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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Effects of Variety and Steeping Conditions on Some Barley Components
           Associated with Colonic Health
    • Authors: Cristina Teixeira; Margareta Nyman, Roger Andersson, Marie Alminger
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Butyric acid is produced by degradation of dietary fibre by microbiota and is crucial for maintaining a healthy colon. The physico‐chemical properties are important for butyric acid formation, and this study aimed to evaluate the use of malting to tailor the functional characteristics of barley dietary fibre. The effect of different steeping conditions was evaluated in laboratory scale malting experiments with three different barley varieties. RESULTS Steeping at 35 C and with 0.4 % (v/v) lactic acid resulted in a higher content of β‐glucan and soluble fibre in the malts than in malts steeped at lower temperature and lower lactic acid concentration. Resistant starch increased, while the content of soluble arabinoxylan was lower. Dietary fibre components in Tipple were more affected by steeping conditions than the other varieties. The total contents of iron, phytate and amylose were little influenced by steeping conditions. CONCLUSION The selection of steeping conditions during malting influence composition and the characteristics of dietary fibre in barley. However, also the choice of barley variety is important for tailoring of functional ingredients beneficial for colonic health.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T03:15:30.369553-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7923
  • Meat Quality of Buffaloes Finished in Traditional or Silvopastoral System
           in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study aimed to assess the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of meat from buffaloes finished in a Traditional System (TS) or Silvopastoral System (TSPS) with dietary supplementation. Crossbred Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes were raised from weaning to slaughter in the TS (n = 15) or were raised in the traditional system and finished in the TSPS (n = 15). After finishing, animals were slaughtered and their carcasses refrigerated for 24 h. The right side of each half‐carcass was cut between the 12th and 13th ribs and the Longissimus thoracis muscle was removed. The cranial part underwent analyses of pH, color, weight loss due to cooking, water holding capacity, texture, and sensory characteristics, while the rest of the muscle underwent microbiological analyses and determination of the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and mineral content. RESULTS No major difference between finishing systems was found (P > 0.05) in the physical analyses and chemical composition of meat. The percentage of myristic acid (C14:0) and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between treatments. The TS meat had the best "characteristic meat aroma." CONCLUSION Considering the quality of meat produced in the TS or TSPS, it is concluded that finishing buffaloes in the pasture is still the best alternative.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T08:41:11.893902-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7922
    • Authors: Zafar Ul Haq Hashmi; Muhammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Akhtar, Tahir Sarwar, Mohammad Jamal Khan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Low phosphorus (P) availability to wheat from commercial fertilizers is one of the reason of lower grain yield and hence justifies search for more efficient P source under alkaline calcareous soils. RESULT Phosphoric acid (PA) viz a viz di‐ammonium phosphate (DAP) applied through conventional and modified methods were assessed for P supply and wheat yield in a calcareous soil. Under lab conditions, pre‐incubated soil with 70 mg kg‐1 P as PA and DAP for four weeks was assessed for solution P (Cp). Phosphorus sorption data were fitted using Freundlich model for describing analyzed sorption in soil incubated with or without DAP and PA. The fitted model equations exhibited comparatively higher effluxes of P from solution system in Control treatment. Compared to DAP, lower quantity (19.6%) of P for PA treated soil were required for producing optimum P concentration in soil solution i.e. 0.2 mg P L‐1. Greenhouse study involved 32P tracer technique to quantify the proportion of applied P derived by wheat from fertilizer or soil. The results showed that P derived from fertilizer was highest (47.5%) in PA‐placement, while the lowest (31.5%) was in DAP‐broadcast treatment. The field study also showed similar trends to that of greenhouse study. The PA‐placement treatment resulted in highest (23.4%) phosphorus use efficiency while lowest one (17.1%) was recorded for DAP‐broadcast treatment. CONCLUSION Phosphoric acid proved better P source than DAP for improving P content during and achieving higher yield and recovery of applied P by wheat grown in alkaline calcareous soils.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T08:10:21.778038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7921
  • Quantification of bioactive compounds in Picual and Arbequina olive leaves
           and fruit
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Olive leaves and fruit possess bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds and triterpenic acids that can be obtained from olive by‐products generated during olive oil extraction. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of them in Picual and Arbequina cultivars from different locations and for two seasons in both olive leaves and fruit. RESULTS The major phenolic compound identified in the leaves was oleuropein, and the total content of phenolic compounds in this material reached 70 g kg‐1 fresh weight. The leaves were also rich in triterpenic acids (20 g kg‐1 fresh weight), with oleanolic being the most concentrated in them. With regard to olives, oleuropein and demethyloleuropein were the main phenolic compounds in the pulp of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, and the total concentration of these phenolic compounds reached 3.5% fresh weight. Olives can also be an important source of triterpenic acids although mainly the skin part, where maslinic and oleanolic acids are concentrated. CONCLUSIONS Olive leaves can contain up to 70 g kg‐1 phenolic compounds and 20 g kg‐1 triterpenic acids, and olive fruit up to 35 g kg‐1 of the former and 3 g kg‐1 of the latter. It must also be noted that this level was constant between seasons and orchard locations.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T07:56:09.709801-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7920
  • A non‐toxic enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay for aflatoxin B1
           using anti‐idiotypic antibodies as substitutes
    • Authors: Li Hu; Aiping Liu, Weifeng Chen, Hongxiu Yang, Xiaohong Wang, Fusheng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Immunoassays are widely employed techniques to detect aflatoxins since they are rapid, selective and sensitive. One common disadvantage of them is using aflatoxins as standard substances, which may trigger exposure risks to operators and environment contamination without proper handling. Anti‐idiotypic antibodies (anti‐Ids or Ab2s), also named as internal‐image anti‐Ids, are able to mimic and function as antigen, so a non‐toxic enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is developed and validated using anti‐Ids as substitutes. RESULTS Mouse monoclonal anti‐idiotypic antibody (McAb2) to AFB1 was generated by hybridoma technique using Fab fragments of rabbit anti‐AFB1 idiotype antibody (Ab1) as immunogen. And as indicated by indirect competitive ELISA, McAb2, represented an internal‐image of antigen AFB1, was able to bind Fab with competition to AFB1. Then, analysis of AFB1 in spiked samples by non‐toxic ELISA using anti‐Ids as substitutes was developed, and it showed no significant differences with comparison to AFB1 as competitive antigens. CONCLUSION Our work demonstrated that anti‐Ids could be used as an internal‐image mimicry of AFB1, and it had the potential applications in immunoassays for antigen substitution to reduce operational risk for operators and environment contamination.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T23:10:26.859681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7914
  • Protective effect of green tea against neuro‐functional alterations
           in rats treated with MnO2 nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Background Inhalation of manganese‐containing metal fumes at workplaces can cause central nervous damage including a Parkinson‐like syndrome. Oxidative stress is likely to be involved in the pathomechanism, due to the presence of nano‐sized metal oxide particles with high biological and chemical activity. Oxidative damage of the nervous system could be prevented or ameliorated by properly applied antioxidants; preferably natural ones such as green tea, a popular drink. The aim of this work was to see if orally applied green tea brew can diminish the functional neurotoxicity of manganese dioxide nanoparticles give into the airways of rats. Results Young adult male Wistar rats were treated intratracheally for 6 weeks with a suspension of synthetic MnO2 nanoparticles (4 mg/kg b.w.), and received green tea brew (1 g leaves for 200 mL water) as drinking fluid. Reduced body weight gain, indicating general toxicity of the nanoparticles, was not influenced by green tea. However, in rats receiving green tea the nervous system effects – changes in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity, and peripheral nerve action potential – were diminished. Conclusion The use of green tea as a neuroprotective functional drink seems to be a viable approach.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T07:10:21.421946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7919
  • Effects of four different drying methods on the carotenoid composition and
           antioxidant capacity of dried Gac peel
    • Authors: Hoang V. Chuyen; Paul D. Roach, John B. Golding, Sophie E. Parks, Minh H. Nguyen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) is a rich source of carotenoids for the manufacture of powder, oil and capsules for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Currently, only the aril of the Gac fruit is processed and the peel, like the other components, is discarded although it contains high level of carotenoids, which could be extracted for commercial use. In the present study, four different drying methods (hot‐air, vacuum, heat pump and freeze drying), different temperatures and drying times were investigated for producing dried Gac peel suitable for carotenoid extraction. RESULTS The drying methods and drying temperatures significantly affected the drying time, carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of the dried Gac peel. Among the investigated drying methods, hot‐air drying at 80 °C and vacuum drying at 50 °C produced dried Gac peel that exhibited the highest retention of carotenoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSION The hot‐air drying at 80 °C and the vacuum drying at 50 °C are recommended for the drying of Gac peel.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T07:10:19.273088-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7918
  • Recent applications of NMR in food and dietary studies
    • Authors: Venkatesh Ramakrishnan; Devanand L. Luthria
      Abstract: Over the last decade, a wide variety of new foods have been introduced into the global market place, many with health benefits that exceed those of traditional foods. Simultaneously, a wide range of analytical technologies have evolved that allow greater capability for the determination of food composition. Thus, the world is being offered an unprecedented number of healthful foods and an unprecedented ability to characterize these foods. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), traditionally a research tool used for structural elucidation, is now being used frequently for metabolomics and chemical fingerprinting. Its stability and inherent ease of quantification have been exploited extensively to identify and quantify bioactive components in foods and dietary supplements. In addition, NMR fingerprints have been used to differentiate cultivars, evaluate sensory properties of food, and investigate the influence of growing conditions on food crops. Here we review the latest applications of NMR in food analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:55:28.58695-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7917
  • Anthocyanins in different Citrus species, an
           UHPLC‐PDA‐ESI/MSn‐assisted qualitative and quantitative
    • Authors: Simona Fabroni; Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Paolo Rapisarda
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins are water‐soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid family. They are typically present in the flesh and peel in the blood orange cultivars. Although blood orange young shoots and flowers are not anthocyanin‐colored, lemon, citron, rangpur lime, and Meyer lemon young shoots and flowers exhibit marked pigmentation due to anthocyanins, demonstrating that anthocyanin biosynthesis in the Citrus genus is tissue‐ and genotype‐dependent. This study aimed to examine the qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin profile of fruit and other tissues from different Citrus species. RESULTS The presence of anthocyanin‐pigmented stigmas in the young flowers of a blood orange tree (cv. ‘Moro’) was herein characterized and reported for the first time. The dominant pigments in blood orange fruits were cyanidin‐3‐glucoside and cyanidin‐3‐(6″‐malonyl‐glucoside), whereas different patterns were observed in the young shoots, flowers and peel tissues of different Citrus species. CONCLUSION This is the first study to report differentially expressed anthocyanin pigmentation patterns in different organs from several species of the genus Citrus. The obtained results could also represent a starting point for further investigations to better understand which regulatory genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the fruits, shoots and floral tissues of different Citrus species.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:46:04.161182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7916
  • Fruit quality assessment of watermelons grafted onto citron melon
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The grafting of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) is a common technique that increases yields under stressful soil conditions. The most common rootstocks for watermelons are Cucurbita hybrids. However, they often have a negative impact on fruit quality. Exploiting novel Citrullus germplasm, such as citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides), is an alternative to avoid these quality problems. RESULTS Citron melon has been validated as watermelon rootstock, comparing its effects on watermelon quality to those of Cucurbita hybrids. Larger fruits with thicker rinds were observed in fruits from plants grafted onto both citron and Cucurbita rootstocks. The citron melon had no significant effect on flesh sugars or acid profiles compared to non‐grafted watermelons, except for an increase in glucose and malic acid content, which also occurred in the Cucurbita rootstocks. The aroma profile of fruits produced onto citron melon was similar to that of the non‐grafted and self‐grafted controls. The citron rootstock didn't display the increased levels of (Z)‐6‐nonen‐1‐ol (a compound associated with pumpkin‐like odors) found in fruits produced with Cucurbita hybrids. CONCLUSION The low impact of citron melon rootstock on fruit quality along with the enhanced resistance against nematodes, make the citron a promising alternative to Cucurbita rootstocks.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:40:45.348276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7915
  • Successful detection of foreign insert in transgenic rice TT51–1
           (BT63) by RNA‐sequencing combined with PCR
    • Authors: Yunjing Li; Jun Li, Yuhua Wu, Yinglong Cao, Jun Li, Li Zhu, Xiaofei Li, Shunmou Huang, Gang Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND As event‐specific sequence information for most unauthorized GMOs is currently still unavailable, detecting unauthorized GMOs remains challenging. Here, we used insect‐resistant rice TT51‐1 as an example to develop a novel approach via detecting GMOs by RNA‐seq (sequencing) and PCR. RNA‐seq of TT51‐1generated 4.8 million (M) 21‐nt cDNA tags. Alignment to the Oryza sativa ssp. japonica reference genome revealed 24,098 unmapped tags. Foreign tags from the nopaline synthetic enzyme gene (NOS) terminator and insect‐resistant genes were then identified by searching against the NCBI VecScreen and NT databases. RESULTS To further isolate foreign DNA sequences, putative NOS terminator and insect‐resistant gene tags were combined and used directly as primer pairs for long‐range PCR, producing a 5016‐bp fragment. The inserted DNA sequence of TT51‐1 has been submitted to a database, and thus, similarity analysis using the database could identify a test sample. CONCLUSION The novel approach has a great potential for application to detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs in food and feed products.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T22:35:26.427732-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7913
  • Effect of postharvest ethylene treatment on sugar content, glycosidase
           activity and its gene expression in mango fruit
    • Authors: Hemangi G. Chidley; Ashish B. Deshpande, Pranjali S. Oak, Keshav H. Pujari, Ashok P. Giri, Vidya S. Gupta
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ripening associated softening is one of the important attributes that largely decides the shelf‐life of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) fruits. To reveal the effect of pre‐climacteric ethylene treatment on ripening related softening of Alphonso mango, ethylene treatment was given to mature‐ raw Alphonso fruits. Changes in the pool of reducing and non‐reducing sugars, enzymatic activity of three glycosidases: β‐D‐galactosidase, α‐D‐mannosidase and β‐D‐glucosidase and their relative transcript abundance were analysed for control and ethylene treated fruits during ripening. RESULTS Early activity of all the three glycosidases and accelerated accumulation of reducing and non‐reducing sugars on ethylene treatment was evident. β‐D‐galactosidase showed the highest activity among three glycosidases in control fruits and marked increase in activity upon ethylene treatment. This was confirmed by the histochemical assay of its activity in control and ethylene treated ripe fruits. Relative transcript abundance revealed high transcript levels of β‐D‐galactosidase in control fruits. Ethylene treated fruits showed early and remarkable increase in the β‐D‐galactosidase transcripts while α‐D‐mannosidase transcript variants displayed early accumulation. CONCLUSION The findings suggests reduction in the shelf‐life of Alphonso mango upon pre‐climacteric ethylene treatment, significant role of β‐D‐galactosidase and α‐D‐mannosidase in the ripening related softening of Alphonso fruits and transcriptional regulation of their expression by ethylene.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:15:24.974086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7912
    • Authors: Claudio Pattara; Carlo Russo, Vittoria Antrodicchia, Angelo Cichelli
      Abstract: The quantification of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions represents a critical issue for the future development of agro‐food produces. Consumer's behavior could play an important role in the requiring of the environmental performance as an essential element for food quality. Nowadays, the Carbon Footprint (CFP) is a tool worldwide used by agro‐food industries to communicating environmental information. This paper aims to investigate the role that CFP could have in consumer's choices in three significant agro‐food sectors in the Mediterranean area: wine, olive oil and cereals. A critical review about the use of CFP was carried out along the supply chain of these three sector, in order to identify opportunities for enhancing food quality and environmental sustainability and highlighting how the environmental information could influence the consumer's preferences. The analysis of the state of the art shows a great variability of the results about GHG emissions referred to agricultural and industrial processes. In many cases, the main environmental criticisms are linked to the agricultural phase, but also the other phases of the supply chain could contribute to rise up the CFP. However, despite the wide use of CFP by companies as communication tool to help consumer's choices in agro‐food product, some improvement are needed in order to provide clearer and more understandable information.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:15:23.575894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7911
  • Carotenoids in fresh and processed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits
           protect cells from oxidative stress injury
    • Authors: Rita Del Giudice; Ganna Petruk, Assunta Raiola, Amalia Barone, Daria Maria Monti, Maria Manuela Rigano
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lipophilic antioxidants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits exert important functions in reducing the risk of human diseases. Here, the effect of thermal processing on the antioxidant activity of lipophilic extracts from the commercial tomato hybrid “Zebrino” was analysed. Carotenoids content and lipophilic antioxidant activity were determined and the ability of tomato extracts in rescuing cells from oxidative stress was assessed RESULTS The lipophilic antioxidant activity was completely retained after heat treatment and extracts were able to mitigate the detrimental effect induced by oxidative stress on different cell lines. Lycopene alone was able to rescue cells from oxidative stress, even if to a lower extent compared to tomato extracts. These results were probably due the synergistic effect of tomato compounds in protecting cells from oxidative stress injury. CONCLUSION The current study provides valuable insights into the health effect of the dietary carotenoids present in fresh and processed tomato fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:05:50.417605-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7910
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high‐fat high‐sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological–and structural– properties involved in fiber‐enriched biscuit dough. High‐amylose‐corn starch (RSII), chemically‐modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) on dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied using dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was evaluated by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. RESULTS Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. Oat fiber reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked inulin biscuits as much as the control. CONCLUSION The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T07:20:29.208263-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7909
  • Purification, characterization, and immunoregulatory activity of a
           polysaccharide isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L
    • Authors: Daheng Zheng; Ye Zou, Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Wei Wang, Qian Li, Yao Chen, Weiwei Feng, Yanmin Zou, Ting Zhao, Min Zhang, Liuqing Yang, Xiangyang Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is not only used traditionally as a component of herbal drinks, beverages, and flavoring agents, but also as herbal medicine in the drug industry. Bioactive polysaccharides are important constituents of H. sabdariffa that may contribute to the plant's beneficial effects. This study was designed to investigate the structural characteristics of a water‐soluble polysaccharide from H. sabdariffa (HSP41), and its immunoregulatory activity on RAW264.7 cells. RESULTS HSP41 was mainly composed of arabinose, xylose, and mannose at a molar ratio of 1:1.34:15.6, with an average molecular weight of 3.3 × 105 Da. Fourier transform infrared (FT‐IR) spectra exhibited absorption peaks characteristic of HSP41. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the amorphous form and the aggregation conformation of HSP41, respectively. HSP41 significantly induced interleukin ‐ (IL) 1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW264.7 cells in vitro, promoting an increase of nuclear factor‐кB p65 (NF‐кB p65) levels in the nucleus. CONCLUSION Our results indicated that HSP41 upregulated the immune response by stimulating RAW264.7 cells activity. HSP41, a promising immunoregulator, possibly contributed to the health benefits of H. sabdariffa, and might have potential applications in health food or medicine.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T07:06:43.403296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7908
  • Pleurotus ostreatus decreases cornstalk lignin content, potentially
           improving its suitability for animal feed
    • Authors: Ying Chen; Huan Fan, Fanrui Meng
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The capacity of Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) to degrade lignin was investigated in the fermentation of cornstalk. Cornstalk was incubated with P. ostreatus for 30 days, and acid soluble and insoluble lignins were assessed. The microscopic structure of cornstalk samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectroscopic characteristics were measured by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR), and solid‐state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C‐NMR). RESULTS During fermentation of cornstalk, the proportion of acid soluble lignin did not vary significantly (p > 0.05), but that of acid insoluble lignin gradually decreased from 17.8% to 7.6% on day 30 (p 
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T07:06:40.1302-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7907
  • Carrot juice ingestion attenuates high fructose‐induced circulatory
           pro‐inflammatory mediators in weanling Wistar rats
    • Authors: Malleswarapu Mahesh; Bharathi Munugala, Mooli Raja Gopal Reddy, Pranati Pappu, Uday Kumar Putcha, Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari, Shanmugam M Jeyakumar
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Adipose tissue, the endocrine organ plays vital role, not only in energy homeostasis, but also in the development and/or progression of various metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), through several factors and mechanisms, including inflammation. Here, we tested carrot juice administration whether affects the adipose tissue development and its inflammatory status or not using high fructose diet‐induced rat model. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into four groups, fed either control or high fructose diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice ingestion for 8 weeks period. RESULTS: Administration of carrot juice did not affect the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT), which was corroborated with unaltered expression of genes involved in adipogenic and lipogenic pathways. However, it significantly reduced high fructose diet‐induced elevation of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) (p ≤ 0.05), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p ≤ 0.01) and high sensitive C‐reactive protein (hsCRP) (p ≤ 0.05) levels. CONCLUSION In conclusion, carrot juice administration attenuated the high fructose diet‐induced elevation of circulatory FFA and pro‐inflammatory mediators; MCP1 and hsCRP levels, without affecting adiposity and cell size of the visceral fat depot; RPWAT.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:56:13.71971-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7906
  • Contribution of yeast and base wine supplementation on sparkling wine
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The differential characteristic of sparkling wine is the formation of foam, which is dependent, among other factors, on yeast autolysis, aging and oenological practices. In this study, we analyzed the effects of yeast strain, nutrient supplementation to the base wine and aging process on the sparkling wine composition and its foamability. RESULTS We determined that the addition of inorganic nitrogen promoted nitrogen liberation to the extracellular medium, while the addition of inactive dry yeast to the base wine caused an increase in the polysaccharide concentration and foaming properties of the sparkling wine. The use of synthetic and natural base wines allowed us to discriminate that the differences in High Molecular Weight Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides could be attributed to the yeast cells and that the higher nitrogen content in the natural wine, could be due to external proteolysis. CONCLUSION The practices of nitrogen addition and supplementation of Inactive Dry Yeast could modulate the main characteristics of the sparkling wine and be a critical element for the design of this kind of wines.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:55:51.094505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7905
  • Effect of chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution as a
           function of pH
    • Authors: Zhengtao Zhao; Qiao Xiao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chitosan was reported to interact with proteins through electrostatic interactions. Their interaction was influenced by pH, which was not fully characterized. Further research about the interactions between protein and chitosan at different pH and their influence on the thermal denaturation of proteins are necessary. RESULTS In this research, the effect of the chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution at pH 4.0‐6.0 was studied. At pH 4.0, small amount chitosan was able to prevent the heat‐induced denaturation and aggregation of whey protein molecules. At higher pH values (5.5 and 6.0), whey proteins complexed with chitosan through electrostatic attraction. The formation of chitosan/whey proteins complexes at pH 5.5 improved the heat stability of dispersions and no precipitation could be detected up to 20 days. The dispersion with medium amount of chitosan (Chitosan/whey protein 1:5) produced the most stable particles, which had an average radius 135 ‐ 14 nm and a zeta potential value 36 ‐ 1 mV. In contrast, at pH 6.0, only the dispersion with high amount of chitosan (Chitosan /whey protein 1:2) showed good shelf stability up to 20 days. CONCLUSIONS It was possible to produce heat‐stable whey protein beverages by regulating the interaction between chitosan and whey protein molecules.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:55:37.585412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7904
  • Synthesis of raffinose by transfructosylation using recombinant
           levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206
    • Authors: Wenjing Li; Shuhuai Yu, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Raffinose, a functional trisaccharide of α‐D‐galactopyranosyl‐(1 → 6)‐α‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐(1 → 2)‐β‐D‐fructofuranoside, is a prebiotic that shows promise for use as a food ingredient. RESULTS In this study, the production of raffinose from melibiose and sucrose was studied using whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring the levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206. The reaction conditions were optimized for raffinose synthesis. The optimal pH, temperature, and washed cell concentration were pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM), 55 °C, and 3% (w/v), respectively. High substrate concentrations, which led to low water activity and thus reduced levansucrase hydrolysis activity, strongly favored the production of raffinose through the fructosyl transfer reaction. Additionally, high concentrations of excess acceptor and donor glycosides favored raffinose production. When 30% (w/v) sucrose and 30% (w/v) melibiose were catalyzed using 3% (w/v) whole cells at pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM) and 55 °C, the highest raffinose yield was 222 g L−1 after a 6 h reaction. The conversion ratio from each substrate to raffinose was 50%. CONCLUSION Raffinose could be effectively produced with melibiose as an acceptor and with sucrose as a fructosyl donor by whole recombinant E. coli cells harboring C. arbusti levansucrase. The yield from E. coli was significantly higher than those of the previously reported Bacillus subtilis levansucrase and fungal α‐galactosidases.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:55:27.16657-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7903
  • Feed and fuel: The dual‐purpose advantage of an industrial
    • Authors: Wendy A. Mussoline; Ann C. Wilkie
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sustainable agricultural systems must support nutritional requirements, meet energy demands of a growing population, preserve environmental resources, and mitigate climate change. The sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a high‐yielding crop that requires minimal fertilization and irrigation, and the CX‐1 industrial cultivar offers superior potential for feed and fuel. RESULTS CX‐1 had the highest agronomic fresh vine yield (51.5 t ha−1) averaged over two cropping seasons compared with Hernandez (33.7) and Beauregard (21.8) varieties. CX‐1 vines were more nutritional than the table varieties, specifically in regards to relative feed value (205), water‐soluble carbohydrates (171 g kg−1 DM), total digestible nutrients (643 g kg−1 DM), metabolizable energy (10.2 MJ kg−1 DM), and organic matter digestibility. Their lower fiber and lignin concentrations contributed to their freshness and digestibility throughout maturity. Significantly higher iron concentrations make the CX‐1 vines a valuable, low‐fat iron supplement for animal feed. The CX‐1 roots also showed the highest bioethanol potential (82.3 g ethanol kg−1 fresh root) compared to Hernandez (64.5) and Beauregard (48.1). CONCLUSION The CX‐1 industrial sweetpotato is an ideal dual‐purpose crop for tropical/subtropical climates that can be utilized as a non‐grain‐based feedstock for bioethanol production while contributing a valuable, high‐yielding nutritional supplement for animal feed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T04:05:23.936399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7902
  • Influence of Chitosan‐sodium Alginate Pretreated by Ultrasound on
           the Enzyme Activity, Viscosity and Structure of Papain
    • Authors: Liping Feng; Yanping Cao, Duoxia Xu, Dandan Zhang, Zhenghua Huang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ultrasound treatment has been proved as an effective technique in improving the activity of immobilized enzyme. However, its mechanism is unclear. RESULTS The effect of ultrasonic pretreated chitosan‐sodium alginate (CHI‐ALG) on the enzymatic activity of papain was investigated through the single factor (temperature, time, frequency, power) experiment. The maximum relative enzyme activity of papain was observed when it mixed with ultrasound pretreated CHI‐ALG at 135 kHz, 0.25 W cm−2, 50 °C for 20 min, under which the relative activity increased by 72.14% compared with the untreated CHI‐ALG. Viscosity analysis of papain mixed with CHI‐ALG pretreated and untreated by ultrasound revealed that the stronger association interactions between the polymers were formed than untreated sample. Fluorescence and Circular dichroism spectra reflected that the ultrasonic pretreatment of CHI‐ALG increased the number of tryptophan on papain surface and increased the content of α‐helix by 6.97% and decreased the content of β‐sheet by 3.45% compared with the untreated solution. CONCLUSION Results indicated that papain combined with CHI‐ALG pretreated by appropriate ultrasound could be effective in improving the activity of immobilized enzyme because of changes of its structure and intermolecular interactions. It is important to extend the application of CHI‐ALG gel in the immobilized enzyme industry.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T04:00:21.090022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7901
  • Effects of salt stress imposed during two growth phases on cauliflower
           production and quality
    • Authors: Francesco Giuffrida; Carla Cassaniti, Angelo Malvuccio, Cherubino Leonardi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cultivation of cauliflower is diffused in Mediterranean areas where water salinity produces a need to look for alternative irrigation sources or management strategy. The aim of this study was to understand, through the use of saline water at two growth phases (from transplanting to visible appearance of inflorescence or from appearance of inflorescence to head harvest) the growth period more suitable for irrigation with low quality water in relation to cauliflower production and quality. RESULTS Salinity affected cauliflower growth mainly when imposed at the first growth phase. The growth reduction depended mainly on ion‐specific effects, although slight nutrient imbalances due to Na+ and Cl− antagonisms were observed. The use of non‐saline water in the first or second growth period reduced both osmotic and toxic effects of salinity. When salinity was applied during the inflorescence growth, yield was reduced because of a restriction of water accumulation in the head. CONCLUSION The results showed the possibility to produce marketable cauliflower heads under salinity conditions by timing the application of the best quality water during the first growth phase to improve fruit quality and at the second phase to reduce the negative effects of salinity on yield.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:50:23.197411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7900
  • A small angle X‐ray scattering study of the structure and
           development of looseness in bovine hides and leather
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Some bovine hides produce poor quality leather, called loose leather. The structural characteristics of hides and intermediate processed stages that lead to loose leather are not well understood. Here, synchrotron‐based small angle X‐ray scattering (SAXS) is used to investigate the collagen fibril orientation at different stages of processing, from hide through to leather, that result in both tight and loose leathers. RESULTS Tight leather of a relatively isotropic texture has a lower orientation index (OI) than loose leather of a more pronounced stratified texture; conversely, tight pickled hide and wet blue have a higher OI than loose pickled hide and wet blue. There is a greater increase in OI on processing from pickled hide to dry crust (leather) for loose material. This is largely due to a greater increase in hide thickness prior to pickling for loose hide than tight, followed by a greater decrease at the dry crust stage. The collagen fibrils in loose leather and wet blue more readily orient under stress than do those in tight. Loose leather has a more pronounced layered structure than tight leather but this difference is not apparent from SAXS measurements of hide prior to the dry crust stage; it develops during processing. CONCLUSION The greater swelling of the loose hide during processing disrupts the structure and leads to a more layered collagen arrangement on shrinking at the final dry crust stage.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:40:32.433222-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7899
  • The combined effect of water status and crop level on Tempranillo wine
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of water status and crop level on volatile composition of Tempranillo wine was investigated over two growing seasons (2010–2011) in Extremadura (Spain). Three water status treatments (T0‐Rainfed control, T1‐Early regulated deficit irrigation and T2‐Late regulated deficit irrigation) were combined with two crop levels treatments (TH‐cluster thinning and C‐control). RESULTS Crop level treatment had a higher effect on individual volatiles analyzed in Tempranillo wine than water status. The combinations of water status and crop level treatments showed effects on all families of compounds with exception of acetates and volatile fatty acids. Alcohols, C6 compounds and phenol volatiles producing the highest concentrations at the lower level of available water and when cluster thinning was applied (T0‐TH). However, ethyl ester and lactones showed higher concentrations in regulated deficit irrigation (T1 and T2), and when cluster thinning was not applied. CONCLUSION The combined effect of rainfed and cluster thinning treatments (T0‐TH) increased the majority of individual aromatic compounds quantified in Tempranillo wines and also showed the highest total odor activity value.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:25:21.097575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7898
  • The identification and evaluation of two different color variations of tea
    • Authors: Yuchen Li; Changsong Chen, Yusheng Li, Zhaotang Ding, Jiazhi Shen, Yu Wang, Lei Zhao, Meng Xu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz, is a perennial woody plant widely cultivated for the production of a popular non‐alcoholic beverage. To rapidly identify and evaluate two different color tea varieties (yellowish and purplish), the main phenotypic traits and quality components were tested in this study. Then the metabolic profiles of tea shoots and leaves were analyzed using LC‐MS/MS. RESULTS The yellowish variation had higher active level in catechins metabolism, and contents of luteolin and kaempferol 3‐α‐D‐glucoside were much higher than others. But the purplish variation had low content of theanine and high content of caffeine. The contents of quercetin and kaempferol 3‐α‐D‐galactoside were the highest in purplish leaves. Moreover, the yellowish variation had the highest total quality scores of green teas and black teas, while the purplish variation had the highest scores of oolong teas. CONCLUSION Both the yellowish variation and the purplish variation were excellent breeding materials and worthwhile to breed new tea cultivars. The yellowish variation is more suitable to make high grade green teas or black teas, while the purplish variation is suitable to produce fine quality oolong teas.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:20:46.512572-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7897
  • A rat model for determining the postprandial response to foods
    • Authors: Damien P. Belobrajdic; Jiangqin Wei, Anthony R. Bird
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of small animal models for studying postprandial changes in circulating nutrients, hormones and metabolic biomarkers is hampered by the limited quantity of blood that can be withdrawn for analysis. Here we describe the development of an unrestrained, meal‐fed rat model, having a permanent or temporary vascular cannula that permits repeated blood sampling. The applicability and performance of the model was evaluated in a series of experiments on acute glycemic and insulinemic responses to carbohydrate‐based test meals. RESULTS A test food containing 0.4 g carbohydrate raised blood glucose by 1.5 mM. Postprandial blood glucose levels peaked at 15 min and returned to baseline at 180 min whereas they remained elevated for longer when the test meal contained 1.25 g carbohydrate. The glycemic response tended (P = 0.063) to be higher when the meal tolerance test was conducted at the start rather than the end of the dark period but the insulinemic response was unaffected. The magnitude of the glycemic response was less for blood collected from the caudal vein compared to that from the jugular vein. Both cannulation strategies were equally effective in enabling return of red blood cells, thus preserving blood volume. CONCLUSION This improved small animal model affords new opportunities to screen foods for nutrient bioavailability and explore metabolic mechanisms mediating responses to food consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T09:11:15.64206-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7896
  • Deficit Irrigation Reduces Postharvest Rib Pinking in Wholehead Iceberg
           Lettuce, but at the Expense of Head Fresh Weight
    • Authors: James M Monaghan; Laura H Vickers, Ivan G Grove, Andrew M Beacham
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Postharvest pinking is a serious issue affecting lettuce quality. Previous studies suggested the possibility of using deficit irrigation to control discolouration, however, this approach may also affect yield. This study investigated the effect of varying irrigation deficits on iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to determine the relationship between irrigation deficit, pinking and fresh weight. RESULTS The deficit imposed and head fresh weight obtained depended on both the duration and timing of withholding irrigation. Withholding irrigation for a period of two or three weeks in the middle or end of the growth period significantly reduced rib pinking compared to well‐watered controls. Withholding irrigation for two weeks at the start of the growth period or one week at the end did not significantly reduce pinking. Withholding irrigation also reduced head fresh weight such that minimising pinking would be predicted to incur a loss of 40% relative to well‐watered controls. However, smaller benefits to pinking reduction were achieved with less effect on head fresh weight. CONCLUSION Deficit irrigation could therefore be used to provide smaller but higher quality heads which are less likely to be rejected. The balance of these factors will determine the degree of adoption of this approach to growers.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T09:06:24.082988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7895
  • Maghemite nanoparticles‐decorated hollow fiber‐electromembrane
           extraction combined with dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction
           for determination of thymol from Carum copticum
    • Abstract: Background In this study, a novel technique using maghemite nanoparticles‐decorated hollow fiber to assist electromembrane extraction is proposed. The electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction (EME‐DLLME) was applied for the extraction of thymol from Carum copticum followed by gas chromatography‐flame ionization detection (GC‐FID). Results The use of maghemite nanoparticles‐decorated hollow fibers was found to improve the extraction efficiency of thymol significantly. Important operational parameters including pH of acceptor phase, extraction time, voltage, and temperature were investigated and optimized. At the optimum conditions, the linearity in the range of 4–1800 µg L−1 with the determination coefficient of 0.9996 was obtained. The limit of detection was 0.11 µg L−1 (S/N = 3) and the pre‐concentration factor was 200. The intra and inter day precisions (%) were 5.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The intra and inter days accuracy was higher than 93.6%. Conclusion Therefore, the results indicated that EME‐DLLME‐GC‐FID is a useful technique for extraction and determination of thymol in Carum copticum.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T08:45:30.559048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7894
  • Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste
           supported aluminum oxides
    • Abstract: Background Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. Results In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste‐based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea‐Al) was successfully prepared. The Tea‐Al biosorbent was characterized by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The Tea‐Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), while a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine under the same condition. Fluoride adsorption by the Tea‐Al with different times obeyed the surface reaction and the adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrated that Tea‐Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T08:45:21.529871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7893
  • Effect of composted sewage sludge on morpho‐physiological growth
           parameters, grain yield and selected functional compounds of barley
    • Authors: Antonella Pasqualone; Carmine Summo, Isabella Centomani, Giovanni Lacolla, Gianraffaele Caranfa, Giovanna Cucci
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Several studies had evaluated the effects of composted sewage sludge on barley, and found a positive influence on crop productivity. No studies investigated the effects of composted sewage sludge on functional compounds of the caryopsis, such as phenolics and β‐glucans. The former play a role in plant defence mechanism and both could be influenced by variations of kernel size related to fertilization intensity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses (3–12 Mg ha−1) of composted sewage sludge applied alone or in combination with mineral fertilization on morpho‐physiological and yield, qualitative parameters, especially phenolics and β‐glucans contents of the grains, in barley. RESULTS Increasing fertilization rates, irrespective of fertilizer type, improved morpho‐physiological and yield parameters, whereas the phenolic compounds and the related antioxidant activity significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The β‐glucans and the main color indices did not show significant differences. The combined application of 6 Mg ha−1 sewage sludge and nitrogen was not significantly different from mineral fertilization. Morpho‐physiological and qualitative parameters, and bioactive compounds, were all significantly correlated with nutrient levels, with higher r values for N. CONCLUSION Composted sewage sludge had a similar effect compared to mineral fertilization.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T08:41:15.900395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7892
  • Irrigation Dose and Plant Density Affect the Volatile Composition and
           Sensory Quality of Dill (Anethum graveolens L.)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Two independent field experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of (i) 3 irrigation treatments (ID0 =1585 m3 ha−1, considered as a control; ID1 = 1015 m3 ha−1; and, ID2 = 2180 m3 ha−1), or (ii) 3 plant density treatments (PD0 = 5.56 plants m−2, considered as a control; PD1= 4.44 plants m−2; and, PD2 = 7.41 plants m−2) on the production, volatile composition of essential oil, and sensory quality of dill. RESULTS The results showed that the highest plant yield was obtained with intermediate conditions of both irrigation dose (ID0) and plant density (PD0). The main compounds of the essential oil were α‐phellandrene, dill ether, and β‐phellandrene. The highest irrigation dose (ID2) produced the highest concentrations of most of the main compounds: α‐phellandrene (49.5 mg 100 g−1), β‐phellandrene (6.89 mg 100 g−1) and limonene (2.49 mg 100 g−1); a similar pattern was found for the highest plant density (PD2), α‐phellandrene (71.0 mg 100 g−1), dill ether (16.7 mg 100 g−1) and β‐phellandrene (9.70 mg 100 g−1). The use of descriptive sensory analysis helped in reaching a final decision and the dill plants with the highest sensory quality were those of the ID2 and PD0 treatments. CONCLUSION The final recommendation is to use the irrigation dose of ID2 and the plant density of PD2 if the objective is to produce dill samples with the highest aromatic and sensory quality; however, if the only objective is to produce high amounts of dill, the best options are ID0 and PD0.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:45:26.068808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7890
  • Comparison of the effects of three kinds of aminobutyric acids on control
           of Penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit
    • Authors: Da Fu Yu Sun; Chen Yu, Xiaodong Zheng, Ting Yu, Huangping Lu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aminobutyric acids were reported to have inhibitory effect on postharvest fungal diseases. The effects of α‐aminobutyric acid (AABA), β‐aminobutyric acid (BABA) and γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) on control of Penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit were compared in this study. RESULTS BABA and GABA reduced disease incidence of the P. expansum infection in pear fruit at an appropriate concentration and treatment time and the efficacy of GABA was superior to BABA, but AABA had no inhibition effect. Three kinds of aminobutyric acids almost had no direct antifungal activity against P. expansum in vitro and in vivo, but BABA and GABA inhibited spore germination of P. expansum in vivo at 100 mg L−1 when P. expansum was inoculated 24 h after treatments. Moreover, BABA and GABA enhanced catalase activity and all three aminobutyric acids enhanced peroxidase activity in pear fruit after challenged by P. expansum, but BABA and GABA were more forceful than AABA. CONCLUSION The position of amino group in aminobutyric acids may be associated with the effects of aminobutyric acids on control of postharvest fungal diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:45:21.009288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7891
  • Degradation rates of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas L. oil and pressed
           seeds under different storage conditions
    • Authors: Naphatsarnan Phasukarratchai; Seelawut Damrongsiri, Chantra Tongcumpou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Phorbol esters (PEs), found in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and J. curcas pressed seeds (JPS), are known as bioactive compounds in agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The degradation rates of PEs in JCO and JPSs under various conditions is important for the Pes utilization. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the PE degradation rates in JCO and JPSs under different storage conditions. RESULTS PE degradation rates were found to be first order reactions. The slowest degradation rate was at 0.9 × 10−3 d−1 for both JCO and JPSs unexposed to light at 4 °C. Light intensity (1097 lx and 4690 lx, representing diffused sunlight and fluorescent lighting, respectively) and temperature (25 to 35 °C) were the significant degradation factors. Light exposure led to 280 to 380% higher degradation rates in JCO than in JPSs due to light penetration through the transparent oil. Dried and sterilized JPSs showed an 80 to 90% lower PE degradation rate than untreated JPSs under all storage conditions since biodegradation was assembly limited. CONCLUSION The PEs were unstable under the studied conditions, especially when exposed to light and room temperature. To protect against PE degradation, a material should be stored in a light‐protected container and below 4 °C.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:41:11.676796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7888
  • Effect of technological factors on the activity and losses of cathepsins
           B, D and L during the marinating of Atlantic and Baltic herrings
    • Authors: Mariusz Szymczak
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study analyzes the effect of salt and acetic acid concentration, time, temperature and fish freezing on the activity and losses of cathepsins during the marinating of Atlantic and Baltic herrings. RESULTS The highest contribution in meat GPA was found for cathepsin D‐like. This contribution decreased during the marinating process as a result of, among other things, cathepsins losses to brine. The methods of marinating had a significant impact on cathepsin activity losses. The average ratio of the activity of cathepsin D‐like to L and B in the brine accounted for 15 : 3.5 : 1.5, respectively. Depending on the method of calculation, cathepsins activity in the brine was similar (per gram‐tissue/ml brine) or multiply higher (per gram‐protein in tissue/brine) than in the marinated herring meat. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the extent and structure of cathepsin losses were significantly correlated with the quantitative and qualitative composition of protein hydrolysis products in marinades. CONCLUSION The presented results depict new phenomena of cathepsins losses and explain their impact on the process of fish marinating. Results allow better optimization of the process of meat ripening. The high activity of aspartyl and cysteine cathepsins in brine indicates the real feasibility of their application in the food industry for novel food designing.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:41:06.39641-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7889
  • Sonodegradation of Cyanidin‐3‐glucosylrutinoside: degradation
           kinetic analysis and its impact on antioxidant capacity in vitro
    • Authors: Jianxia Sun; Xinghua Li, Xinyu Lin, Zhouxiong Mei, Yitao Li, Lijun Ding, Weibin Bai
      Abstract: Background As an alternative preservation method for thermal treatment, ultrasound is a novel non‐thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, recently literature indicated that anthocyanin degradation occurred when ultrasound was applied in juice at high amplitude parameters. This work mainly studied the effect of ultrasound on stability, antioxidant capacity of Cyanidin‐3‐glucosylrutinoside (Cy‐3‐glc‐rut) and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and ·OH generation in simulated system. Results The spectral intensities of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut at 518 nm and 282 nm decreased with increasing ultrasound power and treatment time. The degradation of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut were consistent with first‐order reaction kinetics (R2>0.9000), and there was a good linear correlation between anthocyanins degradation and hydroxyl radical formation induced by ultrasound (R2=0.9258). Moreover, the decrease of antioxidant activity of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut after ultrasound evaluated by DPPH and FRAP methods was observed. Conclusion Overall, the results showed that ultrasound will accelerate the degradation of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut with the growth of power and the increment of time.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T06:45:23.378272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7887
  • Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of açaí (Euterpe
           oleracea): genotypes and commercial pulps
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Açaí has been reported to contain many bioactive compounds including phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins. This study aims to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of six pulps of three different açaí genotypes belonging to the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Eastern Amazon and three commercial pulps, from Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. RESULTS Anthocyanin 3‐rutinoside was the major anthocyanin present in freeze‐dried açaí pulp samples. The commercial sample C showed the greatest amounts of cyanidin 3‐glucoside and cyanidin 3‐rutinoside (18,942 µg g‐1 and 34,397 µg g‐1, respectively). The content of phenolic compounds varied significantly among the commercial and genotypes samples, and the vanillic acid was found in the highest concentration in the samples studied. All açaí samples showed high DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values, confirming the exceptionally high radical scavenging capacity of the açaí pulp, as previously reported by other researchers. CONCLUSION The commercial samples showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher levels of anthocyanin and non‐anthocyanin compounds than those of the genotypes. Among the genotypes studied, L4P16 stood out for its higher contents of fiber and bioactive compounds and higher antioxidant capacity, indicating that this genotype has a great potential for use in plant breeding programs that should be further explored.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T05:15:20.471128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7886
  • Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry
    • Authors: Qixing Nie; Lei Feng, Jielun Hu, Sunan Wang, Haihong Chen, Xiaojun Huang, Shaoping Nie, Tao Xiong, Mingyong Xie
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Blueberry products have variously healthy benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on the total anthocyanins content, composition and some quality attributes of the blueberry puree. Blueberry puree used here was fermented 40 hours at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. Ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids, and viscosity were measured. RESULTS A total of 21 anthocyanins and 5 anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanins content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanin compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanins content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized‐fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influenced viscosity. CONCLUSIONS The loss of total anthocyanins content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T05:10:20.712342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7885
  • Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and
           sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil
    • Authors: Lucia Morrone; Sabrina Pupillo, Luisa Neri, Giampaolo Bertazza, Massimiliano Magli, Annalisa Rotondi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two‐way ANOVA. RESULTS Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. CONCLUSION The knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow the olive oil producer to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumers. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of EVOO polyphenols, don't have a great sensory appeal for most of the consumers, however there's niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customize the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:20:24.772524-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7883
  • Enzymatic extraction and characterisation of a thermostable collagen from
           swim bladder of rohu (Labeo rohita)
    • Authors: Gaurav Kumar Pal; Nidheesh T, Govindaraju K, Jyoti, P.V. Suresh
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The fish swim bladder is considered as a potential source of realistic collagen. Currently, the Indian major carp rohu (Labeo rohita) processing generates an enormous quantity of non‐edible by‐products including swim bladders, which are discarded as waste with no commercial value. In this investigation, collagen was prepared from rohu swim bladder and its physicochemical, and fibril forming capacity have been assessed. RESULTS The collagen isolated from rohu swim bladder was characterised as type I, containing α1 and α2 chains with triple helical structure by SDS‐PAGE, FTIR, and amino acid analysis. Extracted collagen denaturation temperature was found 42.16 oC by DSC analysis and also exhibited a high solubility in the presence of low NaCl concentrations (0‐0.6 mol L‐1). The extracted collagen exhibited the higher fibril‐formation capacity at 1.5 mol L‐1 NaCl concentration. SEM microstructure of collagen showed a porous, sheet‐like film, and multi‐layered structure. The fibril formation capacity of collagen confirmed using SEM analysis. CONCLUSION The rohu swim bladder type I collagen was successfully extracted using the enzymatic method with a yield of 465.2 g kg‐1 (dwb) and characterised with a well maintained triple helical structure. The extracted collagen has exhibited higher fibril‐forming ability. The result of the study proved that utilisation of rohu swim bladder will open up a new avenue for better disposal of by‐products and also help to minimise environmental pollution issues.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:20:22.587024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7884
  • Fermented goat milk improves antioxidant status and protects from
           oxidative damage to biomolecules during anemia recovery
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Fe deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and it is accepted that ROS production is altered during IDA. The aim of the current study is to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their roles protecting main from the oxidative damage during anemia recovery. RESULTS After feeding the fermented milks, a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes were found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS) and a decrease in 8‐hydroxy‐2'‐deoxyguanosine (8‐OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk‐based diet. In contrast, DNA strand breaks, hydroperoxides, 15‐Ft isoprostanes and protein carbonyl groups were lower in some tissues in animals fed fermented goat milk‐based diet, revealing an improvement of both systemic and cellular antioxidant activity of plasma and tissues due to fermented goat milk consumption. CONCLUSIONS Fermented goat milk consumption induces a protective increase in TAS together with lower oxidative damage biomarkers, revealing that milk protects the main cell bioconstituents (lipids, protein, DNA, prostaglandins) from evoked oxidative damage during anemia recovery.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:15:23.947112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7882
  • Rapid Biodegradation of Aflatoxin B1 by Metabolites of Fusarium sp.
           WCQ3361 with Broad Working Temperature and Excellent Thermostability
    • Authors: Cuiqiong Wang; Zhongyuan Li, Hui Wang, Haiyan Qiu, Minghui Zhang, Shuang Li, Xuegang Luo, Yajian Song, Hao Zhou, Wenjian Ma, Tongcun Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has posed serious economic and health problem worldwide, developing biological methods for AFB1 degradation is highly required. RESULTS Among three AFB1 degrading microorganisms isolated from moldy peanut, Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 could remove AFB1 extremely effective with a degradation ratio of 70.20% after 1 min and 95.38% after 24 h. Its degradation ratio was not much affected by temperature change (0‐90 °C), and it also displayed excellent thermostability, maintained 99.40% residual activity after boiling for 10 min. Since protease K could reduce the AFB1 degradation ratio by 55.15 %, we proposed that the effective component for AFB1 degradation is a protein. The AFB1 degradation ability of Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 was further verified by feed stock detoxication and MTT test with HepG2 cells. In addition, no degradation products were detected by preliminary liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, suggesting AFB1 might be metabolized to products with different chemical characteristics from AFB1. CONCLUSION Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 was the first reported AFB1 degradation fungus belonging to genus Fusarium with broad reaction temperature range, excellent thermostability and high activity, which provides a potential highly useful solution to dealing with AFB1 contamination in human diet and animal feed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:15:22.6747-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7872
  • Determination of biogenic amines in Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) by
           ion‐pair extraction and liquid chromatography‐tandem mass
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Ion‐pair extraction combined with liquid chromatography ‐ tandem mass spectrometry method has been proposed for the determination of biogenic amines in licorice samples. RESULTS Limit of detection and limit of quantitation for the biogenic amines were 1.4‐2.7 and 4.7‐9.1 ng mL−1, respectively. Relative standard deviations based on five replicate extraction of 100 ng mL−1 of each biogenic amines were 
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:15:21.321022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7881
  • Quality comparison of elephant apple juices after high‐pressure
           processing and thermal treatment
    • Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak; Kalpana Rayaguru, Kesavan Radha krishnan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the present work, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the quality parameters (pH, Brix, total acidity, viscosity, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, total falvonoids, microbial flora, and sensory analysis) of elephant apple (Dillenia indica) juice was investigated. The juice samples were analysed periodically (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) during 60 days of storage period and results were compared with thermally processed as well as with untreated (fresh juice) samples. RESULTS Slight variations had been observed in the quality parameters like pH, °Brix and total acidity. Other parameters like colour values, antioxidant activity, total phenols and total flavonoids were varied significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T03:30:31.414112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7878
  • Green tea extract as an anti‐browning agent for cloudy apple juice
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L‐1, 2 g L‐1 and 3 g L‐1 on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and color stability of juice during short‐time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice color during storage was expressed as the total color differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A420). RESULTS All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration‐dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L‐1, 2 g L‐1 and 3 g L‐1 tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L‐1, 2 g L‐1 and 3 g L‐1 inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. CONCLUSION Green tea extract may be an effective anti‐browning agent for short‐time stored cloudy apple juices.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T03:30:29.296469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7880
  • Purification and Characterization of a salt‐stable protease from
           halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum
    • Authors: Ruichang Gao; Tong Shi, Xiangdong Liu, Mengqin Zhao, Henglin Cui, Li Yuan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Because proteases play an important role in the fermentation of fish sauce, the purification and characterization of an extracellular protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum was investigated. RESULTS The molecular mass of the protease was estimated to be approximately 47 kDa based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS‐PAGE) and native‐PAGE analysis. The optimum conditions for catalytic activity were pH 8.0 and 50 °C. The protease showed alkaline stability (pH 7.0 ‐ 10.0). The protease also exhibited novel catalytic ability over a broad range of salinity (NaCl 0‐3 mol L‐1). Calcium ion enhanced the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The Km and Vmax values of the purified protease for casein were calculated to be 4.89 mg mL‐1 and 1111.11 U mL‐1, respectively. The protease was strongly inhibited by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Meanwhile, the protease was stable in the presence of Trition X‐100, isopropanol, ethanol or dithio‐bis‐nitrobenzoic (DTNB), but was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or methanol. MALDI ‐TOF/TOF MS analysis revealed that the protease shared some functional traits with protease produced by Halogranum salarium. Furthermore, it exhibited high hydrolytic activity on silver carp myosin protein. CONCLUSION The protease is an alkaline and salt‐tolerant enzyme that hydrolyzes silver carp myosin with high efficiency. These excellent characteristics make this protease an attractive candidate for industrial use in low salt fish sauce fermentation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T03:30:22.75029-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7879
  • In vitro antioxidant activity of rice protein affected by alkaline degree
           and gastrointestinal protease digestion
    • Authors: Ye Liu; Zhengxuan Wang, Hui Li, Mingcai Liang, Lin Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To elucidate whether and how alkali treatment, which is a common process for rice protein (RP) extraction, affects antioxidant activity of RP, the different degree of alkali (from 0.1% to 0.4% of NaOH) was used to extract RP (RP‐1, RP‐2, RP‐3, RP‐4). RESULTS The antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (2,2′‐azinobis (3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, ABTS; 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, DPPH), chelating metals (iron, copper) and reducing power investigated in the hydrolysates of RPs (RP‐1, RP‐2, RP‐3, RP‐4) during in vitro pepsin‐pancreatin digestion were effectively affected by alkali treatment. The present study demonstrated that the weakest antioxidant responses to ABTS radical‐scavenging activity, DPPH radical‐scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, copper chelating activity and reducing power were produced by RP‐4 extracted by the highest alkali proportion (0.4% NaOH). CONCULSION The present study indicates that antioxidant capacity of RP could be more readily depressed by strict alkali degree and affected by gastrointestinal proteases. Results suggest that alkali extraction is a vital processing to regulate the antioxidant activity of RP through modifying the compositions of amino acids, which are dependent on alkali magnitude.
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T11:35:36.481076-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7877
  • Products derived from olive leaves and fruits can alter in vitro ruminal
           fermentation and methane production
    • Authors: P. Shakeri; Z. Durmic, J. Vadhanabhuti, P. E. Vercoe
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The industrial processing of olive generates a high quantity of by‐products. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of products derived from olive trees, i.e. leaves, fruits or kernels as a sole substrate (part A), and crude extract from leaves combined with a substrate (part B) on rumen microbial fermentation in an in vitro batch fermentation system. In this study, total gas production, methane production, and concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia in ruminal fluid were measured. RESULTS In the part A, in vitro fermentation of leaves or fruits yielded a gas and total VFA production that were comparable with control substrate, while most of them produced significantly less methane (up to 55.6 %) when compared to control substrate. In the part B, amongst leaf extracts, only addition of chloroform extract reduced methane production, which was also associated with a decrease (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T11:35:29.233613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7876
  • 33 Years of 2‐Acetyl‐1‐Pyrroline, a Principle Basmati
           Aroma Compound in Scented Rice (Oryza sativa L.): A Status Review
    • Authors: Kantilal Wakte; Rahul Zanan, Vidya Hinge, Kiran Khandagale, Altafhusain Nadaf, Robert Henry
      Abstract: Rice is the staple food of around 3 billion people, most of them in Asia which accounts for 90 percent of global rice consumption. Aromatic rices have been preferred over non‐aromatic rice for hundreds of years. They have a premium value in national as well as international market owing to their unique aroma and quality. Many researchers were involved in identifying the compound responsible for the pleasant aroma in aromatic rice in 20th century. However due to its unstable nature, 2‐acetyl‐1‐pyrroline (2AP) was discovered very late, in 1982. Buttery and co‐workers found 2AP to be the principle compound imparting the pleasant aroma to basmati and other scented rice varieties. Since then, 2AP has been identified in all fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties and a wide range of plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and various food products. The present article reviews in detail biochemical and genetic aspects of 2AP in living systems. The site of synthesis, site of storage and stability in plant systems in vivo is of interest. This compound requires more research on stability to facilitate use as a food additive.
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T11:30:46.376292-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7875
  • Protective effects of allicin on streptozotocin‑induced diabetic
           nephropathy in rats
    • Authors: Hong Huang; Ying Jiang, Genxiang Mao, Fang Yuan, Hexin Zheng, Yuan Ruan, Tianfeng Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies in animal models have showed that allicin, a major biologically active component of garlic, can play a role in the prevention of tissue fibrosis in liver, lung and heart, mainly related to the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, fibrogenic cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix synthesis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of allicin, on the damage of renal in streptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic rats. STZ‐induced diabetic rats were administered allicin (15, 30 , 45 mg · kg−1 · d−1, respectively) via daily intra‐gastric gavage for 12weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (sCr), lipid and 24‐hour urine albumin excretion (UAE) were measured at the end of the 4, 8, 12th week.The renal histopathology and the expression levels of collagen I, Transforming growth factor‐β1 (TGF‐β1) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal‐regulated kinase 1/2 (p‐ERK1/2) were measured using immunohistochemisty, and (or) Western blot. RESULTS In 12‐week‐STZ‐induced diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and albuminuria were markedly developed. Treatment with allicin for 12 weeks ameliorated diabetes‐induced morphological alterations of the kidney, decreased FBG, BUN, sCr, triglyceride (TG) and 24h UAE in diabetic rats. The expression of collagen I, TGF‐β1 and p‐ERK1/2 protein were significantly decreased by allicin treatment. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that allicin may play a protective role in diabetic nephropathy via at least through TGF‐β1 / ERK pathway in diabetic rats.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:25:39.817551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7874
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study combines morphological and anatomical studies, cell wall chemical composition, as well as the assessment of the nutritional value of Guadua chacoensis foliage leaves. RESULTS Foliage leaves of G. chacoensis are a promising source of forage because: (a) as a native woody bamboo it is adapted and it helps to maintain environmental conditions in America, (b) leaf anatomical studies exhibit discontinuous sclerenchyma, scarcely developed; pilose indumentum, silica cells, prickles, and hooks are also scarce, (c) it has a high protein content, similar to that of Medicago sativa, while other nutritional parameters are similar to those of common forages, and (d) glucuronoarabinoxylan, the major extracted polysaccharide, has 1/3 of the 4‐linked β‐d‐xylopyranosyl units of the backbone substituted mainly with α‐l‐arabinofuranose as single stubs or non reducing end of short chains, but also 5‐linked α‐l‐arabinofuranose units, terminal β‐d‐xylopyranose and d‐galactopyranose units, and α‐d‐glucuronic acid residues, and small amounts of its 4‐O‐methylated derivative. CONCLUSION These results constitute the first report for this species and as culms are utilized in constructions and crafts, the remaining leaves, when used as forage, constitute a byproduct that allows an additional income opportunity.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:25:35.136963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7873
  • Effects of probiotics supplementation in different nutrient density diets
           on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal
           microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Probiotics can serve as alternatives to increasing performance in weaning pigs and the intake of probiotics affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. RESULTS From d 22 to 42, both high‐nutrient‐density and probiotics complex supplementation diets increased (P
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:15:20.55505-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7871
  • Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas
           made from different botanical materials by comprehensive
           two‐dimensional gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on
           the technology of ultra‐fast gas chromatography
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Vodka is a spirit‐based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin were costly, time‐consuming and insufficient to distinguish between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests. RESULTS In the present work, we employed the comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and electronic nose based on the technology of ultra‐fast gas chromatography with chemometric methods such as PLSDA, DFA and SIMCA. CONCLUSION Both techniques allowed to distinguish between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose, however e‐nose allowed to significantly faster analysis of vodkas.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:10:25.945194-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7868
  • Influence of lactose hydrolysis on galacto‐oligosaccharides,
           lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different
           yogurt varieties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Different types of reduced‐lactose yogurt, obtained by lactose hydrolysis using β‐galactosidase enzyme, are commercially available. The breakdown of lactose modifies the carbohydrate profile, including the production of prebiotic galacto‐oligosaccharides (GOS), which could affect the survival and activity of starter and probiotic cultures and the parameters of yogurt quality. The extension of these changes is dependent on the yogurt matrix composition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lactose hydrolysis on GOS, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties during storage. RESULTS The presence of β‐galactosidase enzyme did not affect neither the global composition nor the survival of cultures. Overall, the hydrolyzed products had lower acidity than traditional ones. GOS were found at similar levels in fresh hydrolyzed yogurts, whereas in traditional yogurts were not detected. The proportion of ketones, acids and aldehydes seems to be more dependent on yogurt variety than the addition of the enzyme. Likewise, the storage period affected the volatile fraction in different degree; the increase in acid compounds was more pronounced in hydrolyzed than traditional yogurts. CONCLUSION This work shows that it is possible to obtain different varieties of reduced‐lactose yogurt, some of them with additional benefits to health such as reduced‐fat, reduced‐calories, added with probiotic/inulin and enriched in GOS, with similar characteristics to traditional products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:10:20.68794-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7870
  • Effect of ultrasonic processing on the changes in activity, aggregation,
           and the secondary and tertiary structure of polyphenol oxidase in oriental
           sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)
    • Authors: Siyu Liu; Yan Liu, Xingjian Huang, Wenjin Yang, Wanfeng Hu, Siyi Pan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Polyphenol oxidase mainly contributes to the browning reaction of fruits and vegetables, and confers serious damages to the quality of sweet melon products. However, traditional methods to inactivate the browning may induce more unexpected risks than ultrasonic processing. Meanwhile there are no reports on the effect of ultrasound on the polyphenol oxidase directly purified from sweet melon. RESULTS In this study, the PPO activity in original juice got less inactivation than the purified form when treated by ultrasound. As for purified PPO, superior to thermal treatment, less heat was needed to inactivate the PPO with ultrasonic treatment. At intensity lower than 200 W, ultrasound did not significantly affect the structure and activity of PPO (P>0.05) and latent PPO activity was activated. At intensity higher than 200 W, ultrasound inactivated PPO, induced aggregation and dissociation of PPO particles, and significantly decreased α‐helix structure content. CONCLUSIONS Low‐frequency high‐intensity ultrasound showed inactivation effect and conformational changes of purified PPO in oriental sweet melons. Changes in the PPO structure induced by ultrasound eventually inactivated PPO activity. Ultrasound may be a potential method to inactivate PPO in oriental sweet melons.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:25.216325-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7869
  • Traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activities of
           Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr
    • Authors: Valeria Romanucci; Giovanni Di Fabio, Daniele D'Alonzo, Annalisa Guaragna, Giovanni Scapagnini, Armando Zarrelli
      Abstract: Sideritis species have been used in folk medicine for their antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, digestive and anti‐inflammatory properties. Over the years, the phytochemistry of the genus Sideritis has been studied, and various terpenoids, sterols, coumarins, and especially flavonoid aglycones and glycosides, have been identified. In particular, species from the Balkan Peninsula have been studied and found to be rich in flavonoids, with valuable antioxidant activity. In the folk medicine of the Balkan countries, Sideritis raeseri is used as an herbal tea in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, and coughs and as a tonic, while extracts are used as a component of dietary supplements for anaemia. Its dried inflorescences are used to prepare a beverage called Mountain tea. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry, pharmacological properties and commercial value of Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., we have undertaken this review in an effort to summarise the available literature on these plants. The review will detail the chemical composition of the essential oil, its mineral and polyphenol content, the naming of these plants and their physicochemical characterisation, and NMR spectral data and biological properties associated with the plant extracts, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:23.052975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7867
  • Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on growth
           performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial and noxious gas
           emission in weaning pigs
    • Authors: Ruixia Lan; Jinmo Koo, Inho Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock have been banned in European Union since 2006. Antibiotics alternatives have focused on probiotics, such as L. acidophilus. The concentration of L. acidophilus is considered crucial to obtain the desired effects. However, limited studies have conducted to test the dose dependent effects of L. acidophilus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the dose dependent effects of L. acidophilus on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial flora, and fecal noxious gas emission in weaning pig. RESULTS L. acidophilus supplementation increased (P
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:21.116539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7866
  • In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation,
           levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen
    • Authors: Shengyong Mao; Wenjie Huo, Junhua Liu, Ruiyang Zhang, Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diets containing high levels of carbohydrates provoke a fast decrease of rumen pH and high levels of biogenic amines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which severely impair the health and performance of ruminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (BC) buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota using in vitro rumen cultures. RESULTS Sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the final pH levels and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and LPS, as well as the proportions of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate, and it decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of butyrate and the levels of lactic acid, methylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16 s rRNA gene showed that BC inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the bacterial diversity index compared with the control. Adding BC also decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Butyrivibrio and increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio, and Prevotella. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate supplementation has beneficial effects in the reduction of bioamine levels and the increase in ruminal pH, and in modifying the microbial ecology of the rumen; however, it results in an accumulation of LPS under high‐grain diet conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:00:22.177993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7861
  • Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance, and
           some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of
           metabolizable energy
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND High‐energy diets of laying hens may improve the productive performance but some negative effects may also appear on egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. RESULTS Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality through improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:25:35.534333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7862
  • Ascorbate pool, sugars and organic acids in black currant (Ribes nigrum
           L.) berries are strongly influenced by genotype and post‐flowering
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Marked effects of the climatic environment on fruit chemical composition has often been demonstrated in field experiments. However, complex covariations of several climatic factors in the natural environment complicates the interpretation of such experiments and the identification of the causal factors. This can better be done in a phytotron where the various climatic factors can be varied systematically. Therefore, we grew four black currant cultivars of contrasting origin in a phytotron under controlled post‐flowering temperature and photoperiod conditions and analysed the berries for their contents of ascorbic acids, sugars and organic acids. RESULTS The analyses revealed significant effects of genotype on all investigated compounds. Particularly large cultivar differences were observed in the concentrations of L‐ascorbic acid (AA) and sucrose. The concentrations of both AA and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), as well as the concentrations of all major sugars decreased consistently with increasing temperature over the 12 ‐ 24 °C range. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars with concentrations several fold higher than those for sucrose. AA was the main contributor to the total ascorbate pool in black currant berries, the AA/DHAA ratio varied from 5.6 to 10.3 among the studied cultivars. The concentration of citric acid, which was the predominant organic acid in black currant berries, increased with increasing temperature, while the opposite trend was observed for malic and shikimic acid. Quninic acid was always present at relatively low concentrations. On the other hand, photoperiod had no significant effect on berry content of any of the investigated compounds. CONCLUSION It is concluded that post‐flowering temperature has marked effects on the concentration of important chemical compounds responsible for taste and nutritional value of black currant berries, whereas photoperiod has no such effect in the studied cultivars.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:25:26.027566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7864
  • Sodium alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose films containing pyrogallic
           acid:Physical and antibacterial properties
    • Authors: Yingying Han; Lijuan Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibacterial films were prepared by using sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a matrix, glycerin as plasticizer, and CaCl2 as a cross‐linking agent, and by incorporating the natural antibacterial agent pyrogallic acid (PA). The present study describes the microstructure and the physical, barrier, mechanical, optical, and antibacterial properties of blended films prepared by incorporating different concentrations of PA into the SA/CMC matrix. RESULTS The microstructure of the films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that PA interacts with the SA/CMC matrix through hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the incorporation of PA increased the moisture content, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability of SA/CMC films. Films containing 40 g kg‐1 of PA had the highest elongation at break result, at 39.60%. Compared with pure SA/CMC films, the incorporation of PA improved the barrier properties against UV light; however, it decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the films. Furthermore, films with PA, especially at higher concentrations, were more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION Antibacterial SA/CMC films incorporated with PA are promising and have good potential to enhance the safety of foods and food products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:21:20.881361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7863
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Ochratoxin A Contamination in
           Green Coffee Beans using Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    • Authors: Panchita Taradolsirithitikul; Panmanas Sirisomboon, Cheewanun Dachoupakan Sirisomboon
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination is highly prevalent in a variety of agricultural products including the commercially important coffee bean. As such rapid and accurate detection methods are considered necessary for the identification of OTA in green coffee beans. The goal of this research was to apply FT‐NIR spectroscopy to detect and classify OTA contamination in green coffee beans in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. RESULTS PLSR models were generated using pretreated spectroscopic data to predict the OTA concentration. The best model displayed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814, a standard error of prediction (SEP) and bias of 1.965 µg kg‐1 and 0.358 µg kg‐1, respectively. Additionally, a PLS‐DA model was also generated, displaying a classification accuracy of 96.83% for non OTA contaminated model and 80.95% for OTA contaminated model, with an overall classification accuracy of 88.89%. CONCLUSION The results demonstrate that the developed model could be used for detecting OTA contamination in green coffee beans in either a quantitative or qualitative manner.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:40:51.414093-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7859
  • Nebulized water cooling of the canopy affects leaf temperature, berry
           composition and wine quality of Sauvignon blanc
    • Authors: P. Paciello; F. Mencarelli, A. Palliotti, B. Ceccantoni, C. Thibon, P. Darriet, M. Pasquini, A. Bellincontro
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present paper details a new technique based on spraying nebulized water on vine canopy to counteract the negative impact of the current wave of hot summers with temperatures above 30 °C which usually determine a negative effects on vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. RESULTS the automatized spraying system was able to maintain air temperature at below 30 °C (the threshold temperature to start spraying) for all of August 2013, when in the canopy of uncooled vines the temperature was as high as 36 °C. The maintenance of temperature below 30 °C reduced leaf stress linked to high temperature and irradiance regimes as highlighted by the decrease of H2O2 content and catalase activity in the leaves. A higher amount of total polyphenols and organic acids and lower sugars characterized the grapes of cooled vines. Wine from these grapes had a higher content of some volatile thiols like 3‐sulfanylhexanol (3SH), and 3‐sulfanylhexylacetate (3SHA) and lower content of 4‐methyl‐4‐sulfanylpentan‐2‐one (4MSP). CONCLUSION: in conditions of high temperature and irradiance regimes, water nebulization on the vine canopy can represent a valid solution to reduce and/or avoid oxidative stress and associated effects in the leaves, ensure a regular berry ripening and maintain high wine quality. The consumption of water during nebulization was acceptable, being 180 L ha‐1 min‐1 which lasted an average of about 1 min to reduce the temperature below the threshold value of 30 °C. A total of 85‐90 hectoliters (from 0.8 to 0.9 mm) of water per hectare per day was required.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:40:50.393017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7860
  • Relationships between botanical and chemical composition of forages: a
           multivariate approach to grasslands in the Western Italian Alps
    • Authors: Simone Ravetto Enri; Manuela Renna, Massimiliano Probo, Carola Lussiana, Luca M Battaglini, Michele Lonati, Giampiero Lombardi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Plant composition of species‐rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituent and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi‐natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps. RESULTS Mesophilic and dry grasslands were comparable in terms of phenology, biodiversity indices and proportion of botanical families. The content of total fatty acids and that of the most abundant fatty acids (alpha‐linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acids) were mainly associated to nutrient‐rich plant species, belonging to the mesophilic grassland ecological group. Mesophilic grasslands showed also higher values of crude protein, lower values of fibre content and they were related to higher pastoral values of vegetation compared to dry grasslands. The proximate composition and fatty acid profile appeared mainly single species dependent rather than botanical family dependent. CONCLUSION These findings highlight that forage from mesophilic grasslands can provide higher nutritive value for ruminants and may be associated to ruminant‐derived food products with a healthier fatty acid profile.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T04:30:46.55148-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7858
  • Optimum Condition of Producing Crisp Osmotic Banana Using Superheated
           Steam Puffing
    • Authors: Surapit Tabtiang; Somkiat Prachayawarakon, Somchart Soponronnarit
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Puffing can improve textural property of snacks. Nevertheless, high temperature puffing accelerates non‐enzymatic browning reactions. The osmotic treatment using sucrose solution potentially retards the browning, but the high amount of sucrose gain causes hard texture. The objective of this work was therefore to study the effects of osmotic time, puffing time and puffing temperature on banana qualities such as colour, shrinkage and textural property. RESULTS The experimental results showed that puffing temperature, puffing time and osmotic time significantly affected colour, shrinkage and textual properties. CONCLUSION The optimization using response surface methodology was used for a trade‐off between colour and textural properties. To obtain a good quality product, the puffed osmotic banana should be operated at the osmotic time of 43 min and puffing temperature of 220 °C and puffing time of 2 min.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T09:46:12.62292-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7857
  • Optimal pretreatment determination of kiwifruit drying via online
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Pre‐treating is a crucial stage of drying process. The best pretreatment for hot air drying of kiwifruit was investigated using a computer vision system (CVS), for online monitoring of drying attributes including drying time, color changes and shrinkage, as decision criteria and using clustering method. Slices were dried at 70 °C with hot water blanching (HWB), steam blanching (SB), infrared blanching (IR) and acid ascorbic 1% w/w (AA) as pretreatments each with three durations of 5, 10 and 15 min. RESULTS The results showed that the cells in HWB‐pretreated samples stretched without any cell wall rupture, while the highest damage was observed in AA‐pretreated kiwifruit microstructure. Increasing duration of AA and HWB significantly lengthened the drying time while SB showed opposite results. The drying rate had a profound effect on the progression of the shrinkage. The total color change of pretreated samples was higher than those with no pretreatment except for AA and HWB. The AA could well prevent color change during the initial stage of drying. Among all pretreatments, SB and IR had the highest color changes. CONCLUSION It is concluded that HWB with duration of 5 min is the optimum pretreatment method for kiwifruit drying.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T09:46:03.489117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7856
  • Viscoelastic properties evaluation of conditioned wheat kernels and their
           doughs using a compression test under small strain
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this research was to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of conditioned wheat kernels and their doughs by applying the compression test under a small strain. Conditioned wheat kernels and their doughs, from soft and hard wheat classes were evaluated for total work (Wt), elastic work (We) and plastic work (Wp). RESULTS Soft wheat kernels showed lower We than Wp, while the hard wheat kernels had a We that was higher than Wp. Regarding dough viscoelasticity, cultivars from soft and hard wheat showed higher Wp than We. The degree of elasticity (DE%) of the conditioned wheat kernel related to its dough decreased ~46% in both wheat classes. The Wt, We and Wp from the soft wheat kernel and dough correlated with physicochemical and farinographic flour tests. The Wt, Wp and the maximum compression force (Fmax) of the dough from hard wheat class presented highly significant negative correlations with wet gluten. CONCLUSION The viscoelasticity parameters from compression test presented significant differences among conditioned wheat classes and their doughs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T09:31:24.734426-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7855
  • Combined Effects of Wx and SSIIa Haplotypes on Rice Starch Physicochemical
    • Authors: Xunchao Xiang; Cuifang Kang, Shunju Xu, Bowen Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wx and SSIIa are central genes for determining starch physicochemical properties and rice endosperm starch is composed of linear amylose, which is entirely synthesized by granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI, encoded by Wx) and branched amylopectin. In this study, different hanplotypes of rice were examined to investigate combined effects of pivotal genes in the metabolic chain of starch, Wx and SSIIa. RESULTS Wx haplotypes differed in terms of apparent amylose content (AAC) and gel consistency (GC). The I‐3 [haplotype I (Int1T/Ex10C) of Wx and haplotype 3 (A‐G‐TT) of SSIIa] and the I‐4 combinations of rice had better eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) with lower AAC, lower gelatinization temperature (GT) and softer GC. CONCLUSION The characteristic parameters of RVA could distinguish differences in AAC and GC, but not GT. The I‐3 and I‐4 haplotype combinations of Wx and SSIIa represent key targets for the production of rice with better ECQs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:45.635797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7854
  • Physicochemical, Agronomical and Microbiological Evaluation of Alternative
    • Authors: Francesco Di Gioia; Palmira De Bellis, Carlo Mininni, Pietro Santamaria, Francesco Serio
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Peat‐based mixes and synthetic mats are the main substrates used for microgreens production. However, both are expensive and non‐renewable. Recycled fibrous materials may be low‐cost and renewable alternative substrates. Recycled textile‐fiber (TF, polyester, cotton and polyurethane traces) and jute‐kenaf‐fiber (JKF, 85% jute‐, 15% kenaf‐fibers) mats were characterized and compared to peat and Sure‐to‐Grow® (STG, 100% polyethylene‐terephthalate) for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.; Broccoletto group) microgreens. RESULTS All substrates had suitable physicochemical properties for the production of microgreens. Microgreens fresh‐yield was on average 1,502 g m−2 in peat, TF and JKF, and was 13.1% lower with STG. Peat‐grown microgreens shoots had higher concentration of K+ and SO42−, and two‐fold higher NO3− concentration [1,959 vs 940 mg kg−1 of fresh weight (FW)] than those grown on STG, TF, and JKF. At harvest, substrates did not influence microgreens aerobic‐bacterial populations (log 6.48 CFU g−1 FW). Peat‐ and JKF‐grown microgreens had higher yeast‐mould counts than TF‐ and STG‐microgreens (log 2.64 vs 1.80 CFU g−1 FW). Peat‐grown microgreens had the highest population of Enterobacteriaceae (log 5.46 ± 0.82 CFU g−1), and E. coli (log 1.46 ± 0.15 CFU g−1). E. coli was not detected in microgreens grown on other media. CONCLUSION TF and JKF may be valid alternatives to peat and STG, as both assured competitive yield, low nitrate content, and similar or higher microbiological quality.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:38.233283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7852
  • Reveal interrelationship between processing‐induced molecular
           structure features and metabolic and digestive characteristics in hulled
           and hulless barley (hordeum vulgare) grains with altered carbohydrate
    • Authors: Xiaogang Yan; Fangyu Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains in relation to truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. Samples from hulled and hulless cultivars of barley, harvested in consecutive years from four replicate plots, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated with microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). The truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems was evaluated with the DVE/OEB system. The processing molecular structure changes were revealed by vibrational molecular spectroscopy in mid‐infrared EM radiation region (VMS). RESULTS Compared to the raw, the MIR processing decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:34.315703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7851
  • Preharvest Salicylic Acid and Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatments Preserve
           Quality and Enhance Antioxidant Systems during Postharvest Storage of
           Sweet Cherry Cultivars
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Sweet cherries are very appreciated by consumers due to its organoleptic quality attributes and antioxidant properties, although they deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Different preharvest strategies have been carried out to increase their quality at time of harvest. We present data for the first time regarding the effect of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) treatments on sweet cherry quality during postharvest storage. RESULTS At harvest and during postharvest storage sweet cherry fruits (‘Sweet Heart’, ‘Sweet Late’ and ‘Lapins’) from SA (0.5 mM) and ASA (1 mM) treated trees had higher colour (lower chroma index), firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolics, total anthocyanins and hydrophilic total antioxidant activity (H‐TAA). In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase was also enhanced in SA‐ and ASA‐treated cherries. CONCLUSION Both SA and ASA preharvest treatments could be promising tools for improving sweet cherry quality at harvest and after storage, with an additional effect on delaying the postharvest ripening process throughout increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:31.974123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7853
  • Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout
           bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
    • Authors: Li Wang; Chuanyue Chen, Wanjing Liu, Hu Xia, Jian Li, Xuezhen Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of organic biomass with cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. Ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia cause grave hazards to fish. The present study tried to assess the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). RESULTS Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impacts on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, but significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness, gumminess and increased fillet ultimate pH (pHu) as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH (pHi), thaw loss and protein carbonyl content while ammonia exposure didn't. CONCLUSION These results indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:45:50.158043-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7850
  • Health Beneficial Properties of Potato and Compounds of Interest
    • Authors: Visvanathan Rizliya; Jayathilake Chatuni, Jayawardana Barana, Liyanage Ruvini
      Abstract: Potatoes have shown promising health promoting properties in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies including antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antiobesity, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. Compounds present such as the phenolics, fiber, starch, and proteins as well the compounds considered antinutritional such as glycoalkaloids, lectins and proteinase inhibitors are believed to contribute to the health benefits of potatoes. However, epidemiologic studies exploring the role of potatoes in human health have been inconclusive. Some studies support a protective effect of potato consumption in weight management and diabetes while other studies demonstrate no effect, and a few studies suggest a negative effect. Because there are many biological activities attributed to the compounds present in potato, some of which could be beneficial or detrimental depending on specific circumstances, a long term study investigating the association between potato consumption and diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer while controlling for fat intake is needed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T04:00:34.180012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7848
  • Effect of added nitrogen fertilizer on pyrazines of roasted chicory
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The coffee substitutes made of roasted chicory are affected by the formation of acrylamide whose main precursor is asparagine. One of the strategies for limiting the formation of acrylamide is to reduce free asparagine in the chicory roots by lessening the supply of nitrogen in the field. However, decreasing nitrogen fertilizer could affect the formation of the volatile compounds and, as a consequence, the sensory characteristics of the roasted chicory. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen supply in five commercial varieties on their aroma profile. RESULTS The addition of 120 kg ha−1 of nitrogen fertilizer in the field resulted in a greater amount of pyrazines in the roasted chicory. Triangle tests were performed to determine the effect of the nitrogen level on the sensory quality of the five varieties. The results revealed that the chicory aroma was modified in two out of five varieties. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the strategy to limit the amount of acrylamide could affect the sensory quality of some varieties of chicory. Further acceptance tests need to be conducted to assess the effect, whether favourable or otherwise, on the sensory quality of the coffee substitutes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:53.89509-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7845
  • Inactivation kinetics of invertase in honey and honey‐glucose syrup
           formulations: effects of temperature and water activity
    • Authors: M Sramek; B Woerz, H Horn, J Weiss, R Kohlus
      Abstract: BACKROUND Honey in natural state causes due to its high viscosity and stickiness handling difficulties, therefore demand on honey powder is continuously increasing. Powder preparation has to be performed gently to preserve thermo‐ and oxidative sensitive nature of honey. The aim of our study was to determine degradation of invertase during drying, which was an indirect measure for retention of honey valuable nutrients. RESULTS The reaction kinetics were estimated in polyfloral honey and honey‐glucose syrup (GS) formulation and the impact of temperature (40 – 70 °C) and water activity aw (0.23 – 0.81) was established. The honey‐GS formulation (55:45 w/w) was intended for preparation of high‐grade honey powders using the vacuum‐drying method. Invertase inactivation at temperatures below 60 °C followed first order kinetics. At 60 °C high dilutions (aw = 0.81) and at 70 °C heterogeneous inactivation behaviour was observed. The best fit of invertase heterogeneous inactivation kinetic was achieved with the Cerf two fraction model. The GS‐addition showed a stabilizing effect on invertase during thermal degradation. CONCLUSION The data on invertase inactivation gathered here can be utilised to select optimal parameters for honey vacuum‐drying and other thermal processes in order to achieve maximum invertase retention.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:50.163882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7846
  • Freshwater Clam extract supplementation improves wound healing by
           decreasing TNF alpha level in blood
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The freshwater clam (Corbicula Fluminea) is a widely consumed functional food in Asia and is traditionally used to improve health and either prevent or treat inflammation related diseases. Numerous studies have proposed that freshwater clams act to prevent and attenuate inflammatory responses, and serve as a possible inhibitor to systemic inflammation. However, there is limited information about the effects of freshwater clams on wound healing. RESULTS Our study investigated the influence of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on wound healing and inflammatory responses in a cutaneous incision model. Sixteen rats were used and divided into two groups: the FCE group and the normal saline (NS) group. The rats underwent dorsal full‐thickness skin excisional wounds (20 × 10 mm in diameter). FCE or NS was administered for oral feeding twice daily for 14 days after wounding. Blood samples were taken and analyzed, and wound areas were measured at several time points during the two weeks after excision. On day 14 after wounding, skin biopsies from the wound sites were sent for histological examination. Treatment with FCE (71.63  ±9.51 pg/mL) decreased TNF‐α levels compared with the NS group (109.86 ± 12.55 pg/mL) after wounding at 3 h (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of WBC, IL‐6, or IL‐10. The wound areas of the NS group (23.9%) were larger than those in the FCE group (8.26%) on day 14 (P < 0.05). Numerous fibroblasts and collagen fiber organization were observed in the FCE group. CONCLUSION FCE supplementation improves the wound healing process.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:48.139282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7849
  • Viable bacterial population and persistence of foodborne pathogens on the
           pear carpoplane
    • Authors: Francois J. Duvenage; Stacey Duvenage, Erika M. Du Plessis, Quinton Volschenk, Lise Korsten
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Knowledge on the culturable bacteria and foodborne pathogen presence on pears is important to understand the impact of postharvest practices on food safety assurance. Pear fruit bacteria were investigated from the point of harvest, following chlorine drenching and after controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to assess the impact on the natural bacterial populations and potential foodborne pathogens. RESULTS Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected on freshly harvested fruit in Season 1. During season one chemical drenching and CA storage did not have a significant effect on the bacterial load of orchard pears, except for two farms where the populations were lower “after CA storage”. During season two bacterial populations of orchard pears from three of the four farms increased significantly following drenching, however the bacterial load decreased “after CA storage”. Bacteria isolated following enumeration included Enterobacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Bacillaceae, with richness decreasing “after drench” and “after CA storage”. CONCLUSION Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not detected after postharvest practices. Postharvest practices resulted in decreased bacterial species richness. Understanding how postharvest practices impact on the viable bacterial populations of pear fruit will contribute to develop crop specific management systems for food safety assurance.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:44.620895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7847
  • The kinetic of key phytochemical compounds of non heading and heading
           leafy Brassica oleracea landraces as affected by traditional cooking
    • Authors: Elisa Giambanelli; Ruud Verkerk, L. Filippo D'Antuono, Teresa Oliviero
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Kales are often a key ingredient of traditional foods, containing high amount of indolic glucosinolates (precursors of indole‐3‐carbinol and ascorbigen), carotenoids and phenolics. The present trend to associate traditional foods crops with health promoting properties, suggested to investigate the degradation kinetic of three Brassica oleracea landraces’ phytochemicals, subjected to boiling, steaming and stir frying. RESULTS Boiling determined substantial losses, due to leaching. Glucosinolates followed a second order degradation kinetic (20% of their initial values after 10 minutes in Nero di Toscana). Phenolic content in leaves + cooking water remained unchanged, whereas however, their antioxidant capacity was reduced. Carotenoid content increased during the first minutes of boiling. Steaming showed the highest retention of phytochemicals, with often zero order degradation kinetic, having however a strong effect on colour. Stir frying produced high losses for all measured compounds; also β‐carotene reduced its content to 10‐23%, independently on variety. Conversion values for indole‐derived compounds ranged from non‐detectable to 23.5%. CONCLUSION Variety strongly affected observed degradation rates, because of a different glucosinolate composition and leaf structure. With this research more information are gained on the kinetic degradation of Brassica oleracea landraces’ phytochemical compounds upon cooking, highlighting the possibility of improving bioactive component retention.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:15:42.340339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7844
  • Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis
           in pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition
    • Authors: Magaji G. Usman; Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohammad Y. Martini, Yusuff Oladosu, Pedram Kashiani
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in breeding program. Experiment was carried out to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and work out direct and indirect effects of yield‐related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty‐six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. RESULTS Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (p 
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:56:41.300086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7843
  • Effects of long‐term intake of Antarctic krill oils on artery blood
           pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in research of krill oil (KO) for its health benefits. However, the action of KO on lowering blood pressure (BP) has not been studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the ability of long‐term KO supplementation to lower systolic BP (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. RESULTS When compared to the blank control (BC) SHR administered with edible soybean oil, the high‐dose (500 mg kg−1 BW) KO‐supplemented SHR on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th week following oral administration, the mid‐dose (100 mg kg−1 BW) KO‐supplemented SHR on the 4th and 5th week following oral administration, and the low‐dose (20 mg kg−1 BW) KO‐supplemented SHR on the 5th week following oral administration showed significantly lower SBP (P < 0.05). However, the supplementation of KO had no significant effect on the SBP of healthy SD rats. Meanwhile, the five weeks of KO administration significantly increased the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and total NO synthase of SHR (P < 0.05). CONLUSION KO has an antihypertensive effect in SHR that is associated with a NO‐related mechanism.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:50:49.222929-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7840
  • Intervention of pumpkin seed oil on metabolic disease revealed by
           metabonomics and transcript profile
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Understanding the metabolic and transcription basis of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) intervention on metabolic disease (MD) is essential to daily nutrition and health. RESULTS Here, we analyzed the liver metabolic variations from Wistar rats with normal diet (CON), high fat diet (HFD) and high fat plus PSO diet (PSO) to establish the relationship between the liver metabolite compositions/transcript profile and the effects of PSO on MD. By using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy accompanied with multivariate data analysis, we found that compared with CON, the HFD rats showed clear dysfunctions of choline metabolism, glucose metabolism, nucleotide and amino acid metabolisms. Using qPCR, we found that compared with HFD, the PSO rats showed alleviated endoplasmic reticulum stress, accompanied by lowered unfolded protein response. CONCLUSION These findings provide useful information to understand the metabolic alterations triggered by MD and to evaluate the effects of PSO intervention.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:50:40.938341-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7842
  • Isolation and evaluation of endophytic Streptomyces endus OsiSh‐2
           with potential application for biocontrol of rice blast disease
    • Authors: Ting Xu; Yan Li, Xiadong Zeng, Xiaolu Yang, Yuanzhu Yang, Shanshan Yuan, Xiaochun Hu, Jiarui Zeng, Zhenzhen Wang, Qian Liu, Yuqing Liu, Hongdong Liao, Chunyi Tong, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biocontrol is a promising strategy in the control of rice blast disease. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel antagonist to the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae from rice endophytic actinomycetes. RESULTS Out of 482 endophytic actinomycetes isolated from rice blast infected and healthy rice, Streptomyces endus OsiSh‐2, exhibited a remarkable in vitro antagonistic activity. Scanning electron microscopy observation of M.oryzae treated by OsiSh‐2 revealed significant morphological alterations in hyphae. In two‐year's field tests, spraying OsiSh‐2 spore solution (107 spores mL−1) is capable of reducing rice blast disease severity by 59.64%. In addition, both fermentation broth of OsiSh‐2 and its cell‐free filtrates could inhibit growth of M.oryzae, suggesting the presence of active enzymes and secondary metabolites. OsiSh‐2 is tested positive for PKS‐I and NRPS genes and can produce cellulase, protease, gelatinase, siderophore, IAA and ACC deaminase. Preliminary separation indicated that the methanol extract of OsiSh‐2 could suppress growth of pathogen; its major active component was identified as nigericin. CONCLUSION Endophytic Streptomyces endus OsiSh‐2 has potential as a biocontrol agent against rice blast in agriculture.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T06:50:33.079226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7841
  • Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α‐tocopherol, and
           ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince
           (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage
    • Authors: Tiantian Wang; Zhenxing Li, Fangzhou Yuan, Tushar Ramesh Pavase
      Abstract: Background Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α‐tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at −18 °C were investigated. Results All added antioxidants at 1 g kg−1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α‐tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca2+‐ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. Conclusion These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α‐tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:42:26.844229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7835
  • Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: The
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physicochemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA‐5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. RESULTS The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log cfu ml−1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavour, colour and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. CONCLUSION The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:42:25.803355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7836
  • Studies on optimum harvest time for hybrid rice seed
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Timely harvest is critical for hybrid rice to achieve maximum seed viability, vigor and yield. However, how to predict the optimum harvest time has been rarely reported so far. RESULTS The seed vigor of Zhuliangyou 06 (ZLY06) increased and reached the highest level at 20 days after pollination (DAP), when seed moisture content had the lower value and kept it until final seed maturation. For Chunyou 84 (CY84), seed vigor, fresh and dry weight had relatively high values at 25 DAP, when seed moisture content reached the lowest value and changed slightly from 25 to 55 DAP. In both hybrid rice varieties, seed glume chlorophyll content declined rapidly from 10 to 30 DAP and kept very low level after 35 DAP. Starch content exhibited an increasing trend during seed maturation; while both of soluble sugar content and amylase activity decreased significantly at early stages of seed development. Moreover, correlation analyses showed that seed dry weight, starch content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity had significantly positive correlation with seed vigor. In contrast, chlorophyll content, moisture content, soluble sugar, soluble protein, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA3) content, electrical conductivity (EC), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were significantly negative correlated with seed vigor. Physiological and biochemical parameters related obviously closer with seed vigor than seed germinability during seed development. CONCLUSION Seed vigor could be better used as comprehensive factor to predict the optimum seed harvest time. It suggested that for ZLY06, seeds could be harvested as early as 20 DAP; while for CY84, the earliest optimum harvest time was 25 DAP.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:42:00.691464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7838
  • Effects of water stress on the composition and immunoreactive properties
           of gliadins from two wheat cultivars Nawra and Tonacja
    • Authors: Bartosz Brzozowski; Katarzyna Stasiewicz
      Abstract: Background Water shortage during wheat vegetation causes changes in the composition of gliadins in grains, which can lead to changes in their immunoreactive properties. Results The investigated wheat cultivars exposed to water stress accumulated significantly lower amounts (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:41:58.941348-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7839
  • Effects of nano‐TiO2‐LDPE packaging on postharvest quality and
           antioxidant capacity of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) stored at
           refrigeration temperature
    • Authors: Dongdong Li; Qingyang Ye, Lei Jiang, Zisheng Luo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Nano‐TiO2‐low density polyethylene (NTLDPE) packaging was prepared, and the effects of NTLDPE packaging on quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits were investigated. RESULTS With increased barrier properties, NTLDPE packaging quickly formed a relative lower O2 and higher CO2 air composition in comparison with LDPE. It was also more efficient in maintaining the overall quality of strawberry fruit, as reflected by lower decay rate and weight loss, as well as retarding the decrease in firmness and titratable acid. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in NTLDPE‐packed fruits were 10.8% and 21.9% lower, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in ROS scavenging in NTLDPE‐packed fruits were significantly higher at the later period of storage time. Anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited, whereas ascorbic acid and total phenolics contents were better retained and 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 13.2% higher in NTLDPE‐packed fruit by the end of storage. CONCLUSION These data indicate that the beneficial effects of NTLDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry are probably associated with the promotion of ROS scavenging and related antioxidant enzyme activities, and NTLDPE packaging together with refrigeration storage is a promising way for strawberry fruit preservation.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T05:37:16.65139-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7837
  • The effect of Pentosanase on the solubilization and degradation of
           Arabinoxylan extracted from whole and refined wheat flour
    • Authors: Wei Yang; Zhijian Jiang, Liya Liu, Yanjun Lin, Li Wang, Sumei Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The quality improvement capability of Pentosanase (Pn) for whole wheat Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is not as efficient as that for refined CSB. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this work, water‐extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and water‐unextractable solids (WUS) were extracted from whole and refined wheat flour, and then treated with Pn under the conditions similar to CSB‐making. Solubilization and degradation of arabinoxylan (AX) caused by Pn treatment were determined. RESULTS WEAX from whole flour exhibited higher molecular weight than that from refined flour before and after the treatment with equivalent Pn. Compared with WUS from refined flour, WUS from whole flour had a much lower dissolution degree but the degradation of AX released from the WUS was more efficiently. Moreover, AX released from WUS for refined flour showed a higher Ara/Xyl ratio and the percentage of residual ferulic acid in WUS decreased more significantly. CONCLUSION The difference in quality improvement degree for Pn in whole wheat and refined CSB might be mainly explained by its effect on WUS. That is Pn contributed much more to the solubilization of WUS from refined flour but provoked degradation predominantly on AX solubilized from WUS isolated from whole flour.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T04:15:37.777343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7833
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) applied to the generation of casein
           hydrolysates with antioxidant and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP‐IV)
           inhibitory properties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Hydrolysis parameters affecting the release of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP‐IV) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides from milk proteins have not been extensively studied. Therefore, a multifactorial (i.e., pH, temperature and hydrolysis time) composite design was used to optimise the release of bioactive peptides (BAPs) with DPP‐IV inhibitory and antioxidant (oxygen radical absorbance capacity ‐ ORAC) properties from sodium caseinate (NaCN). RESULTS Fifteen NaCN hydrolysates (H1‐H15) were generated with ProtamexTM, a bacillus proteinase activity. Hydrolysis time (1 to 5 h) had the highest influence on both DPP‐IV inhibitory properties and ORAC activity (p < 0.05). Alteration of incubation temperature (40 to 60 °C) and pH (6.5 to 8.0) had an effect on the DPP‐IV inhibitory properties but not the ORAC activity of the Protamex NaCN hydrolysates. A multifunctional hydrolysate, H12, was identified having DPP‐IV inhibitory (actual: 0.82 ± 0.24 vs. predicted: 0.68 mg mL−1) and ORAC (actual: 639 ± 66 vs. predicted: 639 µmol TE g−1) activity of the same order (p > 0.05) as the response surface methodology (RSM) predicted optimum bioactivities. CONCLUSION Generation of milk protein hydrolysates through multifactorial design approaches may aid in the optimal enzymatic release of BAPs with serum glucose lowering and antioxidant properties.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T04:15:34.574482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7834
  • Non‐destructive evaluation of bacteria‐infected watermelon
           seeds using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND It is needed to minimize the economic damage by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infection seeds such as seedling grow‐out, enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real‐time polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) have a critical drawback that are time‐consuming, labor‐intensive, and destructive procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds. RESULTS A hyperspectral Vis/NIR reflectance imaging system (spectral region of 400–1000 nm) was constructed to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images for 336 bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds which consequently subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) and least‐squares support vector machine (LS‐SVM) to classify bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds from healthy watermelon seeds. The developed system detected bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds with accuracy above 90% (PLS‐DA: 91.7%, LS‐SVM: 90.5%), suggesting that Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system is effective for quarantining bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds. CONCLUSION These results showed it is possible to use Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detection bacteria‐infected watermelon seeds.
      PubDate: 2016-06-06T06:08:49.957892-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7832
  • Sustainable Intensification: A multifaceted, systemic approach to
           international development
    • Authors: Jennifer Himmelstein; Adrian Ares, Emily van Houweling
      Abstract: Sustainable intensification (SI) is a term increasingly used for a type of approach applied to international agricultural projects. Despite its widespread use, many still do not understand or know about the various facets of this composite paradigm. A review of the literature has led to the formalization of three principles, which convey the current characterization of SI‐a whole system, participatory, agroecological approach. Specific examples of potential bottlenecks to the SI approach are cited, as are various technologies and techniques that can be applied to overcome these obstacles. Models of similar, succcessful approaches to agricultural development are examined, along with higher level processes. Additionally, this article explores the desired end points of SI and argues for the inclusion of gender and nutrition, throughout the process. In order to properly apply the SI approach, its various aspects need to be understood and adapted to differential cultural and geographic situations. New modeling systems and examples of effective execution of SI strategies can assist with successful application of the SI paradigm within complex developing communities.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:30:49.248877-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7831
  • Safety assessment of a natural tomato oleoresin containing high amounts of
           Z‐isomers of lycopene prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide
    • Authors: Masaki Honda; Takuma Higashiura, Tetsuya Fukaya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Z‐isomers of lycopene, abundantly present in processed tomato products, are more bioavailable than (all‐E)‐lycopene found predominantly in raw tomatoes. Despite extensive studies on the bioavailability and biological activities of Z‐isomers of lycopene, detailed studies on their safety and toxicology are limited. RESULTS The geno‐, acute, and subacute toxicity of tomato oleoresin that contained high amounts of lycopene Z‐isomers (10.9% lycopene, with 66.3% Z‐isomer content) and was prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. The oleoresin was non‐mutagenic in the Ames test with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The LD50 of the oleoresin in rats, determined by a single‐dose oral test, was more than 5000 mg kg−1 body weight (bw) (361 mg (Z)‐lycopene kg−1 bw). In the 4‐week repeated‐dose oral toxicity test, rats were administered the oleoresin at 4500 mg kg−1 day−1 (325 mg (Z)‐lycopene kg−1 bw day−1). There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs, physical examinations, and laboratory test values during the test period. CONCLUSION Based on our findings and supported by its long history of consumption, tomato oleoresin that contains high amounts of Z‐isomers of lycopene prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide can be considered safe for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:30:45.478684-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7830
  • Effect of ionic strength on the interfacial viscoelasticity and stability
           of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface
    • Authors: Xiaoxiao Tang; Xiuying Qiao, Reinhard Miller, Kang Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The amphiphilic character and surface activity endows silk fibroin the ability to reside at fluid interfaces and effectively stabilize emulsions. However, the influence factors and their actual effects for the interfacial viscoelasticity and stability of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface were less reported. In this paper, effect of ionic strength on the interfacial viscoelasticity, emulsification effectiveness and stability of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface was investigated in detail. RESULTS Higher ion concentration facilitates greater adsorption, stronger molecular interaction and faster structure reorganization of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface, thus causing quicker interfacial saturation adsorption, greater interfacial strength and lower interfacial structural fracture at large deformation. However, the presence of concentrated ions screens charges in silk fibroin molecules, and zeta potential decreases due to the electrostatic screening and ion binding effects, which may result in emulsion droplet coalescence and decrease of emulsion stability. CONCLUSION The positively charged ions significantly affect the interfacial elasticity and stability of silk fibroin layers at the oil/water interface due to the strong electrostatic interactions between counterions and negatively charged groups of silk fibroin.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:30:40.542023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7829
  • Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. This three years’‐work was made in an ‘Arbequina’ orchard (1667 trees ha−1) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year−1 of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replacing 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the virgin olive oils (VOO) extracted were analyzed. RESULTS In general, 30RDI oils had greater contents in pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, in spite of their lower tocopherol contents. FI oils showed higher (E)‐2‐hexenal, 1‐penten‐3‐one, Ocimene, E‐2‐pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents in (E)‐2‐pentenol, and volatile esters. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield nor the rest of quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can override these effects of 30RDI on oil quality.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T03:00:31.228149-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7828
  • Development of soybeans with low P34 allergen protein concentration for
           reduced allergenicity of soy‐foods
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND In soybean, at least 16 seed proteins have been identified as causing allergenic reactions in sensitive individuals. As a soybean genebank accession low in the immunodominant protein P34 (Gly m Bd 30K) has recently been found, introgression of the low‐P34 trait into adapted soybean germplasm has been attempted in order to improve the safety of food products containing soybean protein. Therefore, marker assisted selection and proteomics were applied to identify and characterize low‐P34 soybeans. RESULTS In low‐P34 lines selected from a cross population, concentrations of the P34 protein as identified with a polyclonal antibody were reduced by 50‐70% as compared to P34‐containing controls. Using 2D‐electrophoresis and immunoblotting, the reduction of P34 protein was verified in low‐P34 lines. This result was confirmed by LC‐MS/MS analysis, which revealed either a reduction or complete absence of the authentic P34 protein as suggested from presence or absence of a unique peptide useful for discriminating between conventional and low‐P34 lines. CONCLUSIONS Marker‐assisted selection proved useful for identifying low‐P34 soybean lines for the development of hypoallergenic soy‐foods. The status of the P34 protein in low‐P34 lines needs further characterization. In addition, the food safety relevance of low‐P34 soybeans should be tested in clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T03:00:25.149704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7827
  • Microwave flow and conventional heating effects on the physicochemical
           properties, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of tomato puree
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Thermal processing causes a number of undesirable changes in physicochemical and bioactive properties of tomato products. Microwave (MW) technology is an emergent thermal industrial process that offers a rapid and uniform heating, high energy efficiency, and high overall quality of the final product. The main quality changes of tomato puree after a pasteurization at 96 ± 2 °C for 35 s, provided by a semi industrial continuous microwave oven (MWP) under different doses (low power/long time to high power/short time) or by conventional method (CP) were studied. RESULTS The results showed that all heat treatments reduced color quality, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C, with a greater reduction in CP than in MWP. On the other hand, use of a MWP, in particular, high power/short time (1900 W/180 s, 2700 W/160 s and 3150 W/150 s) enhanced the viscosity, lycopene extraction and decreased the enzyme residual activity better than with CP samples. For tomato puree, polygalacturonase was the more thermos resistant enzyme, and could be used as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency. CONCLUSION MWP was an excellent pasteurization technique that provided tomato puree with improved nutritional quality, reducing process times compared to the standard pasteurization process.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:50.747825-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7824
  • Development of a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody based
           enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of a new
           β‐agonist phenylethanolamine A in food samples
    • Authors: Danni Jiang; Biyun Cao, Meiyu Wang, Hong Yang, Kang Zhao, Jianguo Li, Mingxin Li, Lulu Sun, Anping Deng
      Abstract: BACKGROUND All β‐agonists are banned as feed additives for growth promotion in animals due to toxic effects on human being after consuming the β‐agonist contaminated meats. Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a new emerged β‐agonist. Thus it is required to develop highly sensitive and specific analytical methods for the detection of PA in food samples. In this study, the monoclonal antibody (mAb) against PA was produced by hybridoma technology and used for the development of enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS The IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) of the ELISA using homogeneous combination of coating antigen/antibody for PA were 0.16 ng mL−1 and 0.011 ng mL−1, respectively. The cross‐reactive (CR) values of the assay with fourteen structurally related β‐agonists were lower than 0.59%. Swine liver and meat samples were spiked with PA at different content and analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 91.40–105.51% and intra‐assay coefficients of variation of 1.56–9.92% (n = 3) were obtained. The ELISA for seven spiked samples was confirmed by LC–MS/MS with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9881. CONCLUSION The proposed mAb based‐ELISA exhibited highly sensitive and specific for PA and could be used as a quantitative/screening method for PA analysis in food samples.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:46.977504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7826
  • Unraveling the target genes of RIN transcription factor during tomato
           fruit ripening and softening
    • Authors: Ling Li; Xiaoguang Wang, Xinhua Zhang, Mei Guo, Tieling Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The RIN transcription factor is one of the MADS box family members and predominantly controls fruit ripening. In this study, effort was made to demonstrate the regulation network of RIN transcription factor during tomato fruit ripening and softening. Novel RIN target genes were identified by proteomics, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. RESULTS Over 700 protein spots were achieved by two‐dimensional electrophoresis (2‐DE) and forty‐two of them were finally identified. Among them, 1‐aminocyclopropane‐1‐carboxylate oxidase (LeACO4, ethylene synthesis, Spot 3) and alpha‐galactosidase‐like isoform 2 (α‐Gal, cell wall metabolism, Spot 26) exhibited varied expression levels in different tomato fruit. Particularly high expression levels of LeACO4 and α‐Gal were observed in wild type but not in the rin mutant. Additionally, CArG box, a RIN binding site, was discovered at the promoter regions of both LeACO4 and α‐Gal gene, suggesting that RIN possibly directly regulates their transcriptions, and this assume was further confirmed by EMSA and ChIP assay. CONCLUSION Functional annotations of RIN targeting genes demonstrated the specific role of RIN in the process of fruit ripening and softening, especially on cell wall degradation and ethylene biosynthesis. This study will further illuminate the mechanism of tomato ripening and softening.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:29.514235-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7825
  • Effect of elicitors on the evolution of grape phenolic compounds during
           ripening period
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of the application of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ) at veraison on the phenolic composition of grapes from three varieties (Monastrell, Syrah and Merlot) was studied during the ripening period, using HPLC techniques to measure flavonols, anthocyanins and tannins . RESULTS The effects of the treatments differed in the three varieties, and the maximum concentration of phenolic compounds was not always reached at the end of the ripening period but some days before harvest. At the end of ripening boht treated Syrah grapes only differed from control grapes in the flavonol concentration, whereas MeJ‐treated Merlot grapes presented higher anthocyanin and skin tannin contents than the control and BTH‐treated grapes. Only the anthocyanin content was significantly higher in treated Monastrell grapes at the moment of harvest. CONCLUSION The results indicate that the moment of elicitor treatment should be more studied since differences between treated and control grapes were, in general greater several days before harvest in all three varieties.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T07:15:29.132106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7823
  • Optimization of the Process of Aromatic and Medicinal Plant (AMP)
           Maceration in Grape Marc Distillates to Obtain Herbal Liqueurs and Spirits
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Herbal liqueurs are alcoholic beverages produced by maceration or distillation of aromatic and medicinal plants, highly valued by their medicinal properties, in alcohol. The process conditions, the number and quantity of plant employed will have a great influence in the quality of the liqueur obtained. The aim of this research was to optimize these important variables. RESULTS A Box‐Benhken experimental design was used to evaluate the independent variables: alcohol content, amount of plant and time during the experimental maceration of plants in grape marc distillate. Four plants were assessed, being the main compound of each plant the dependent variables evaluated to follow the evolution of the maceration process. Bisabolol oxide A in Matricaria recutita L., linalool in Coriander sativum L. and eucalyptol in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. were quantified by GC‐FID; meanwhile glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra L was determined by HPLC‐DAD. Other dependent variables were also evaluated: total phenolic content, color parameters and consumers’ preference (appearance). CONCLUSIONS The experimental designs allowed selecting optima maceration conditions for each parameter, including the preference score of consumers. 70% (v/v) of ethanol, 40 g/L of plant concentration and a maceration process of three weeks.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T07:15:25.23412-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7822
  • Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility
           and estimated glycemic index of cooked non‐waxy long grain rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)
    • Authors: Natthawuddhi Donlao; Yukiharu Ogawa
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e., hot air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated. RESULTS Cooked rice obtained from hot air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun‐drying. Among samples from hot air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI. CONCLUSION The results indicated that the cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T01:20:27.699301-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7812
  • Influence of different salting processes on the evolution of the volatile
           metabolites of vacuum‐packed fillets of farmed and wild sea bass
           (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored under refrigeration conditions. A study by
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish shelf‐life extension is a topic of great interest. In this study the behaviour of salted and unsalted farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets during storage was analyzed through the evolution of their volatile metabolites. Farmed and wild sea bass fillets were brine‐salted for 15 or 75 min, or dry‐salted, vacuum‐packed and stored at 4 °C for up to one month, and their headspaces were studied by Solid Phase Microextraction‐Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). RESULTS At the same storage time, unsalted wild fillets contained, in general, a higher number and abundance of volatile compounds coming from microbiological or endogenous enzymatic activity than unsalted farmed ones. The more intense the salting, the lower the number and abundance of microbiological spoilage metabolites, especially in wild samples. The appearance of oxidation metabolites only in dry‐salted wild samples evidences that this kind of salting provokes a certain oxidation in these samples. CONCLUSIONS The better performance of farmed than wild fillets suggests that salted farmed fillets, vacuum‐packed and stored under refrigeration conditions, could be a successful alternative to diversify the presence of sea bass in the market.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T02:10:37.898396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7821
  • Vermicompost and farm yard manure improves food quality,
           anti‐oxidant and anti‐bacterial potential of Cajanus cajan (L,
           Mill sp.) leaves
    • Authors: Subhasish Das; Nazneen Hussain, Bhaskarjyoti Gogoi, Alak Kumar Buragohain, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) leaves are a good source of nutrition and health benefitting phenolic compounds. However, its importance has not yet been effectively addressed. Presently, a two‐year field experiment was attempted in an alluvial soil to comprehend the role of various organic and inorganic fertilizers and their combinations not only on soil quality, but also on production of foremost phenolic compounds and imparting antioxidant and antibacterial properties in C. Cajan under vermicompost treatments. RESULTS Notable enhancements in crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, ash content and total flavonoid content were recorded in Cajanus leaves under vermicompost treatments. We detected a significant rise in carlinoside content in C.cajan leaves, which is known to reduce bilirubin concentration in hepatitis affected human blood. Farmyard manure treatments result a high crude fibre content coupled with a substantially high concentration of total phenols, and chlorophyll. In addition, incorporation of vermicompost with or without inorganic fertilizer in the soil had a significant impact on antioxidant and anti‐bacterial properties of C.cajan leaves. Above and beyond, farmyard manure and vermicompost positively influenced the physico‐chemical health of the soil. CONCLUSION The present nutrient management scheme based on organic input not only induced a higher yield of C. Cajan endowed with improved antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but also enhanced the production of various phenolic compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T02:05:38.987695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7820
  • Compost biofortification with diazotrophic and P‐solubilizing
           bacteria improves maturation process and P‐availability
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Phosphorus containing fertilizers play an important role in tropical agriculture due to the well documented shortage of plant‐available P in soils. Traditional P fertilizer production is based on chemical processing of insoluble rock phosphate (RP), which includes an acid treatment at high temperature. Processing the RP increases fertilizer costs, making it unavailable for the undercapitalized and typically family‐based farmers. Biotechnological methods have been proposed as alternative to increase phosphate availability in RP. In this study, Burkholderia silvatlantica and Herbaspirillum seropedicae were co‐inoculated in a RP enriched compost aiming to determine the effects of this technology on the levels of phosphatase activities and release of plant available P. RESULTS Inoculation of both microorganisms resulted in higher organic matter decomposition and higher HA formation in composting. H. seropedicae was the most promising microorganism for the production of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. Both microorganisms presented potential to increase the supply of P from poorly soluble sources due their increased levels of water‐soluble P and citric acid. CONCLUSION B. silvatlantica and H. seropedicae in RP enriched compost may represent an important biotechnological tool to reduce the overall time required for composting and increase the supply of P from poorly soluble sources.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T02:05:28.839865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7819
  • Application of a stir bar sorptive extraction method for the determination
           of volatile compounds in different grape varieties
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) has been employed for the analysis of aroma compounds directly from Spanish and Italian grape extracts. The extraction conditions have been optimised using a statistical approach, obtaining results that improve the current state of the art. RESULTS The proposed analytical conditions were: sample volume 40 mL, extraction time 80 min, 25% (w/v) of NaCl, and stirring speed 750 rpm using 20 mm × 0.5 mm stir bars. Performance characteristics of SBSE procedure were further studied and showed correlation coefficients, detection and quantification limits, linear ranges, recoveries and precision values adequate for analysing these compounds in grapes. Twenty‐four grape varieties (aromatic and non‐aromatic) were analysed. Statistically significant differences (p 
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T01:40:32.531786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7818
  • Edible coatings with essential oils effect on the quality of red
           raspberries over shelf‐life
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for raising the shelf‐life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. RESULTS Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red colour verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1 % or 0.2 % were very efficient to control the yeasts and moulds growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. CONCLUSION The application of the film improved post‐harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters.
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T01:40:28.352626-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7817
  • Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus enriched with selenium, zinc and copper
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) is an important culinary and medicinal species of worldwide importance. The present study investigated for the first time whether it may be grown on substrates supplemented with Se alone or in combination with Cu and/or Zn (0.1‐0.8 mM) to produce fruiting bodies of increased nutritional value. RESULTS As found, substrate supplementation did not affect yielded biomass up to 0.6 mM element concentrations regardless cultivation model. At 0.8 mM Se + Cu and Se + Zn supplementation still developed biomass comparable with controls. The accumulation of trace elements in the fruiting bodies generally increased over concentration gradient reaching its maximum at 0.6 mM (for Se + Zn and Se + Cu + Zn) and 0.8 mM (for Se and Se + Cu). The organic Se constituted the greatest share in total Se quota. As calculated, each 10 g of dried fruiting bodies of A. bisporus obtained from 0.6 or 0.8 mM supplementation would represent 342‐469% of Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for Se, 43.4‐48.5% for Cu and 5.2‐5.8% for Zn. CONCLUSION Considering an inexpensive methods of A. bisporus cultivation, global popularity and use of this mushroom, its biofortification with Se, Cu and Zn could have a practical application in deficiency prevention and assisted treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T02:00:53.325907-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7816
  • Thinned stone fruits are a source of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Thinned fruits are agricultural by‐products that contain large quantities of interesting compounds due to their early maturity stage. In this work, the phenolic profile and the antioxidant activity of 6 thinned stone fruits (apricot, cherry, flat peach, peach, plum and nectarine) have been investigated, focussing on proanthocyanidins. RESULTS Thinned nectarine had the highest content of total phenols (67.43 mg GAE g−1 DW) and total flavonoids (56.97 mg CE g−1 DW) as well as the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging (133.30 mg TE g−1 DW) and FRAP assay (30.42 mg TE g−1 DW). Proanthocyanidins were very abundant in these by‐products, and the main phenolic group quantified in cherry (10.54 mg g−1 DW), flat peach (33.47 mg g−1 DW) and nectarine (59.89 mg g−1 DW), while hydroxycinnamic acids predominate in apricot, peach and plum (6.67, 22.04 and 23.75 mg g−1 DW, respectively). The low mean degree of polymerisation of proanthocyanidins suggests that their bioavailability could be very high. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that thinned stone fruit extracts might be used as antioxidants in foods or as a source of compounds with health related benefits that can be used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T02:00:50.395029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7813
  • Isolation and identification of anti‐proliferative peptides from
           Spirulina platensis using three‐step hydrolysis
    • Authors: Zhujun Wang; Xuewu Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDS Spirulina platensis is an excellent source of proteins (>60%) that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. RESULTS In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina platensis were extracted and hydrolyzed using three gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin). Subsequently, gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates, and four fractions Tr1‐Tr4 were obtained. Among them, Tr2 showed the strongest anti‐proliferation activities on three cancer cells (MCF‐7, HepG‐2 and SGC‐7901), with the IC50 values of
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T02:00:31.73721-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7815
  • Agroindustrial Composts to reduce the use of peat and fungicides in the
           cultivation of muskmelon seedlings
    • Authors: Ana Belen Morales; Margarita Ros, Luis Miguel Ayuso, Maria de los Angeles Bustamante, Raul Moral, Jose Antonio Pascual
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Environmental concerns about peat extraction in wetland ecosystems have risen. Therefore, there is an international effort to evaluate alternative organic substrates, for the partial substitution of peat. The aim of this work was to use different compost (C1‐C10) obtained from fruit and vegetable processing industry (pepper, carrot, broccoli, orange, artichoke residues, sewage sludge (citric and pepper) and vineyard pruning wastes) to produce added‐value composts as growing media with suppressive effect against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (FOM) in muskmelon. RESULTS Composts showed values of water soluble carbon fractions, and dehydrogenase activity that allowed them to be considered mature and stabilized. All compost treatments produced significantly (F = 7.382; P 
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:06:05.744782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7809
  • Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa
           (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Alfalfa is considered a potential feedstock for biofuels; co‐products with value‐added uses would enhance process viability. This work evaluated dried alfalfa leaves for protein production and describes the functional properties of the protein. RESULTS Dried alfalfa leaves contained 260 g kg−1 db crude protein, with albumins being the major fraction (260 g kg−1 of total protein). Alkali solubilization for 2 h at 50 °C, acid precipitation, dialysis, and freeze‐drying produced a protein concentrate (600 g kg−1 db crude protein). Alfalfa leaf protein concentrate showed moderate solubility (maximum 500 g kg−1 soluble protein from pH 5.5 to 10), excellent emulsifying properties (activity 158–219 m2/g protein, stability 17–49 min) and minimal loss of solubility during heating at pH ≥ 7.0. CONCLUSIONS It is technically feasible to extract protein with desirable emulsifying and heat stability properties from dried alfalfa leaves; however, the dried form may not be a practical starting material for protein production, given the difficulty of achieving high yields and high‐purity protein product.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:05:46.225051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7810
  • Influence of deficit irrigation on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa
           Duch.) fruit quality
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Three different irrigation regimes (upper limit of field capacity‐UFC (‐12 hPa), lower limit of field capacity‐LFC (‐33 hPa) and deficit irrigation‐DI (‐70 hPa)) were established on silty‐loam soil and monitored with tensiometers. Yield and fruit quality of ‘Flamenco’ and ‘Eva's Delight’ ever‐bearing strawberry cultivars have been monitored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimes on the content of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds using HPLC/HPLC‐MS. RESULTS Deficit irrigation significantly increased the content of sugars (from 1.1 to 1.3 fold), organic acids (from 1.1 to 1.3 fold), their ratio (from 1.1 to 1.2 fold) and the content of most identified phenolics in cv. ‘Flamenco’. Oppositely, higher amounts of total sugars and organic acids (1.7 to 1.8 fold) were detected in ‘Eva's Delight’ strawberries at UFC and LFC irrigation. Deficit irrigation generally decreased strawberry yield of cv. ‘Eva's Delight’. CONCLUSION The results suggest superior fruit quality and taste of strawberries grown under minor deficit irrigation at cv. ‘Flamenco’.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:01:50.192767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7806
  • Preparation of five 3‐MCPD fatty acid esters, and the effects of
           their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice
    • Authors: Man Liu; Jie Liu, Yizhen Wu, Boyan Gao, Pingping Wu, Haiming Shi, Xiangjun Sun, Haiqiu Huang, Thomas T. Y. Wang, Liangli (Lucy) Yu
      Abstract: Background 3‐monochloro‐1, 2‐propanediol fatty acid esters (3‐MCPDEs) are a group of food toxicants formed during food processing. 3‐MCPDEs have obtained more and more attention for its potential negative effects on human health. However, reports on the toxicity of 3‐MCPD esters are still limited. To elucidate the effects of fatty acid substitutions on the toxicity of their esters, 1‐stearic, 1‐oleic, 1‐linoleic, 1‐linoleic‐2‐palmitic and 1‐palmitic‐2‐linoleic acid esters of 3‐MCPD were synthesized and evaluated for their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice, respectively. Results 3‐MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3‐MCPD and fatty acid chlorides, and their purities and structures were characterized by UPLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS, IR, 1H and 13C spectroscopic analyses. Medial lethal doses (LD50) of 1‐stearic, 1‐oleic, 1‐linoleic, 1‐linoleic‐2‐palmitic, and 1‐palmitic‐2‐linoleic acid esters were 2973.8, 2081.4, 2016.3, 5000 and greater than 5000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). For the first time, 3‐MCPDEs were observed for their toxic effects in thymus and lung. In addition, major histopathological changes, and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were examined for the five 3‐MCPDEs. Conclusion The results from this study suggested that the degree of unsaturation, chain length, number of substitution, and relative substitution locations of fatty acids might alter the toxicity of the 3‐MCPDEs.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:20:26.328495-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7805
  • High‐sensitive Chemiluminescent immunoassay investigation and
           application for the detection of T‐2 toxin and major metabolite
           HT‐2 toxin
    • Authors: Yanshen Li; Jing Zhang, Yongtao Wu, Gongzhen Liu, Liting Song, Yonggang Li, Jianrong Yang, Yanli You
      Abstract: BACKGROUND T‐2 toxin is a widely distributed mycotoxin in cereals. HT‐2 toxin is the major metabolites which is metabolic and contaminant in cereals as well. T‐2 toxin and HT‐2 toxin has been identified as carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic toxins. To reduce the risk of contamination, a rapid, high‐sensitive and inexpensive assay for the detection is required. RESULTS In this study a high‐sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme‐linked immunoassay (CL‐ELISA) of T‐2 toxin and HT‐2 toxin was developed. With the help of the chemiluminescent sbustrate, this protocol exhibited a high‐sensitive character with IC50 as low as 33.28 ng mL−1 and 27.27 ng mL−1 for T‐2 and HT‐2, respectively. In addition, this method had no cross‐reaction with other structure related mycotoxins. CONCLUSION These results indicated that the developed CL‐ELISA could be applied for the T‐2 toxin and HT‐2 toxin detection in actual samples without complicated steps.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:15:52.966956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7801
  • Food Safety in Thailand 3: Pesticide Residues detected in Mangosteen
           (Garcinia mangostana L.), Queen of Fruits
    • Authors: Kamonrat Phopin; Sompon Wanwimolruk, Virapong Prachayasittikul
      Abstract: Background For developing countries like Thailand, regulation of pesticide usage exists but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study aimed to determine the pesticide residues in mangosteen fruits sold in Thailand. The mangosteen samples (n = 111) were purchased and the content of 28 pesticides were analyzed by GC‐MS/MS method. Results Of pesticides tested, 8 pesticides were found in 100% of the mangosteen samples. However, in 97% of these samples, either chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their maximum residue limits (MRLs), representing a 97% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL. This rate is much higher than those found in other fruits sold in developed countries. However, this conclusion excludes the fresh Thai mangosteens grown for export, as these are generally cultivated and harvested to GAP standards. Since the edible part of the mangosteen is the pulp, washing the fruits with running water can reduce the risk of pesticide residues contaminating the pulp which would be eaten by the consumer. Conclusion The findings strongly suggest that routine monitoring of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables is required to reduce the health risks associated with consuming contaminated food.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T03:15:44.598933-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7804
  • Univariate and multivariate comparisons of protein and carbohydrate
           molecular structural conformations and their associations with nutritive
           factors in typical byproducts
    • Authors: Hangshu Xin; Yongli Qu, Haonan Wu, Peiqiang Yu, Yonggen Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Little attention has been paid on the inherent molecular structural effects among agricultural byproducts. In this study, soybean meal , wheat bran , corn distillers dried grains with soluble , dry brewer's grain , wet brewer's grain , and apple pomace , which are widely used in animal industry were selected to explore protein and carbohydrate molecular structural conformations. RESULTS All the protein peak heights (including α‐helix and β‐sheet) and areas were exhibited highest values in SM and lowest in AP. The SM had the highest peak area intensity of cellulosic compounds (CELC); while the rest varieties were in the lowest absorbance level. The TSCHO (sum of structural carbohydrate and CELC) area exhibited variations among the samples. Multivariate comparisons showed AP had no molecular structural association with other byproducts within protein amide region. Protein amide I, II and (I+II) areas, α‐helix, β‐sheet and area ratio of protein amide and (TSCHO + TCHO) had strong relationships with CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, SCP, starch, PC, CA, CC and TDN contents. CONCLUSION Inherent molecular structures varied among the selected byproduct kinds and they might be used as potential predictors of nutritive factors, especially for protein structural information.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11T03:30:33.433943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7791
  • Natural variation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents in Colombian
           genotypes of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja at harvest
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Potato frying quality is a complex trait influenced by sugar content in tubers. Good frying quality requires low content of reducing sugars to avoid the formation of dark pigments. Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja is a valuable genetic resource for breeding and for genetic studies. The sugar contents after harvest were analyzed in a germplasm collection of Group Phureja to contribute to the understanding of the natural variation of this trait. RESULTS Sucrose, glucose, and fructose genotypic mean values ranged from 6.39 to 29.48 g kg−1 tuber dry weight (DW), from 0.46 to 28.04 g kg ‐1 tuber DW, and from 0.29 to 27.23 g kg ‐1 tuber DW, respectively. Glucose/fructose and sucrose/reducing sugars ratios ranged from 1.01 to 6.67 mol mol−1 and from 0.15 to 7.78 mol mol−1, respectively. Five clusters of genotypes were recognized, three of them with few genotypes and extreme phenotypic values. CONCLUSIONS Sugar contents showed a wide variation that represents the available variability useful for potato breeding. The results provide a quantitative approach to analyze the frying quality trait and they are consistent with frying color. The analyzed germplasm presents extreme phenotypes, which will contribute to the understanding of the genetic basis of this trait. Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T00:50:48.784818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7783
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 3957 - 3957
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:28:19.320682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7426
  • Issue Information ‐ Info Page
    • Pages: 3958 - 3958
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:28:18.405439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7427
  • Issue Information ‐ Table of Contents
    • Pages: 3959 - 3962
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:28:05.340472-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7428
  • Prediction of methane emission from lactating dairy cows using milk fatty
           acids and mid‐infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: Sanne van Gastelen; Jan Dijkstra
      Pages: 3963 - 3968
      Abstract: Enteric methane (CH4) production is among the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A simple, robust and inexpensive measurement technique applicable on a large scale to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cattle would therefore be valuable. Milk fatty acids (MFA) are related to CH4 production because of the common biochemical pathway between CH4 and fatty acids in the rumen. A summary of studies that investigated the predictive power of MFA composition for CH4 emission indicated good potential, with predictive power ranging between 47% and 95%. Until recently, gas chromatography (GC) was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but GC is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of mid‐infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The major advantages of using MIR spectroscopy to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application at large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for CH4 prediction, and the moderate predictive power for CH4 emission. It may not be sufficient to predict CH4 emission based on MIR alone. Integration with other factors, like feed intake, nutrient composition of the feed, parity, and lactation stage may improve the prediction of CH4 emission using MIR spectra. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T03:01:15.350943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7718
  • Mechanisation of large‐scale agricultural fields in developing
           countries – a review
    • Authors: Daniel I Onwude; Rafia Abdulstter, Chandima Gomes, Norhashila Hashim
      Pages: 3969 - 3976
      Abstract: Mechanisation of large‐scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large‐scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large‐scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large‐scale‐agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large‐scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:56:13.66243-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7699
  • Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics
    • Pages: 3977 - 3982
      Abstract: Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T02:15:48.396038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7725
  • Environmental impact of mushroom compost production
    • Pages: 3983 - 3990
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This research analyses the environmental impact of the creation of Agaricus bisporus compost packages. The composting process is the intermediate stage of the mushroom production process, subsequent to the mycelium cultivation stage and prior to the fruiting bodies cultivation stage. RESULTS A full life cycle assessment model of the Agaricus bisporus composting process has been developed through the identification and analysis of the inputs–outputs and energy consumption of the activities involved in the production process. The study has been developed based on data collected from a plant during a 1 year campaign, thereby obtaining accurate information used to analyse the environmental impact of the process. CONCLUSION A global analysis of the main stages of the process shows that the process that has the greatest impact in most categories is the compost batch preparation process. This is due to an increased consumption of energy resources by the machinery that mixes the raw materials to create the batch. At the composting process inside the tunnel stage, the activity that has the greatest impact in almost all categories studied is the initial stage of composting. This is due to higher energy consumption during the process compared to the other stages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T05:38:15.422875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7587
  • Ruminal degradation of cell wall associated nitrogenous compounds of
           several 15N‐labelled feeds
    • Pages: 3991 - 3997
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ruminal in situ effective degradability (ED) of dry matter (DM), neutral (NDF) and acid (ADF) detergent fibres, total‐N and NDF (NDIN) and ADF (ADIN) bound‐N in sunflower seed (SS), wheat grain (WG) and wheat straw (WS) were measured in three ruminally cannulated sheep, correcting microbial N‐contamination using the 15N dilution technique modified to consider the 15N supply to adherent bacteria. RESULTS The lack of correction for N‐contamination under‐evaluated ED estimates in 1.52% (total‐N), 28.0% (NDIN) and 33.3% (ADIN) in SS and in 1.02% (total‐N) and 4.43% (NDIN) in WG. In the remaining cases, this contamination prevented establishing apparent degradation kinetics and, therefore, errors were not measured. Microbial corrected ED estimates in SS were higher in total‐N (0.917) than in NDIN (0.559) and ADIN (0.520), which showed similar values. This behaviour was also shown in WS (0.670, 0.386 and 0.426, respectively), whereas decreasing values were shown from total‐N (0.917) to NDIN (0.830) and ADIN (0.482) in WG. CONCLUSION Results confirm that NDF and ADF procedures failed to remove large fractions of particle adherent microorganisms, under‐evaluating the ED of NDIN and ADIN. Degradation of NDIN represented a significant part of the degraded N, whereas ADIN contribution was only negligible in WG. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T07:29:45.159437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7590
  • Effect of natural compounds on Fusarium graminearum complex
    • Pages: 3998 - 4008
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A search is underway for new solutions to counter farm loss caused by fungal contamination of grains, since the active agents of fungicides can remain in the environment and contribute to the development of resistant and toxigenic species. In this study, the antifungal activity of natural compounds (γ‐oryzanol, phenolic extract of neem seeds and of rice bran) was assessed on three toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from wheat, rice and barley. Their efficacy was compared to that of synthetic fungicides. The halo diameters were measured and the susceptible pathways were determined by the levels of structural compounds and activities of enzymes involved in the primary metabolism of the microorganisms. Moreover, mycotoxin production and gene expression were examined. RESULTS Phenolic extracts were more effective at inhibiting F. graminearum than was γ‐oryzanol, as evidenced by the minimum inhibitory concentration. This work contributed to the elucidation of the mechanism of action of natural antifungal agents. CONCLUSION Natural antifungals effectively inhibited fungal growth, especially via the inactivation of the enzymatic systems of F. graminearum. Natural antifungals inhibited mycotoxin production by the fungi. A correlation between the levels of deoxynivalenol and the expression of Tri5 gene was observed, indicating that the natural compounds could be considered alternatives to synthetic antifungals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-17T03:51:13.313106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7591
  • Detoxification and safety evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using
           alkali refining
    • Authors: Ning Ji; Enjie Diao, Xiangyang Li, Zheng Zhang, Haizhou Dong
      Pages: 4009 - 4014
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is often detected in peanut oil, which comes from contaminated peanuts. AFB1 in peanut oil seriously threatens the health of consumers. However, there are few methods to effectively remove AFB1 in peanut oil. This study aimed to use an alkali‐refining method to degrade AFB1 in peanut oil efficiently without increasing the equipment of oil and fat refining. RESULTS The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining were established using response surface methodology (RSM), and the safety of peanut oil after being refined with alkali was evaluated based on the Ames tests and HepG2 cell viability. The results showed that AFB1 in peanut oil was decreased from 34.78 to 0.37 µg kg−1 (98.94% reduction) under the optimum detoxifying conditions, i.e. when the initial temperature of alkali refining was 43.51 °C, the amount of excess alkali was 0.30%, the content of alkali solution was 23.42% and the end temperature of alkali refining was 77.07 °C. The acid value and color of peanut oil refined by alkali were improved significantly, while the peroxide value was increased within an acceptable level. The safety of peanut oil contaminated by AFB1 was improved significantly after being refined with alkali. CONCLUSION These results indicate that alkali refining is an effective method for removing AFB1 in peanut oil. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining could be used to guide the production of oil companies for ensuring food safety. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T05:25:47.302608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7592
  • Comparison of pinoresinol diglucoside production by Phomopsis sp.
           XP‐8 in different media and the characterisation and product
           profiles of the cultivation in mung bean
    • Authors: Yan Zhang; Junling Shi, Zhenhong Gao, Jinxin Che, Dongyan Shao, Yanlin Liu
      Pages: 4015 - 4025
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Phomopsis sp. XP‐8 is an endophytic fungus with the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application in biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. In order to enhance the production of PDG, 18 different natural materials were tested in solid‐state cultivation of Phomopsis sp. XP‐8. RESULTS Most of the tested natural materials promoted the production of PDG. A supplement derived from mung beans produced the highest PDG yield and better fungal growth than the other materials. Also, pinoresinol monoglucoside, pinoresinol and other substrates (phenylalanine, p‐coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid) were obtained after fermentation on mung beans. Furthermore, PDG production was much higher when mung beans were incorporated into solid state agar versus a liquid medium. The highest pinoresinol diglucoside production (72.1 mg kg−1 in fresh culture) was obtained in 9 days using a solid state culture of Phomopsis sp. XP‐8 on a mung bean grain medium containing 100 g kg−1 glucose. Mung bean water‐soluble polysaccharide was identified as a major promoter of PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP‐8. CONCLUSION Mung bean, especially its water‐soluble polysaccharide fraction, was an efficient natural material to promote PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP‐8. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-02T04:56:20.392614-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7593
  • Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols in black currants (Ribes nigrum
           L.) by pre‐harvest methyl jasmonate treatments
    • Pages: 4026 - 4031
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chemical elicitation is one of the most effective methods currently used to enrich plant foods in bioactive compounds. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) has been described as a very useful elicitor of some plant compounds, polyphenols among them. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pre‐harvest MJ application on the increase in the main flavonoids and the antioxidant properties of black currant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars. RESULTS Significant enhancement of individual and total anthocyanins was measured after elicitation with MJ, particularly when a concentration of 0.2 mmol L−1 was used. Total anthocyanins increased from 28288.74 ± 253.65 to 43561.08 ± 145.87 mg kg−1 in Ben Hope black currants after elicitation with 0.2 mmol L−1 MJ. Similarly, an increase from 35986.04 ± 287.98 to 41320.22 ± 109.38 mg kg−1 was estimated in Ben Alder cultivar. Black currant flavonols were not individually affected by the treatment; however, total flavonols increased from 3115.21 ± 12.11 to 3268.41 ± 8.91 mg kg−1 in Ben Hope and from 3016.38 ± 10.07 to 3110.95 ± 8.57 mg kg−1 in Ben Alder. Antioxidant properties of black currants as measured by DPPH and ABTS assays improved proportionally to the increase in flavonoid content after MJ elicitation. CONCLUSION Pre‐harvest elicitation with MJ is proposed as a useful tool to enhance contents of anthocyanins and flavonols as well as free radical‐scavenging activity of black currants. The functional black currants obtained here can be interesting for industry, for consumption as fresh fruits and for production of juice and jam. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T08:26:09.720464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7595
  • Assays to control the development of the green staining alteration in
           Spanish‐style green olives of the Gordal variety
    • Pages: 4032 - 4036
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Olives of the Gordal variety processed according to the Spanish style sometimes develop an alteration in color known as green staining (GS), due to the formation of harmless copper–chlorophyll complexes, which makes the product less valuable. The aim of this study was to investigate methods to minimize the impact that this alteration has for the table olive industry. RESULTS Calcium chloride, sorbic, benzoic and ascorbic acids and SO2 did not inhibit the development of the alteration in olives packed under their own fermentation brine or new fresh brine. It was also discovered that the incubation of olive samples at 45 °C for 20 days accelerates the formation of GS and can be a very useful tool to predict the incidence of the alteration in advance. By applying this test to numerous industrial tanks for four consecutive seasons, it was found that GS was mainly present in olives harvested at the beginning of the season. CONCLUSION The formation of GS in olives of the Gordal variety is time‐ and temperature‐dependent, and none of the additives tested avoided or retarded the development of the alteration. However, an accelerated test to predict the development of GS formation has been proposed that could contribute to minimize the effects of the alteration. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-02T04:51:49.883466-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7598
  • Role of gallic and p‐coumaric acids in the AHL‐dependent
           expression of flgA gene and in the process of biofilm formation in
           food‐associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM120
    • Pages: 4037 - 4047
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the process of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm formation, N‐acyl‐l‐homoserine lactone (AHL)‐mediated flagella synthesis plays a key role. Inhibition of AHL production may attenuate P. fluorescens biofilm on solid surfaces. This work validated the anti‐biofilm properties of p‐coumaric and gallic acids via the ability of phenolics to suppress AHL synthesis in P. fluorescens KM120. The dependence between synthesis of AHL molecules, expression of flagella gene (flgA) and the ability of biofilm formation by P. fluorescens KM120 on a stainless steel surface (type 304L) was also investigated. RESULTS Research was carried out in a purpose‐built flow cell device. Limitations on AHL synthesis in P. fluorescens KM120 were observed at concentrations of 120 and 240 µmol L−1 of phenolic acids in medium. At such levels of gallic and p‐coumaric acids the ability of P. fluorescens KM120 to synthesize 3‐oxo‐C6‐homoserine lactone (HSL) was not observed. These concentrations caused decreased expression of flgA gene in P. fluorescens KM120. The changes in expression of AHL‐dependent flgA gene significantly decreased the rate of microorganism colonization on the stainless steel surface. CONCLUSION Phenolic acids are able to inhibit biofilm formation. The results obtained in the work may help to develop alternative techniques for anti‐biofilm treatment in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T10:09:29.210269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7599
  • The chemical, microbial, sensory and technological effects of intermediate
           salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in fresh pork sausages
    • Authors: MacDonald Cluff; Hannes Steyn, George Charimba, Carina Bothma, Celia J Hugo, Arno Hugo
      Pages: 4048 - 4055
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The reduction of sodium in processed meat products is synonymous with the use of salt replacers. Rarely has there been an assessment of the use of intermediate salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in itself. In this study, 1 and 1.5% salt levels were compared with 0 and 2% controls in fresh pork sausages for effects on chemical, microbial, sensory and technological stability. RESULTS Although significant (P < 0.001 to P < 0.01) differences were found between the 0 and 2% controls, no significant differences could be detected between the 2, 1.5 and 1% added NaCl treatments for the following: total bacteria counts on days 3, 6 and 9; TBARS of pork sausages stored at 4 °C on days 6 and 9 and stored at −18 °C on days 90 and 180; taste, texture and overall liking during sensory evaluation; and % cooking loss, % total loss and % refrigeration loss. Consumers were able to differentiate between the 2 and 1% added NaCl treatments in terms of saltiness. CONCLUSION This study indicated that salt reduction to intermediate levels can be considered a sodium reduction strategy in itself but that further research with regards to product safety is needed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T09:26:25.228858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7602
  • Monitoring of glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined vegetable oils from
           retail outlets by LC–MS
    • Pages: 4056 - 4061
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) are a newly identified class of food process contaminants. The main source of these compounds is refined oils. Because of the potential release of free glycidol, it is necessary to enable a more accurate exposure assessment. In this study a method based on liquid chromatography–single‐quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for the analysis of GEs in refined vegetable oils from retail outlets in Poland. RESULTS The amount of GEs detected in 20 edible oils ranged from 0.00 to 44.33 mg kg−1. Refined palm oils exhibited a several times higher contamination ratio in comparison with other oils (average 31.24 mg kg−1). The average content of esters in sunflower oils (2.46 mg kg−1) was higher than in rapeseed oils (1.04 mg kg−1). C18:2‐GE was found to be the prevailing GE in sunflower oil, with the highest concentration in all studied samples, while C18:1‐GE was the prevailing GE in rapeseed and palm oils. No trace of C18:3‐GE was found in the analysed oils. CONCLUSION The concentrations of major GEs were correlated with the fatty acid composition of the oils. The GE content varied with the type of oil and the producer. The tested oils had a higher or similar GE content compared with those analysed by other researchers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T05:18:07.896837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7603
  • Influence of an ultrasonic nozzle in spray‐drying and storage on the
           properties of blueberry powder and microcapsules
    • Pages: 4062 - 4076
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recently, ultrasonic nozzle technology has been applied in spray‐drying because of its numerous advantages, including providing more uniform droplets and reducing damage observed in bioactive compounds. In this study, the production of blueberry powders and microcapsules by using an ultrasonic spray nozzle was investigated. Firstly, the important ultrasonic nozzle parameters were optimised by using response surface methodology and compared with a conventional nozzle (control). Secondly, powder and microcapsules obtained at the optimum point were stored at 22 °C and 35 °C at 0.32 water activity (aw). RESULTS The optimum conditions were estimated as 125 °C inlet air temperature, 9 W ultrasonic power and 8% feed pump rate. There was significantly difference (P < 0.05) in the total phenolic content and antioxidant power of microcapsules produced by an ultrasonic nozzle and a conventional nozzle. Because the temperature affected the stability of powders negatively, the blueberry powder showed higher losses than microcapsules in the content of bioactive compounds. In addition, the ultrasonic nozzle showed a significantly greater protective effect on physico‐chemical properties than did the conventional nozzle. CONCLUSION Results of the study point that the production of ultrasonic nozzle powders and microcapsules is feasible to use as a functional ingredient in food industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-18T06:35:53.855545-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7605
  • Ingestion of bioactive collagen hydrolysates enhance facial skin moisture
           and elasticity and reduce facial ageing signs in a randomised
           double‐blind placebo‐controlled clinical study
    • Authors: Naoki Inoue; Fumihito Sugihara, Xuemin Wang
      Pages: 4077 - 4081
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Several human studies have demonstrated occurrence of two major collagen peptides, prolyl‐hydroxyproline (Pro‐Hyp) and hydroxyprolyl‐glycine (Hyp‐Gly), in human peripheral blood. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated that Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly exert chemotaxis on dermal fibroblasts and enhance cell proliferation. Additionally, Pro‐Hyp enhances the production of hyaluronic acid by dermal fibroblasts. These findings suggest that the amounts of Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly in blood are important factors to show the efficacy of collagen hydrolysates on skin health. RESULTS We conducted a randomised double‐blind placebo‐controlled clinical trial of ingestion of two types of collagen hydrolysates, which are composed of different amounts of the bioactive dipeptides Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly, to investigate their effects on the improvement of skin conditions. Improvement in skin conditions, such as skin moisture, elasticity, wrinkles, and roughness, were compared with a placebo group at baseline, and 4 and 8 weeks after the start of the trial. In addition, the safety of dietary supplementation with these peptides was evaluated by blood test. Collagen hydrolysate with a higher content of bioactive collagen peptides (H‐CP) showed significant and more improvement than the collagen hydrolysate with a lower content of bioactive collagen peptides (L‐CP) and the placebo, in facial skin moisture, elasticity (R2), wrinkles and roughness, compared with the placebo group. In addition, there were no adverse events during the trial. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that the use of the collagen hydrolysate with a higher content of Pro‐Hyp and Hyp‐Gly led to more improvement in facial skin conditions, including facial skin moisture, elasticity, wrinkles and roughness. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-10T07:25:08.642103-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7606
  • Soil compost amendment enhances tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) quality
    • Authors: Daniela Baldantoni; Alessandro Bellino, Anna Alfani
      Pages: 4082 - 4088
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important crops in the world and represents a key crop in southern Italy. With the aim to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of tomato fruits in relation to NPK and compost fertilisation, the concentrations of the main nutrients, toxic elements, primary metabolites and total phenols were determined in two varieties (Lido and San Marzano). Each variety was cultivated in a different experimental field, subjected to different agronomic techniques. RESULTS Concentrations of toxic elements (Cd and Pb) were below the limits indicated by the EU Regulation (2011) in all the fruits analysed. Moreover, fruits obtained from San Marzano plants grown on organic amended soils showed a better overall quality than those obtained on mineral fertilised soil, being characterised by lower N (attributed to lower nitrate and nitrite concentrations), lower Cd, and higher soluble sugar concentrations. Higher concentrations of soluble sugars in fruits from organic amended soils were also observed in the Lido variety. CONCLUSIONS The agricultural use of quality compost represents an effective strategy to obtain high quality products in an economically and environmentally sustainable way. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-05T05:23:04.644217-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7608
  • The effect of clove bud powder at a spice level on antioxidant and quality
           properties of emulsified pork sausage during cold storage
    • Pages: 4089 - 4097
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Clove bud is a widely used spice in meat and meat products, and it contains high level of phenolic compounds. The effectiveness of the clove as a spice has not been fully studied at a general level of addition in the meat products. Therefore, in the present study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and nitrite scavenging abilities of clove bud powder (CBP) was assessed at spice level (0.1% and 0.2%) in emulsified pork sausage, during 6 weeks of cold storage. RESULTS CBP had DPPH radical scavenging ability, but CBP addition at 0.1% and 0.2% did not decrease the TBARS value. An antimicrobial effect of CBP was also not observed during the cold storage. However, residual nitrite at storage weeks 4 and 6 was shown to be lower (P < 0.05). Addition of CBP decreased CIE L* and a* values, but it produced unacceptable sensory properties. Texture profile analysis was not affected by the addition of CBP in emulsified pork sausage (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The positive effect on nitrite scavenging could be expected by the addition of 0.2% CBP as a spice. However, antioxidant and antimicrobial abilities were not observed, as well as improvement in the quality of characteristics, in emulsified pork sausage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-18T02:21:51.735114-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7609
  • Physico‐chemical and physiological changes during fruit development
           and on‐tree ripening of two Spanish jujube cultivars (Ziziphus
           jujuba Mill.)
    • Pages: 4098 - 4105
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Few studies have been performed on changes in organoleptic, nutritive, functional, and physiological properties during jujube fruit development and on‐tree ripening. In this work, a comparative study on the evolution of physical, chemical, nutritive, and physiological parameters and bioactive compounds of two Spanish jujube cultivars was performed. RESULTS Both cultivars showed a non‐climacteric ripening pattern, although the JM cultivar was smaller, sweeter, softer, and more highly coloured than the JG, which was characterised by having larger and firmer fruits, although less sweet and coloured. Both cultivars showed high TAA, which was highly correlated with the concentration of total phenols, giving them great functional properties. CONCLUSION This fruit has little economic importance in Spain and it is just marginally grown for self‐consumption or for ornamental purposes. Given the excellent properties of these fruits, it could be considered a fruit species of great interest, and commercial growth of these cultivars with high yields and fruits with high functional properties should be promoted. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T03:52:45.502315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7610
  • Influence of yeast strain, priming solution and temperature on beer bottle
    • Authors: Ombretta Marconi; Serena Rossi, Fernanda Galgano, Valeria Sileoni, Giuseppe Perretti
      Pages: 4106 - 4115
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of microbreweries. Usually, craft beers are bottle conditioned; however, few studies have investigated beer refermentation. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the impacts of different experimental conditions, specifically yeast strain, priming solution and temperature, on the standard quality attributes, the volatile compounds and the sensory profile of the bottle‐conditioned beer. The other aim was to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds and amino acids consumption throughout the refermentation process to check if it is possible to reduce the time necessary for bottle conditioning. RESULTS The results indicate that the volatile profile was mainly influenced by the strain of yeast, and this may have obscured the possible impacts of the other parameters. Our results also confirm that the two yeast strains showed different metabolic activity, particularly with respect to esters production. Moreover, we found the Safbrew S‐33® strain when primed with Siromix® and refermented at 30 °C yielded the fastest formation of higher alcohols while maintaining low production of off‐flavours. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a formulation that may reduce the time needed for bottle conditioning without affecting the quality of the final beer which may simultaneously improve efficiency and economic profits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T03:38:42.339241-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7611
  • Rapid detection of proteins in transgenic crops without protein reference
           standards by targeted proteomic mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Lindsey J Schacherer; Weiping Xie, Michaela A Owens, Clara Alarcon, Tiger X Hu
      Pages: 4116 - 4125
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is increasingly used for protein detection for transgenic crops research. Currently this is achieved with protein reference standards which may take a significant time or efforts to obtain and there is a need for rapid protein detection without protein reference standards. RESULTS A sensitive and specific method was developed to detect target proteins in transgenic maize leaf crude extract at concentrations as low as ∼30 ng mg−1 dry leaf without the need of reference standards or any sample enrichment. A hybrid Q‐TRAP mass spectrometer was used to monitor all potential tryptic peptides of the target proteins in both transgenic and non‐transgenic samples. The multiple reaction monitoring‐initiated detection and sequencing (MIDAS) approach was used for initial peptide/protein identification via Mascot database search. Further confirmation was achieved by direct comparison between transgenic and non‐transgenic samples. Definitive confirmation was provided by running the same experiments of synthetic peptides or protein standards, if available. CONCLUSION A targeted proteomic mass spectrometry method using MIDAS approach is an ideal methodology for detection of new proteins in early stages of transgenic crop research and development when neither protein reference standards nor antibodies are available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:26:56.729083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7612
  • Estimation of cotyledon isoflavone abundance by a grey
           luminance‐based model in variously hilum‐coloured soybean
    • Authors: Giuseppe Barion; Giuliano Mosca, Teofilo Vamerali
      Pages: 4126 - 4134
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The nutraceutical uses of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) have received increasing attention in recent years, due to the therapeutic effects of high seed isoflavone concentrations against heart disease, cancer and menopausal symptoms. RESULTS We found a close correlation between seed isoflavone abundance and hilum colour in a set of 17 contrasting soybean varieties. Image analysis of the hilum grey level pattern allowed us to identify a power model which approximates total cotyledon isoflavone concentrations (TCIC) at 65–71% by the normalised modal grey level. Higher TCIC levels were assigned to darker hilum varieties and vice versa within a variety‐dependent response. Optimisation of the algorithm required correction for a few specific varieties falling in the intermediate 1.1–1.5 mg g−1 TCIC range, which were over‐estimated by the model, perhaps due to variations in hilar optical properties related to the geometric features of both hilum and seed. CONCLUSION In view of its easy, low‐cost detection, seed hilum colour is a useful phenotypic trait in soybean for rapid evaluation of isoflavone abundance in food uses and for improving specific nutraceutical breeding programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T05:58:53.792611-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7613
  • Exposure assessment of dogs to mycotoxins through consumption of dry feed
    • Authors: Lucas Y Bissoqui; Michele S Frehse, Roberta L Freire, Mario A Ono, Jaqueline G Bordini, Melissa T Hirozawa, Andressa J de Oliveira, Elisabete YS Ono
      Pages: 4135 - 4142
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The Brazilian exportation of pet food has shown high growth rates in the last two years and determination of the exposure degree is one of the most important parameters for the risk assessment of chemical compounds. In this study the exposure degree of dogs to mycotoxins was estimated and acceptable daily intake (ADI) and safe pet dietary level (SPDL) were calculated. Thus the natural occurrence of fumonisins, zearalenone and aflatoxins was evaluated in 100 dry dog feed samples provided by pet owners in Paraná State, Brazil. RESULTS Despite the high frequency of fumonisins (68%), zearalenone (95%) and aflatoxins (68%) in feed samples, the mean levels detected were low. ADI for fumonisins and zearalenone was 20.0 and 1.00 µg kg−1 body weight (BW) day−1 respectively and SPDL for fumonisins was 2000 µg kg−1 feed. The probable daily intake values (1.83 µg fumonisins, 0.93 µg zearalenone and 0.02 µg aflatoxins kg−1 BW day−1) were low. CONCLUSION The exposure degree of dogs could be assumed to be very low. However, the co‐occurrence of these three or other mycotoxins, and possible synergic or additive effects, should be taken into account when determining the maximum allowed levels or risk assessment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T04:47:17.042002-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7615
  • Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty‐three olive
           cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba
    • Pages: 4143 - 4150
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. RESULTS Forty‐three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro ‘Alameda de Obispo’, Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β‐sitosterol, Δ5‐avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg−1. CONCLUSION The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T07:07:24.41085-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7616
  • Microbe‐based technology ameliorates glandular trichomes, secondary
           metabolites and antioxidants in Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.
    • Authors: Rupali Gupta; Akanksha Singh, Rakesh Pandey
      Pages: 4151 - 4159
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Despite the vast exploration of microbes for plant health, there is a lack of knowledge about the synergistic effects of specific microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, especially in medicinal plants such as Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. The aim of this study was to evaluate how synergistic microbes Trichoderma harzianum ThU, Glomus intraradices and Bacillus subtilis CIM affected crop productivity, secondary metabolites and glandular trichome number in P. graveolens. RESULTS The results demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plant growth, secondary metabolites, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, free radical‐scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity of P. graveolens treated with synergistic bioinoculants as compared with the control. Most interestingly, an increase in essential oil by 32% in the treatment with all three microbes was observed. Furthermore, the principal aroma compounds citronellol and geraniol also increased in the same treatment. A positive and direct correlation was observed between essential oil content and number of glandular trichomes in all treatments. CONCLUSION The present study highlights an explicit amalgamation of prospective microbes showing potential for synergism that act as biostimulants in enhancing plant production and improving the antioxidant and aroma profile of P. graveolens. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-12T04:35:53.308358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7617
  • Simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginger
           after inoculation with fungi by ultra‐fast liquid
           chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Ying Yang; Jing Wen, Weijun Kong, Qiutao Liu, Hongli Luo, Jian Wang, Meihua Yang
      Pages: 4160 - 4167
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) have been detected frequently in food, agricultural products and traditional Chinese medicines, and their presence poses serious health and economic problems worldwide. Ginger can easily be polluted with mycotoxins. In this study, ginger samples were cultivated for 15 days after inoculation with fungi and were prepared based on ultrasound‐assisted solid–liquid extraction using methanol/water followed by immunoaffinity column clean‐up and analysed by ultra‐fast liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC‐MS/MS) for AFs and OTA. RESULTS The limits of detection and quantification of AFs and OTA were 0.04–0.30 µg mL−1 and 0.125–1.0 µg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries were 82.0–100.2%. After 15 days' cultivation, no macroscopic mildew was found in ginger. But, the content of AFB1 expressed an increasing trend in ginger, peel [less than the limit of quantification (LOQ)] to the innermost layer (51.86 µ mL−1 ), AFB2 was only detected in the innermost layer at the level of 0.87 µ mL−1. A small amount (
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T03:00:45.52399-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7618
  • Forage yields and feeding value of small grain winter cereals for lambs
    • Authors: Gurhan Keles; Serkan Ates, Behic Coskun, Mustafa S Alatas, Saban Isik
      Pages: 4168 - 4177
      Abstract: BACKGROUND An understanding of the dynamics that affect the nutrient content of forages with advancing growth stages is critical for designing equally dynamic feeding programmes. This study compared the agronomic characteristic and feeding values of forages from barley, rye, wheat, oats and triticale weekly from tillering (Z 24–25) to dough stages of maturity (Z 83–87). RESULT Digestible dry matter yield of cereal species increased rapidly (P < 0.05) from 1.9 t ha−1 at tillering to 7.8 t ha−1 at ear emergence (Z 50–55) and remained stable (P > 0.05) until the dough stage when it increased to 10.4 t ha−1. The nutritive quality of cereal species decreased with advancing growth stages, and this was more pronounced in barley and rye with rapid reductions in their energy and digestibility values. Changes in the nutritive value of cereal forages indicated a strong relationship (P < 0.05) with the leaf–stem ratio of the plants. The animal response reflected the changes in feeding value of cereal species with advancing growth stages. The average live weight gain of lambs decreased (P < 0.05) from an average of 203 g d−1 on 2 May to 142 g d−1 on the 13 June. CONCLUSION Wheat and oats, and to a lesser extent triticale, provided higher quality forages than barley and rye. All cereal species had poor feeding qualities between ear emergence and milk stages (Z 71–75). © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T03:48:57.740417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7619
  • Effect of carrageenan addition on the rennet‐induced gelation of
           skim milk
    • Authors: Fang Wang; Wei Zhang, Fazheng Ren
      Pages: 4178 - 4182
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Carrageenan (CG) (κ‐CG, ι‐CG and λ‐CG) was added to skim milk and the rennet‐induced aggregation was studied. Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) release, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and rheology were used to follow the structural dynamics of casein micelles during gelation. The influence of carrageenan on the nature of protein interactions in the gels was investigated using a combination of ultracentrifugation and specific dissociating agents. RESULTS For the recombined samples containing κ‐CG and low concentrations of ι‐CG and λ‐CG, the CMP release was slowed down; however, the development of DWS and rheological parameters was similar to that of the control sample, and the increase in the incorporation of proteins through calcium bridges and hydrophobic interactions may be the most likely contributors. For the recombined samples containing high concentrations of ι‐CG and λ‐CG, other factors may impede the gel formation process. CONCLUSION High concentrations of ι‐CG and λ‐CG strongly interfered with the rennet‐induced aggregation, interrupted the interaction of caseins and therefore may contribute to good quality of low‐fat cheese. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:47:33.015761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7620
  • Biodegradable poly‐3‐hydroxybutyrate as a fertiliser carrier
    • Authors: Tatiana G Volova; Svetlana V Prudnikova, Anatoly N Boyandin
      Pages: 4183 - 4193
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Increasing use of mineral fertilisers can lead to accumulation of fertilisers in soil, water and foodstuffs. One of the approaches to preventing these problems is to develop controlled release forms of fertilisers. RESULTS Experimental formulations of the nitrogen fertiliser urea loaded in a degradable matrix of the natural polymer poly‐3‐hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) in the form of films, pellets and coated granules were constructed and investigated. Nitrogen release into soil occurred as the polymer was degraded, and it was dependent on the geometry of the carrier and the amount of nitrogen loaded in it, showing that nitrogen release can last for 30 days or longer and that release rates can be controlled by varying the fabrication technique employed. P3HB/urea formulations have a favourable effect on the soil microbial community. The use of embedded urea has a beneficial influence on the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and lettuce (Latuca sativa) and reduces removal of nitrogen with drain water. CONCLUSION The slow‐release nitrogen formulations developed in this study can be buried in soil together with seeds preventing nitrogen deficiency. The use of such slow‐release formulations can decrease the amounts of chemicals in the environment and prevent their adverse effects on the biosphere. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-23T04:06:34.451728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7621
  • Anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extracts
           from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de Verano) under different farming
    • Authors: Simona Adesso; Giacomo Pepe, Eduardo Sommella, Michele Manfra, Antonio Scopa, Adriano Sofo, Gian Carlo Tenore, Mariateresa Russo, Francesca Di Gaudio, Giuseppina Autore, Pietro Campiglia, Stefania Marzocco
      Pages: 4194 - 4206
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Besides their nutritional value, vegetables are a source of health‐promoting compounds, such as polyphenols, and their content can be influenced by the particular farming method. In this study polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de verano) plants cultivated with different farming methods were chemically characterised and tested in vitro and ex vivo inflammation models. RESULTS The tested extacts (250–2.5 µg mL−1) were able to reduce both the inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS‐stimulated J774A.1 murine monocyte macrophage cells, by lowering the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid‐derived 2)‐like 2; (Nrf2) and nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB). In this regard, quantitative profiles revealed different amounts of polyphenols, in particular quercetin levels were higher in plants under mineral fertilised treatment. Those extract showed an enhanced anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION Our data showed the anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Maravilla de Verano polyphenolic extracts. The effect of farming methods on polyphenolic levels was highlighted. The higher reduction of inflammatory mediators release in extracts from plants cultivated under mineral fertilisation treatment was correlated to the higher amount of quercetin. These results can be useful for both nutraceutical or agronomic purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T03:58:36.901207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7622
  • Long‐term toxicity study on genetically modified corn with cry1Ac
           gene in a Wuzhishan miniature pig model
    • Authors: Liang Chen; Zhe Sun, Quanwei Liu, Ruqing Zhong, Shuyi Tan, Xiaoguang Yang, Hongfu Zhang
      Pages: 4207 - 4214
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to investigate the chronic effect of transgenic maize lines by the insertion of the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on the growth performance, immune response and health using a Wuzhishan miniature pig model through a 196‐day feeding study. RESULTS Based on the gender and weight, 72 Wuzhishan miniature pigs were randomly assigned one of the diets containing 65% non‐transgenic isogenic corn or Bt corn at three stages of growth (day 0–69, 70–134 and 135–196). The potential toxicological effects of transgenic corn on pigs were explored. No difference between the diet treatments for growth performance and haematology parameters at any stages of growth. Although subtle differences in serum content of alanine aminotransferase, relative kidney weight and some immune response were observed between the Bt group and isogenic group, they were not considered as diet treatment‐related. CONCLUSION Long‐term feeding Bt corn carrying cry1Ac genes to Wuzhishan miniature pigs did not indicate adverse effects on the growth, immune response and health indicators at any stages of growth. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-17T07:37:49.168546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7624
  • Determination of free cholesterol oxide products in food samples by gas
           chromatography and accelerated solvent extraction: influence of
           electron‐beam irradiation on cholesterol oxide formation
    • Pages: 4215 - 4223
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to develop an efficient method for cholesterol oxide product (COP) determination in irradiated and non‐irradiated ready‐to‐eat foods with high water content by gas chromatography–flame ionisation detector after accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), and derivatisation with a silylating reagent. RESULTS The ASE solvent was an 85:15 v/v petroleum ether/chloroform mixture at 40 °C and 1500 psi followed by solid phase extraction. The ASE method was compared with the established lixiviation method, proving an advantageous alternative which reduces analysis time by a factor of 15 and solvent volume by 50%, and minimises the use of chlorinated solvents. COP derivative structures were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analytical characteristics were determined from standards and recoveries were 63–95%, establishing the validity of the method. CONCLUSION The results obtained and their analysis by chemometric techniques established COP formation in food samples after e‐beam irradiation. Increase in COP concentration depended on both irradiation doses and food composition, mainly water and fat content, although linear correlations among variables were not found. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T04:24:47.747915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7625
  • Al3+‐promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia
           sinensis) was inhibited by an anion channel inhibitor DIDS
    • Pages: 4224 - 4230
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Generally, tea plants are grown in acid soil which is rich in aluminum (Al) and fluoride (F). A recent publication showed that pretreatment with Al3+ promoted F accumulation in tea plants by increasing endogenous Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM). A high level of F in tea leaves not only impairs tea quality but also might pose a health risk for people drinking tea regularly. Therefore it is important to try to find some clues which might be beneficial in controlling F accumulation in tea plants grown in acid soil (Al3+). RESULTS It was found that diisothiocyanostilbene‐2,2‐disulfonic acid (DIDS) significantly reduced Al3+‐promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Additionally, Al3+ plus DIDS treatment stimulated significantly higher Ca2+ efflux and decreased the CaM level in tea roots compared with Al3+ treatment. Besides, significantly higher depolarization of membrane potential was shown in tea roots treated with Al3+ plus DIDS than in those treated with Al3+, as well as higher net total H+ efflux and plasma membrane H+‐ATPase activity. CONCLUSION Al3+‐promoted F accumulation in tea plants was inhibited by an anion channel inhibitor DIDS. Ca2+/CaM and membrane potential depolarization may be the components involved in this process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T06:13:53.026725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7626
  • Nutritional composition of Stevia rebaudiana, a sweet herb, and its
           hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect on patients with non‐insulin
           dependent diabetes mellitus
    • Authors: Mathur Ritu; Johri Nandini
      Pages: 4231 - 4234
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. India shelters the highest number of diabetics and is thus known as the ‘Diabetes Capital of the World’. The chemical management of diabetes has side effects and hence the present study was undertaken to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect of Stevia rebaudiana in patients with type 2 diabetes, non‐insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Its nutritional composition and use as a sweetener substitute were also assessed. RESULTS Chemical analysis of dried Stevia leaf powder revealed it to be a nutritious herb with a good iron and fibre content. Intervention trials in diabetics revealed that it significantly lowered fasting and post‐prandial blood glucose levels. The serum triglycerides and VLDL‐C levels were also significantly reduced. CONCLUSION Hence it can be said that Stevia can safely be used as an anti‐diabetic herb, as a sweetener substitute and may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with long‐standing diabetes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-22T04:26:57.598552-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7627
  • Determination of polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity and
           antibacterial properties of maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz]
           a Chilean blackberry
    • Pages: 4235 - 4242
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to determine (1) the polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins), (2) the antioxidant using four different methodologies (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC) and (3) the antibacterial properties of maqui berry [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] (MB) grown in Chile. RESULTS The HPLC analysis of MB showed a total of 19 polyphenolic compounds identified as anthocyanins (eight compounds), flavonols (10 compounds) and ellagic acid. Delphinidin derivatives were the predominant anthocyanins while quercetin derivatives were the predominant flavonols. MB showed an antioxidant activity measured with DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC methods of 28.18, 18.66, 25.22 g Trolox equivalent kg−1 and 0.12 g ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent kg−1, respectively. With regard to the antibacterial activity, all strains tested were affected by MB. Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria innocua showed the highest sensitivity to maqui berry extracts with MIC values of 40 and a 50 mg mL−1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that maqui berry has a great potential to be employed in the food industry as potential food ingredient to functional food development or as bio‐preservative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-29T11:07:26.285899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7628
  • Application of microwaves for microbial load reduction in black pepper
           (Piper nigrum L.)
    • Authors: G Chengaiyan Jeevitha; H Bogegowda Sowbhagya, H Umesh Hebbar
      Pages: 4243 - 4249
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is exposed to microbial contamination which could potentially create public health risk and also rejection of consignments in the export market due to non‐adherance to microbial safety standards. The present study investigates the use of microwave (MW) radiation for microbial load reduction in black pepper and analyses the effect on quality. RESULTS Black pepper was exposed to MWs at two different power levels (663 and 800 W) at an intensity of 40 W g−1 for different time intervals (1–15 min) and moisture content (110 and 260 g kg−1 on a wet basis). The exposure of black pepper to MWs at 663 W for 12.5 min was found to be sufficient to reduce the microbial load to the permissible level suggested by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the European Spice Association. The retention of volatile oil, piperine and resin was 91.3 ± 0.03, 87.6 ± 0.02 and 90.7 ± 0.05%, respectively, in MW‐treated black pepper. The final moisture content after MW treatment was found to be 100 ± 1 g kg−1 for black pepper containing initial moisture of 260 ± 3 g kg−1. CONCLUSION These results suggest that MW heating can be effectively used for microbial load reduction of black pepper without a significant loss in product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T08:47:25.862091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7630
  • Rapid sensory‐directed methodology for the selection of
           high‐quality aroma wines
    • Pages: 4250 - 4262
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present work contributes by developing a rapid sensory‐directed methodology for the screening and selection of high‐quality wines with different sensory profiles. Verdejo and Tempranillo musts were fermented with 50 different yeasts each under controlled laboratory conditions. Resulting samples were firstly categorised according to five levels of quality by a panel of wine professionals. Higher quality samples were described by flash profiling by a semi‐trained panel and most distinctive samples were screened by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC‐O). RESULTS Seven Verdejo and five Tempranillo samples were classified in the highest quality category, presenting different aroma profiles such as citrus, fruit in syrup, boxtree/vegetal, tropical or wet grain aromas for Verdejo and red fruit or fruit in syrup for Tempranillo. β‐Damascenone, 3‐mercaptohexyl acetate and ethyl butyrate appeared as distinctive quality compounds linked to dried, tropical and red fruit aromas, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The categorisation task followed by flash profiling and GC‐O analysis was shown to be a rapid and effective sensory‐directed methodology for the screening of distinctive and quality wine aroma profiles in a case study of yeast selection. The wine industry could benefit from the use of this methodology as a complementary tool for optimising different technical processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T03:54:01.655537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7636
  • Effect of malonaldehyde cross‐linking on the ability of shrimp
           tropomyosin to elicit the release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines
           from activated RBL‐2H3 cells
    • Authors: Yongna Song; Zhenxing Li, Qing Gao, Tushar Ramesh Pavase, Hong Lin
      Pages: 4263 - 4267
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Malonaldehyde, the primary by‐product of lipid peroxidation in food, modifies the structural and functional properties of proteins by cross‐linking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of malonaldehyde on the allergenicity of shrimp tropomyosin. RESULTS RBL‐2H3 cells, a model of type I allergic reactions, were sensitised with sera from patients allergic to shrimp, and were stimulated with native and cross‐linked tropomyosin. Release of inflammatory mediators such as β‐hexosaminidase, histamine, tryptase, cysteinyl leukotriene, and prostaglandin D2 was clearly suppressed in a manner that depended on the extent of tropomyosin cross‐linking. Release of interleukin‐4 (IL‐4) and IL‐13 was similarly decreased. Notably, cells sensitised with one patient's serum released IL‐4 at comparable levels in response to native and cross‐linked tropomyosin. CONCLUSION Cross‐linking strongly modulates the ability of shrimp tropomyosin to induce release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators from activated RBL‐2H3 cells. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T03:15:42.605554-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7637
  • Effect of spice‐incorporated starch edible film wrapping on shelf
           life of white shrimps stored at different temperatures
    • Authors: Sivarajan Meenatchisundaram; Chandra Mohan Chandrasekar, Lalitha Priya Udayasoorian, Rakhavan Kavindapadi Rajasekaran, Radha krishnan Kesavan, Babuskin Srinivasan, Sukumar Muthusamy
      Pages: 4268 - 4275
      Abstract: BACKGROUND White shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) are a major aquaculture product in the world fishery market. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clove‐ and cinnamon‐assimilated starch edible films on the shelf life of white shrimps in terms of maintaining their freshness and other organoleptic properties. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory qualities of edible film‐wrapped white shrimps were studied until they reached their limit of acceptability during storage at different temperatures (10 and 4 °C). RESULTS Shrimp samples wrapped with spice‐assimilated edible films showed lower bacterial counts. Shelf life extension of edible film‐wrapped white shrimps was estimated to be 14 and 12 days for storage at 10 and 4 °C respectively. Reduced lipid oxidation and release of nitrogen base compounds were noted for edible film‐wrapped shrimp samples. Good consumer acceptance was noted for edible film‐wrapped shrimp samples through sensory evaluation. CONCLUSION The results of this study show that spice‐fused edible films were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations. Reductions in lipid oxidation and total volatile base nitrogen were also achieved through edible film wrapping of shrimps, which increased their consumer acceptance during sensory evaluation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T04:55:46.897457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7638
  • The damage caused by Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea grains is
           dependent on the plant genotype
    • Pages: 4276 - 4280
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilized with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defense mechanisms against pests. In this study, the population growth of Callosobruchus maculatus reared on beans from four cowpea cultivars fertilized with different nitrogen sources was evaluated. The factors tested were beans from four cowpea cultivars and seven different nitrogen sources: mineral N fertilization, inoculation with five strains of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria, and soil nitrogen (absolute control). RESULTS BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars had lower cumulative emergence and instantaneous rate of population growth of the insects compared with other cultivars, indicating antixenosis resistance against C. maculatus. Inoculation of BRS Acauã cultivar with the diazotrophic bacteria strain BR 3299 resulted in higher mortality of C. maculatus. For BRS Tapaihum cultivar, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria strains BR3267, BR 3262 and BR 3299, and nitrogen fertilization resulted in higher mortality among C. maculatus. CONCLUSION BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars showed the lowest cumulative insect emergence and instantaneous rates of population growth, and the highest insect mortality, mainly when the grains were obtained from plants inoculated with rhizobial strains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T06:46:50.67139-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7639
  • Design of biocompatible immobilized Candida rugosa lipase with potential
           application in food industry
    • Pages: 4281 - 4287
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biocatalysts are a promising alternative for the production of natural flavor compounds. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) is a particularly important biocatalyst owing to its remarkable efficiency in both hydrolysis and synthesis. However, additional stabilization is necessary for successful industrial implementation. This study presents an easy and time‐saving method for immobilizing this valuable enzyme on hydroxyapatite (HAP), a biomaterial with high protein‐binding capacity. RESULTS Targeted immobilized CRL was obtained in high yield of ≥98%. Significant lipase stabilization was observed upon immobilization: at 60 °C, immobilized lipase (HAP‐CRL) retained almost unchanged activity after 3 h, while free CRL lost 50% of its initial activity after only 30 min. The same trend was observed with tested organic solvents. Methanol and hexane had the most pronounced effect: after 3 h, only HAP‐CRL was stable and active, while CRL was completely inactivated. The practical value of the prepared catalyst was tested in the synthesis of the aroma ester methyl acetate in hexane. Reaction yields were 2.6 and 52.5% for CRL and HAP‐CRL respectively. CONCLUSION This research has successfully combined an industrially prominent biocatalyst, CRL, and a biocompatible, environmentally suitable carrier, HAP, into an immobilized preparation with improved catalytic properties. The obtained CRL preparation has excellent potential for the food and flavor industries, major consumers in the global enzyme market. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T05:07:08.858642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7641
  • The effect of astaxanthin on the aging rat brain: gender‐related
           differences in modulating inflammation
    • Authors: Marta Balietti; Stefano R Giannubilo, Belinda Giorgetti, Moreno Solazzi, Angelo Turi, Tiziana Casoli, Andrea Ciavattini, Patrizia Fattorettia
      Pages: 4295 - 4295
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:28:21.898284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7865
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