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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]
  • Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Based Compost As Substrate For Potted Basil
    • Authors: Carlo Mininni; Francesco Grassi, Andreina Traversa, Claudio Cocozza, Angelo Parente, Teodoro Miano, Pietro Santamaria
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Peat is the main component of growing media but is also a non‐renewable resource, therefore the European policy strongly encourages the use of peat alternatives such as compost. Posidonia is a Mediterranean seagrass that produces very conspicuous onshore deposits that can be composted. In this study, a commercial green compost and a posidonia residues based compost were tested in order to assess their potential use as substitutes or complements to peat. Results All macro and micro‐element concentrations of the substrates were positively and significantly related to the percentage of composts in the growing media. Plant grown on peat showed higher content of P, Ca, K, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe, and a slightly higher biomass production in comparison to compost based growing media. In contrast, plants grown on compost based substrates showed lower uptake of Cd and Cr than peat. Conclusion The results indicate that both composts can be used as a complement to the peat for the substrates preparation, especially at a rate of 30%. The posidonia based compost showed better productive results in comparison to the green one. The basil grown on the two composts based media showed reduced absorption level of potentially toxic metals in comparison to peat.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T12:01:03.675996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6917
  • Firmness prediction in Prunus persica ‘Calrico’ peaches by
           Visible/short wave near infrared spectroscopy and acoustic measurements
           using optimized linear and non‐linear chemometric models
    • Authors: Victoria Lafuente; Luis Javier Herrera, María del Mar Pérez, Jesús Val, Ignacio Negueruela
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this work, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and an acoustic measure (AWETA) (two non‐destructive methods) were applied in Prunus persica fruit ‘Calrico’ (n = 260) to predict Magness‐Taylor (MT) firmness. Separate and combined use of these measures was evaluated and compared using PLS and LS‐SVM regression methods. Also, a Mutual Information (MI)‐based variable selection method, seeking to find the most significant variables to produce optimal accuracy of the regression models, was applied to a joint set of variables (NIR wavelengths and AWETA measure). The newly proposed combined NIR‐AWETA model gave good values of the determination coefficient (R2) for PLS and LS‐SVM methods (0.77 and 0.78, respectively), improving the reliability of MT firmness prediction in comparison with separate NIR and AWETA predictions. The three variables selected by the variable selection method (AWETA measure plus NIR wavelengths 675 and 697 nm) achieved R2 values 0.76 and 0.77, PLS and LS‐SVM. These results indicated that the proposed MI‐based variable selection algorithm was a powerful tool for the selection of the most relevant variables.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T09:59:26.936765-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6916
  • Nut traits and nutritional compositions of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.)
           as influenced by zinc fertilization
    • Authors: Nedim Özenç; Damla Bender Özenç
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread phenomenon throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. The effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and nutritional compositions of ‘Tombul’ hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated and the contributions of these nuts on human nutrition were determined. The trials were carried out at ‘Tombul’ hazelnut orchards and zinc fertilizers were applied with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg ha−1 zinc between the three consecutive years. Results Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral compositions were observed in terms of the protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkle nuts, copper (Cu), boron (B), manganese (Mn) and molybdenum (Mo) in zinc fertilizer applications. According to daily nutrition element requirements, the quantity of 100 g hazelnut provided about 44.74% for P, 13.39% for K, 19.32% for Ca, 37.49% for Mg, 0.19% for Na, 51.63% for Fe, 25.73% for Zn and 14.05% for B of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Cu, Mn and Mo contents of 100 g hazelnuts were higher than the respective daily requirements. Conclusion In order to improve some nut traits and mineral compositions of hazelnut, 0.8 kg ha−1 and 1.6 kg ha−1 Zn fertilizations could be recommended for practice.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T09:58:08.823439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6911
  • Characterization And Comparison Of Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant
           Capacity And Instrumental Taste Profile Of Juices From Different Botanical
    • Authors: Daniel Granato; Ariadne Roberto Karnopp, Saskia M. van Ruth
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The European Union registered a consumption of about 10.7 million liters of juices in 2011 and great part of this amount is imported from other countries, which makes the monitoring of their quality essential. This work was aimed to map the quality of various juices from different botanical origins from instrumental taste, chemical markers and antioxidant capacity perspectives. We also characterized the individual phenolic composition of juices previously classified according to their antioxidant activity and total phenolic materials level. Results Overall, by using correlation analysis and chemometrics (HCA and PCA), data showed that total phenolics, specifically gallic acid, p‐coumaric acid, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols are the main contributors to the antioxidant activity. Elderberry and pomegranate juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, orange, apple, and cranberry juices had the lowest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, DPPH, and CUPRAC. Conclusion The use of chemometrics coupled to ANOVA seems to be a suitable approach to evaluate the quality of fruit juices from different botanical origins. Additionally, the instrumental taste profile correlated well to the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity, showing its potential application in assessing the functionality of juices.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:31:21.881168-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6910
  • Triacylglycerols and aliphatic alcohols from fruits of three tunisian
           Pistacia lentiscus populations
    • Authors: Hajer Trabelsi; Justin Renaud, Wahid Herchi, Sadok Boukhchina, Paul Mayer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The search for other sources of vegetable oils by the exploitation and the enhancement of other oil plants will be needed to meet the demands of the international market. This study aims to determine the triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species and aliphatic alcohol (AA) compositions of unexploited fruits of three Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus (lentisc) populations. Results Results show that the content of total TAG varies from 738.32 mg/g of total lipid (LT) in the TB population to 981.15 mg/g of LT in the KO. Furthermore, fourteen species of TAG were detected in the three studied populations. In addition, thirteen aliphatic compounds were identified and classified into two groups: the first group is aliphatic alcohols with a number of carbon atoms less than 20 (hexadecanol, heptadecanol, (Z)‐octadec‐9‐en‐1‐ol, octadecanol and nonadécanol) and the second is that policosanol group (eicosenol, docosenol, docosanol tetracosanol, hexacosanol octacosanol and triacontanol). The Tebaba population showed a distinct composition compared to Korbous and Rimel where heptadecanol is the major compound. Conclusion Quantitatively, the most abundant TAG species are those constituted by palmitic, oleic and/or linoleic acid. Furthermore, the significant difference observed at the oil composition is associated with a remarkable station effect.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:19:49.219883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6915
  • Assessment of the bacterial and fungal diversity in home‐made
           yoghurts of Xinjiang of China by pyrosequencing
    • Authors: Haiyan Xu; Wenjun Liu, Qimu Gesudu, Zhihong Sun, Jiachao Zhang, Zhuang Guo, Yi Zheng, Qiangchuan Hou, Jie Yu, Yanting Qing, Lai‐Yu Kwok, Bilige Menhe, Heping Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background To gain a deeper knowledge to the bacterial and fungal community diversity of home‐made yoghurt from Zhaosu and Tekesi counties of Xinjiang in China, where relatively high proportion of ethnic minority population resides and their local home‐made yoghurt are well‐known. Results The bacterial and fungal community diversity of 22 home‐made yoghurt samples from Zhaosu and Tekesi counties of Xinjiang in China were analyzed with pyrosequencing. Using the approach, this study revealed the presence of six bacterial and two fungal phyla, respective to 69 bacterial and 20 fungal genera from all the samples. Firmicutes and Ascomycota were the dominate phyla, while Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces were the predominant genera of bacteria and fungi, respectively. Based on redundancy analysis (RDA), the bacterial diversity of two counties were different mainly because of 8 responsive operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Lactobacillus. However, no obvious difference existed in the fungal population of the samples from the two counties. Conclusion Our results may indicate that the microbial community of home‐made yoghurt varies with their geographic regions and manufacturing process. The study demonstrated that pyrosequencing could provide a better understanding of microbiology diversity as well as useful information for future studies on starter culture of yoghurt selection.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:12:59.143187-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6912
  • The effect of water stress on super‐high density
           ‘Koroneiki’ olive oil quality
    • Authors: Arnon Dag; Amos Naor, Alon Ben‐Gal, Guy Harlev, Isaac Zipori, Doron Schneider, Reuven Birger, Moti Peres, Yoni Gal, Zohar Kerem
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super‐high density olive orchards has rapidly increased. Water stress is an important tool in super‐high density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability to overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super‐high density orchards on oil quality parameters. In the current study, the effect of irrigation rates on oil quality parameters was studied in a six‐year‐old super‐high density ‘Koreneiki’ olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain varied midday stem water potential threshold values (−1.5, −2, −2.5, −3 and −4 Mpa) were applied during the oil accumulation stage. Results The ratio of MUFA/PUFA increased and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increased tree water stress. In most of the seasons, a reduction in polyphenols was found with reduction of irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in super‐high density, lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction of polyphenol content which were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:08:51.503099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6913
  • Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts on the oxidative
           stability and sensory acceptability of soybean oil
    • Authors: Liara S Dias; Michele E C Menis, Neuza Jorge
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plant extracts have been used as an alternative to the use of synthetic antioxidants in order to preserve oils from oxidative degradation. Besides that, these extracts add special flavors and aromas to the food. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and freeze dried rosemary in the oxidative stability of soybean oil under accelerated storage in oven. Results The application of the extracts in the oil showed that that freeze dried extract was better in reducing the formation of oxidation products, evidencing 8.6 meq kg −1 of peroxides after 20 days of storage. On the other hand, the mixture of the natural extract with TBHQ conferred better oxidative stability index until the 20th day, 9.7 h. Both extracts prevented the tocopherol loss, do not differing between each other (p > 0.05), presenting approximately 505 mg kg −1 of residual tocoferols. The sensory evaluation revealed that the consumer accepted equally the oils added and not added of the rosemary extracts. Conclusion The extracts are therefore potential sources of natural antioxidants and they would be well accepted by consumers if applied by the food industry to replace synthetic antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T03:08:20.495415-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6914
  • Influence of pH, Concentration, and Light on Stability Allicin in Garlic
           (Allium sativum L.) Aqueous Extract as Measured by UPLC
    • Authors: Haiping Wang; Xixiang Li, Xinyan Liu, Di Shen, Yang Qiu, Xiaohui Zhang, Jiangping Song
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Garlic as one of the most important bulb vegetables was mainly used as spice or flavoring agent for foods, and also cultivated for its medicinal properties attributable to sulfur compounds, of which, the allicin is the most important. However the stability of allicin in garlic extract was not understood well yet. In this study, using UPLC, the stability of allicin extracted in water from garlic was evaluated in phosphate buffer,under different temperatures, and in light and dark. Results At room temperature, allicin extract was most stable with pH 5.0 to 6.0, but degraded quickly at lower or higher pH. It began degrading in 0.5 h and was not detectable after 2 h when the pH was higher than 11.0 or lower than 1.5. It degraded quickly when temperature was higher than 40 °C, and especially higher than 70 °C. At room temperature, allicin in water could be stored for 5 d without obvious degradation. Higher the concentrations of allicin in solution were somewhat more stable than low concentrations. Conclusion Allicin extract was sensitive to pH and temperature of storage, but not to light. Higher concentration allicin in solution was more stable.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:07:30.26958-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6884
  • New Trends in Beer Flavour Compound Analysis
    • Authors: Cristina Andrés‐Iglesias; Olimpio Montero, Daniel Sancho, Carlos A. Blanco
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:04:40.85371-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6905
  • The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the
           physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Akkawi cheese
    • Authors: Rabih Kamleh; Ammar Olabi, Imad Toufeili, Hamza Daroub, Tarek Younis, Rola Ajib
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Studies have shown a direct relationship between increased dietary sodium intake and chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Potassium chloride is the most widely used salt substitute for sodium chloride in different processed foods. Akkawi cheese, commonly consumed as fresh cheese, has a semi‐hard curd, chalky color, firm texture and salty flavor. The effect of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on the chemical, textural, microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and mature Akkawi cheese was investigated. Results Salt treatment (NaCl reduction) had a significant effect on pH, lactic acid, sodium and potassium contents of cheeses. Texture profile analysis revealed a significant effect of salt treatment on adhesiveness, chewiness and hardness of cheese. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between salt treatments, specifically between control (100% NaCl) and (70% NaCl, 30% KCl) samples. Descriptive analysis showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on bitterness, crumbliness and hardness, whereas the age of cheese was significant for color and fermented flavor. Salt treatment had no effect on acceptability variables for all experimental 2‐wk Akkawi samples. Conclusion The above results suggest that a 30% substitution of NaCl by KCl (70% NaCl, 30% KCl brine) is acceptable.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:03:02.107816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6906
  • Extraction optimization of polysaccharides from Chinese rice wine from the
           Shaoxing region and evaluation of its immunity activities
    • Authors: Chi Shen; Jian Mao, Yongquan Chen, Xiangyong Meng, Zhongwei Ji
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Chinese rice wine is commonly famous for its unique flavor and high nutritional value, it is interesting to investigate the functional components of Chinese rice wine and their health benefits. Results Response surface design of three‐factors, pH, ethanol concentration and precipitation time at the three levels was utilized to optimize the extraction of Chinese rice wine polysaccharide (CRWP). The results indicated that the CRWP yield was 77.287% at the optimal levels for pH 8.4, ethanol concentration 88 %, precipitation time 23 h. In addition, immunity activity of CRWP was investigated by measuring body weight, spleen index and thymus index. Furthermore, immunity activity of CRWP was investigated by measuring lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytic index and phagocytic percentage of immunosuppressed mice. Compared with the control mice and model mice, it was found that CRWP has beneficial immunity activities) in vivo. Conclusion These findings indicate that CRWP has immunity activities in vivo by modulating the immune response, and implies full development and utilization of the nutritional value of Chinese rice wine the nutritive value of Chinese rice wine. However, furtherwork will be conducted to elucidate the structure/bioactivity relationship for CRWP in the future.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:02:45.467406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6909
  • Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does
           viscosity have an impact?
    • Authors: Cai V S Brandenstein; Mechthild Busch‐Stockfisch, Markus Fischer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol, and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPas). The range of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. Results An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess, and perceived viscosity (p values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. Conclusion The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T02:39:05.717807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6907
  • Mutation breeding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content
    • Authors: Ming‐Hua Liang; Ying‐Jie Liang, Xiao‐Na Wu, Shi‐Shui Zhou, Jian‐Guo Jiang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: With the mutation conditions of 0.4% diethyl sulfate (DES, lethality 84.81%) for 60 min and an ultraviolet (UV) irradiation time of 240 s (lethality 85.92%), 15 W at a distance of 30 cm, a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae DU9 with low production of methanol (97.3 ± 1.7 mg/L) was selected, with a 12.3% decrease of that of S. cerevisiae D4 only with DES treatment, and with a 27.8% reduction of that of the strain without any treatment. Meanwhile, the effects of the additions of pectinase, cellulase and glycine on the production of methanol in sugar cane spirits were evaluated. Pectinase and cellulase significantly increased the methanol levels of the sugar cane spirits. With the additions of 56 U of pectinase and 24 U of cellulase, respectively, the methanol contents were almost the maxima and subsequently no significant change. In addition, the relations between the glycine content in the fermentation medium and the production of methanol in sugar cane spirits were studied. The results showed that there was linear relationship between glycine (concentration within 0 ~ 0.9 g/L) and methanol in sugar cane sprits and the linear equation was y = 104.7x‐4.79 with the conversion rate of glycine conversion to methanol as 24.56%. So it is necessary to control the addition of pectinase, cellulase and glycine in the fermentation medium, and other unknown ways to generate methanol metabolic pathway in yeasts may need further study.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T02:37:52.733428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6908
  • Protective effects of Cholestin on ethanol induced oxidative stress in
    • Authors: You‐Liang Hsieh; Yen‐Hung Yeh, Ya‐Ting Lee, Chih‐Yang Huang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, Group A: basal diet, Group B: basal diet containing cholestin for 0.1667 g kg−1, Groups C‐F the rats were orally received ethanol for 7.9 g kg−1. Groups D‐F the Cholestin in diet for 0.1667 g kg−1, 0.3333 g kg−1, 0.5 g kg−1, Group G was given silymarin in diet for 2 mg kg−1. Results Our results showed treatment with Cholestin for 8‐weeks reduce the impact of ethanol toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Antioxidant system was significantly enhanced in the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were lowered while the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px), ethanol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities and non‐enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) were elevated. Conclusion Cholestin has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity indices in ethanol fed rats to comparable of silymarin and supported by the evaluation of the liver histopathology. Our data suggest that Cholestin its hepatoprotective effect by decreased the lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidants status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant in ethanol induced oxidative damage in rats.
      PubDate: 2014-09-09T03:25:35.982904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6904
  • Effect of Rye Bread Enriched with Tomato Pomace on Fat Absorption and
           Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High‐Fat Diet
    • Authors: Joanna Bajerska; Agata Chmurzynska, Sylwia Mildner‐Szkudlarz, Sławomira Drzymała‐Czyż
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Tomato pomace (TP), obtained as a residue of tomato processing, was used to enriched rye bread (RB). The sensory profile of this functional bread (RB+TP) was characterized, and its fat‐absorption and lipid metabolism properties in high‐fat‐fed rats were studied. Results Intake of the HF diet containing RB, RB+TP, or TP alone increased fecal energy and fat excretion, but did not affect animal growth or visceral fat weight. Both RB and RB+TP diminished the negative impact of the HF diet, lowering the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and the total liver lipid contents by 31.6% and 24%, respectively. The experimental diets had no effect on liver S‐adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations, or on the S‐adenosylmethionine (SAM) to SAH ratio, though the lowest SAM levels were observed in the HF+TP group. No significant differences were detected in blood homocysteine, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels. Conclusions Although RB+TP incorporated into a HF diet may lead to a decrease in AIP and total liver lipid content, this effect does not depend on the components of TP, but rather on the RB ingredients. However, pure TP, in the doses used in this study, may potentially play a role in the energy balance via fecal loss of lipids
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T07:11:12.952556-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6899
  • New food from potato somatic hybrid: nutritional equivalence and safety
           assessment by a feeding study on rats
    • Authors: Oumèma Nouri‐Ellouz; Najiba Zeghal, Saloua Makni, Fatma Makni‐Ayadi, Mouhanad Trigui, Raoudha Ellouz‐Ghorbel, Noureddine Drira, Tahya Sellami‐Boudawara, Radhia Gargouri‐Bouzid
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Potato tubers from the STBd somatic hybrid line that exhibited improved tolerance to salinity and resistance to fungal and PVY infections were characterized. They were compared for their chemical composition to the Spunta variety produced by conventional agronomic practices. This study aimed to compare nutritional value and safety by feeding rats with STBd or commercial tubers added to the standard diet (20/80 w/w). Results The analysis of soluble sugar, fat, fiber and ash contents of tubers did not reveal any significant differences between the hybrid line and the control Spunta variety. Small differences were observed in dry matter, starch and protein contents of hybrid potatoes in comparison to controls. However, all values were within normal ranges reported in the literature. The feeding study on rats showed that overall health, weight gain, food consumption, morphological aspects and weights of organs were comparable between rat groups fed the STBd hybrid and the Spunta variety. Conclusion Taken together, 28 days of consumption of STBd hybrid potato did not exert any adverse effect on rats compared with commercial Spunta potato. The STBd potato line was therefore considered to be as safe for food utilization as the commercial variety.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T07:10:48.428449-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6898
  • Deglycosylation of Isoflavone C‐Glycosides by Newly Isolated Human
           Intestinal Bacteria
    • Authors: Mihyang Kim; Jaekwan Lee, Jaehong Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plant isoflavones are mostly present in the glycoside form. Isoflavone aglycones produced by intestinal microflora are reported to be more bioactive than the glycoside form. However, the deglycosylation of isoflavone C‐glycosides is known to be rare, and is less studied. Results Three new bacteria were isolated from human fecal samples, two of which hydrolyzed the C‐glycosidic bond of puerarin, daidzein‐8‐C‐glucoside. They were identified as two Lactococcus species, herein designated as MRG‐IFC‐1 and MRG‐IFC‐3, and an Enterococcus species, herein designated MRG‐IFC‐2, based on their 16S rDNA sequences. From reactivity study, it was found that Lactococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐1 and Enterococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐2 hydrolyzed isoflavone C‐ and O‐glycosides, as well as the flavone O‐glycoside apigetrin, but could not hydrolyze the flavone C‐glycosidic bond of vitexin. The other Lactococcus sp., MRG‐IF‐3, could not hydrolyze the C‐glycosidic linkage of puerarin, while it showed a broad substrate spectrum of O‐glycosidase activity similar to the other two bacteria. Puerarin was completely converted to daidzein within 100 min by Lactococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐1 and Enterococcus sp. MRG‐IFC‐2, which is the fastest conversion among the reported human intestinal bacteria. Conclusion Two new puerarin‐metabolizing human intestinal bacteria were isolated and identified, and the deglycosylation activity for various flavonoid glycosides was investigated. The results could facilitate the study of C‐glycosidase reaction mechanisms, as well as the pharmacokinetics of bioactive C‐glycoside natural products.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:45:55.831184-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6900
  • Efficiency of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp essential oil as a
           mycotoxicant against postharvest mycobiota of table grapes
    • Authors: Nivedita Sonker; Abhay K. Pandey, Pooja Singh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In order to get a potent botanical fungicide for the management of fungal decay of table grapes, an experiment was conducted in which 20 essential oils of higher plants were screened at 0.33 μL mL−1 against three dominant fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. ochraceus causing decay of table grapes. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentration, fungitoxic spectrum and mycotoxin inhibition activity of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of most potent oil in preservation of table grapes along with organoleptic evaluation was also carried out by storing 1 kg of grapes in the oil vapor. Results Artemisia nilagirica oil was found to most toxic exhibiting 100 % mycelia inhibition of all the test fungi. Moreover, 0.29 μL mL−1 of A. nilagirica oil was fungistatic and 0.57 μL mL−1 was fungicidal for all the tested species of Aspergillus. Oil exhibited broad range of fungitoxicity against other grape berries rotting fungi. A. nilagirica oil absolutely repressed the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus at 1.6 μL mL−1. During in vivo experiment, fumigation of 1 kg of table grapes by 200 and 300 μL dosage of A. nilagirica oil enhanced the shelf life for 9 days. The oil did not show phytotoxic effect. Besides, the oil application did not substantively change the sensory properties of the fruits. Conclusion Thus, A. nilagirica oil can be used as an alternative botanical fungicide for control of fruit rotting fungi of stored grapes.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:45:25.39981-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6901
  • Phytochemical profile, anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory
           potentials of Gynura bicolor DC.
    • Authors: Che‐yi Chao; Wen‐hu Liu, Jia‐jiuan Wu, Mei‐chin Yin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Phytochemical composition of aqueous and ethanol extracts from Gynura bicolor DC., a vegetable, was determined. Human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells were used to examine the anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory potentials of these extracts at 1, 2 or 4% against high glucose‐induced injury. Resulrs Both aqueous and ethanol extracts contained phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, and anthocyanins in the range of 1428–1569, 1934–2175, 921–1007 and 2135–2407 mg 100 g dry weight−1. Both extracts were rich in quercetin, lutein, malvidin and pelargonidin. Addition of these extracts at test doses decreased reactive oxygen species formation, reserved glutathione content, and retained glutathione peroxide and catalase activities in high glucose‐treated HUVE cells (P
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:42:47.598745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6902
  • Phytochemical Screening, Anticancer and Antioxidant Activities of Origanum
           vulgare L. subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek: A Plant of Traditional Usage
    • Authors: Serkan Koldaş; Ibrahim Demirtas, Tevfik Ozen, Mehmet Ali Demirci
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of its five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). Results The differences between essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were also shown. Main component of the essential oil was found as caryophyllene oxide. On the other hand, main components of volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol determined by Head Space‐GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC‐TOF/MS. Ten phenolic compounds were determined from Origanum vulgare and Origanum acutidens in the extracts: Rosmarinic acid (RA) ‐ with the highest abundance ‐, chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p‐coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin‐7‐glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4‐hydroxybenzaldehyde. Conclusion This study can be shown as the first one on antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of Origanum vulgare subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T06:42:34.985831-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6903
  • A comparison of fruit quality parameters of wild bilberry (Vaccinium
           myrtillus L.) growing at different locations
    • Authors: Maja Mikulic‐Petkovsek; Valentina Schmitzer, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background As a part of the ongoing interest in nutritional and nutraceutical properties of locally produced fruits, the aim of the article was to determine sugars, organic acids, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of wild bilberries grown in Slovenia. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of bilberry fruit was compared among six phyto‐climatic conditions, differing in photosynthetic active radiation and light intensity. Results Three sugars were quantified in bilberry fruit, the predominant fructose and glucose, along with five organic acids. Bilberry fruit contained high levels of anthocyanins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, petunidin and peonidin glycosides), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and low levels of flavonol glycosides (mainly quercetin and myricetin glycosides), flavan‐3‐ols, proanthocyanidins, and iridoids. The results of the study indicate that bilberries growing in sites with high PAR contained higher levels of total sugars, anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids and lower levels of organic acids compared with bilberry fruit from low‐light locations. Consequently, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of the fruit from high PAR locations were significantly increased. Conclusion Bilberries from different natural habitats differ significantly in the quantity of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds. Our results contribute to a fuller understanding of the relationships between environmental factors and primary and secondary metabolites accumulation in bilberry fruits.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T03:34:59.214662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6897
  • Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal
    • Authors: Joanna Rychlik; Anna Olejnik, Mariola Olkowicz, Katarzyna Kowalska, Wojciech Juzwa, Kamila Myszka, Radosław Dembczyński, Mary Pat Moyer, Włodzimierz Grajek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the broccoli sprouts protective effects against oxidative stress in human colon cells. Results Obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in broccoli sprouts, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, whereas phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar or higher than determined for non‐digested broccoli sprouts. Gastrointestinal digested broccoli sprouts extract exhibited reactive oxygen species inhibitory capacity in colon NCM460 cells, with 1 mg mL−1 showing a ROS clearance of 76.59%. The 57.33% reduction of oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells, caused by treatment with digested broccoli sprouts extract, was observed. Conclusion Results lent support to application the broccoli sprouts as rich source of antioxidants to improve defensive system against oxidative stress in colon mucosa.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T06:10:21.444321-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6895
  • 5‐Caffeoylquinic Acid Decreases Diet‐Induced Obesity in Rats
           by Modulating PPARα and LXRα Transcription
    • Authors: Kang Huang; Xiu‐ci Liang, Ying‐li Zhong, Wan‐yan He, Zheng Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are widely distributed in plant material, including foods and beverages. 5‐Caffeoylquinic acid (5‐CQA) is the most studied CGA, but the mechanism of its hypolipidemic effect remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of 5‐CQA on lipid metabolism in the liver of Sprague–Dawley rats fed a high‐fat diet (HFD). RESULTS 5‐CQA suppressed HFD‐induced increases in body weight and visceral fat‐pad weight, serum lipid levels, and serum and hepatic free fatty acids in a dose‐dependent manner. Real‐time PCR revealed that 5‐CQA altered the mRNA expression of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor α (PPARα) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) and target genes involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake, β‐oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, hepatic tissue sections from HFD‐fed rats showed many empty vacuoles, suggesting that liver cells were filled with more fat droplets. However, 5‐CQA significantly ameliorated this effect. CONCLUSION 5‐CQA may improve lipid metabolism disorders by altering the expression of PPARα and LXRα, which are involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T06:07:04.29455-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6896
  • Eating Quality Of Meat From Six Lamb Breed Types Raised In Brazil
    • Authors: Carla Alves Monaco; Maria T Alvarenga Freire, Lauro Melo, Alessandra Fernandes Rosa, Celso da Costa Carrer, Marco A Trindade
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Breed or genotype is important to consider for developing appropriate eating quality in lamb. The objectives of this study were to compare physical and chemical parameters and sensory acceptance of Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle from six lamb breed types economically important to Brazilian sheep raising chain. Results No difference (P > 0.05) among samples was found in relation to L*, a* and b* parameters. However, differences were detected in shear force for the LL muscle produced by different breeds (P  0.05) was detected in aroma attribute for all breed types tested. For the attributes texture, juiciness, flavor and overall quality, differences were detected (P 
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T04:21:45.894899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6894
  • Arsenic toxicity in rice with special reference to speciation in Indian
           grain and its implication on human health
    • Authors: Bishwajit Sinha; Kallol Bhattacharyya
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rice is a potentially important route of human exposure to arsenic, especially in populations with rice‐based diets. However, arsenic toxicity varies greatly with species. The initial purpose of the present study was to evaluate arsenic speciation in rice. RESULTS It appeared very clear from the present study that inorganic arsenic shared maximum arsenic load in rice straw while in grains it is considerably low. As species recovered from rice grain and straw are principally As(III) and As(V) with a small amount of dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) and almost non‐detectable monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenobetain (AsB). Discussion of the health risk of As in rice has largely been based on its inorganic arsenic content because these species have generally been considered to be more toxic than MMA and DMA and can be directly compared to As in drinking water, assuming equal bioavailability of inorganic As in the rice matrix and in water. The maximum dietary risk of exposure to inorganic arsenic through transplanted boro paddy in the present experiment was calculated to be almost 1706% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake for an adult of 60 kg body weight. CONCLUSION As species recovered from boro rice grain and straw are principally As(III) and As(V) with a small amount of DMA and almost non‐detectable MMA and AsB. Reductions in total As load through organic amendments in boro rice grain and straw samples were manifested predominately through reduced accumulations of inorganic As species [As(III) and As(V)], between which As(V) accounted for the larger share. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T07:36:02.382419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6839
  • Cross‐Cultural Acceptance Of A Traditional Yoghurt‐Like
           Product Made From Fermented Cereal
    • Authors: H.N Akissoe; C. Sacca, A‐L. Declemy, A. Bechoff, V. Anihouvi, G. Dalode, D. Pallet, G. Fliedel, C. Mestres, D.J. Hounhouigan, K.I. Tomlins
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Akpan is a traditional ready‐to‐drink fermented yoghurt‐like cereal beverage consumed in urban and rural areas in Benin. With the aim of adapting the product to new local and export markets, this work maps African and European consumer preferences for different types of Akpan. Results A sensory profile of Akpan was created and consumer tests were conducted with 103 consumers of African origin and 74 consumers of European origin. Consumer acceptance was significantly correlated with fermented odour (r = − 0.94) and milky taste attributes (r = 0.92 to 0.97). Cluster analysis revealed different behaviour by African and European consumers with respect to acceptability of Akpan; European consumers did not like the sour taste and African consumers liked an intense sweet milky taste. Conclusion This study provides information on how Akpan, and other fermented yoghurt‐type cereal products, could be adapted to African and European consumer preferences.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T06:57:00.383063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6892
  • Effect of Grape and Other Berries on Cardiovascular Health
    • Authors: JoLynne D. Wightman; Roschelle A. Heuberger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. Many cardiovascular risk factors can be modified through lifestyle modification, including dietary patterns that emphasize daily consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Recent observational and clinical studies suggest that flavonoids, especially those abundant in grapes and other berries, may be associated with health benefits and in particular, cardiovascular benefits. Human clinical data supports cardioprotective benefits of grapes through inhibition of platelet aggregation, decreased LDL oxidation, reduction in oxidative stress, and improvements in endothelial function. Emerging evidence suggests that grapes may also have a favorable effect on blood lipids, decrease inflammation, and reduce blood pressure in certain populations. Studies to date have shown berries can have a beneficial effect on reducing LDL oxidation. Limited data suggests that berries may have a favorable effect on endothelial health and blood pressure. This review summarizes the current literature on human clinical studies examining the cardioprotective benefits of grapes and berries. Collectively, these data support the recommendation to incorporate products made with grapes and other berries into a heart‐healthy diet.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T04:50:36.226519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6890
  • Optimization of pulsed electric field pre‐treatments to enhance
           health‐promoting glucosinolates in broccoli flowers and stalk.
    • Authors: I Aguiló‐Aguayo; M. Suarez, L. Plaza, M.B. Hossain, N. Brunton, J.G. Lyng, D.K. Rai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment variables (electric field strength and treatment time) on the glucosinolate content of broccoli flowers and stalks were evaluated. Samples were subjected to electric field strength from 1 to 4 kV/cm and treatment times from 50 to 1000 µs, at 5 Hz. Results Data fitted significantly (p< 0.0014) the proposed second‐order response functions. The results showed that PEF combined treatment conditions at 4 kV/cm for 525 µs and 4 kV/cm for 1000 µs were optimal to maximize glucosinolates levels in broccoli flowers (ranging 187.1 to 212.5%) and stalks (ranging 110.6 to 203.0%), respectively. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.59 to 8.80%. Conclusion The use of PEF processing at moderate conditions could be a suitable process to stimulate production of broccoli with high health‐promoting glucosinolate content.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T04:37:32.599048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6891
  • Development of New Reference Material Neohesperidin for Quality Control of
           Dietary Supplements
    • Authors: Ningbo Gong; Baoxi Zhang, Dezhi Yang, Zhaolin Gao, Guanhua Du, Yang Lu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Neohesperidin is an important natural flavanone glycoside distributed in several citrus species. This compound is widely used as a raw material for food additives in the food industry. The request for certified reference materials (CRMs) in dietary supplements was stipulated by the National Administrative Committee for CRMs and was underpinned by the need to improve the accuracy and comparability of measurement data and to establish metrological traceability of analytical results. Results This paper reports the sample preparation methodology, homogeneity and stability studies, value assignment, and uncertainty estimation of a new certified reference material of neohesperidin (GBW09522). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), coulometric titration (CT) and mass balance methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of neohesperidin CRM is 994 g kg−1 with an expanded uncertainty of 4 g kg−1 (k=2). The reference material described above was homogeneous and stable for 12 months at a storage temperature of 25 °C. Conclusion The new CRM of neohesperidin can be used to validate analytical methods, improve the accuracy of measurement data as well as quality control of neohesperidin‐related dietary supplements, foods, traditional herbs and pharmaceutical formulations.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T04:36:13.351057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6893
  • Crop load and harvest maturity effects on consumer preferences for
    • Authors: Jill Stanley; Jinquan Feng, Shane Olsson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Improving apricot fruit quality delivered to consumers is key to ensuring a successful apricot industry. Previous studies have focused on effects of either soluble solids content (SSC) or fruit firmness on consumer preferences, and results have been equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of crop load and harvest maturity how they affected on fruit SSC and firmness, and on subsequent consumer preferences. RESULTS SSC of apricots was an important factor only when fruit were firmer than 15 N and not immature. When fruit were softer than 15 N, SSC had little influence on consumer liking. In general, consumers preferred fruit that were grown on trees thinned to approximately 10–20% less than typical commercial crop loads and were harvested in a more mature condition. Consumers also preferred fruit that had a higher sugar/acid ratio or BrimA value, which is the °Brix − k × titratable acidity, where k is a constant that varies between species and cultivars depending on the specific acids and sugars present. High apricot flavour and juiciness were associated with greater sweetness. CONCLUSION Management practices that increase fruit SSC and sugar/acid ratio, such as reducing crop load, will improve consumer satisfaction as long as fruit are harvested at an adequate maturity stage and are maintained in storage so that they do not soften too quickly. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-28T07:07:00.699734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6850
  • In vitro assessment of the multifunctional bioactive potential of Alaska
           pollock skin collagen following simulated gastrointestinal digestion
    • Authors: Lidong Guo; Pádraigín A Harnedy, Li Zhang, Bafang Li, Zhaohui Zhang, Hu Hou, Xue Zhao, Richard J FitzGerald
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Dietary mineral deficiency, hypertension and diabetes have become serious human health problems. Dietary approaches are increasingly being investigated to address these issues. Identification of food‐derived biological peptides has become an important approach to control such diseases. Peptides generated from aquatic byproducts have been shown to possess biological activities. RESULTS Significantly higher copper‐chelating activity was observed on simulated hydrolysis of intact collagen. The collagen hydrolysate generated in the gastric stage exhibited moderate angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE)‐inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 2.92 ± 0.22 mg mL−1, which significantly decreased to 0.49 ± 0.02 mg mL−1 after intestinal digestion. The dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV‐inhibitory potency of the collagen hydrolysate generated directly following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) (IC50 2.59 ± 0.04 mg mL−1) was significantly lower than that of the collagen tryptic hydrolysate (CTH) (IC50 1.53 ± 0.01 mg mL−1). The antioxidant activities of collagen and CTH using the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were 0.87 ± 0.10 and 1.27 ± 0.03 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE) g−1 respectively after SGID. CONCLUSION This study identifies collagen as a good and inexpensive substrate for the generation of biologically active peptides with potential applications as functional ingredients in the management of chronic illness and mineral deficiency problems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-28T07:06:36.912679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6854
  • Dietary supplementation of Gracilariopsis persica is associated with some
           quality related sera and egg yolk parameters in laying quails
    • Authors: Behnam Abbaspour; Sharifi S Davood, Abdollah Mohammadi‐Sangcheshmeh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Gracilariopsis persica (Gp) is one of the most abundant red algae distributed in the Persian Gulf, containing various bioactive components with hypolipedimic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. Therefore using laying quails as a model we aimed to investigate the effect of dietary Gp on body weight, feed conversion, estradiol, progesterone, calcium and lipid levels in serum, as well as the high‐density:low‐density lipoprotein (HDL:LDL) ratio. Yolk cholesterol and yolk lipid oxidation were also evaluated. To accomplish this, diets containing 0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg−1 Gp were fed to 5‐week‐old laying quails for 12 weeks. RESULTS Our data revealed that Gp had no effect on body weight, feed conversion, triglycerides and estradiol levels of serum. Dietary Gp decreased the serum and yolk cholesterol in a dose‐dependent manner. In addition, the sera progesterone and calcium levels and HDL:LDL ratios were increased by feeding diets containing 50 g kg−1 Gp. Our results relating to yolk lipid oxidation showed that malondialdehyde content was decreased in Gp‐fed laying quails. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study demonstrate that not only serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels, but also susceptibility of yolk lipids to oxidation, can be decreased by feeding Gp to laying quails. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-28T05:53:33.643761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6844
  • Effect of setting temperature on
           glucono‐δ‐lactone‐induced gelation of silver carp
    • Authors: Wuyin Weng; Wenxiang Zheng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Setting temperature is important for heat‐induced surimi gel formation. However, there is little information concerning setting temperature on the properties of glucono‐δ‐lactone (GDL)‐induced surimi gel, which is considered a new preparation technique. RESULTS The pH of surimi gel induced by 2% GDL was about 4.6, while the breaking force of GDL‐induced surimi gel preheated at a temperature range of 35–50 °C was higher than that of heat‐induced surimi gel. The breaking force, deformation and whiteness of GDL‐induced surimi gel were increased with increasing setting temperature from 30 to 45 °C, but water‐holding capacity was decreased. When setting temperature was further increased to 50 °C, the textural properties were decreased, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) was degraded slightly. The data of protein subunits solubilized in various solvents revealed that MHC participated in the formation of GDL‐induced surimi gel mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, when GDL‐induced surimi gel was preheated at 45 °C, a compact and fine fiber microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSION Setting treatment at the appropriate temperature could promote the formation of a fine, compact GDL‐induced surimi gel network, resulting in improved textural properties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:34:14.599025-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6857
  • Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape
           varieties (Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Aarón de la Cerda‐Carrasco; Remigio López‐Solís, Hugo Nuñez‐Kalasic, Álvaro Peña‐Neira, Elías Obreque‐Slier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health‐promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By‐products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC‐DAD analysis. RESULTS White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low‐molecular‐weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. CONCLUSION Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:33:27.499283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6856
  • The use of vermicompost in organic farming: overview, effects on soil and
    • Authors: Su Lin Lim; Ta Yeong Wu, Pei Nie Lim, Katrina Pui Yee Shak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus‐like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost‐treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth‐influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:11:56.482189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6849
  • The effect of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films on the
           growth of Penicillium expansum in apples
    • Authors: Dovile Simonaitiene; Ieva Brink, Ausra Sipailiene, Daiva Leskauskaite
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Penicillium expansum causes a major post‐harvest disease of apples. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effect of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films containing different amounts of quince and cranberry juice against P. expansum on the simulation medium and on apples. The mechanical properties of films were also evaluated. RESULTS The presence of cranberry and quince juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in elasticity and decrease in tensile strength of films. Chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films with quince and cranberry juice demonstrated a significant (P ≤ 0.05) inhibition effect against P. expansum growth on the simulated medium and apples. The presence of cranberry juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films resulted in a longer lag phase and a lower P. expansum growth rate on the simulation medium in comparison with films made with the addition of quince juice. These differences were not evident when experiment was conducted with apples. CONCLUSION Addition of quince and cranberry juice to the chitosan and whey proteins–chitosan films as natural antifungal agents has some potential for prolonging the shelf life of apples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:11:34.743533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6846
  • Identification of predictor parameters to determine agro‐industrial
           compost suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora
           capsici diseases in muskmelon and pepper seedlings
    • Authors: Josefa Blaya; Eva Lloret, Margarita Ros, Jose Antonio Pascual
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The lack of reliable prediction tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of compost suppressiveness limits its application. In our study, different chemical, biological and microbiological parameters were used to evaluate their potential use as a predictor parameter for the suppressive effect of composts against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) and Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) in muskmelon and pepper seedlings respectively. Composts were obtained from artichoke sludge, chopped vineyard pruning waste and various agro‐industrial wastes (C1: blanched artichokes; C2: garlic waste; C3: dry olive cake). RESULTS Compost C3 proved to offer the highest level of resistance against FOM, and compost C2 the highest level of resistance against P. capsici. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids isolated from compost revealed that the three composts showed different microbial community structures. Protease, NAGase and chitinase activities were significantly higher in compost C3, as was dehydrogenase activity in compost C2. CONCLUSION The use of specific parameters such as general (dehydrogenase activity) and specific enzymatic activities (protease, NAGase and chitinase activities) may be useful to predict compost suppressiveness against both pathogens. The selection of raw materials for agro‐industrial composts is important in controlling Fusarium wilt and Phytophthora root rot. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:11:15.750337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6847
  • Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolated from three pig farms of
           China obtained by acquiring antibiotic resistance genes
    • Authors: Jinhu Huang; Kexin Shang, Jam Kashif, Liping Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Acquiring antibiotic resistance genes may change an organism's genetic characteristics and the effect of antibiotics, resulting in a rapid transmission of microbial pathogens. The objectives of this experiment were to identify the features of Streptococcus suis (S. suis) isolated from three pig farms in China which are geographically isolated. RESULTS Among the isolates, 56.52% were sequence type 7 (ST7), followed by ST1 (26.09%), indicating that ST7 prevails in China, as revealed by multi‐locus sequence typing (MLST). Statistical analysis indicated an association between geography, sequence types and antibiotic resistance genotypes. 66.67% of the isolates in Sichuan province presented a (ermB− + mefA− + tetO− + tetM−) + ST7 type. The tetM++ST7 type was the most prevalent in Jiangsu province, whereas the strains from Hebei province had a phenotype ermB++tetO++ST1 (63.64%). Pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis (PGFE) pattern A2 with 100% similarity reflected the clonal dissemination between Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces. Strains carrying or not carrying antibiotic resistance genes presented different PFGE patterns in Hebei province. CONCLUSION ST7 is widespread in many regions of China and a clonal dissemination occurred between Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces in diseased pigs. However, ST1 strains with macrolide and tetracycline resistance (ermB++tetO++ST1) isolated from a farm in Hebei province demonstrated that the genetic diversity was contributed by horizontal acquiring of ermB and tetO carrying elements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:07:39.259636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6841
  • Optimisation of ultrasound‐assisted extraction of natural
           antioxidants from mustard seed cultivars
    • Authors: Aleksandra Szydłowska‐Czerniak; Agnieszka Tułodziecka, György Karlovits, Edward Szłyk
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Modified mustard varieties can produce edible oil with reduced amounts of erucic acid and glucosinolates and enhanced antioxidant potential. Therefore, this work focused on the optimisation of the ultrasound‐assisted extraction of compounds with high antioxidant capacity from three white mustard seed cultivars using response surface methodology. RESULTS The predicted optimum solvent polarity (57.2, 56.5 and 57.6) and ultrasound power‐to‐sonication time ratio (4.5, 4.8 and 4.3 W min−1) resulted in antioxidant capacities determined by the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay [54.37, 65.75 and 68.55 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE) kg−1] and the 2,2′‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (141.65, 175.26 and 185.10 mmol TE kg−1) and total phenolics content (23.70, 27.16 and 11.29 mg sinapic acid g−1) for extracts obtained from one traditional and two modified mustard seed varieties. The highest FRAP and DPPH values (69.51 and 197.73 mmol TE kg−1) revealed 50% methanolic extract prepared from modified mustard seed cultivar without erucic acid and glucosinolates treated with ultrasound for 30 min (ultrasound power/ultrasound time = 4 W min−1). CONCLUSION Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was found to be a more rapid, convenient and appropriate extraction method with higher yield of antioxidants, shorter time and lower solvent consumption in comparison to conventional extraction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:07:21.281703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6840
  • Comparison of lipids, fatty acids and volatile compounds of various
           kumquat species using HS/GC/MS/FID techniques
    • Authors: Murat Güney; Ayse Tulin Oz, Ebru Kafkas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Kumquat (Fortunella spp.) is one of the important fruit species that has been introduced into Turkey recently. It is well adapted to the Mediterranean region in Turkey. Early research of kumquat was started on adaptation and pomological traits, and only a few studies have been concerned with chemical content. After understanding the health benefits of kumquat fruits farmers started their plantations in Turkey. Thus in this study the fruits of five kumquat species – Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle, F. crassifolia Swingle, F. obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, F. hindsii (Champ. ex Benth.) Swingle, and limequat [Citrus aurantifolia × F. japonica (Thumb.)] – were compared based on their lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles. The lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles were determined by using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS‐GC/MS) techniques. Volatile constituents of kumquat fruits were isolated by a headspace method. RESULTS The total lipid content (%) of kumquat species ranged from 0.26% to 0.37%. The polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected in a higher amount compared to the monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The headspace technique led to the identification of 39 compounds and among a total of 39 constituents identified, d‐limonene was the most abundant compound, comprising 67.78–88.72%. The results indicated that kumquats are rich in dietary and health benefits. CONCLUSION Thirty‐nine compounds were identified and terpenes were the major chemical group in all kumquat genotypes. Esters, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were also detected. The present study revealed that the kumquat fruits have a valuable levels of health beneficial chemo‐preventive effects and genotypes varied based on their lipid, fatty acids and volatile constituents. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:06:59.678525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6817
  • Effect Of Different New Packaging Materials On Biscuit Quality During
           Accelerated Storage
    • Authors: Santina Romani; Silvia Tappi, Federica Balestra, Maria Teresa Rodriguez Estrada, Valentina Siracusa, Pietro Rocculi, Marco Dalla Rosa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The effect of innovative multilayer packaging materials vs standard one on biscuit quality was studied during accelerated storage at 25, 35, 45 °C and 50% RH for 92 days. Three different packaging materials were used: metalized Orientated PolyPropylene (OPP)/paper (control); metalized Poly‐Lactic Acid (PLA)/paper; metalized OPP with Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Pro‐Oxidant Additive (EVA‐POA)/paper. EVA‐POA additive is used to make the plastic layer biodegradable. Various quality sample parameters (moisture, water activity, texture, peroxide value, hexanal) were analysed during storage. Rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) of hydration reactions and hexanal formation were calculated. Results No remarkable differences in the evolution of primary and secondary lipid oxidation were observed among differently packed biscuits during storage. All samples maintained PV levels between 4 and 14 meq O2 kg oil−1. The product in flexible packaging with PLA reached the highest moisture and aw levels, but they did not significantly and adversely affect the other quality characteristics. Conclusions The obtained results demonstrate that the new tested packaging materials were suitable for commercial biscuits storage, having similar performances and preservation effects on the overall product quality to those of the standard one. Furthermore, these results could give a contribution to food industry, encouraging the use of packaging materials with a negligible environmental impact as an alternative to petroleum‐based ones.
      PubDate: 2014-08-25T05:28:17.839929-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6888
  • Labrador tea ‐ the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin,
           processing and safety.
    • Authors: Anna Dampc; Maria Luczkiewicz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the native to North America beverage, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe of making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 minutes. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for the pests controlling.
      PubDate: 2014-08-25T05:27:50.266102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6889
  • The effect of salt replacers and flavor enhancer on the processing
           characteristics and consumer acceptance of turkey sausages
    • Authors: Z. Pietrasik; N. J. Gaudette
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Producing high quality processed meats that contain reduced amounts of sodium chloride is a major challenge facing industry due to the importance of sodium chloride towards the functional, microbial stability and sensory properties of these products. In order to create reduced sodium alternatives, a number of commercial salt replacers and flavor enhancers have entered the market; however, their ability to be applied in processed meats requires investigation. Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor – OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of turkey sausages. Functionality via instrumental measures (yield, purge loss, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture), safety (microbiological assessment), and consumer acceptability were obtained on all samples. Results All non‐control treatments resulted in products with sodium chloride contents below Canada's Health Check™ Program target for processed meats. There was no detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with OF60 sea salt replacers. Sodium reduction had no negative effect on the shelf life of the turkey sausages with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer acceptability for all attributes did not significantly differ, except for aftertaste, which scored lowest for OF45 compared to control (regular NaCl content). Conclusion This work demonstrated that salt replacers could potentially substitute NaCl in smoked turkey sausages; however, further flavor optimization may be required to suppress undesirable levels of bitterness elicited by some of these ingredients.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T05:17:36.803304-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6885
  • Efficiency of Irrigation Water Application to Sugarcane Cultivation in
    • Authors: Muhammad Arif Watto; Amin Mugera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The diminishing irrigation water supplies are threatening the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. Within the context of dwindling water resources and low agricultural water productivity, it is imperative to improve efficiency in agricultural production and to make efficient use available water resources. This study employs a nonparametric approach to estimate the extent of technical and irrigation water efficiency in sugarcane cultivation in Pakistan. Results The mean technical efficiency (TE) score is 0.96 for tube‐well owners whereas the mean TE score is 0.94 for water buyers. The mean irrigation water efficiency (IWE) score is 0.86 for tube‐well owners whereas the mean IWE score is 0.72 for water buyers. We find that across all farms, 59% of the tube‐well owners and 45% of the water buyers are fully technically efficient, whereas only 36% of the tube‐well owners and 30% of the water buyer are fully efficient in irrigation water use. Conclusions This study finds that sugarcane growers are operating at fairly high technical efficiency levels. But, there is considerable potential to improve irrigation water efficiency. This study proposes expanding the role of agricultural extension services from merely agronomic grounds to guide farmers to undertake cost benefit analysis of the available production technology, would help achieving higher efficiency levels.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T05:15:01.586844-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6887
  • Culinary preparation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.): The impact on sensory
           quality and appropriateness
    • Authors: Vibe Bach; Lærke Mikkelsen, Ulla Kidmose, Merete Edelenbos
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Beetroot is a diverse vegetable available in different shapes and colours. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sensory qualities, and sugar and dry matter content of five beetroot varieties in relationship to the appropriateness for raw, boiled, and pan‐fried preparation. Results Sensory evaluation by descriptive sensory analysis and consumer tests showed clear distinctions between red varieties Taunus, Rocket, and Pablo, and the pink‐white striped Chioggia, and yellow Burpee's Golden in raw preparations. However, variety delimination was more difficult after boiling and pan‐frying. Different sensory qualities were important for beetroot appropriateness in raw, boiled, and pan‐fried preparations. Appropriateness of raw beetroots was associated with high sensory scores in beetroot flavour, crispness, and juiciness and low scores in bitterness. Appropriateness of boiled beetroots was related to high scores in beetroot and earthy flavours. Pan‐fried beetroot appropriateness was associated with high scores in beetroot flavour, colour intensity, and crispness. Conclusion This study showed the quality of raw materials is integral in culinary preparations. These results can be used to guide consumers in the use of beetroots in culinary preparations, and thereby increase consumption.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T05:03:04.478679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6886
  • Meat quality and the histological structure of breast and leg muscles in
           Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani x Sussex hybrids and slow‐growing
           Hubbard JA 957 chickens
    • Authors: Monika Łukasiewicz; Jan Niemiec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Natalia Mroczek‐Sosnowska
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The purpose of the study was to determine the quality of the meat and the histological structure of muscles Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani x Sussex (hybrids) and slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957; and examine whether the Sussex chickens generally available with little available Ayam Cemani give a good quality product which can be interesting in the poultry industry and food technology. Results The size of breast and leg muscle fibers varied among genotypes. The breast and leg muscles of slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens had the largest fiber diameter. The histological and biochemical properties of muscles, including the type, number, proportions, diameter and metabolic profile of fibers, had a significant effect on the pH and water‐binding capacity of meat, thus affecting its quality. The muscle fibers of Ayam Cemani chickens were approximately half the size of the muscle fibers of Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Ayam Cemani and Ayam Cemani x Sussex give the product as good quality as chickens Hubard JA 957. Conclusions Meat from Ayam Cemani chickens is a rich source of protein and it could be highly valued by gourmet consumers, connoisseurs and dieticians for its rarity and originality. The results of this study show that genotype (Ayam Cemani, Ayam Cemani x Sussex, Hubbard JA 957) affected the quality and color of meat and the histological profile of chicken breast and leg muscles.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T04:38:41.764376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6883
  • Endogenous functional compounds in Korean native chicken meat are
           dependent on sex, thermal processing, and the meat cut
    • Authors: Dinesh D. Jayasena; Samooel Jung, Sun Hyo Kim, Hyun Joo Kim, Amali U. Alahakoon, Jun Heon Lee, Cheorun Jo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this study, we determined the effects of sex, meat cut, and thermal processing on the carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine contents of the Korean native chicken (KNC) meat. A total of 40 one‐day‐old chicks (20 chicks of each sex), from a commercial KNC strain (WoorimatdagTM) were reared under similar standard commercial conditions with similar diets, and a total of 10 birds of each sex were randomly selected and slaughtered at 14 weeks of age. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared from both breast and leg meats and analyzed for the aforementioned functional compounds. Results Female KNCs had significantly higher betaine and creatine contents. The breast meat showed significantly higher carnosine and anserine contents, whereas the leg meat had a greater betaine and carnitine content. The content of all functional compounds was significantly depleted by thermal processing. Conclusion This study confirms that KNC meat is a good source of above‐mentioned functional compounds, which can be considered attractive nutritional quality factors. However, their concentrations were significantly affected by thermal processing conditions, meat cut, and sex. Further experiments are needed to select the best thermal processing method to preserve these functional compounds.
      PubDate: 2014-08-23T04:38:29.169457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6882
  • Exploration of novel rhizospheric yeast isolate as fertilizing soil
           inoculant for improvement of maize cultivation
    • Authors: Sayani Mukherjee; Sukanta K Sen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chemical input in agriculture is a common practice but makes a serious impact to the environment. In this context, soil isolates having multiple plant growth‐promoting (PGP) attributes have been studied. The isolates were tested for their PO4 and Zn solubilization, indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation ability. The selected isolate SSm‐39 was characterized to molecular level. The isolate SSm‐39 was applied to maize cultivation in various combinations with chemical fertilizers. Also, the chemical and microbial status of soil, its effect on maize growth and yield were investigated. RESULTS Isolate SSm‐39 found most suitable for its PGP attributes and identified as Candida tropicalis. The inoculant (100%) with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer (T5) application notably increased the growth and yield performance of maize. It has improved grain quality by 85% as indicated by carbohydrate and protein content, in comparison to uninoculated control (T3). Soil nutrient status was found to increase twofold with T5 treatment compared with T3 treatment. Enhanced soil nutrient quality supported microbial growth and diversity, thus accelerating soil enzymatic activities. CONCLUSION The results validate the multiple PGP traits of C. tropicalis SSm‐39, advocating reduction of chemical fertilizer for maize cultivation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:57:46.098102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6848
  • Chitosan coating incorporated with the lactoperoxidase system: an active
           edible coating for fish preservation
    • Authors: Mohammad Sedigh Jasour; Ali Ehsani, Laleh Mehryar, Seyedeh Samaneh Naghibi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND As a result of consumers' concerns about chemicals there is a particular interest in the food industry to use natural bio‐preservatives such as antimicrobial enzymes for antimicrobial packaging. Based on the antimicrobial activity of the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS), the present study evaluated the coating effect of LPOS incorporated into chitosan solution (CH) on the quality and shelf life extension of rainbow trout during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C), for a period of 16 days. RESULTS The results indicated that samples of the CH+LPOS group had significantly lower numbers of Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria than did the CH and control group during the entire storage period. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) levels for the CH+LPOS samples (22.07 mg 100 g−1) did not exceed the limit of consumption (30–35 mg N 100 g−1), while the CH (31.03 mg 100 g−1) and control groups (37.78 mg 100 g−1) reached this level at days 12 and 16, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid values of the CH and CH+LPOS samples, ranged between 0.49 and 0.51 on day 0 and 4.59–4.66 mg kg−1 on day 16, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the corresponding values of the control samples (0.47 on day 0 to 4.78 mg kg−1 on day 16 of storage) during the chilled storage period. CONCLUSION The coating treatments (CH and CH+LPOS) extended the shelf life of trout fillets by at least 4 days as compared to the control samples, so that they showed moderate to high acceptability in all investigated sensory attributes even on the 16th day of storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:55:10.885742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6838
  • Elucidation of key aroma compounds in traditional dry fermented sausages
           using different extraction techniques
    • Authors: Sara Corral; Ana Salvador, Mónica Flores
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of different extraction techniques – solid phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) – can deliver different aroma profiles and it is essential to determine which is most suitable to extract the aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages. RESULTS Forty‐five aroma‐active compounds were detected by SPME and SAFE, with 11 of them reported for the first time as aroma compounds in dry fermented sausages: ethyl 3‐hydroxy butanoate, trimethyl pyrazine, d‐pantolactone, isobutyl hexanoate, ethyl benzoate, α‐terpineol, ethyl 3‐pyridinecarboxylate, benzothiazole, 2,3‐dihydrothiophene, methyl eugenol, γ‐nonalactone. The aroma concentration and odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Flavour reconstitution analyses were performed using 20 odorants with OAVs above 1 obtained from the SAFE and SPME extracts to prepare the aroma model. CONCLUSION SPME and SAFE techniques were complementary and necessary to reproduce the overall dry fermented sausage aroma. The final aroma model included the odorants from both extraction techniques (SPME and SAFE) but it was necessary to incorporate the compounds 2,4‐decadienal (E,E), benzothiazole, methyl eugenol, α‐terpineol, and eugenol to the final aroma model to evoked the fresh sausage aroma although a lowest cured meat aroma note was perceived. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:54:15.18089-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6830
  • Effects of combined therapy with glipizide and Aralia root bark extract on
           glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: Xiao‐Hong Liu; Xing‐Min Li, Cheng‐Cheng Han, Xiang‐Feng Fang, Le Ma
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The root bark of Aralia is a rich source of bioactive components that may improve glycemic control and lipid status. In this study, 148 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were assigned randomly to receive either glipizide alone or glipizide plus Aralia root bark extract (ARBE) for 8 weeks to test the effects of ARBE plus glipizide therapy on glycemic control and lipid profiles in these patients. RESULTS Levels of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (2‐h PPG) in both groups significantly decreased from baseline. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased marginally significantly in participants taking glipizide plus ARBE compared with the glipizide group (P = 0.06). Participants in the combination group had significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC) and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), and the between‐group difference achieved statistical significance for LDL‐C (P = 0.04). Reduction in HbA1c in the combination group was significantly associated with changes in TC (r = 0.32; P = 0.006) and LDL‐C (r = 0.34; P = 0.005), and the change in FPG was inversely correlated with LDL‐C reduction (r = 0.34; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS In patients with T2DM, combination therapy with glipizide and ARBE resulted in moderately lowering HbA1c and LDL‐C levels compared with glipizide alone. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:44:24.018309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6829
  • 6,6’‐bieckol inhibits adipocyte differentiation through
           down‐regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3‐L1
    • Authors: Tae‐Hyung Kwon; Yong‐Xiang Wu, Jong‐Shik Kim, Jung‐Hee Woo, Kyu Tae Park, O Jun Kwon, Hyun‐Ju Seo, Taewan Kim, Nyun‐Ho Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Brown alga, have been used for their nutritional value as well as a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti‐obesity effects. Obesity is an important condition implicated in various diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. However, anti‐obesity effects of the Eisenia bicyclis remain unknown. Results we investigated the anti‐obesity effects of the 6,6’‐bieckol, 6,8’‐bieckol, 8,8’‐bieckol, dieckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol‐A that were isolated from E. bicyclis. The anti‐obesity activity was evaluated by examining the inhibition of differentiation of 3T3‐L1 adipocytes and the expression of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCATT/enhancer‐binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein‐1c (SREBP‐1c) in the mRNA and protein level. Differentiated 3T3‐L1 cells were treated with the purified phlorotannins at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 µg mL−1 for 8 d. The results indicated that, the purified phlorotannins suppressed the differentiation of 3T3‐L1 adipocytes in a dose–dependent manner, without toxic effects. Among the five compounds, 6,6’‐bieckol markedly decreased lipid accumulation and expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP‐1c (mRNA and protein), and fatty acid synthase and acyl‐coA carboxylase (mRNA). Conclusion These findings suggest that E. bicyclis suppressed differentiation of 3T3‐L1 adipocyte through down‐regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis.
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T04:29:52.455826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6881
  • Antioxidant activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates in bulk oil and
           oil‐in‐water emulsion
    • Authors: Nopparat Cheetangdee; Soottawat Benjakul
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recently, utilization of natural antioxidants in food processing has been of growing interest, owing to the concerns of health hazards of synthetic agents. Protein hydrolysates are a potent candidate for this purpose. In this work, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) with various degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were prepared, and their antioxidant activities in soybean oil and oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsion were examined. RESULTS With increasing DH, RBPH showed increasing antioxidant activities, as evidenced by the increases in DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and ferrous chelating activity (P 
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T03:16:21.714785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6842
  • High‐ but not low‐intensity light leads to oxidative stress
           and quality loss of cold‐stored baby leaf spinach
    • Authors: Marcin Glowacz; Lars M. Mogren, John P.H. Reade, Andrew H. Cobb, James M. Monaghan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Quality management in the fresh produce industry is an important issue. Spinach is exposed to various adverse conditions (e.g. temp, light, etc.) within the supply chain. The experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of light conditions (dark, low intensity light (LL) and high intensity light (HL)) and photoperiod (6 h HL and 18 h dark) on the quality changes of cold‐stored spinach. Results HL exposure resulted in oxidative stress, causing tissue damage and quality loss evidenced by increased membrane damage and water loss. The content of total ascorbic acid was reduced under HL conditions. On the other hand, storage of spinach under LL conditions gave promising results, as nutritional quality was not reduced, while texture maintenance was improved. No significant differences, with an exception of nutritional quality, were found between spinach leaves stored under continuous (24 h) low intensity light (30–35 µmol m−2 s−1) when compared with their counterparts stored under the same light integral over 6 h (130–140 µmol m−2 s−1). Conclusion LL extended the shelf‐life of spinach. The amount of light received by the leaves was the key factor affecting produce quality. Light intensity, however, has to be low enough not to cause excess oxidative stress and lead to accelerated senescence.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20T02:51:46.206817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6880
  • Effect of different drying methods on chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and
           antioxidant compounds retention of leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
    • Authors: Sravan Kumar S; Manoj P, Nandini P Shetty, P Giridhar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of indigenous, easily accessible leafy vegetable‐ roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) for value addition is gaining impetus, as it's nutritive and nutraceutical compounds are exposed through investigations. Being a perishable, storage is challenging, hence different methods of drying have been an attractive alternative for its post‐harvest usage in foods without much compromising its quality and antioxidant potential. Result Room dried and freeze dried samples were found to have best quality in terms of color, total flavonoid content (18.53 ± 2.39 and 18.66 ± 1.06 g kg−1), total phenolic content (17.76 ± 1.93 and 18.91 ± 0.48 g kg−1), chlorophyll (1.59 ± 0.001 and 1.55 ± 0.001 g kg−1), and ascorbic acid content (11.11 ± 1.04 and 8.92 ± 0.94 g kg−1) respectively, compared to infrared, cross‐flow, microwave, oven and sun drying. Samples treated by room and freeze dried methods retained maximum antioxidant potential as demonstrated by phosphomolybdate method, 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Similarly the cold water extract and hot water extracts showed significantly stronger TPC and TAA due to greater solubility of phenolics and destruction of cellular components in polar solvents rather than organic solvents. Conclusion The data obtained shows the potential for retaining quality parameters of roselle leaf under suitable drying methods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20T02:51:32.930115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6879
  • Management practices and forage quality affecting the contamination of
           milk with anaerobic spore‐forming bacteria
    • Authors: Maddalena Zucali; Luciana Bava, Stefania Colombini, Milena Brasca, Marilù Decimo, Stefano Morandi, Alberto Tamburini, G Matteo Crovetto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anaerobic spore‐forming bacteria (ASFB) in milk derive from the farm environment, and the use of silages and management practices are the main responsible of milk ASFB contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between feeding, milking routine and cow hygiene and milk and Grana Padano cheese (produced with and without lysozyme) ASFB contamination. RESULTS The study involved 23 dairy farms. ASFB in corn silage were on average 2.34 ± 0.87 log10 MPN g−1. For grass, Italian ryegrass and alfalfa, ASFB (log10 MPN g−1) were numerically higher for silages (3.22) than hays (2.85). The use of corn silages of high quality (high lactic and acetic acids concentrations) decreased the milk ASFB contamination, whilst the use of herbage silages did not affect it. The presence (>40%) of cows with dirty udders increased the ASFB contamination of milk, while forestripping had a positive effect (−9% ASFB). Ripened Grana Padano had an ASFB count below the analytical limit; Clostridium tyrobutyricum DNA was found only in wheels produced without lysozyme, which also showed late blowing. CONCLUSION The factors increasing milk spore contamination were corn silage quality, cow udder hygiene and inadequate milking routine. Late blowing was present only in cheeses without lysozyme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T05:42:20.47677-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6822
  • Use of lyophilized and powdered Gentiana lutea root in fresh beef patties
           stored under different atmospheres
    • Authors: Nurul A. M. Azman; Michael H. Gordon, Monika Skowyra, Francisco Segovia, MaríaPilar Almajano
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gentiana lutea root is a medicinal herb that contains many active compounds which contribute to physiological effects, and it has recently attracted much attention as a natural source of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the colour, pH, microbial activities, sensory quality and resistance to lipid oxidation (through the thiobarbituric acid method, TBARS) during storage of beef patties containing different concentrations of Gentiana lutea. Fresh beef patties were formulated with 0 – 5 g kg^‐1 of Gentiana lutea and 0 or 0.5 g kg^‐1 of ascorbic acid (AA) and packed in two different atmospheres, Modified Atmosphere 1 (MAP1) and Modified Atmosphere 2 (MAP2), and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. MAP1 contained 20:80 (v/v) O2:CO2 and MAP2 contained 80:20 (v/v) O2:CO2. Results Gentiana lutea extracts possessed antioxidant activity measured by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. Beef patties containing 2 g kg^‐1 of lyophilized Gentiana lutea were stable towards lipid oxidation in both atmospheres (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T04:05:50.754641-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6878
  • Phenolic compounds in grains, sprouts and wheatgrass of hulled and
           non‐hulled wheat species
    • Authors: Paolo Benincasa; Angelica Galieni, Anna Chiara Manetta, Roberta Pace, Marcello Guiducci, Michele Pisante, Fabio Stagnari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of sprouts and young plantlets in human nutrition is increasing because they often contain phytochemicals and other high value nutrients. This stands also for wheat, while there is no literature for hulled wheat species. Thus we determined total polyphenols, phenolic acids (PAs), fiber and minerals in grains, 5‐day old sprouts and 12‐day‐old wheatgrass of einkorn (cv. Monlis), emmer (cvs. Augeo, Rosso Rubino, Zefiro), spelt (cvs. Pietro, Giuseppe), durum wheat (cv. Creso) and soft wheat (cv. Orso). Results Grains of einkorn and emmer contained twice bound PAs as compared to soft and durum wheat and spelt, with p‐coumaric acid accounting for about 50% of total bound PAs. In wheatgrass, differences between species for bound PAs decreased due to a decrease in einkorn and emmer and an increase in soft and durum wheat. In all species, total phenols and free PAs increased passing from grains to sprouts and wheatgrass. Neutral and acid detergent fiber content increased with sprouting only in einkorn and emmer. Conclusion Our evidences suggest that the grains of einkorn and emmer and the sprouts and wheatgrass of all Triticum species might potentially be valuable for the development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-18T04:35:06.137924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6877
  • Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) in
           Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation,
           intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response
    • Authors: Lipismita Samal; Vishwa Bandhu Chaturvedi, Guttula Saikumar, Ramesh Somvanshi, Ashok Kumar Pattanaik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics like inulin or fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS like Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Results Seventy‐two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tuber at 0, 20, 40 and 60 g kg−1 levels. Enhanced cell‐mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P=0.082) and CD4+ T‐lymphocyte population (P=0.002) was observed in JA‐supplemented groups as compared to control. Blood haemoglobin (P=0.017), glucose (P=0.001), urea (P=0.004) and calcium (P=0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P=0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA‐fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P=0.069) and colon (P=0.003) was increased in JA groups accompanying higher (P=0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and that of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA‐supplemented groups. Conclusion The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T06:12:25.008198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6873
  • A comparative study of aroma‐active compounds between dark and milk
           chocolate: relationship to sensory perception
    • Authors: Jianbin Liu; Mengya Liu, Congcong He, Huanlu Song, Jia Guo, Ye Wang, Haiying Yang, Xiaoxia Su
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The most important aroma‐active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry (GC‐O‐MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. RESULTS A total of 32 major aroma‐active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27–729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur‐containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. CONCLUSION Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma‐active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:24:26.885871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6831
  • Biochar–manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution
           alleviated salt stress and improved leaf bioactivity of maize in a saline
           soil from central China: a 2‐year field experiment
    • Authors: Muhammad Siddique Lashari; Yingxin Ye, Haishi Ji, Lianqing Li, Grace Wanjiru Kibue, Haifei Lu, Jufeng Zheng, Genxing Pan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salinity is a major stress threatening crop production in dry lands. A 2‐year field experiment was conducted to assess the potential of a biochar product to alleviate salt‐stress to a maize crop in a saline soil. The soil was amended with a compost at 12 t ha−1 of wheat straw biochar and poultry manure compost (BPC), and a diluted pyroligneous solution (PS) at 0.15 t ha−1 (BPC‐PS). Changes in soil salinity and plant performance, leaf bioactivity were examined in the first (BPC‐PS1) and second (BPC‐PS2) year following a single amendment. RESULTS While soil salinity significantly decreased, there were large increases in leaf area index, plant performance, and maize grain yield, with a considerable decrease in leaf electrolyte leakage when grown in amendments. Maize leaf sap nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increased while sodium and chloride decreased, leaf bioactivity related to osmotic stress was significantly improved following the treatments. These effects were generally greater in the second than in the first year. CONCLUSION A combined amendment of crop straw biochar with manure compost plus pyroligneous solution could help combat salinity stress to maize and improve productivity in saline croplands in arid/semi‐arid regions threatened increasingly by global climate change. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:18:42.667136-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6825
  • Wine evolution and spatial distribution of oxygen during storage in
           high‐density polyethylene tanks
    • Authors: María del Alamo‐Sanza; V Felipe Laurie, Ignacio Nevares
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Porous plastic tanks are permeable to oxygen due to the nature of the polymers with which they are manufactured. In the wine industry, these types of tanks are used mainly for storing wine surpluses. Lately, their use in combination with oak pieces has also been proposed as an alternative to mimic traditional barrel ageing. RESULTS In this study, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in a wine‐like model solution, and the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of high‐density polyethylene tanks (HDPE), was analysed by means of a non‐invasive opto‐luminescence detector. Also, the chemical and sensory evolutioof red wine, treated with oak pieces, and stored in HDPE tanks was examined and compared against traditional oak barrel ageing. The average OTR calculated for these tanks was within the commonly accepted amounts reported for new barrels. With regards to wine evolution, a number of compositional and sensory differences were observed between the wines aged in oak barrels and those stored in HDPE tanks with oak barrel alternatives. CONCLUSION The use of HDPE tanks in combination with oak wood alternatives is a viable alternative too for ageing wine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:16:11.605769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6824
  • Study on reducing antigenic response and IgE‐binding inhibitions of
           four milk proteins of Lactobacillus casei 1134
    • Authors: Minjing Yao; Qian Xu, Yongkang Luo, Jing Shi, Zheng Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cow's milk allergy has aroused public concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fermentation by Lactobacillus casei 1134 on the antigenicity and allergenicity (IgE‐binding inhibitions) of milk proteins. The effects of pH value on the antigenicity and allergenicity of four milk proteins (α‐lactalbumin, β‐lactoglobulin, α‐casein and β‐casein) were examined by indirect competitive enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. The free amino acids which were produced in the fermentation process were analysed and the proteolysis of milk proteins was detected. RESULTS Fermentation by L. casei 1134 could significantly reduce the antigenicity and allergenicity of the four proteins in reconstituted milk. The allergenicity of milk proteins was further reduced in the process of simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Moreover, we could deduce that one of the potential factors of antigenicity was lactic acid with the comparison of the antigenicity of the four proteins between L. casei 1134 fermented milk and lactic acid milk at different pH values. CONCLUSION There are many factors which can affect the milk proteins allergen, including lactic acid and proteolytic enzymes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:07:16.287848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6823
  • Lipase‐mediated lipid removal from propolis extract and its
           antiradical and antimicrobial activity
    • Authors: Hyein Park; Song Hwan Bae, Yooheon Park, Hyeon‐Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Propolis contains many antioxidants such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, propolis–derived lipid components interrupt an efficient isolation of antioxidants from propolis extract. We examined the effectiveness of various lipase treatments for the removal of lipids from propolis extract, and evaluated the biological features of the extract. Result Lipase OF and Novozyme 435 treatments did not reduce fatty acid level in propolis extract. However, the Lipozyme TL IM‐treated propolis extract showed a significant decrease of fatty acid level, suggesting the removal of lipids. Lipozyme RM IM also significantly decreased the fatty acid level of the extract, but the reduction of polyphenols and flavonoids, which are antioxidants, was accompanied. In Lipozyme TL IM treatment, an increase of active flavonoids, such as Artepillin C and kaempferide, was observed with a slight increase of ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) radical scavenging activity. In addition, antimicrobial activity toward skin health‐related bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes was enhanced by Lipozyme TL IM treatment. Conclusion Lipozyme TL IM treatment effectively removes lipids from propolis extract and enhances antibacterial activity. Therefore, we suggest that Lipozyme TL IM is a useful lipase for lipid removal of propolis extract.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T04:59:44.728468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6874
  • The effect of hazelnut roasted skin from different cultivars on the
           quality attributes, polyphenol content and texture of fresh egg pasta
    • Authors: Giuseppe Zeppa; Simona Belviso, Marta Bertolino, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Barbara Dal Bello, Daniela Ghirardello, Manuela Giordano, Marta Giorgis, Arianna Grosso, Luca Rolle, Vincenzo Gerbi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Hazelnut skin is the perisperm of the hazelnut kernel. Hazelnut skin is separated from the kernel during the roasting process and is normally discarded. Recent studies have reported that hazelnut skin is a rich source of dietary fibre, as well as of natural antioxidants, due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the use of hazelnut skins obtained from different cultivars for enhancing the nutritional value of fresh egg pasta. Results Skins obtained from roasted hazelnuts of four different varieties were used at three concentrations as a flour replacement in fresh egg pasta. Hazelnut skin concentration significantly influenced all evaluated physicochemical parameters, as well as consumers’ appreciation for the pasta, but significant differences were also observed between the four varieties. Although pasta produced with 10% and 15% hazelnut skin displayed the highest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in vitro, pasta containing 5% Tombul hazelnut skin showed maximum consumer preference. Conclusions The results obtained in the present study highlighted that it is possible to use hazelnut skin in fresh pasta production to obtain a fortified food with high fibre content and antioxidant activity. The characteristics of the resulting pasta were strictly correlated with the hazelnut varieties used for skin production and, of course, to the percentage of skin that was added.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T04:56:33.401702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6871
  • Techniques to measure sorption and migration between small molecules and
           packaging. A critical review
    • Authors: Ashish A. Kadam; Thomas Karbowiak, Andrée Voilley, Frédéric Debeaufort
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The mass transfer parameters, diffusion and sorption, in food and packaging or between them, are the key parameters for assessing the food product's shelf‐life in reference to consumers’ safety. This has become of paramount importance due to the legislations set by the regulated markets. The technical capabilities have been growing rapidly, that can be exploited for analyzing product‐package interactions. Different techniques, categorized according to the state of the diffusant (gas or liquid) in contact with a packaging material are emphasized in this review. Depending on the diffusant and on the analytical question under review, the different ways to study sorption and/or migration are presented and compared. Some examples have been suggested to reach the best possible choice consisting of a single technique or a combination of different approaches.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T03:00:30.169637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6872
  • Co‐inoculation of Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma atroviride
           acts as a biostimulant to promote growth, yield and nutrient uptake of
           vegetable crops
    • Authors: Giuseppe Colla; Youssef Rouphael, Elena Di Mattia, Christophe El‐Nakhel, Mariateresa Cardarelli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The application of beneficial microorganisms at transplanting can promote rapid transplant establishment (starter effect) for achieving early and high yields. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant effects of Glomus intraradices BEG72 (G) and Trichoderma atroviride MUCL 45632 (T) alone or in combination on plant growth parameters, yield, chlorophyll index (SPAD), chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral composition of several vegetable crops. Results The T. atroviride strain was capable of producing siderophores and auxin‐like compounds under a wide range of substrate pH conditions (5.5‐8.0). The highest shoot, root dry weight, SPAD, and chlorophyll fluorescence in lettuce, tomato, and zucchini was observed in the G + T combination, followed by a single inoculation of G or T, whereas the lowest values were recorded in the uninoculated plants. Under greenhouse conditions, the shoot dry weight was significantly increased by 167%, 56%, 115%, 68%, and 58% in lettuce, melon, pepper, tomato, and zucchini, respectively, when supplied with both beneficial microorganisms in comparison with the control. This increase in root and shoot weight was associated with an increased level of nutrient uptake (e.g., P, Mg, Fe, Zn and B). Under open field conditions, the lettuce shoot and root dry weight increased by 61% and 57%, respectively, with biostimulant microorganism application in field conditions. For zucchini, early and total yields were significantly increased by 59% and 15%, respectively, when plants were inoculated with both microorganisms. Conclusions The application of the biostimulant tablet containing both G and T can promote transplant establishment and vegetable crop productivity in a sustainable way.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T02:53:44.007882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6875
  • Fungal diversity, incidence and mycotoxin contamination in grapes from two
           agro‐climatic Spanish regions with emphasis on Aspergillus species
    • Authors: E. García‐Cela; A. Crespo‐Sempere, J. Gil‐Serna, A. Porqueres, S. Marin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fourteen vineyards from two different agro‐climatic regions in Spain were sampled in two consecutive years in order to determinate the grape mycobiota and diversity indexes with the final aim to define the potential mycotoxigenic species from both regions and their relationship. Results The most common fungal Genera encountered were Aspergillus (30.0%), Alternaria (53.2%), Cladosporium (11.9%) and Penicillium (2.9%). Black aspergilli presence in the hotter region (South) was significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T02:51:34.657121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6876
  • Stage specific metabolization of triacylglycerides during seed germination
           of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.)
    • Authors: Umashankar Chandrasekaran; Aizhong Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A detailed study was carried out in Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) to investigate the mobilization of storage lipids during seed germination. The TLC analysis of total lipids showed a rapid decline in the TAG and DAG contents after the early stages (3–10 DAI) followed by a steady breakdown during the later stages (20, 30 DAI) of germination. Trace amount of MAG content was identified during the final stage (30 DAI). Further, gas chromatography analysis showed an increase in the major unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic and linolenic acid) content from 3 to 10 DAI followed by a slow decline. In addition, the major saturated fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acid) showed a decrease during the early stages (3–10 DAI) and an increase in their contents during the later stages (20, 30 DAI). The present study, therefore, provides the first report on the metaboilization of triacylglycerols along with fatty acid changes during the seed germination of Sacha Inchi.
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T10:50:32.350628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6855
  • Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with
           non‐aqueous capillary electrophoresis for the determination of
           imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole in apples, cherry tomatoes and
           grape juice
    • Authors: Lina Xu; Feng Luan, Huitao Liu, Yuan Gao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fruit and vegetables are frequently treated with fungicides to reduce possible spoilage. As a result, fungicide residues may be accumulated in derived products. This important group of chemical compounds has been heavily regulated because of their potential toxicity. Therefore, a simple and rapid method to determine fungicides is desired. RESULTS A simple non‐aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for the determination of imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole fungicides in fruits and juice samples. Separation buffer consisted of a methanol–acetonitrile mixture (35:65, v/v) containing 30 mmol L−1 ammonium chloride and 0.5% phosphoric acid. The optimum DLLME conditions were 80 µL trichloromethane as extraction solvent, 0.5 mL tetrahydrofuran as disperser solvent, sample solution pH at 6.0, 5% (w/v) NaCl and 10 s extraction time. Recoveries obtained for various samples ranged from 72% to 102%, with relative standard deviation lower than 6.4%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.47 to 0.72 µg kg−1. CONCLUSION The proposed method takes the advantages of DLLME and NACE. It is rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible for the determination of imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole in fruit samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T05:02:36.411039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6834
  • Chemical profile and antiacetylcholinesterase, antityrosinase, antioxidant
           and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of Cynometra cauliflora
           L. leaves
    • Authors: Muhammad Abubakar Ado; Faridah Abas, Intan Safinar Ismail, Hasanah M Ghazali, Khozirah Shaari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the current study was (i) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n‐butanol (n‐BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α‐glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (ii) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions using liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS The leaf methanolic extract of C. cauliflora exhibited potent inhibition of all three enzymes and high antioxidant activity. The bioactivity was found to be concentrated in the EtOAc and n‐BuOH fractions. A total of 18 compounds were identified in these bioactive fractions, comprising a procyanidin trimer, procyanidin tetramer, procyanidin hexamer, taxifolin pentoside, catechin, vitexin, isovitexin, kaempferol hexoside, quercetin pentoside, quercetin hexoside, apigenin‐6‐C‐glucoside‐8‐C‐glucoside, kaempferol–coumaroyl hexoside and isorhamnetin hexoside. CONCLUSION The results indicated that C. cauliflora, the leaves in particular, is a rich source of bioactive compounds and could be beneficial for further development of high‐value phytomedicinal preparations and functional food products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:53:37.584853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6832
  • Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using
           supercritical carbon dioxide: a review
    • Authors: Md. Salim Uddin; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker, Sahena Ferdosh, Md. Jahurul Haque Akanda, Mst. Sabina Easmin, Siti Hadijah Bt Shamsudin, Kamaruzzaman Bin Yunus
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC‐CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC‐CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC‐CO2. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:53:19.678781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6833
  • Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented
           with a diet rich in bioactive compounds
    • Authors: Dorota Cais‐Sokolińska; Jan Pikul, Jacek Wójtowski, Romualda Danków, Joanna Teichert, Grażyna Czyżak‐Runowska, Emilia Bagnicka
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d−1 per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. RESULTS The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n‐3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. CONCLUSION Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n‐3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:15:39.646721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6828
  • Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and
           viscosity of Brazilian red wines
    • Authors: Flávia SPP Neto; Maurício BM de Castilhos, Vânia RN Telis, Javier Telis‐Romero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 26 °C). RESULTS Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full‐bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. CONCLUSION The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:35:53.746484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6835
  • Production of an anthocyanin‐rich food colourant from Thymus
           moroderi and its application in foods
    • Authors: Miriam Cristina Díaz‐García; María Rosario Castellar, José María Obón, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Diego Rivera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from flowers and bracts of Thymus sp. are studied. An anthocyanin‐rich food colourant with interesting high antioxidant activity from Thymus moroderi has been obtained, and applied to colour foods. RESULTS Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from T. moroderi and another five Thymus sp. were extracted in methanol/hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol L−1 (50/50, v/v) 2 h stirring at 50 °C. They were identified and quantified by HPLC‐PDA‐MS and UHPLC‐PDA‐fluorescence, as total individual polyphenols. Total polyphenols were also determined. Flowers had higher anthocyanins and other polyphenols concentrations than bracts; for example, total polyphenols content of T. moroderi were 131.58 and 61.98 g GAE kg−1 vegetal tissue, respectively. A liquid concentrated colourant was obtained from T. moroderi using water/citric acid as solvent. It was characterised and compared with other two commercial anthocyanin‐rich food colourants from red grape skin and red carrot (colour strength of 1.7 and 3.6 AU, respectively). T. moroderi colourant had 1.2 AU colour strength, and high storage stability (>97.1% remaining colour after 110 days at 4 °C). It showed a higher polyphenols content than commercial colourants. Its antioxidant activity was 0.707 mmol Trolox eq. g−1 plant dry weight, 69.5 times higher than red carrot. The three colourants were applied to colour yogurts, giving pinky tonalities. The colour did not change evidently (ΔE*ab 
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:33:28.117731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6821
  • Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the
           nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean
    • Authors: Elena Bartkiene; Vita Krungleviciute, Grazina Juodeikiene, Daiva Vidmantiene, Zita Maknickiene
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The ability of bacteriocin‐like inhibitory substance (BLIS)‐producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce l(+) and d(−)‐lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupin and soya bean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. RESULTS Protein digestibility of fermented lupin and soya bean was found higher on average by 18.3% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly l‐lactic acid in soya bean and lupin (d/l ratio 0.38–0.42 and 0.35–0.54, respectively), while spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (d/l ratio 0.82–0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were able to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, whereas they were able to produce putrescine, histamine and tyramine. CONCLUSIONS SSF improved lupin and soya bean protein digestibility. BLIS‐producing LAB in lupin and soya bean medium produced a mixture of d‐ and l‐lactic acid with a major excess of the latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupin and soya bean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non‐producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:33:10.474531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6827
  • Assessment of cluster yield components by image analysis
    • Authors: Maria P Diago; Javier Tardaguila, Nuria Aleixos, Borja Millan, Jose M Prats‐Montalban, Sergio Cubero, Jose Blasco
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Berry weight, berry number and cluster weight are key parameters for yield estimation for wine and tablegrape industry. Current yield prediction methods are destructive, labour‐demanding and time‐consuming. In this work, a new methodology, based on image analysis was developed to determine cluster yield components in a fast and inexpensive way. RESULTS Clusters of seven different red varieties of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) were photographed under laboratory conditions and their cluster yield components manually determined after image acquisition. Two algorithms based on the Canny and the logarithmic image processing approaches were tested to find the contours of the berries in the images prior to berry detection performed by means of the Hough Transform. Results were obtained in two ways: by analysing either a single image of the cluster or using four images per cluster from different orientations. The best results (R2 between 69% and 95% in berry detection and between 65% and 97% in cluster weight estimation) were achieved using four images and the Canny algorithm. The model's capability based on image analysis to predict berry weight was 84%. CONCLUSION The new and low‐cost methodology presented here enabled the assessment of cluster yield components, saving time and providing inexpensive information in comparison with current manual methods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:21:17.346537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6819
  • Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient
           release patterns
    • Authors: Yakindra Prasad Timilsena; Raju Adhikari, Phil Casey, Tim Muster, Harsharn Gill, Benu Adhikari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fertilisers are one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. The application of fertilisers in agricultural practices has markedly increased the production of food, feed, fuel, fibre and other plant products. However, a significant portion of nutrients applied in the field is not taken up by plants and is lost through leaching, volatilisation, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss increases the cost of fertiliser and severely pollutes the environment. To alleviate these problems, enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEFs) are produced and used in the form of controlled release fertilisers and nitrification/urease inhibitors. The application of biopolymers for coating in EEFs, tailoring the release pattern of nutrients to closely match the growth requirement of plants and development of realistic models to predict the release pattern of common nutrients have been the foci of fertiliser research. In this context, this paper intends to review relevant aspects of new developments in fertiliser production and use, agronomic, economic and environmental drives for enhanced efficiency fertilisers and their formulation process and the nutrient release behaviour. Application of biopolymers and complex coacervation technique for nutrient encapsulation is also explored as a promising technology to produce EEFs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry Formulation and nutrient release aspects of enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) are reviewed Selection of coating material depends on the characteristics and intended use of fertilizer Biopolymers are preferred coating materials due to their environmental friendliness Relatively higher cost of EEFs is the main barrier for their wider application in agriculture Complex coacervation can potentially offer high payload and desirable release patterns in fertilizers
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:20:08.455212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6812
  • Effect of genetic and climatic variability on the metabolic profiles of
           black gram (Vigna mungo L.) seeds and sprouts
    • Authors: Kriskamol Na Jom; Wasaporn Chanput, Sumana Ngampongsai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Black gram is becoming increasingly of interest for consumers worldwide. The metabolomics have been conducted to reflect the life history of each individual plant. The metabolic pattern of black gram seeds and sprouts was profiled to investigate genetic and climatic influences on a broad range of chemical constituents. Results Distinct differences in metabolite profiles amoung three black gram varieties for both intact seeds and sprouts was observed. The differential impact of climate on metabolite profiles of the variety Chai Nat 80 during both dry and rainy seasons was investigated. Univariate statistical analysis demonstrated that greater maturity due to adequate moisture in the rainy season led to a higher content of nutritionally relevant polar metabolites, whereas the dry season resulted in a high relative amount of storage lipid because of immaturity due to insufficient rain and water supply. Conclusion The investigation confirmed the potential of metabolite profiling to assist in breeding and farming practices.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T03:55:49.915588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6869
  • The effect of ZnCl2 on green Spanish‐style table olive packaging, a
           presentation style dependant behaviour
    • Authors: J. Bautista‐Gallego; F.N. Arroyo‐López, V. Romero‐Gil, F. Rodríguez‐Gómez, A. Garrido‐Fernández
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Zinc chloride has been used previously as a preservative in directly brined olives with promising results. However, this is the first time that the effects of ZnCl2 addition (0–1 g L−1) on green Spanish‐style table olive (Manzanilla cv.) packaging has been studied. Results The presence of ZnCl2 affected the physicochemical characteristics of the products; the presence of the Zn led to lower pH values (particularly just after packaging) and titratable and combined acidity values than the control but did not produce clear trends in the colour parameters. No Enterobacteriaceae were found in any of the treatments evaluated. At the highest ZnCl2 concentrations, the lactic acid bacteria were inhibited while, unexpectedly, its presence showed a lower effect than potassium sorbate against the yeast population. Regardless of the use of potassium sorbate or ZnCl2, the packages had a reduced microbial biodiversity because only Lactobacillus pentosus and Pichia galeiformis were found at the end of the shelf life. With respect to organoleptic characteristics, the presentations containing ZnCl2 were not differentiated from the traditional product. Conclusion Zn chloride was less efficient than potassium sorbate as a yeast inhibitor in green Spanish‐style olives, showing clear presentation style dependant behaviour for this property. Its presence produced significant changes in chemical parameters but scarcely affected colour or sensory characteristics.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T03:01:22.494846-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6870
  • Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the
           Taiwanese tea industry
    • Authors: Mao‐Chang Wang; Chin‐Ying Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. RESULTS The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi‐rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non‐organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. CONCLUSION This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T09:28:31.081114-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6814
  • Purification and characterization of α‐acetolactate
           decarboxylase (ALDC) from newly isolated Lactococcus lactis DX
    • Authors: Yuxing Guo; Daodong Pan, Haibing Ding, zhen Wu, Yangying Sun, Xiaoqun Zeng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diacetyl (2,3‐butanedione) is a common flavor aroma from fermented dairy product. It is needed to screen new microorganisms which can efficiently produce large amounts of diacetyl. Results A new lactic acid bacteria, which produced high concentrations of diacetyl, was identified based on gram staining, microscopic examination and its 16S rDNA sequence as Lactococcus lactis DX. α‐acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) was purified using 0.45 g mL−1 ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephacryl S‐300 and S‐200 HR, and Native‐PAGE. The purified ALDC displayed a monomer structure and had a molecular mass of about 73.1 KDa, which was estimated using SDS‐PAGE. IR analysis showed that ALDC had a typical protein structure. The optimum temperature and pH for ALDC activity was 40 ° C and 6.5 pH. The ALDC of Lactococcus lactis DX was activated by Fe2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, and Ca2+, while Cu2+ significantly inhibited ALDC activity. Leucine, valine and isoleucine activated the ALDC. Conclusion The strain that had high ability to produce diacetyl was identified as Lactococcus lactis DX. The difference in diacetyl production may be due to the ALDC, which is different from other ALDCs.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T04:40:52.040466-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6868
  • Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds and
           antioxidant properties in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)
    • Authors: Karent Bravo; Stella Sepulveda‐Ortega, Oscar Lara‐Guzman, Alejandro A Navas‐Arboleda, Edison Osorio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit with high valued for its organoleptic properties and bioactive compounds. Considering that the presence of phenolics and ascorbic acid could contribute to their functional capacity, it is important to investigate the quality parameters and bioactive contents and functional properties with respect to genotype and ripening time. In this study, the genotype effect was evaluated in fifteen cultivars for two different harvest times. The changes during maturation were recorded in two commercial cultivars within seven levels of maturity. Results Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phenolic content and ORAC values were mainly affected by the harvest time and that ascorbic acid content and DPPH levels were mainly affected by genotype. In addition, the acidity, phenolic content, ORAC value and inhibition of LDL oxidation decreased with maturity, but soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, β‐carotene and DPPH‐scavenging activity were higher in mature fruits. Conclusions The phenolic content, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of Cape gooseberry fruit were strongly affected by cultivars, harvest time and maturity state. Consequently, the harvest time must be scheduled carefully to gain the highest portion of bioactive compounds according to the specific cultivar and the environment where it is grown.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T04:40:47.943451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6866
  • A novel pectin‐degrading enzyme complex from Aspergillus sojae ATCC
           20235 mutants
    • Authors: Marco A. Mata‐Gómez; Doreen Heerd, Iñigo Oyanguren‐García, Francis Barbero, Marco Rito‐Palomares, Marcelo Fernández‐Lahore
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In food industry, the use of pectinase preparations with high pectin esterase (PE) activity leads to the release of methanol, which is strictly regulated in food products. Herein, a pectin‐degrading enzymes (PDEs) complex exhibiting low PE activity of three Aspergillus sojae ATCC 20235 mutants (M3, DH56 and Guserbiot 2.230) was investigated. Production of exo‐/endo‐polygalacturonase (PG), exo‐polymethylgalacturonase (PMG) and pectin lyase (PL) by mutant M3 and A. sojae using two different carbon sources was evaluated in solid‐state fermentation. Finally, experimental preparations obtained from the mutants and commercial pectinases standardized to the same potency were screened for PDEs. Results The mutant M3 grown on sugar beet was found to be the best producer of exo‐PG, endo‐PG, exo‐PMG and PL, with maximum yields of 1111, 449, 130 and 123 U g−1, respectively. All experimental preparations exhibited low PE activity, at least 21.5 times less than commercial pectinases, and higher endo‐PG (40 U ml−1). Conclusion The mutant M3 was the best PDEs producer using sugar beet. The mutant strains presented a PDE complex featuring high endo‐PG and very low PE activities. This novel complex with low desterifying activity can be exploited in food industry to degrade pectin without releasing methanol.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:30:18.099167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6864
  • Rapid screening of low molecular weight phenols from persimmon (Diospyros
           kaki) pulp using liquid chromatography‐UV/Vis‐electrospray
           mass spectrometry analysis
    • Authors: Enrique Sentandreu; Manuela Cerdán‐Calero, John M. Halket, José L. Navarro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Persimmon fruits have largely been used by traditional medicine due to their phenolic composition. This research aims to perform a rapid, detailed and affordable study of the profile of low molecular weight phenols from persimmon pulp. Methods Two different HPLC‐DAD‐ESI−/MSn analyses were performed by a routine three‐dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the ethanolic extract of persimmon pulp: (1) an untargeted data dependent analysis to identify the majority of small phenols that included a full MS and MS2 scan events; and (2) a targeted data dependent analysis to identify the polymerized phenols (dimmers and formic acid adducts) through a Source Induced Dissociation analysis that included full MS and MS2 scan events. Results A total of thirty‐two low molecular weight phenols were detected, consisting of gallic acid and its glycoside and acyl derivatives, glycosides of p‐coumaric, vanillic and cinnamic acids and different flavone di‐C‐hexosides, most of them firstly reported in persimmon. Conclusion The use of a straightforward and affordable methodology of analysis led to obtain an up‐to‐date profiling of low molecular weight phenols in persimmon. Results can help future actions aimed to expand the understanding of the phenolic metabolome of persimmon cultivars.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:50.621137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6867
  • Analytical phenolic composition and sensory assessment of selected rare
           Greek cultivars after extended bottle ageing
    • Authors: Kallithraka Stamatina; Kotseridis Yorgos, Kyraleou Maria, Proxenia Niki, Tsakiris Argirios, Karapetrou Garifalia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The Hellenic vineyard embraces a large number of native cultivars, which are mostly unexploited for their ageing potential. Therefore, it was thought that analyzing some quality parameters of fourteen red wines produced by rare native varieties would be of great importance in obtaining a general picture of their potential for commercial use. Various analytical methods were applied to the selected wines, at bottling and after eight years of ageing period, in an attempt to provide reliable answers to this issue. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the alteration of the phenolic content and color parameters of the wines after the extended bottle storage and to evaluate the overall changes with respect to their sensory properties. Results Most of the oligomeric phenolic compounds identified in the wines studied diminished after eight years of bottle storage, while significant correlations were obtained between wine chemical composition and sensory data. Conclusions After eight years of bottle storage some of the unexploited varieties (v. Vinifera) were found to be worthy of further study and use for the production of quality wines. The wines with the best sensory characteristics were those made by limniona, mavrotragano, bakouri, thraspa and mavrothiriko in accordance more or less with the results of the chemical analyses.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:47.073374-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6865
  • Characterization of enzymatically prepared sugar medium‐chain fatty
           acid monoesters
    • Authors: Xi Zhang; Wei Wei, Xi Cao, Fengqin Feng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sugar medium chain fatty acid esters, a new type of biodegradable, nontoxic, nonirritant, and nonionic surfactant with proven antimicrobial activity. Various sugar medium‐chain fatty monoesters were prepared enzymatically using Lipozyme TLIM in organic solvent. The properties such as surface tension, antimicrobial activity, and ability to foam, emulsify, and stabilize emulsions at room temperature were evaluated to conduct systematic studies on the structure‐function relationships of these compounds. Results Results showed that all monoesters displayed good surface‐activity properties. In particular, sucrose monolaurate was the most excellent surfactant among 12 monoesters. The sugar monoesters containing C8 to C12 alkyl chains showed a broad spectrum of increasing antimicrobial activity. All tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram‐positive bacterium) than Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram‐negative bacterium). Methyl α‐D‐glycoside monoesters were the most effective, whereas raffinose monoesters possessed poor antimicrobial activity. Conclusions Generally, the length of fatty acid chain (hydrophobic group) and sugar groups (hydrophilic group) for sugar medium chain fatty acid monoesters both affected the surface properties and antimicrobial activities.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T03:11:45.235917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6863
  • Differentiation of organic and non‐organic winter wheat cultivars
           from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns
    • Authors: Johannes Kahl; Nicolaas Busscher, Gaby Mergardt, Paul Mäder, Torfinn Torp, Angelika Ploeger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well‐documented sample origin. RESULTS The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non‐organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k‐nearest‐neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non‐organic origin using cross‐validation. CONCLUSION Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non‐organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T08:52:05.769722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6818
  • Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load of Sorghum Products
    • Authors: Prasad MPR; Dayakar Rao B, Kalpana K, Rao MV, Patil JV
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sorghum, small seeded grass, is an important food crop and chief energy source for the people of semi‐arid regions of the world. In India, sorghum production and consumption was decreased to post green revolution, but it is gaining its momentum due to numerous health and nutritional benefits. An understanding of GI and GL of staples can help in choosing suitable foods in the prevention and control of diabetes. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to evaluate GI and GL of different sorghum foods and compare with the GI and GL wheat/ rice based foods. Results The GI of sorghum based foods such as coarse semolina upma (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T02:10:27.339436-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6861
  • Identifying the drivers of liking by investigating the reasons for
           (dis)liking using CATA in cross‐cultural context: a case study on
           barbecue sauce
    • Authors: Ji‐Hye Choi; Mi‐Jin Gwak, Seo‐Jin Chung, Kwang‐Ok Kim, Michael O'Mahony, Rie Ishii, Ye‐Won Bae
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study cross‐culturally investigated the drivers of liking for traditional and ethnic chicken marinades using descriptive analysis and consumer taste test incorporating check‐all‐that‐apply(CATA) method. Seventy three Koreans and 86 US consumers participated. The tested sauces comprised of three tomato based sauces, a teriyaki based sauce, and a Korean spicy seasoning based sauce. Chicken breasts were marinated with each of the 5 barbecue sauces, grilled and served for evaluation. Descriptive analysis and consumer taste test were conducted. Consumers rated the acceptance on a hedonic scale and checked the reasons for (dis)liking by CATA method for each sauce. General linear model, multiple factor analysis, and chi‐square analysis were conducted using the data. Results The results showed that the preference order of the samples between Koreans and US consumers were strikingly similar to each other. However, the reasons for (dis)liking the samples differed cross‐culturally. The drivers of liking of 2 sauces sharing relatively similar sensory profiles but differing significantly in hedonic ratings were effectively delineated by reasons of (dis)liking CATA results. Conclusion Reasons of (dis)liking CATA proved to be a powerful supporting method to understand the internal drivers of liking which can be overlooked by generic descriptive analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T02:10:22.524781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6860
  • Release of Bisphenols from Can Coatings into canned beer in China market
    • Authors: Yunfei Xie; Yang Bao, Heya Wang, Yuliang Cheng, He Qian, Weirong Yao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This research was to understand the migrations of bisphenols from can coatings into foods in China market. The migrations of bisphenols were studied filled in commercial cans from China market with four types of food simulants (FS) which were experienced at 121 °C for 30 min and be stored at 40 °C for 30 day, only BPA and BADGE were found in the linings, and SimC (10% ethanol) was the most suitable food stimulant for their release. The levels of the bisphenols in 24 kinds of canned beers from China market were further investigated, and the mean concentrations were 2.85 ± 0.79 and 0.38 ± 0.19 µg · L−1 for BPA and BADGE, respectively, which were both lower than the European Union regulations, as their daily intakes were estimated at 0.015 and 0.0020 µg · kg−1 of body weight · day−1. Besides, rising storage temperature and time could accelerate the release of bisphenols into FSs. Our results showed some guidance to reduce the migrations of bisphenols during transport or storage of the canned foods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T05:58:14.919903-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6862
  • Dairy matrix effect on the transference of rosemary essential oil
           (Rosmarinus officinalis) compounds during cheesemaking
    • Authors: Armando Moro; Celia M Librán, M Isabel Berruga, Manuel Carmona, Amaya Zalacain
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of aromatic plant extracts as ingredients may be compromised due to low transference and activity lack in food matrixes compared with in vitro trials. Rosemary essential oil (REO) was added to sheep milk to study the transference of its compounds during the cheesemaking process and to determine how cheese antimicrobial activity is modified. Results The volatile characterisation of dairy samples was performed using head space‐stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS‐SBSE‐GC/MS), such fat matrix interferences were reduced. This method detected a decrease in volatile recovery concentration of 19.33 % when REO was added to milk. A total recovery volatile yield of 62.51 % was measured from the initial quantification of milk to cheese, with the hydrocarbon volatiles being transferred in a higher ratio (64.88 %) than oxygenated ones (58.74 %). No effects were observed for REO in fortified cheese on the counts of native flora necessary for ripening processes, but provoked the total inhibition of Clostridium spp. Conclusion The study of active compound transference during cheese elaboration was achieved. The antimicrobial results in fortified cheeses with REO showed a preventive effect in the case of clostridial species, which are responsible for late cheese blowing.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T05:46:15.841177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6853
  • Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of
           ginseng adulteration
    • Authors: Shaoqing Cui; Liangcheng Yang, Jun Wang, Xinlei Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng was common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their difference but subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but time‐consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method was required. A taste‐sensing system, which combined both advantages of above two technologies, might be a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. Results It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R2=0.92) with mixed ratios. Bioplot of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a good performance in classing samples with first two PCs of 89.7%, and it was noticed that bitterness, astringent, and their aftertastes and saltiness were significant drivers. After factor screening, bitterness, astringent and aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringent and aftertaste‐bitterness taste were demonstrated to explain adulteration ratios prediction most; bitterness and aftertaste‐bitterness contributing to ginsenoside contents prediction most. Conclusion Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considering as taste finger‐print, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T04:18:19.17697-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6858
  • Antioxidants and sensory properties of the infusions of wild passiflora
           from Brazilian savannah: potential as functional beverages.
    • Authors: Lívia de L. de O. Pineli; Juliana da S. Q. Rodrigues, Ana M. Costa, Herbert C. Lima, Marileusa D. Chiarello, Lauro Melo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The study of biodiversity for species recovery and sustainable use has encouraged research with plants from Brazilian savannah. We aimed to characterize chemical and sensory properties of infusions of passifloras, due to their potential as functional beverages. Infusions and hydroalcoholic extracts of four species of wild passifloras, three varieties of Passiflora edulis and a commercial passiflora tea were evaluated for total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), condensed tannins (CT), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP). Free Choice Profile and acceptance, compared with green tea, were performed for sensory characterization. Results In general, infusions had higher levels of TP and CT than hydroalcoholic extracts, which in turn had higher levels of TF. Infusion of P. nitida showed higher amounts of TP and antioxidant activity. Acceptance of passiflora infusions was similar or higher than that of green tea, except for P. alata. P. setacea presented sensory profile similar to other commercial teas and higher acceptance by a group of consumers. Conclusion Passiflora infusions showed different degrees of suitability as acceptable functional beverage. Identification of phenolics and other bitter compounds is needed to understand the intense bitterness of P. alata, as it did not present the highest contents of TP, CT and TF.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T03:47:43.85886-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6852
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis optimization of Paphia undulata and lymphocyte
           proliferation activity of the isolated peptide fractions
    • Authors: Xiao Qing He; Guang Kun Pan, Wen Hong Cao, Zi Ke Zhao, Chao Hua Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Immune system is important to prevent and control various infectious diseases. Immunoactive peptides derived from food proteins could exert immunomodulatory without side effects. Paphia undulata with high‐protein is suitable for the production of immunoactive peptides. The objective of this study was to optimise the hydrolysis parameters to maximise the immune activity of the hydrolysates from Paphia undulata. Results Hydrolysis parameters, including temperature, time and the ratio of alkaline protease to Paphia undulata meat (E/S), were optimised by response surface methodology with a central composite design. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: temperature, 51 °C; time, 3.14 h; E/S, 4,321 U g−1(Paphia undulata meat). Furthermore, the hydrolysates obtained under the optimum conditions were fractionated by ultrafiltration and gel filtration on a Sephadex G‐25 column. After two‐step isolation, the isolated fractions (P2 and P3) including the peptides Pro‐His‐Thr‐Cys, Val‐Gly‐Try‐Thr, Glu‐Phe, Leu‐Phe, and Glu‐Gly‐Ala‐Lys, Trp‐Ile or Trp‐Leu, respectively, could significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation ability. Conclusion These results showed that response surface methodology and two‐step separation were efficient for recovery of low molecular weight peptides with high spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity and the isolated fractions of Paphia undulata hydrolysates are potential ingredients for development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T03:47:42.228389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6859
  • Biocontrol of postharvest Alternaria alternata decay of cherry tomatoes
           with rhamnolipids and possible mechanisms of action
    • Authors: Fujie Yan; Shixiang Xu, Jun Guo, Qianru Chen, Qin Meng, Xiaodong Zheng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Rhamnolipids were reported to have evident antifungal activity. The efficacy of rhamnolipids against Alternaria alternata and their possible mechanisms involved were investigated. Result The decay incidences of A. alternata of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) treated by rhamnolipids were significantly reduced. The in vitro assays showed that rhamnolipids inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented spore germination and mycelium growth in liquid medium. In addition, the combination of rhamnolipids and essential oil had a synergistic effect leading to the decrease of fungicidal concentrations of laurel oil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological and cell structural alterations in the hyphae. Compared to the control, content of nucleic acid in supernatant of the suspension of A. alternata increased, while content of DNA and protein of mycelium decreased, which was in agreement with electrolyte leakage experiment. Conclusion Rhamnolipids could be an alternative to chemicals for controlling postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits and vegetables.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T05:40:16.577225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6845
  • Short‐term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in
           chestnut‐wheat bread
    • Authors: Massimiliano Rinaldi; Maria Paciulli, Chiara Dall'Asta, Martina Cirlini, Emma Chiavaro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data has been previously published about the staling of chestnut‐containing bread. Thus, short term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour supplemented soft‐wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physico‐chemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Results Bread prepared with a 20/80 ratio of chestnut/soft‐wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft‐wheat bread; it did not change during storage, while it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf‐life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf‐life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes with a decrease in the smallest grain classes, and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut‐ flour bread, only. Conclusions Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf‐life.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25T02:25:24.311443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6843
  • Ptr‐Tof‐Ms Analysis Of Volatile Compounds In Olive Fruits.
    • Authors: Elisa Masi; Annalisa Romani, Camilla Pandolfi, Daniela Heimler, Stefano Mancuso
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Volatile compounds of Cellina di Nardò and Ogliarola Barese, two typical Italian olive varieties, have been characterized at different ripening stages. PTR‐TOF‐MS (proton‐transfer‐reaction mass spectrometry) was used for the first time on these fruits with the aim to characterize volatile profile and, in the case of Ogliarola, the changes which may occur during the maturation process. Results PTR‐TOF‐MS technique does not involve any samples pre‐treatment, and allows high resolution measurements, large spectra and small fragmentation of the volatiles. Therefore it allows both compounds identification and data statistical treatments. In the present work, about 40 compounds that contribute to the discrimination between samples of the two varieties have been identified. Conclusions Three groups of compounds were identified: compounds that are typical of mature fruits of Ogliarola, compounds that tend to decrease changing from green to mature fruits and compounds that increase during the maturation process.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:08:41.185822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6837
  • Effect of soy flour addition on sensory quality of extrusion and
           conventionally cooked cassava complementary porridges
    • Authors: Penina N. Muoki; Marise Kinnear, Mohammad Naushad Emmambux, Henriëtte L. de Kock
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The sensory properties of the usual conventionally cooked cassava porridge consumed in some regions of Africa and porridges consisting of ccomposited cassava and either defatted or full fat soy flour, with or without extrusion cooking, were evaluated to better understand consumers’ acceptance. The composited and extruded porridges have superior nutritional quality and added convenience value in the case of extrusion cooked products. Results Extrusion cooking allowed preparation of porridges with 25% solids content (compared to 10% for conventional cooking) with a viscosity suitable for consumption by infants. Compositing and extrusion cooking reduced the apparent negative sensory attributes of high viscosity, stickiness, translucency, jelly‐like appearance and bland flavour that characterize conventionally cooked cassava porridge while increasing slimy appearance of the porridge. The caramel aroma and overall flavour of all extrusion cooked porridges was more intense, with more toasted nutty flavour and aftertaste compared to the corresponding conventionally cooked porridges. Slightly more consumers preferred the conventionally cooked cassava‐soy flour porridges. Conclusions Compositing cassava flour with fullfat or defatted soy flour and extrusion cooking change the appearance and flavour of porridges while improving the textural properties for better mastication and swallowing by infants. Hedonic adjustment to the changed sensory properties of the porridges in comparison to what mothers and caregivers are used to (conventionally cooked cassava only porridges) is required to ensure acceptance.
      PubDate: 2014-07-15T05:20:23.954922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6820
  • Research on organic food quality needs a system approach
    • Authors: Johannes Kahl; Ewa Rembiałkowska
      Pages: 2577 - 2577
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T10:18:14.787481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6836
  • From needles to pattern in food quality determination
    • Authors: Nicolaas Busscher; Johannes Kahl, Angelika Ploeger
      Pages: 2578 - 2581
      Abstract: How can food quality influence pattern of CuCl2 crystals?
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T07:52:36.110488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6498
  • Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and
    • Authors: Johannes Kahl; Farnaz Alborzi, Alexander Beck, Susanne Bügel, Nicolaas Busscher, Uwe Geier, Darja Matt, Tabea Meischner, Flavio Paoletti, Sirli Pehme, Angelika Ploeger, Ewa Rembiałkowska, Otto Schmid, Carola Strassner, Bruno Taupier‐Letage, Aneta Załęcka
      Pages: 2582 - 2594
      Abstract: In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-13T10:46:19.454214-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6542
  • Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality
           determination with focus on laboratory methods
    • Authors: Johannes Kahl; Marija Bodroza‐Solarov, Nicolaas Busscher, Jana Hajslova, Wolfgang Kneifel, Maria Olga Kokornaczyk, Saskia van Ruth, Vera Schulzova, Peter Stolz
      Pages: 2595 - 2599
      Abstract: Organic food quality determination needs multi‐dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra‐performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time–high‐resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system‐related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-13T10:09:35.755597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6553
  • The influence of organic production on food
           quality – research findings, gaps and future challenges
    • Authors: Aneta Załęcka; Susanne Bügel, Flavio Paoletti, Johannes Kahl, Adriana Bonanno, Anne Dostalova, Gerold Rahmann
      Pages: 2600 - 2604
      Abstract: Although several meta‐analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non‐organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product‐related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health‐related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called ‘conventional’ food seems not to be appropriate, because ‘conventional’ is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-03T09:39:15.686895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6578
  • Metabolite profiling on wheat grain to enable a distinction of samples
           from organic and conventional farming systems
    • Authors: Anja Bonte; Heiko Neuweger, Alexander Goesmann, Cécile Thonar, Paul Mäder, Georg Langenkämper, Karsten Niehaus
      Pages: 2605 - 2612
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Identification of biomarkers capable of distinguishing organic and conventional products would be highly welcome to improve the strength of food quality assurance. Metabolite profiling was used for biomarker search in organic and conventional wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) of 11 different old and new bread wheat cultivars grown in the DOK system comparison trial. Metabolites were extracted using methanol and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. RESULTS Altogether 48 metabolites and 245 non‐identified metabolites (TAGs) were detected in the cultivar Runal. Principal component analysis showed a sample clustering according to farming systems and significant differences in peak areas between the farming systems for 10 Runal metabolites. Results obtained from all 11 cultivars indicated a greater influence of the cultivar than the farming system on metabolite concentrations. Nevertheless, a t‐test on data of all cultivars still detected 5 metabolites and 11 TAGs with significant differences between the farming systems. CONCLUSION Based on individual cultivars, metabolite profiling showed promising results for the categorization of organic and conventional wheat. Further investigations are necessary with wheat from more growing seasons and locations before definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the feasibility to evolve a combined set of biomarkers for organically grown wheat using metabolite profiles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-13T10:24:53.794611-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6566
  • Characterization of the liposoluble fraction of common wheat (Triticum
           aestivum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta) flours using multivariate
    • Authors: Marija Bodroža‐Solarov; Đura Vujić, Marijana Ačanski, Lato Pezo, Bojana Filipčev, Novica Mladenov
      Pages: 2613 - 2617
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the present paper, a special method for derivatization of liposoluble extract of common wheat and spelt flours was employed which enables simultaneous detection of fatty acid and non‐saponifiable lipid fractions. RESULTS Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analytical data for both fractions were separately analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques to model classes of different common wheat and spelt cultivars. Cluster analysis was used, and the results obtained revealed that better discrimination of samples was achieved by analyzing the peak area after 16 min retention time (non‐saponifiable lipids), rather than commonly used peak area between 12 and 16 min (fatty acid fraction), due to more distinctive positions of points in factor space, even though the distances between points for fatty acid fraction (12–16 min) were greater. Similar results were obtained by principal components analysis, where all wheat points almost coincided whereas spelt showed good discrimination. CONCLUSION Comparison of chromatogram areas for non‐saponifiable lipid fraction between common and spelt wheat showed a statistically high difference and hence has a potential for use in authenticity control. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-22T08:47:25.126505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6655
  • Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and naturally fermented beetroot juices from
           organic and conventional production: metabolomics, antioxidant levels and
           anticancer activity
    • Authors: Renata Kazimierczak; Ewelina Hallmann, Janusz Lipowski, Nadzieja Drela, Anna Kowalik, Tõnu Püssa, Darja Matt, Anne Luik, Dariusz Gozdowski, Ewa Rembiałkowska
      Pages: 2618 - 2629
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the paper was to determine the level of antioxidants and metabolomic fingerprinting in both raw beetroots and naturally fermented beetroot juices from organic (ORG) versus conventional (CONV) production. In addition, the anticancer properties of the fermented beetroot juices were evaluated. RESULTS The obtained results showed that ORG fresh beetroots contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C and some individual phenolic compounds than CONV beetroots. The content of total phenolic acids was significantly higher in CONV beetroots compared with the ORG ones. The level of flavonoids was similar in ORG and CONV beetroots. There were only slight differences in the chemical composition of ORG and CONV beetroot juices. Metabolomic analysis provided a possibility to distinguish clearly between ORG and CONV fermented beetroot juices. However, this method was less useful in the case of fresh whole beetroots. It was found that anticancer activity was stronger in the case of ORG fermented juices when compared with CONV ones. CONCLUSION The obtained results indicate that ORG‐ and CONV‐produced beetroots and fermented beetroot juices have different chemical properties and different impacts on cancer cells. It is necessary to continue research on this topic in order to confirm and understand the achieved results. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:29:24.632431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6722
  • Proteomic identification of responsive proteins of Vibrio parahaemolyticus
           under high hydrostatic pressure
    • Authors: Ling‐Lin Fu; Rui Wang, Yanbo Wang, Junda Lin
      Pages: 2630 - 2638
      Abstract: BACKGROUND High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing is currently being used as a treatment for certain foods to inhibit spoilage organisms and control the presence of foodborne pathogens. In this study proteome profiles were performed by two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis (2‐DE) coupled with MALDI‐TOF/TOF identification to determine the effects of HHP (50, 100, 150 and 200 MPa, each for 10 min) on Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 (∼8 log CFU mL−1) in order to understand how it responds to mechanical stress injury. RESULTS Multiple comparisons of 2‐DE revealed that the majority of changes in protein abundance occurred in a pressure‐dependent fashion. A total of 18 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by MALDI‐TOF/TOF analysis. Moreover, quantitative RT‐PCR and immunoblotting also substantiated the changes of transcriptional and translational levels of representative proteins. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggested that V. parahaemolyticus may respond to HHP treatment through suppression of membrane stability and functionality (PfaC, Alr2, MltA, PLA2 and PatH), depression of biosynthesis and cellular processes (NadB, PyrB and ArgB), decreased levels of transcription (RpoD) and translation (RpsA, RplJ and PheS), and effective activation of protein folding and stress‐related elements (GroES, DnaK and GroEL). This study may provide insight into the nature of the cellular targets of high pressure and in high‐pressure resistance mechanisms in V. parahaemolyticus. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-10T11:14:41.55296-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6595
  • Anthocyanin profiling of wild maqui berries (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol.]
           Stuntz) from different geographical regions in Chile
    • Authors: Carolina Fredes; Gad G Yousef, Paz Robert, Mary H Grace, Mary Ann Lila, Miguel Gómez, Marlene Gebauer, Gloria Montenegro
      Pages: 2639 - 2648
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) is a Chilean species which produces small berries that are collected from the wild. Anthocyanins, because of their health benefits, are the major focus of interest in maqui fruit. For this study, we examined anthocyanin and phenolic content of maqui fruits from individuals that belonged to four geographical areas in Chile, and used DNA marker analysis to examine the genetic variability of maqui populations that had distinctly different fruit anthocyanin content. RESULTS Twelve primers generated a total of 145 polymorphic inter simple sequence repeat–polymerase chain reaction (ISSR‐PCR) bands. ISSR‐PCR showed different banding patterns for the individuals evaluated, confirming that maqui populations belonged to different genotypes. Maqui fruit from four different geographical regions during two consecutive growing seasons showed high total anthocyanin (6.6–15.0 g cy‐3‐glu kg−1 fresh weight (FW)) and phenolic (10.7–20.5 g GAE kg‐1 FW) contents and different anthocyanin profiles. CONCLUSION Three maqui genotypes exhibited significantly higher anthocyanin content than the others, as measured by pH differential method and high‐performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Significant genetic diversity was noted within each ecological population. ISSR‐PCR analysis provided a fingerprinting approach applicable for differentiation of maqui genotypes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-03T06:37:43.887398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6602
  • Quantification of γ‐ and α‐tocopherol isomers in
           combination with pattern recognition model as a tool for differentiating
           dry‐cured shoulders of Iberian pigs raised on different feeding
    • Authors: Ana I Rey; Daniel Amazan, Clemente J López‐Bote, Juan M García‐Casco
      Pages: 2649 - 2654
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Quantification of γ‐ and α‐tocopherol in dry‐cured shoulders of Iberian pigs was evaluated as a tool for differentiating feeding backgrounds or regimens. Samples (n = 115) were obtained over two different seasons from the four categories of pigs described in the Industry Quality Policy, i.e. pigs fed in free‐range conditions (FREE‐RANGE), pigs fed in free‐range conditions and provided feed supplements (FREE‐FEED), pigs fed outdoors with feed and with access to grass (FEED‐OUT) and pigs fed in intensive conditions with feed (FEED). Linear discriminant functions were calculated and validated. RESULTS The validation results showed that 20% of the muscle samples were not correctly classified into the four feeding categories, giving an 80% success rate. The FEED group had the lowest proportion of errors, with 100% of samples correctly classified. For the FREE‐RANGE group, 87% of samples were assigned to the correct feeding system by cross‐validation; however, 13% were considered as FREE‐FEED. A higher rate of correct classification can be obtained when using three categories or by calculating the weight gain in free‐range conditions using regression equations. CONCLUSION Taking into account the high variability of the samples and the high success in classification, these results are of interest and may be applied in practical situations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-02-26T11:03:19.114232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6603
  • Quercetin‐rich onion peel extract suppresses adipogenesis by
           down‐regulating adipogenic transcription factors and gene expression
           in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes
    • Authors: Cho‐Rong Bae; Yun‐Kyung Park, Youn‐Soo Cha
      Pages: 2655 - 2660
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Onion peel contains a high amount of quercetin, which has been reported to have anti‐cholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin‐sensitizing properties. This study aimed to elucidate the anti‐adipogenic effects of quercetin‐rich onion peel extract (OPE) and to compare it with commercially available quercetin using 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes. RESULTS Without affecting cell viability, both OPE and quercetin averted adipogenesis, as characterized by dose‐dependent decreases in intracellular triglyceride content and glycerol 3‐phosphate dehydrogenase activity, but the effect was more pronounced with OPE than with quercetin. The mRNA expression levels of key adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, FABP4, aP2 and LPL were decreased in a dose‐dependent manner by both OPE and quercetin. CONCLUSION The results indicate that OPE treatment significantly prevents intracellular lipid accumulation via hyperactivation of genes regulating lipolysis as compared with quercetin alone. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-14T05:38:45.983891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6604
  • Effective preservation techniques to prolong the shelf life of
           ready‐to‐eat oysters
    • Authors: Cristina Costa; Amalia Conte, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
      Pages: 2661 - 2667
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oysters have a high commercial value but owing to their short shelf life are generally commercialized as raw material within very restricted market borders. A step‐by‐step optimization approach was used in this work to design ready‐to‐eat oyster packaging. In particular, six different steps were carried out in order to extend their shelf life. RESULTS The concentration of sodium alginate to realize a coating that was effective in terms of easy peeling and ability in preventing product dehydration was optimized. Coated oysters were packaged under different modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions to find the best MAP. Subsequently, to further promote product preservation, sodium acetate was selected as an effective antimicrobial agent to be applied by dipping treatment prior to coating. All preservation strategies singly tested were finally combined to assess the shelf life prolongation of ready‐to‐eat oysters. CONCLUSION Dipping in sodium acetate (10 g L−1), coating with sodium alginate (40 g L−1) and packaging under MAP (0:75 O2:CO2) represent the best conditions to guarantee a significant shelf life extension to about 160 h compared with 57 h for unpackaged oysters. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-06T06:09:46.403925-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6605
  • Inactivation effect of electron beam irradiation on fungal load of
           naturally contaminated maize seeds
    • Authors: Monica R Nemţanu; Mirela Braşoveanu, Gürsel Karaca, İsmail Erper
      Pages: 2668 - 2673
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This work focuses on the effect of accelerated electrons (0.1–6.2 kGy) on naturally attached fungi on maize seeds. The fungal viability and corresponding inactivation kinetics were determined. The inactivation and radiosensitivity of the most abundant species in the contaminant fungi detected on maize seeds (Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp.) are discussed. RESULTS Fungal contamination of maize seeds decreased significantly with increasing irradiation dose. The survival curve of total fungi determined by the blotter test showed a sigmoidal pattern that can be attributed to the mixture of fungal subpopulations with different radiation sensitivities. This behaviour could be modelled well (R2 = 0.995) with a modified Gompertz equation. The predicted values for shoulder length and inactivation rate were 0.63 ± 0.10 kGy and 0.44 ± 0.04 kGy−1 respectively. The sensitivity of the most common fungi to electron beam treatment followed the order Penicillium spp. > Fusarium spp. > Aspergillus spp., with total inactivation at irradiation doses of 1.7, 2.5 and 4.8 kGy respectively. CONCLUSION The effect of electron beam treatment against fungi on naturally contaminated maize seeds depended on irradiation dose, allowing the control of maize fungal load. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-06T06:08:41.575352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6607
  • Mould incidence and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested maize
           kernels originated from India
    • Authors: Venkataramana Mudili; Chandra Nayaka Siddaih, Madhukar Nagesh, Phanikumar Garapati, Kalagatur Naveen Kumar, Harishchandra Sreepathi Murali, Tapani Yli Mattila, Harsh Vardan Batra
      Pages: 2674 - 2683
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, mould incidence and mycotoxin contamination were determined in freshly harvested maize samples collected from different agroclimatic regions of India. A total of 150 freshly harvested maize samples from major maize‐growing areas of India (Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu) were collected during winter seasons 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 to determine their toxigenic fungal incidences, and mycotoxins were analyzed and quantified by high‐perfomance liquid chromatography. A total of 288 fungal isolates comprising Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species were tested for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON) and T‐2 toxin) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Chemotype determination of fungal isolates was carried out by molecular and chemical analysis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high‐performance thin layer chromatography respectively. The diversity and distribution of the mycoflora among the studied samples were recorded in terms of frequency, density, importance value index and diversity indices. RESULTS A total of 288 fungal isolates were recovered from the 150 maize samples, of which 28 were positive for AFB1, 20 for OTA, 58 for FB1, 23 for DON and 11 for T‐2 toxin chemotypes by PCR. Species‐specific PCR assays were in line with morphological analysis. Toxigenic fungal incidences were found throughout the study region, and most of the toxins under study exceeded the maximum legal limits. The range of observed toxin concentrations were 48–58 µg AFB1, 76–123 µg FB1, 38–50 µg T‐2, 72–94 µg DON and
      PubDate: 2014-03-07T07:05:52.418225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6608
  • Aerobic stability of maize silage stored under plastic films with
           different oxygen permeability
    • Authors: Giorgio Borreani; Serenella Piano, Ernesto Tabacco
      Pages: 2684 - 2690
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The most important factor that can influence silage quality is the degree of anaerobiosis maintained during conservation. The quality of the plastic film is a key factor, since the permeability of polyethylene to oxygen is too high for silage conservation. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of the interaction between three plastic films with different degrees of oxygen permeability and two different maize silage conservation times on fermentation, microbial quality and aerobic stability. RESULTS The conservation time affected the pH, lactic and acetic acids, 1,2‐propanediol and lactic/acetic acid ratio, with higher pH, lower lactic acid concentration and lactic/acetic acid ratio but higher acetic acid and 1,2‐propanediol concentrations being found in silages conserved for 110 days versus silages conserved for 55 days. The plastic film affected the pH, lactic and acetic acids and lactic/acetic acid ratio. The yeast count was lower and aerobic stability higher for silage conserved under the oxygen barrier film for both conservation periods. CONCLUSION The positive interaction between length of storage and the increased anaerobiosis of silage during conservation provided by the oxygen barrier compared with polyethylene film helped reduce the yeast count and increase the aerobic stability of maize silage, even when less acetic acid was produced during ensiling. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-07T06:51:40.53277-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6609
  • Response of Pink Lady® apples to post‐harvest application of
           1‐methylcyclopropene as a function of applied dose, maturity at
           harvest, storage time and controlled atmosphere storage
    • Authors: Emiliano Cocci; Giampiero Sacchetti, Pietro Rocculi, Marco Dalla Rosa
      Pages: 2691 - 2698
      Abstract: BACKGROUND 1‐Methylcyclopropene (1‐MCP) is an inhibitor of ethylene reception used in post‐harvest treatments to delay fruit ripening. Several factors affect the efficacy of 1‐MCP treatments. The effect of a post‐harvest treatment with 1‐MCP on the quality of Pink Lady® apples as a function of 1‐MCP dose, storage time and maturity at harvest was investigated. 1‐MCP treatment was further tested in combination with controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. RESULTS 1‐MCP limited fruit respiration and softening during storage and was more effective on partially matured fruits and at prolonged storage times. The delaying of 1‐MCP on the increase of ripening index was greater on matured fruits at prolonged storage times. The combination of 1‐MCP and CA treatments positively affected quality indices of mature apples during 6 months of storage and 7 days of commercial life, with 1‐MCP being more effective than CA. 1‐MCP and CA showed positive combined effects on firmness and ripening index after 6 months of storage, and on firmness and CO2 production after a further 7 days of commercial life. CONCLUSION By knowing fruit maturity at harvest and expected storage time it is possible to choose the most suitable 1‐MCP dose to meet the market requirements by applying a simple polynomial model. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T06:11:26.403662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6610
  • Hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant
           activity of kiwifruit during storage
    • Authors: Liqin Zhu; Wei Wang, Jingying Shi, Wei Zhang, Yonggen Shen, Huaying Du, Shaofu Wu
      Pages: 2699 - 2704
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. Little work has been done to explore the effects of H2S on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of H2S treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol L−1 on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °C storage and the role of H2S in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit. RESULTS Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L−1 H2S significantly inhibited the increase in soluble sugar content and the decrease in vitamin C (Vit C), chlorophyll content and firmness, inhibited ethylene production and both superoxide production rate (O.2−) and hydrogen peroxide content. Kiwifruits with 45 and 90 µmol L−1 H2S exhibited significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Treatment with 180 µmol L−1 H2S promoted the ripening of kiwifruits. CONCLUSION Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L−1 H2S could delay the maturation and senescence of kiwifruits and maintain higher titratable acid (TA) and Vit C during eating‐ripe storage by inhibiting ethylene production, improving protective enzyme activities and decreasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species to protect the cell membrane during storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-20T13:38:40.246125-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6613
  • Presence of non‐O157 Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli,
           enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella in fresh
           beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice from public markets in Mexico
    • Authors: Carlos A Gómez‐Aldapa; Esmeralda Rangel‐Vargas, Haydee Bautista‐De León, Javier Castro‐Rosas
      Pages: 2705 - 2711
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Unpasteurized juice has been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks for many years. Beetroot is a vegetable grown all over the world in temperate areas. In Mexico beetroot is consumed cooked in salads or raw as fresh unpasteurized juices. No data about the microbiological quality or safety of unpasteurized beetroot juices are available. Indicator bacteria, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) and Salmonella frequencies were determined for fresh unpasteurized beetroot juice from restaurants. RESULTS One hundred unpasteurized beetroot juice samples were collected from public markets in Pachuca, Mexico. Frequencies in these samples were 100%, 75%, 53%, 9% and 4% of positive samples, for coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms, E. coli, DEP and Salmonella, respectively. Identified DEP included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and non‐O157 Shiga toxin‐producing E. coli (STEC). Identified Salmonella serotypes included Typhimurium and Enteritidis. CONCLUSION This is the first report of microbiological quality and atypical EPEC, ETEC, non‐O157 STEC and Salmonella isolation from fresh raw beetroot juice in Mexico. Fresh raw beetroot juice from markets is very probably an important factor contributing to the endemicity of atypical EPEC, ETEC, non‐O157 STEC and Salmonella‐related gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T06:23:03.347311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6614
  • Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) on survivability, extent of
           proteolysis and ACE inhibition of potential probiotic cultures in
           fermented milk
    • Authors: Santosh Basannavar; Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma
      Pages: 2712 - 2717
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the present investigation, the effect of Aloe vera gel powder on angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, extent of proteolysis during fermentation and survival of Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 during storage of fermented milk was studied. RESULTS Among the different cultures screened for ACE inhibitory activity, Lactobacillus casei NCDC 19 exhibited the highest ACE inhibition (approx. 40%) as well as extent of proteolysis (0.37, Abs340). In the presence of Aloe vera (0.5% and 1% w/v) an increase in extent of proteolysis (0.460 ± 0.047 and 0.480 ± 0.027) and percent ACE inhibitory activity (44.32 ± 2.83 and 47.52 ± 1.83) was observed in comparison to control. Aloe vera powder addition also led to an increase in viable counts (>11 log cfu mL−1) of L. casei NCDC 19 in fermented milk during storage for 7 days and the counts were maintained in sufficiently higher numbers. CONCLUSION The study suggests Aloe vera to be a good functional ingredient which can be further explored for different health attributes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-21T07:48:01.91538-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6615
  • Ultrastructural changes in the mycelium of Hericium erinaceum (Bull.; Fr.)
           Pers. under selenium‐induced oxidative stress
    • Authors: Joanna Ślusarczyk; Mieczysław Kuraś, Eliza Malinowska, Krystyna Skalicka‐Woźniak, Kazimierz Głowniak
      Pages: 2718 - 2725
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study we examined the influence of various forms of selenium (organic and inorganic) on the vivacity of Hericium erinaceum mycelium and structural changes and ultrastructure occurring during its development in submerged culture. RESULTS The mycelium was grown on sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), Selol (with 20 and 50 g kg−1 Se, respectively) and a mixture of Na2SeO3 and Selol. Samples of the mycelium were collected on day 3 and day 24 of the incubation and viewed under an electron microscope. Selol at concentration 20 g kg−1 did not cause any damage to the cell ultrastructure, but it contributed to the thickening of the cell wall, which implied an influence on polysaccharide production. In the other cases, degradation changes appeared in the protoplasm and the thickness of the cell wall did not increase. CONCLUSION The nature of the effect exerted by various sources of selenium in the culture medium on the formation of polysaccharides probably results from the differences in their chemical composition and differences in the toxicity of these compounds towards the cells, but is also connected with the decomposition of the wall surrounding degraded fungal cells. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-03T04:56:28.237603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6616
  • Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and antioxidative
           effects of dietary clove (Szyzgium aromaticum) bud powder in a
           high‐fat diet/streptozotocin‐induced diabetes rat model
    • Authors: Stephen A Adefegha; Ganiyu Oboh, Omowunmi M Adefegha, Aline A Boligon, Margareth L Athayde
      Pages: 2726 - 2737
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (clove) bud is an important spice used in the preparation of several delicacies and in folklore for diabetes management. The present study was convened to assess the effects of dietary clove bud powder (CBP) on biochemical parameters in a type 2 diabetes rat model, induced by a combination of high‐fat diet and low‐dose streptozotocin (35 mg kg−1) for 30 days. RESULTS Diabetic rats were placed on dietary regimen containing 20–40 g kg−1 clove bud powder. The results revealed that there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the average feed intake and weight changes between the rat groups. Furthermore, supplementation with CBP gradually reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rat compared to control diabetic rats without CBP supplementation (DBC). Moreover, reduced activity of α‐glucosidase was observed in CBP and metformin‐treated rat groups when compared to that of the DBC rat group. In addition, the DBC group had significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipid concentrations (except for high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol) when compared to all other groups. Furthermore, CBP had significantly (P < 0.05) reduced activity of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) and showed elevated levels of antioxidant status (glutathione, ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase and catalase). CONCLUSION The results suggest that the clove bud diet may attenuate hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in the type 2 diabetic condition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-14T03:28:32.070254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6617
  • Variation in proanthocyanidin content and composition among commonly grown
           North American cranberry cultivars (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
    • Authors: Jessica L Carpenter; Frank L Caruso, Anuradha Tata, Nicholi Vorsa, Catherine C Neto
      Pages: 2738 - 2745
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, particularly oligomeric proanthocyanidins (PACs) possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PACs may play a role in resistance to fruit rot. Although many cranberry cultivars are grown for use in foods, beverages and nutraceuticals, data on PAC content among cultivars is limited. Eight cultivars were sampled from four growing regions during the 2010 season and analyzed for PAC content and composition. RESULTS MALDI‐TOF MS showed that isolated PACs had similar oligomer profiles among cultivars. The major constituents were A‐type (epi)catechin oligomers of two to eight degrees of polymerization. Total PAC content ranged between 18 and 92 g PAC kg−1 dried fruit, quantified as procyanidin A2 by the dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method. Among the cultivars sampled, Howes had the highest total PACs (76–92 g kg−1), followed by Mullica Queen and Early Black (48–82 g kg−1). Ben Lear, a disease‐susceptible variety, was significantly lower in PACs than the other cultivars (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Several traditional and newer cultivars of cranberry from various growing regions in North America are excellent sources of PACs, particularly the Howes, Mullica Queen and Early Black cultivars. PAC content may play a role in keeping quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-20T13:38:38.636171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6618
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in
           mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp: growth, survival and
    • Authors: Ana L Penteado; M Fernanda P M de Castro, Ana C B Rezende
      Pages: 2746 - 2751
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study examined the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes to grow or survive in mango pulp stored at −20°C, 4°C, 10°C and 25°C, as well as to cross‐contaminate mangoes by means of a knife contaminated with different levels of these pathogens. RESULTS At 25°C lag phase durations of 19 h and 7.2 h and generation times of 0.66 and 1.44 were obtained, respectively, for S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. At 10°C only the growth of L. monocytogenes was observed. At 4°C both bacteria survived for 8 days. At −20°C S. Enteritidis was able to survive for 5 months while L. monocytogenes survived for 8 months. Cross‐contamination was observed for knives contaminated with 106, 105 and 104 CFU mL−1 of S. Enteritidis and 106 and 105 CFU mL−1 of L. monocytogenes. CONCLUSION Both microorganisms can grow well in mango pulp at 25°C, thus lower temperatures for the maintenance of the pulps are crucial to avoid growth of these microorganisms. A refrigeration temperature of 10°C will avoid only the growth of S. Enteritidis. Thus good handling practices should be rigidly enforced to avoid any contamination as even at refrigeration and freezing temperatures survival of these pathogens may occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T06:41:28.044013-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6619
  • Onion extract (Allium cepa L.), quercetin and catechin up‐regulate
           paraoxonase 1 activity with concomitant protection against
           low‐density lipoprotein oxidation in male Wistar rats subjected to
           oxidative stress
    • Authors: Nidhi Jaiswal; Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
      Pages: 2752 - 2757
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti‐atherosclerotic protein component of high‐density lipoprotein. We explored the effect of onion extract and flavonoids (quercetin and catechin) in the regulation of PON1 expression and correlating with oxidised LDL levels in male Wistar rats subjected to mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced oxidative insult. Rats were divided into eight groups: Control, Experimental (HgCl2), Experimental + onion/catechin/quercetin, Positive control (Normal + onion/catechin/quercetin). Treatment continued for 4 weeks. RESULTS PON1 activity and radical scavenging activity decreased in the Experimental group (P < 0.001) with increased susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and plasma malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.001). Onion extract significantly attenuated the adverse effects of HgCl2 by up‐regulating PON1 activity (P < 0.05), radical scavenging activity (P < 0.01), and protected against LDL oxidation (P < 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01). Similar effects were observed with quercetin and to a lesser extent with catechin. CONCLUSIONS The findings may explain the anti‐atherosclerotic effect of onion and also foods containing quercetin and catechins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T07:46:21.769674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6620
  • Reduction of microbiological risk in minced meat by a combination of
           natural antimicrobials
    • Authors: Anja Klančnik; Saša Piskernik, Franz Bucar, Darinka Vučković, Sonja Smole Možina, Barbara Jeršek
      Pages: 2758 - 2765
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Responsibility for food safety must be taken through the entire food‐production chain, to avoid consumer cross‐contamination. The antimicrobial activities of an Alpinia katsumadai seed extract and epigallocatehin gallate (EGCG), and their combination, were evaluated against individual food‐borne pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, individually and as a cocktail, in chicken‐meat juice and sterile minced meat as food models, and in minced meat with the naturally present microflora, as an actual food sample. RESULTS The antimicrobial combination of the A. katsumadai extract and EGCG was the most efficient for C. jejuni growth inhibition, followed by inhibition of L. monocytogenes, which was reduced more efficiently in the bacterial cocktail than as an individual strain. The antimicrobial combination added to minced meat at refrigeration temperatures used in the food chain (8 °C) revealed inhibition of these pathogens and inhibition of the naturally present bacteria after 5 days. CONCLUSIONS The antibacterial efficiencies of the tested combinations are influenced by storage temperature. Food safety can be improved by using the appropriate combination of natural antimicrobials to reduce the microbiological risk of minced meat. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-12T10:49:51.034417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6621
  • The severity of iron chlorosis in sensitive plants is related to soil
           phosphorus levels
    • Authors: Antonio Rafael Sánchez‐Rodríguez; María Carmen del Campillo, José Torrent
      Pages: 2766 - 2773
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis, a major nutritional problem in plants growing on calcareous soils, is related to the content and reactivity of soil iron oxides and carbonates. The effects of other soil components, however, need elucidation. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that application of high doses of phosphorus (P) to the soil can aggravate Fe chlorosis. RESULTS Lupin and sorghum were grown on 24 calcareous soils. Leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC) in lupin decreased with increasing available P/available Fe ratio in the native soil but LCC in sorghum was unaffected by that ratio. Application of P to the soil resulted in significant reduction of LCC and dry weight in lupin. In sorghum, LCC and dry weight were positively affected by P fertilisation for soils poor in available P whereas the opposite effect was generally observed for the P‐rich soils. In another experiment where olive plants were pot‐grown on two soils during the 2009–2011 period, P fertilisation affected LCC negatively only in 2009 and 2011 and in the soil that was poorer in iron oxides. CONCLUSION Application of fertiliser P to Fe chlorosis‐inducing soils is likely to aggravate this deficiency. However, this effect depends on the plant and the Fe and P statuses of the soil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T07:22:39.537302-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6622
  • Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and
           genetic constitution
    • Authors: Raquel San José; María‐Cortes Sánchez‐Mata, Montaña Cámara, Jaime Prohens
      Pages: 2774 - 2784
      Abstract: BACKGROUND No comprehensive reports exist on the combined effects of season, cultivation environment and genotype on eggplant (Solanum melongena) composition. We studied proximate composition, carbohydrates, total phenolics and vitamin C of eggplant fruits of three Spanish landraces, three commercial hybrids and three hybrids between landraces cultivated across two environmental conditions (open field, OF; and, greenhouse, GH) for up to four seasons. RESULTS Season (S) had a larger effect than the genotype (G) for composition traits, except for total phenolics. G × S interaction was generally of low relative magnitude. Orthogonal decomposition of the season effect showed that differences within OF or GH environments were in many instances greater than those between OF and GH. Spanish landraces presented, on average, lower contents of total carbohydrates and starch and higher contents of total vitamin C, ascorbic acid, and total phenolics than commercial hybrids. Hybrids among landraces presented variable levels of heterosis for composition traits. Genotypes grown in the same season cluster together on the graph of multivariate principal components analysis. CONCLUSION The cultivation environment has a major role in determining the composition of eggplant fruits. Environmental and genotypic differences can be exploited to obtain high quality eggplant fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T07:46:04.276754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6623
  • Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and
           crisp‐texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.
           interspecific hybrids)
    • Authors: Kendra M Blaker; Anne Plotto, Elizabeth A Baldwin, James W Olmstead
      Pages: 2785 - 2793
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre‐ and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). CONCLUSION The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard‐texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. © 2014 The
      Authors . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2014-03-25T07:08:59.687177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6626
  • Content and molecular weight of water‐extractable arabinoxylans in
    • Authors: Mengmeng Guo; Jinhua Du, Kaili Zhang, Yuhong Jin
      Pages: 2794 - 2800
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Arabinoxylans (AXs) are partially water‐extractable polymers that cause problems of viscosity and filterability during beer brewing. This study investigated the effects of Kolbach index (KI) on water‐extractable AXs (WEAXs). RESULTS KI had positive correlations with extract (r = 0.845) and free amino nitrogen (FAN) (r = 0.958). The contents of malt WEAXs (WEAXsm), total AXs and wort AXs (WAXs) were 10.8–11.6 g kg−1, 57.5–60.8 g kg−1 and 137.5–140.5 mg per 100 mL respectively and the corresponding arabinose/xylose (A/X) ratios were 0.52–0.56, 0.55–0.62 and 0.48–0.50. The molecular weight (Mw) ranged from 4.92 × 104 to 6.93 × 104 Da for WEAXsm and from 1.24 × 104 to 2.90 × 104 Da for WAXs. KI had negative correlations with the average degree of polymerization (avDP) of malt (r = −0.877) and wort (r = −0.978). Wort viscosity showed a positive correlation with the Mw of WEAXsm (Mwm) (r = 0.821). CONCLUSION Increasing KI can promote the degradation of the xylan backbone, while it cannot affect the branching of the polymer chain and the content and Mw of WEAXs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-25T08:40:18.079899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6631
  • Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common
           wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality
    • Authors: Pingping Zhang; Tom O Jondiko, Michael Tilley, Joseph M Awika
      Pages: 2801 - 2806
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Steamed bread is a popular staple food in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high‐molecular‐weight glutenin subunits (HMW‐GS) influence gluten properties and Chinese steamed bread quality using 16 wheat lines grown in Texas. RESULTS Although similar in protein content (134–140 mg g−1), gluten composition and dough properties differed widely among the lines. Compared with non‐deletion lines, deletion lines had lower (P < 0.05) unextractable polymeric protein (294 vs 470 mg g−1), HMW‐GS/low‐molecular‐weight glutenin subunit ratio (0.25 vs 0.41), dough force to extend (0.16 vs 0.44 N) and mixing peak time (2.03 vs 4.52 min). Deletion lines with HMW‐GS composition of 2*/17+_/5+_ and 2*/17+_/2+12 showed moderate gluten strength (mixing peak time, 1.96–2.94 min; force to extend, 0.18–0.23 N) and high dough extensibility (106–129 mm). These lines also produced good steamed bread quality (score, 60.8–65.0) with good elasticity and crumb structure. CONCLUSION Deletion at Glu‐B1y and/or Glu‐D1y loci in high‐strength hard wheat produced good dough properties for steamed bread. This suggests that wheat functionality for steamed bread can be improved by manipulating HMW‐GS composition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-31T08:09:52.898497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6635
  • Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total
           bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real‐time polymerase
           chain reaction
    • Authors: Ji Yeun Kim; Jung‐Lim Lee
      Pages: 2807 - 2817
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study describes the first multiplex real‐time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. RESULTS The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. CONCLUSION Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The
      Authors . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2014-05-21T03:27:21.124649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6699
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