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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 280 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1607 journals]
  • Edible films and coatings based on biodegradable residues applied to
           acerolas (Malpighia punicifolia L)
    • Authors: Mariana S. L. Ferreira; Ana Elizabeth C. Fai, Cristina T. Andrade, Paulo H. Picciani, Edwin G. Azero, Édira C. B. A. Gonçalves
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study aimed to produce and characterize edible films and coatings from fruit and vegetable residue flour (FVR) and potato peel flour (P). Two coating approaches (immersion and film) were studied on the quality of acerolas. RESULTS Film forming solutions (FFS) presented a viscoelastic behavior and a gelation process occurring at 70 °C. Maximum density (1.018 g.cm−3), viscosity (44.404 cP) and starch content were obtained for FFS based on 8% FVR added 4% P. This same film presented enhanced mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break (0.092 MPa, 36%, respectively). Solubility of the films averaged 87%, demonstrating high hydrophilicity. Improved performance was obtained for film packaged acerolas, which exhibited an increase in shelf life of 50% compared to control group. It was observed a lower loss in weight for these samples by about 30‐57%, compared to control, but minor modifications occur over storage concerning pH, titratable acidity and soluble content. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated the potential of FVR flour for edible coating and film formulation. Practical application on acerolas constituted a motivating route to evaluate and optimize this process, however microbiological and sensorial analysis are necessary to assess the material acceptability and safety.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T01:25:26.703515-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7265
       
  • Flavor Compounds and Sensory Profiles of a Novel Chinese Marinated Chicken
    • Authors: Hai Li; Xia Li, Chun‐hui Zhang, Jin‐zhi Wang, Chun‐hong Tang, Lin‐li Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUD Marinating is Chinese traditional meat process method using aged brine that bring popular flavor together with food safety issues. This study developed a novel marinated method named as quantitative marinating (QM) to improve Chinese traditional marinating (TM). Flavor compounds and sensory profiles of two marinated products were determined to verify if the improved marinated method could maintain the characteristic flavor of traditional marinated products. RESULTS 54, 60, 60, 60 and 44 volatile flavor compounds were identified from four processed stages of QM and TM, respectively. Contents of taste compounds increased firstly and then decreased in the processed stages of QM. The total free amino acids content of QM and TM product was 789 and 536 mg/100 g respectively. Total nucleotide content of QM product (22.21 mg/100 g) was higher than that of TM (20.75 mg/100 g), but the fatty acids content of QM product (26.66 mg/g) was lower than that of TM (44.43 mg/g). Finally, QM received higher sensory scores than TM. CONCLUSION Volatile flavor compounds, taste compounds and sensory properties of QM were richer than that of TM, which indicated QM can not only maintain original aroma of traditional marinating, but also have advantages in taste compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T01:04:42.067659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7263
       
  • Chicken Surimi Fortified by Omega‐3‐fatty‐acid Addition:
           Manufacturing and Quality Properties
    • Authors: Hao‐Lun Wang; Chung‐Hsi Chou, Yu‐Shan Yu, Chin‐Lin Hsu, Sheng‐Yao Wang, Yi‐Feng Ko, Yi‐Chen Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The meat in spent hens is hard to use due to small amount and poor quality. The washing processing is to remove sarcoplasmic proteins and other impurities which can prolong the shelf life of surimi‐like products. Due to the benefits of ω‐3 PUFAs, functional foods fortified with ω‐3 PUFAs are marketed increasingly. Hence, manufacture of ω‐3 FA fortified chicken surimi was made; meanwhile, how to ameliorate its lipid peroxidation during a frozen storage was investigated. RESULTS 0.10% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution instead of distilled water in the third washing step decreased (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:54:33.362399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7262
       
  • Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages of Enterococcus
           spp from vegetable food, soil and irrigation water in farm environments in
           Tunisia
    • Authors: Leila Ben Said; Naouel Klibi, Raoudha Dziri, Francesca Borgo, Abdellatif Boudabous, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective was to determine the species, clonal diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence in enterococci of different environments. Seventy‐one samples of farm origin (34 of food‐vegetables, 27 of soil and 10 of irrigation water), and 19 samples of vegetables of 5 markets were inoculated in Slanetz‐Bartley agar plates supplemented or not with gentamicin (SB‐Gen and SB plates, respectively) for enterococci recovery. RESULTS Enterococci were obtained from 72.2% of tested samples in SB media (food‐vegetables from farm, 88.2%; soil and irrigation water, 51%; food‐vegetables from market, 84.2%), and 65 enterococcal isolates were obtained. E. faecium was the most prevalent species (52.3%), followed by E. hirae (35.4%), E. faecalis (6.15%), and E. casseliflavus (6.15%). Antibiotic resistance detected among these enterococci were [percentage/detected gene]: ciprofloxacin [60%], erythromycin [18.4%/erm(B)], tetracycline [15.4%/tet(M)‐tet(L)], kanamycin [15.4%/aph(3')‐III], chloramphenicol [7.7%], streptomycin [3%/ant(6)], vancomycin [6.15%/vanC2)], and teicoplanin and ampicillin [0%]. High‐level‐gentamicin resistant (HLR‐G) enterococci were detected in SB‐Gen plates in 14 of 90 tested samples (15.5%), and 15 isolates were characterized: 10 E. faecalis, 4 E. faecium and 1 E. hirae. All HLR‐G enterococci carried the aac(6')‐aph(2”), erm(B) and tet(M) genes, among other resistance genes. The HLR‐G isolates showed high genetic diversity (10 different PFGE‐profiles), and were ascribed to the sequence‐types: E. faecalis (ST2, ST16, ST28, and the new ST528); E. faecium (ST56, ST885, and ST886). CONCLUSION Food‐vegetables at the farm or market setting are frequently contaminated by HLR‐G enterococci and these microorganisms could reach the human intestine through the food chain, if hygienic conditions are not followed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:50:59.881691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7264
       
  • Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by anti‐microbial
           photodynamic technology using methylene blue
    • Authors: Xi Deng; Shuze Tang, Qian Wu, Juan Tian, William W. Riley, Zhenqiang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causative pathogen of gastroenteritis often related to contaminated seafood. Photodynamic inactivation has been recently proposed as a strategy for killing cells and virus. The objective of this study was to verify the bactericidal effects caused by photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using methylene blue (MB) over V. parahaemolyticus via flow cytometry (FCM), agarose gel electrophoresis and SDS‐PAGE. V. parahaemolyticus counts were determined by using the most probable number (MPN) method. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to intuitively analyze internal and external cell structure. RESULTS Combination of MB and laser treatment significantly inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. The inactivation rate of V. parahaemolyticus was >99.99%, and its counts were reduced by 5‐log10 in the presence of 0.05 mg/mL MB when illuminated with visible light (power density 200 mW/cm2) for 25 min. All inactivated cells showed morphological changes, leakage of cytoplasm and degradation of protein and DNA. CONCLUSION Results from this study indicated that photodynamic technology using methylene blue produced significantly inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus mainly brought about by the degradation of protein and DNA.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:47:53.189514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7261
       
  • Generation mean analysis of grain quality traits in selected rice
           populations derived from different amylose characteristics
    • Authors: Asfaliza R; M. Y. Rafii, M.A. Latif, G. Saleh, O. Othman, A. Puteh
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Genetic analysis using generation mean analysis is a tool for designing the most appropriate breeding approaches to developing varieties of rice. It estimates the gene actions that control quantitative traits, as well as the additive, dominance and epistatic effects. This study was conducted using three rice populations that were derived from parental lines with different amylose content. The aim was to partition the gene actions using generation mean analysis for the selected populations. RESULTS A scaling test was carried out to evaluate the fulfilment of the additive‐dominance model. Non‐allelic interaction was observed for milled grain length, length‐to‐width ratio and milled rice recovery of all populations evaluated. An additive‐dominance model was not adequate for amylose, gel consistency, grain length, grain width, milled grain width and head rice recovery thus, epistasis was involved in the populations evaluated. The importance of additive gene action was observed for grain length, milled grain length and milled rice recovery for populations of high‐ and low‐amyloseparents. However, populations with intermediate‐ and high‐amylose parents and intermediate‐ and low‐amylose parents shared almost similar dominance gene actions for most of the physical grain quality traits. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that delayed selection is the best approach for traits governed by dominance and epistasis effects. Meanwhile, the traits that were governed by additive effects should undergo thorough selection at an early stage.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:37:39.273627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7260
       
  • Effect of the season on the free phytoprostanes content in Cornicabra
           extra virgin olive oil from deficit irrigated olive trees
    • Authors: Jacinta Collado‐González; David Pérez‐López, Houssem Memmi, M. Carmen Gijón, Sonia Medina, Thierry Durand, Alexandre Guy, Jean‐Marie Galano, Diego José Fernández, Fernando Carro, Federico Ferreres, Arturo Torrecillas, Angel Gil‐Izquierdo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive (Olea europaea L., cv Cornicabra) oil (EVOO) was studied. During 2012 and 2013 seasons, T0 plants were irrigated at 100 % ETc, and T1 and T2 treatments were irrigated avoiding water deficit during phase I and III of fruit growth and saving water during the non‐critical phenological period of pit hardening (phase II) and developing a more severe water deficit in T2 plants. In 2013, a T3 treatment was performed, which was similar to T2, except that water saving was from the beginning of phase II to 15 days after the end of phase II. RESULTS 9‐F1t‐PhytoP, 9‐epi‐9‐F1t‐PhytoP, 9‐epi‐9‐D1t‐PhytoP, 9‐D1t‐PhytoP, 16‐B1‐ and 9‐L1‐PhytoP were present in Cornicabra EVOO and their contents increased in the EVOO from RDI plats. CONCLUSION Deficit irrigation during pit hardening or a longer period of two weeks in addition to increase irrigation water saving, is clearly critical for EVOO composition because of free PhytoPs enhancement, which have potential beneficial aspects on human health. The response of individual free PhytoPs to changes in plant water status was not as perceptible as expected, avoiding their use as biomarkers of water stress.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:37:23.99222-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7259
       
  • Kinetic studies of the reaction between pesticides and hydroxyl radical
           generated by laser flash photolysis
    • Authors: Fábio Gozzi; Silvio C. Oliveira, Renato F. Dantas, Volnir O. Silva, Frank H. Quina, Amilcar Machulek
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to contamination of the environment by pesticides and their mishandling, there is the need for treatment of contaminated sites and correct disposal of materials containing them. Thus, studies with advanced oxidation processes are expanding and can determine the rate constant of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds of great importance in environmental contamination. In this context, the use of laser flash photolysis has been shown to be viable for the determination of these constants. RESULTS The reaction rate constants of different pesticides with HO● in degased acetonitrile have been determined. They were 1.6 109 M−1 s−1, 0.6 109 M−1 s−1, 1.2 109 M−1 s−1, 2.4 109 M−1 s−1 and 2.2 109 M−1 s−1 for the pesticides carbaryl, propoxur, fenoxycarb, ethoxysulfuron and chlorimuron‐ethyl, respectively. These values are about an order of magnitude smaller than the diffusion controlled rate and correlate with the relative rates of disappearance of the pesticides in the photo‐Fenton reaction in water. CONCLUSION The correlation of the relative rate constants determined by laser flash photolysis with the relative rates of photo‐Fenton degradation of the pesticides is compelling evidence for the participation of the hydroxyl radical in the degradation of these pesticides in the latter system.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:57:46.399028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7258
       
  • Dynamic variation of bioactive compounds and aflatoxins in the
           contaminated Radix Astragali during extraction process
    • Authors: Yichen Hu; Weijun Kong, Hongli Luo, Lianhua Zhao, Meihua Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Although the increasing attention was paid on the health threat caused by mycotoxin in commodities such as food or medicines, mycotoxin transfer process from crude material to products have raised little concern right now. Radix Astragali is a commonly used edible and medicinal herbal plant that is susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins from Aspergillus flavus. There have been no studies on mycotoxin transfer into pharmaceutical preparations or derivative products. RESULTS To facilitate the aflatoxin reduction and bioactivity retention, the dynamic variations of aflatoxins as well as herbal compounds, namely calycosin‐7‐glucoside, astragaloside and formononetin, in Radix Astragali contaminated by A. flavus during water decoction and ethanol refluxing treatments were evaluated simultaneously by an ultra‐fast liquid chromatography‐triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method. After the extraction processes, although the amount of alfatoxins was reduced remarkably, aflatoxin residuals in preparation still exceed recommended limits, manifesting the great necessary to establish the aflatoxins limit in herbal extractions or derivative products. Meanwhile, due to the hydrolysis of glucoside, water decoction period should be no longer than 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS This investigation would benefit to figure out the dynamic variation of aflatoxins in infected herbs in preparation treatments, further to develop aflatoxin limits in herbal preparations.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:56:48.474577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7257
       
  • Effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction
           between Mung bean [Vigna radiate (L.)] protein isolates and glucose and on
           structural and physicochemical properties of conjugates
    • Authors: Zhongjiang Wang; Feifei Han, Yang Li, Lianzhou Jiang, Yong Yang, Hui Zhang, Xiaonan Sui, Baokun Qi, Rui Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between Mung bean protein isolates (MBPI) and glucose and on structural and physicochemical properties of conjugates. RESULTS The degree of glycosylation (DG) of MBPI‐glucose conjugates treated by ultrasound treatment and wet heating (MBPI‐GUH) was higher than that of MBPI‐glucose conjugates only treated by wet heating (MBPI‐GH). Solubility, emulsification activity (EA), emulsification stability (ES) and surface hydrophobicity (H0) of MBPI‐GUH were higher than that of MBPI‐GH. Grafted MBPI had a lower content of α‐helix and unordered coil, but a higher content of β‐sheet and β‐turn structure than MBPI. No significant structural changes were observed in β‐turn and random coil structure of MBPI‐GUH, while α‐helix content increased with ultrasonic time, and decreased at 300 W ultrasonic power with the increase of β‐sheet. MBPI‐GUH had a less compact tertiary structure compared to MBPI‐GH and MBPI. Grafting MBPI with glucose formed conjugates of higher molecular weight, while no significant changes were observed in electrophoresis profiles of MBPI‐GUH. CONCLUSION Ultrasound‐assisted wet heating Maillard reaction between MBPI and glucose could be a promising way to improve functional properties of MBPI.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:54:37.060464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7255
       
  • Metabolite profile of the tomato dwarf cultivar Micro‐Tom and
           comparative response to saline and nutritional stresses with regard to a
           commercial cultivar
    • Authors: Pilar Flores; Virginia Hernández, Pilar Hellín, Jose Fenoll, Juana Cava, Teresa Mestre, Vicente Martínez
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The dwarf tomato variety Micro‐Tom has been used as a plant model for studies of plant development. However, its response to environmental and agricultural factors has not been well studied. This work studies the phytochemical content of Micro‐Tom tomato and its comparative response to saline and nutritional (N, K and Ca) stresses with regard to a commercial variety. RESULTS The chromatographic profiles of Micro‐Tom were similar to those of the commercial variety and the only differences appear to be the concentration of the components. In Micro‐Tom, the concentrations of sugars and organic acids increased by salinity in a lesser extend than in Optima. Moreover, contrary to that observed in the commercial variety, phenolic compounds and vitamin C did not increase by salinity in the dwarf variety. However, both varieties increased similarly the concentrations of carotenoids under saline conditions. Finally, fruit yield and most primary and secondary metabolite concentrations in Micro‐Tom were not affected by N, K or Ca limitation. CONCLUSIONS The mutations leading to the dwarf phenotype did not greatly alter the metabolite profiles but studies using Micro‐Tom as a plant model should consider the lower capacity for sugars and organic acids under saline conditions and the greater tolerance to nutrient limitation of the dwarf variety.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T01:45:51.160089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7256
       
  • Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia,
           dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose‐induced metabolic
           syndrome rats
    • Authors: Ajiboye T. O; Raji H. O, Adeleye A. O, Adigun N. S, Giwa O. B, Ojewuyi O. B, Oladiji A. T.
      Abstract: Background The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract was evaluated in high‐fructose induced metabolic syndrome rats. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout were induced in rats using high‐fructose diet. High‐fructose diet‐fed rats were administered 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract for 3 weeks, starting from the seventh week of high‐fructose diet treatment. Results High fructose diet significantly (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:42.267523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7254
       
  • Assessment of volatile and non‐volatile compounds in durian wines
           fermented with four commercial non‐Saccharomyces yeasts
    • Authors: Yuyun Lu; Dejian Huang, Pin‐Rou Lee, Shao‐Quan Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chemical compositions of durian wines fermented with Metschnikowia pulcherrima Flavia, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva, Pichia kluyveri FrootZen and Kluyveromyces thermotolerans Concerto were investigated. RESULTS Sucrose was not utilized by M. pulcherrima and P. kluyveri with little formation of ethanol (0.3 % to 0.5 % v/v) while ~7 % ethanol was produced by the other two yeasts. Volatiles such as esters and sulfur‐containing compounds were synthesized or catabolized and distinctive differences existed among yeasts. Larger amounts of higher alcohols and ethyl esters were detected in wines fermented by T. delbrueckii and K. thermotolerans, whereas M. pulcherrima and P. kluyveri produced more acetate esters such as ethyl acetate (1034.43 mg/L and 131.05 mg/L, respectively), isoamyl acetate (0.56 mg/L and 27.68 mg/L, respectively). Most endogenous sulfur volatiles such as disulfides declined to trace levels but new ones such as thioesters were formed. Sulfur volatiles in wines fermented by T. delbrueckii accounted for 0.20 % relative peak area (RPA), followed by K. thermotolerans (0.23 % RPA), P. kluyveri (1.43 % RPA) and M. pulcherrima (4.16 % RPA). CONCLUSION The findings showed that a more complex flavor could result from fermentation with different non‐Saccharomyces yeasts and the typical durian odor still would remain.
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:25.909131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7253
       
  • Cumulative therapeutic effects of phytochemicals in Arnica montana flower
           extract alleviated collagen induced arthritis: Inhibition of both
           pro‐inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress
    • Authors: Shikha Sharma; Mohammad Arif, Ranjeet Kumar Nirala, Ritu Gupta, Sonu Chand Thakur
      Abstract: Background Arnica montana plant has been used in folklore medicine to alleviate pain, inflammation, swelling of muscles and joints associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of Arnica montana flower methanol extract (AMME) against both inflammation and oxidative stress in collagen‐induced arthritis rat model. Results Oral administration of AMME was found to reduce clinical signs and improved histological and radiological status of the hind‐limb joints. AMME‐treated rats had lower expression levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor‐α, interleukins (IL‐1β, IL‐6 and IL‐12), and titer of type II anti‐collagen antibody as compared to untreated CIA rats. Furthermore, by inhibiting the above mediators, AMME also contributed towards the reversal of the disturbed antioxidant levels and peroxidative damage. Conclusion The alleviation of arthritis in rats can be very likely due to the combined action of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, which are found to be the major constituents in our GC‐MS analysis. This study also shed some light on mechanisms involved in diminution of inflammatory mediators, free radical generating toxicants, and enhancement of antioxidant armory, thereby preventing further tissue damage, injury and synovial hyper proliferation in arthritis.
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:07.985773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7252
       
  • VARIATION IN NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCIES ON DUTCH DAIRY FARMS
    • Authors: Co HG Daatselaar; Joan R Reijs, Jouke Oenema, Gerben J Doornewaard, H Frans M Aarts
      Abstract: On dairy farms the input of nutrients i.c. nitrogen is higher than the output in products like milk and meat. This causes losses of nitrogen to the environment. One of the indicators for the losses of nitrogen is the nitrogen use efficiency. In the Dutch Minerals Policy Monitoring Program (LMM) many data on nutrients of a few hundred farms are collected which can be processed by the instrument Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA, in Dutch: Kringloopwijzer) in order to provide nitrogen use efficiencies. After dividing the dairy farms (available in the LMM‐program) according to soil type and in different classes for milk production ha−1 it is shown that considerable differences in nitrogen use efficiency exist between farms on the same soil type and with the same level of milk production ha−1. This offers opportunities for improvement of the nitrogen use efficiency on many dairy farms. Benchmarking will be a useful first step in this process.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:22:28.143811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7250
       
  • (ANTI‐)MUTAGENIC AND IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES OF QUERCETIN
           GLYCOSIDES
    • Authors: Kateřina VALENTOVÁ; Petr ŠÍMA, Zuzana RYBKOVÁ, Jiří KŘÍŽAN, Kateřina MALACHOVÁ, Vladimír KŘEN
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Quercetin‐3‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin), and quercetin‐3‐β‐D‐rutinoside (rutin) are common components of a normal human diet and are increasingly used in food supplements. Here, their effect on mutagenesis and immunity is shown. RESULTS The in vitro (anti‐)mutagenic potential was compared with that of quercetin using the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium His− strains TA100, TA98 and TA102. Isoquercitrin only slightly increased the number of revertants, whereas rutin was non‐mutagenic at all. On the other hand, all compounds displayed dose‐dependent protective activity against H2O2‐ and tert‐butylhydroperoxide‐induced oxidative damage to the TA102 strain and at 75 μM inhibited H2O2/Fe2+‐induced the formation of the open circular and linear form of the DNA plasmid pBSIISK(‐). In mice, none of the flavonols (0.86 µmol per day, 34 days) induced harmful effects. In immunized animals, all compounds enhanced ex vivo B cell proliferation, quercetin stimulated lymphocyte basal proliferation and increased the number of IgM‐producing lymphocytes. Rutin promoted NK cytotoxic activity, supported T cells and enhanced the gut epithelium renewal. No effect on IgG‐forming cells was found. CONCLUSION Isoquercitrin displayed negligible and rutin no mutagenicity, but significant anti‐mutagenic and DNA‐protective effects against oxidative damage. In vivo, they supported the readiness of the immune system for specific humoral immune response.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:22:01.774264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7251
       
  • AN ASSESSMENT OF THE BARRIERS TO THE CONSUMERS’ UPTAKE OF
           GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: A NEURAL NETWORK ANALYSIS
    • Authors: Macario Rodríguez‐Entrena; Melania Salazar‐Ordóñez, David Becerra‐Alonso
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This paper studies which of the attitudinal, cognitive and socioeconomic factors determine the willingness to purchase Genetically Modified (GM) food, enabling the forecasting of consumers’ behavior in Southern Spain –Andalusia. This classification has been made by a standard Multilayer Perceptron neural network trained with Extreme Learning Machine. Later, an ordered logistic regression was applied to research whether the neural network can outperform this traditional econometric approach. RESULTS The results show that the highest relative contributions lie in the variables related to perceived risks of GM food, while the perceived benefits have a lower influence. In addition, innovative attitude towards food presents a strong link, as does the perception of food safety. The variables with the least relative contribution are subjective knowledge about GM food and the consumers’ age. The neural network approach outperforms the correct classification percentage from the ordered logistic regression. CONCLUSION The perceived risks must be considered as a critical factor. A strategy to improve the GM food acceptation is to develop a transparent and balanced information strategy that makes the potential risk understandable by society, and inform about the risk assessments for GM food in the EU. For its success, it is essential to improve the trust in the EU institutions and scientific regulatory authorities.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:21:46.729767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7247
       
  • The Use of Core‐Shell High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography
           Column Technology to Improve the Biogenic Amine Quantification in Wine
    • Authors: Carmen Berbegal; Isabel Pardo, Sergi Ferrer
      Abstract: Background HPLC column technology has been improved, providing better resolution of closely eluting compounds, better analyte sensitivity, and shorter analysis times. The core‐shell technology columns offer a faster analysis through the use of shorter columns without compromising resolution. The aim of this work was to improve the methods of BA determination in wine using the new HPLC PFP core‐shell column technology. Results Two different elution programs were designed to quantify BA with the core‐shell PFP column. Program I flow rate was 2 mL min−1. The total elution time was 10 min. In the elution program II, the flow rate was 0.8 mL min−1 and the total elution time was 25 min. The two elution programs used with the core‐shell PFP HPLC column showed differences related manly to the histamine peak. The chromatograms showed that when a temporary isocratic elution was added in the gradient (program II), the histamine peak was eluted later, causing its isolation, and therefore its quantification was easier. Conclusions Compared to the previous C18 HPLC column for the BA determination in wine, the main advantage of the presented technique is the reduction of the run times and solvent volumes, and has a better sensitivity and selectivity as peaks are higher and sharper.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:21:31.308899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7249
       
  • Nitrogen excretion factors of livestock in the European Union: a review
    • Authors: Gerard L Velthof; Yong Hou, Oene Oenema
      Abstract: Livestock manures are major sources of nutrients, used for the fertilization of cropland and grassland. Accurate estimates of the amounts of nutrients in livestock manures are required for nutrient management planning, but also for estimating nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to the environment. Here we report on N excretion factors for a range of animal categories in policy reports by member states of the European Union (EU). Nitrogen excretion is defined in this paper as the total amount of N excreted by livestock per year as urine and faeces. We discuss the guidelines and methodologies for the estimation of N excretion factors by the EU Nitrates Directive, the OECD/Eurostat gross N balance guidebook, the EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the IPCC Guidelines. Our results show that N excretion factors for dairy cattle, other cattle, pigs, laying hens, broilers, sheep, and goats differ significantly between policy reports and between countries. Part of these differences may be related to differences in animal production (e.g. production of meat, milk, and eggs), size/weight of the animals, and feed composition, but partly also to differences in the aggregation of livestock categories and estimation procedures. The methodologies and data used by member states are often not well described. There is a need for a common, harmonized methodology and procedure for the estimation of N excretion factors, to arrive at a common basis for the estimation of the production of manure N and N balances, and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) across the EU.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:21:14.576359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7248
       
  • The Effect of Adenosine 5'‐monophosphate (AMP) on Tenderness,
           Microstructure and Chemical‐physical Index of Duck Breast Meat
    • Authors: Daoying Wang; Shaoying Deng, Muhan Zhang, Zhiming Geng, Chong Sun, Huan Bian, Weimin Xu, Yongzhi Zhu, Fang Liu, Haihong Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Adenosine 5'‐monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as the evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness. RESULTS Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mM AMP at 5 °C for 10 hours and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T11:35:50.821975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7243
       
  • Nutrient retention and fate of iron‐binding phenolic compounds
           
    • Authors: Yohannes Seyoum; Negussie Retta, Kaleab Baye
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Traits like bird‐, insect‐, and mold‐resistance are the focus in selecting improved sorghum varieties, but this often increases the tannin content, which can negatively affect iron bioavailability. The grain characteristics, nutrient retention, and the fate of iron‐binding polyphenols (IBP) during injera processing, an Ethiopian traditional fermented pancake, were investigated using agriculturally improved tannin‐free (TFC) and high‐tannin (HTC) sorghum cultivars. RESULTS The HTC had significantly higher IBP contents than the TFC (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T22:02:35.888369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7246
       
  • Application of ZnSO4 or Zn‐EDTA fertilizer to a calcareous soil: Zn
           diffusion in soil and its uptake by wheat plants
    • Authors: Ai‐qing Zhao; Xiao‐hong Tian, Yan‐long Chen, Shuo Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of two Zn sources and two application methods on (1) Zn diffusion from fertilized soil to unfertilized soil, (2) grain Zn concentration, and (3) grain Zn bio‐accessibility to humans. In the laboratory experiment, 20 mg of ZnSO4 or 4 mg of Zn‐EDTA was applied to a 5‐mm and 1‐mm‐wide space in the soil in the half‐cell technique. In the greenhouse experiment, Zn‐ZnSO4 or Zn‐EDTA was mixed or banded with the soil at a rate of 20 or 4 mg Zn kg−1, respectively. RESULTS The results from the diffusion experiment showed that both the extractability and the diffusion coefficient of Zn were higher when Zn fertilizer was applied to a 1‐mm‐wide space than when it was applied to a 5‐mm‐wide space. Zn‐EDTA had a greater diffusion distance than ZnSO4. The greenhouse experiment showed that the mixed ZnSO4 application and the Zn‐EDTA application (both mixed and banded) treatments significantly increased grain Zn concentration and bio‐accessibility. The positive effect of Zn‐EDTA on grain Zn concentrations and bio‐accessibility was greater than that of ZnSO4. The banded application reduced the effectiveness of ZnSO4 but not of Zn‐EDTA. CONCLUSION It was concluded that Zn‐EDTA was a better Zn source than ZnSO4 for increasing grain Zn content in a potentially Zn‐deficient calcareous soil.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T21:56:06.411151-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7245
       
  • Phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins in postmortem ovine muscle with
           different tenderness
    • Authors: Lijuan Chen; Xin Li, Na Ni, Yue Liu, Li Chen, Zhenyu Wang, Qingwu Shen, Dequan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tenderness is one of the most important quality attributes especially for beef and lamb. As protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate glycolysis, muscle contraction and turning over of proteins within living cells, it may contribute to the conversion of muscle to meat. The changes of myofibrillar proteins phosphorylation in postmortem ovine muscle with different tenderness were investigated in this study. RESULTS The protein phosphorylation level (P/T ratio) of tender group increased from 0.5 to 12 h postmortem and then decreased. The P/T ratio of tough group increased during 24 h postmortem and it increased faster from 0.5 to 4 h postmortem than from 4 to 24 h postmortem.The global phosphorylation level of tough meat was significantly higher than tender meat at 4, 12 and 24 h postmortem (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T21:46:59.615637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7244
       
  • Potential use of Lentinus squarrosulus mushroom as fermenting agent and
           source of natural antioxidant additive in livestock feed
    • Authors: Noorlidah Abdullah; Ching‐Ching Lau, Siti Marjiana Ismail
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fermenting feed has gained a lot of popularity in recent years owing to its renowned benefits to the livestock and feed quality. In the current study, Lentinus squarrosulus mushroom mycelium was tested for its potential as a fermenting agent and source of natural antioxidant in the feed. RESULTS Phenolic content of methanolic and hot water extracts of the mycelium culture and its fermented maize ranged from 94.01‐386.59 mg GAE/g extract while the DPPH radical scavenging, CUPRAC, reducing power (RPA) and β‐carotene bleaching (BCB) antioxidant activity had EC50 values ranged from 15.30‐120.3, 0.74‐4.71, 1.86‐13.5 and 0.01‐0.21 mg/ml, respectively. At 1.0‐20.0 mg/ml, the extracts have retarded 21.02‐55.35% of lipid deterioration. Pearson correlation analysis revealed the phenolic content of the extracts has moderate correlation with DPPH (r = 0.589) and RPA (r = 0.580), also a high correlation with BCB antioxidant activity (r = 0.872). In the Principal Component Analysis, DPPH, CUPRAC and RPA were seen being clustered tightly together while BCB antioxidant activity was being grouped with the phenolic content. CONCLUSION Overall, L. squarrosulus mycelium functioned as antioxidants via several mechanisms, involving either electron transfer or hydrogen transfer based reactions suggesting it as a promising fermentation agent to enhance feed nutrition and the fermented maize as a valuable feed resource.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29T23:38:21.972703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7242
       
  • Functionality of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) in the production of
           fruity ice cream
    • Authors: Songül Çakmakçı; Elif Feyza Topdaş, Yusuf Çakır, Pınar Kalın
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) on the quality characteristics of ice cream. Kumquat paste (KP) was added to an ice cream mix at four concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15%, w/w) for ice cream production. RESULTS The increment of KP level caused an increase in acidity, vitamin C content, b values and overrun values compared to control ice cream sample. The apparent viscosity of the samples decreased with the addition of KP by a concentration of 5% and 10% compared to control sample. Results indicated that lyophilized water extracts of KP (LKE) contain remarkable phenolic compounds. It was observed that LKE exhibited moderate in vitro antioxidant capacity. KP enhanced color, flavor, vitamin C and Mg and K amounts of the ice cream. The addition of KP positively affected the sensory properties. CONCLUSION KP may be used as a suitable source of natural color and flavor agent in ice cream production. KP enhanced vitamin C and Mg and K amounts of ice cream, and improved sensory properties.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29T02:27:07.989956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7241
       
  • N‐terminal Truncation had contribution on increasing thermal
           stability of mannanase Man1312 without the activity loss
    • Authors: Haiyan Zhou; Wenjiao Yang, Yun Tian, Hanhui Peng, Yongyao Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The disordered residues on distal loops affect the molecular structural stability and in some occasions they have regulatory roles in catalytic reaction. To expand our understanding on the influences of distal residues mutation, we explored the thermo‐stability and enzymatic activity of mannanase Man1312 deletion mutants. The focused residues are located on the N‐terminal region because they are more disordered and changeable. The effects of the N‐terminal truncation on enzyme activity and thermal dynamics were investigated by spectrophotometer, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry assays. RESULTS The deletion mutants on V3, N7 and Q11 showed marked increase on stability and meanwhile the enzymatic activity was significantly improved when triplet deletion carried out. Triplet deletion MandVNQ showed around double stability than its corresponding single‐site deletion and double‐site deletion mutants. Tm value of MandVNP was ~8 °C higher than Man1312. MandVNP had promoted characteristics of Topt by 10 °C, t1⁄2 by 10 min and catalytic activity by 11% in compare with Man1312. Analysis of spectra and modeling, MandVNQ increased its contents of the helix and strand. CONCLUSION N‐terminal truncation had positive effects on mannanase thermostability and on its activity.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29T02:23:42.461536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7240
       
  • Evaluating the use of plant hormones and biostimulators in forage pastures
           to enhance shoot dry biomass production by perennial ryegrass (Lolium
           perenne L.)
    • Authors: Mohammad Zaman; Leonid V. Kurepin, Warwick Catto, Richard P. Pharis
      Abstract: Fertilization of established perennial ryegrass forage pastures with nitrogen (N) ‐ based fertilizers is currently the most common practice used on farms to increase pasture forage biomass yield. However, over‐fertilization can lead to undesired environmental impacts, including nitrate leaching into waterways and increased gaseous emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Additionally, there is growing interest from pastoral farmers to adopt methods for increasing pasture dry matter yield which use ‘natural’, environmentally safe plant growth stimulators, together with N‐based fertilizers. Such plant growth stimulators include plant hormones and plant growth promotive micro‐organisms such as bacteria and fungi (‘biostimulators’, which may produce plant growth‐inducing hormones), as well as extracts of seaweed (marine algae). This review presents examples and discusses current uses of plant hormones and biostimulators, applied alone or together with N‐based fertilizers, to enhance shoot dry matter yield of forage pasture species, with an emphasis on perennial ryegrass.
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T04:31:15.256088-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7238
       
  • UPLC‐PDA quantification of chemical constituents of two different
           varieties (golden and royal) of apple leaves and their antioxidant
           activity
    • Authors: Mayanka Walia; Shiv Kumar, Vijai K. Agnihotri
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Malus domestica is the most widely cultivated fruit tree and well known for its therapeutic value. Apple leaves are known to have phenolic compounds but are not explored to such an extent as the apple fruit. A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography‐diode array detection (UPLC‐DAD) quantification method has been developed. Total polyphenol, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of golden and royal apple leaves were evaluated. RESULTS Four compounds namely rutin, 3‐hydroxyphloridzin, phloridzin and quercetin‐3‐O‐arabinoside were identified by UPLC. The separation was achieved in less than 7 min. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were found to slight higher in apple golden variety than royal variety. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were 49.94 µg mL−1 for golden apple leaves and 43.89 µg mL−1 for royal apple leaves. For ABTS assay, IC50 values were 47.10 and 66.53 µg mL−1 for golden and royal apple leaves respectively. Antioxidant activity was observed as 24.45 and 21.15 mg of ascorbic acidg−1 by FRAP assay for golden and royal apple leaves respectively. CONCLUSION This study showed that apple leaves (both varieties) contain considerable amount of polyphenols and flavonoids and alsoa is a promising source of phloridzin.
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T04:25:10.56156-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7239
       
  • Fecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed
           rations with different levels of phosphorus
    • Authors: M. Nordqvist; R. Spörndly, K. Holtenius
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. RESULTS The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:43:11.828395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7235
       
  • Effects of dietary oat proteins on cholesterol metabolism of
           hypercholesterolemic hamsters
    • Authors: Li‐Tao Tong; Lina Guo, Xianrong Zhou, Ju Qiu, Liya Liu, Kui Zhong, Sumei Zhou
      Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of oat proteins (OP) in hamsters fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 5 groups and fed with the experimental diets containing oat, OP, oat β‐glucan (OG), or OP+OG for 30 days. As the results, the OP,as the same as OG, significantly lowered the concentrations of plasma LDL‐ cholesterol and liver total cholesterol (TC), meanwhile, increased the excretions of fecal bile acid and TC. The plasma and liver TC in OP+OG group were significantly lower than those in OP or OG group. Both OP and OG increased the activity of liver cholesterol 7‐α hydroxylase (CYP7A1), while its activity in OP+OG group was strongly increased compared with OP or OG group. These results indicated that dietary OP could improve hypercholesterolemia, while dietary OP and OG together would have better hypocholesterolemic effects.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:27:35.049573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7236
       
  • Plant architecture, plasticity, and adaptation strategies of two oat
           genotypes under different competition intensities
    • Authors: Pu‐Fang Li; B. L. Ma, Weikai Yan, Zheng‐Guo Cheng, Feng‐Min Li, You‐Cai Xiong
      Abstract: Background A hypothesis that positive and negative interactions account for adaptive strategies was tested in a controlled study with two oat (Avena sativa) genotypes: ‘Manotick’ with erect leaves and ‘Oa1316‐1’ with prostrate leaves. An increasing competition pattern was designed by varying the number of seeds planted in each container and the space between containers, thus creating different planting density regimes (i.e. alternative and solid treatments). Results Total biomass of individual plants tended to decrease exponentially with increasing density in both genotypes. Under high density stress, Manotick allocated more biomass to the roots and produced 50% more tillers, leading to more non‐productive tillers and lower harvest index in the alternative than in the solid treatment. In contrast, Oa1316‐1 allocated more biomass to panicles and stems, and less to the roots, with fewer tillers. Conclusions With increasing density and strengthening intraspecific competition, Manotick reduced aboveground biomass allocation, leading to lower yield, while Oa1316‐1 decreased allocation to the roots, but increased allocation to the panicles under increasingly competitive environment. These adjustments were mechanically derived from negative and positive interactions, ensuring greater yield in the prostrate type. Our findings provided a novel rationale for a planting strategy based on plant type selections.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:27:19.066087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7237
       
  • Hypolipidemic and Anti‐Oxidative Potential of Encapsulated Herb
           (Terminalia arjuna) Added Vanilla Chocolate Milk in High Cholesterol Fed
           Rats
    • Authors: Pravin D Sawale; Ramesh Pothuraju, Shaik Hussain Abdul, Anuj Kumar, Suman Kapila, G. R. Patil
      Abstract: Background Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurred in the developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidemic and anti‐oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna‐1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. Results At the end of experimental period, a significant decreased in the body weight gain by encapsulated herb extract as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in the organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in the serum lipids such as TG, TC, LDL‐C, VLDL‐C levels and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. The increased in reduced glutathione and decreased in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and RBC lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulation of Terminalia arjuna not only withstand during processing conditions but also effectively release in intestine and showed their effects such as hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities for better in treating cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T01:24:47.522797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7234
       
  • Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets
           obtained from Pangasius sutchi and Nile tilapia exported to European
           Countries
    • Authors: Piotr Kulawik; Władysław MigdaŁ, Florian GambuŚ, Ewa CieŚlik, Fatih ÖzoĞul, Joanna Tkaczewska, Katarzyna Szczurowska, Izabela WaŁkowska
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microbiological and chemical safety concerns regarding frozen fillets from Pangasius catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) exported to Poland, Germany and Ukraine and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exported to Poland and Germany were investigated by analyzing the heavy metal residues, microbiological hazards, biogenic amines, TBA and TVB‐N content. RESULTS The heavy metal residues from all studied samples were far lower than the limits established by authorities. The most abundant biogenic amine found was histamine with the maximum content of 9.6 mg/100 g found in pangasius exported to Poland. The total viable counts were from 2.8 log cfu/g in pangasius exported to Ukraine to 4.3 log cfu/g in pangasius exported to Germany. Vibrio spp. was present in 70‐80% of all studied pangasius groups while there was no Vibrio spp. found on none of the studied tilapia samples. 30% of Pangasius fillets exported to Poland were contaminated with coagulase‐positive staphylococci. No E. coli was found in any of the studied samples. Although the results of TBA analysis differed significantly between studied groups, the malonic aldehyde content in all studied groups was still very low. The TVB‐N content in frozen fillets from pangasius was significantly lower than in frozen tilapia fillets. CONCLUSIONS We reported that Pangasius catfish frozen fillets were widely contaminated with Vibrio spp. which could prove hazardous for the final consumer if the fish is eaten raw or undercooked. The rest of analysis showed no other reason for concern associated with Nile tilapia and Pangasius catfish frozen fillets consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T07:17:24.65883-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7233
       
  • Age and gender differences in the influence of extrinsic product
           information on acceptability for RTD green tea beverages
    • Authors: Ye‐Won Bae; Soh Min Lee, Kwang‐Ok Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The introduction of ready‐to‐drink (RTD) green tea beverage has allowed diverse consumers to consume green teas and related products. Green tea that has been traditionally consumed for its delicate flavor characteristics is also widely consumed for its recognition as a healthy product. Because it is reported that age difference exists in consideration of health related information, the study was objected to investigate the how sensory and non‐sensory factors, in particular health related information, price and packaging, would affect the flavor acceptability of green tea beverages depending on consumers’ age and gender. RESULTS Regardless of the product information, the old consumers preferred products that provided an indication of health beneficial effect. On the other hand, the young consumers tended to get influenced by the extrinsic product information such as packaging, brand/manufacturer and/or price, though these consumers were not much influenced by health beneficial information as the old. CONCLUSION The findings of the study implied that the influence of non‐sensory information such as health beneficial information in flavor liking differed depending on consumers’ age mostly, and little on gender for RTD green tea beverages.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T07:08:03.799066-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7232
       
  • Selenium (Se)improves drought tolerance in crop plants ‐ a myth or
           fact?
    • Authors: Rashid Ahmad; Ejaz Ahmad Waraich, Fahim Nawaz, M.Y. Ashraf, Muhammad Khalid
      Abstract: Climate change has emerged as one of the most complex challenges of the 21st century and has become an area of interest in the past few decades. Many countries of the world have become extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The scarcity of water is the serious concern for food security of these countries and climate change has aggravated the risks of extreme events like drought. Oxidative stress caused by a variety of active oxygen species formed under drought stress, damage many cellular constituents such as, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, which ultimately reduces plant growth, respiration and photosynthesis. Se has become an element of interest to many biologists due to its physiological and toxicological importance. It plays beneficial role in plants by enhancing growth of plants, reducing damage caused by oxidative stress, enhancing chlorophyll contents under light stress, stimulating the senesce to produce antioxidants, and improving plant tolerance to drought stress by regulating water status. The researchers have adopted different strategies to evaluate the role of selenium in plants under drought stress. Some of the relevant work available regarding the role of Se in alleviating adverse effect of drought stress is discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T06:39:31.651633-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7231
       
  • Heterologous strategy enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence
           polarization immunoassay of clinafloxacin in goat milk
    • Authors: Jiahong Chen; Ilya A. Shanin, Shuwei Lv, Qiang Wang, Chuanbin Mao, Zhenlin Xu, Yuanming Sun, Qing Wu, Sergei A. Eremin, Hongtao Lei
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Clinafloxacin is used for the treatment of disease in food‐producing animals, e.g., Brucella melitensis, which often occurs in goats; however, the clinafloxacin residue in goat milk may harm human health and result in the development of drug‐resistant bacterial strains or allergies. Despite this, there is not a rapid, sensitive and accurate analytical method in goat milk for a rapid screening or monitoring purpose. RESULTS One homologous and five heterologous tracers were designed and compared for fluorescence polarization immunoassay(FPIA) optimization. Based on the combination of a heterologous tracer (PAZ‐FITC, synthesized with pazufloxacin and FITC) and the antibody against clinafloxacin, a highly sensitive FPIA was established for the detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk for the first time. The IC50 value was 29.3 µg/L for clinafloxacin in the heterologous format, 6 times lower than that of the combination of the homologous tracers and the antibody. The recoveries ranged from 86.8% to 104.5%, with the relative standard deviation ranging from 4.1% to 7.2%. Validation by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed that the results obtained from the proposed FPIA were in agreement with those of HPLC. CONCLUSION This proposed heterologous strategy for enhanced FPIA is sensitive and rapid enough for the high‐throughput detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:57:33.312315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7228
       
  • In vitro functional properties of crude extracts and isolated compounds
           from banana pseudostem and rhizome
    • Authors: Saravanan Kandasamy; Sasikala Ramu, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna Ardhya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pseudostem and rhizome are the significant bio‐waste generated (43.48%) from the banana plant post fruit harvest, which are usually left in the plantation or incinerated and wasted. Very negligible production of these is used for consumption. Further, it has an important part in indigenous systems of medicine. Based on the huge volume of bio‐waste generated and its traditional medicinal use, it is worth exploiting it as a source of natural bioactive compounds. Current study, sequential extracts from banana pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), and isolated compounds including chlorogenic acid, 4‐epicyclomusalenone, and cycloeucalenol acetate were tested for their antimicrobial activity, antiplatelet aggregation and cytotoxicity. RESULTS Isolated compounds and crude extracts exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, platelet aggregation induced by collagen and cytotoxicity towards human liver cancer (HepG2) cells. CONCLUSION Banana plant bio‐waste, pseudostem and rhizome may serve as a potential source of multifunctional bioactive compounds and functional ingredient in food and other allied industries.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:57:15.337727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7229
       
  • Provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu, a
           non‐alcoholic cereal‐based beverage made with provitamin
           A‐biofortified maize
    • Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi; Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, Unathi Kolanisi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in sub‐Saharan Africa. Amahewu is a popular southern African lactic acid fermented non‐alcoholic maize‐based beverage, which is deficient in vitamin A. In this study, provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu processed using provitamin A‐biofortified maize and three types of inoculums during fermentation (malted maize, wheat bran and Lactobacillus starter culture) were investigated. RESULTS The total provitamin A contents of amahewu samples, estimated as β‐carotene, β‐cryptoxanthin and α‐carotene content ranged from 3.3 ‐ 3.8 g kg−1 (DW). Provitamin A was substantially retained (79% ‐ 90% β carotene equivalent) in amahewu after fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared with added starter cultures had the lowest retention of provitamin A. Consumers (Approx. 69%) liked provitamin A‐biofortified amahewu either moderately or very much. Principal component analysis (PCA) of Amahewu sensory data showed that 71% of variation was due to maize types and 18% of variation could be due to the inoculum used during fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared using provitamin A‐biofortified maize were slightly more liked (Mean score: 7.0 ± 1.2) compared to those of white maize reference samples. The use of starter culture combined with either malted maize or wheat bran as inoculums during fermentation improved the taste and aroma of amahewu and hence their acceptability. CONCLUSION Provitamin A is substantially retained in amahewu after fermentation. The slightly high acceptability of amahewu prepared using provitamin A biofortified maize compared to that of white maize, thus suggests that fermented product like amahewu can potentially be used to deliver provitamin A to vulnerable individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T05:56:58.181646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7230
       
  • Evaluation of iron and zinc bioavailability of beans targeted for
           biofortification using in vitro and in vivo models and their effect on the
           nutritional status of preschool children
    • Authors: Maria das Graças Vaz‐Tostes; Thaisa Agrizzi Verediano, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa
      Abstract: Background Biofortified beans have been produced with higher nutrient concentrations. The objective was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo iron and zinc bioavailability of common beans Pontal (PO, targeted for biofortification) compared with conventional Perola (PE) and their effects on the iron and zinc nutritional status of preschool children. Results In Caco‐2 cells, PO and PE beans did not show differences in ferritin (PO, 13.1 ± 1.4; PE, 13.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg protein) or zinc uptake (PO, 15.9 ± 1.5; PE, 15.5 ± 3.5 μM/mg protein). In the rat, PO and PE beans presented high iron bioavailability (PO, 109.6 ± 29.5%; PE, 110.7 ± 13.9%). In preschool children no changes were observed in iron and zinc nutritional status comparing before and after PO consumption (ferritin: 41.2 ± 23.2 µg/L, 28.9 ± 40.4 µg/L; hemoglobin: 13.7 ± 2.2 g/dL, 13.1 ± 3.2 g/dL; plasma zinc: 119.2 ± 24.5 µg/dL, 133.9 ± 57.7 µg/dL and erythrocyte zinc: 53.5 ± 13.8 µg/gHb, 59.4 ± 17.1 µg/gHb). Conclusion Iron and zinc bioavailability in PO and PE beans was not statistically different using either cell culture, animal, or human models. Efforts should focus on increasing mineral bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T01:27:18.291272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7226
       
  • Giberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from maize and wheat in Iran:
           distribution, molecular identification and fumonisin B1 in vitro
           biosynthesis
    • Authors: Abdelnasser Mohammadi; Masoomeh Shams‐Ghahfarokhi, Farhad Nazarian‐Firouzabadi, Reza Kachuei, Mohammadhassan Gholami‐Shabani, Mehdi Razzaghi‐Abyaneh
      Abstract: Background Contamination of food and agricultural crops by Fusarium species is a major concern of food spoilage and a potential public health hazard. In the present study, natural contamination of maize and wheat samples from main cultivation areas of Iran by Fusarium species belonging to the G. fujikuroi species complex was evaluated with special attention to the ability of the isolates to produce Fumonisin B1 (FB1). Results A total of 55 Fusarium isolates were obtained from 27/32 maize samples (84.4%) and 11/15 wheat samples (73.3%). They were identified as F. verticillioides (47.3%), F. proliferatum (47.3%), F. fujikuroi (1.8%), F. nygamai (1.8%) and F. redolens (1.8%) by sequence analysis of translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1‐α). Twenty‐two of 55 Fusarium isolates belonging to F. proliferatum (23.6%), F. verticillioides (14.5%) and F. fujikuroi (1.8%) produced FB1 in a total range of 230.4 to 9565.0 µg mL−1. Resulting dendrogram from TEF1‐α profile showed that the genotypes were divided into clusters I, II and III of which cluster III contained only F. redolens as the first report from Iran. Conclusion On the base of in vitro FB1 biosynthesis of the analyzed strains, high degree of contamination of maize and wheat with Fusarium strains reported here should be considered as a potential public health threat as a meaningful number of the isolates were reported to produce hazardous levels of carcinogenic FB1.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T01:26:44.055686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7227
       
  • Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic
           acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of
           'Kinnow' mandarin juice
    • Authors: Samina Khalid; Aman U Malik, Ahmad S Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Shafique
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regards to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35‐years‐old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during seven days at ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60‐65% RH) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75‐80% RH) conditions. RESULTS During ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18‐year‐old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg.ml−1) and TAA (93.68 mg.µl−1), as compared to 6 and 35‐years‐old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35‐year‐old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35‐year‐old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18‐year‐old tree maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg.100 ml−1) concentrations; while, fruit from 6‐year‐old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg.µl−1) and TPC (115.1 µg.ml−1). Large sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg.100 ml−1) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg.µl−1). CONCLUSIONS Fruit from 18‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions; while, fruit from 6‐year‐old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage; whereas large fruit size had higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold storage.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T03:06:23.149704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7225
       
  • Sensory and nutritional attributes of pomegranate juices extracted from
           separated arils and pressed whole fruits
    • Authors: Lina Mayuoni Kirshenbaum; Ofir Benjamin, Ron Porat
      Abstract: Background The present study aimed to compare the sensory and nutritional attributes of 'Wonderful' pomegranate juices extracted from separated arils with those from pressed whole fruits. Results Five different sensory tests were conducted to evaluate the flavor quality of 'Wonderful' pomegranate juices. Consumer acceptance tests revealed that juice from separated arils achieved significantly higher likability scores than that from whole pressed fruits. Furthermore, preference tests revealed that 84% of the tasters preferred the juice extracted from separated arils whereas only 16% preferred the juice from whole pressed fruits. Sensory discrimination tests (triangle tests) revealed that tasters significantly distinguished between the two juices at p ≤ 0.01. Descriptive tests by a trained panel and sensory analysis with an electronic tongue demonstrated that juice from whole pressed fruits was more astringent and had a stronger after‐taste than juice from separated arils. Juice from pressed whole fruits contained significantly higher levels of phenols and hydrolysable tannins, which led to higher astringency. Conclusions Pomegranate juice extracted from separated arils was less astringent and more preferred by tasters than juice from whole pressed fruits. Nonetheless, juice from separated arils has lower nutritional benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T02:49:33.951693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7224
       
  • Control of citrus molds using bioactive coatings incorporated with fungal
           chitosan/plant extracts composite
    • Authors: Ahmed A. Tayel; Shaaban H. Moussa, Mohammed F. Salem, Khaled E. Mazrou, Wael F. El‐Tras
      Abstract: Background The ongoing postharvest loss in citrus fruits, due to fungal infection, is a chronic economic and agricultural problem. Most of citrus damages are caused by Penicillium spp., e.g. green mold by P. digitatum and blue mold by P. italicum. Fungal chitosan, from Mucor rouxii, and plant extracts from cress seeds, olive leaves, pomegranate peels and senna pods, were evaluated as antifungal agents against the phytopathogenic fungi, P. digitatum and P. italicum, using in vitro qualitative and quantitative assays. Results The entire natural agents exhibited potent antifungal activity; the most powerful agent was cress (Lepidium sativum) seed extract and the following was pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract. Fungal chitosan had also a remarkable fungicidal potentiality using both evaluation assays. P. digitatum was generally more resistant than P. italicum toward all examined agents. The incorporation of each individual natural agent in coating material resulted in great reduction in fungal growth and viability. The addition of chitosan combined with cress and pomegranate extracts, to the coating materials, prevented coated citrus fruit from decay by green and blue mold for two weeks storage period. Conclusion Natural derivatives, however, could be recommended as powerful antifungal alternatives to protect citrus fruits from postharvest fungal decay.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T02:48:03.456432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7223
       
  • Change in soil organic carbon between 1981 and 2011 in croplands of
           Heilongjiang Province, northeast China
    • Authors: Lu‐Jun Li; Martin Burger, Shu‐Li Du, Wen‐Xiu Zou, Meng‐Yang You, Xiang‐Xiang Hao, Xin‐Chun Lu, Lin Zheng, Xiao‐Zeng Han
      Abstract: Background Soil organic carbon (SOC) is fundamental for mitigating climate change as well as improving soil fertility. Databases of SOC obtained from soil surveys in 1981 and 2011 were used to assess SOC change (0–20 cm) in croplands of Heilongjiang Province in northeast China. Three counties (Lindian, Hailun, and Baoqing) were selected as typical croplands representing major soil types and land‐use types in the region. Results The changes in SOC density (SOCD) between 1981 and 2001 were −6.6, −14.7, and 5.7 Mg C ha−1 in Lindian, Hailun, and Baoqing Counties, respectively. The total SOC storage (SOCS) changes were estimated to be −11.2, −19.1, and 16.2% of those in 1981 in the three counties, respectively. We found 22‐550% increases in SOCS in rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddies in the three counties, but 28‐33% decreases in dry cropland in Lindian and Hailun. In addition, an increase of 11.4 Mg C ha−1 in SOCD was observed in state‐owned farms (P
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T05:20:22.775482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7219
       
  • Determination of Florfenicol Residues in Broiler's Meat and Liver Samples
           using RP‐HPLC with UV‐visible detector
    • Authors: Asma Nasim; Bilal Aslam, Ijaz Javed, Asghar Ali, Faqir Muhammad, Ahmad Raza, Zia‐ud‐Din Sindhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Broilers are vulnerable to various types of the micro‐organisms including Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in multiple infections. The broad spectrum antibacterial drugs like Florfenicol (FF) are widely used in the treatment of such type of infections. Suspected residues of these drugs in body tissues of treated animals get access to the humans through the meat consumption and thus lead to serious ill effects on human health. The present study was designed to estimate the presence of FF residues in the broiler's meat and liver samples. RESULTS The Mean residual concentrations of FF in meat and liver samples were 311.42 ± 186.56 µg kg−1 and 2585.44 ± 1759.71 µg kg−1 respectively which were higher than their respective maximum residual limits (MRLs). The results indicate that 126 and 32 samples were FF positive and negative respectively. From the positive samples 84 and 42 samples were above and below MRL respectively. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the presence of residues whereas the usage of this contaminated meat causes resistance in consumers and seems to be public health threat. So there is a need to educate the farmers about the ill effects of residual drugs on human health and withdrawal time in poultry birds.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:27:07.891237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7220
       
  • Introgression of blast resistance genes into the elite variety mr263
           through marker‐assisted backcrossing
    • Authors: Muhammad M. Hasan; Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohd Razi Ismail, Maziah Mahmood, Md. Amirul Alam, Harun Abdul Rahim, Mohammad A. Malek, Mohammad Abdul Latif
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early maturing, high‐yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as a donor of the blast resistance Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d (t)1, Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL. Our objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker‐assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection. RESULTS The improved MR263‐BR‐3‐2, MR263‐BR‐4‐3, MR263‐BR‐13‐1 and MR263‐BR‐26‐4 lines carrying the Pi‐7(t), Pi‐d (t), Pir2‐3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL were developed using the SSR markers RM5961 and RM263 (linked to the blast resistance genes and QTL) for foreground selection and a collection of 65 polymorphic SSR markers for background selection in backcrossed and selfed generations. A background analysis revealed that the highest rate of recurrent parent genome recovery was 96.0% in MR263‐BR‐4‐3 and 94.1% in MR263‐BR‐3‐2. CONCLUSION The addition of blast resistance genes can be used to improve several Malaysian rice varieties to combat this major disease.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:25:53.023802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7222
       
  • High molecular weight glutenin subunits deficient mutants induced by ion
           beam and the effects of Glu‐1 loci deletion on wheat quality
           properties
    • Authors: Lujun Zhang; Qiufang Chen, Mingjie Su, Biao Yan, Xiangqi Zhang, Zhen Jiao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW‐GSs) play a critical role in determining the visco‐elastic properties of wheat. Mutations induced by ion beam radiation have been applied to improve the yield and quality of crop. HMW‐GSs deficient mutant lines were selected and the effect of Glu‐1 loci deletion on wheat quality properties were illustrated according to analyze dry seeds of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Xiaoyan 81 treated with nitrogen ion beam in this study. RESULTS Three HMW‐GSs deficient mutant lines were obtained and then detected by SDS‐PAGE. Large chromosome fragment deletion resulted in specific deficiencies and the deleted region sizes were determined using molecular markers. Agronomic characters, quantity and proportion of glutenins and dough microstructure of the deletion lines all proved to be quite different from that of the wild type Xiaoyan 81. Quality properties analysis suggested that GluA1ˉ had superior property parameters, while GluB1ˉ and GluD1ˉ both showed a significant decrease in quality properties compared with Xiaoyan 81. CONCLUSION The effects of three Glu‐1 loci on flour and dough quality‐related parameters should be Glu‐D1>Glu‐B1>Glu‐A1. Ion beam radiation can be used as a mutagen to create new crop mutants.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:25:35.954681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7221
       
  • Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation
           of fresh foods
    • Authors: Seung Yuan Lee; Seung Jae Lee, Dong Soo Choi, Sun Jin Hur
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g., active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified active packaging (MAP) systems extends shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high‐quality product as well as reduced economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, active packaging should be considered several variables, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing, and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging plays facilitating data access and information exchange by altering conditions of the inside or outside packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, a few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations, or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore, more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable or effective packaging systems for various foods.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T02:16:26.900655-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7218
       
  • Effect of fermented medicinal plants on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions, and diarrhea score in weanling
           pigs
    • Authors: Pinyao Zhao; Hanlin Li, Yan Lei, Tianshui Li, Sunki Kim, Inho Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock has been banned in European Union since 2006. Alternatives of antibiotics have focused on phytogenic plants, such as herb and medicinal plant. No studies have evaluated use of fermented medicinal plants (FMP) made up of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Scutellaria baicalensis in weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of FMP on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal noxious gas emissions, and diarrhea score in weanling pigs. RUSULTS FMP supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, gain:feed, apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and gross energy compared with NC treatment, while a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on those criteria. Ammonia, total mercaptans, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) by the supplementation of FMP compared with NC. Additionally, diarrhea score was lower (P < 0.05) by FMP addition compared with NC during d 0 to 7 and d 8 to 14. CONCLUSION These results suggested that FMP could be used as alternative of antibiotics by enhancing growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and decreasing fecal noxious gas emission and early diarrhea score of weanling pigs.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:56:56.192037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7217
       
  • The genetic aspects of berries: from field to health
    • Authors: Luca Mazzoni; Patricia Perez‐Lopez, Francesca Giampieri, Jose M Alvarez‐Suarez, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes‐Hernandez, Jose L Quiles, Bruno Mezzetti, Maurizio Battino
      Abstract: Berries are a relevant source of micronutrients and nonessential phytochemicals such as polyphenol compounds, that play a synergistic and cumulative role in human health promotion. Several systematic analyses showed that berry phenolics are able to detoxify ROS/RNS blocking their production, to intervene in the cell cycle, participating in the transduction and expression of genes involved in apoptosis, and to repair oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the improvement of the nutritional quality of berries has become a new quality target of breeding and biotechnological strategies, to control or to increase the content of specific health‐related compounds in fruits. This work reviews, on the basis of the in vitro and in vivo evidences, the main berries phytochemical compounds and their possible mechanisms of action on pathways involved in several type of diseases, with particular attention to cancer, inflammation, neurodegeneration, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:56:06.879709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7216
       
  • Gamma‐irradiated β‐glucan induces the immunomodulation
           and anticancer activity through MAPK and NF‐κB pathways
    • Authors: Eui‐Baek Byun; Sang‐Hyun Park, Beom‐Su Jang, Nak‐Yun Sung, Eui‐Hong Byun
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor activity of low‐molecular‐weight β‐glucan (LMBG) produced by gamma irradiation (50 kGy), using in vivo and in vitro models. RESULTS The results indicate that treatment with LMBG increased the proliferation of murine peritoneal macrophages, and their production of tumor necrosis factor α and nitric oxide, to a greater extent than treatment with high‐molecular‐weight β‐glucan (HMBG). The activation of peritoneal macrophages by LMBG was mediated by both mitogen‐activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‐κB signaling. Interestingly, when administered prophylactically, LMBG significantly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in mice injected with B16BL6 melanoma cells compared with the HMBG‐treated group. In comparison with HMBG treatment, LMBG treatment also elevated cell proliferation, cytokine (interferon‐γ and interleukin‐2) production, and CD8+ T cell populations in splenocytes from tumor‐bearing mice. CONCLUSION These data indicate that LMBG is important in eliciting antitumor activity through a non‐specific immune response and may play a major role as a value‐added product in the medical industry.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15T04:46:04.012198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7215
       
  • Polyphenol‐rich grape pomace extracts protect against dextran
           sulfate sodium‐induced colitis in rats
    • Authors: Ahlem Boussenna; Juliette Cholet, Nicolas Goncalves‐Mendes, Juliette Joubert‐Zakeyh, Didier Fraisse, Marie‐Paule Vasson, Odile Texier, Catherine Felgines
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Several studies have reported that polyphenols may exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preventive consumption of polyphenol‐rich red grape pomace extracts (GPEs) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)‐induced colitis in rats. Rats were fed for 21 days with a semi‐synthetic diet enriched with a GPE (Alicante‐S, Alicante‐P and Pinot‐S) and colitis was induced by DSS administration in drinking water (40 g L−1) during the last 7 days of experimentation. RESULTS GPEs attenuated clinical signs and colon shortening and Alicante GPEs limited histological lesions induced by DSS. GPEs curbed the increase in myeloperoxidase activity and modulated antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, GPEs prevented the DSS‐induced increase of pro‐inflammatory cytokine levels and the upregulation of various genes implicated in colitis such as intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (ICAM‐1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP‐9). CONCLUSION These results suggest that polyphenol‐rich red GPEs could provide prevention against colon inflammation.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T23:23:32.079658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7214
       
  • Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride
           in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle
    • Authors: Magnus Åsli; Ragni Ofstad, Ulrike Böcker, Flemming Jessen, Olai Einen, Turid Mørkøre
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake has increased the demand for tasty, low Na products (
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T23:23:15.137044-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7213
       
  • Chemical profile of major taste‐ and health‐related compounds
           of (Oblačinska) sour cherry
    • Authors: Hassan Omran S. Alrgei; Dragana Č. Dabić, Maja M. Natić, Vera S. Rakonjac, Dušanka Milojković‐Opsenica, Živoslav Lj. Tešić, Milica M. Fotirić Akšić
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oblačinska sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian commercial orchards. Due to its long cultivation in different agro‐ecological condition it is a mixture of different clones. To give the most comprehensive information of Oblačinska sour cherry's fruit, total carbohydrate composition, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, and polyphenolic profiles of 39 clones were investigated. RESULTS Fructose was found to be the dominant sugar followed by glucose, sorbitol and sucrose. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant polyphenols. Some clones contained pinobanksin, hesperetin, and galangin which were, to our knowledge, for the first time found in sour cherry fruits and reported in present study. CONCLUSION Information overview helps us perceive the huge variation within germplasm studied and contribute to the fact that the Oblačinska sour cherry is not a cultivar but a population.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:28:04.538311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7212
       
  • Investigating the biometric and physicochemical characteristics of freshly
           harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): A comparative
           approach
    • Authors: Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala; Gioacchino Bono
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The practicality of biometrics of seafood cannot be overemphasized particularly for competent authorities of shrimp industry. However, there is paucity of relevant literature about relationship between biometric and physicochemical indices of freshly harvested shrimp. This work therefore investigated the relationship between biometric (standard length [SL], total weight [TW], and condition factor [CF]) and physicochemical (moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, water activity, water retention index (WRI), color values [L*, a*, b*, whiteness], and fracturability) characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) obtained from three different farms. The relationship between these parameters was determined using correlation and regression analyses. RESULT No significant correlation (p > 0.05) was found between the biometric and physicochemical indices of the sampled L. vannamei specimens. Possibly, the lack of post‐mortem and physical change(s) at day of harvest together with the absence of temporal variable may have collectively limited the degree to warrant any significant correlation between biometric and physicochemical data points measured at this study. Although the TWs of freshly harvested L. vannamei shrimp resembled (p > 0.05), SL and CF significantly differed (p 
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:27:03.036528-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7211
       
  • Phosphatase activities and its relationship with physical and chemical
           parameters during vermicomposting of filter cake and cattle manure
    • Authors: Jader Galba Busato; Gabriella Papa, Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas, Fabrizio Adani, Aline Lima de Oliveira, Tairone Paiva Leão
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recycling of phosphorus (P) from organic residues (OR) is important to develop environmentally friendly agriculture. The use of this P source depends on phosphatase enzymes, which can be affected by a chain of parameters during maturation of OR. In this study, the phosphatase activity levels throughout vermicomposting of filter cake (FC) and cattle manure (CM) were correlated with different physical and chemical parameters in an effort to increase the knowledge about recycling of P from OR. RESULTS Filter cake presented higher total nitrogen content (TNC), total organic carbon (TOC), humic acids content (HA), water soluble P (WSP), phosphatase activities and nanopores volume than CM during vermicomposting. Decreases of TOC in CM resulted from carbohydrate mineralization, which was not observed for FC. Cattle manure showed increased hydrophobic index during vermicomposting while FC a slight decreased. CONCLUSION Phosphatases positively correlated with TOC, pH and WSP; and negatively with HA content for both vermicomposting. The nanopore volume was negatively correlated with phosphatase activities for FC, but not for CM. No evidences between hydrophobicity and phosphatases activities were observed for FC. Increased hydrophobicity throughout vermicomposting of CM could be partially associated with decreases in phosphatase levels.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:25:50.997702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7210
       
  • Bioactive compounds in pindo palm (Butia capitata) juice and in pomace
           resulting of the extraction process
    • Authors: Tiphaine J. Jachna; Vanessa S. Hermes, Simone H. Flôres, Alessandro O. Rios
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pindo palm (Butia capitata, Becc. 1916) is a tropical fruit native from South America relatively rich in bioactive compounds. It is often consumed as juice. The aim of this study was firstly to identify the degradation of these compounds by pasteurization and by cold storage (4 °C) of pindo palm juice. Physicochemical properties and concentrations of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C have been evaluated on fresh and pasteurized juices. Moreover, another objective was to characterize the nutritional composition and the bioactive compounds of pindo palm pomace, the by‐product of juice processing. RESULTS The results demonstrated a degradation of carotenoids with pasteurization and a degradation of vitamin C with both pasteurization and cold storage of juices. Furthermore, the evaluation of pindo palm pomace showed that it is relatively rich in total phenols (20.06 g GAE kg−1 dry matter) and in β‐carotene (0.22 g kg−1 dm). CONCLUSION Thus, from the nutrition viewpoint, it does not seem interesting to pasteurize juice. On the other hand, extraction of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from the pomace looks like a relevant process.
      PubDate: 2015-04-13T04:25:39.502248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7209
       
  • Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed–fish waste
           compost
    • Authors: Marta Illera‐Vives; Adolfo López‐Fabal, M. Elvira López‐Mosquera, Henrique M. Ribeiro
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. RESULTS C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first‐order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N was mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant‐available) with the higher rate. CONCLUSION C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:34:50.730736-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7207
       
  • DNA damage protection against free radicals of two antioxidant neolignan
           glucosides from sugarcane molasses
    • Authors: Yonathan Asikin; Makoto Takahashi, Masami Mizu, Kensaku Takara, Hirosuke Oku, Koji Wada
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sugarcane molasses is a potential by‐product of the sugarcane manufacturing industry that is rich in antioxidant materials. The present study aimed to obtain antioxidative compounds from sugarcane molasses and to evaluate their ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. RESULTS Two neolignan glucosides were isolated from sugarcane molasses using bioassay and UV spectra monitoring‐guided fractionation. The compounds were elucidated as (7R,8S)‐dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol‐4‐O‐β‐d‐glucoside (1) and (7S,8R)‐simulanol‐9′‐O‐β‐d‐glucoside (2). Neolignan glucoside 2 protected against DNA damage caused by free radicals more effectively than did neolignan glucoside 1 (13.62 and 9.08 µmol L−1 for peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, compared to 48.07 and 14.42 µmol L−1). Additionally, neolignan glucoside 2 exhibited superior DNA protection against free radicals than did various known antioxidative compounds, including p‐coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate. CONCLUSION The isolated neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses are able to protect DNA from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This is the first identification of these two compounds in sugarcane molasses. The sugarcane molasses, thus, can be used as potential nutraceutical preventative agents, and the findings may foster the utilization of this by‐product as a bioresource‐based product.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:34:25.921539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7208
       
  • Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain – Are we prepared to
           tackle it?
    • Authors: Premanandh Jagadeesan; Samara bin Salem
      Abstract: Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes is increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions has been presented. Although substantial equivalence concept satisfies the technical and nutritional requirement of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animal in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as it is going to be a valuable tool incase if global consensus is not reached on policy regulation.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:26:05.162177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7205
       
  • Contribution of portal‐drained viscera to heat production in Iberian
           gilts fed a low protein diet: comparison to Landrace‡
    • Authors: Lucrecia González‐Valero; José M Rodríguez‐López, Manuel Lachica, Ignacio Fernández‐Fígares
      Abstract: BRACKGROUND In terms of whole‐body metabolism, visceral tissues have a disproportionate influence with respect to their masses and under certain circumstances their high metabolic rate may compromise nutrient availability to the tissues of productive/economic interest. The low energy efficiency of Iberian compared to modern breeds could partially be explained by the contribution of portal‐drained viscera to heat production. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of portal‐drained viscera heat production (PDVHP) to total heat production (THP) in Iberian and Landrace gilts fed a diet with low protein content. RESULTS Compared to Landrace, Iberian gilts (29 ± 0.9 kg body weight (BW)) had lower pre and postprandial portal vein blood flow (PBF; 654 vs. 965, and 746 vs. 1133 mL min−1, respectively; P 
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T02:25:29.940314-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7206
       
  • Beef flavor: A review from chemistry to consumer†
    • Authors: C.R. Kerth; R.K. Miller
      Abstract: This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally trigeminal senses like metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavity and can have an affect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses, and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus, and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and, therefore, the flavor generated. A low‐heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high‐heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses, and drawing relationships among all of the flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:18:27.157144-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7204
       
  • Farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) volatile metabolites. A
           comparative study by SPME‐GC/MS
    • Authors: Natalia P. Vidal; María J. Manzanos, Encarnación Goicoechea, María D. Guillén
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) could be distinguished by its volatile metabolites, an issue not addressed until now. The aim of this work was to study these metabolites by Solid Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). RESULTS Both farmed and wild sea bass have a great number of volatile metabolites being most of them in low concentrations. These include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkylfurans, acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, sulphur and nitrogen derivatives, 2,6‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐methylphenol (BHT) and one derived compound, as well as 2,4,7,9‐tetramethyl‐5‐decyne‐4,7‐diol (TMDD), this latter presumably resulting from environmental contamination. Important differences have been detected between both kinds of sea bass, and also among individuals inside each group. Farmed specimens are richer in volatile metabolites than its wild counterparts; however these latter, in general, contain high number and abundances of metabolites resulting from microbial and enzymatic non‐oxidative activity than the former. CONCLUSIONS Clear differences in the volatile metabolites of wild and farmed sea bass have been evidenced. A great deal of valuable information on sea bass volatile metabolites has been obtained, which can be useful to understand certain aspects of raw and processed sea bass quality and safety.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:11:48.974823-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7201
       
  • Effects of dietary protease on nitrogen emissions from broiler production:
           a holistic comparison using life cycle assessment†
    • Authors: Ilkka Leinonen; Adrian G Williams
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to quantify the effects of the use of a protease “RONOZYME® ProAct” in broiler feed on the environmental impacts of broiler and broiler feed production chains. This was done by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) modelling approach with data from trials using both standard soya‐based broiler diets and reduced protein diets with added protease. RESULTS The results for the feed production chain showed that there was a reduction in all environmental impact categories, when protease was used in the diets. The biggest reduction occurred in the category of Global Warming Potential, mainly as a result of decreased CO2 emissions from land use changes related to soya production. In the results for the broiler production chain, there were relatively bigger reductions in Eutrophication Potential and especially in Acidification Potential, mainly as a result of reduced feed protein content and subsequent nitrogen emissions from housing and manure management. CONCLUSIONS The use of protease in the broiler diets reduced the environmental impacts of both the feed production and broiler production. The latter is mainly through reduced ammonia emissions, which has substantial benefit per se in poultry industry.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:11:33.64236-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7202
       
  • Effect of commercial starter cultures on volatile compound profile and
           sensory characteristics of dry‐cured foal sausage
    • Authors: José M. Lorenzo; María Gómez, Laura Purriños, Sonia Fonseca
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present work deals with the evaluation of the effect of three different commercial starter cultures (Chr. Hansen, Denmark) on the volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, as well as some important physico‐chemical parameters, of dry‐fermented foal sausages at the end of the ripening in order to select the most suitable starter culture for this elaboration. The sausage batches were named as follows: CO (non‐inoculated control), FS (L. sakei + S. carnosus), SM (L. sakei + S. carnosus + S. xylosus + P. pentosaceus + D. hansenii) and TR (L. sakei + S. carnosus + S. xylosus). RESULTS The pH values differed significantly among batches, with highest values corresponding to CO followed by TR, SM, FS. The highest amounts of volatile compounds were found in FS batch. Hexanal was the most abundant compound, especially in FS and SM batches. These batches also showed a higher amount of compounds derived from carbohydrate fermentation and amino acid catabolism. Sensory results showed that acid taste in CO batch was significantly lower than the inoculated batches. CONCLUSION According to most parameters, batches inoculated with FS and SM starters showed a marked acidity compared to TR and CO batches, as expected from the manufacturer's indications. Therefore, the most suitable starter culture for the manufacturing of foal sausages in a Mediterranean country as Spain, with preference for low‐acidity products, as the ones obtained when inoculating TR culture.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T03:10:46.43426-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7203
       
  • Changes in nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of total
           mixed ration silage stored at different temperatures and periods
    • Authors: Makoto Kondo; Kazuma Shimizu, Anuraga Jayanegara, Takashi Mishima, Hiroki Matsui, Shuichi Karita, Masakazu Goto, Tsutomu Fujihara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Total mixed ration (TMR) is widely used for dairy cattle and needs to be prepared daily because of rapid deterioration. Ensiling TMR allows preservation and saves labour at the farm; however, silage fermentation may influence various nutritional components. The objectives of this study were to evaluate nutritional changes and in vitro rumen fermentation of TMR silage that was stored at different temperatures and durations on a laboratory scale in comparison with those of typical TMR before ensiling. RESULTS No distinct changes in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre and non‐fibrous carbohydrate contents were observed during silage fermentation. However, clear changes were observed in the soluble CP and soluble sugar fractions; solubilisation of the CP fraction in TMR silage was enhanced by prolonged storage and higher storage temperatures, and most soluble sugars were lost during ensiling. Short‐chain fatty acid concentrations in the in vitro rumen from TMRs before and after ensiling were not significantly different; however, throughout incubation, NH3‐N concentrations from TMR silages were significantly higher than those from TMR before ensiling. CONCLUSION A higher ruminal NH3‐N concentration from TMR silage may be a result of a shortage of fermentable sugars and enhanced deamination of CP. Feeding TMR ensiled under a high temperature must be investigated to balance proteins and carbohydrates for rumen fermentation.
      PubDate: 2015-04-07T02:15:17.065491-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7200
       
  • Fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental assessment of the sensory
           quality of tomato juices
    • Authors: Vipavee Trivittayasil; Mizuki Tsuta, Yoshinori Imamura, Tsuneo Sato, Yuji Otagiri, Akio Obata, Hiroe Otomo, Mito Kokawa, Junichi Sugiyama, Kaori Fujita, Masatoshi Yoshimura
      Abstract: Background Sensory analysis is an important standard for evaluating food products. However, as trained panelists and time are required for the process, the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as a rapid instrumental method to approximate sensory characteristics is explored in this study. Results Thirty‐five out of 44 descriptive sensory attributes were found to show a significant difference between samples (analysis of variance test). Principal component analysis reveals that principal component 1 could capture 73.84 % and 75.28 % variance for aroma category and combined flavor and taste category, respectively. Fluorescence fingerprint of tomato juices consisted of two visible peaks at excitation/emission wavelength of 290/350 nm and 315/425 nm and a long narrow emission peak at 680 nm. The 680‐nm peak was only clearly observed in tomato juices obtained from tomatoes cultivated to be eaten raw. The ability to predict overall sensory profiles was investigated by using principal component 1 as a regression target. Fluorescence fingerprint could predict principal component 1 of both aroma and combined flavor and taste with a coefficient of determination above 0.8. Conclusion The results obtained in this study indicate the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental method for assessing sensory characteristics of tomato juices.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:47.068994-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7199
       
  • Effects of ditch‐buried straw return on water percolation, nitrogen
           leaching and crop yields in a rice‐wheat rotation system
    • Authors: Haishui Yang; Mingmin Xu, Roger T. Koide, Qian Liu, Yajun Dai, Ling Liu, Xinmin Bian
      Abstract: Backgrounds Crop residue management and nitrogen loss are two important environmental problems in the rice‐wheat rotation system in China. This study investigated the effects of burial of straw on water percolation, nitrogen loss by leaching, crop growth and yield. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments were conducted over the course of three simulated cropping seasons in a rice1‐wheat‐rice2 rotation. Results Greater amounts of straw resulted in more water percolation, irrespective of crop season. Burial at 20 and 35 cm significantly reduced, but burial at 50 cm increased nitrogen leaching. Straw at 500 kg ha−1 reduced, but at 1000 kg ha−1 and at 1500 kg ha−1 straw increased nitrogen leaching in three consecutive crop rotations. In addition, straw at 500 kg ha−1 buried at 35 cm significantly increased yield and its components for both crops. Conclusions This study suggests that N losses via leaching from the rice‐wheat rotation may be reduced by the burial of the appropriate amount of straw at the appropriate depth. Greater amounts of buried straw, however, may promote nitrogen leaching and negatively affect crop growth and yields. Complementary field experiments must be performed to make specific agronomic recommendations.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:45.251719-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7196
       
  • Anti‐influenza virus effects of cocoa
    • Authors: Masanori Kamei; Hiroshi Nishimura, Toshio Takahashi, Nobuaki Takahashi, Koichi Inokuchi, Takashi Mato, Kazuo Takahashi
      Abstract: Background Cocoa contains biologically active ingredients that have broad‐spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes an inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection. Results We prepared a cocoa extract (CE) by treating defatted cocoa powder with boiling water. The extract demonstrated dose‐dependent inhibition of infection in Madin‐Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with human influenza virus A (H1N1, H3N2), human influenza virus B, and avian influenza viruses (H5N1, H5N9). CE inhibited viral adsorption to MDCK cells. Animal experiments showed that CE significantly improved survival in mice after intra‐nasal administration of a lethal dose of influenza virus. In human intervention trials, participants were allocated to two groups: one in which the participants ingested cocoa for 3 weeks before and after vaccination against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus and another in which the participants did not ingest cocoa. Neutralizing antibody titers against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus increased significantly in both groups; however, the extent of the increase was not significantly different between the two groups. Although natural killer cell activity was also elevated in both groups, the increase was more substantial in the cocoa intake group. Conclusion Drinking cocoa activates natural immunity and enhances vaccination‐induced immune response, providing stronger protection against influenza virus infection and disease onset.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:39.770051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7197
       
  • Effects and mechanism of ultrasound pretreatment on rapeseed protein
           enzymolysis
    • Authors: Jian Jin; Haile Ma, Weiwei Wang, Min Luo, Bei Wang, Wenjuan Qu, Ronghai He, John Owusu, Yunliang Li
      Abstract: Background Under the situation that traditional enzymolysis of protein has many disadvantages, the sweeping frequency and pulsed ultrasound (SFPU) was employed to pretreat rapeseed protein (RP) before proteolysis for the purpose of improving the efficiency of enzymolysis. In order further to state the mechanism of ultrasound accelerated enzymolysis of RP, the effects of SFPU on the kinetics, thermodynamics, molecular conformation and microstructure of RP were investigated. Results The kinetic studies indicated that SFPU pretreatment on RP improved enzymolysis by decreasing the value of apparent constant (KM) significantly (p < 0.05) by 32.8% and by reducing the thermodynamic parameters Ea, ▵H, and ▵S by 16.6%, 17.7% and 9.2%, respectively. Results of fluorescence spectra revealed that SFPU pretreatment induced molecular unfolding, causing more hydrophobic groups and regions inside the molecules to be exposed to the outside. Circular dichroism analysis showed that SFPU pretreatment decreased α‐helix content by 16.1% and increased random coil by 3.6%. In addition, scanning electron microscope showed that this pretreatment increased the specific surface area of RP. Conclusion Ultrasound pretreatment is an efficient method in RP proteolysis to produce peptides through its impact on the molecular conformation and microstructure of proteins. Keywords: Rapeseed protein; Ultrasound; Kinetics; Thermodynamics; Circular dichroism; Scanning electron microscope
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:38.259614-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7198
       
  • Projected future distribution of date palms and its potential use in
           alleviating micronutrient deficiency
    • Authors: Farzin Shabani; Lalit Kumar, Amir Hadi Nojoumian, Atefeh Esmaeili, Mehdi Toghyani
      Abstract: Background Micronutrient deficiency develops when nutrient intake does not match nutritional requirements for maintaining healthy tissue and organ functions which may have long‐ranging effects on health, learning ability and productivity. Inadequacy of iron, zinc and vitamin A are the most important micronutrient deficiencies. Consumption of a 100g portion of date flesh from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) has been reported to meet approximately half the daily dietary recommended intake of these micronutrients. This study investigated the potential distribution of P. dactylifera under future climates to address its potential long term use as a food commodity to tackle micronutrient deficiencies in some developing countries. Results Modelling outputs indicated large shifts in areas conducive to date palm cultivation, based on global scale alteration over the next sixty years. Most of the regions suffering from micronutrient deficiencies were projected to become highly conducive for date palm cultivation. Conclusions These results could inform strategic planning by government and agricultural organizations by identifying areas to cultivate this nutritionally important crop in the future to support the alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T07:14:31.159437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7195
       
  • Purification and characterization of a ~43 kDa antioxidant protein with
           antitumor activity from Pholiota nameko
    • Authors: Lei Qian; Yeni Zhang, Fang Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pholiota nameko water soluble protein (PNWSP), isolated from the dried fruiting bodies of Pholiota nameko, was purified by successive chromatographic process using Q anion exchange column, SP cation exchange column and Superdex 200 gel filtration column. PNWSP was assessed for antioxidant activities in different assay systems, and the effect on cell proliferation of human breast cancer MCF7 cells was investigated. RESULTS SDS‐PAGE and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) analysis revealed the homogeneity of PNWSP with apparent molecular weight of ~43 kDa, and the identification was confirmed by peptide mass fingerprint analysis. It showed potential antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals, reducing power and chelating effect on Fe2+, and had a protective effect against DNA damage. Moreover, it inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells by inducing apoptosis, in which the change of cell cycle distribution and the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential were observed by flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS The results showed that PNWSP could be a natural antioxidant and developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against human breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01T02:47:56.818984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7194
       
  • Development of a gluten‐free rice noodle by utilizing
           protein‐polyphenol interaction between soy protein isolate and
           extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus
    • Authors: Da‐Som Lee; Yang Kim, Youngwoon Song, Ji‐Hye Lee, Suyong Lee, Sang‐Ho Yoo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Potential of protein‐polyphenol interaction was applied to crosslink the reinforced protein networks in gluten‐free rice noodle. Specifically, inter‐component interaction between soy protein isolate and extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruit (ogaja), was examined to improve its quality. RESULTS In a components‐interacting model system, mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and ogaja extract (OE) induced drastic increase in absorbance at 660 nm by haze formation, while the major anthocyanin of ogaja, cyanidin‐3‐O‐sambubioside, sparsely interacted with SPI or gelatin. Individual or combined treatment of SPI and OE on rice dough decreased all the viscosity parameters in RVA analysis. However, SPI‐OE treatment significantly increased all the texture parameters of rice dough derived from Mixolab® analysis (P 
      PubDate: 2015-04-01T02:44:15.007677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7193
       
  • Diversity among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups in aroma
           volatiles compositions
    • Authors: Livnat Goldenberg; Yossi Yaniv, Adi Doron‐Faigenboim, Nir Carmi, Ron Porat
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mandarins constitute a large, diverse and important group within the Citrus family. Hereby, we analyzed the aroma volatiles compositions of 13 mandarin varieties belonging to seven genetically different natural subgroups that included common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). RESULTS We found that mandarin varieties among tangors (‘Temple’, ‘Ortanique’), tangelos (‘Orlando’, ‘Minneola’) and King (‘King’) had more volatiles, at higher levels, and were richer in sesquiterpene and ester volatiles, than other varieties belonging to the subgroups common mandarin (‘Ora’, ‘Ponkan’), clementine (‘Oroval’, ‘Caffin’), satsuma (‘Okitsu’, ‘Owari’) and Mediterranean mandarin (‘Avana’, ‘Yusuf Efendi’). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis accurately differentiated between mandarin varieties and natural subgroups according to their aroma‐volatile profiles. CONCLUSIONS Although we found wide differences in aroma‐volatiles compositions among varieties belonging to different natural subgroups, we detected only minor differences among varieties within any natural subgroup. These findings suggest that selecting appropriate parents would enable manipulation of aroma‐volatile compositions in future mandarin breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-30T05:00:48.690462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7191
       
  • A Comparison of Juice Extraction Methods in the Pungency Measurement of
           Onion Bulbs
    • Authors: Kil Sun Yoo; Eun Jin Lee, Brian K. Hamilton, Bhimanagouda S. Patil
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Onion pungency is estimated by measuring the pyruvic acid content in juice extracted from fresh tissues. We compared pyruvic acid content and its variation in the juices extracted by the pressing, maceration, blending with no water, or blending with water (blend/water) methods. RESULTS There were considerable differences in the pyruvic acid content and coefficient of variation (CV) among these methods, and there was an interaction between the onion cultivars and the juice extraction methods. The pressing method showed over 30% CV in the quartered or composite samples. The blend/water method showed the greatest pyruvic acid content in the shortday‐type (‘TG1015Y’ and ‘Texas Early White’) onions, while the pressing method showed the greatest pyruvic acid content in the longday‐type onions. The blend/water method, which gave ratios between 1:1 and 1:4 (w/w), showed the same pyruvic acid content. The blending (no water) method had the highest correlation, followed by the maceration method. The lowest correlations were found with the pressing method and the blend/water method. CONCLUSIONS Complete homogenation of tissues with 1:1 or greater ratios of water was necessary for the maximum consistency and full development of the pyruvic acid reaction for onion pungency measurement.
      PubDate: 2015-03-30T04:55:11.089445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7192
       
  • Effect of borojo (Borojoa patinoi Cuatrecasas) three‐phase
           composition and gum arabic on the glass transition temperature
    • Authors: Rodríguez‐Bernal J. M; Tello E, Flores‐Andrade E, Perea‐Flores M. J, Vallejo‐Cardona A. A, Gutiérrez‐López G, y Quintanilla‐Carvajal M. X.
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Searching natural novel, high‐quality‐stable food ingredients is an ongoing food industry practice. Pulp of borojo (Borojoa patinoi. Cuatrecasas) which is a fruit of the Colombian Pacific region can be separated into three phases: liquid (LP), medium (MP) and solid (SP) phases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the three‐phase composition and gum arabic on their glass transitions temperatures (Tg). The best mixture, LP‐MP, MP‐SP and LP‐SP and gum arabic (GA) was identified by response‐surface methodology. RESULTS When adding GA to SP borojo phase in a 1:1 proportion, the resulting Tg of the mixture was 132.27 °C whereas Tg for GA and SP‐phase were 154.89 °C and 79.86 °C respectively, which supported this combination as attractive from a processing perspective and supports an industrial advantage of using borojo as food ingredient. Phases were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and Mass Spectrometry. Low molecular weight compounds such as fructose for MP lowered Tg whereas presence of lignin increased Tg of mixtures as with the SP. CONCLUSIONS The addition of GA significantly increased Tg of borojo phases so leading to propose them as novel food processing materials.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T01:21:07.399018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7190
       
  • Levels of potential bioactive compounds including carotenoids, vitamin C
           and phenolic compounds, and expression of their cognate biosynthetic genes
           vary significantly in different varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
           grown under uniform cultural conditions
    • Authors: Jesus Valcarcel; Kim Reilly, Michael Gaffney, Nora M. O'Brien
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In addition to their high carbohydrate content, potatoes are also an important dietary source of vitamin C and bioactive secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which have been suggested to play a role in human health. The expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in the synthesis of these compounds were assessed by qPCR (reverse transcription – quantitative PCR) and compared to the accumulation of the corresponding product in seven potato varieties showing contrasting levels of metabolite accumulation. RESULTS Strong positive correlations were found between phenolic content in the flesh of tubers and transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The expression of PAL and CHS was also related to that of AN1, a transcription factor involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, which suggest that these genes are regulated in a coordinated manner. No clear relationship was found between transcript levels of phytoene synthase (PSY) or L‐galactono‐1,4‐lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) genes and total carotenoid or vitamin C accumulation respectively. CONCLUSIONS Data indicate that levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds in potato are controlled primarily by PAL and CHS gene expression. Transcript levels of PSY and GLDH did not control accumulation of carotenoids or vitamin C.
      PubDate: 2015-03-26T03:25:41.297656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7189
       
  • Structural characteristics of pineapple pulp polysaccharides and their
           antitumor cell proliferation activities
    • Authors: Ling Wang; De‐Qiang Tang, Yu Kuang, Feng‐Jiao Lin, Yu Su
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pineapple has decilious taste and good health benefits. Bioactive polysaccharides are important components of pineapple, which might contribute to its health benefits. However, the structural information of these polysaccharides remains unknown till now. It is worthy to investigate the structural characteristics and bioactivities of them. RESULTS The polysaccharides of pineapple pulp were fractionated into three fractions (PAPs 1–3) by anion exchange chromatography. Their structural characteristics were firstly identified, including molecular weight and glycosidic linkages. The monosaccharide compositions were revealed as PAP 1 (Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal), PAP 2 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal) and PAP 3 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man and Gal). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested that PAP 2 had a backbone of → 4)‐α‐D‐Manp‐(1 → 2,4)‐α‐D‐Manp‐(1 → with branches attached to O‐4 of Manp. The NMR data of α‐L‐Araf‐(1→, →3)‐α‐L‐Araf‐(1→, →4)‐β‐D‐Galp‐(1 → and → 4)‐α‐D‐GalpAMe‐(1 → were assigned. PAPs 1 and 2 had significant antitumor cell proliferation activities against breast carcinoma cell line and strong antioxidant activities. CONCLUSIONS The above findings indicated that PAPs 1–3 contributed much to the health benefits of pineapple. They could be used as health‐beneficial food additives in functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:12:29.058497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7185
       
  • Effects of different maturity stages and growing locations on changes in
           chemical, biochemical and aroma volatile composition of
           ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate juice
    • Authors: Rebogile R. Mphahlele; Oluwafemi J. Caleb, Olaniyi A. Fawole, Umezuruike Linus Opara
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study investigated the changes in chemical attributes of pomegranate fruit such as total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS:TA ratio, pH, individual compounds (organic acids and sugars) and volatile composition as affected by fruit maturity status and growing locations (Kakams, Koedoeshoek, and Worcester in South Africa). Headspace solid phase micro‐extraction (HS‐SPME) technique coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) was used for volatile analysis. RESULTS A significant increase in TSS (14.7 ± 0.6 ‐ 17.5 ± 0.6 °Brix) were observed with advancement in fruit maturity, while TA decreased from 2.1 ± 0.7 to 1.1 ± 0.3 (g citric acid (CA) 100 mL−1) across all agro‐climatic locations investigated. Fruit TSS:TA ratio and pH increased from approximately 7.8 ± 2.6 to 16.6 ± 2.8 and 3.3 ± 0.1 to 3.6 ± 0.2, respectively, during fruit maturation and across all the agro‐climatic locations. Fructose and glucose concentration increased continually with fruit maturity from 69.4 ± 4.9 to 91.1 ± 4.9 g kg−1and 57.1 ± 4.7 to 84.3 ± 5.2 g kg−1, respectively. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected and identified, belonging to five chemical classes. The most abundant volatile in unripe and mid ripe fruit was 1‐hexanol, while 3‐hexen‐1‐ol was the highest at commercial maturity. CONCLUSION Knowledge on the impact of fruit maturity and agro‐climatic locations (with different altitudes) on biochemical and aroma volatile attributes of pomegranate fruit, provides a useful guide for selecting farm location towards improving fruit quality and the maturity stage best for juice processing.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:12:14.176875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7186
       
  • Effect of synthetic and natural water absorbing soil amendments on
           photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality of potato in
           a semi‐arid region
    • Authors: Shengtao Xu; Lei Zhang, Neil B. McLaughlin, Junzhen Mi, Qin Chen, Jinghui Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Effect of water absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality was investigated in a field experiment in a semi‐arid region in northern China in 2010–2012. Treatments included two synthetic water absorbing amendments (potassium polyacrylate‐PAA, polyacrylamide‐PAM) and one natural amendment (humic acid‐HA), both as single amendments, and compound amendments (natural combined with a synthetic) and a no amendment control. RESULTS Soil amendments had a highly significant effect (P ≤0.01) on photosynthesis characteristics, dry biomass, crop root/shoot (R/S) ratio and tuber nutritional quality. Soil amendments improved both dry biomass above ground (DB‐AG) and dry biomass underground (DB‐UG) in the whole growing season by 4.6‐31.2% and 1.1‐83.1% respectively in all three years. Crop R/S ratio was reduced in the early growing season by 2.0‐29.4% and increased in the later growing season by 2.3‐32.6%. Soil amendments improved leaf soil plant analysis development value (SPAD), net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration (Tr) rates respectively by 1.4‐17.0%, 5.1‐45.9%, 2.4‐90.6% and 2.0‐22.6%, and reduced intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) by 2.1‐19.5% in all three years. CONCLUSION Amendment treatment with PAM + HA always achieved the greatest effect on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality among six amendment treatments, and deserves further research.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:10:59.093518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7188
       
  • Biochemical characterization of a D‐psicose 3‐epimerase from
           Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 and its application on enzymatic production
           of D‐psicose
    • Authors: Wenli Zhang; Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The rare sugar D‐psicose is a hexoketose monosaccharide and the epimer of D‐fructose at the C‐3 position. D‐Psicose is a novel functional sweetener, having 70% relative sweetness but only 0.3% sucrose energy content. Generally, the industrial production of D‐psicose involves a bioconversion from D‐fructose induced by ketose 3‐epimerases. RESULTS The D‐psicose 3‐epimerase (DPEase) gene from Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 (Trpr‐DPEase) was cloned, and overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was purified with the molecular mass of 33 kDa. Trpr‐DPEase exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 70 °C, and was sensitive to temperature, with a relative thermal stability below 50 °C. It was strictly metal‐dependent, and displayed maximum catalytic activity with 450 µmol L−1 Co2+. The Km of the enzyme for D‐psicose and D‐fructose were 209 and 279 mmol L−1, respectively. The equilibrium ratio of Trpr‐DPEase was 28:72 for D‐psicose and D‐fructose. CONCLUSION A novel DPEase from Treponema primitia ZAS‐1 was characterized, which could catalyze the formation of D‐psicose from D‐fructose. D‐Psicose was produced at a yield of 137.5 g L−1 from 500 g L−1 of D‐fructose, suggesting that Trpr‐DPEase might be appropriate for the industrial production of D‐psicose.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T02:10:43.464156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7187
       
  • Thermal aggregation behavior of soy protein: characteristics of different
           polypeptides and subunits
    • Authors: Xiu‐Ting He; De‐Bao Yuan, Jin‐Mei Wang, Xiao‐Quan Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to the differences in structure and composition of glycinin and β‐conglycinin, they exhibited different characteristics during heat treatment. In present study, thermal aggregation behaviors of glycinin, β‐conglycinin and their isolated subunits were investigated at pH 7.0. RESULTS Acidic polypeptides, basic polypeptides, αα' and β subunits of soy protein were denatured during isolation process. The order of aggregation degree of protein fractions after heat treatment was: denatured basic polypeptides > native glycinin > denatured β subunit > native β‐conglycinin > denatured acidic polypeptides > denatured αα' subunits. Glycinin, β‐conglycinin, acidic polypeptides and αα'/β subunits exhibited different changing trends of surface hydrophobicity with increasing temperature. The αα' subunits showed higher ability to suppress thermal aggregation of basic polypeptides than β subunits during heat treatment. The β subunits were identified to form soluble aggregates with glycinin after heating. CONCLUSION The interaction mechanism of αα' and β subunits heated with basic polypeptides was proposed. For β subunits‐basic polypeptides mixed system, more hydrophobic chains were binding together and buried inside during heat treatment, which resulted in lower surface hydrophobicity. The αα' subunits‐basic polypeptides mixed system was supposed to be a stable system with higher surface hydrophobicity after being heated.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T11:31:00.199284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7184
       
  • Identifying inhibitors/enhancers of quantitative real‐time PCR in
           food samples using a newly developed synthetic plasmid
    • Authors: Tereza Sovová; Barbora Křížová, Jan Hodek, Jaroslava Ovesná
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a common technique offering fast and sensitive analysis of DNA in food/feed samples. However, many substances, either already present in the sample or introduced during sample processing, inhibit the PCR and thus underestimate the DNA content. It is therefore necessary to identify the PCR inhibition in order to correctly evaluate the sample. RESULTS We designed and validated a synthetic plasmid DNA that can be used to detect and quantify PCR inhibition. The DNA sequence, appropriate primers and probe, were designed in silico, synthesized and the sequence was inserted in a plasmid vector. The performance of the plasmid was verified via calibration curves and by performing the assay in presence of various DNAs (crops, fungus, bacterium). The detection of PCR inhibition was assessed using six inhibiting substances with different modes of action; substances used in sample processing (EDTA, ethanol, NaCl, SDS) and food additives (sodium glutamate, tartrazine). The plasmid performance proved to be reproducible and there were no interactions with other DNAs. The plasmid was able to identify the presence of the inhibitors in a wide range of concentrations. CONCLUSION The presented plasmid DNA is a suitable and inexpensive possibility for evaluating PCR inhibition.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T11:24:45.687709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7178
       
  • Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from
           grazed pastures
    • Authors: Stewart F. Ledgard; Brendon Welten, Keith Betteridge
      Abstract: Background The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late‐summer and early‐winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking‐water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine‐N concentration and urine‐N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases; a cattle metabolism‐stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine‐N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g heifer−1 day−1) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine‐N rate on N leaching. Results Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine‐N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine‐N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per‐hectare N leaching by 10‐22%. Conclusions Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine‐N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine‐N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early‐winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:52:43.55815-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7179
       
  • Production of novel vinegar having antioxidant and anti‐fatigue
           activities from Salicornia herbacea L.
    • Authors: Hyun‐Dong Cho; Ju‐Hye Lee, Ji‐Hye Jeong, Jae‐Yong Kim, Sung‐Tae Yee, Seok‐Kyu Park, Mi‐Kyung Lee, Kwon‐Il Seo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salicornia herbacea L. is a halophyte that grows in salt marshes and which contains significant amounts of salts and minerals. Because it is known as a folk medication to treat diseases, various processed products such as powder, globular type of powder, laver, and extract have been developed. However, it is difficult to process as a drink due to its high salinity. In the present study, glasswort vinegar (GV) containing high contents of organic acids and minerals was developed via two‐step fermentation with unpolished rice substrates and investigated its antioxidant and anti‐fatigue activities. RESULTS GV showed various free radical scavenging effects, reducing power, oxidized‐LDL inhibition and SOD‐like activities. Compared with the control group (orally administered 7 g kg−1 distilled water), GV supplementation group showed increased running endurance and had higher glycogen accumulation in liver and muscles of rats exhausted by exercise. Furthermore, GV administrated group significantly elevated lactate and ATP metabolism promoting enzyme activities such as muscle creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, whereas serum fatigue biomarkers such as ammonia, lactate, and inorganic acid were markedly decreased. CONCLUSION These results indicate that GV can be used as a functional food for the development of a dietary beverage to alleviate fatigue.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:46.60253-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7180
       
  • Identifying N fertilizer regime and vegetable production system in
           tropical Brazil using 15 N natural abundance
    • Authors: Caio T Inácio; Segundo Urquiaga, Phillip M Chalk, Maria Gabriela F Mata, Paulo O Souza
      Abstract: Background This study was conducted in areas of vegetable production in tropical Brazil, with the objectives of (i) to measure the variation in δ15N in soils, organic N‐fertilizer sources and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from different farming systems, (ii) to test whether plant δ15N can differentiate organic vs. conventional lettuce and (iii) to identify the factors affecting the lettuce δ15N. Results Samples of soil, lettuce and organic inputs were taken from two organic, one conventional and one hydroponic farm. The two organic farms had different N‐sources with δ15N values ranging from 0.0 to +14.9 ‰ (e.g. legume‐green manure and animal manure compost, respectively), and differed significantly (p < 0.05) in lettuce δ15N (+9.2 ± 1.1 ‰ and +14.3 ± 1.0 ‰). The conventional lettuce δ15N (+8.5 ± 2.7 ‰) differed from the hydroponic lettuce δ15N (+4.5 ± 0.2 ‰) due to manure inputs. The N from legume‐green manure had a small contribution to the N nutrition of lettuce in the multi‐N‐source organic farm. Conclusion To differentiate organic vs. conventional farms using δ15N the several subsets of mode of fertilization should be considered. Comparisons of δ15N of soil, organic inputs and lettuce allowed a qualitative analysis of the relative importance of different N inputs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:25.105527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7177
       
  • Novel chelating agents for iron, manganese, zinc, and copper mixed
           fertilization in high pH soil‐less cultures
    • Authors: Sandra López‐Rayo; Paloma Nadal, Juan J. Lucena
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies about simultaneous fertilization with several micronutrients have increased in the last years, as Fe, Mn, and Zn deficiencies may appear in the same culture conditions. In fertigation, the replacement of sulfates by synthetic chelates is mandatory in areas with high pH irrigation water and substrates. The ethylenediamine‐N‐(2‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid)‐ N'‐(4‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid), o,p‐EDDHA, and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, EDDS are novel chelating agents which efficacy in simultaneous fertilization of Zn, Mn and Cu is unknown. This work evaluates the effectiveness of both ligands compared to traditional ligands (EDTA, HEEDTA and DTPA) applied as micronutrient chelate mixtures to soybean and navy bean plants grown in soil‐less cultures at high pH by analyzing the SPAD and micronutrient nutritional status, including the Composition Nutritional Diagnosis (CND) analysis tool. RESULTS The micronutrients application using o,p‐EDDHA was more effective in providing Mn and Zn than traditional ligands or sulfates. The application using EDDS increased the Zn nutrition. The results are well correlated with the chemical stability of the formulations. CONCLUSION The combined application of Mn and Zn as o,p‐EDDHA chelates can represent a more effective source than traditional chelates in micronutrient fertilizer mixtures in soil‐less cultures at a high pH.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:01.251004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7183
       
  • Rice bran protein hydrolysates exhibit strong in vitro
           α‐amylase, β‐glucosidase and ACE‐inhibition
           activities
    • Authors: Chatchaporn Uraipong; Jian Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to systematically examine the in vitro health‐promotion activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates. Rice bran proteins were fractioned into albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin, which were subjected to hydrolysis by four protease preparations, namely Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme and Protamax, and the inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates against α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were monitored over a hydrolysis period of 240 min. Active peptides in the hydrolysates were isolated by ultrafiltration and ion‐exchange chromatography and the peptide sequences of the active fractions were identified by LC‐MS/MS. RESULTS Hydrolysis of the proteins resulted in significant increases in these bioactivities, which were generally correlated with the degree of protein hydrolysis. In general, highest bioactivities were found with albumin and glutelin hydrolysates, followed by globulin hydrolysates, while prolamin hydrolysates showed the lowest activities. Of the four enzymes used, Alcalase and Protamax‐catalysed hydrolysates generally had the highest activities while Flavourzyme‐produced hydrolysates had the lowest activity. The MW < 3 KDa fraction of the Alcalase‐catalysed glutelin hydrolysates had the highest β‐glucosidase inhibition activity, which was identified to contain 13 peptides with 6–32 amino acid residues. CONCLUSION The α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activities of albumin and glutelin hydrolysates produced by Alcalase and Protamax were comparable in magnitude to those of the standard antidiabetic drug, acarbose, and had the potential to be developed into a dietary or nutraceutical supplement for diabetic management.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:47:36.627264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7182
       
  • In vitro study of biological activities of anthocyanin‐rich berry
           extracts on porcine intestinal epithelial cells
    • Authors: Petra Kšonžeková; Ruslan Mariychuk, Adriana Eliašová, Dagmar Mudroňová, Tomáš Csank, Ján Király, Dana Marcinčáková, Juraj Pistl, Ľudmila Tkáčiková
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins, compounds that represent the major group of flavonoids in berries, are one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological activities and comparison of anthocyanin‐rich extracts prepared from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and blueberry (V. corymbosum) on porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC‐1 cell line. RESULTS The IC50 values calculated in antioxidant cell‐based dichlorofluorescein assay (DCF assay) were 1.129 mg L−1 for chokeberry, 1.081 mg L−1 for elderberry, 2.561 mg L−1 for bilberry and 2.965 mg L−1 for blueberry, respectively. We found significant negative correlation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:47:14.709799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7181
       
  • From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step
    • Authors: Sicignano A; Di Monaco R, Masi P, Cavella S.
      Abstract: Background Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal‐based food, worldwide popular, because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this paper is to present a step‐by‐step guide to facilitate the understanding of all the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Results Due to its unique flavor, color, composition and its rheological properties durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for the pasta production. Although pasta is made traditionally from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical‐physical characteristics of the final product may largely vary. Starting from the same ingredients, during pasta production there are a lot of different events in each step that could develop a variety of pasta with different characteristics. Conclusion Moreover illustrative purposes, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of the temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance in the choice of the raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T01:55:31.884536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7176
       
  • Aspergillus oryzae fermented germinated soybeans extract alleviate
           perimenopausal symptoms in ovariectomized rats
    • Authors: Mingeum Jeong; Dong Sung Lee, Hyung Joo Suh, Yooheon Park
      Abstract: Background Soybeans have been widely used to alleviate climacteric symptoms. In this study, we investigated the estrogenic activities of isoflavones extracted from Aspergillus oryzae‐challenged germinated soybeans (AO‐GS). Methods Eight‐week‐old virgin Sprague–Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX). The rats were orally administrated 0.1 mg/kg 17α‐ethinyl estradiol or 3 different doses of AO‐GS (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g//kg/day) in distilled water for 6 weeks, while control rats were administered vehicle alone. Uterine weights and levels of estradiol and testosterone in serum were measured. Other than serum parameters, bone parameters were also acquired by using micro‐computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results Treatments of OVX rats with AO‐GS changed the secretory profile of serum estradiol and testosterone. Serum estradiol levels were significantly increased in OVX rats treated with and AO‐GS (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg/day), while serum testosterone levels were not significantly increased in OVX rats treated with 1.0 g/kg/day of AO‐GS Furthermore, AO‐GS (2.0 g/kg/day) significantly attenuated bone loss, increased BV/TV,and Tb.Th, and significantly decreased TB.pf, Conclusion AO‐GS treatments exhibits moderate estrogenic activity in OVX rats, than the ones treated with estradiol, suggesting the potential for its use in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:55:57.701147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7174
       
  • Effect of irrigation regime on anthocyanin content and antioxidant
           activity of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions
    • Authors: Maria Kyraleou; Stefanos Koundouras, Stamatina Kallithraka, Nikolaos Theodorou, Niki Proxenia, Yorgos Kotseridis
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Irrigation management is a powerful technique to control grape and wine colour. However, water deficit effects on anthocyanins are often contrasting depending on the severity of water restriction. In addition, the effect of irrigation on the antiradical capacity of grapes has not been extensively studied. In this work, the effect of water availability on anthocyanin profile and content, as well as on the antioxidant activity of Syrah grapes was investigated in an irrigation trial under semiarid climate conditions. RESULTS Three irrigation treatments were applied in a 15 year‐old Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah vineyard, starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% of ETc and non‐irrigated (NI). NI grapes were characterized by increased individual anthocyanin content. However, differences among irrigation treatments were significant only around 18–24 days after veraison, when anthocyanin accumulation was maximum. The antioxidant activity of the skin extracts was not affected by irrigation. CONLUSIONS Irrigation proved to be an effective technique to control anthocyanin content in Syrah grapes, under semiarid conditions. However, anthocyanin accumulation pattern should be considered by winemakers to appropriately select harvest time for improved wine color.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:39:04.296667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7175
       
  • Trypsin from unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) pyloric caeca:
           Purification and its use for preparation of fish protein hydrolysate with
           antioxidative activity
    • Authors: Abbas Zamani; Soottawat Benjakul
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish proteases, especially trypsin could be used to prepare fish protein hydrolysate with antioxidative activities. In this study, trypsin from the pyloric caeca of unicorn leatherjacket was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and SBTI‐Sepharose 4B column. Hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs) (20, 30 and 40%) was prepared using the purified trypsin and antioxidative activities of hydrolysate including DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous chelating activity were determined. RESULTS Trypsin was purified with the purity of 26.43 fold and the yield of 13.43%. It had the molecular weight (MW) of 23.5 kDa with the optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C. It displayed high stability in the pH range of 6.0‐11.0 and was stable up to 50 °C. SBTI (0.05 mmol L−1) and TLCK (5 mmol L−1) completely inhibited trypsin activity. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (DH) up to 40% (P< 0.05). Based on SDS‐PAGE, hydrolysate with 40% DH showed MW lower than 6.5 kDa. CONCLUSION The purified protease from unicorn leatherjacket pyloric caeca was identified as trypsin based on its ability to hydrolyse specific synthetic substrate and the response to specific trypsin inhibitor. The purified trypsin could hydrolyze Indian mackerel protein isolate and the resulting hydrolysate exhibited antioxidative activity, depending upon DHs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:38:47.377134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7172
       
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of anchovy fine powder at high and ambient pressure,
           and characterization of the hydrolyzates
    • Authors: Namsoo Kim; So‐Hee Son, Jin‐Soo Maeng, Yong‐Jin Cho, Chong‐Tai Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND At specific condition of high pressure, the stability and activity of some enzymes have been reportedly known to increase. The aim of this study is to apply pressure‐tolerant proteases to hydrolyzing anchovy fine powder (AFP) and to determine product characteristics of the resultant hydrolyzates. RESULTS Anchovy fine powder enzyme hydrolyzates (AFPEHs) were produced at 300 MPa and ambient pressure using combinations of Flavourzyme 500MG, Alcalase 2.4L, Marugoto E and Protamex. When the same protease combination was used for hydrolysis, the contents of total soluble solid, total water‐soluble nitrogen and trichloroacetic acid‐soluble nitrogen in the AFPEHs produced at 300 MPa were conspicuously higher than those in the AFPEHs produced at ambient pressure. This result and electrophoretic characteristics indicated that the high‐pressure process of this study accelerates protein hydrolysis compared to the ambient‐pressure counterpart. Most peptides in the hydrolyzates obtained at 300 MPa had molecular masses less than 5 kDa. Functionality, sensory characteristics and the content of total free amino acids for the selected hydrolyzates were also determined. CONCLUSION The high‐pressure hydrolytic process, utilizing pressure‐tolerant proteases, was found to be an efficient method for producing protein hydrolyzates with good product characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:38:31.072268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7173
       
  • Optimisation of α‐terpineol production by limonene
           biotransformation using Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840
    • Authors: Ya‐Nan Tai; Min Xu, Jing‐Nan Ren, Man Dong, Zi‐Yu Yang, Si‐yi Pan, Gang Fan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, R‐(+)‐limonene biotransformation using three fungal strains was compared. Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840 was distinguished for its capacity to transform limonene into α‐terpineol with high regioselectivity. Growth kinetics in submerged liquid culture and the effects of growth phase and contact time on biotransformation were studied using this strain. Substrate concentration, co‐solvent selection, and cultivation conditions were subsequently optimised. RESULTS The maximum concentration of α‐terpineol (833.93 mg/L) was obtained when the preculture medium was in medium log‐phase by adding 840 mg/L substrate dissolved in ethanol and cultivation was performed at 24 °C, 150 rpm, and pH 6.0 for 12 h. Addition of small amounts of R‐(+)‐limonene (84 mg/L) at the start of fungal log‐phase growth obtained 1.5‐fold yield of α‐terpineol, indicating that the enzyme was inducible. CONCLUSION Among these three strains tested, P. digitatum DSM 62840 was proved to be an efficient biocatalyst to transform R‐(+)‐limonene to α‐terpineol. Further studies revealed that the optimal growth phase for biotransformation was in the medium log phase of this strain. The biotransformation represented a wide tolerance of temperature; α‐terpineol concentration underwent no significant change at 8–32 °C. The biotransformation could also be performed using resting cells.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T02:24:23.723543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7171
       
  • Cell wall metabolism of peaches and nectarines treated with UV‐B
           radiation: a biochemical and molecular approach
    • Authors: Claudia Scattino; Noemi Negrini, Silvia Morgutti, Maurizio Cocucci, Carlos H. Crisosto, Pietro Tonutti, Antonella Castagna, Annamaria Ranieri
      Abstract: Background UV‐B radiation has been shown to improve, at least in selected genotypes, both the health‐promoting potential and the aesthetic properties of tomato and peach fruits during their postharvest period. The effects of postharvest UV‐B treatment on the cell wall metabolism of peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica L. Batsch) was assessed in this study. Three cultivars, Suncrest’ (Melting Flesh, MF) and ‘Babygold 7’(Non‐Melting Flesh, NMF) peaches and ‘Big Top’ (Slow Melting, SM) nectarine, differing for the characteristics of textural changes and softening during ripening, were analysed. Results UV‐B effects differ in relation to the cultivar considered. In MF ‘Suncrest’ fruit, UV‐B treatment significantly reduced the flesh firmness loss despite the slight increase in Endo‐PG presence and activity. Exo‐PG activity increased as well, while EGase, β‐Gal and PME were substantially unaffected by the treatment. The UV‐B‐induced reduction of flesh softening was paralleled by the inhibition of PpExp gene transcription and expansin protein accumulation. The UV‐B treatment did not induce differences in flesh firmness between control and UV‐B‐treated NMF ‘Babygold 7’ and SM ‘Big Top’ fruit. Conclusion Based on these results, postharvest UV‐B treatment may be considered a promising tool to improve shelf‐life and quality of peach fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13T02:04:17.58017-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7168
       
  • Compound specific stable carbon isotopic signature of carbohydrate
           pyrolysis products from C3 and C4 plants (Py‐CSIA)
    • Authors: José A. González‐Pérez; Nicasio T. Jiménez‐Morillo, José M. de la Rosa, Gonzalo Almendros, Francisco‐J. González‐Vila
      Abstract: Background Pyrolysis‐compound specific isotopic analysis (Py‐CSIA: Py‐GC‐(FID)‐C‐IRMS) is a relatively novel technique that allows on‐line quantitation of stable isotope proportions in chromatographically separated products released by pyrolysis. Validation of Py‐CSIA technique is compulsory for molecular traceability in basic and applied research. In this work, commercial sucrose from C4‐ (sugarcane) and C3‐ (sugar beet) photosystem plants and admixtures, were studied using analytical pyrolysis (Py‐GC/MS), bulk δ13C IRMS and δ13C Py‐CSIA. Results Major pyrolysis compounds were furfural (F), furfural‐5‐hydroxymethyl (HMF) and levoglucosan (LV). Bulk and main pyrolysis compound δ13C (‰) were dependent on plant origin: C3 (F: −24.65 ± 0.89; HMF: −22.07 ± 0.41 ‰; LV: −21.74 ± 0.17 ‰.) and C4 (F: −14.35 ± 0.89 ‰; HMF: −11.22 ± 0.54 ‰; LV −11.44 ± 1.26 ‰). Significant regressions were obtained for δ13C of bulk and pyrolysis compounds in C3‐ and C4 admixtures. Furfural (F) was found 13C depleted with respect to bulk and HMF and LV indicating the incorporation of the light carbon atom in position 6 of carbohydrates in the furan ring after pyrolysis. Conclusion This is the first detailed report on δ13C signature of major pyrolytically‐generated carbohydrate‐derived molecules. The information provided by Py‐CSIA is valuable to identify source marker compounds of use in food science/fraud detection or in environmental research.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13T02:03:45.039818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7169
       
  • Leaf Proteome Comparison of Two GM Common Bean Varieties and Their
           Non‐GM Counterparts by Principal Component Analysis
    • Authors: Pedro A. Valentim‐Neto; Gabriela B. Rossi, Kelly B. Anacleto, Carla S. de Mello, Geisi M. Balsamo, Ana Carolina M. Arisi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, was approved for commercialization in Brazil. The present work aimed to use principal component analysis (PCA) to compare the proteomic profile of this GM common bean and its non‐GM counterpart. RESULTS Seedlings from four Brazilian common bean varieties were grown under controlled environmental conditions. Leaf proteomic profiles were analyzed by two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Firstly, a comparison among 12 gels from four common bean varieties was performed by PCA using volume percentage of 198 matched spots, presented in all gels. The first two principal components (PC) accounted for 46.8% of total variation. Two groups were clearly separated by the first component: Pérola and GM Pérola from Pontal and GM Pontal. Secondly, another comparison among six gels from the same variety GM and its non‐GM counterpart was performed by PCA, in this case it was possible to distinguish GM and non‐GM. CONCLUSION Separation between leaf proteomic profile of GM common bean variety and its counterpart was observed only when they were compared in pairs. These results showed higher similarity between GM variety and its counterpart than between two common bean varieties. PCA is a useful tool to compare proteomes of GM and non‐GM plant varieties.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11T10:31:51.863744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7166
       
  • Clonal differences and impact of defoliation on Sauvignon blanc (Vitis
           vinifera L.) wines: a chemical and sensory investigation
    • Authors: Katja Šuklje; Guillaume Antalick, Astrid Buica, Jennifer Langlois, Zelmari A Coetzee, Julia Gouot, Leigh M Schmidtke, Alain Deloire
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study, performed on Sauvignon blanc clones SB11 and SB316, grafted on the same rootstock 101–14 Mgt (V. riparia x V. ruperstris) and grown at two adjacent vineyards, was twofold; i) to study wine chemical and sensory composition of both clones within an unaltered canopy and ii) to determine the effect of defoliation (e.g. bunch microclimate) on wine chemical and sensory composition. Results Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminate Analysis (OPLS‐DA) was applied to the concentration profiles of volatile compounds derived from GC‐MS data. The loadings directions inferred that 3‐isobutyl‐2‐methoxypyrazine (IBMP) discriminated control treatments (shaded fruit zone) of both clones from defoliation treatments (exposed fruit zone), whereas 3‐sulfanyl‐hexan‐1‐ol (3SH), 3‐sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), hexanol, hexyl hexanoate and some other esters discriminated defoliated treatments from the controls. The OPLS‐DA indicated the importance of IBMP, higher alcohol acetates and phenylethyl esters, for discrimination of clone SB11 from clone SB316 irrespective of the treatment. Defoliation in the fruit zone significantly decreased perceived greenness in clone SB11 and elevated fruitier aromas, whereas in clone SB316 the effect of defoliation on wine sensory perception was less noticeable regardless the decrease in IBMP concentrations. Conclusion These findings highlight the importance of clone selection and bunch microclimate to diversify produced wine styles.
      PubDate: 2015-03-09T01:54:55.857218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7165
       
  • Generation and identification of anti‐inflammatory peptides from
           bovine β‐casein using enzyme preparations from cod and hog
    • Authors: Karina Altmann; Adam Wutkowski, Martin Klempt, Ingrid Clawin‐Rädecker, Hans Meisel, Peter Chr. Lorenzen
      Abstract: Background The aim of the present study was to generate and identify potential anti‐inflammatory peptides from bovine β‐casein with enzyme preparations from cod and hog. Furthermore, the potential of Cod Trypsin, derived from fishery by‐products, to produce these bioactive peptides for replacement of non‐food grade TPCK treated porcine Trypsin enzyme preparation was evaluated. Results Potential anti‐inflammatory peptides were obtained by hydrolysis of β‐casein with the tryptic enzyme preparations cod trypsin, porcine trypsin (tosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK)‐treated) and a porcine trypsin and chymotrypsin preparation (PTN 6.0 S). Proteolysates generated with enzyme preparations containing mainly chymotryptic activity (Cryotin, Cryotin F) did not exhibit any effect. Conclusion The more chymotryptic enzyme activity is present, the lower is the potential anti‐inflammatory activity of the hydrolysates in HEKnfκb‐RE‐cells. Comparable peptides were produced by application of porcine Trypsin (TPCK) and Cod Trypsin. Therefore, the enzyme preparation Cod Trypsin can replace the non‐food grade porcine enzyme preparation Trypsin (TPCK) for the generation of potential anti‐inflammatory peptides from β‐casein.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:34:31.060738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7159
       
  • Authentication of commercial candy ingredients using DNA PCR‐cloning
           methodology
    • Authors: Marta Muñoz‐Colmenero; Jose Luis Martínez, Agustín Roca, Eva García‐Vázquez
      Abstract: Background Commercial candies are consumed by all population age sectors worldwide, thus methods for quality control and composition authentication are needed for best compliance of consumer's preferences. In this study the applications of DNA‐based methodology for candy quality control have been tested. Eighteen samples of commercial candies (marshmallows, gumdrops, jelly, sherbet, gelatin‐based desserts) produced by five countries were analyzed to identify the component species by Polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA and ribulose ‐1,5‐diphosphate carboxylase oxygenase genes, and the species determined from BLAST comparison with universal databases and phylogenetic analysis. Results Positive DNA extraction and amplification of the target genes was obtained for 94% of candies assayed, even those containing as little as
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:33:17.550501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7158
       
  • Microbial bioconversion and processing methods enhanced the phenolic acid
           and flavonoids and the radical scavenging capacity of Smilax china L. leaf
           
    • Authors: Ju‐Hyeong Kim; Tae‐Sik Park, Seung‐Hwan Yang, Joo‐Won Suh, Soon‐Mi Shim
      Abstract: Background It has been reported that Smilax china L. leaf (SCL) provided various biological functions owing to polyphenols. The objective of the current study was to assess enhancing effect of processing methods and microbial conversions on phenolic acid and flavonoids contents and radical scavenging capacity of SCL for potential applications of diverse food products. Results Targeted phenolic acid (chlorogenic acid) and flavonoids (piceid and quercetin) were identified in fresh SCL by using liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS). The total amount of identified phenolic acid and flavonoids was the highest in steamed SCL (12.70 ± 0.12 mg g−1 on a dry matter basis, dmb). A substantial amount of chlorogenic acid (5.81 ± 0.16 mg g−1 dmb), piceid (3.96 ± 0.04 mg g−1 dmb), and quercetin (6.06 ± 0.12 mg g−1 dmb) were quantified in SCL fermented by the Bacillus species, roasted, and steamed, respectively (p 
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:25:55.071543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7160
       
  • UV‐B‐induced anthocyanin accumulation in hypocotyls of radish
           sprouts continues in the dark after irradiation
    • Authors: Nana Su; Yanwu Lu, Qi Wu, Yuanyuan Liu, Yan Xia, Kai Xia, Jin Cui
      Abstract: Background Raphanus sativus L. cv. Yanghua sprouts are rich in health‐promoting anthocyanins; thus the hypocotyls show red‐color under light. In this study, effects of UV‐B irradiation at 5 W m−2 on the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts were investigated. Results Anthocyanins began to accumulate rapidly from 24 h irradiation and increased continuously till 48 h, which showed a similar pattern with PAL activity with the correlation coefficient of 0.804. The expression of DFR and ANS paralleled the upward trend in anthocyanin accumulation, while CHS, CHI and F3H were up‐regulated before the accumulation. When the sprouts were moved into the dark from UV‐B, the anthocyanin accumulation did not stop immediately. By contrast, anthocyanin accumulated continuously for more than 12 h in the dark, which was further supported by the significantly higher PAL activity monitored at 24 h after irradiation. Similarly, the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis‐related genes were much higher over 6 h after 12 h UV‐B irradiation. Conclusion UV‐B‐induced anthocyanin accumulation continues in the dark after irradiation, which was supported by unfading PAL activity and high levels of biosynthesis‐related genes. This will provide evidence to produce high‐quality sprouts with more anthocyanins but less energy wastage in practice.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:24:36.222962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7161
       
  • Volatile composition and sensory properties of
           Vanilla × tahitensis bring new insights for vanilla
           quality control
    • Authors: Christel Brunschwig; Sophie Rochard, Alexandre Pierrat, Anne Rouger, Perrine Senger‐Emonnot, Gérard George, Phila Raharivelomanana
      Abstract: Background Vanilla × tahitensis produced in French Polynesia has a unique flavour among vanilla species. However data on volatiles and sensory properties remain limited. In this study, the volatile composition and sensory properties of V. ×tahitensis from three Polynesian cultivars and two origins (French Polynesia/Papua New Guinea) were determined by GC‐MS and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis respectively and compared to Vanilla planifolia. Results Vanilla species, origins and cultivars were differentiated by their volatile and sensory profiles using Principal Component Analysis. The V. ×tahitensis flavour from French Polynesia was characterized by a well‐balanced sensory profile, having strong anise and caramel notes due to high levels of anisyl compounds. V. ×tahitensis from Papua New Guinea was distinct from that of French Polynesia, having strong spicy, fruity, brown rum notes due to p‐vinylguaiacol, p‐cresol and esters. V. planifolia showed stronger phenolic, woody, smoky notes, due to guaiacol, creosol and phenol which were found to be biomarkers of the species. Vanilla sensory properties were linked by Partial Least Squares Regression to key volatile compounds like guaiacol or creosol, which are indicators of lower quality. Conclusion This study brings new insights for vanilla quality control, with a focus on key volatile compounds, irrespective of origin.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:24:30.256-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7157
       
  • Techno‐Functional Characterization of Salad Dressing Emulsions
           Supplemented with Pea, Lentil and Chickpea Flours
    • Authors: Zhen MA; Joyce I. Boye, Kevin Swallow, Linda Malcolmson, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Abstract: Background Salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours are novel products. A three‐factor face‐centered central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effect of pulse flour concentration (3.5%, 7%, 10.5% w/w), egg yolk concentration (3%, 5%, 7% w/w) and oil concentration (20%, 35%, 50% w/w) on the rheological and color characteristics of salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours. RESULTS: The consistency coefficient m, plateau modulusGN0, recoverable strain Q(t) and color values were all affected by the concentrations of pulse flours used. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dressings with lower oil and egg yolk contents had a less densely packed network compared with dressings with higher oil and egg yolk contents. Sensory results were most promising for salad dressings supplemented with the whole green lentil, yellow pea with low flour content, and chickpea with high oil content. CONCLUSION: This study should be useful for designing novel types of salad dressings to meet market requirements as well as helping to increase pulse consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T05:40:24.484679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7156
       
  • Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Origanum
           majorana and investigation of antiproliferative and antioxidant activities
           
    • Authors: Ramazan Erenler; Ozkan Sen, Huseyin Aksit, Ibrahim Demirtas, Ayse Sahin Yaglioglu, Mahfuz Elmastas, İsa Telci
      Abstract: Background The Origanum majorana L. belonging to the Lamiaceae family has a great potential and used as folk medicine against asthma, indigestion, headache, and rheumatism; in addition, the essential oils of this plant have been used widely in food industries. The plant materials have been harvested from the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Field of Gaziosmanpasa University. Air‐dried plant materials were boiled in water, filtered then solvent part was extracted subsequently with hexane and ethyl acetate. The chromatographic method was applied for ethyl acetate extract to isolate bioactive secondary metabolites of which the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, basically 1D‐NMR, 2D‐NMR and LC‐QTOF. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities were carried out of isolated secondary metabolites. Results 5,6,3'‐trihydroxy‐7,8,4'‐trimethoxyflavone, hesperetin, hydroquinone, arbutin and rosmarinic acid were isolated from the water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts of Origanum majorana. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds and water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract were investigated using the assays of DPPH•, ABTS·+, reducing power and total phenolic contents. The antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds and plant extracts were investigated against C6 and HeLa cell lines using BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA and xCELLigence assays, respectively. Both hesperetin and hydroquinone were determined to have stronger antiproliferative activities against C6 and HeLa cells than the other isolated compounds and 5‐FU. Conclusion The results showed that the extract and isolated compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Hence, this plant has a potential to be a natural antioxidant in food industries and an anticancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T01:01:21.615588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7155
       
  • Agronomic and environmental consequences of using liquid mineral
           concentrates on arable farms
    • Authors: René LM Schils; Romke Postma, Debby van Rotterdam, Kor B Zwart
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In regions with intensive livestock systems, the processing of manure into liquid mineral concentrates is seen as an option to increase the nutrient use efficiency of manures. The agricultural sector anticipates that these products may in future be regarded as regular mineral fertilizers. We assessed the agronomic suitability and impact on GHG and ammonia emissions of using liquid mineral concentrates on arable farms. RESULTS The phosphate requirements on arable farms were largely met by raw pig slurry, given its large regional availability. After the initial nutrient input by means of pig slurry, the nitrogen/phosphate ratio of the remaining nutrient crop requirements determined the additional amount of liquid mineral concentrates that can be used. For sandy soils, liquid mineral concentrates could supply 50% of the nitrogen requirement, whereas for clay soils the concentrates did not meet the required nitrogen/phosphate ratio. The total GHG emissions per kg of plant available nitrogen ranged from −65 to 33 kg CO2‐equivalents. It increased in the order digestates 
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:33.321923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7146
       
  • Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Regional Emission Information in
           Agricultural Systems
    • Authors: Junbeum Kim; Albina Yalaltdinova, Natalia Sirina, Natalia Baranovskaya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a compilation and evaluation of the input energy and materials, output emissions and the potential environmental impacts of a product, service or system throughout its life cycle. While methodological issues of LCA are still being developed and much research is being conducted worldwide in order to improve them. One of the important advances in LCA is a regionalized LCA, meaning the development of regionalized databases, inventories, and impact assessment methods and models. RESULTS Regional emission information (REI) was developed and integrated with the characterization results in LCA of an agricultural product in the study area. Comparison of obtained outcomes with LCA characterization results that did not include REI shows that the characterization results taking REI into account are much higher as regards human toxicity, from 0.02% to 0.18%, freshwater ecotoxicity from 89% to 99% and terrestrial ecotoxicity from 8.006 % to 26.177%. CONCLUSION Results of current LCA studies on agricultural products and systems that do not include REI are underestimating the life cycle environmental impact. For the LCA of agricultural products and systems, the REI as well as regionalized life cycle inventory (LCI) data should be developed and integrated into the current LCA approach.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:18.519573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7149
       
  • Expression of recombinant Arabian Camel lactoferricin‐related
           peptide in pichia pastoris and its antimicrobial identification
    • Authors: Mahmood Chahardooli; Ali Niazi, Farzaneh Aram, Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi Sohrabi
      Abstract: Background Lactoferricin (LFcin) is a strong cationic peptide released from the N‐terminus of Lactoferrin by gastric pepsin digestion. LFcin has some important properties including high antimicrobial activity. To date lactoferricins have been isolated and characterized from various animal species, but not from camel.The aim of this study was to characterize and express recombinant camel lactoferricin (LFcinC) in pichia pastoris and investigate its antimicrobial activity. Results After methanol induction, LFcinC were expressed and secreted into a culture brothmedium and the results determined byconcentrated supernatant culture mediumshowed high antimicrobial activity against the following microbes ;Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739), Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112(ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 (ATCC 9027),Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 (ATCC 6633) ,Candida albicans PTCC 5027 (ATCC 10231).Thermal‐stability was clarified with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coliPTCC 1330(ATCC 8739). Conclusion Results confirmed that camel lactoferricin had suitable antimicrobial activity and its production by Pichia pastoris can be used for recombinant production.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T05:17:34.668605-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7125
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus
           fruit to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    • Authors: Yahan Zhou; Shunmin Li, Kaifang Zeng
      Abstract: Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. Results The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol · L−1 sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate‐glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity contents, and delay the increase in the total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. Conclusions The results suggested that the use of exogenous NO was a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:34.539231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7117
       
  • Identification of antioxidant peptides of Jinhua ham generated in the
           products and through the simulated gastro‐intestinal digestion
           system
    • Authors: Chao‐Zhi Zhu; Wan‐Gang Zhang, Guang‐Hong Zhou, Xing‐Lian Xu
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to purify and identify antioxidant peptides present in the extract of Chinese dry‐cured Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham extracts were separated into five fractions (A‐E) by size‐exclusion chromatography. Each fraction was subjected to a simulated gastro‐intestinal (GI) digestion system and fractions showing strong antioxidant activities were collected and subjected to liquid chromatography combined with mass/mass‐spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for further purification and identification. Results Using MS/MS analysis, 33 peptides were identified in these fractions. Several key peptides were selected for synthesis and determined their antioxidant activity. The peptide showing strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was GKFNV which showed 92.7% antioxidant activity at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the peptide LPGGGHGDL showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and LPGGGT and HA showed strong inhibition activity against erythrocyte haemolysis (about 45%) before digestion. On the other hand, KEER may contribute to Fe2+‐chelating ability in fraction C after GI digestion. Conclusion In conclusion, Jinhua dry‐cured ham seems to be a potential source of antioxidant peptides generated in the products and GI digestion.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T05:06:58.304896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7065
       
  • New trends in beer flavour compound analysis
    • Authors: Cristina Andrés‐Iglesias; Olimpio Montero, Daniel Sancho, Carlos A Blanco
      Pages: 1571 - 1576
      Abstract: As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T07:34:02.817348-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6905
       
  • Labrador tea – the aromatic beverage and spice: a review
           of origin, processing and safety
    • Authors: Anna Dampc; Maria Luczkiewicz
      Pages: 1577 - 1583
      Abstract: Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-29T08:18:04.935495-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6889
       
  • Effect of grape and other berries on cardiovascular health
    • Authors: JoLynne D Wightman; Roschelle A Heuberger
      Pages: 1584 - 1597
      Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. Many cardiovascular risk factors can be modified through lifestyle modification, including dietary patterns that emphasize daily consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Recent observational and clinical studies suggest that flavonoids, especially those abundant in grapes and other berries, may be associated with health benefits, particularly cardiovascular benefits. Human clinical data support cardioprotective benefits of grapes through inhibition of platelet aggregation, decreased low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, reduction in oxidative stress and improvements in endothelial function. Emerging evidence suggests that grapes may also have a favorable effect on blood lipids, decrease inflammation and reduce blood pressure in certain populations. Studies to date have shown that berries can have a beneficial effect on reducing LDL oxidation. Limited data suggest that berries may have a favorable effect on endothelial health and blood pressure. This review summarizes the current literature on human clinical studies examining the cardioprotective benefits of grapes and berries. Collectively, these data support the recommendation to incorporate products made with grapes and other berries into a heart‐healthy diet. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-06T03:22:50.698463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6890
       
  • The effects of bruising and temperature on enzyme activity and textural
           qualities of tomato juice
    • Authors: Matthew T Held; Gordon E Anthon, Diane M Barrett
      Pages: 1598 - 1604
      Abstract: BACKGROUND During harvest and transportation, processing tomatoes are exposed to elevated temperatures, compression and vibration in the harvester and truck, making them prone to bruising. The objective of this study was to determine how bruising and exposure to high temperatures affect pectin methylesterase (PME) activation and the textural quality of tomato juice. RESULTS Tomatoes were both hand and mechanically harvested using current harvest practices. Mechanically harvested fruits were significantly softer, had greater PME activity and greater juice consistency than hand harvested fruits. In a controlled bruising study, whole tomatoes were exposed to various compressive forces at 21 or 40 °C and held for 0 or 4 h. Greater bruising force and higher temperature resulted in a decrease in firmness and an increase in PME activity. Consistency of tomato juice improved when tomatoes were exposed to 40 °C. Tomatoes subjected to a temperature range from 21 to 65 °C had activated PME at 40 °C and increased activity as temperature increased. Consistency increased at 35 °C but decreased with increasing temperature. CONCLUSION Tomatoes harvested using current mechanical techniques are likely to be less firm and have increased PME activity; however, increased consistency of processed juice is observed. Tomatoes harvested at higher temperatures are also likely to have better consistency when processed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T08:28:25.213234-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6990
       
  • Influence of carbon monoxide on the colour stability of defrosted
           yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) muscle stored under aerobic and
           anaerobic conditions
    • Authors: Nikki E Neethling; Louwrens C Hoffman, Trevor J Britz, Bernadette O'Neill
      Pages: 1605 - 1612
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of carbon monoxide (CO) and various packaging types has been suggested to improve/stabilise the colour and oxidative processes of red meats, thereby improving the retail value and revenue. The main aim of this study was to investigate the influence of packaging type and CO treatment on the colour and oxidative stability of tuna. RESULTS The addition of CO significantly increased the redness (a*) of the tuna steaks but the redness was not equally stable for all treatments. The aerobically packaged steaks showed a temporal decrease in redness while the redness of anaerobically packaged steaks remained relatively stable. The addition of CO did not significantly affect (P >0.05) the brownness (b*) (with one exception) and lightness (L*) of the steaks. The anaerobically packaged steaks showed a significant difference (P 0.05) in lipid or protein oxidation were observed between treatments. The aerobically packaged steaks had a significant temporal increase (P
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T08:32:40.108101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6991
       
  • Identifying the drivers of liking by investigating the reasons for
           (dis)liking using CATA in cross‐cultural context: a case study on
           barbecue sauce
    • Authors: Ji‐Hye Choi; Mi‐Jin Gwak, Seo‐Jin Chung, Kwang‐Ok Kim, Michael O'Mahony, Rie Ishii, Ye‐Won Bae
      Pages: 1613 - 1625
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study cross‐culturally investigated the drivers of liking for traditional and ethnic chicken marinades using descriptive analysis and consumer taste tests incorporating the check‐all‐that‐apply (CATA) method. Seventy‐three Koreans and 86 US consumers participated. The tested sauces comprised three tomato‐based sauces, a teriyaki‐based sauce and a Korean spicy seasoning‐based sauce. Chicken breasts were marinated with each of the five barbecue sauces, grilled and served for evaluation. Descriptive analysis and consumer taste tests were conducted. Consumers rated the acceptance on a hedonic scale and checked the reasons for (dis)liking by the CATA method for each sauce. A general linear model, multiple factor analysis and chi‐square analysis were conducted using the data. RESULTS The results showed that the preference orders of the samples between Koreans and US consumers were strikingly similar to each other. However, the reasons for (dis)liking the samples differed cross‐culturally. The drivers of liking of two sauces sharing relatively similar sensory profiles but differing significantly in hedonic ratings were effectively delineated by reasons of (dis)liking CATA results. CONCLUSION Reasons for (dis)liking CATA proved to be a powerful supporting method to understand the internal drivers of liking which can be overlooked by generic descriptive analysis. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T09:10:28.60609-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6860
       
  • Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of sorghum products
    • Authors: Madhrapakkam Pagadala Rajendra Prasad; Benhur Dayakar Rao, Kommi Kalpana, Mendu Vishuvardhana Rao, Jagannath Vishnu Patil
      Pages: 1626 - 1630
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sorghum, a small‐seeded grass, is an important food crop and chief energy source for the people of semi‐arid regions of the world. In India, sorghum production/consumption decreased after the ‘green revolution’, but it is now regaining momentum owing to numerous health and nutritional benefits. An understanding of the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of staples can help in choosing suitable foods for the prevention and control of diabetes. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the GI and GL of different sorghum foods and compare them with those of wheat/rice based foods. RESULTS The GI of sorghum‐based foods such as coarse semolina upma (P 
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T09:16:36.065814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6861
       
  • Characterization of enzymatically prepared sugar medium‐chain fatty
           acid monoesters
    • Authors: Xi Zhang; Wei Wei, Xi Cao, Fengqin Feng
      Pages: 1631 - 1637
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sugar medium‐chain fatty acid esters are a new type of biodegradable, non‐toxic, non‐irritant and non‐ionic surfactant with proven antimicrobial activity. Various sugar medium‐chain fatty monoesters were prepared enzymatically using Lipozyme TLIM in organic solvent. Properties such as surface tension, antimicrobial activity, and ability to foam, emulsify and stabilize emulsions at room temperature were evaluated to conduct systematic studies on the structure–function relationships of these compounds. RESULTS Results showed that all monoesters displayed good surface activity properties. In particular, sucrose monolaurate was the most excellent surfactant among 12 monoesters. Sugar monoesters containing C8 to C12 alkyl chains showed a broad spectrum of increasing antimicrobial activity. All tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram‐positive bacterium) than Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram‐negative bacterium). Methyl α‐d‐glycoside monoesters were the most effective, whereas raffinose monoesters possessed poor antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS Generally, the length of fatty acid chain (hydrophobic group) and sugar groups (hydrophilic group) for sugar medium‐chain fatty acid monoesters both affected the surface properties and antimicrobial activities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T05:48:02.380393-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6863
       
  • Analytical phenolic composition and sensory assessment of selected rare
           Greek cultivars after extended bottle ageing
    • Authors: Kallithraka Stamatina; Kotseridis Yorgos, Kyraleou Maria, Proxenia Niki, Tsakiris Argirios, Karapetrou Garifalia
      Pages: 1638 - 1647
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The Hellenic vineyard embraces a large number of native cultivars, which are mostly unexploited for their ageing potential. Therefore, it was thought that analyzing some quality parameters of 14 red wines produced by rare native varieties would be of great importance in obtaining a general picture of their potential for commercial use. Various analytical methods were applied to the selected wines, at bottling and after 8 years of ageing, in an attempt to provide reliable answers to this issue. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the alteration of the phenolic content and color parameters of the wines after extended bottle storage and to evaluate the overall changes with respect to their sensory properties. RESULTS Most of the oligomeric phenolic compounds identified in the wines studied diminished after 8 years of bottle storage, while significant correlations were obtained between wine chemical composition and sensory data. CONCLUSIONS After 8 years of bottle storage some of the unexploited varieties (Vitis vinifera) were found to be worthy of further study and use for the production of quality wines. Wines with the best sensory characteristics were those made by Limniona, Mavrotragano, Bakouri, Thrapsa and Mavrothiriko, in accordance (more or less) with the results of chemical analyses. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-05T03:42:12.929749-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6865
       
  • Rapid screening of low‐molecular‐weight phenols from persimmon
           (Diospyros kaki) pulp using liquid
           chromatography/UV–visible/electrospray mass spectrometry analysis
    • Authors: Enrique Sentandreu; Manuela Cerdán‐Calero, John M Halket, José L Navarro
      Pages: 1648 - 1654
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Persimmon fruits have been widely used in traditional medicine owing to their phenolic composition. This research aims to perform a rapid, detailed and affordable study of the profile of low‐molecular‐weight phenols from persimmon pulp. RESULTS Two different HPLC‐DAD/ESI‐MSn analyses were performed using a routine three‐dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the ethanolic extract of persimmon pulp: (1) an untargeted data‐dependent analysis to identify the majority of small phenols that included full MS and MS2 scan events; (2) a targeted data‐dependent analysis to identify polymerized phenols (dimers and formic acid adducts) through a source‐induced dissociation analysis that included full MS and MS2 scan events. Thirty‐two low‐molecular‐weight phenols were detected, comprising gallic acid and its glycoside and acyl derivatives, glycosides of p‐coumaric, vanillic and cinnamic acids and different flavone di‐C‐hexosides, most of them reported for the first time in persimmon. CONCLUSION The use of a straightforward and affordable methodology of analysis led to obtain an up‐to‐date profiling of low‐molecular‐weight phenols in persimmon. The results can help future actions aimed to expand the understanding of the phenolic metabolome of persimmon cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-02T05:21:20.357922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6867
       
  • Purification and characterization of α‐acetolactate
           decarboxylase (ALDC) from newly isolated Lactococcus lactis DX
    • Authors: Yuxing Guo; Daodong Pan, Haibing Ding, Zhen Wu, Yangying Sun, Xiaoqun Zeng
      Pages: 1655 - 1661
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diacetyl (2,3‐butanedione) is a common flavor aroma from fermented dairy products. There is a need to screen new microorganisms that can efficiently produce large amounts of diacetyl. RESULTS A new lactic acid bacterium that produced high concentrations of diacetyl was identified based on Gram staining, microscopic examination and 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Lactococcus lactis DX. Its α‐acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) was purified using 0.45 g mL−1 ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephacryl S‐300 and S‐200 HR and native‐PAGE. The purified ALDC displayed a monomer structure and had a molecular mass of about 73.1 kDa, which was estimated using SDS‐PAGE. IR analysis showed that the ALDC had a typical protein structure. The optimal temperature and pH for ALDC activity were 40 °C and 6.5 respectively. The ALDC of L. lactis DX was activated by Fe2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ba2+ and Ca2+, while Cu2+ significantly inhibited ALDC activity. Leucine, valine and isoleucine activated the ALDC. CONCLUSION A strain that had high ability to produce diacetyl was identified as L. lactis DX. The difference in diacetyl production may be due to the ALDC, which is different from other ALDCs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-02T05:25:22.105709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6868
       
  • Effect of genetic and climatic variability on the metabolic profiles of
           black gram (Vigna mungo L.) seeds and sprouts
    • Authors: Kriskamol Na Jom; Wasaporn Chanput, Sumana Ngampongsai
      Pages: 1662 - 1669
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Black gram is becoming increasingly of interest for consumers worldwide. The metabolomics have been conducted to reflect the life history of each individual plant. The metabolic pattern of black gram seeds and sprouts was profiled to investigate genetic and climatic influences on a broad range of chemical constituents. RESULTS Distinct differences in metabolite profiles among three black gram varieties for both intact seeds and sprouts were observed. The differential impact of climate on metabolite profiles of the variety Chai Nat 80 during both dry and rainy seasons was investigated. Univariate statistical analysis demonstrated that greater maturity due to adequate moisture in the rainy season led to a higher content of nutritionally relevant polar metabolites, whereas the dry season resulted in a high relative amount of storage lipid because of immaturity due to insufficient rain and water supply. CONCLUSION The investigation confirmed the potential of metabolite profiling to assist in breeding and farming practices. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-02T05:25:45.599955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6869
       
  • The effect of ZnCl2 on green Spanish‐style table olive packaging, a
           presentation style dependent behaviour
    • Authors: Joaquín Bautista‐Gallego; Francisco Noé Arroyo‐López, Verónica Romero‐Gil, Francisco Rodríguez‐Gómez, Antonio Garrido‐Fernández
      Pages: 1670 - 1677
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Zinc chloride has been used previously as a preservative in directly brined olives with promising results. However, this is the first time that the effects of ZnCl2 addition (0–1 g L−1) on green Spanish‐style table olive (cv. Manzanilla) packaging has been studied. RESULTS The presence of ZnCl2 affected the physico‐chemical characteristics of the products; the presence of the Zn led to lower pH values (particularly just after packaging) and titratable and combined acidity values than the control but did not produce clear trends in the colour parameters. No Enterobacteriaceae were found in any of the treatments evaluated. At the highest ZnCl2 concentrations, the lactic acid bacteria were inhibited while, unexpectedly, its presence showed a lower effect than potassium sorbate against the yeast population. Regardless of the use of potassium sorbate or ZnCl2, the packages had a reduced microbial biodiversity because only Lactobacillus pentosus and Pichia galeiformis were found at the end of the shelf life. With respect to organoleptic characteristics, the presentations containing ZnCl2 were not differentiated from the traditional product. CONCLUSION Zinc chloride was less efficient than potassium sorbate as a yeast inhibitor in green Spanish‐style olives, showing clear presentation style dependent behaviour for this property. Its presence produced significant changes in chemical parameters but scarcely affected colour or sensory characteristics.© 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-02T05:29:24.626221-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6870
       
  • The effect of hazelnut roasted skin from different cultivars on the
           quality attributes, polyphenol content and texture of fresh egg pasta
    • Authors: Giuseppe Zeppa; Simona Belviso, Marta Bertolino, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Barbara Dal Bello, Daniela Ghirardello, Manuela Giordano, Marta Giorgis, Arianna Grosso, Luca Rolle, Vincenzo Gerbi
      Pages: 1678 - 1688
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Hazelnut skin is the perisperm of the hazelnut kernel. It is separated from the kernel during the roasting process and is normally discarded. Recent studies have reported that hazelnut skin is a rich source of dietary fibre as well as of natural antioxidants owing to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the use of hazelnut skins obtained from different cultivars for enhancing the nutritional value of fresh egg pasta. RESULTS Skins obtained from roasted hazelnuts of four different varieties were used at three concentrations as a flour replacement in fresh egg pasta. Hazelnut skin concentration significantly influenced all evaluated physicochemical parameters as well as consumers' appreciation for the pasta, but significant differences were also observed between the four varieties. Although pasta produced with 10 and 15% hazelnut skin displayed the highest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in vitro, pasta containing 5% Tombul hazelnut skin showed maximum consumer preference. CONCLUSION The results obtained in the present study highlighted that it is possible to use hazelnut skin in fresh pasta production to obtain a fortified food with high fibre content and antioxidant activity. The characteristics of the resulting pasta were strictly correlated with the hazelnut variety used for skin production and, of course, with the percentage of skin that was added. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T09:29:50.712727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6871
       
  • Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in
           Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation,
           intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response
    • Authors: Lipismita Samal; Vishwa Bandhu Chaturvedi, Guttula Saikumar, Ramesh Somvanshi, Ashok Kumar Pattanaik
      Pages: 1689 - 1696
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals, but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus L.). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. RESULTS Seventy‐two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tubers at 0 (control), 20, 40 and 60 g kg−1 levels. Enhanced cell‐mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P = 0.082) and CD4+ T‐lymphocyte population (P = 0.002) was observed in the JA‐supplemented groups compared with the control group. Blood haemoglobin (P = 0.017), glucose (P = 0.001), urea (P = 0.004) and calcium (P = 0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P = 0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA‐fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P = 0.069) and colon (P = 0.003) was increased in the JA‐supplemented groups, accompanied by higher (P = 0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and those of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA‐fed groups. CONCLUSION The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T08:11:26.490821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6873
       
  • Lipase‐mediated lipid removal from propolis extract and its
           antiradical and antimicrobial activity
    • Authors: Hyein Park; Song Hwan Bae, Yooheon Park, Hyeon‐Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh
      Pages: 1697 - 1705
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Propolis contains many antioxidants such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, propolis‐derived lipid components interrupt an efficient isolation of antioxidants from propolis extract. We examined the effectiveness of various lipase treatments for the removal of lipids from propolis extract and evaluated the biological features of the extract. RESULTS Lipase OF and Novozyme 435 treatments did not reduce fatty acid level in propolis extract. However, Lipozyme TL IM‐treated propolis extract showed a significant decrease in fatty acid level, suggesting the removal of lipids. Lipozyme RM IM also significantly decreased the fatty acid level of the extract, but was accompanied by the reduction of polyphenols and flavonoids, which are antioxidants. In Lipozyme TL IM treatment, an increase in active flavonoids, such as Artepillin C and kaempferide, was observed, with a slight increase of ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) radical‐scavenging activity. In addition, antimicrobial activity towards skin health‐related bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes was enhanced by Lipozyme TL IM treatment. CONCLUSION Lipozyme TL IM treatment effectively removes lipids from propolis extract and enhances antibacterial activity. Therefore, we suggest that Lipozyme TL IM is a useful lipase for lipid removal of propolis extract. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-27T06:16:30.839731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6874
       
  • Co‐inoculation of Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma
           atroviride acts as a biostimulant to promote growth, yield
           and nutrient uptake of vegetable crops
    • Authors: Giuseppe Colla; Youssef Rouphael, Elena Di Mattia, Christophe El‐Nakhel, Mariateresa Cardarelli
      Pages: 1706 - 1715
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The application of beneficial microorganisms at transplanting can promote rapid transplant establishment (starter effect) for achieving early and high yields. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant effects of Glomus intraradices BEG72 (G) and Trichoderma atroviride MUCL 45632 (T) alone or in combination on plant growth parameters, yield, chlorophyll index (SPAD), chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral composition of several vegetable crops. RESULTS The T. atroviride strain was capable of producing siderophores and auxin‐like compounds under a wide range of substrate pH conditions (5.5–8.0). The highest shoot, root dry weight, SPAD and chlorophyll fluorescence in lettuce, tomato and zucchini was observed in the G + T combination, followed by a single inoculation of G or T, whereas the lowest values were recorded in the uninoculated plants. Under greenhouse conditions, the shoot dry weight was significantly increased by 167%, 56%, 115%, 68% and 58% in lettuce, melon, pepper, tomato and zucchini, respectively, when supplied with both beneficial microorganisms in comparison with the control. This increase in root and shoot weight was associated with an increased level of nutrient uptake (e.g. P, Mg, Fe, Zn and B). Under open field conditions, the lettuce shoot and root dry weight increased by 61% and 57%, respectively, with biostimulant microorganism application in field conditions. For zucchini, early and total yields were significantly increased by 59% and 15%, respectively, when plants were inoculated with both microorganisms. CONCLUSION The application of the biostimulant tablet containing both G and T can promote transplant establishment and vegetable crop productivity in a sustainable way. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T11:09:49.168743-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6875
       
  • Fungal diversity, incidence and mycotoxin contamination in grapes from two
           agro‐climatic Spanish regions with emphasis on Aspergillus species
    • Authors: Esther García‐Cela; Ana Crespo‐Sempere, Jessica Gil‐Serna, Aleix Porqueres, Sonia Marin
      Pages: 1716 - 1729
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fourteen vineyards from two different agro‐climatic regions in Spain were sampled in two consecutive years in order to determinate the grape mycobiota and diversity indexes with the final aim to define the potential mycotoxigenic species from both regions and their relationship. RESULTS The most common fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus (30.0%), Alternaria (53.2%), Cladosporium (11.9%) and Penicillium (2.9%). Black aspergilli presence in the hotter region (south) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the northeast in both years. Among black aspergilli, A. tubingensis seemed to be the better adapted species to environmental conditions, while A. carbonarius was the main potentially ochratoxigenic species in both regions and years, owing to the most relevant percentage of ochratoxigenic isolates. Ochratoxin A (OTA)‐positive musts were only detected from southern vineyards, although contamination was always lower than 0.1 µg L−1. Finally, none of black aspergilli tested produced fumonisins (FBs) on Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA), while 63% of A. niger tested produced FB2 when inoculated on CYA20S, reaching 100% of isolates from the south. CONCLUSION Climate change scenarios in southern Europe point to an increase in temperature and drought. This could promote particularly adapted species such as A. niger, decreasing OTA risk, but this could lead to an increase in FB2 presence. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T05:29:18.475063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6876
       
  • Meat quality and the histological structure of breast and leg muscles in
           Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and
           slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens
    • Authors: Monika Łukasiewicz; Jan Niemiec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Natalia Mroczek‐Sosnowska
      Pages: 1730 - 1735
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of meat and the histological structure of muscles of Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens and to examine whether crossing generally available Sussex chickens with little available Ayam Cemani gives a good quality product of interest to the poultry industry and in food technology. RESULTS The size of breast and leg muscle fibers varied among genotypes. The breast and leg muscles of slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens had the largest fiber diameter. The histological and biochemical properties of muscles, including the type, number, proportions, diameter and metabolic profile of fibers, had a significant effect on the pH and water‐binding capacity of meat, thus affecting its quality. The muscle fibers of Ayam Cemani chickens were approximately half the size of the muscle fibers of Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Ayam Cemani and Ayam Cemani × Sussex gave a product of as good quality as Hubbard JA 957 chickens. CONCLUSION Meat from Ayam Cemani chickens is a rich source of protein and could be highly valued by gourmet consumers, connoisseurs and dieticians for its rarity and originality. The results of this study show that genotype (Ayam Cemani, Ayam Cemani × Sussex, Hubbard JA 957) affected the quality and color of meat and the histological profile of chicken breast and leg muscles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-23T08:08:31.329895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6883
       
  • Effect of different new packaging materials on biscuit quality during
           accelerated storage
    • Authors: Santina Romani; Silvia Tappi, Federica Balestra, Maria Teresa Rodriguez Estrada, Valentina Siracusa, Pietro Rocculi, Marco Dalla Rosa
      Pages: 1736 - 1746
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of innovative multilayer packaging materials versus a standard one on biscuit quality was studied during accelerated storage at 25, 35, 45 °C and 50% relative humidity for 92 days. Three different packaging materials were used: metalized orientated polypropylene (OPP)/paper (control); metalized poly‐lactic acid (PLA)/paper; metalized OPP with ethylene vinyl acetate pro‐oxidant additive (EVA‐POA)/paper. EVA‐POA additive is used to make the plastic layer biodegradable. Various quality sample parameters (moisture, water activity (aw), texture, peroxide value (PV), hexanal) were analysed during storage. Rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) of hydration reactions and hexanal formation were calculated. RESULTS No remarkable differences in the evolution of primary and secondary lipid oxidation were observed among differently packed biscuits during storage. All samples maintained PV levels between 4 and 14 meq O2 kg−1 oil. The product in flexible packaging with PLA reached the highest moisture and aw levels, but they did not significantly and adversely affect the other quality characteristics. CONCLUSION The obtained results demonstrate that the new tested packaging materials were suitable for commercial biscuit storage, having similar performance and preservation effects on the overall product quality to those of the standard one. Furthermore, these results could make a contribution to the food industry, encouraging the use of packaging materials with a negligible environmental impact as an alternative to petroleum‐based ones. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-29T08:17:29.768612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6888
       
  • Eating quality of meat from six lamb breed types raised in Brazil
    • Authors: Carla Alves Monaco; Maria T Alvarenga Freire, Lauro Melo, Alessandra Fernandes Rosa, Celso da Costa Carrer, Marco A Trindade
      Pages: 1747 - 1752
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Breed or genotype is important to consider for developing appropriate eating quality in lamb. The objectives of this study were to compare physical and chemical parameters and sensory acceptance of longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle from six lamb breed types economically important to the Brazilian sheep‐raising chain. RESULTS No difference (P > 0.05) among samples was found in relation to L*, a* and b* parameters. However, differences were detected in shear force for the LL muscle produced by different breeds (P < 0.05), where animals without definite breed (WDB) showed higher shear force, whereas the lowest levels were observed for breed Hampshire Down, followed by Ile de France and the Dorper/Santa Inês cross‐breed (Dorper/SI). In relation to sensory acceptance, no difference (P > 0.05) was detected in aroma attribute for all breed types tested. For the attributes texture, juiciness, flavor and overall quality, differences were detected (P < 0.05), Dorper/SI, Hampshire Down and Suffolk cross breeds received the best scores, while Santa Inês received intermediate evaluations, and Ile de France and WDB were the least accepted. CONCLUSION Under the conditions evaluated in this study, meat from Dorper/SI and Hampshire Down cross‐breeds showed better eating quality, satisfying most consumers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-06T03:37:27.36545-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6894
       
  • Cocoa content influences chocolate molecular profile investigated by
           MALDI‐TOF mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Cínthia C Bonatto; Luciano P Silva
      Pages: 1753 - 1756
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chocolate authentication is a key aspect of quality control and safety. Matrix‐assisted laser desorption ionization time‐of flight (MALDI‐TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of cells, tissues, and even food. The present study evaluated if MALDI‐TOF MS analysis on low molecular mass profile may classify chocolate samples according to the cocoa content. RESULTS The molecular profiles of seven processed commercial chocolate samples were compared by using MALDI‐TOF MS. Some ions detected exclusively in chocolate samples corresponded to the metabolites of cocoa or other constituents. This method showed the presence of three distinct clusters according to confectionery and sensorial features of the chocolates and was used to establish a mass spectra database. Also, novel chocolate samples were evaluated in order to check the validity of the method and to challenge the database created with the mass spectra of the primary samples. Thus, the method was shown to be reliable for clustering unknown samples into the main chocolate categories. CONCLUSION Simple sample preparation of the MALDI‐TOF MS approach described will allow the surveillance and monitoring of constituents during the molecular profiling of chocolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-03T06:25:40.158272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6740
       
  • Class‐modeling approach to PTR‐TOFMS data: a peppers case
           study
    • Authors: Cosimo Taiti; Corrado Costa, Paolo Menesatti, Diego Comparini, Nadia Bazihizina, Elisa Azzarello, Elisa Masi, Stefano Mancuso
      Pages: 1757 - 1763
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry (PTR‐MS), in its recently developed implementation based on time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (PTR‐TOFMS), was used to rapidly determine the volatile compounds present in fruits of Capsicum spp. RESULTS We analyzed the volatile organic compounds emission profile of freshly cut chili peppers belonging to three species and 33 different cultivars. PTR‐TOFMS data, analyzed with appropriate and advanced multivariate class‐modeling approaches, perfectly discriminated among the three species (100% correct classification in validation set). VIP (variable importance in projection) scores were used to select the 15 most important volatile compounds in discriminating the species. The best candidates for Capsicum spp. were compounds with measured m/z of 63.027, 101.096 and 107.050, which were, respectively, tentatively identified as dimethyl sulfide, hexanal and benzaldehyde. CONCLUSIONS Based on the promising results, the possibility of introducing multivariate class‐modeling techniques, different from the classification approaches, in the field of volatile compounds analyses is discussed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T09:27:06.171262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6761
       
  • Stage‐specific metabolization of triacylglycerols during seed
           germination of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.)
    • Authors: Umashankar Chandrasekaran; Aizhong Liu
      Pages: 1764 - 1766
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A detailed study was carried out on Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) to investigate the mobilization of storage lipids during seed germination. RESULTS Thin layer chromatography analysis of the total lipids showed a rapid decline in the triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents after the early stages (3–10 days after imbibition (DAI)) followed by a steady breakdown during the later stages (20 and 30 DAI) of germination. Trace amounts of monoacylglycerols (MAG) were identified during the final stage (30 DAI). Further, gas chromatography analysis showed an increase in the major unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic and linolenic) content from 3 to 10 DAI followed by a slow decline. In addition, the major saturated fatty acid (palmitic and oleic) content showed a decrease during the early stages (3–10 DAI) and an increase during the later stages (20 and 30 DAI). CONCLUSION The present study provides the first report on the metabolization of TAG along with fatty acid changes during the seed germination of Sacha Inchi. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T04:09:10.418078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6855
       
 
 
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