecular weight phenols were detected, consisting of gallic acid and its glycoside and acyl derivatives, glycosides of p‐coumaric, vanillic and cinnamic acids and different flavone di‐C‐hexosides, most of them firstly reported in persimmon. Conclusion The use of a straightforward and affordable methodology of analysis led to obtain an up‐to‐date profiling of low molecular weight phenols in persimmon. Results can help future actions aimed to expand the understanding of the phenolic metabolome of persimmon cultivars.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:50.621137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6867
  • Analytical phenolic composition and sensory assessment of selected rare
           Greek cultivars after extended bottle ageing
    • Authors: Kallithraka Stamatina; Kotseridis Yorgos, Kyraleou Maria, Proxenia Niki, Tsakiris Argirios, Karapetrou Garifalia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The Hellenic vineyard embraces a large number of native cultivars, which are mostly unexploited for their ageing potential. Therefore, it was thought that analyzing some quality parameters of fourteen red wines produced by rare native varieties would be of great importance in obtaining a general picture of their potential for commercial use. Various analytical methods were applied to the selected wines, at bottling and after eight years of ageing period, in an attempt to provide reliable answers to this issue. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the alteration of the phenolic content and color parameters of the wines after the extended bottle storage and to evaluate the overall changes with respect to their sensory properties. Results Most of the oligomeric phenolic compounds identified in the wines studied diminished after eight years of bottle storage, while significant correlations were obtained between wine chemical composition and sensory data. Conclusions After eight years of bottle storage some of the unexploited varieties (v. Vinifera) were found to be worthy of further study and use for the production of quality wines. The wines with the best sensory characteristics were those made by limniona, mavrotragano, bakouri, thraspa and mavrothiriko in accordance more or less with the results of the chemical analyses.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:47.073374-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6865
  • Characterization of enzymatically prepared sugar medium‐chain fatty
           acid monoesters
    • Authors: Xi Zhang; Wei Wei, Xi Cao, Fengqin Feng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sugar medium chain fatty acid esters, a new type of biodegradable, nontoxic, nonirritant, and nonionic surfactant with proven antimicrobial activity. Various sugar medium‐chain fatty monoesters were prepared enzymatically using Lipozyme TLIM in organic solvent. The properties such as surface tension, antimicrobial activity, and ability to foam, emulsify, and stabilize emulsions at room temperature were evaluated to conduct systematic studies on the structure‐function relationships of these compounds. Results Results showed that all monoesters displayed good surface‐activity properties. In particular, sucrose monolaurate was the most excellent surfactant among 12 monoesters. The sugar monoesters containing C8 to C12 alkyl chains showed a broad spectrum of increasing antimicrobial activity. All tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram‐positive bacterium) than Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram‐negative bacterium). Methyl α‐D‐glycoside monoesters were the most effective, whereas raffinose monoesters possessed poor antimicrobial activity. Conclusions Generally, the length of fatty acid chain (hydrophobic group) and sugar groups (hydrophilic group) for sugar medium chain fatty acid monoesters both affected the surface properties and antimicrobial activities.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:45.235917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6863
  • Differentiation of organic and non‐organic winter wheat cultivars
           from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns
    • Authors: Johannes Kahl; Nicolaas Busscher, Gaby Mergardt, Paul Mäder, Torfinn Torp, Angelika Ploeger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well‐documented sample origin. RESULTS The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non‐organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k‐nearest‐neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non‐organic origin using cross‐validation. CONCLUSION Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non‐organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T08:52:05.769722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6818
  • Production of γ‐aminobutyric acid by microorganisms from
           different food sources
    • Authors: Jozef Hudec; Ľubomír Kobida, Margita Čanigová, Magdaléna Lacko‐Bartošová, Otto Ložek, Peter Chlebo, Jana Mrázová, Ladislav Ducsay, Judita Bystrická
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND γ‐Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a potentially bioactive component of foods and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was screen lactic acid bacteria belonging to the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, and microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) from 10 different food sources for GABA production by fermentation in broth or plant and animal products. RESULTS Under an aerobic atmosphere, very low selectivity of GABA production (from 0.8% to 1.3%) was obtained using yeast and filamentous fungi, while higher selectivity (from 6.5% to 21.0%) was obtained with bacteria. The use of anaerobic conditions, combined with the addition of coenzyme (pyridoxal‐5‐phosphate) and salts (CaCl2, NaCl), led to the detection of a low concentration of GABA precursor. Simultaneously, using an optimal temperature of 33 °C, a pH of 6.5 and bacteria from banana (Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae families), surprisingly, a high selectivity of GABA was obtained. A positive impact of fenugreek sprouts on the proteolytic process and GABA production from plant material as a source of GABA precursor was identified. CONCLUSIONS Lactic acid bacteria for the production of new plant and animal GABA‐rich products from different natural sources containing GABA precursor can be used. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T08:51:25.939274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6807
  • Characterization of Phytophthora nicotianae isolates in southeast Spain
           and their detection and quantification through a real‐time TaqMan
    • Authors: Josefa Blaya; Carmen Lacasa, Alfredo Lacasa, Victoriano Martínez, Ana B Santísima‐Trinidad, Jose A Pascual, Margarita Ros
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The soil‐borne pathogens Phytophthora nicotianae and P. capsici are the causal agents of root and stem rot of many plant species. Although P. capsici was considered the causal agent in one of the main pepper production areas of Spain to date, evidence of the presence of P. nicotianae was found. We aimed to survey the presence of P. nicotianae and study the variability in its populations in this area in order to improve the management of Tristeza disease. RESULTS A new specific primer and a TaqMan probe were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA to detect and quantify P. nicotianae. Both morphological and molecular analysis showed its presence and confirmed it to be the causal agent of the Phytophthora disease symptoms in the studied area. The genetic characterization among P. nicotianae populations showed a low variability of genetic diversity among the isolates. Only isolates of the A2 mating type were detected. CONCLUSIONS Not only is a specific and early detection of P. nicotianae essential but also the study of genetic variability among isolates for the appropriate management of the disease, above all, in producing areas with favorable conditions for the advance of the disease. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T09:02:05.910983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6813
  • A comparison of actual versus stated label amounts of EPA and DHA in
           commercial omega‐3 dietary supplements in the United States
    • Authors: Alison C Kleiner; Dennis P Cladis, Charles R Santerre
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits throughout life and are obtained primarily through fish and fish oil supplements. Due to the growing popularity of dietary supplements, 47 commercial fish, krill, and algal oil supplements were analyzed for EPA, DHA, and other fatty acids. RESULTS For fish‐ and krill‐based supplements, the range of EPA was 81.8 to 454.6 mg g−1 oil and DHA was 51.6 to 220.4 mg g−1 oil. For algal oil supplements, EPA ranged from 7.7 to 151.1 mg g−1 oil and DHA ranged from 237.8 to 423.5 mg g−1 oil. The percentage of the stated label amount for EPA and DHA ranged from 66 to 184% and 62 to 184%, respectively. Only 10 supplements (21% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated label amount of EPA, while 12 supplements (25% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated amount of DHA. Over 70% of the supplements tested did not contain the stated label amount of EPA or DHA. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the quality of fish oil supplements is not being adequately monitored by manufacturers or government agencies and increased testing is needed to ensure regulatory compliance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T09:01:57.786231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6816
  • Inferring the origin of rare fruit distillates from compositional data
           using multivariate statistical analyses and the identification of new
           flavour constituents
    • Authors: Tatjana M Mihajilov‐Krstev; Marija S Denić, Bojan K Zlatković, Vesna P Stankov‐Jovanović, Violeta D Mitić, Gordana S Stojanović, Niko S Radulović
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In Serbia, delicatessen fruit alcoholic drinks are produced from autochthonous fruit‐bearing species such as cornelian cherry, blackberry, elderberry, wild strawberry, European wild apple, European blueberry and blackthorn fruits. There are no chemical data on many of these and herein we analysed volatile minor constituents of these rare fruit distillates. Our second goal was to determine possible chemical markers of these distillates through a statistical/multivariate treatment of the herein obtained and previously reported data. RESULTS Detailed chemical analyses revealed a complex volatile profile of all studied fruit distillates with 371 identified compounds. A number of constituents were recognised as marker compounds for a particular distillate. Moreover, 33 of them represent newly detected flavour constituents in alcoholic beverages or, in general, in foodstuffs. With the aid of multivariate analyses, these volatile profiles were successfully exploited to infer the origin of raw materials used in the production of these spirits. It was also shown that all fruit distillates possessed weak antimicrobial properties. CONCLUSION It seems that the aroma of these highly esteemed wild‐fruit spirits depends on the subtle balance of various minor volatile compounds, whereby some of them are specific to a certain type of fruit distillate and enable their mutual distinction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T08:57:39.739818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6810
  • Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load of Sorghum Products
    • Authors: Prasad MPR; Dayakar Rao B, Kalpana K, Rao MV, Patil JV
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sorghum, small seeded grass, is an important food crop and chief energy source for the people of semi‐arid regions of the world. In India, sorghum production and consumption was decreased to post green revolution, but it is gaining its momentum due to numerous health and nutritional benefits. An understanding of GI and GL of staples can help in choosing suitable foods in the prevention and control of diabetes. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to evaluate GI and GL of different sorghum foods and compare with the GI and GL wheat/ rice based foods. Results The GI of sorghum based foods such as coarse semolina upma (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T02:10:27.339436-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6861
  • Identifying the drivers of liking by investigating the reasons for
           (dis)liking using CATA in cross‐cultural context: a case study on
           barbecue sauce
    • Authors: Ji‐Hye Choi; Mi‐Jin Gwak, Seo‐Jin Chung, Kwang‐Ok Kim, Michael O'Mahony, Rie Ishii, Ye‐Won Bae
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study cross‐culturally investigated the drivers of liking for traditional and ethnic chicken marinades using descriptive analysis and consumer taste test incorporating check‐all‐that‐apply(CATA) method. Seventy three Koreans and 86 US consumers participated. The tested sauces comprised of three tomato based sauces, a teriyaki based sauce, and a Korean spicy seasoning based sauce. Chicken breasts were marinated with each of the 5 barbecue sauces, grilled and served for evaluation. Descriptive analysis and consumer taste test were conducted. Consumers rated the acceptance on a hedonic scale and checked the reasons for (dis)liking by CATA method for each sauce. General linear model, multiple factor analysis, and chi‐square analysis were conducted using the data. Results The results showed that the preference order of the samples between Koreans and US consumers were strikingly similar to each other. However, the reasons for (dis)liking the samples differed cross‐culturally. The drivers of liking of 2 sauces sharing relatively similar sensory profiles but differing significantly in hedonic ratings were effectively delineated by reasons of (dis)liking CATA results. Conclusion Reasons of (dis)liking CATA proved to be a powerful supporting method to understand the internal drivers of liking which can be overlooked by generic descriptive analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T02:10:22.524781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6860
  • Release of Bisphenols from Can Coatings into canned beer in China market
    • Authors: Yunfei Xie; Yang Bao, Heya Wang, Yuliang Cheng, He Qian, Weirong Yao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This research was to understand the migrations of bisphenols from can coatings into foods in China market. The migrations of bisphenols were studied filled in commercial cans from China market with four types of food simulants (FS) which were experienced at 121 °C for 30 min and be stored at 40 °C for 30 day, only BPA and BADGE were found in the linings, and SimC (10% ethanol) was the most suitable food stimulant for their release. The levels of the bisphenols in 24 kinds of canned beers from China market were further investigated, and the mean concentrations were 2.85 ± 0.79 and 0.38 ± 0.19 µg · L−1 for BPA and BADGE, respectively, which were both lower than the European Union regulations, as their daily intakes were estimated at 0.015 and 0.0020 µg · kg−1 of body weight · day−1. Besides, rising storage temperature and time could accelerate the release of bisphenols into FSs. Our results showed some guidance to reduce the migrations of bisphenols during transport or storage of the canned foods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T05:58:14.919903-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6862
  • Dairy matrix effect on the transference of rosemary essential oil
           (Rosmarinus officinalis) compounds during cheesemaking
    • Authors: Armando Moro; Celia M Librán, M Isabel Berruga, Manuel Carmona, Amaya Zalacain
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of aromatic plant extracts as ingredients may be compromised due to low transference and activity lack in food matrixes compared with in vitro trials. Rosemary essential oil (REO) was added to sheep milk to study the transference of its compounds during the cheesemaking process and to determine how cheese antimicrobial activity is modified. Results The volatile characterisation of dairy samples was performed using head space‐stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS‐SBSE‐GC/MS), such fat matrix interferences were reduced. This method detected a decrease in volatile recovery concentration of 19.33 % when REO was added to milk. A total recovery volatile yield of 62.51 % was measured from the initial quantification of milk to cheese, with the hydrocarbon volatiles being transferred in a higher ratio (64.88 %) than oxygenated ones (58.74 %). No effects were observed for REO in fortified cheese on the counts of native flora necessary for ripening processes, but provoked the total inhibition of Clostridium spp. Conclusion The study of active compound transference during cheese elaboration was achieved. The antimicrobial results in fortified cheeses with REO showed a preventive effect in the case of clostridial species, which are responsible for late cheese blowing.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T05:46:15.841177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6853
  • Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of
           ginseng adulteration
    • Authors: Shaoqing Cui; Liangcheng Yang, Jun Wang, Xinlei Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng was common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their difference but subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but time‐consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method was required. A taste‐sensing system, which combined both advantages of above two technologies, might be a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. Results It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R2=0.92) with mixed ratios. Bioplot of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a good performance in classing samples with first two PCs of 89.7%, and it was noticed that bitterness, astringent, and their aftertastes and saltiness were significant drivers. After factor screening, bitterness, astringent and aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringent and aftertaste‐bitterness taste were demonstrated to explain adulteration ratios prediction most; bitterness and aftertaste‐bitterness contributing to ginsenoside contents prediction most. Conclusion Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considering as taste finger‐print, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T04:18:19.17697-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6858
  • Short‐term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in
           chestnut‐wheat bread
    • Authors: Massimiliano Rinaldi; Maria Paciulli, Chiara Dall'Asta, Martina Cirlini, Emma Chiavaro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data has been previously published about the staling of chestnut‐containing bread. Thus, short term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour supplemented soft‐wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physico‐chemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Results Bread prepared with a 20/80 ratio of chestnut/soft‐wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft‐wheat bread; it did not change during storage, while it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf‐life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf‐life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes with a decrease in the smallest grain classes, and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut‐ flour bread, only. Conclusions Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf‐life.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25T02:25:24.311443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6843
  • Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing
           food waste?
    • Authors: Michael M Blanke
      Pages: 2357 - 2361
      Abstract: Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59–65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas – ethylene – is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor‐based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low‐ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1‐MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. ‘It's Fresh’, Ryan'), packages (e.g. ‘Peakfresh’), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce (‘Wunderlinge’), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the ‘sell by’ date (‘Die Tafel’) and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing food waste. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T08:32:43.231353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6660
  • The role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle: tracking the
           below‐ground microbial processing of plant‐derived carbon for
           manipulating carbon dynamics in agricultural systems
    • Authors: Christos Gougoulias; Joanna M Clark, Liz J Shaw
      Pages: 2362 - 2371
      Abstract: It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and managed soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil‐derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil carbon cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic carbon inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the management of agro‐ecosystems for carbon sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant‐derived carbon‐utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high‐throughput ability to quantitatively apportion carbon use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant–soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil carbon storage in agricultural soil. © 2014 The
      Authors . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2014-03-06T10:35:40.386642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6577
  • Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals
    • Authors: Jafar Milani; Gisoo Maleki
      Pages: 2372 - 2375
      Abstract: The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food‐processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T10:10:31.630676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6600
  • Bioproduction of baccatin III, an advanced precursor of paclitaxol, with
           transgenic Flammulina velutipes expressing the 10‐deacetylbaccatin
           III‐10‐O‐acetyl transferase gene
    • Authors: Fei Han; Lin‐Zhi Kang, Xian‐Lu Zeng, Zhi‐Wei Ye, Li‐Qiong Guo, Jun‐Fang Lin
      Pages: 2376 - 2383
      Abstract: BACKGROUND 10‐Deacetylbaccatin III (10‐DAB) and baccatin III are intermediates in the biosynthesis of Taxol (an anti‐cancer drug) and useful precursors for semi‐synthesis of the drug. In this study, a bioconversion system was established for the production of baccatin III, an advanced precursor of paclitaxel, in the transgenic mushroom Flammulina velutipes expressing the 10‐deacetylbaccatin III‐10β‐O‐acetyltransferase gene. The expression vector pgFvs‐TcDBAT containing the 10‐deacetylbaccatin III‐10β‐O‐acetyltransferase (DBAT) gene was constructed and transformed into the cells of F. velutipes by polyethylene glycol‐mediated protoplast transformation. RESULTS Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting analysis verified the successful integration of the exogenous DBAT gene into the genome of F. velutipes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme activity analyses confirmed that the DBAT gene was expressed in F. velutipes, and DBAT is able to convert substrate into baccatin III. CONCLUSION The DBAT gene from the plant Taxus chinensis can be functionally expressed in F. velutipes. Transgenic F. velutipes expressing the DBAT gene is able to produce the target product, baccatin III. This is the first report about the transformation and expression of paclitaxel biosynthetic gene in the edible mushroom F. velutipes. This represents a significant step towards bio‐production of paclitaxel and its advanced precursor baccatin III in an edible fungus. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-13T10:47:50.570578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6562
  • Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste
           characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha
           (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice
    • Authors: Yonathan Asikin; Hibiki Fukunaga, Yoshimasa Yamano, De‐Xing Hou, Goki Maeda, Koji Wada
      Pages: 2384 - 2392
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. RESULTS Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; ‘Izumi kugani’ juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26–53.73 mg L−1 in whole juice versus 0.82–1.58 mg L−1 in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Conclusion Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:53:45.863937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6563
  • Anthocyanin profiles and biological properties of caneberry (Rubus spp.)
           press residues
    • Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac; Amadeo Gironés‐Vilaplana, Sonja Djilas, Pedro Mena, Gordana Ćetković, Diego A Moreno, Jasna Čanadanović‐Brunet, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić, Milica Krunić
      Pages: 2393 - 2400
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The global interest in natural food colours shows increasing attention towards new product development to replace synthetic colourants, because of the strengthening of legislative rules and consumer awareness of synthetic additives and chemicals in food. This study was designed to evaluate anthocyanin content and biological activities of press residues from four caneberries: two raspberry (Rubus idaeus, cv. ‘Meeker’ (RM) and ‘Willamette’ (RW)) and two blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, cv. ‘Thornfree’ (BT) and ‘Čačanska bestrna’ (BC)) cultivars. RESULTS Analysis by high‐performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry identified cyanidin glycosides in all press residues, cyanidin 3‐glucoside being prevalent in BC (1360.6 mg kg−1) and BT (1397.7 mg kg−1), and cyanidin 3‐sophoroside in RM (349.2 mg kg−1) and RW (581.0 mg kg−1). Antioxidant capacity (AC), evaluated by ABTS (2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethyl benzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) assay, reducing power (RP) and α‐glucosidase inhibitory potential (α‐GIP) was higher in blackberry press residues. Total anthocyanin content was in good correlation with AC (r = 0.953; P < 0.05), RP (r = 0.993, P < 0.01) and α‐GIP (r = 0.852, P < 0.15). CONCLUSION This study has revealed the potential for valorization of juice production byproducts for further industrial use as a rich source of bioactive compounds and natural colourants (mainly anthocyanins). Also, they can provide health‐promoting effects beyond their general organoleptic acceptance in food product development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-13T04:54:44.609042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6564
  • Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric assay of ascorbic acid in
           pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice with pH adjustment and
           pre‐extraction of lanthanum(III)–flavonoid complexes
    • Authors: F Ayca Ozdemir Olgun; Dilek Ozyurt, Kadriye Isil Berker, Birsen Demirata, Resat Apak
      Pages: 2401 - 2408
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study proposes modifications to the conventional Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) spectrophotometric method for individually determining ascorbic acid (AA) in complex matrices in the presence of other phenolics and potential interferents. The conventional FC assay in the aqueous phase, which normally measures total water‐soluble phenolics and other antioxidants, has recently been modified by incorporating isobutanol (iso‐BuOH) in the solvent mixture for the simultaneous determination of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in foods. RESULTS Interference effects of other flavonoids and phenolics to individual AA assays were overcome by preliminary extraction–removal as their La(III) chelates into ethyl acetate (EtAc). The pH of the medium was adjusted to 3.0 in order to prevent conversion of AA into over‐oxidation products further beyond the dehydroascorbic acid stage, as encountered in the conventional FC assay carried out at pH 10. This pH does not permit most phenolics to ionise, rendering their oxidation difficult. CONCLUSION Both methods (conventional and iso‐BuOH‐modified FC at pH 3, with and without La(III)/EtAc pre‐extraction) were applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice, showing good agreement with HPLC results. The proposed spectrophotometric methods with their low cost, simplicity, reliability, versatility and accuracy offer novelty to the determination of AA in complex matrices. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:54:14.096705-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6569
  • Barrier, structural and mechanical properties of bovine
           gelatin–chitosan blend films related to biopolymer interactions
    • Authors: Nasreddine Benbettaïeb; Mia Kurek, Salwa Bornaz, Frédéric Debeaufort
      Pages: 2409 - 2419
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The increased use of synthetic packaging films has led to a high ecological problem due to their total non‐biodegradability. Thus, there is a vital need to develop renewable and environmentally friendly bio‐based polymeric materials. Films and coatings made from polysaccharide polymers, particularly chitosans and gelatins have good gas barrier properties and are envisaged more and more for applications in the biomedical and food fields, as well as for packaging. In this study a casting method was used to develop an edible plasticised film from chitosan and gelatin. Aiming to develop a blend film with enhanced properties, the effects of mixing chitosan (CS) and gelatin (G) in different proportions (CS:G, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, w/w) on functional and physico‐chemical properties have been studied. RESULTS Mean film thickness increased linearly (R2 = 0.999) with surface density of the film forming solution. An enhancement of mechanical properties by increasing the tensile strength (38.7 ± 11 MPa for pure chitosan and 76.8 ± 9 MPa for pure gelatin film) was also observed in blends, due to gelatin content. When the gelatin content in blend films was increased an improvement of both water vapour barrier properties [(4 ± 0.3) × 10−10 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for pure chitosan and (2.5 ± 0.14) × 10−10 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for pure gelatin, at 70% RH gradient] and oxygen barrier properties ((822.62 ± 90.24) × 10−12 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for blend film chitosan:gelatin (25:75 w/w) and (296.67 ± 18.76) × 10−12 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 for pure gelatin was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectra of blend films showed a shift in the peak positions related to the amide groups (amide‐I and amide‐III) indicating interactions between biopolymers. CONCLUSIONS Addition of gelatin in chitosan induced greater functional properties (mechanical, barrier) due to chemical interactions, suggesting an inter‐penetrated network. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:47:06.070234-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6570
  • Effect of power ultrasound pretreatment on peptidic profiles and
           angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition of milk protein concentrate
    • Authors: Hankie Uluko; Lu Liu, Hongjuan Li, Wenming Cui, Shuwen Zhang, Lili Zhao, Haixiao Xue, Jiaping Lv
      Pages: 2420 - 2428
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of power ultrasound as a pretreatment to enhance the hydrolysis of milk protein concentrate (MPC) and subsequent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity has been studied. Liquid chromatography was used to analyse peptide profiles of Neutrase‐derived MPC hydrolysates after pretreatment at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at an ultrasound power level of 800 W. RESULTS The peptide profiles indicated an increase in number of peptides when ultrasound pretreatment was applied. There was also an increase in the degree of hydrolysis of MPC hydrolysates. The profiles indicated that new small peptides in ultrasound pretreated samples (1–5 min) which were not present in the control samples and 8 min pretreated samples, could be responsible for increased ACE inhibitory activity. These small peptides were digested in the 8 min pretreated samples. CONCLUSION Ultrasound pretreatment of MPC increases the ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates because of the production of new small peptides. This can be used as a means to derive potent ACE inhibitory peptides at industrial scale in complex protein sources. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-11T09:50:38.87307-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6572
  • Characterization, phylogenetic affiliation and probiotic properties of
           high cell density Lactobacillus strains recovered from silage
    • Authors: Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Min‐Woong Jung, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Da Hye Kim, Hyung Su Park, Jung Won Park, Naif Abdullah Al‐Dhabi, Ki Choon Choi
      Pages: 2429 - 2440
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to isolate high cell density Lactobacillus (LAB) from different forages and select the best strains for production of silage with improved the lactic acid production. RESULTS Twenty heterofermentative LAB strains were selected and their probiotic properties were analyzed by evaluating their tolerance to low pH, bile salts, biogenic amine production, enzyme activity, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and antifungal activity. The 16S rRNA gene‐based phylogenetic affiliation indicated that 16 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum and others were L. bobalius, L. zymae, L. crustorum and L. diolivorans. Shake‐flask cultivation of these strains under aerobic conditions showed comparatively higher growth and organic acid production than that achieved using the well‐studied LAB strains. In addition, all the strains were highly sensitive towards ox gall (0.3%), but grew well in the presence of sodium taurocholate (0.3%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is an intrinsic feature of these LAB strains; thus consumption does not represent a health risk to humans. Lactobacillus plantarum strains exhibited considerable antifungal activity against food pathogens. CONCLUSION The present finding raises the possibility that high cell density LAB strains with potential probiotic properties could be used to prepare quality silages for animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T12:40:15.892677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6573
  • Effect of citronella essential oil on the inhibition of postharvest
           Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato
    • Authors: Qianru Chen; Shixiang Xu, Tao Wu, Jun Guo, Sha Sha, Xiaodong Zheng, Ting Yu
      Pages: 2441 - 2447
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Essential oils such as citronella oil exhibit antifungal activity and are potential alternative inhibitors to chemical synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases. In this study the antifungal activity of citronella oil against Alternaria alternata was investigated. RESULTS In vitro, citronella oil showed strong inhibition activity against A. alternata. The minimum inhibitory concentration in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose broth medium was determined as 1 and 0.8 µL mL−1 respectively. In vivo the disease incidence of Lycopersicon esculentum (cherry tomato) treated with citronella oil was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced compared with the control after 5 days of storage at 25 °C and 95% relative humidity. The disease incidence at oil concentrations of 0.2–1.5 µL mL−1 was 88–48%. The most effective dosage of the oil was 1.5 µL mL−1, with 52% reduction, and the oil had no negative effect on fruit quality. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed considerably abnormal mycelial morphology. CONCLUSION Citronella oil can significantly inhibit A. alternata in vitro and in vivo and has potential as a promising natural product for controlling black rot in cherry tomato. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-21T05:02:09.657203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6576
  • Amino acid availability in ruminants of cereals and cereal
    • Authors: Javier González; José M Arroyo, Jésus Alberto Guevara‐González, Rabiaa Mouhbi, Olga Piquer, Vicente Javier Moya
      Pages: 2448 - 2455
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microbial corrected in situ estimates of the ruminal undegraded fraction (RU) and intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of amino acids (AA), except tryptophan, of rye, wheat and corn grains, wheat bran, wheat and barley distilled dried grains and corn gluten feed were measured on three rumen‐ and duodenum‐cannulated wethers using 15N‐labelling techniques and considering ruminal rates of particle comminution and outflow. RESULTS The lack of microbial correction led to overestimations of the intestinal digested fraction that rose with the increase in ruminal degradability. Thus these overestimations varied widely among feeds (from 4.3 to 32.1% for total analysed AA) and among AA. Digestion led to large changes in the AA supply that were greater in the rumen than in the intestine. The impact of these changes on the protein value is conditioned by the magnitude of the undegraded protein fraction. CONCLUSION Microbial contamination taking place in the rumen and changes in the AA supply with digestion should be considered to attain accurate estimates of AA digestion. Globally, digestion improved the AA supply in rye, wheat and wheat distilled dried grain and decreased it in corn and corn gluten feed by reducing the supply of valine and basic AA, especially lysine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T13:00:49.103432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6579
  • Bio protection and preservation of raw beef meat using pungent aromatic
           plant substances
    • Authors: Kesavan Radha krishnan; Srinivasan Babuskin, Packirisamy Azhagu Saravana Babu, Mohammed Abbas Fayidh, Kalleary Sabina, Ganesan Archana, Meenatchisundaram Sivarajan, Muthusamy Sukumar
      Pages: 2456 - 2463
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study examined the effectiveness of three individual spice (clove, cinnamon and oregano) extracts and their combinations in raw beef meat during refrigerated storage. Meat samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp.) and physicochemical (pH, colour and thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances (TBARS)) attributes. RESULTS Samples treated with the combination of all three spice extracts showed lower bacterial counts and better L*, a* and b* values among treated samples during the storage period. Positive and negative control samples had the highest TBARS values at the end of the storage period. With the addition of spice extracts, TBARS values in raw beef samples were retarded effectively (P < 0.05) compared with control samples, especially when the combination of all three spice extracts was used. CONCLUSION The results of this study show that spice extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations and retarding lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage (4 °C) of raw beef meat. They also suggest that combinations of these extracts may have potential as natural preservatives in raw meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-20T17:25:41.941947-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6580
  • Determination of volatile compounds in turbot (Psetta maxima) during
           refrigerated storage by headspace solid‐phase microextraction and
           gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Yongxia Xu; Ying Liu, Chengcheng Jiang, Chaomin Zhang, Xuepeng Li, Danshi Zhu, Jianrong Li
      Pages: 2464 - 2471
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A procedure based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS‐SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) was developed for the study of the volatile profile characteristics of turbot during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 20 days in order to find possible markers of freshness or spoilage. RESULTS A total of 61 volatile compounds including aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, aromatics, amines and others were identified in turbot muscle extracted by the optimised HS‐SPME method. The volatile profile characteristics of turbot at different storage periods were specified by principal component analysis (PCA). The concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, (2E,4E)‐heptadienal, acetophenone, 2‐undecanone and 1‐octen‐3‐ol decreased during storage, whereas benzene acetaldehyde, 6‐methyl‐5‐hepten‐2‐one, 2‐nonanone, acetic acid butyl ester, 3‐methyl‐1‐butanol and trimethylamine increased. CONCLUSION SPME‐GC‐MS combined with PCA may be a useful method for monitoring the volatile profile characteristics of turbot during storage, which could be potentially used for freshness evaluation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:44:34.692551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6581
  • Studies on the preparative isolation and stability of seven main
           anthocyanins from Yan 73 grape
    • Authors: Ke Tang; Yang Li, Yehui Han, Fuliang Han, Jiming Li, Yao Nie, Yan Xu
      Pages: 2472 - 2481
      Abstract: BACKROUND Seven anthocyanin monomers of Yan 73 grape were separated using preparative HPLC and identified by UPLC‐ESI‐MS/MS. The stabilities of the seven isolated anthocyanins to light, temperature and pH were also investigated. RESULTS Seven anthocyanin monomers were successfully isolated with an Xbridge Prep C18 column on a preparative scale. The pigments delphinidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, malvidin‐3‐O‐acetylglucoside and malvidin‐3‐O‐coumarylglucoside were yielded in a one‐step separation by preparative HPLC, with purities up to 99.9%, 91.7% and 95.5%, respectively. The pigments cyanidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, petunidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, peonidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, and malvidin‐3‐O‐glucoside were further purified with another elution method and their purities were all improved up to 99.9%. Monomeric anthocyanin degradation fitted a first‐order reaction model. The seven isolated anthocyanins were significantly more stable in the dark than under light. High temperature was also unfavourable for the stability of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins were more stable at lower pH than at higher pH. In addition, among these anthocyanins, delphinidin‐3‐O‐glucoside, malvidin‐3‐O‐acetylglucoside and malvidin‐3‐O‐coumarylglucoside were more susceptible to light, heat, and pH than the others. CONCLUSION A simple and clean isolation method of seven anthocyanin monomers from Yan 73 grape was established. The stabilities of the seven anthocyanin monomers to light, temperature and pH were different, but the trends in changes were similar. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-17T04:50:48.020138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6582
  • Allergenicity of an enzymatic hydrolysate of soybean 2S protein
    • Authors: Dongeun Sung; Kang Mo Ahn, Seung‐Yong Lim, Sangsuk Oh
      Pages: 2482 - 2487
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study was performed to examine how the characteristics of soybean 2S protein influence allergenicity after enzymatic hydrolysis. Soybean 2S protein was extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using pepsin and chymotrypsin. Allergenicity was observed using soybean‐sensitive patients' sera. RESULTS Only 13.3% (6/45) of soybean‐sensitive patients reacted to soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), known as the major allergen of soybean 2S protein. After peptic hydrolysis for 90 min at pH 1.2, the intensity of SKTI decreased to 25% but was still visible on SDS‐PAGE. Chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis at pH 8 for 60 min showed a limited hydrolytic effect on soybean 2S protein. Peptic hydrolysis of soybean 2S protein partially reduced the allergenicity of soybean 2S protein, while chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis increased slightly the allergenicity. CONCLUSION Food allergy caused by soybean 2S protein occurred in part of the soybean‐sensitive patients. SKTI was partially digested after peptic hydrolysis for 90 min. The allergenicity was decreased with peptic hydrolysis, while subsequent treatment of chymotrypsin increased slightly the allergenicity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-22T11:37:30.918721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6583
  • Loss of sulfur dioxide and changes in some chemical properties of Malatya
           apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) during sulfuring and drying
    • Authors: Meltem Türkyılmaz; Mehmet Özkan, Nihal Güzel
      Pages: 2488 - 2496
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study was conducted to determine the differences in some analytical properties of four apricot cultivars and to determine the changes in these analytical properties during sulfuring and sun‐drying. RESULTS There were significant differences in the contents of polyphenols, carotenoids and organic acids (OA) as well as antioxidant activities (AOAs) of the cultivars (P < 0.05). After sulfuring and drying, considerable reductions were detected in the contents of total polyphenols (TPCs, 11–26%), OAs (4–32%) and β‐carotene (6–21%), and AOAs (2–21%) of the samples. Sun‐drying resulted in 71–83% decreases in sulfur dioxide (SO2) contents of sulfured–dried apricots (SDAs) in comparison with apricots immediately after sulfuring. As the TPCs increased, the SO2 absorption by the samples also increased. In contrast, the OA contents had no effect on SO2 absorption, but an increase in OA content resulted in an increase in the browning values of the SDAs. As expected, increases in contents of ferulic acid (r = 0.932), chlorogenic acid (r = 0.850), epicatechin (r = 0.804) and quercetin (r = 0.750) led to an increase in browning values of the SDAs. CONCLUSION There were significant effects of cultivar and processing on the physico‐chemical properties investigated in the study, and with the absorption of SO2 and the formation of a brown colour in the samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T15:27:47.360613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6584
  • Antioxidant, oxidative DNA damage protective and antimicrobial activities
           of the plant Trigonella foenum‐graecum
    • Authors: Pankaj Singh; Shri P Vishwakarma, Ram L Singh
      Pages: 2497 - 2504
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The plant Trigonella foenum‐gracecum (TFG) is used as antidiabetic and diuretic. In order to ascertain antioxidant potential of leaf (early and mature) and seed of TFG, total phenolics, free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation, ferric thiocyanate assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DNA damage protective activities were determined. The study was further carried out to assay the antimicrobial activity and HPLC analysis of plant parts. RESULTS Ethanol extracts of leaf (early and mature) exhibited a high content of phenolics (54.79 and 41.28 g kg−1 GAE) when it was compared with seed extract (23.85 g kg−1 GAE). Results showed that mature TFG leaf extract had the lowest IC50 for the free radical scavenging assay (IC50 = 2.23 mg mL−1), superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.71 mg mL−1), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 17.30 mg mL−1) and highest reducing power (10.14 ascorbic acid equivalents mL−1). However, the ethanol seed extract showed the maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the ferric thiocyanate assay. Mature leaf also showed the maximum DNA damage protection activity and higher concentration of phytochemicals. CONCLUSION The results showed that the mature TFG leaf had a higher antioxidant activity, which may be due to the presence of total phenolics. It may be used in herbal drugs or as a nutritional supplement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-20T17:25:36.647083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6585
  • Accumulation of lipofuscin‐like pigments of walnuts (Carya
           cathayensis) during storage: potential roles of lipid oxidation and
           non‐enzymatic glycosylation
    • Authors: Wenjuan Li; Haiyan Gao, Xiangjun Fang, Fei Tao, Hangjun Chen, Honglei Mu, Yueming Jiang
      Pages: 2505 - 2513
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lipofuscin‐like pigments (LFLP) are considered a hallmark of aging. The intracellular LFLP formation rate is negatively correlated with the life expectancy of cell. In food quality, increase of LFLP not only affects the appearance but also causes loss of nutritional value. RESULTS The accumulation of LFLP increased during storage of all walnuts. LFLP fluorescent intensities of walnuts with 4%, 6%, 12% and 16% moisture at the end of storage were 8.1, 4.8, 4.3 and 2.8 times those at the beginning, respectively. The LFLP accumulation of walnuts with high moisture was found to be negatively correlated with soluble sugars and 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical quenching rate, but positively correlated with the content of hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF). While the LFLP accumulation of walnuts with low moisture had a strong positive correlation with anisidine value, it exhibited high negative correlations with acid phosphatase activity, DPPH• quenching rate and tocopherol content. CONCLUSION In walnuts with low initial moisture, lipoxidation products increased markedly during storage and these products might provide the source for LFLP accumulation. On the other hand, in walnuts with high initial moisture, reducing sugars derived from the hydrolysis of soluble sugars might play an important role in initiating the Maillard‐like reaction, leading to LFLP accumulation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-22T09:16:34.726786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6587
  • Lactobacillus brevis OPK‐3 isolated from kimchi inhibits
    • Authors: Jeong‐Eun Park; Suk‐Heung Oh, Youn‐Soo Cha
      Pages: 2514 - 2520
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Kimchi is a traditional fermented food in Korea that contains various unique microorganisms. Diverse bacteria are involved in the process of Kimchi fermentation and the healthful advantages; one of the major species is Lactobacillus. We investigated whether lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi (KLAB) are capable of reducing intracellular lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of adipogenesis and lipogenesis promoting genes in differentiating 3T3‐L1 cells. RESULTS KLAB (Lactobacillus brevis OPK‐3) mediated dose‐dependent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, intracellular triglyceride accumulation and glycerol‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. The expression of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α involved in adipogenesis was markedly decreased by the KLAB treatment. Terminal adipogenic marker, e.g. adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase, liver X receptor α, leptin and GPDH were significantly downregulated by KLAB treatment compared to untreated control. Moreover, cytokine genes, such as tumor necrosis factor‐α and interleukin‐6 mRNA expressions level were also decreased, whereas adiponectin mRNA level was upregulated by KLAB. CONCLUSION These results suggest that the KLAB inhibits lipid accumulation in the differentiating adipocyte through downregulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes involved in lipid metabolism. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-26T11:03:38.20555-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6588
  • Improving ryegrass‐clover pasture dry matter yield and urea
           efficiency with gibberellic acid
    • Authors: Mohammad Zaman; Anwar Ghani, Leonid V Kurepin, Richard P Pharis, Shabana Khan, Terry J Smith
      Pages: 2521 - 2528
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of spraying gibberellic acid (GA3) at 20 or 30 g ha−1, with or without application of urea, on pasture dry matter (DM) yield, herbage nitrogen (N) concentration and feed quality were investigated in 2011 and 2012 for managed pastoral systems in New Zealand across a range of sites, in both autumn and spring. RESULTS On the Waikato site (autumn and spring, 2012), and at all five sites in 2011, liquid urea applied with GA3 at 20 or 30 g ha−1 consistently produced significantly higher pasture shoot DM yield, relative to liquid urea alone. Application of GA3 alone reduced feed quality by lowering metabolizable energy, crude protein and organic matter digestibility values. However, a reduced feed quality was not observed when GA3 was applied together with liquid urea. Liquid urea applied with GA3 also reduced total N and nitrate‐N concentration in herbage, relative to liquid urea applied alone. CONCLUSION Application of GA3 together with liquid urea provides an opportunity for the strategic use of urea to meet both production and environmental goals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T10:16:50.275245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6589
  • Antimicrobial potentials of active component isolated from Citrullus
           colocynthis fruits and structure–activity relationships of its
           analogues against foodborne bacteria
    • Authors: Min‐Gi Kim; Sung‐Eun Lee, Ji‐Yeon Yang, Hoi‐Seon Lee
      Pages: 2529 - 2533
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Synthetic preservatives have been consistently used to maintain the quality of food products. However, the degree of danger to human health cannot be ignored. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of Citrullus colocynthis fruits and 4‐methylquinoline analogues were investigated to develop natural preservatives against foodborne bacteria. RESULTS Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and five fractions derived from C. colocynthis fruits were evaluated against five foodborne bacteria. The chloroform fraction possessed strong activities against five foodborne bacteria. 4‐Methylquinoline was isolated by chromatographic analyses. To establish the structure–activity relationships, the antimicrobial activities of 4‐methylquinoline analogues (2‐hydroxyquinoline, 4‐hydroxyquinoline, 6‐hydroxyquinoline, 2‐methylquinoline, 6‐methyquinoline, 8‐methylquinoline and 2‐methyl‐8‐hydroxyquinoline) were tested against food‐borne bacteria. When employing the agar diffusion method, 2‐methyl‐8‐hydroxyquinoline was found to have potent activities against the five foodborne bacteria. In terms of minimum bactericidal concentration or minimum inhibitory concentration, 2‐methyl‐8‐hydroxyquinoline had significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the five foodborne bacteria. CONCLUSION Citrullus colocynthis fruits and 4‐methylquinoline analogues could be useful for the development of eco‐friendly food supplemental agents and pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T12:05:29.790357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6590
  • An eco‐friendly, quick and cost‐effective method for the
           quantification of acrylamide in cereal‐based baby foods
    • Authors: Mehmet Fatih Cengiz; Cennet Pelin Boyacı Gündüz
      Pages: 2534 - 2540
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The presence of acrylamide in cereal‐based baby foods is a matter of great concern owing to its possible health effects. Derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of the most common methods to quantify acrylamide. However, it requires the use of toxic chemicals and is time‐consuming. The aim of this study was to develop an eco‐friendly, rapid and inexpensive method for the determination of acrylamide in cereal‐based baby foods. RESULTS The method involves defatting with n‐hexane, extraction into water, precipitation of proteins, bromination, extraction into ethyl acetate and injection into a GC/MS system. The effects of defatting, precipitation, treatment with triethylamine, addition of internal standard and column selection were reviewed. A flow chart for acrylamide analysis was prepared. To evaluate the applicability of the method, 62 different cereal‐based baby foods were analyzed. The levels of acrylamide ranged from not detected (below the limit of detection) to 660 µg kg−1. CONCLUSION The method is more eco‐friendly and less expensive because it consumes very little solvent relative to other methods using bromine solutions and ethyl acetate. In addition, sample pre‐treatment requires no solid phase extraction or concentration steps. The method is recommended for the determination of trace acrylamide in complex cereal‐based baby food products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-24T12:07:41.838387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6592
  • Fate and survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7
           in repacked soil lysimeters after application of cattle slurry and human
    • Authors: Karin A Nyberg; Jakob R Ottoson, Björn Vinnerås, Ann Albihn
      Pages: 2541 - 2546
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Use of cattle slurry as a fertiliser is common practice around the world. Human urine use is not as common, but owing to its fertiliser value this might change in the future. It is essential to minimise the transfer of enteric pathogens through fertilisation, with respect to both animal and public health. Therefore the objective of this research was to study the survival and transport of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in two agricultural soils when applied to soil along with either cattle slurry or human urine over a period of 180 days. RESULTS Both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were more rapidly reduced when applied together with human urine than when applied with cattle slurry. However, both pathogens persisted in low amounts at 20 and 50 cm depth in both soils throughout the whole study period. No Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the leachate over the 180 day study. CONCLUSION The risk of disease transmission is higher when cattle slurry is used as fertiliser compared with human urine. However, the risk of groundwater infiltration would be low as long as water velocity through the soil is moderate. Increased knowledge of pathogen persistence in soil after fertiliser application is a valuable tool for improving risk evaluations and formulating guidelines for the use of cattle and/or human wastes in cropping soils. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-24T12:07:32.545985-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6593
  • Effects of ZnO nanoparticles and microwave heating on the sterilization
           and product quality of vacuum‐packaged Caixin
    • Authors: Qian Liu; Min Zhang, Zhong‐xiang Fang, Xiao‐hong Rong
      Pages: 2547 - 2554
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The sterilization of vacuum‐packaged Caixin (Brassica chinensis L.), which is a green‐leafy vegetable and also a low‐acid food, remains a difficult problem. In this study, effects of ZnO nanoparticles and microwave heating on the sterilization and product quality of vacuum‐packaged Caixin were investigated. RESULTS Addition of ZnO nanoparticle suspension at 0.01–0.02 g kg−1 reduced the number of bacterial colonies. The antibacterial activity was enhanced with the increased amount of ZnO nanoparticles. Microwave heating (915 and 2450 MHz) was used to sterilize Caixin samples. Samples had good product quality (better greenness, chroma and hue angle values, lower browning index and acceptable texture) and the lowest total colony number under the microwave heating condition of 400 W 150 s (2450 MHz). CONCLUSION The best sterilization condition was observed under 2450 MHz microwave (400 W 150 s) heating combined with 0.02 g kg−1 ZnO nanoparticle addition, which led to a total colony number of
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T06:47:58.503422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6594
  • Effect of methyl jasmonate, sodium selenate and chitosan as exogenous
           elicitors on the phenolic compounds profile of broccoli sprouts
    • Authors: Herna Barrientos Carvacho; Carmen Pérez, Gustavo Zúñiga, Andrea Mahn
      Pages: 2555 - 2561
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Broccoli sprouts are a good source of secondary metabolites, exhibiting biological activity, such as polyphenols, whose concentration is affected by the exposure to exogenous elicitors. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sodium selenate, chitosan and methyl jasmonate, applied directly to the seeds or through irrigation, on the content and profile of phenolic compounds in broccoli sprouts. The effect on antioxidant activity was also investigated. RESULTS Methyl jasmonate and chitosan decreased antioxidant capacity. Methyl jasmonate significantly decreased total polyphenols content in comparison with control sprouts, while chitosan significantly increased it. Sodium selenate had no statistical effect on antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols concentration. The polyphenols profile in sprouts was composed by quercetin, morine, genisteine, luteoline and sinapic acid. Elicitor type and concentration affected the synthesis of these compounds. Chitosan stimulated the synthesis of quercetin, sinapic acid and morine, whereas methyl jasmonate stimulated the synthesis of luteoline. Sodium selenate had no effect on polyphenols synthesis. CONCLUSION The exposure of broccoli to the elicitors produced changes in the phenolic compounds profile of broccoli sprouts. Besides, the stimulation of phenolic compounds synthesis was elicitor‐specific, thus opening the possibility of managing culture conditions to increase the content of a specific phenolic compound. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T05:51:17.549339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6596
  • Effects of formulation, extrusion cooking conditions, and CO2 injection on
           the formation of acrylamide in corn extrudates
    • Authors: Mustafa Tugrul Masatcioglu; Vural Gokmen, Perry K W Ng, Hamit Koksel
      Pages: 2562 - 2568
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Acrylamide is a possible carcinogen and known to form in heat‐treated carbohydrate‐rich foods. This study was designed to investigate the effects of different ingredients (reducing sugars, chemical leavening agents, citric acid), processing conditions (feed moisture content: 22, 24 or 26%, exit die temperature: 110, 150 °C), and extrusion cooking methods (with or without CO2 injection) on acrylamide formation. RESULTS The type of reducing sugar did not have a considerable effect on acrylamide formation, while increased exit die temperature had a promoting effect. Addition of chemical leavening agents (sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate) into formulations increased acrylamide formation levels. The addition of citric acid prevented acrylamide formation, but its effect on textural properties was detrimental. Acrylamide levels of extrudates decreased gradually with increasing feed moisture in all formulations. Acrylamide content of extrudates produced with 22% feed moisture decreased by 61% in the CO2 injection method compared to conventional extrusion. Furthermore, an 82% decrease in acrylamide content was observed with the combined effect of CO2 injection and increasing feed moisture content from 22 to 24% and decreased below the limit of quantification with a further increase in feed moisture. CONCLUSION A substantial decrease in final acrylamide level is probably due to restriction of two major steps of acrylamide formation: dehydration and decarboxylation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-07T06:50:48.880242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6598
  • Determining sucrose and glucose levels in dual‐purpose sorghum
           stalks by Fourier transform near infrared (FT‐NIR) spectroscopy
    • Authors: Shih‐Fang Chen; Mary‐Grace C Danao, Vijay Singh, Patrick J Brown
      Pages: 2569 - 2576
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sorghum is an advanced biomass feedstock from which grain, sugar and stover can be used for biofuel production. Determinations of specific sugar contents in sorghum stalks help to make strategic decisions during plant breeding, processing, storage and optimization of fermentation conditions. In this study, Fourier transform near infrared (FT‐NIR) spectroscopy was used as a relatively fast, low‐cost, high‐throughput assay to predict sucrose and glucose levels in stalks of 40 dwarf grain sorghum inbreds. RESULTS The diffuse reflection spectra were pretreated with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and first‐derivative Savitzy–Golay (SG‐1). Calibrated models were developed by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis. Martens' uncertainty test was used to determine the most effective spectral region. The PLSR model for stalk sucrose content was built on 380 significant wavenumbers in the 4000–6999 cm−1 range. The model was based on four factors and had RPD = 2.40, RMSEP = 1.77 and R2 = 0.81. Similarly, the model for stalk glucose was built using 4000–9000 cm−1 and six factors, with RPD = 2.45, RMSEP = 0.73 and R2 = 0.81. CONCLUSION PLSR models were developed based on FT‐NIR spectra coupled with multivariate data analysis to provide a quick and low‐cost estimate of specific sugar contents in grain sorghum stalks. This sugar information helps decision making for sorghum‐based biomass processing and storage strategies. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-03T11:40:42.762657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6606
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