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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.822]   [H-I: 100]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1616 journals]
  • Anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides prepared from Stichopus
           japonicas in an endurance swimming rat model
    • Authors: Jing Ye; Shen Caihong, Huang Yayan, Xueqin Zhang, Xiao Meitian
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is a well-known nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia which has attracted increasing attention because of its nutrition and bioactivities in recent years. In this study, the anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prepared from Stichopus japonicas was evaluated in a load-induced endurance swimming model.RESULTSThe SCP prepared in this study was mainly made up of low-molecular-weight peptides (
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T23:55:34.786011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8322
  • Proteome comparison for discrimination between honeydew and floral honeys
           from botanical specie Mimosa scabrella Bentham by principal component
    • Authors: Mônia Stremel Azevedo; Pedro Alexandre Valentim-Neto, Siluana Katia Tischer Seraglio, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da Luz, Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi, Ana Carolina Oliveira Costa
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDue to increasing valuation and appreciation of honeydew honey in many European countries and also to existing contamination among different kinds of honeys, the authentication is an important aspect of quality control and its regard with the origin guarantee in terms of source, honeydew or floral, needs to be determined. Furthermore, belonging to the minority composition of the honey, beyond of the importance of its physiological effects, proteins can differ according to these sources. In this context, the aims of this study were carry out the protein extraction from honeydew and floral honeys and to discriminate these honeys from same botanical species Mimosa scabrella Bentham through proteome comparison using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and principal component analysis (PCA).RESULTSThe results showed that proteome profile and PCA can be a useful tool for discrimination between these kinds of honeys using matched proteins (45 matched spots), as well as proteome profile evidenced 160 protein spots detected in honeydew honey and 84 spots in the floral honey.CONCLUSIONProtein profile can be a differential characteristic of this kind of honey, in view of the importance of proteins as bioactive compounds in honey.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T23:55:31.387342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8317
  • Interaction of copper nanoparticles and an endophytic growth promoter
           Piriformospora indica with Cajanus cajan
    • Authors: Jyoti Rajak; Manisha Bawskar, Dnyaneshwar Rathod, Gauravi Agarkar, Dipali Nagaonkar, Aniket Gade, Mahendra Rai
      Abstract: BackgroundIn recent years, the agro-bionanotechnology has paved the way towards revolutionizing the current practices of food and agricultural fields. In the present study, the effect of copper nanoparticles alone and in combination with growth promoting fungus Piriformospora indica on two-week old seedlings of Cajanus cajan was evaluated. Gelatin coated stable copper nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent.ResultsCopper nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were found to be quite spherical with diameter within the range 40 ± 10 nm. After the application of copper nanoparticles and P. indica to the host plant C. cajan, the vitality of plants was determined by Handy-PEA (Plant efficiency analyser) instrument. Handy-PEA analysis (which measures the chlorophyll a fluorescence) indicated that seedlings inoculated with combination of copper nanoparticles and P. indica were the healthiest and also showed maximum vitality as compared to seedlings inoculated with copper nanoparticles or P. indica alone.ConclusionThese results suggest that the copper nanoparticles in combination with P. indica can serve as a nanobiofertilizer for enhancement of the growth and productivity of C. cajan.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T23:05:33.032261-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8324
  • Hypoglycemic effect of hawthorn in type II diabetes mellitus rat model
    • Authors: Aili Aierken; Tina Buchholz, Chen Chen, Xiaoying Zhang, Matthias F. Melzig
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHawthorn is one of the popular herbs in many different traditional medicine systems including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), where it has long been used for the treatment of hyperglycemia. However, most of its varied biological activities are still remaining unexplored. This study investigated the hypoglycemic effect of hawthorn extracts in type II diabetic (T2DM) rat model. A total of 54 rats were randomly divided into six groups. Normal control group (NC), type II diabetic model group (T2DM, T2DM rats were induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin), high, middle and low concentrations of hawthorn treat groups (HTH, HTM and HTL, T2DM rats were given hawthorn extract at the dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg ^-1.b.w, respectively) and positive control group (orlistat 40 mg kg ^-1.b.w, ORL).RESULTSshowed that triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) serum levels were decreased in the hawthorn extract treated groups than in the T2DM control group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T21:15:27.814401-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8323
  • Impact of drying and micronization on the physico-chemical properties and
           antioxidant activities of celery stalk
    • Authors: Karna Ramachandraiah; Koo Bok Chin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe influence of convective drying and ball-mill treatment of celery stalk on particle size distribution, physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities were analyzed in this study.RESULTSBall-milling of celery stalk dried at the temperatures of 50, 75 and 100 °C resulted in decreasing average particle sizes of 48.8, 10.5 and 7.2 µm, respectively. Bulk density was increased with reduced particle size. Darker (L*) and reddish (a*) powders were formed at higher temperatures while ball-milling increased greenness (−a*) of powders dried at 50 and 75 °C. Total content of phenol compounds increased with increasing temperature. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power were affected by ball-milling for 24 h and drying at elevated temperatures. Iron chelating ability was unaffected by increasing temperature or reduced particle size.CONCLUSIONIncreasing drying temperatures not only decreased the average particle size of powders, but also increasingly reduced particle size after ball-milling. Micronization of celery stalk dried at the highest temperature had the best antioxidant activities. Drying and ball-milling were not highly deleterious to the major phenolic structures.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T21:05:30.269485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8321
  • Hen Egg York Phosvitin Stimulates Osteoblast Differentiation in the
           Absence of Ascorbic Acid
    • Authors: Qingli Liu; Chunyan Li, Fang Geng, Xi Huang, Meihu Ma
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEgg yolk phosvitin, one of the most highly phosphorylated extracellular matrix proteins known in nature, has a strong calcium binding and reducing capacity. Here, we investigated the effects of phosvitin on the osteoblast differentiation and osteogenic gene expression in cultured mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis, alizarin red S staining and real-time PCR assay.RESULTSALP activity and alizarin red S staining analyses demonstrated no significant difference between differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in the presence of phosvitin and those cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid after 21 days of differentiation. Our real-time PCR assay also indicated the two groups were similar in the expression of the osteogenic gene markers, collagen type I(Col-I), osteocalcin (OCN), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2.CONCLUSIONOur findings indicate that phosvitin plays a similar role to that of ascorbic acid in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T03:05:59.777853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8320
  • Evaluation of HMW-GS 20 and 2.2 from Near isogenic lines (NILs) of wheat
           variety HD2329 for bread quality improvement
    • Authors: Sonia Goel; Sapna Grewal, N. K. Singh
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dominates the list of the most important human food sources ever. Its complex genetic background is the reason behind the wide diversity that exists in nutritional as well as food end- product quality. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are the main grain storage proteins in the endosperm of wheat and related species. It is well established that the composition and quantity of allelic variation in (HMW-GS) genes substantially affect the taste and appearance of dough products and therefore work in this area is highly desired.RESULTSA significant positive effect on wheat dough quality traits was observed among NILs of HMW-GS subunits 20 and 2.2 in wheat variety HD2329 during quality evaluation of data generated over 2 years. Remarkably significant (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T02:25:31.966518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8319
  • Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes
    • Authors: Y Vystavna; L Zaichenko, N Klimenko, R Rätsep
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study was focused on Zn, Cu and Pb transfer in the system of soil–grape–must–juice–wine in Chardonnay grape variety from Ukrainian vine growing regions. The analysis of soil, grape, must, pomace, juice and wine were done at the study plot on the Southwest of Crimea.RESULTSCommercial white wines of Chardonnay from different vine growing regions in Ukraine were analyzed on trace metals content. Results revealed that trace elements transfer was related to diverse Zn, Cu and Pb sources, trace metals bioavailability, its speciation and complexes during the wine making processes. The analyzed commercial wines had lower Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations than wine from the Inkerman study plot.CONCLUSIONTrace metals concentrations were comparable to those in European wines and lower than limits recommended by International Organization of Vine and Wine. The tentative relationship between wine and soil was found for Zn at the study plot. The method can be used to describe the relationship between the soil and wine in other study areas.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T01:56:33.376339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8318
  • Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment
    • Authors: Márcia Carvalho; Teresa Lino-Neto, Eduardo Rosa, Valdemar Carnide
      Abstract: Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include a good protein quality with a high nutritional value, its nitrogen-fixing ability, and an ability to be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, studies of cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress. The present review provides an overview of different aspects of cowpea, with a special emphasis on the molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity, as well as on biochemical and transcriptomic data with respect to evaluating cowpea drought stress tolerance. The integration of both datasets will be useful for the improvement of cowpea because research on drought stress tolerance is of major interest for this crop in a challenging environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:40:42.602566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8250
  • Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on protein oxidation, calpain
           activation and desmin degradation of beef muscles
    • Authors: Qing-quan Fu; Qing-feng Ge, Rui Liu, Hai-ou Wang, Guang-hong Zhou, Wan-gang Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProtein oxidation is widespread in biochemical systems. The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in protein oxidation, μ-calpain activity, desmin proteolysis and protein solubility of beef psoas major (PM) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles under three packaging systems during postmortem aging. At 24 h postmortem, beef muscles were packaged respectively in air-permeable film overwrap (AP), vacuum pack (VP) or modified atmosphere (MAP, 80% O2 + 20% CO2), and then displayed for 10 days (d) at 4 °C.RESULTSCarbonyl group values and thiol group content were significantly influenced by packaging type and storage time. The SM muscles from AP and MAP showed greater μ-calpain activity compared to VP. Desmin of PM and SM from AP and MAP samples showed decreased proteolysis compared with VP.CONCLUSIONThe results suggested that the inhibition of μ-calpain activity of beef samples from AP and MAP could be closely associated with protein oxidation which further lowered the level of desmin degradation compared to VP.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T04:46:08.955484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8316
  • Effects of blood plasma proteins addition on physico-chemical properties
           of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage
    • Authors: Sung Ho Kim; Sang Keun Jin, Jung Seok Choi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMost of the slaughter blood is discarded, resulting in problems related to costs for wastewater disposal and environmental pollution. However, animal blood contains various proteins such as albumin, globulin and globin and can be used as a natural emulsifier, stabilizer and color additives. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of blood plasma proteins on the physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages stored at 4 °C over 5 weeks.RESULTSThe emulsion-type pork sausages with plasma powders had higher pH than the other treatments during weeks 5, and higher shear force than the control (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T04:46:06.541549-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8315
  • Natural losses in tuber weight during storage as a predictor of
           susceptibility to post-wounding blackspot in advanced potato breeding
    • Authors: Magdalena Grudzińska; Piotr Barbaś
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn potatoes, mechanical damage and the formation of black spots in the tuber flesh cause substantial economic losses and degradation of quality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of new potato genotypes (178 elite breeding lines) to blackspot damage after 7 months' storage at 5 and 8 °C, and to examine whether this susceptibility correlated with natural losses.RESULTSThe lowest index of blackspot damage after harvest was found in genotypes from the mid-late group of earliness and low-susceptibility group, and after storage in genotypes from the early group of earliness and low-susceptibility group. After storage at 5 °C tubers were characterized by a lower susceptibility to bruising compared with tubers stored at 8 °C. The storage temperature significantly affected the natural losses in advanced potato breeding materials after storage in the case of all earliness and susceptibility groups. The highest susceptibility to blackspot damage and natural losses occurred in potatoes stored at 8 °C (r = 0.85–0.91). Such a relationship was not observed in potatoes stored at 5 °C.CONCLUSIONFor potato tubers susceptible to the formation of after-wounding blackspot, the natural losses arising as a result of storage at 8 °C can be used as a subjective method to evaluate the susceptibility of potatoes to the formation of black spots in the flesh. However, this observation needs further studies and stronger proof of this theory. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T03:55:30.763016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8248
  • Cover Image, Volume 97, Issue 6
    • Authors: Sibel Yağcı
      Abstract: The cover image, by Sibel Yağcı, is based on the Research Article Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and sensory properties of puffed wheat snack,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7973.The cover image, by Sibel Yağcı, is based on the Research Article Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and sensory properties of puffed wheat snack,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.7973.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:54:01.57659-05:0
  • Influence of Japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and
           preference (a case study on deep-fried peanuts)
    • Authors: Atsushi Miyagi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDetailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data.RESULTSThe results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did.CONCLUSIONIn the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T08:15:35.544688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8266
  • Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on
           pH, water-holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial
           growth in beef during cold storage
    • Authors: Seung-Jae Lee; Seung Yun Lee, Gap-Don Kim, Geun-Bae Kim, Sang Keun Jin, Sun Jin Hur
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDActive packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. The aim of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging for beef. Beef loin samples were divided into three packaging groups (C, ziplock bag packaging; T1, vacuum packaging; T2, active packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days.RESULTSThe water-holding capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in C and T2 than in T1 for up to 7 days of storage. The TBARS value was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage. The counts of some microorganism were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage; the total bacterial count and Escherichia coli count were lowest in T2 at the end of storage.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that active packaging using self-CO2-generation materials can extend the shelf life similarly to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T07:30:40.438688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8223
  • Dietary exposure to acrylamide from cafeteria foods in Jeddah schools and
           associated risk assessment
    • Authors: Mahmoud M. Eltawila; Ahmed M. Al-Ansari, Amani A. Alrasheedi, Abdulateef A. Neamatallah
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAcrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic food contaminant produced at high temperatures in foods that are rich in carbohydrates. Foods sold in schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are among such carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high cooking temperatures. It is crucial to determine the importance of AA exposure due to cafeteria foods and to assess the associated risks.RESULTSThe highest mean AA level was measured in chocolate pies (439 µg kg −1), followed by custard pies (435 µg kg −1) and cheese pies (432 µg kg −1). The average and 95th percentile values of AA exposure were 0.51 and 1.17 (µg kgbw −1 school d −1). The average exposure significantly decreased with an increase in age, from 0.65 (µg kgbw −1 school d −1) in primary school students to 0.37 in secondary school students. Cheese and chocolate pies are the main contributors in AA intake. The contributions of cheese and chocolate pies to the average exposure among primary, middle and secondary school students were 23.1, 24.7 and 29.4% and 16.9, 12.1 and 11.9%, respectively. Other products with significant contributions included cheese sandwiches (10.8, 8.9 and 12.7%), plain cookies (7.7, 5.6 and 6.7%) and custard pies (7.7, 4.8 and 8.9%). Other cafeteria products contributed to AA exposure at much lower percentages.CONCLUSIONThe calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the average (356 and 614 for both BMDL 0.18 and 0.31 mg kgbw −1 d −1) and 95th percentile AA exposure values (154 and 265 for both BMDL 0.18 and 0.31 mg kgbw −1 d −1) suggest a health concern for school-aged students.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T03:45:25.334659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8314
  • Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by
           Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation
    • Authors: Bin Zheng; Yu Liu, Xiaoxia He, Shiwei Hu, Shijie Li, Meiling Chen, Wei Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA way to improve fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor enhancing property and non-biogenic amines producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was further investigated.RESULTSThe inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (p>0.05), but significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen (TSN) content, amino acid nitrogen (AAN) content and promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (p
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T03:00:36.801336-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8313
  • Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production
    • Authors: Nazife Eroglu; Mevlut Emekci, Christos Athanassiou
      Abstract: Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties including losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. Commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during last fifty years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. Latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the current review, we summarized most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T02:45:29.467931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8312
  • Proximate, amino acid and lipid compositions in Sinonovacula constricta
           (Lamarck) reared at different salinities
    • Authors: Zhaoshou Ran; Shuang Li, Runtao Zhang, Jilin Xu, Kai Liao, Xuejun Yu, Yingying Zhong, Mengwei Ye, Shanshan Yu, Yun Ran, Wei Huang, Xiaojun Yan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSinonovacula constricta is an economically and nutritionally important bivalve native to the estuaries and mudflats of China, Japan, and Korea. Herein, S. constricta, cultured either under experimental conditions or directly collected from natural coastal areas with different seawater salinities, were investigated for changes in proximates, amino acids and lipids.RESULTSWhen culture salinity was increased, levels of moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein and crude lipid were significantly decreased whereas the level of ash was significantly increased. The level of Ala was increased by 1.5-2 times whereas contents of most lipids were significantly decreased, and the proportion of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was significantly increased. Notably, a high proportion of ceramide aminoethylphosphonates (CAEP) was detected in S. constricta reared at all salinities. The energy content seems higher in S. constricta reared at higher salinity. In experimental S. constricta, when salinity was enhanced, the changes of compositions were very close to those reared at constant high salinity.CONCLUSIONSS. constricta reared at higher salinities possess the superior quality. A short of time exposure to higher salinity for the farmed S. constricta reared at lower salinity before harvest will be useful to improve the nutritive value.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T02:35:57.597871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8311
  • Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein
           of legume and grass species during the spring growth
    • Authors: Zeinab Solati; Uffe Jørgensen, Jørgen Eriksen, Karen Søegaard
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDKnowledge of the variation of extractable protein amount in legumes and grasses as affected by harvest time is important for identifying optimal combinations to enable a high protein production in a biorefinery. The extractability of protein was estimated using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth.RESULTSThe estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3 can be extracted, white clover had the highest extractable protein amongst all species. Total yield of B1+B2 per ha was higher in white clover and red clover at the early growth while B1+B2+B3 was by far the highest for red clover through all harvests.CONCLUSIONWhite clover could be a good candidate for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend on the value of the fibre after extraction of the protein. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T10:50:33.457824-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8258
  • The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera
           intraspecific hybrids
    • Authors: Rafael Apolinar-Valiente; Encarna Gómez-Plaza, Nancy Terrier, Thierry Doco, José María Ros-García
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy.RESULTSThe total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell.CONCLUSIONThis study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:05:31.143018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8270
  • Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of
           animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine)
    • Authors: Pan Wang; Yanting Hong, Weixin Ke, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats.RESULTSFive HAs – 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) – were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine.CONCLUSIONChoice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T02:56:26.777875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8259
  • Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in
           chicken sausages
    • Authors: Gema Nieto; Lorena Martínez, Julian Castillo, Gaspar Ros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction processes (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g 100 g−1 walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g 100 g−1) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out.RESULTSThe sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT2 and HXT3) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T02:30:47.006231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8240
  • Recovery of Pectic Hydrocolloids and Phenolics from Huanglongbing Related
           Dropped Citrus Fruit
    • Authors: Randall G. Cameron; Hoa K. Chau, Arland T. Hotchkiss, John A. Manthey
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitrus preharvest fruit drop, caused by Huanglongbing infection, has increased dramatically concomitant with declining tree health and crop harvest size. This loss of harvestable fruit is damaging to both growers and juice processors. Recovering and converting this fruit to alternative value added products would benefit the citrus industry. Therefore, we have explored the potential for using this fruit as a feedstock in our newly developed pilot scale continuous steam explosion process.RESULTSWhole fruits were converted to steam exploded biomass using a continuous pilot scale process. Sugar composition of raw fruit and steam exploded biomass was determined. Recovered pectic hydrocolloids and phenolic compounds were characterized. Pectic hydrocolloids comprised 78 g kg −1 of the dry material in the dropped fruit. Following the steam explosion process nearly all of the pectic hydrocolloids were recoverable with a water wash. They could be functionalized in-situ or separated from the milieu. Additionally, approximately 40% of the polymethoxylated flavones, 10% of the flavanone glycosides, 85% of the limonoids and nearly 100% of hydroxycinnamates were simultaneously recovered.CONCLUSIONThe continuous steam explosion of preharvest dropped citrus fruit provides an enhanced, environmentally friendly method for release and recovery of valuable coproducts from the wasted biomass.
      PubDate: 2017-03-12T23:30:25.987109-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8310
  • Yeast alter micro-oxygenation of wine: oxygen consumption and aldehyde
    • Authors: Guomin Han; Michael R Webb, Chandra Richter, Jessica Parsons, Andrew L Waterhouse
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicro-oxygenation (MOx) is a common winemaking treatment used to improve red wine color development and diminish vegetal aroma, amongst other effects. It is commonly applied to wine immediately after yeast fermentation (phase 1) or later, during aging (phase 2). Although most winemakers avoid MOx during malolactic (ML) fermentation, it is often not possible to avoid because ML bacteria are often present during phase 1 MOx treatment. We investigated the effect of common yeast and bacteria on the outcome of micro-oxygenation.RESULTSCompared to sterile filtered wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculation significantly increased oxygen consumption, keeping dissolved oxygen in wine below 30 µg L–1 during micro-oxygenation, whereas Oenococcus oeni inoculation was not associated with a significant impact on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The unfiltered baseline wine also had both present, although with much higher populations of bacteria and consumed oxygen. The yeast-treated wine yielded much higher levels of acetaldehyde, rising from 4.3 to 29 mg L–1 during micro-oxygenation, whereas no significant difference was found between the bacteria-treated wine and the filtered control. The unfiltered wine exhibited rapid oxygen consumption but no additional acetaldehyde, as well as reduced pyruvate. Analysis of the acetaldehyde-glycerol acetal levels showed a good correlation with acetaldehyde concentrations.CONCLUSIONThe production of acetaldehyde is a key outcome of MOx and it is dramatically increased in the presence of yeast, although it is possibly counteracted by the metabolism of O. oeni bacteria. Additional controlled experiments are necessary to clarify the interaction of yeast and bacteria during MOx treatments. Analysis of the glycerol acetals may be useful as a proxy for acetaldehyde levels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:52:06.103261-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8252
  • Positive and negative aspects of green coffee
           consumption – antioxidant activity versus mycotoxins
    • Authors: Magdalena Jeszka-Skowron; Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Stępień, Ewa Stanisz
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms that can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage.RESULTSThe antioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin–Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed higher activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica beans. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in green coffee beans was studied using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, the content of ergosterol as a marker indicating fungal occurrence was also determined. Among aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 was the dominant mycotoxin in coffee bean samples, with the highest level at 17.45 ng g−1. Ochratoxin A was detected in four samples at levels ranging from 1.27 to 4.34 ng g−1, and fungi potentially producing this toxin, namely Aspergillus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium citrinum, were isolated.CONCLUSIONSteaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increased antioxidant activities of brews in comparison with those prepared from unprocessed beans. Although toxins can be quantified in green coffee beans and novel fungi were isolated, their concentrations are acceptable according to legal limits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:50:54.149476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8269
  • Maternal cinnamon extract intake during lactation leads to sex-specific
           endocrine modifications in rat offspring
    • Authors: Thais Bento-Bernardes; Fernanda P Toste, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Karen J Oliveira
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCinnamon supplementation has been associated with an improvement in glucose disposal and a reduction in fat mass in type 2 diabetes. Maternal nutrition during lactation impacts the health of the offspring throughout life. We hypothesize that cinnamon intake by lactating rats affects maternal physiology, leading to hormonal and metabolic changes in their offspring. To investigate this hypothesis, dams received aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg cinnamon kg−1 body mass day−1) or water orally, during lactation.RESULTSMaternal cinnamon intake did not affect the body mass gain or food intake of dams or their offspring, although it decreased visceral white adipose tissue mass in dams and in their adult offspring of both sexes. Cinnamon-treated dams exhibited no differences in serum insulin, adiponectin, leptin or estradiol levels, although they presented higher serum progesterone. At weaning, cinnamon male pups exhibited lower insulinemia, whereas cinnamon female pups exhibited lower glycemia. Interestingly, in adulthood, only the female offspring exhibited an altered hormonal profile, with reduced serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin levels accompanied by lower glycemia.CONCLUSIONThe present study demonstrates that maternal cinnamon intake during lactation promotes mild changes in dams and can trigger sex-specific metabolic programming in pups that lasts into adulthood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:50:40.662502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8253
  • Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production
           process, chemical composition, and microbiological quality
    • Authors: Paúl F. Cuevas-González; Priscilia Y. Heredia-Castro, José I. Méndez-Romero, Adrián Hernández-Mendoza, Ricardo Reyes-Díaz, Belinda Vallejo-Cordoba, Aarón F. González-Córdova
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers.RESULTSCocido cheese is a semi-hard (506–555 g Kg−1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3–219.1 g Kg−1), pasta filata type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized, and, therefore, the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T03:23:27.980299-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8309
  • Guayusa (Ilex guayusa L.) new tea: phenolic and carotenoid composition and
           antioxidant capacity
    • Authors: Almudena García-Ruiz; Nieves Baenas, Ana M Benítez-González, Carla M Stinco, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Diego A Moreno, Jenny Ruales
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGuayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes) is an evergreen tree native of South America that grows particularly in the upper Amazon region of Ecuador. For its health benefits, it has been cultivated and consumed since ancient times by Amazon indigenous tribes.RESULTSA total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O-hexose were the main representatives of the hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols, respectively. Five carotenoids were identified, showing lutein the highest concentration. Guayusa leaves revealed high antioxidant capacity determined by two analytical methods, DPPH and ORAC. The industrial processing applied to the leaves modified the composition of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of guayusa. In general, blanched guayusa retained the concentration of phenolic compounds and some carotenoids and similar antioxidant capacity as untreated green leaves. In contrast, fermentation reduced the content of bioactive compounds and showed the lowest antioxidant capacity.CONCLUSIONTherefore, blanched guayusa has potential for product development as a functional ingredient in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T06:20:26.513959-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8255
  • Beneficial effects of lipidic extracts of saladette tomato pomace and
           serenoa repens on prostate and bladder health in obese male wistar rats
    • Authors: Josué V. Espinosa-Juárez; Juventino III Colado-Velázquez, Patrick Mailloux-Salinas, JML Medina-Contreras, P. Valentín Correa-López, NL Gómez-Viquez, Fabián Meza-Cuenca, Fengyang Huang, Guadalupe Bravo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDObesity is associated with an increased risk of a number of serious medical conditions, including urological disorders. This study investigated the effect of lipidic extract of Saladette Tomato Pomace (STP) and Serenoa repens (SR) on prostate and bladder in a rat obese model induced by high-carbohydrates diet.RESULTSHigh-sucrose fed rats showed higher weight of prostate, increased contractility, stromal and epithelial hyperplasia in prostate. The treatment with STP and SR improved contractility, diminished hyperplasia and hypertrophy in prostate in obesity model. The obese animals also demonstrated impaired bladder contractility, however, both of the extracts did not reverse the deterioration. In the histological study, we observed disarray in the process of smooth muscle cell proliferation with non-parallel fibers, interestingly, treatment with STP and SR showed improvement in these derangements.CONCLUSIONThese findings indicate impaired contractility and hyperplasia in prostate and bladder in obese rats induced by high-sucrose. STP and SR could enhance prostate function via reducing contractility and hyperplasia, and in the bladder improved smooth muscle fibers structure and decreased in cell proliferation, suggesting their possible beneficial effects in the health of the lower urinary tract symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:55:26.078724-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8308
  • A novel feedstuff: ensiling of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) stover and
           apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) mixtures. Evaluation of the nutritive
           value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability
    • Authors: Ederson Andrade; Alexandre Gonçalves, Ana Mendes-Ferreira, Valéria Silva, Victor Pinheiro, Miguel Rodrigues, Luis Ferreira
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAgro-industrial by-products have low economical value as foods for human consumption however might represent a potential value as animal feedstuffs. This study evaluated a novel feedstuff, ensiled discarded apple (85%) and cowpea stover (15%) mixtures with two distinct ensiling periods (45 and 60 days) regarding the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability.RESULTSGenerally, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed between ensiling periods for its nutritive value and fermentation characteristics. Silages were stable after ensiling, presenting high lactic (77.3 g kg -1 DM) and acetic (54.7 g kg -1 DM) acids and low ethanol (15.7 g kg -1 DM) and NH3-N (105.6 g kg -1 total N) concentrations. No butyric acid was detected in silages and they were aerobically stable for up to 216 h. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers were high at silo opening (7.14 log CFU g -1), whilst Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and yeasts and moulds were low (2.44 log CFU g -1). Yeasts and moulds and Enterobacteriaceae numbers grew considerably during the 12 d of air exposure.CONCLUSIONMixtures of low-calibre discarded apples with cowpea stover can be used as an animal feed after the ensiling process due to its nutritive value and long aerobic stability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:46:05.602992-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8307
  • Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: Role of enzyme preparation
           and degree of hydrolysis
    • Authors: Dara O'Sullivan; Alice B. Nongonierma, Richard J. FitzGerald
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e., enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness.RESULTSEighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (10 asessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH: 0.38 to 10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05).CONCLUSIONEnzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:40:25.709843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8306
  • Evaluating the freezing impact on the proximate composition of immature
           cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods: classical vs spectroscopical
    • Authors: Nelson Machado; David Oppolzer, Ana Ramos, Luis Ferreira, Eduardo A S Rosa, Miguel Rodrigues, Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Ana I R N A Barros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFreezing represents a common conservation practice, regarding vegetal foodstuffs. Since compositional features need to be monitored during storage, the development of rapid monitoring tools, suitable for assessing the nutritional characteristics, arises as a pertinent issue. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods have been evaluated, concerning their content of protein, as well as of essential and nonessential amino acids, either fresh or after 6 and 9 months of freezing at −18 °C, resorting to HPLC, while their FTIR spectra were concomitantly registered both within the MIR and NIR ranges to assess the feasibility of this approach for the traceability of these frozen matrices.RESULTSFor the NIR interval, the application of the 1st derivative to the spectral data retrieved the best results, while for lower concentrations the application of the SG algorithm was indispensable to achieve quantification models for the amino acids. MIR is also suitable for this purpose, though being unable to quantify amino acids with concentrations below 0.07 mmol/g dw, independently from the data treatment used.CONCLUSIONSThe spectroscopic approach constitutes a methodology suitable for monitoring the impact of freezing on the nutritional properties of cowpea pods, allowing to quantify accurately the protein and amino acids contents, while NIR displayed better performance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:35:26.545974-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8305
  • Anti-prediabetic effect of rose hip (Rosa canina) extract in spontaneously
           diabetic Torii rats
    • Authors: Si Jing Chen; Chiwa Aikawa, Risa Yoshida, Tomoaki Kawaguchi, Toshiro Matsui
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPrediabetes, a high-risk state for developing diabetes showing impaired glucose tolerance but a normal fasting blood glucose level, has an increasing prevalence worldwide. However, no study investigating the prevention of impaired glucose tolerance at the prediabetic stage by anti-diabetic functional foods has been reported. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the anti-prediabetic effect of rose hip in a prediabetic rat model.RESULTSSpontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were supplemented with hot-water extract of rose hip at a dose of 100 mg kg–1 body weight day–1 for 12 weeks. The results obtained showed that the supplementation of rose hip extract improved impaired glucose tolerance, promoted insulin secretion, preserved pancreatic beta-cell function and suppressed plasma advanced glycation end-products formation of methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) residue and Nϵ-carboxymethyl-lysine residues (e.g. MG-H1, control: 465.5 ± 43.8 versus rose hip: 59.1 ± 13.0 pmol mg protein–1, P < 0.05) in SDT rats at the prediabetic stage (12–20 weeks old).CONCLUSIONThe present study provides the first evidence showing that a hot-water extract of rose hip could exert an anti-prediabetic effect in a rat model. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T05:50:31.067841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8254
  • HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) as a fat replacer improves the
           physical properties of low-fat tofu
    • Authors: Woo-Kyoung Shin; Louise Wicker, Yookyung Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of the addition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the textural properties of low-fat tofu was investigated. Three fat levels (240, 100 and 30 g kg−1) were used to make tofu, which were identified as C (full-fat tofu), L1 and L2. HPMC (5 g kg−1) was added to soymilk to prepare control and low-fat tofu, designated as CH, L1H and L2H.RESULTSSoymilk with a lower fat level had a lower viscosity: 143 (C), 100 (L1) and 42 (L2) cP. The addition of HPMC increased the viscosity of all types of soymilk, particularly in L2H (107 cP). With fat reduction, tofu syneresis increased from 19% (C) to 29% (L2), although syneresis of L2H recovered to 19%, which is similar to high-fat control tofu. Decreased fat resulted in a lower firmness in L2 (0.67 N) compared to control (0.78 N). Firmness increased to 1.08 N in L2H tofu, whereas the firmness of CH tofu was 0.63 N. All types of tofu showed a denser, well-connected and cross-linking structure when HPMC was added, especially in L2H tofu.CONCLUSIONHPMC improved the texture of the low-fat tofu by creating a harder texture and reducing syneresis. HPMC is an effective fat replacer for lower fat soymilk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T05:30:36.811179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8233
  • Effect of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma on white grape juice
    • Authors: Shashi Kishor Pankaj; Zifan Wan, William Colonna, Kevin M Keener
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study focuses on the effects of novel, non-thermal high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) processing on the quality of grape juice. A quality-based comparison of cold plasma treatment with thermal pasteurization treatment of white grape juice was done.RESULTSHVACP treatment of grape juice at 80 kV for 4 min resulted in a 7.4 log10 CFU mL−1 reduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any significant (P> 0.05) change in pH, acidity and electrical conductivity of the juice. An increase in non-enzymatic browning was observed, but total color difference was very low and within acceptable limits. Spectrophotometric measurements showed a decrease in total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, but they were found to be comparable to those resulting from thermal pasteurization. An increase in total flavonols was observed after HVACP treatments.CONCLUSIONHVACP treatment of white grape juice at 80 kV for 2 min was found to be comparable to thermal pasteurization in all analyzed quality attributes. HVACP has shown the potential to be used as an alternative to thermal treatment of white grape juice. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T03:40:38.146865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8268
  • Assessing the effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on selected components of
           immune responses in mice immunised with ovalbumin
    • Authors: Mohammad Alizadeh; Hamed Khodaei, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, Sevda Saleh-Ghadimi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is one of the most important products of the Maillard reaction. In recent years, many profitable biological effects of this compound have been demonstrated. This study sought to elucidate the anti-allergic effect of 5-HMF by investigating some selected components of the immune response in BALB/c mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA).RESULTSImmunised animals had an increased level of serum total and OVA-specific antibodies when compared to the control (P < 0.01).We found that the OVA-induced increase in serum IgE and OVA-specific IgE were significantly suppressed in the groups treated with 5-HMF (P < 0.05). Moreover, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were significantly reduced in a dose-independent manner when compared to the sensitised group (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION5-HMF inhibited the up-regulation of total and OVA-specific IgE through the suppression of the Th2-type immune response in immunised BALB/c mice. 5-HMF could therefore be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T02:50:29.952254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8261
  • Rennet-induced coagulation of raw and heated camel and cow milk gels
           determined by instrumental techniques: effects of added calcium and
    • Authors: Romdhane Karoui; Mohammad Kamal
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe potentiality of the front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and rheological measurements combined with chemometric tools to characterise the structure evolution during coagulation of raw and preheated camel and cow milk at 50 and 70 °C with/without added calcium and phosphate was evaluated. Tryptophan and vitamin A fluorescence spectra were collected during the gelation of milk at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 45 min after the addition of rennet-induced coagulation. In parallel, the storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″) and tan delta (tan δ) were determined using low amplitude oscillation shear analysis.RESULTSThe principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the normalised tryptophan spectra allowed the gels made with camel milk to be differentiated from those of cow milk on the one hand, and to monitor protein structure modifications during the gelation, on the other hand. The common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA) applied jointly to the fluorescence and rheological data sets permitted a clear separation of raw milk gels from those preheated at 50 and 70 °C.CONCLUSIONThe front-face fluorescence spectroscopy method coupled with multi-variate statistical analyses showed a high capacity for studying changes in the micelle structure throughout the rennet-induced coagulation process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T10:15:30.318681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8257
  • Application and bioactive properties of CaTI, a trypsin inhibitor from
           Capsicum annuum seeds: membrane permeabilization, oxidative stress and
           intracellular target in phytopathogenic fungi cells
    • Authors: Marciele S Silva; Suzanna FF Ribeiro, Gabriel B Taveira, Rosana Rodrigues, Katia VS Fernandes, André O Carvalho, Ilka Maria Vasconcelos, Erica Oliveira Mello, Valdirene M Gomes
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDuring the last few years, a growing number of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds. Recent results from our laboratory have shown the purification of a new trypsin inhibitor, named CaTI, from chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of CaTI on phytopathogenic fungi and detect the presence of protease inhibitors in other species of this genus.RESULTSOur results show that CaTI can inhibit the growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. lindemuthianum. CaTI can also permeabilize the membrane of all tested fungi. When testing the inhibitor on its ability to induce reactive oxygen species, an induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) particularly in Fusarium species was observed. Using CaTI coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), it was possible to determine the presence of the inhibitor inside the hyphae of the Fusarium oxysporum fungus. The search for protease inhibitors in other Capsicum species revealed their presence in all tested species.CONCLUSIONThis paper shows the antifungal activity of protease inhibitors such as CaTI against phytopathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial peptides, among which the trypsin protease inhibitor family stands out, are present in different species of the genus Capsicum and are part of the chemical arsenal that plants use to defend themselves against pathogens. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T10:10:46.389147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8243
  • Potential prebiotic properties of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.)
           agro-industrial byproduct on Lactobacillus species
    • Authors: Francisca Nayara Dantas Duarte; Jéssica Bezerra Rodrigues, Maiara da Costa Lima, Marcos dos Santos Lima, Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco, Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado, Jailane de Souza Aquino, Evandro Leite de Souza
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe prebiotic effects of a cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) agro-industrial byproduct powder (CAP) on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Lactobacillus casei L-26 and Lactobacillus paracasei L-10, were assessed using in vitro experimental models. Accordingly, the growth of the Lactobacillus strains when cultivated in a broth containing CAP (20 or 30 g L−1), glucose (20 g L−1) or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (20 g L−1) was monitored over 48 h; the prebiotic activity scores of CAP were determined; and the changes in pH values, production of organic acids and consumption of sugars in growth media were verified.RESULTSDuring the 48-h cultivation, similar viable cell counts were observed for the Lactobacillus strains grown in the different media tested. The CAP presented positive prebiotic activity scores toward all the tested Lactobacillus strains, indicating a desirable selective fermentable activity relative to enteric organisms. The cultivation of the Lactobacillus strains in broth containing glucose, FOS or CAP resulted in high viable cell counts, a decreased pH, the production of organic acids and the consumption of sugars over time, revealing intense bacterial metabolic activity.CONCLUSIONThe CAP exerts potential prebiotic effects on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains and should be an added-value ingredient for the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T09:00:35.60062-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8232
  • Evaluation of vegetable–faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under
           Latvian agro-ecological conditions
    • Authors: Līga Lepse; Sandra Dane, Solvita Zeipiņa, Raul Domínguez-Perles, Eduardo AS Rosa
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant–environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015).RESULTSData obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27–2.91 kg m−2, immature faba bean pods 0.20–0.43 kg m−2) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67–2.28 kg m−2, immature faba bean pods 0.10–0.52 kg m−2), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66–1.09 kg m−2), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m−2).CONCLUSIONVegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T08:35:41.507312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8239
  • Roasting conditions for preserving cocoa flavan-3-ol monomers and
           oligomers: interesting behaviour of Criollo clones
    • Authors: Cédric De Taeye; Marie Bodart, Gilles Caullet, Sonia Collin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCocoa bean roasting is important for creating the typical chocolate aroma through Maillard reactions, but it is also a key step deleterious to the polyphenol content and profile.RESULTSCompared with usual roasting at 150 °C, keeping the beans for 30 min at 120 °C or for 1 h at 90 °C proved much better for preventing strong degradation of native P1, P2 and P3 flavan-3-ols in cocoa (shown for Forastero, Trinitatio and Criollo cultivars). Surprisingly, Cuban, Mexican and Malagasy white-seeded beans behaved atypically when roasted for 30 min at 150 °C, releasing a pool of catechin. Enantiomeric chromatographic separation proved that this pool contained mainly (−)-catechin issued from (−)-epicatechin by epimerisation. As the (−)-epicatechin content remained relatively constant through Criollo bean roasting, flavan-3-ol monomers must have been regenerated from oligomers. This emergence of (−)-catechin in Criollo beans only, reported here for the first time, could be due to increased flavan-3-ol monomer stability in the absence of anthocyanidin-derived products.CONCLUSIONThe degradation rate of flavan-3-ols through roasting is higher in cocoa beans containing anthocyani(di)ns. The liberation of a pool of (−)-catechin when submitted to roasting at 150 °C allows to distinguish white-seeded cultivars. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T04:20:48.067746-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8265
  • Factors influencing gelation properties of corn germ proteins
    • Authors: Xiang Dong Sun; Dan Shi, Yu Lan, Xin Miao Yao, Rui Ying Zhang, Ying Lei Zhang, Ping Su, Hong Shan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAs a by-product of oil industry, corn germ meal is mainly applied as a high-protein ingredient in animal feeds without any application of the specific functional properties of corn germ protein (CGP). Factors influencing gelation properties of CGP in relation to its dynamic rheology are still unclear due to limited information.RESULTSCGP concentrate was recovered by the isoelectric precipitation method and factors affecting its gelation properties were investigated using a rheometer. A weak gel formed at natural pH, 0.3 M NaCl and the minimum gel forming concentration was observed at 150 g kg −1. Higher CGP protein concentrations induced stiffer gels and linear relationships were found between protein concentration and gel stiffness (G'), as well as protein concentration and gel viscosity (G"). Slower heating and cooling rate promoted the formation of stiffer gels. Gelation of CGP was NaCl and pH dependent. Sodium tripolyphosphate significantly increased gel stiffness with increasing concentration. No difference was observed on gel elasticity (tan δ) with inclusion of both sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium polyphosphate among various concentrations.CONCLUSIONHeating and cooling rate, NaCl, protein concentration, pH, and phosphates all impact gel forming ability of CGP concentrate. Desired gel properties can be obtained through adjustment of these factors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T04:19:27.976872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8304
  • Effect of black cumin seeds on growth performance, nutrient utilization,
           immunity, gut health and nitrogen excretion in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Pawan Kumar; Amlan Kumar Patra, Guru Prasad Mandal, Indranil Samanta, Saktipada Pradhan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUse of antibiotic growth promoters (AB) as feed additives in broiler chickens poses risks due to cross-resistance amongst pathogens and residues in tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of black cumin seeds (BCS) as a natural growth promoter in chickens on nutrient utilization, intestinal microbiota and morphology, immunity, antioxidant status, protein deposition in muscles and nitrogen excretion.RESULTSBroiler chickens were fed BCS at 0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg−1 diet. Body weight gain tended to increase (P = 0.10) and daily feed intake increased quadratically with increasing concentrations of BCS in the diets. Supplementation of BCS resulted in a tendency to decrease feed conversion efficiency on days 28–42. Metabolizability of nutrients increased linearly with increasing doses of BCS. Protein deposition in thigh and breast muscles was increased and nitrogen excretion was reduced by BCS and AB compared with the control (CON). Intestinal morphology in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum was not generally affected by BCS. Counts of total bacteria, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. were not affected by BCS and AB compared with CON, but Salmonella spp. decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing doses of BCS. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus on day 35 increased quadratically (P < 0.001) with increasing doses of BCS. Concentrations of glucose and triglyceride in blood were not affected by BCS. Concentrations of cholesterol decreased linearly while the concentration of total protein increased linearly with increasing doses of BCS.CONCLUSIONThe use of dietary BCS may improve growth performance, immunity and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T11:15:41.28177-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8237
  • Gelation of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) minced muscle as affected by
           pressure and thermal treatments at low salt concentration
    • Authors: Binh Q Truong; Roman Buckow, Minh H Nguyen, John Furst
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBarramundi minced muscle with salt 10 g kg−1 and 20 g kg−1 added is gelled by different combinations of pressurisation (300, 400 and 500 MPa at 4 °C for 10 min), cooking (0.1 MPa, 90 °C for 30 min) and setting (0.1 MPa, 50 °C for 2 h) to improve mechanical properties of barramundi gels and reduce salt added to barramundi gels.RESULTSAt the low salt concentration of 10 g kg−1, pressurisation prior to cooking (P–C) treatment induced barramundi gels with comparable mechanical properties and water-holding capacity to those of conventional heat induced (HI) gels with 20 g kg−1 added salt. At salt concentration of 20 g kg−1, pressurisation prior to setting (P–S) and P–C gels exhibited higher mechanical properties and water-holding capacity as compared to HI gels. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a smooth and dense microstructure of P–C and P–S gels whereas the microstructure of HI gels is rough and less compact.CONCLUSIONSP–C treatment can reduce salt concentration added to barramundi gels to 10 g kg−1. P–S and P–C treatment can result in higher mechanical and functional properties of barramundi gels at conventional salt concentration (20 g kg−1) as compared to HI gels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T03:50:38.404397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8242
  • The influence of plant protection by effective microorganisms on the
           content of bioactive phytochemicals in apples
    • Authors: Barbara Kusznierewicz; Anna Lewandowska, Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska, Agnieszka Bartoszek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe phytochemicals of two apple cultivars (Yellow Transparent and Early Geneva) protected in two ways, conventionally with chemical pesticides or by effective microorganisms (EM), were compared. Two types of components were determined: lipids synthesised constitutively and generated via inducible pathways polyphenols along with antioxidant activity and profiles.RESULTSThe antioxidant activities assessed with ABTS, DPPH and Folin–Ciocalteu reagents were about two-fold higher in the case of microbiologically protected apples. The qualitative composition of phenolics determined by LC-DAD-MS varied between cultivars and the part of apples studied, while the method of protection caused mainly differences in concentration of some groups of polyphenols (hydroxycinnamates, flavanols, dihydrochalcones, flavonols, anthocyanins). The apples from biological cultivation contained about 34–54% more phenolics than these from a conventional orchard. In contrast, lipid composition did not differ significantly between apples originating from conventional and bio-crops.CONCLUSIONThe results indicate that the advantage of using the EM technology in agriculture may not only be the reduction of consumption of chemical fertilisers and synthetic pesticides, but also, at least in the case of apples, may lead to the production of crops with improved health quality due to the higher content of bioactive phytochemicals. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T03:50:28.742593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8256
  • Grain classifier with computer vision using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference
    • Authors: Kadir Sabanci; Abdurrahim Toktas, Ahmet Kayabasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA computer vision-based classifier using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is designed for classifying wheat grains into bread or durum. To train and test the classifier, images of 200 wheat grains (100 for bread and 100 for durum) are taken by a high-resolution camera. Visual feature data of the grains related to dimension (#4), color (#3) and texture (#5) as inputs of the classifier are mainly acquired for each grain using image processing techniques (IPTs). In addition to these main data, nine features are reproduced from the main features to ensure a varied population. Thus four sub-sets including categorized features of reproduced data are constituted to examine their effects on the classification. In order to simplify the classifier, the most effective visual features on the results are investigated.RESULTSThe data sets are compared with each other regarding classification accuracy. A simplified classifier having seven selected features is achieved with the best results. In the testing process, the simplified classifier computes the output with 99.46% accuracy and assorts the wheat grains with 100% accuracy.CONCLUSIONA system which classifies wheat grains with higher accuracy is designed. The proposed classifier integrated to industrial applications can automatically classify a variety of wheat grains. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T03:31:24.92972-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8264
  • The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless
           cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica MILL)
    • Authors: Roberto G. Costa; Michelly D.A. Almeida, George Rodrigo B. Cruz, Edvaldo M. Beltrão Filho, Neila L. Ribeiro, Marta S. Madruga, Rita de Cássia R.E. Queiroga
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets.RESULTSThe treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus indica MILL): T1= 0%; T2= 30%; T3= 50%; and T4= 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus.CONCLUSIONUsing spineless cactus in Santa Inês sheep's diets affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers’ incomes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T02:05:26.769184-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8303
  • A mechanistic modelling approach to understand 1-MCP inhibition of
           ethylene action and quality changes during ripening of apples
    • Authors: Sunny George Gwanpua; Bert E Verlinden, Maarten LATM Hertog, Bart M Nicolai, Annemie H Geeraerd
      Abstract: BACKGROUND1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) inhibits ripening in climacteric fruit by blocking ethylene receptors, preventing ethylene from binding and eliciting its action. The objective of the current study was to use mathematical models to describe 1-MCP inhibition of apple fruit ripening, and to provide a tool for predicting ethylene production, and two important quality indicators of apple fruit, firmness and background colour.RESULTSA model consisting of coupled differential equations describing 1-MCP inhibition of apple ripening was developed. Data on ethylene production, expression of ethylene receptors, firmness, and background colour during ripening of untreated and 1-MCP treated apples were used to calibrate the model. An overall adjusted R2 of 95% was obtained. The impact of time from harvest to treatment, and harvest maturity on 1-MCP efficacy was modelled. Different hypotheses on the partial response of ‘Jonagold’ apple to 1-MCP treatment were tested using the model. The model was validated using an independent dataset.CONCLUSIONSLow 1-MCP blocking efficacy was shown to be the most likely cause of partial response for delayed 1-MCP treatment, and 1-MCP treatment of late-picked apples. Time from harvest to treatment was a more important factor than maturity for 1-MCP efficacy in ‘Jonagold’ apples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T09:10:42.345051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8244
  • Effect of shortening replacement with oleogels on the rheological and
           tomographic characteristics of aerated baked goods
    • Authors: Jeongtaek Lim; Sungmin Jeong, JaeHwan Lee, Sungkwon Park, Jonggil Lee, Suyong Lee
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA great deal of effort has been made to reduce the use of shortening owing to the high level of saturated fats as well as the presence of trans fats. Grape seed oil high in unsaturated fats was structured with candelilla wax to form solid-like oleogels that were utilized as a shortening replacer in aerated baked goods, specifically muffins.RESULTSMuffin batters with greater amounts of oleogels exhibited lower viscosity, greater shear-thinning behavior and less elastic nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels significantly increased the specific gravity of the batters, consequently affecting the muffin volume after baking. X-ray tomography indicated a lower fragmentation index (i.e. a more connected solid structure) in the oleogel-incorporated muffins, which was correlated with more enclosed and isolated air cells. A stress relaxation test showed that the shortening replacement with oleogels produced muffins with a firmer and springier texture. Based on fatty acid compositions, the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly reduced from 2.81 to 0.41.CONCLUSIONUse of the oleogels as a shortening replacer at a ratio of 1:3 by weight was effective in producing muffins with comparable quality attributes to the control with shortening. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:36:57.993126-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8235
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on growth performance,
           meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: Jiahui Cong; Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Shuhao Wang, Feng Gao, Guanghong Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effects of dietary carnosine were evaluated on the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in thigh muscle of 256 one-day-old male broilers assigned to four diets – basal diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg kg−1 carnosine respectively – during a 42 day experiment.RESULTSCarnosine concentration and carnosine synthase expression in thigh muscle were linearly increased (P < 0.05) and the feed/gain ratio was decreased (P < 0.05) in the starter period by carnosine addition. Dietary supplementation with carnosine resulted in linear increases in pH45 min, redness and cohesiveness and decreases in drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and hardness (P < 0.05). Carnosine addition elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced contents of malondialdehyde and carbonyl compounds (P < 0.05). Dietary carnosine linearly decreased diameters and increased densities of muscle fibers (P < 0.01). The ratios of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I and IIa were increased while that of MyHC IIb was decreased (P < 0.01). The mRNA expressions of genes related to fiber type transformation were linearly up-regulated (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONThese findings indicated that carnosine supplementation was beneficial to improve the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics of broilers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:30:31.89653-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8236
  • Effects of intermittent CO2 convection under far-infrared radiation on
           vacuum drying of pre-osmodehydrated watermelon
    • Authors: Rajat Chakraborty; Pijus Mondal
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWatermelon, a tropical seasonal fruit with high nutrient content, requires preservation through drying due to its perishable nature. Nevertheless, drying of watermelon through conventional processes has a negative impact either on the drying time or on the final product quality. In this work, osmotic dehydration of watermelon followed by far-infrared radiation-assisted vacuum drying (FIRRAVD) was optimized to develop dehydrated watermelon with minimum moisture content. Significantly, during FIRRAVD, an attempt was made to further intensify the drying rate by forced convection through intermittent CO2 injection. Drying kinetics of each operation and physicochemical qualities of dried products were evaluated.RESULTSFIRRAVD was a viable method of watermelon drying with appreciably high moisture diffusivity (Deff,m) of 4.97 × 10−10 to 1.49 × 10−9 m2 s−1 compared to conventional tray drying. Moreover, intermittent CO2 convection during FIRRAVD (ICFIRRAVD) resulted in appreciable intensification of drying rate, with enhanced Deff,m (9.93 × 10−10 to 1.99 × 10−9 m2 s−1). Significantly, ICFIRRAVD required less energy and approximately 16% less time compared to FIRRAVD. The quality of the final dehydrated watermelon was superior compared to conventional drying protocols.CONCLUSIONSThe novel CO2 convective drying of watermelon in the presence of far-infrared radiation demonstrated an energy-efficient and time-saving operation rendering a dehydrated watermelon with acceptable quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T04:10:30.461717-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8246
  • Effect of dietary macronutrients on aflatoxicosis: a mini-review
    • Authors: Zainuddin Nurul Adilah; Sabran Mohd Redzwan
      Abstract: Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. The main route of aflatoxin exposure is through the diet. Indeed, long-term aflatoxin exposure is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aflatoxin causes aflatoxicosis, which can be affected by several factors and is prevalent in many developing Asian and African countries. This mini-review discusses the effects of carbohydrate, fat and protein on aflatoxicosis based on findings from animal and human studies. It was found that high carbohydrate intake enhanced aflatoxicosis occurrence, while low ingestion of carbohydrate with caloric restriction slowed the symptoms associated with aflatoxicosis. Additionally, diets with low protein content worsened the symptoms related to HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. Nevertheless, a study reported that a high-protein diet favored detoxification of aflatoxin in vivo. There were also conflicting results on the influence of dietary fat, as high ingestion of fat enhanced aflatoxicosis development as compared with a low-fat diet. Moreover, the type of fat also plays a significant role in influencing aflatoxin toxicity. In regard to food safety, understanding the influence of macronutrients toward the progression of aflatoxicosis can improve preventive measures against human and animal exposure to aflatoxin. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T03:25:23.359974-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8234
  • Influences of superheated steam roasting on changes in sugar, amino acid
           and flavor active components of cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao)
    • Authors: Wahidu Zzaman; Rajeev Bhat, Tajul Aris Yang, Azhar Mat Easa
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRoasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa base industries that develop unique flavor in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roast at different temperature and time using superheated steam. Influence of roasting temperature (150–250 °C) and time (10–50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavoring compounds were investigated.RESULTSThe concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52 % with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250 °C for 50 min respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87 % with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250 °C for 50 min respectively. A number of Pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. The most flavor active compound Pyrazines formations were the highest concentration (2.96 mg/kg) at 200 °C for 10 min. CONCLUSIONThe superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T02:10:24.161582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8302
  • Effect of a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
           (LipiGo®) in body weight loss: Randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled clinical trial in overweight and obese adults
    • Authors: Jonathan Santas; Elisabet Lázaro, Jordi Cuñé
      Abstract: BackgroundIn the present study we evaluated the weight loss effect of a polysaccharide-rich food supplement, LipiGo®, comprising a specific beta-glucan-chitin-chitosan fraction (BGCC) obtained from the chemical hydrolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting as a by-product of the brewing process.ResultsA randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed enrolling 56 overweight and obese subjects (body mass index, BMI, 25–35 Kg m−2) who were not following any specific diet, and were given placebo or BGCC (3 g d−1) for 12 weeks.Results were analysed by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) methods. Body weight increased in the placebo group compared to baseline (ITT: 1.0 Kg, P
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T01:45:22.686679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8301
  • Hypolipidemic effect and mechanism of paprika seed oil on
           Sprague–Dawley rats
    • Authors: Xuhui Chen; Yongbo Ding, Jiaxin Song, Jianquan Kan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe functional properties of paprika seed oil are relatively lack, the hyperlipidemic effects and mechanisms of paprika seed oil on Sprague–Dawley rats are explored, which may improve the usage of paprika seed source and provide a theoretical basis of paprika seed oil for the alleviation of hyperlipidemia.RESULTSIn capsaicin and paprika seed oil (PSO) groups, total cholesterol (TC) and total triglyceride (TG) in serum and liver lipids of rats were significantly decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T01:35:29.861309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8300
  • Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Grass Carp fish skin Hydrolysates Able to Promote
           the Proliferation of Streptococcus Thermopilus
    • Authors: Xiao-Nan Wang; Mei Qin, Yu-Ying Feng, Jian-Kang Chen, Yi-Shan Song
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe promotion effect on proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus by enzymatic hydrolysates of aquatic products was firstly studied. The effect of influencing factors of the hydrolysis on the Streptococcus thermophilus growth were investigatedRESULTGrass Carp fish skin was hydrolyzed to peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis using protease ProteAX, and for the Streptococcus thermophilus growth, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 60 °C, initial pH of 9.0, enzyme concentration of 10 g Kg−1, hydrolysis time of 80 min, and ratio of material to liquid of 1:2. The Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysate (GCFSH) prepared under the optimum conditions was fractionated to five fragments (GCFSH 1, GCFSH 2, GCFSH 3, GCFSH 4, GCFSH 5) according to their molecular weight sizes, in which the fragments GCFSH 4 and GCFSH 5, with the molecular weight of less than 1000 Da significantly promoted the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus.CONCLUSIONThe hydrolysis process of Grass Carp fish skin can be simplified, and the peptides with molecular weight below 1000 Da in the hydrolysates are the best nitrogen source for proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus. This work can provide fundamental theoretical basis for the production of multi-component functional foods, in especially, milk drink or yogurt.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T01:25:46.026709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8299
  • Characterization of protease and effects of temperature and salinity on
           the biochemical changes during fermentation of Antarctic krill
    • Authors: Yan Fan; Lili Tian, Yong Xue, Zhaojie Li, Hu Hou, Changhu Xue
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDespite their abundance, Antarctic krill are underutilized because of numerous difficulties in their commercial processing. Ideally, fermentation technology can be applied to transform them into a popular condiment. In addition to the exploration of protease properties, the present study aimed to evaluate proteinase activity, pH, amino nitrogen, and histamine formation during fermentation at different temperatures and salt treatments.RESULTSEven though the activity of Antarctic krill protease reached a maximum at 40 °C and pH 7, it was stable at 30 °C and pH 7–9. Among the metal ions tested, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ increased protease activity, in contrast to Zn2+ and Cu2+. Within each treatment, the highest protease activity and amino nitrogen content, as well as the lowest histamine level, were observed on day 12 of fermentation. Treatment at 35 °C with 180 g kg–1 salt led to the production of maximum amino nitrogen (0.0352 g kg–1) and low histamine (≤0.0497 g kg–1).CONCLUSIONKrill paste fermented for 12 days at 35 °C with 180 g kg–1 salt exhibited the optimal quality and properties, suggesting an efficient method for fermentation of Antarctic krill and other aquatic resources. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T03:15:36.019197-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8209
  • Modification and application of an in vitro assay to examine inositol
           phosphate degradation in the digestive tract of poultry
    • Authors: V. Sommerfeld; M. Schollenberger, L. Hemberle, M. Rodehutscord
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn in vitro assay was modified to study inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) disappearance and the formation of lower inositol phosphate (InsP) isomers in the poultry digestive tract, and three experiments investigated the influence of diets with different ingredients and additives. Using the poultry diet as a matrix, the assay simulated the conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, proteolytic enzymes, water content, and retention time) of the crop, stomach, and small intestine, and extraction and analysis of InsP isomers were immediately conducted.RESULTSThe assay produced highly reproducible results with coefficients of variation ≤10% for an InsP isomer concentration ≥0.4 µmol g−1 DM (n = 3), and it was sensitive to the factors that varied in the three experiments.CONCLUSIONThe described assay is a suitable tool that can be used to screen feed enzymes and to investigate the effects of supplements in the absence of endogenous phytases. The handling ease and high reproducibility of the assay indicated that the assay is a rapid and feasible method that can be used to examine the degradation pathway of phytate in feed under gastrointestinal conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T03:10:24.767006-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8297
  • Correlating Enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of
           Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids
    • Authors: Haining Xu; Xiaoming Zhang, Eric Karangwa, Shuqin Xia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUp to now, only limited researches on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of MRPs are reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. The BIC and antioxidant capacity, including DPPH radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ reducing power activity, of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from twelve different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated.RESULTSThe MRPs of Cys, Cystine, Arg and His showed higher BIC compared with other amino acids. Lys-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A420) but very limited BIC, while Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC, and the lowest A420. A420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids except Cys and Lys. MRPs from Tyr showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, while, Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared with other amino acids. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe2+ reducing power of MRPs from twelve amino acids with glucose or fructose except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, while for His and Arg, neutral and alkaline pH were suitable, respectively. Increasing heating temperature and time in a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, while further increasing will deteriorate their browning inhibition efficiencies.CONCLUSIONThe type of amino acids, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There are no clear relationship between BIC and antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of Maillard reaction are variables.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T04:51:45.179131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8295
  • Occurrence of multiple mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites in animal
           feed and maize samples from Egypt using LC-MS/MS
    • Authors: Mohamed F. Abdallah; Gözde Girgin, Terken Baydar, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in 156 animal feed (n = 77) and maize (n = 79) samples collected from three regions in Upper Egypt. The target analytes were quantified using the “dilute and shoot” approach followed by an LC-MS/MS analysis.RESULTSA total number of 115 fungal and bacterial metabolites were detected in both matrices including the regulated mycotoxins in the EU in addition to the modified forms such as DON-3-G. Furthermore, some Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Penicillum metabolites beside other fungal and bacterial metabolites were detected for the first time in Egypt. All the samples were contaminated with at least four toxins. On average 26 different metabolites were detected per sample with a trend of more metabolites in feed than in maize. The maximum number of analytes observed per samples was 54 analytes at maximum concentrations ranging from 0.04 µg kg−1 for tentoxin to 25040 µg kg−1 for kojic acid.CONCLUSIONThe contamination rates in the investigated regions according to the international standards, except for AFB1 in maize, were not alarming. The necessity of further and continuous monitoring is highly recommended in order to establish a database for mycotoxin occurrence.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T03:45:30.286254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8293
  • Purification of Lactobacillus acidophilus surface-layer protein and its
           immunomodulatory effects on RAW264.7 cells
    • Authors: Dandan Zhang; Mengting Wu, Yuxing Guo, Mingyue Xun, Wenwen Wang, Zhen Wu, Daodong Pan
      Abstract: BackgroundSurface-layer proteins (SLP) have been found in the outermost layer of the cell wall in many kinds of lactobacillus, which is considered an important factor to intestinal immune.ResultsThis study compared the effects of SLP extracted by different concentrations of LiCl and carbamide, and then identified by SDS-PAGE, circular dichroism (CD)and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, RAW 264.7 cells were used to evaluate the immuno-modulatory effects of SLP. SLP derived from L. acidophilus CICC6074 with a molecular weight of 46 kDa, which consisted of 16.9% α-helix, 42.3% β-sheet, 20.8% β-turns, and 22.5% random coils. SLP promoted NO secretion and that higher quantities of NO were produced as SLP concentrations increased. SLP concentrations over 50 µg/mL significantly decreased the amount of TNF-α secreted by RAW264.7 cells.ConclusionSLP can trigger immuno-modulatory effects in RAW 264.7 cells. This will provide crucial information to enable the further use of L. acidophilus in food, medicine and other products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T03:45:24.117384-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8294
  • In vitro fermentation of oat β-glucan and hydrolysates by fecal
           microbiota and selected probiotic strains
    • Authors: Dong Ji-lin; Yu-Xiao, Dong-Lianger, Shen Rui-ling
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEmerging evidence suggested that the prebiotic ability of β-glucan was intimately related to its molecular weight (Mw). However, the effect of oat β-glucan with different Mw on gut homeostasis was inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of the fermentation properties of oat β-glucan fractions was still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic potential of raw and hydrolyzed oat β-glucan during in vitro fermentation by fecal microbiota and selected probiotic strains.RESULTSThe results showed that both oat β-glucan (OG) and hydrolysates (OGH) comparably promoted the growth of fecal Lactobacillus counts (p
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T03:34:25.668847-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8292
  • Synthesis and swelling property of superabsorbent starch grafted with
           acrylic acid/2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid
    • Authors: Yeqiao Meng; Lin Ye
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to develop starch-based superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with high water absorbency, both acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) were graft copolymerized onto cassava starch, and St-g-AA-AMPS SAP was successfully synthesized. The effect of AA/AMPS molar ratio on the structure and swelling property of SAP was investigated.RESULTSIntroduction of AMPS units improved the storage modulus and crosslinking density of St-g-AA-AMPS SAP, and was beneficial in forming a perfect network structure. With increasing AMPS content, the equilibrium swelling ratio and swelling rate constant (k) of the SAP first increased and then decreased, and the maximum swelling ratio reached 1200.0 and 90.0 g/g in distilled water and brine respectively, resulting from the high ionization constant and hydrophilic ability of AMPS, and improved tolerance to brine. By introducing AMPS units, the re-swelling capability of SAP was improved, and more hydrogen bonds could form between molecules of water and SAP, leading to an increase in non-freezing bound water and freezing bound water, and the water retention of SAP was enhanced.CONCLUSIONIntroduction of AMPS units improved the water absorption capacity, swelling rate, and water retention ability of St-g-AA-AMPS SAP, presenting wide application potential in agriculture and horticulture of desert regions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:45:49.413284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8247
  • Nutritional value and antioxidant content of seed-containing and seedless
           eggplant fruits of two cultivars grown under protected cultivation during
           autumn–winter and spring–summer
    • Authors: Despoina I Makrogianni; Anastasia Tsistraki, Ioannis C Karapanos, Harold C Passam
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDue to their low carbohydrate and high antioxidant content, eggplants are beneficial for the human diet. At
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:40:25.159787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8238
  • Efficient salt-aided aqueous extraction of bitter almond oil
    • Authors: Lei Liu; Xiuzhu Yu, Zhong Zhao, Lirong Xu, Rui Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSalt-aided aqueous extraction (SAAE) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of oil extraction that is influenced by many factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAAE on bitter almond oil yield.RESULTSThis study used sodium bicarbonate solution as extraction solvent and the optimal extraction parameters predicted by Box–Behnken design (i.e., concentration of sodium bicarbonate, 0.4 mol L−1; solvent-to-sample ratio, 5:1; extraction temperature, 84 °C; extraction time, 60 min), for oil recovery of 90.9%. The physiochemical characteristics of the extracted oil suggest that the quality was similar to that of the aqueous enzymatic extracted oil. Moreover, the content of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in bitter almond oil was found to be less than 5 mg kg−1, which was lower compared to that obtained by other reported methods. Results of microanalysis indicated that SAAE led to significant improvement in oil yield by allowing the release of oil and decreasing the emulsion fraction. Therefore, extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE is feasible.CONCLUSIONThese results demonstrate that extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE based on the salt effect is feasible on a laboratory scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:36:07.998197-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8245
  • Determination of two potential toxicity metabolites derived from the
           disruption of pksCT gene in Monascus aurantiacus Li As3.4384
    • Authors: Zhibing Huang; Baowei Su, Yang Xu, Laisheng Li, Yanping Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWe previously demonstrated that disruption of the pksCT gene of Monascus led to over 98% decrease in its citrinin production capacity in Monascus (PHDS26).Two potentially toxic compounds, monascopyridine A (MPA) and monascopyridine B (MPB), were found in the fermentation products of the pksCT gene-disrupted Monascus. Moreover, a rapid and reliable HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of MPA and MPB. We studied the effects of various extraction parameters and designed an orthogonal experiment to investigate the importance of each factor.RESULTSThe optimal extraction conditions were as follows: methanol concentration, 90%; extraction temperature, 40°C; extraction time, 10 min; two extraction cycles; and a solid-liquid ratio, 1:25. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, good linearity was reached over the concentration range 0.5-200 µg mL-1 and 0.5-300 µg mL-1 for MPA and MPB, respectively, and the corresponding determination coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9997. The RSDs of within-day and between-day precision for MPA were 2.0% and 2.1%, respectively; the corresponding values for MPB were 4.8% and 4.6%. The average recovery for MPA and MPB was 99.9% and 94%, respectively.CONCLUSIONMaximum MPA and MPB yields (2073.7 µg g-1 and 1961.7 µg g-1, respectively) were observed after 16 days of cultivation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T04:06:16.693897-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8291
  • Genotype–by-environment effect on bioactive compounds in strawberry
           (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)
    • Authors: Luisa Palmieri; Domenico Masuero, Paolo Martinatti, Giuseppe Baratto, Stefan Martens, Urska Vrhovsek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe relative contribute assessment of the genotype, the environment and the genotype-by-environmental (G x E) interaction to the variety performance is necessary to determine their adaptation capacity.RESULTSThe influence of temperature, UV-irradiation and sunshine duration on quality and fruits composition was investigated in nine strawberry cultivars grown at three different altitudes. The UV-radiation intensity affected the pH and the sugar content that were higher for most of the varieties at low altitudes where the total titratable acidity (TTA) was less. Fruits from plants grown at low elevation generally had higher benzoic acid derivative content. Significant correlation was found between phenylpropanoids content and UV-radiation and sunshine duration. The flavone class seems to be affected most from the variety effect contrary to flavonols and ellagitannins that are highly affected from environment. The accumulation of a number of secondary metabolites in strawberry fruits grown in unusual environmental condition highlighted an acclimation effects as plants response to abiotic stress. Finally only for “Sveva” and “Marmolada” the genetic factor seems to be more influent for all parameters considered.CONCLUSIONThis “plant environmental metabolomics” approach was successfully used to assess the phenotypic plasticity of our varieties that showed different magnitudes in terms of the relationship between environmental conditions and the accumulation of healthy compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T03:35:33.160879-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8290
  • Effects of synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity and
           mineral contents in broilers
    • Authors: Yefei Cheng; Yueping Chen, Xiaohan Li, Weili Yang, Chao Wen, Yuru Kang, Aiqin Wang, Yanmin Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity, and mineral contents in broilers. Accordingly, 96 day-old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres Plus; Aviagen, Huntsville, AL, USA) were randomly allocated to two groups, and each group consisted of six replicates with eight chicks each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with either 0 or 1.5 g kg−1 synbiotic, consisting of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Clostridium butyricum) and prebiotics (yeast cell wall and xylooligosaccharide) from 1 to 42 days of age.RESULTSCompared with the control group, supplementation with a synbiotic increased average daily gain (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-25T14:00:25.603208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8230
  • Non-destructive assessment of grapevine water status in the field using a
           portable NIR spectrophotometer
    • Authors: Javier Tardaguila; Juan Fernández-Novales, Salvador Gutiérrez, Maria Paz Diago
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUntil now, the majority of methods employed to assess grapevine water status have been destructive, time-intensive, costly and provide information of a limited number of samples, thus the ability of revealing within-field water status variability is reduced. The goal of this work was to evaluate the capability of non-invasive, portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy acquired in the field, to assess the grapevine water status in diverse varieties, grown under different environmental conditions, in a fast and reliable way. The research was conducted 2 weeks before harvest in 2012, in two commercial vineyards, planted with eight different varieties. Spectral measurements were acquired in the field on the adaxial and abaxial sides of 160 individual leaves (20 leaves per variety) using a commercially available handheld spectrophotometer (1600–2400 nm).RESULTSPrincipal component analysis (PCA) and modified partial least squares (MPLS) were used to interpret the spectra and to develop reliable prediction models for stem water potential (Ψs) (cross-validation correlation coefficient (rcv) ranged from 0.77 to 0.93, and standard error of cross validation (SECV) ranged from 0.10 to 0.23), and leaf relative water content (RWC) (rcv ranged from 0.66 to 0.81, and SECV between 1.93 and 3.20). The performance differences between models built from abaxial and adaxial-acquired spectra is also discussed.CONCLUSIONSThe capability of non-invasive NIR spectroscopy to reliably assess the grapevine water status under field conditions was proved. This technique can be a suitable and promising tool to appraise within-field variability of plant water status, helpful to define optimised irrigation strategies in the wine industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T07:21:29.256264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8241
  • Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino
           acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing
    • Authors: Blanca A Mondaca-Navarro; Luz A Ávila-Villa, Aarón F González-Córdova, Jaime López-Cervantes, Dalia I Sánchez-Machado, Olga N Campas-Baypoli, Roberto Rodríguez-Ramírez
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMaillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe2+ and Cu2+ ion chelating capacity.RESULTSIn the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL−1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL−1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe2+ and Cu2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min).CONCLUSIONThe model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:10:27.500586-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8206
  • Assessment of calcium and zinc accumulation in cultivated and wild apples
    • Authors: Liao Liao; Ting Fang, Baiquan Ma, Xianbao Deng, Li Zhao, Yuepeng Han
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDApple is one of the staple fruits worldwide, which are a good source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about genetic variation for mineral nutrition in apple germplasm. In this study, we report on the assessment of calcium and zinc contents in mature fruits of 378 apple cultivars and 39 wild relatives. Mineral concentrations were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS).RESULTSBoth calcium and zinc accumulation showed great variation among accessions tested. Overall, wild fruits were significantly richer in zinc than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of calcium was similar between cultivated and wild fruits. The difference in zinc concentration between wild and cultivated fruits may be an indirect result of artificial selection on fruit characteristics during apple domestication. Moreover, calcium concentration in fruit showed a decrease trend throughout fruit development of apple, whilst zinc concentration in fruit displayed a complex variation pattern in the late stages of fruit development.CONCULSIONThe finding of a wild genetic variation for fruit calcium and zinc accumulation in apple germaplsm could be helpful for future research on genetic dissection and improvement of calcium and zinc accumulation in apple fruit.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T22:55:23.920513-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8289
  • Identification of the compositional changes in Orthosiphon stamineus
    • Authors: Raghunath Pariyani; Intan Safinar Ismail, Amalina Ahmad Azam, Faridah Abas, Khozirah Shaari
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDJava tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying methods. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e., shade, microwave and freeze drying on the metabolite composition and the antioxidant activity of OS leaves were investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools.RESULTSA total of 31 constituents comprised of primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by the microwave dried samples. Freeze dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids namely leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but, recorded lowest amount of secondary metabolites.CONCLUSIONMetabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T21:50:22.25783-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8288
  • The industrial applications of cassava: current status, opportunities and
    • Authors: Shubo Li; Yanyan Cui, Yuan Zhou, Zhiting Luo, Jidong Liu, Mouming Zhao
      Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries, and extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g., feed, medicine, cosmetics, and biopolymers). In addition, these cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via bio-refinery. However, the community of cassava researchers is relatively small, and there is very limited information on cassava. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the system biology, economic value, nutritional quality and industrial applications of cassava and its wastes, allowing us to accelerate understanding of basic biology of cassava. Meanwhile, it also discusses future perspectives with respect to integrating and utilizing cassava information resources for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T21:25:22.435716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8287
  • Effect of fortification of milk with omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and
           soluble fibre on the sensory, physicochemical and microbiological
           properties of milk
    • Authors: N Veena; B Surendra Nath
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEffect of addition of flaxseed oil (FO), phytosterols (PS) and polydextrose (PDX) on physicochemical and sensory properties of the milk was investigated as they are known to impart health benefits.RESULTSFor incorporating PS, a hydrophobic substance, FO and milk fat (MF) as an oil source, an emulsifier and PDX solution as an aqueous medium, were used for preparation of emulsion. Three emulsion formulations i.e. A (8 g PS, 8 g FO, 20 g PDX, 6 g MF), B (10 g PS, 10 g FO, 20 g PDX, 4 g MF) and C (12 g PS, 12 g FO, 20 g PDX, 2 g MF) were prepared and added individually to milk at a level of 50 g kg−1. Based on sensory evaluation, B formulation was selected for fortification of milk. Fortified milk kept well at refrigerated temperature for a week and changes in sensory, physicochemical and microbiological properties were comparable with those of control samples. Level of fortificants did not decrease in the milk after a week's storage.CONCLUSIONIt can be concluded that the emulsion containing FO, PS and PDX could successfully serve as a potential delivery system for enhancing the nutritional and therapeutic potential of milk.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T21:15:22.42926-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8286
  • Changes in pectin characteristics during the ripening of jujube fruit
    • Authors: Shenghua Ding; Rongrong Wang, Yang Dan, Gaoyang Li, Shiyi Ou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPectin is relative to fruit maturation and loss of flesh firmness. In this research, changes in pectin characteristics, including pectin content, neutral sugar compositions, molecular weight (Mw) distribution, and degree of methyl esterification (DM), in six different growth stages (S1–S6) of jujube fruit were assessed.RESULTSThe growth of jujube fruit corresponded to an increase in water-soluble pectin (WSP), and a decrease in Na2CO3-soluble pectin (SSP). The chelate-soluble pectin (CSP) content reached a maximum level at S3, but it decreased significantly from S3 to S4. Arabinose proved to be the principal branch neutral monosaccharide in pectin during growth and it was lost from WSP, CSP, and SSP in S4 to S6. The ratios of (arabinose + galactose)/rhamnose indicated that the branched chains of WSP, CSP, and SSP degraded in S2, S3, and S4, respectively. SSP depolymerized from S2 and increased as jujube fruit ripened. By contrast, WSP depolymerized throughout ripening. The DM of pectins ranged from 45.38% to 92.21%. Among the obtained DMs, the lowest was observed in WSP from the ripened jujube fruit (S6).CONCLUSIONThe content, neutral sugar composition, DM, and Mw distribution of the pectins remarkably changed as jujube fruit ripened. Jujube fruit could be a promising alternative source of pectins in terms of maturation degree. WSP from S6 and CSP from S1 or S2 could be used as gelling agents in low-sugar-containing products because of their low methoxyl pectin contents. WSP from S1 could also be applied as a thickener or emulsifier for its high Mw distribution.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T07:10:48.005933-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8285
  • Shrimp tropomyosin retains antibody reactivity after exposure to acidic
    • Authors: Adeseye Lasekan; Hanjuan Cao, Soheila Maleki, Balunkeswar (Balu) Nayak
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlthough shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrices, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denaturation on the immunoreactivity of tropomyosin.RESULTSWhole shrimp experienced either swelling or shrinkage after marination depending on the vinegar pH and the final muscle pH. The extractability of soluble myofibrillar proteins was reduced significantly among shrimp marinated in vinegar at pH 1.0–3.5, and a substantial amount of tropomyosin was retained in the insoluble pellets. Consequently, the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity of tropomyosin was significantly lower in the soluble protein fraction of shrimp marinated at pH 1.0–3.5 compared with samples marinated at pH 4.8 and control. However, tropomyosin in the insoluble protein fraction of all marinated shrimp showed strong IgE-binding capacity at all marinating conditions.CONCLUSIONThus, tropomyosin in shrimp exposed to low pH condition retained its allergenic capacity owing to the conservation of its linear epitopes. Analysis of the insoluble protein fraction was crucial for the accurate determination of the effect of low pH condition on the immunoreactivity of this allergen. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T06:40:27.712714-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8221
  • Consumer acceptance and aroma characterization of navy bean (Phaseolus
           vulgaris) Powders prepared by extrusion and conventional processing
    • Authors: Edward Szczygiel; Janice B. Harte, Gale M. Strasburg, Sungeun Cho
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds.RESULTSConsumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T05:55:42.617672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8284
  • Recent advances in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) properties in pulses:
           An overview
    • Authors: Nooshin Nikmaram; B. N. Dar, Shahin Roohinejad, Mohamed Koubaa, Francisco J. Barba, Greiner Ralf, Stuart K. Johnson
      Abstract: Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of pulses that are extensively used as foods around the world due to their beneficial effects on human health including their low glycemic index, cholesterol lowering effects, ability to decrease the risk of heart diseases and their protective effects against some cancers. These health benefits are a result of their components such as bioactive proteins, dietary fibers, slowly digested starches, minerals and vitamins, and bioactive compounds. Among these bioactive compounds, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-proteinogenic amino acid with numerous reported health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic and hypotensive effects, depression and anxiety reduction) is of particular interest. GABA is primarily synthesized in plant tissues by the decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid in the presence of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). It is widely reported that during various processes including enzymatic treatment, gaseous treatment (e.g. with carbon dioxide), and fermentation (with lactic acid bacteria), GABA content increases in the plant matrix. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of GABA in pulses with special focus on mechanisms by which GABA levels are increased and the analytical extraction and estimation methods for this bioactive phytochemical.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T05:35:20.601901-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8283
  • Integrating straw yield and quality into multi-dimensional improvement of
           lentil (Lens culinaris)
    • Authors: Ashraf Alkhtib; J. Wamatu, T. Tolemariam Ejeta, B. Rischkowsky
      Abstract: BackgroundLentil straw is an important source of fodder for livestock in Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. However, improvement programs of lentil do not pay attention to straw traits, neither are straw traits considered in release criteria of new varieties. This study aimed to determine whether straw traits can be integrated into multi-trait improvement of lentil.ResultsWide genotypic variation (P
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T05:20:42.828262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8282
  • Investigation into the role of endogenous abscisic acid during ripening of
           imported avocado cv. Hass
    • Authors: Marjolaine D Meyer; Gemma A Chope, Leon A Terry
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe importance of ethylene in avocado ripening has been extensively studied. In contrast, little is known about the possible role of abscisic acid (ABA). The present work studied the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0.3 μL L−1), e+® Ethylene Remover and the combination thereof on the quality of imported avocado cv. Hass fruit stored for 7 days at 12 °C. Ethylene production, respiration, firmness, colour, heptose (C7) sugars and ABA concentrations in mesocarp tissue were measured throughout storage.RESULTSTreatment with e+® Ethylene Remover reduced ethylene production, respiration rate and physiological ripening compared with controls. Fruit treated with 1-MCP + e+® Ethylene Remover and, to a lesser extent 1-MCP alone, had the lowest ethylene production and respiration rate and hence the best quality. Major sugars measured in mesocarp tissue were mannoheptulose and perseitol, and their content was not correlated with ripening parameters. Mesocarp ABA concentration, as determined by mass spectrometry, increased as fruit ripened and was negatively correlated with fruit firmness.CONCLUSIONSResults suggest a relationship between ABA and ethylene metabolism since blocking ethylene, and to a larger extent blocking and removing ethylene, resulted in lower ABA concentrations. Whether ABA influences avocado fruit ripening needs to be determined in future research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T03:35:34.00943-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8225
  • Targeted forcing improves quality, nutritional and health value of sweet
           cherry fruit
    • Authors: Verena Overbeck; Michaela Schmitz, Michael Blanke
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTrade and consumers alike require premium-quality cherries with high nutritional and health values preferably of local origin. While early fruit imports cannot supply such fruit, a new technology of forcing cherry emerged for an early local supply by covering the crop in spring. In the apparent scarcity of data on the resulting fruit quality, fruit characteristics of forced cherries were compared with those without cover.RESULTSSize and weight of forced cherry fruit were successfully increased by 6–14%. The less negative osmotic potential of the forced fruit (−3 to −2 MPa Ψπ) indicates less water stress under spring cover compared with field-grown fruit (−4 MPa Ψπ), as confirmed by the larger fruit size and weight. Greater antioxidative potentials in the lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts (control min. 185 mE vs max. 365 mE under cover) of forced fruit of two cultivars showed their healthier attribute in terms of bioactive compounds, supported also by an average 14% increase in phenolics, as a response to the modified environmental conditions, which has not been investigated before.CONCLUSIONThe new technology of covering cherry trees in spring to force flowering and enhance ripening can improve the synthesis of bioactive compounds and provide the consumer with early high-quality fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T03:30:28.753602-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8224
  • Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef
           preferences by external preference mapping
    • Authors: Keisuke Sasaki; Motoki Ooi, Naoto Nagura, Michiyo Motoyama, Takumi Narita, Mika Oe, Ikuyo Nakajima, Tatsuro Hagi, Koichi Ojima, Miho Kobayashi, Masaru Nomura, Susumu Muroya, Takeshi Hayashi, Kyoko Akama, Akira Fujikawa, Hironao Hokiyama, Kuniyuki Kobayashi, Takanori Nishimura
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOver the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling.RESULTSThree Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as ‘gradual high-fat likers’, ‘moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers’, ‘Wagyu likers’ and ‘distinctive texture likers’. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was ‘marbling liking’, 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the ‘moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers’.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T03:25:24.565756-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8204
  • Bacterial impregnation of mineral fertilizers improves yield and nutrient
           use efficiency of wheat
    • Authors: Shakeel Ahmad; Muhammad Imran, Sabir Hussain, Sajid Mahmood, Azhar Hussain, Muhammad Hasnain
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of agricultural crops is generally low, which results in poor crop yields and low economic benefits to farmers. Among the various approaches used to enhance FUE, impregnation of mineral fertilizers with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is attracting worldwide attention. The present study was aimed to improve growth, yield and nutrient use efficiency of wheat by bacterially impregnated mineral fertilizers.RESULTSResults of the pot study revealed that impregnation of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea with PGPB was helpful in enhancing the growth, yield, photosynthetic rate, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of wheat. However, the plants treated with F8 type DAP and urea, prepared by coating a slurry of PGPB (Bacillus sp. strain KAP6) and compost on DAP and urea granules at the rate of 2.0 g 100 g−1 fertilizer, produced better results than other fertilizer treatments. In this treatment, growth parameters including plant height, root length, straw yield and root biomass significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased from 58.8 to 70.0 cm, 41.2 to 50.0 cm, 19.6 to 24.2 g per pot and 1.8 to 2.2 g per pot, respectively. The same treatment improved grain yield of wheat by 20% compared to unimpregnated DAP and urea (F0). Likewise, the maximum increase in photosynthetic rate, grain NP content, grain NP uptake, NUE and PUE of wheat were also recorded with F8 treatment.CONCLUSIONThe results suggest that the application of bacterially impregnated DAP and urea is highly effective for improving growth, yield and FUE of wheat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T03:22:24.830375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8228
  • Dry formulations of the biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 using
           fluidised bed drying to control the main postharvest diseases on fruits
    • Authors: Anna Carbó; Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Estanislau Fons, Neus Teixidó
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 is effective against several diseases. Consequently, the optimisation of a dry formulation of C. sake to improve its shelf life and manipulability is essential for increasing its potential with respect to future commercial applications. The present study aimed to optimise the conditions for making a dry formulation of C. sake using a fluidised bed drying system and then to determine the shelf life of the optimised formulation and its efficacy against Penicillium expansum on apples.RESULTSThe optimal conditions for the drying process were found to be 40 °C for 45 min and the use of potato starch as the carrier significantly enhanced the viability. However, none of the protective compounds tested increased the viability of the dried cells. A temperature of 25 °C for 10 min in phosphate buffer was considered as the optimum condition to recover the dried formulations. The dried formulations should be stored at 4 °C and air-packaged; moreover, shelf life assays indicated good results after 12 months of storage. The formulated products maintained their biocontrol efficacy.CONCLUSIONA fluidised bed drying system is a suitable process for dehydrating C. sake cells; moreover, the C. sake formulation is easy to pack, store and transport, and is a cost-effective process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T03:10:36.904899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8229
  • Partial purification, characterisation and thermal inactivation kinetics
           of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase isolated from Kalipatti sapota
           (Manilkara zapota)
    • Authors: Chandrahas Vishwasrao; Snehasis Chakraborty, Laxmi Ananthanarayan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe extraction, purification, and characterisation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were studied for Kalipatti sapota fruit. The crude enzyme extract was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by BioGel P100 size exclusion and Unosphere Q anion-exchange chromatography.RESULTSMolecular weights of 20 kDa (POD) and 24 kDa (PPO) were indicated by SDS-PAGE. A single band was observed on SDS-PAGE with a fold purity of 10.38 and 7.42 for POD and PPO, respectively. Michaelis–Menten constants for POD and PPO were 22.3 and 23.0 mmol L−1 using guaiacol and catechol as substrates. Thermal inactivation kinetics was studied in the temperature range of 60–95 °C. The crude extract of POD and PPO showed D-values of 2.2–60.2 and 1.0–35.2 min; Z-values of 18.7 ± 0.4 and 16.0 ± 0.3 °C; and activation energies (Ea) of 128.6 and 151.0 kJ mol−1, respectively.CONCLUSIONPOD and PPO showed good stability over a wide range of pH and temperature. As reflected by Z and Ea values, the fruit matrix had no significant influence towards enzyme stability. Designing of thermal process should take into consideration D- and Z-values of the enzymes along with D- and Z-values of microorganisms to obtain a product with better shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T03:25:35.123756-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8215
  • Mechanical and barrier properties of maize starch–gelatin composite
           films: effects of amylose content
    • Authors: Kun Wang; Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Junsheng Ding, Shaojing Zhang, Anjun Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin-based films, three types of maize starch, waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns) and high-amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into gelatin film and the resulting film properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content.RESULTSThe thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin film increased depending on the amylose content along with the starch concentration. The effects of the three starches on the mechanical properties of gelatin film were governed by amylose content, starch concentration as well as environmental relative humidity (RH). At 75% RH, the presence of Al and Ns in the gelatin matrix increased the film strength but decreased its elongation, while Ap exhibited an inverse effect. Starch addition decreased the oxygen permeability of the film, with the lowest value at 20% Al and Ns. All starches, notably at 30% content, led to a decrease in the water vapor permeability of the film at 90% RH, especially Ns starch. Furthermore, the starches improved the thermal stability of the film to some extent. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that some weak intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding occurred between gelatin and starch. Moreover, a high degree of B-type crystallinity of starch was characterized in Gel-Al film by X-ray diffraction.CONCLUSIONTailoring the properties of gelatin film by the incorporation of different types of maize starch provides the potential to extend its applications in edible food packaging. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T03:20:33.717556-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8220
  • Suitability of combination of calcium propionate and chitosan for
           preserving minimally processed banana quality
    • Authors: Amin Mirshekari; Babak Madani, John B Golding
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe marketability of fresh-cut banana slices is limited by the rapid rate of fruit softening and browning. However, there is no scientific literature available about the role of postharvest calcium propionate and chitosan treatment on the quality attributes of fresh-cut banana. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these effects.RESULTSThe application of calcium propionate plus chitosan (CaP+Chit) retained higher firmness, higher ascorbic acid content, higher total antioxidant activity and higher total phenolic compounds, along with lower browning, lower polyphenol oxidase, lower peroxidase, lower polygalacturonase and lower pectin methyl esterase activities and microbial growth, compared to control banana slices after 5 days of cold storage.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study show that CaP+Chit could be used to slow the loss of quality at the same time as maintaining quality and inhibiting microbial loads. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T06:10:46.901346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8231
  • Role of microbial inoculation and industrial by-product phosphogypsum in
           growth and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous soil
    • Authors: Abdul-Aziz R Al-Enazy; Saud S Al-Oud, Fahad N Al-Barakah, Adel RA Usman
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrient availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg−1), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg−1) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl.; Azotobacter chroococcum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on growth and nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil. Treatment effects on soil chemical and biological properties and the Cd and Pb availability to maize plants were also investigated.RESULTSApplying PG decreased soil pH. The soil available P increased when soil was inoculated and/or treated with CM, especially with PG. The total microbial count and dehydrogenase activity were enhanced with PG+CM+Incl. treatments. Inoculated soils treated with PG showed significant increases in NPK uptake and maize plant growth. However, the most investigated treatments showed significant decreases in shoot micronutrients. Cd and Pb were not detected in maize shoots.CONCLUSIONSApplying PG with microbial inoculation improved macronutrient uptake and plant growth. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T06:06:04.410242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8226
  • Stability of color in Spanish-style green table olives pasteurized and
           stored in plastic containers
    • Authors: Antonio Higinio Sánchez; Antonio López-López, Víctor Manuel Beato, Antonio de Castro, Alfredo Montaño
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere is an increasing interest in the use of pasteurizable plastic packaging by the olive industry. In order to investigate the change from traditional glass or varnished can containers to plastic packaging, the proper plastic material that is compatible with fermented olives while maintaining color quality during pasteurization treatment and storage must be selected. This work is focused on color stability in two distinct pasteurizable plastic containers with different oxygen permeability.RESULTSIn PET + MDPE/EVOH (polyethylene terephthalate + medium-density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol) pouches, pasteurization provoked severe browning which drastically decreased their color shelf life ( 6.5 months).CONCLUSIONThe plastic material had a significant effect on the retention of color of the pasteurized product. The use of AlOx-coated PET + MDPE pouches could be an alternative to traditional packaging for the pasteurization and storage of Spanish-style green olives from a color quality standpoint. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T05:46:16.172842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8222
  • Corn silage replacement with barley silage in dairy cows' diet does not
           change milk quality, cheese quality and yield
    • Authors: Luciano Migliorati; Leonardo Boselli, Giacomo Pirlo, Maurizio Moschini, Francesco Masoero
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConsidering that water availability for agricultural needs is being restricted, an alternative to corn in animal nutrition should be explored in the Po Valley. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of either a partial (Trial I) or a total (Trial II) corn silage substitution with barley silage in dairy cows' diet on milk yield and composition, its coagulation properties, cheese yield and the sensorial profile of 16-month-aged Grana Padano cheese.RESULTSA partial or a total substitution of corn silage with barley silage had no effect on milk yield. Milk fat content in Trial I and milk urea content in both trials were higher with barley silage based diets than in corn silage based diets. No effects were observed concerning the lactodinamographic profile for milk aptitude to cheese-making, cheese yield and its organoleptic traits between feed treatments in Trials I and II. In both trials, hardness, friability and solubility scores were generally lower than reference values, whereas deformability, elasticity and stickiness scores were generally higher than reference values.CONCLUSIONA partial or a total substitution of corn silage with barley silage in diets for dairy cows did not induce any negative effects on animal performance, nor on milk-quality traits, cheese quality and yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T03:10:29.016561-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8190
  • A novel symbiovar (aegeanense) of the genus Ensifer nodulates Vigna
    • Authors: Anastasia P. Tampakaki; Christos T. Fotiadis, Georgia Ntatsi, Dimitrios Savvas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium, although few studies have reported the isolation of fast-growing rhizobia under laboratory and field conditions. Despite that much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, very limited information is available on cowpea rhizobia in European soils. The aim of this study was to study the genetic and phenotypic diversity of indigenous cowpea-nodulating rhizobia in Greece.RESULTSThe genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobia associated with cowpea was investigated through a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into three groups. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, IGS and on the concatenation of six housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, gyrB, truA, thrA and SMc00019), rhizobial isolates were classified within the species Ensifer fredii. However, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC, nifH and rhcRST genes, showed that the Ensifer isolates are markedly diverged from type and reference strains of E. fredii and formed one clearly separate cluster. The E. fredii strains were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in cowpea but not in soybean and common bean.CONCLUSIONThe present study showed that cowpea is nodulated under field conditions by fast-growing rhizobia belonging to the species E. fredii. Based on the phylogenies, similarity levels of symbiotic genes and the host range, the Ensifer isolates may constitute a new symbiovar for which the name “aegeanense” is proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T01:10:25.206402-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8281
  • Physicochemical and sensory properties of marmalades made from mixtures of
           fruits and under-exploited Andean tubers
    • Authors: Agustina M. Lotufo Haddad; María Isabel Margalef, Margarita Armada, María Cristina Goldner
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work studies the added value to the Andean tuber crops through the production of jams. Objectives: 1. to study the sensory and instrumental characteristics of dietetic marmalades made with fruits and Andean tubers, 2. to research consumer's acceptability and emotional responses, 3. to assess the relationship between sensory and instrumental variables, and 4. to determine sensory, instrumental and emotional variables that influence the acceptability.RESULTSPearson's correlations showed that spreadability was the variable better predicted by sensory and instrumental ones.The analysis of variance showed that sourness increased with the increase of strawberry and the decrease of apple contents (P
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T23:50:21.786258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8280
  • Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains on raw
    • Authors: Carlos A. Gómez-Aldapa; Eduardo J. Gutiérrez-Alcántara, M. Refugio Torres-Vitela, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Angelica Villarruel-López, Javier Castro-Rosas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Nopalito is a cactaceous that is commonly consumed either raw or cooked in Mexico and other countries. Presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains on raw whole nopalitos (RWN, without prickles), raw nopalitos cut into squares (RNCS) and in cooked nopalitos salads (CNS) samples was determined. In addition, the behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates on RWN, RNCS and CNS at 25° ± 2 °C and 3° ± 2 °C was investigated.RESULTSOne hundred samples of RWN, one hundred of RNCS and one hundred more of CNS were collected from public markets. Salmonella strains were isolated and identified in 30, 30 and 10% of the samples respectively. Seventy multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from all the nopalitos samples. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates survived at least 15 days on RWN at 25° ± 2 °C or 3° ± 2 °C. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates grew in the RNCS and CNS samples at 25° ± 2 °C. However, at 3° ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited.CONCLUSIONThis is the first report about multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolation from raw nopalitos and nopalitos salads. Nopalitos from markets are very likely to be an important factor contributing to the endemicity of multidrug-resistant Salmonella-related gastroenteritis in Mexico.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T23:45:55.160671-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8279
  • Detection of lunasin in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) and the in
           vitro evaluation of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
    • Authors: Guixing Ren; Yingying Zhu, Zhenxing Shi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLunasin is a novel cancer preventive peptide that has been detected in various plants. However, the presence and bioactivity of lunasin in quinoa has not been demonstrated.RESULTSLunasin was detected in quinoa using UPLC-ESI-MS. The content in fifteen quinoa samples ranged from 1.01 × 10−3 g kg−1 dry seed to 4.89 × 10−3 g kg−1 dry seed. Significant differences (p
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T11:10:26.131033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8278
  • Phytosterols improve immunity and exert anti-inflammatory activity in
           weaned piglets
    • Authors: Qiaoling Hu; Zhuo Zhao, Shenglin Fang, Yiwei Zhang, Jie Feng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytosterols (PS), plant-derived natural steroid compounds, are novel feed additives to regulate immune function and promote pig growth. This study was conducted to determine the effects of PS on the immune response of weaned piglets.RESULTSOne hundred and twenty crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets with an average initial weight of 9.58 ± 0.26 kg were randomly allotted to three treatments. Treatments consisted of a control, PS (0.2 g kg−1) and polymyxin E (0.04 g kg−1, antibiotic control) treatment. The results showed that PS or polymyxin E supplementation remarkably decreased diarrhea rate and elevated CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+ ratio in piglets compared with the control (P
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T11:00:22.656689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8277
  • Changes in sugar content and related enzyme activities in table grape
           (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to foliar selenium fertilizer
    • Authors: Shuaimeng Zhu; Yinli Liang, Xiaojuan An, Fanchao Kong, Dekai Gao, Hongfei Yin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSpraying Se fertilizer is an effective way for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated.RESULTSAcid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control. Glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in berries, and trace of sucrose. In both berries and leaves, neutral invertase (NI) activity was lower than AI, there was no significant difference in NI, Sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) between Se fertilizer treated and control. In berries, AI showed significant positive correlation with glucose and fructose, also Se content was significantly correlated with sugar content.CONCLUSIONAI played an important role in process of sugar accumulation in berries; high AI activity in berries and Pn in leaves could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in berries.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:05:24.973317-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8276
  • Bioprocessing of common beans in diets for tilapia. In vivo digestibility
           and antinutritional factors
    • Authors: Francisco Valdez-González; Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Alfredo Hernández-Llamas, Manuel García-Ulloa, Luís Sánchez-Magaña, Breidy Cuevas-Rodríguez, Hervey Rodríguez-González
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBioprocessing of ingredients by solid-state fermentation is a low-cost technique for preparing diets. It is perfomed by adding microorganisms as Rhizopus oligosporus to the grains of bean, with minimal degradation of nutrients, and a significant improvement in digestibility. In particular, fermentation induces favorable changes in beans by reducing enzyme inhibitors, such as phytates and tannins.RESULTSFermentation significantly (P  0.05) effect on the chemical content of beans and digestibility of diets. The dehulled bean meal significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T00:25:27.64557-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8275
  • Differences in the nutrient concentrations, in vitro methanogenic
           potential and other fermentative traits of tropical grasses and legumes
           for beef production systems in northern Australia
    • Authors: Zoey Durmic; Carlos A. Ramírez-Restrepo, Chris Gardiner, Christopher J. O'Neill, Eman Hussein, Phillip E. Vercoe
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn northern Australia, beef cattle grazed extensively on tropical rangelands are responsible for 5 % of the nation's total greenhouse gas emissions. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and in grazing ruminants might be mitigated by selecting forages that, when consumed, produce less CH4 when fermented by rumen microbes. This study examined variability in the in vitro fermentation patterns including CH4 production of selected tropical grasses and legumes to identify candidates for CH4 mitigation in grazing livestock in northern Australia.RESULTSNutritive values and fermentation parameters varied between plant species and across the seasons. The grasses with the relatively lower methanogenic potential were Urochloa mosambicensis (wet summer), Bothriochloa decipiens (autumn), Sorghum plumosum (winter), and Andropogon gayanus (spring), while the legumes were Calliandra calothyrsus (wet summer and autumn), Stylosanthes scabra (winter) and Desmanthus leptophyllus (spring). There was some correlation between CH4 production and overall fermentation (volatile fatty acid concentrations) in grasses (R2 = 0.67), but not in legumes (R2 = 0.01) and there were multiple plants that had lower CH4 not associated with reduction in microbial activity.CONCLUSIONDifferences in nutrient concentrations of tropical grasses and legumes may provide opportunities for productive grazing on these pastures, while offering some CH4 mitigation options in the context of northern Australia extensive beef farming systems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T00:15:38.47377-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8274
  • Analysis of α-helix unfolding in the pine nut peptide Lys-Cys-His-Lys-Pro
           induced by pulsed electric field
    • Authors: Jie Xing; Sitian Zhang, Mingdi Zhang, Songyi Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA variety of analytical techniques were applied to explore the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) on the α-helix structural changes in the novel antioxidant peptide Lys-Cys-His-Lys-Pro (KCHKP, 611.76 Da).RESULTSThe relative α-helix content of the KCHKP peptide was significantly altered from 100% to 89.91 ± 0.97% when the electric pulse frequency was 1800 Hz and the field intensity was 10 kV cm−1. Moreover, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities of PEF-treated KCHKP were increased from 56.31 ± 0.74% to 84.33 ± 1.23% and from 40.56 ± 0.78% to 51.33 ± 0.27%, respectively.CONCLUSIONPEF treatment increased peptide linkage stretch vibration and altered hydrogen bonding of KCHKP. The stability of the α-helix structure was influenced by hydrogen bonds within the peptide linkage of KCHKP induced by PEF and was related to changes in antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T10:55:28.07661-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8273
  • Influence of different yeast/lactic acid bacteria combinations on the
           aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine
    • Authors: Marine Gammacurta; Stéphanie Marchand, Virginie Moine, Gilles de Revel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe typical fruity aroma of red Bordeaux wines depends on the grape variety but also on microbiological processes, such as alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. These transformations involve respectively the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oeni. Both species play a central role in red winemaking but their quantitative and qualitative contribution to the revelation of the organoleptic qualities of wine has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of sequential inoculation of different yeast and bacteria strains on the aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine.RESULTSAll microorganisms completed fermentations and no significant difference was observed between tanks regarding the main oenological parameters until 3 months' aging. Regardless of the yeast strain, B28 bacteria required the shortest period to completely degrade the malic acid, compared to the other strain. . Quantification of 73 major components highlighted a specific volatile profile corresponding to each microorganism combination. However, the yeast strain appeared to have a predominant effect on aromatic compound levels, as well as on fruity aroma perception.CONCLUSIONYeasts had a greater impact on wine quality and have more influence on the aromatic style of red wine than bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T10:25:30.828733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8272
  • Morphological and physiological responses of different wheat genotypes to
           chilling stress: A cue to explain yield loss
    • Authors: Pu-Fang Li; Bao-Luo Ma, You-Cai Xiong, Wen-Yuan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe eco-physiological mechanism of wheat yield loss resulting from chilling stress is a fundamental scientific issue. However, previous studies have focused on hexaploid wheats, and few studies on the morphological and physiological plasticity of wheat plants. Six different wheat genotypes were tested under chilling stress to investigate the physio-morphological parameters as well as the loss of grain yield in growth chambers.RESULTSChilling stress resulted in significant loss in grain yield in all genotypes. Under chilling stress, diploid wheats generated zero harvest, and tetraploid genotypes also suffered from a pronounced loss in grain yield, compared with the control group. In contrast, hexaploid genotypes acquired relatively high maintenance rate of grain yield among three species.CONCLUSIONSDiploid and tetraploid wheat genotypes maintained relatively large leaf area and high photosynthetic rates, but they were subjected to significant declines in vascular bundle number and productive tillers as a consequence of the inhibition by sink growth under chilling stress. The hexaploid wheats were found to have relatively low leaf area and photosynthetic rates. These genotypes also stored more soluble carbohydrates and exhibited stronger sink enhancement, ensuring the translocation and redistribution of assimilates. Our findings provided a new theoretical understanding of yield stabilization in the domestication process of wheat genotypes under chilling stress.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T01:00:25.668304-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8271
  • Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for foreign substance
           detection on fresh-cut lettuce
    • Authors: Changyeun Mo; Giyoung Kim, Moon S. Kim, Jongguk Lim, Hyunjeong Cho, Jinyoung Yang Barnaby, Byoung-Kwan Cho
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting the worms were investigated using the one-way ANOVA and correlation analyses.RESULTSThe worm detection imaging algorithms, RSI-I(492-626)/492, provided a prediction accuracy of 99.0%. The fluorescence HSI techniques indicated that the spectral images with a pixel size of 1 × 1 mm had the best classification accuracy for worms.CONCLUSIONThe overall results demonstrate that fluorescence HSI techniques have the potential to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. In the future, we will focus on developing a multispectral imaging system to detect foreign substances such as worms, slugs, and earthworms on fresh-cut lettuce.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T02:55:31.169615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8262
  • Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in
           vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation
    • Authors: Shaopu Wang; Michael Kreuzer, Ueli Braun, Angela Schwarm
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls.RESULTSAll the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (ml g−1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg−1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n–6:n–3 fatty acids or C18:2:C18:3 in the seed lipids were not related.CONCLUSIONUnconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T02:10:28.845973-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8260
  • Phenotypic diversity and evaluation of fresh pods of cowpea landraces from
           Southern Europe
    • Authors: Efstathia Lazaridi; Georgia Ntatsi, Juan Antonio Fernández, Ioannis Karapanos, Valdemar Carnide, Dimitrios Savvas, Penelope J Bebeli
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCowpea fresh pods are consumed as green vegetables in many countries in Southern Europe. Among cowpea cultivated material a relatively large number of landraces can be found, maintaining species genetic diversity. In order to assess the value of these landraces in breeding programs, characterization and estimation of diversity levels are therefore required. In this study, estimation of diversity and evaluation of cowpea landraces, originating from Portugal, Spain and Greece, in terms of their fresh pod traits were performed, aiming to assist the problem of low cowpea production in Southern Europe.RESULTSA notable mean total phenotypic diversity (Ht = 0.57) was observed in the whole collection. Spanish cv. - gr. unguiculata collection exhibited the highest value of total phenotypic diversity (0.56). Landraces did not differ significantly from each other regarding the three countries of origin. Landraces like Cp4906, Vg60 and BGE038478 that presented higher values of some traits studied could contribute to breeding of new cowpea varieties for fresh pod production. Positive correlations were observed, indicating feasibility of breeding for preferable traits regarding fresh pod consumption.CONCLUSIONOur work revealed a wide diversity among and within cowpea landraces that could enhance fresh pod production in South European countries.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T08:56:06.177337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8249
  • Spectrophotometric vs NIR-MIR assessments of cowpea pods for
           discriminating the impact of freezing
    • Authors: Nelson Machado; Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Ana Ramos, Eduardo A S Rosa, Ana I R N A Barros
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFreezing represents an important storage method for vegetal foodstuffs, such as cowpea pods and thus, the impact of this process on the chemical composition of these matrices arises as a prominent issue. In this sense, the phytochemical contents in frozen cowpea pods (6 and 9 months) have been compared with fresh cowpea pods material, the samples being concomitantly assessed by FTIR (both MIR and NIR), to evaluate the potential of these techniques as a rapid tool for the traceability of these matrices.RESULTSA descend of the phytochemical contents during freezing has been observed, allowing these variations to classify the samples according to the freezing period. Also MIR and NIR allowed to discriminate the samples, the usage of the 1st derivative displaying better performance for this purpose, whereas the usage of the normalized spectra conducted to the best correlations between the spectra and specific contents. In both cases, NIR displayed the best performance.CONCLUSIONSFreezing of cowpea pods leads to the decrease of the phytochemical contents, which can be monitored by FTIR spectroscopy, both within the MIR and NIR ranges, while the use of this technique, in tandem with chemometrics, constitutes a suitable methodology for the traceability of these matrices.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T08:56:01.472087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8251
  • Issue Information - ToC
    • Pages: 1673 - 1678
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:54:10.946117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7941
  • Saffron: a promising natural medicine in the treatment of metabolic
    • Authors: Bibi Marjan Razavi; Hossein Hosseinzadeh
      Pages: 1679 - 1685
      Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, but because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Iridaceae family. Saffron is an extensively used food additive for its colour and taste and has been widely used in traditional as well as modern medicine to treat several illnesses including cardiovascular diseases. Most of the unique properties of this plant are attributed to the presence of three major components, including crocin, safranal and crocetin. It has been proved that saffron has an important role in the management of metabolic syndrome because of its marvelous activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypotensive and hypolipidaemic properties. In this review article, we discuss the beneficial properties of saffron and its active components to treat different components of metabolic syndrome and most relevant animal and human studies regarding the use of this plant in cardiovascular disease, with focus on the metabolic risk factors. This review also suggests that after randomised clinical trials, saffron may be implicated as a preventive or therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T10:15:27.848064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8134
  • Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review
    • Authors: Georgios Banias; Charisios Achillas, Christos Vlachokostas, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, Maria Stefanou
      Pages: 1686 - 1697
      Abstract: The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the ‘hottest’ topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T10:45:35.748795-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8143
  • Nutritive quality and protein production from grain legumes in a boreal
    • Authors: Clara I Lizarazo; Anna-Maija Lampi, Jingwei Liu, Tuula Sontag-Strohm, Vieno Piironen, Frederick L Stoddard
      Pages: 1962 - 1962
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:54:14.617297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8213
  • Aflatoxins and food pathogens: impact of biologically active aflatoxins
           and their control strategies
    • Authors: Sharanaiah Umesha; Honnayakanahalli Marichenne gowda Manukumar, Bhadvelu Chandrasekhar, Prahlad Shivakumara, Jayanna Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, Prakasha Avinash, Marahel Shirin, Tumkur R Bharathi, Sollepura B Rajini, Murali Nandhini, Govinda gowda Vinaya Rani, Mohankumar Shobha, Harishchandra S Prakash
      Pages: 1698 - 1707
      Abstract: Globally disease outbreaks as a result of the consumption of contaminated food and feedstuffs are a regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms, particularly fungi, which produce low-molecular weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties that are referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in humans and animals. Moreover, poor conditions of storage and a deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue. For that reason, mycotoxin-related illness of nutrition represents a major health hazard for local populations. Government policies should make regulations aiming to avoid the entry of aflatoxins into food stuffs. For consumer safety, control and management strategies should be developed and implemented by regulatory authorities. There is the need for attention from farmers, scientists, government and collaborative minds throughout the country to ensure aflatoxin-free food. The present review is informative not only for health-conscious consumers, but also for relevant authorities with respect to paving the way for future research aiming to fill the existing gaps in our knowledge with regard to mycotoxins and food security. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T02:48:27.525577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8144
  • Identification of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) heartwood as a rich source
           of bioactive stilbenes by qNMR
    • Authors: Kostas Ioannidis; Eleni Melliou, Paraskevi Alizoti, Prokopios Magiatis
      Pages: 1708 - 1716
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecently published studies have demonstrated the strong anti-inflammatory properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood extracts, related to its stilbene content. In order to find alternative sources of Pinus heartwood extracts rich in stilbenes, a large number of samples were investigated, using a new developed high-throughput screening method based on quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.RESULTSThe new method enabled us to measure the levels of pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether and pinosylvin dimethyl ether in heartwood extracts in only 45 s per sample. The method was applied to 260 Pinus nigra trees originating from Peloponnese (southern Greece) from four different natural populations of the species. The results obtained showed that the total stilbenoids per dry heartwood weight varied greatly, ranging from 10.9 to 128.2 mg g−1drywood (average 59.92 ± 21.79 mg g−1drywood). The major stilbene in all cases was pinosylvin monomethyl ether (40.32 ± 15.55 mg g−1drywood), followed by pinosylvin (17.07±6.76 mg g−1drywood) and pinosylvin dimethyl ether (2.54 ± 1.22 mg g−1drywood). The highest stilbene content of P. nigra samples was found to be 6.3 times higher than the highest reported figure for P. sylvestris L.CONCLUSIONPinus nigra heartwood is the richest source of pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether identified to date and can be considered the best natural resource for production of bioactive extracts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-11-28T04:27:07.012626-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8090
  • Protective effect of green tea against neuro-functional alterations in
           rats treated with MnO2 nanoparticles
    • Authors: Kitti Sárközi; András Papp, Edina Horváth, Zsuzsanna Máté, Edit Hermesz, Gábor Kozma, Zoltán Péter Zomborszki, Ildikó Kálomista, Gábor Galbács, Andrea Szabó
      Pages: 1717 - 1724
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInhalation of manganese-containing metal fumes at workplaces can cause central nervous damage including a Parkinson-like syndrome. Oxidative stress is likely to be involved in the pathomechanism, due to the presence of nano-sized metal oxide particles with high biological and chemical activity. Oxidative damage of the nervous system could be prevented or ameliorated by properly applied antioxidants, preferably natural ones such as green tea, a popular drink. The aim of this work was to see if orally applied green tea brew could diminish the functional neurotoxicity of manganese dioxide nanoparticles introduced into the airways of rats.RESULTSYoung adult male Wistar rats were treated intratracheally for 6 weeks with a suspension of synthetic MnO2 nanoparticles (4 mg/kg body weight), and received green tea brew (1 g leaves 200 mL−1 water) as drinking fluid. Reduced body weight gain, indicating general toxicity of the nanoparticles, was not influenced by green tea. However, in rats receiving green tea the nervous system effects – changes in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity and peripheral nerve action potential – were diminished.CONCLUSIONThe use of green tea as a neuroprotective functional drink seems to be a viable approach. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T02:20:24.721006-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7919
  • Quantification of bioactive compounds in Picual and Arbequina olive leaves
           and fruit
    • Authors: Concepción Romero; Eduardo Medina, Mª Antonia Mateo, Manuel Brenes
      Pages: 1725 - 1732
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive leaves and fruit possess bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds and triterpenic acids that can be obtained from olive by-products generated during olive oil extraction. The aim of the present study was the characterization and quantification of these compounds in Picual and Arbequina cultivars from different locations and throughout two seasons in both olive leaves and fruit.RESULTSThe major phenolic compound identified in the leaves was oleuropein, and the total content of phenolic compounds in this material reached 70 g kg−1 fresh weight. The leaves were also rich in triterpenic acids (20 g kg−1 fresh weight), with oleanolic acid being the most concentrated among them. With regard to olives, oleuropein and demethyloleuropein were the main phenolic compounds in the pulp of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, and the total concentration of these phenolic compounds reached 3.5% fresh weight. Olives can also be an important source of triterpenic acids, although this is mainly the skin part, where the maslinic and oleanolic acids are concentrated.CONCLUSIONOlive leaves can contain up to 70 g kg−1 phenolic compounds and 20 g kg−1 triterpenic acids, and olive fruit can contain up to 35 g kg−1 of the former and 3 g kg−1 of the latter. It must also be noted that this level was constant both between seasons and orchard locations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-31T02:46:30.853959-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7920
  • Enhancing phosphorus uptake and yield of wheat with phosphoric acid
           application in calcareous soil
    • Authors: Zafar Ul Haq Hashmi; Muhammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Akhtar, Tahir Sarwar, Mohammad Jamal Khan
      Pages: 1733 - 1739
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLow phosphorus (P) availability to wheat from commercial fertilizers is one of the reasons for lower grain yield and hence justifies search for more efficient P source under alkaline calcareous soils.RESULTSPhosphoric acid (PA) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), applied through conventional and modified methods, were assessed for P supply and wheat yield in a calcareous soil. Under laboratory conditions, pre-incubated soil with 70 mg P kg−1 soil as PA and DAP was assessed for solution P (Cp) for 4 weeks. Phosphorus sorption data were fitted using the Freundlich model for describing analyzed sorption in soil incubated with or without DAP and PA. The fitted model equations exhibited comparatively higher effluxes of P from the solution system in control treatment. Compared to DAP, lower quantities (19.6%) of P for PA-treated soil were required for producing optimum P concentration in soil solution, i.e. 0.2 mg P L−1. The greenhouse study involved 32P tracer technique to quantify the proportion of applied P derived by wheat from fertilizer or soil. The results showed that P derived from fertilizer was highest (47.5%) in PA placement, while the lowest (31.5%) was in DAP broadcast treatment. The field study also showed similar trends to that of the greenhouse study. The PA placement treatment resulted in highest (23.4%) phosphorus use efficiency, whereas the lowest one (17.1%) was recorded for DAP broadcast treatment.CONCLUSIONPA proved to be a better P source than DAP for improving P content and achieving higher yield and recovery of applied P by wheat grown in alkaline calcareous soils. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T07:10:21.641925-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7921
  • Meat quality of buffaloes finished in traditional or silvopastoral system
           in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon
    • Authors: Maria RSP Joele; Lúcia FH Lourenço, José B Lourenço Júnior, Geisielly S Araújo, Juliana CC Budel, Alexandre R Garcia
      Pages: 1740 - 1745
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aimed to assess the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from buffaloes finished in a Traditional System (TS) or Traditional + Silvopastoral System (TSPS) with dietary supplementation. Crossbred Murrah × Mediterranean buffaloes were raised from weaning to slaughter in the TS (n = 15) or were raised in the traditional system and finished in the TSPS (n = 15). After finishing, animals were slaughtered and their carcasses refrigerated for 24 h. The right side of each half-carcass was cut between the 12th and 13th ribs and the Longissimus thoracis muscle was removed. The cranial part underwent analyses of pH, color, weight loss as a result of cooking, water holding capacity, texture and sensory characteristics, whereas the rest of the muscle underwent microbiological analyses and determination of the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and mineral content.RESULTSNo major difference between finishing systems was found (P> 0.05) in the physical analyses and chemical composition of meat. The percentage of myristic acid (C14:0) and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between treatments. The TS meat had the best ‘characteristic meat aroma’.CONCLUSIONConsidering the quality of meat produced in the TS or TSPS, it is concluded that finishing buffaloes in the pasture still represents the best alternative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-29T05:55:21.886475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7922
  • Protein–peptide nutritional material prepared from surimi wash-water
           using immobilized chymotrypsin–trypsin
    • Authors: Hao-Chen Ding; Dong-Fang Li, Xiao-Yi Wei, Yao-Wen Huang, Shuai Cui, Hu-Jun Xie, Tao Zhou
      Pages: 1746 - 1752
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn the production process of surimi, large quantities of wastewater are produced. Thus it would be interesting to develop an efficient protocol for the recovery of protein from hairtail surimi wash-water.RESULTSA technique involving the use of immobilized chymotrypsin–trypsin (I-CT) was developed, providing a practical method for the preparation of protein–peptide nutritional material (PPNM). Under optimized reaction conditions, the recovery rate of nitrogen of surimi wash-water was measured as 98.3 ± 2.9%. Nutritional evaluation of the protein–peptide fraction demonstrated that it contained all essential amino acids (EAA) for humans, accounting for 44.1% of the total amino acid (TAA) content, which was determined to be 78.2 g per 100 g dry matter. The essential amino acid index (EAAI) and biological value (BV) were 101.7 (>95) and 76.7 respectively. A wide range of volatile flavor compounds (>50), including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, were identified in PPNM by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.CONCLUSIONAn efficient and practical protocol for the recovery of protein from hairtail surimi wash-water has been developed. The PPNM prepared in this work could be used as a nutraceutical and as an ingredient of functional foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T07:00:30.656162-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7969
  • Assessing gelling properties of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour through
           rheological characterization
    • Authors: Susana Ramos; Patrícia Fradinho, Paulina Mata, Anabela Raymundo
      Pages: 1753 - 1760
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds are considered a promising ingredient for the development of functional products owing to their high nutritional value: 343 g kg−1 lipids, 251 g kg−1 protein and 226 g kg−1 fibre. Considering chia's technological capacities, mainly the ability to swell when absorbing water and gel-forming properties, its addition to a food matrix can affect texture and rheological behaviour, acting as a texturing and stabilizing agent. The aim of the present work was to assess the gelling properties of chia flour through the rheological characterization of 100, 130 and 150 g kg−1 chia flour gels.RESULTSAccording to the mechanical spectra, all gels presented weak gel-like structures, as G′ was always less than a decade higher than G″, but higher chia flour concentrations showed a considerable increase in viscoelastic moduli. The gels had relatively low maturation times, almost instantaneous for lower concentrations, but the cooling rate affected the dynamics of formation of the gel structure.CONCLUSIONBased on texture and rheological properties, gels with 130 g kg−1 of chia flour processed at 90 °C for 30 min showed the most suitable characteristics for use in the development of new food applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T05:50:24.111834-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7971
  • Changes in microbial composition and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens
           in crab marinated in soy sauce produced by six manufacturing plants
    • Authors: Sun Ae Kim; Eun Sook Choi, Nam Hee Kim, Hye Won Kim, Na Young Lee, Tae Jin Cho, Jun Il Jo, Soon Han Kim, Soon Ho Lee, Sang Do Ha, Min Suk Rhee
      Pages: 1761 - 1767
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study examined the changes in microbiological composition during the production process of crab marinated in soy sauce, potential microbial hazards, potential contamination routes and effective critical control points. Crab and soy sauce samples were obtained from six different manufacturing plants at different stages, and their microbiological content was comprehensively assessed by quantitative and qualitative analyses.RESULTSThe results revealed the following: (1) the final products contained 4.0 log colony-forming units (CFU) g−1 aerobic plate counts (APCs) and 1.1 log CFU g−1 coliforms, which may have been introduced from the raw materials (the level of APCs in raw crab and soy sauce mixed with other ingredients was 3.8 log CFU g−1 and 4.0 log CFU mL−1 respectively); (2) marination of crab in soy sauce may allow cross-contamination by coliforms; (3) only Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were qualitatively detected in samples at different stages of manufacture (detection rate of 28 and 5.6% respectively), and these bacteria may impact the microbiological quality and safety of crab marinated in soy sauce; and (4) bacterial counts were either maintained or increased during the manufacturing process (suggesting that no particular step can be targeted to reduce bacterial counts).CONCLUSIONProper management of raw materials and the marination process are effective critical control points, and alternative interventions may be needed to control bacterial quantity. The results provide important basic information about the production of crab marinated in soy sauce and may facilitate effective implementation of sanitary management practices in related industries and research fields. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T03:46:12.532428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7972
  • Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and
           sensory properties of puffed wheat snack
    • Authors: Sibel Yağcı
      Pages: 1768 - 1773
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn this study, research on the development of a puffed wheat snack using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process was carried out. Snack products were produced by expanding moistened wheat under various DIC processing conditions in order to obtain adequate puffing, followed by drying in a hot air dryer. The effects of operational variables such as wheat initial moisture content (11–23% w/w, wet basis), processing pressure (3–5 × 102 kPa) and processing time (3–11 min) on the physical (density, color and textural characteristics) and sensory properties of the product were investigated.RESULTSThe physical properties of the wheat snack were most affected by changes in processing pressure, followed by processing time and wheat moisture content. Increasing processing pressure and time often improved expansion and textural properties but led to darkening of the raw wheat color. The most acceptable snack in terms of physical properties was obtained at the lowest wheat moisture content. Sensory analysis suggested that consumer acceptability was optimal for wheat snacks produced at higher processing pressure, medium processing time and lower moisture content.CONCLUSIONThe most desirable conditions for puffed wheat snack production using the DIC process were determined as 11% (w/w) of wheat moisture content, 5 × 102 kPa of processing pressure and 7 min of processing time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T02:25:30.275893-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7973
  • Nitrite formation from vegetable sources and its use as a preservative in
           cooked sausage
    • Authors: Young Mi Ko; Jin Hwa Park, Ki Sun Yoon
      Pages: 1774 - 1783
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDue to the potential health risk associated with nitrites, nitrite alternatives from natural sources in meat products have been investigated. We compared the nitrate contents of young radish, lettuce and commercial vegetable powder (cabbage and Chinese cabbage). We also investigated the effect of incubation time and salt addition on vegetable nitrite formation from vegetable sources. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of vegetable nitrite in cooked sausage were also compared with sodium nitrite.RESULTSYoung radish produced the greatest amount of nitrite after 24 h of incubation at 38 °C. On average, an approximately 32% reduction of nitrite was observed in sausage during 4 weeks of storage. Lipid oxidation in sausage was significantly prevented by vegetable nitrite produced from vegetable powder or young radish. The colour of the sausage prepared with young radish was most similar to that of the sausage with sodium nitrite. The addition of young radish to sausage significantly prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at 4 °C and Staphylococcus aureus at 8 °C.CONCLUSIONYoung radish was more effective as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent as compared to commercial vegetable powder, which is currently used to make natural meat products, indicating that young radish has a high potential as a natural preservative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T03:45:55.667088-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7974
  • A combined microwave pretreatment/solvent extraction process for the
           production of oil from palm fruit: optimisation, oil quality and effect of
           prolonged exposure
    • Authors: Jason CX Tan; Cheng-Hock Chuah, Sit-Foon Cheng
      Pages: 1784 - 1789
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in a large quantity of wastewater.RESULTSA combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T03:50:25.311583-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7975
  • Microwave thawing and green tea extract efficiency for the formation of
           acrylamide throughout the production process of chicken burgers and
           chicken nuggets
    • Authors: Eda Demirok Soncu; Nuray Kolsarici
      Pages: 1790 - 1797
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInitially, we measured the acrylamide (AA) levels of chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants. After the determination of AA in these products, we aimed to investigate whether the use of green tea extract in the covering material, and microwave thawing before frying, mitigated the formation of AA in CBs and CNs during the production process.RESULTSAccording to our study, AA concentrations of CBs and CNs purchased from fast food restaurants were in the range of 13.43–118.97 and 32.92–134.90 ng g−1 coating, respectively. In our experiment, AA levels varied between 19.61 and 40.08 ng g−1 coating for CBs and 7.92–49.60 ng g−1 coating for CNs. Green tea extract reduced the AA formation in CBs and CNs at the pan frying and steam oven cooking heat treatment steps (P < 0.05). However, microwave thawing did not affect AA level of CBs and CNs.CONCLUSIONWhen the AA levels of commercial CBs and CNs are compared with those produced in our experiment, the use of green tea extract could be a novel, easy and practical application for fast food producers to minimise AA levels in the first two steps of the production without changes to the sensory properties of the final products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-30T09:08:55.478037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7976
  • Consumption of pomegranate juice decreases blood lipid peroxidation and
           levels of arachidonic acid in women with metabolic syndrome
    • Authors: Milica I Kojadinovic; Aleksandra C Arsic, Jasmina D Debeljak-Martacic, Aleksandra I Konic-Ristic, Nevena Dj Kardum, Tamara B Popovic, Marija D Glibetic
      Pages: 1798 - 1804
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPomegranate juice is a rich source of polyphenols and is thus a promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. These include a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of pomegranate juice for 6 weeks could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three women, aged 40–60 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group, in which each participant consumed 300 mL of juice per day for 6 weeks; and a control group.RESULTSA statistically significant decrease in the relative amount of arachidonic acid (P < 0.05) and an increase in the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) were observed in the intervention group at the end of the consumption period. In addition, pomegranate juice significantly increased the relative amount of total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (P < 0.05). The status of blood lipids and the values for blood pressure were not changed during the study.CONCLUSIONThe results obtained indicate a positive impact of the consumption of pomegranate juice on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in subjects with metabolic syndrome and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T03:35:22.495257-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7977
  • Influence of gamma radiation on the physical and sensory properties of two
           Brazilian rice cultivars
    • Authors: Luís F Polesi; Dâmaris C Lima, Silene BS Sarmento, Solange G Canniatti-Brazaca
      Pages: 1811 - 1818
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLittle has been reported about the effects of gamma radiation on the physical and sensory characteristics of rice. Samples were irradiated with 60Co in doses 0, 1, 2 and 5 kGy, on a rate of 0.4 kGy h−1.RESULTSThe evaluation of instrumental color showed that increasing doses promoted the yellowing (higher b* value) of the rice grains. Hardness was decreased and stickiness was increased in cooked rice with increasing doses. Sensory evaluation using quantitative descriptive analysis showed that increasing doses promoted higher occurrence of yellowish appearance, emergence of burnt aroma, and an increase of bitter and burnt taste. The sensory acceptance test by 9-point hedonic scale showed alteration of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy in all evaluated attributes (appearance, color, aroma, taste and texture). The lowest dose (1 kGy), however, had good acceptability by the panelists.CONCLUSIONRice may be subjected to 1 kGy dose of gamma radiation without changes or with small changes in physical properties and with good overall acceptability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T08:55:26.979061-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7979
  • The occurrence of spoilage yeasts in cream-filled bakery products
    • Authors: Andrea Osimani; Vesna Milanović, Manuela Taccari, Federica Cardinali, Marina Pasquini, Lucia Aquilanti, Francesca Clementi
      Pages: 1819 - 1827
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFilling creams can provide an adequate substrate for spoilage yeasts because some yeasts can tolerate the high osmotic stress in these products. To discover the source of spoilage of a cream-filled baked product, end products, raw materials, indoor air and work surfaces were subjected to microbiological and molecular analyses. The efficacy of disinfectants against spoilage yeasts was also assessed.RESULTSThe analyses on end products revealed the presence of the closest relatives to Zygosaccharomyces bailii with counts ranging from 1.40 to 4.72 log cfu g−1. No spoilage yeasts were found in the indoor air and work surfaces. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, carried out directly on filling creams collected from unopened cans, showed the presence of bands ascribed to the closest relatives to Z. bailii sensu lato, although with counts 
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T02:25:46.037475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7982
  • Zn-biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration
           process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L
    • Authors: Yurena Barrameda-Medina; Marco Lentini, Sergio Esposito, Juan M Ruiz, Begoña Blasco
      Pages: 1828 - 1836
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDExcessive rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO3−) in plants. Considering that many programs of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the NO3− accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency was affected by the application of different doses of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants.RESULTSZn doses in the range 80–100 µmol L−1 produced an increase in Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO3− concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase in reduced N, total N concentration and N utilization efficiency. Consequently, at a dose of 80 µmol L−1 of Zn, the amino acid concentration increased significantly.CONCLUSIONAdequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially at a dose of 80 µmol L−1 of Zn, because it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO3− levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, with all of them having beneficial properties for the human diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T08:55:23.435761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7983
  • Application of active edible coatings made from basil seed gum and thymol
           for quality maintenance of shrimp during cold storage
    • Authors: Naimeh Khazaei; Mohsen Esmaiili, Zahra Emam-Djomeh
      Pages: 1837 - 1845
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo improve the quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), active coating solutions were prepared by dissolving 10 g L−1 of basil seed gum (BSG) and adding various levels of thymol (6%, 8% and 10% w/w based on gum weight) and glycerol (3.5 g L−1) as plasticizer. The effects of coating solutions (CS1–4) on the quality changes of shrimps during refrigerated storage over 20 days were investigated.RESULTSThe total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value in shrimps coated with CS4 (containing 10% w/w thymol) was slightly higher than the upper threshold of 300 mg kg−1 on day 18, whereas that of uncoated shrimps increased to, or over, the threshold value on day 7. Active coatings significantly reduced (P < 0.05) microbial growth in shrimps during the cold storage without a negative impact on the organoleptic properties. Using CS4 on the shrimp samples immediately reduced total viable count and psychrotrophic bacteria count by 2 and 1 log colony forming units g−1, respectively, compared to controls.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study revealed that the active edible coatings based on BSG activated with thymol had good potential to be used in the production of active packaging for various food applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-29T07:02:18.490663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7984
  • An assessment of lactobiopolymer-montmorillonite composites for dip
           coating applications on fresh strawberries
    • Authors: Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves; Gonzalo E Salinas, Julio E Bruna, Keshavan Niranjan
      Pages: 1846 - 1853
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe use of biopolymer coatings appears as a good alternative to preserve highly perishable fruits, as well as the environment. Proteins generally produce films with good mechanical properties, although their highly hydrophilic nature limits the use in many applications. Nanoparticles, such as nanoclays, can play a critical role in improving barrier properties. The present study evaluated the effect of the addition of montmorillonite (MMT)-nanoparticles to a lacto-biopolymer coating, focusing on: (i) the morphological, thermal and barrier properties of the material and (ii) the shelf life of coated fresh strawberries.RESULTSThe addition of MMT improved the water vapor barrier property. Morphological and thermal analysis indicated a good interaction between the milk protein and the nanoclay, which was intercalated within the milk protein base (MPB) matrix, offering a more tortuous path to diffusing migrants. The MMT-MPB coating helped to significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduce the weight loss, as well as oxygen uptake and the release of carbon dioxide, and improved the fruit firmness and reduced mould and yeast load compared to the uncoated fruits. The addition of MMT gave statistical difference (P ≤ 0.05) in terms of weight loss, subjective global appearance and purchase intention of coated fresh strawberries.CONCLUSIONThe addition of nanofillers, such as MMT, into protein-based coating could improve its water vapour barrier and could affect, positively, some parameters of the shelf life of coated strawberries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T02:00:27.930476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7985
  • Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai ‘tom
           yam’ seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and
           gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Pattarin Leelaphiwat; Janice B Harte, Rafael A Auras, Peter KC Ong, Vanee Chonhenchob
      Pages: 1854 - 1860
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChanges in the aroma characteristics of Thai ‘tom yam’ seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days.RESULTSThe descriptive words for Thai ‘tom yam’ seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P> 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai ‘tom yam’ seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time.CONCLUSIONAroma stability of Thai ‘tom yam’ powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai ‘tom yam’. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai ‘tom yam’. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T02:26:49.686-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7986
  • Reaction pathway mechanism of thermally induced isomerization of
           9,12-linoleic acid triacylglycerol
    • Authors: Qin Guo; Fan Jiang, Zhaoxuan Deng, Qingpeng Li, Jing Jin, Yiming Ha, Feng Wang
      Pages: 1861 - 1867
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo clarify the formation mechanism of trans linoleic acid isomers in edible oils during the heating process, trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, as representative oils, were placed in glass ampoules and sealed before heating at 180, 240 and 320 °C. The glass ampoules were removed at regular time intervals, and the contents were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The samples were then subjected to derivatization into their methyl esters for gas chromatographic analysis.RESULTSAnalysis results show that 9c,12c and 9t,12t fatty acids from trilinolein and trilinoelaidin molecules undergo chemical bond rotation, migration and degradation, leading to the formation of non-conjugated linoleic acids (NLAs), conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and aldehydes. The formation rate of isomers from the 9c,12c fatty acid is higher than that of the 9t,12t fatty acid. The production of aldehydes increases with heating temperature and time. The isomerization pathways involved in the formation of NLAs and CLAs during heating are clearly presented.CONCLUSIONThese findings suggest possible pathways of NFA and CFA formation from heated trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, complement the mechanistic studies previously published in the literature, and provide a theoretical basis for future control of the quality and safety of fats and oils. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T02:26:00.974504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7988
  • Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water
           relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation
    • Authors: Hafiz Nazar Faried; Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Amjad, Rashid Ahmed, Fahad Masoud Wattoo, Madiha Butt, Mohsin Bashir, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Muhammad Ahmed Waqas
      Pages: 1868 - 1875
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPotato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L−1). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L−1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application.RESULTSSalt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities.CONCLUSIONSalt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L−1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T03:20:31.641029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7989
  • Differential expression of desaturase genes and changes in fatty acid
           composition of Mortierella sp. AGED in response to environmental factors
    • Authors: Li Tan; Rui Zhuo, Shue Li, Fuying Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang
      Pages: 1876 - 1884
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSome oleaginous fungi can produce large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which serve many physiological functions. Numerous desaturases are critical for the synthesis of PUFAs. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of lipid production and desaturase gene expression in Mortierella sp. AGED in response to different environmental factors, and the relationships between lipid production and desaturase gene expression.RESULTSThe fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of desaturase genes were significantly changed under low temperatures. With the exception of Δ5-desaturase, the transcript levels of all desaturase genes increased at a temperature of 20 °C. Changes in content of lipid and PUFAs responding to low temperature were consistent with desaturase gene expression. Time course studies on gene expression showed that mRNA levels of four desaturase genes increased rapidly after transferring the cells to low temperature. Ethanol (1.5% v/v) increased the transcript levels of Δ9-, Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase genes significantly and of Δ12-desaturase gene slightly. Different metal ions such as Ca2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ could stimulate PUFA synthesis and up-regulate desaturase gene transcription, while Cu2+ inhibited desaturase gene expression and lipid accumulation.CONCLUSIONThis study should enable us to understand the regulatory mechanism of desaturase gene expression and lipid synthesis. It is helpful to improve PUFA productivity in Mortierella sp. AGED. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T02:16:14.117054-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7990
  • Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep
    • Authors: Cristina Guerra-Rivas; Beatriz Gallardo, Ángel R Mantecón, María Álamo-Sanza, Teresa Manso
      Pages: 1885 - 1893
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace.RESULTSSeed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg−1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg−1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg−1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg−1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace.CONCLUSIONThe nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T10:15:29.893523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7991
  • Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper
           (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction
    • Authors: Ling-Biao Gu; Hui-Li Pang, Ke-Ke Lu, Hua-Min Liu, Xue-De Wang, Guang-Yong Qin
      Pages: 1894 - 1903
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRed pepper seeds account for 450–500 g kg−1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out.RESULTSThe optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g−1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g−1, an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg−1, a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O2 kg−1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil.CONCLUSIONThe results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T10:20:42.309625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7992
  • Deficit irrigation and maturation stage influence quality and flavonoid
           composition of ‘Valencia’ orange fruit
    • Authors: Filipa S Grilo; Vita Di Stefano, Riccardo Lo Bianco
      Pages: 1904 - 1909
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEffects of continuous deficit irrigation (DI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) treatments (50% ETc) in comparison with full irrigation (CI, 100% ETc) were investigated during ‘Valencia’ orange fruit maturation. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to quantify hesperidin, narirutin, tangeritin, nobiletin, didymin and neoeriocitrin in the fruit juice and peel.RESULTSNo significant effect of irrigation was found on yield, juice soluble solids or acidity. Juice color was not influenced by irrigation or harvest date, whereas peel color increased during maturation and was more pronounced in CI and PRD fruits. Juice acidity reached a peak in May, while soluble solids increased linearly throughout maturation. Hesperidin was the major flavanone detected during maturation, with concentrations 200-fold higher in the fruit peel than in the juice. In the peel, narirutin, didymin and neoeriocitrin decreased while hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin increased with maturation. Narirutin synthesis in the orange fruit was insensitive to irrigation strategy. In fruit peels, PRD and DI induced the decline of hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin only in June, whereas in the juice, deficit irrigation treatments induced an increase in hesperidin and didymin.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that deficit irrigation, in particular the conditions imposed with PRD, may cause a significant accumulation shift of total flavonoids from the fruit peel into the juice, with a positive impact on juice quality and nutritional value. Fruit compositional changes during maturation also suggest that late harvest can improve fruit palatability and nutritional quality under the cultural and environmental conditions of this study. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T02:05:25.476334-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7993
  • Aflatoxin B1 can be complexed with oxidised tea polyphenols and the
           absorption of the complexed aflatoxin B1 is inhibited in rats
    • Authors: Hao Lu; Feifei Liu, Qiangqiang Zhu, Mengmeng Zhang, Tong Li, Jiming Chen, Yewei Huang, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
      Pages: 1910 - 1915
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most prevalent and carcinogenic form of the aflatoxins. In this report, we explored the interaction between AFB1 and oxidised tea polyphenols (OTP). Then, the influence of OTP on the absorption and toxicity of AFB1 in rats was investigated.RESULTSWe found that AFB1 can be complexed with OTP, and a transmembrane bidirectional transport experiment verified the absorption of complexed AFB1 (C-AFB1) was inhibited by OTP dramatically (P < 0.001). Animal experiments results showed that the AFB1 plus OTP group had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased AFB1-albumin (AFB1-alb) compared to the AFB1 group at 4 h after ingestion. OTP could significantly (P < 0.01) promote the elimination of AFB1 in faeces. Moreover, the liver injury induced by AFB1 was significantly inhibited by OTP.CONCLUSIONOur results demonstrated AFB1 can be complexed with OTP and the absorption of the C-AFB1 is inhibited in rats. Consequently, the liver injury induced by AFB1 can be inhibited by OTP. These results provide insight that consuming OTP-containing products, like fermented Pu-er tea, can protect damage from AFB1, and OTP may be used as a kind of food additive. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T03:36:29.57221-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7994
  • Expression analysis of metallothioneins and mineral contents in tomato
           (Lycopersicon esculentum) under heavy metal stress
    • Authors: Dursun Kısa; Lokman Öztürk, Serhat Doker, İsa Gökçe
      Pages: 1916 - 1923
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeavy metals are considered to be the most important pollutants in the contamination of soils; they adversely affect plant growth and development and cause some physiological and molecular changes. The contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals has changed the mineral element content of vegetables. Plant metallothioneins (MTs) are thought to have the functional role in heavy metal homeostasis, and they are used as the biomarkers for evaluating environmental pollution. We aimed to evaluate the expression of MT isoforms (MT1, 2, 3 and 4) and some mineral element composition of tomato roots, leaves and fruits exposed to copper and lead.RESULTSHeavy metal applications increased MT1 and MT2 gene expressions compared to the control in the tissues of tomato. The highest level of MT1 and MT2 transcripts was found in roots and leaves, respectively. The expression of MT3 is induced in roots, leaves and fruits except for Pb treatment in roots. MT4 expression increased in fruits; however, other tissues did not show a clear change. Our results indicated that Cu content was higher than Pb in all tissues of tomato. The lower doses of Cu (10 ppm) increased the content of Mg, Fe, Ca and Mn in roots. Pb generally increased the level of minerals in leaves and fruits, but it decreased Mg, Mn and Fe contents in roots.CONCLUSIONBoth heavy metals not only moved to aerial parts but also caused alterations to mineral element levels. These results show that MT transcripts are regulated by Cu and Pb, and expression pattern changes to MT isoforms and tissue types. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T10:05:28.070258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7995
  • Exploring genotypic variations for improved oil content and healthy fatty
           acids composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
    • Authors: Muhammad Ishaq; Raziuddin Razi, Sabaz Ali Khan
      Pages: 1924 - 1930
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDevelopment of new genotypes having high oil content and desirable levels of fatty acid compositions is a major objective of rapeseed breeding programmes. In the current study combining ability was determined for oil, protein, glucosinolates and various fatty acids content using 8 × 8 full diallel in rapeseed (Brassica napus).RESULTSHighly significant genotypic differences were observed for oil, protein, glucosinolates, oleic acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid content. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) for biochemical traits. Parental line AUP-17 for high oil content and low glucosinolates, genotype AUP-2 for high protein and oleic acids, and AUP-18 for low lenolenic and erucic acid were best general combiners. Based on desirable SCA effects, F1 hybrids AUP-17 × AUP-20; AUP-2 × AUP-8; AUP-7 × AUP-14; AUP-2 × AUP-9; AUP-7 × AUP-14 and AUP-2 × AUP-9 were found superior involving at least one best general combiner.CONCLUSIONF1 hybrids AUP-17 × AUP-20 (for oil content); AUP-2 × AUP-8 (for protein content); AUP-7 × AUP-14 (for glucosinolates); AUP-2 × AUP-9 (for oleic acid); AUP-7 × AUP-14 (for linolenic acid) and AUP-2 × AUP-9 (for erucic acid) were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. As reciprocal crosses of AUP-14 with AUP-7 and AUP-8 were superior had low × low and low × high GCA effects for glucosinolates and oleic acid, respectively therefore, these could be exploited in future rapeseed breeding programmes to develop new lines with good quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-21T01:35:22.436024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7997
  • Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on the
           fermentation quality of Napier grass silage at three high temperatures
    • Authors: Ali Gulfam; Gang Guo, Seare Tajebe, Lei Chen, Qinhua Liu, Xianjun Yuan, Yunfeng Bai, Tao Saho
      Pages: 1931 - 1938
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe poor fermentation quality of silage is an important issue for silage production during the high temperatures of summer. Pediococcus acidilactici GG13 (GG13) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG26 (GG26) isolated from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were characterised by morphological and physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and their effects, along with those of a commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant (CB), on the fermentation quality of facultative halophyte Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) ensiled at 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C were studied, respectively.RESULTThe strains GG13 and GG26 grew well at 50 °C and pH 3.5, and were tolerant to 6.5% NaCl. After ensiling for 50 days, the strains GG13 and GG26 and the CB decreased (P < 0.001) the pH and acetic acid and ammonia-N contents and increased (P < 0.001) the lactic acid contents at 30 °C, and decreased (P < 0.001) the ammonia-N contents at 40 °C in Napier grass. CB did not affect the fermentation quality at 50 °C, whereas both isolated strains improved the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage as indicated by the lower (P < 0.001) pH, butyric acid and ammonia-N contents and higher (P < 0.001) lactic acid contents. The strain GG13 is better than GG26 with regard to improvement in fermentation quality of Napier grass silage.CONCLUSIONSThe results of this study suggested that strain GG13 is a good LAB inoculant for producing well-fermented silages during the high temperatures of summer times. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T03:10:23.05062-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7998
  • Role of phosphate groups on antiviral activity of casein phosphopeptide
           against feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus
    • Authors: Ntshepisa Lebetwa; Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Shigeru Katayama
      Pages: 1939 - 1944
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCurrent research on the gastrointestinal digestion of milk-casein strongly suggests the existence of novel bioactive peptides with antiviral activities that are attributable to their immunostimulatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of casein peptides rich in phosphate groups, such as casein phosphopeptide (CPP-III).RESULTSWe prepared two types of CPP with different phosphorylation levels to clarify the role of the phosphate group. Further phosphorylation of CPP-III was conducted by dry heating with sodium pyrophosphate, whereas dephosphorylation was performed enzymatically using alkaline phosphatase and alkaline treatment. Feline calicivirus (FCV) strain F9, a typical norovirus surrogate, and Crandell Rees feline kidney cells were used as the target virus and host cells, respectively. Antiviral activity was determined based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantification of antiviral cytokine mRNA expression. Higher cell viability was observed in the host cells treated with phosphorylated CPP-III, and a significant up-regulation of type 1 interferon expression was induced compared to that treated with native CPP-III. However, dephosphorylation of CPP-III resulted in a decrease in the anti-FCV effect.CONCLUSIONThe CPP effect was enhanced by the introduction of additional phosphates and conversely weakened by their elimination. Therefore, CPP-III phosphorylation represents an emerging approach for the production of food-grade antiviral agents. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T03:15:36.033515-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7999
  • In vitro antioxidant activities of the novel pentapeptides
           Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn and Leu-Pro-Phe-Ala-Met and the relationship between
           activity and peptide secondary structure
    • Authors: Ruiwen Yang; Jia Wang, Songyi Lin, Haiqing Ye, Feng Chen
      Pages: 1945 - 1952
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUsing high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, two novel antioxidant pentapeptides [Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn (SHECN) and Leu-Pro-Phe-Ala-Met (LPFAM)] were identified from 1–3-kDa soybean protein hydrolysates (SPH). The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Antioxidant activity was measured using in vitro assays, including the cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) inhibition, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Finally, the secondary structure was determined using circular dichroism (CD).RESULTSThe results revealed that two novel peptides were nontoxic and possessed antioxidant activity. SHECN had significantly higher antioxidant activity than LPFAM (P 
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T02:02:09.407742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8000
  • Assessment of Napier grass accessions in lowland and highland tropical
           environments of East Africa: water stress indices, water use and water use
    • Authors: Solomon W Mwendia; Isa AM Yunusa, Brian M Sindel, Ralph DB Whalley, Innocent W Kariuki
      Pages: 1953 - 1961
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLow rainfall is a major limitation to expanding the dairy industry in semi-arid environments in East Africa. In such dry areas, plants need to keep their tissues hydrated and stomata open for carbon exchange and to grow. On this basis, we assessed the productivity of 10 lines of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), which formed three yield clusters: low yielding (LYC), moderate yielding (MYC), and high yielding (HYC), in a wet highland (Muguga) and semi-arid lowland (Katumani) of Kenya. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC) were monitored, and water use simulated, over four growth cycles in 2012. These were used with measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and plant dry weight to explore the possible use of these physiological parameters for assessing productivity potential of Napier grass accessions.RESULTSThe plants were less stressed at Muguga, where gs was 700–1000 mmol m−2 s−1, LWP −0.4 to −0.9 MPa and RWC was 82–95%; these values at Katumani were 450–750 mmol m−2 s−1, −0.7 to −1.4 MPa and 74–93%, respectively. Total water use at Katumani was of the order HYC ≈ MYC (390 mm)> LYC (370 mm), and water use efficiency (WUE, kg ha−1 mm−1) followed the same order HYC (34.3)> MYC (32.6)> LYC (24.9); whereas at Muguga water use averaged 710 mm for HYC and MYC, greater than 676 mm for LYC, and WUE (kg ha−1 mm−1) averaged 29.2 for HYC and MYC, and 19.4 for LYC.CONCLUSIONSThe three water stress indices were poor, whereas vigorous early canopy development (determined as LAI) was a more reliable predictor of productivity potential of Napier grasses. In these dry environments, therefore, early rapid canopy development can be an effective indicator of yield potential and a credible selection criterion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T06:55:37.288689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8004
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