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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 279 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (12 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (62 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1609 journals]
  • Monitoring the sensorial quality of the canned white asparagus through
           cluster analysis
    • Authors: Inés Arana; Francisco C Ibañez, Paloma Torre
      Abstract: BACKGROUND White asparagus is one of the 30 vegetables most consumed in the world. This paper unifies the stages of their sensory quality control. The aims of this work were to describe the sensorial properties of canned white asparagus and their quality control, and to evaluate the applicability of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for classifying and monitoring the sensory quality of manufacturers. RESULTS Sixteen sensory descriptors and their evaluation technique were defined. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was high flavor characteristic, little acidity and bitterness, medium firmness and very light fibrosity, among other characteristics. The dendrogram established groups of manufacturers that had similar scores in the same set of descriptors and each cluster grouped the manufacturers that had a similar quality profile. CONCLUSIONS The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was clearly defined through the intensity evaluation of 16 descriptors and the sensory quality report provided to the manufacturers is in detail and of easy interpretation. The agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) grouped the manufacturers according to the highest quality scores in certain descriptors and is a useful tool because it is very visual.
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T02:03:07.204787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7355
       
  • Proximate Composition and Nutritional Quality of Deep Sea Growth Sea
           Cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from Different Origins
    • Authors: Yue Gao; Zhibo Li, Yanxia Qi, Zhenyu Guo, Yantong Lin, Wei Li, Yucai Hu, Qiancheng Zhao
      Abstract: Background Deep sea growth sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas) (DSG‐SC) has been considered as the most nutritious and luxurious seafood for Asians. This study investigated comparatively the proximate composition and nutritional quality of collagen, polysaccharides, amino acids (AA) and fatty acids (FA) in sea cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from different origins. Results The contents of protein, ash, carbohydrate, fat, collagen, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) , total amino acid (TAA), essential amino acids (EAA), fucose and uronic acid were different among the origins. Sea cucumber of Dalian origin had lower contents of ash, fat, uronic acid, TAA and EAA, but it showed higher contents of protein, collagen, PUFA, EPA, DHA and fucose compared with the other origins. The DSG‐SC had higher proportion of PUFA and richer polysaccharides than other seafood, and it demonstrated that Glutamate and Glycine were the dominant AA, and Leucine and Threonine were the abundant EAA. Conclusion DSG‐SC were a good source of collagen, polysaccharides (especially, fucose), EAA (especially, Leucine and Threonine) and PUFA (especially, EPA and DHA). Dalian seems to be a promising origin to produce high value sea cucumber with high PUFA, fucose, collagen and protein.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:38:16.922555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7353
       
  • Preharvest temperature affects chilling injury in dessert bananas during
           storage
    • Authors: Christophe Bugaud; Charlène Joannès‐Dumec, Jacques Louisor, Philippe Tixier, Frédéric Salmon
      Abstract: Background The effect of temperature on chilling injury during fruit growth was studied in a new banana hybrid CIRAD925 in which seasonal variability in chilling susceptibility was observed when fruits were stored at 13 °C. Results The relationship between the response to chilling (presence/absence) and the temperature during banana fruit growth was examined with a logistic regression model. An explanatory variable XN,P was defined as the mean temperature during a period, expressed in weeks, which began N week(s) after flowering and lasted P week(s). The model was calibrated with 143 bunches with a green life of 30 ± 5 days and validated with 156 bunches grown in six plots under different growing conditions. Chilling injury was best predicted by the mean temperature during the period beginning one week after flowering and lasting five weeks (X1,5). Above a mean temperature of 24.1 °C in the period concerned, banana fruits had a 95% probability of chilling injury at 13 °C. Below a temperature of 23.4 °C, banana fruits only had a 5% probability of chilling injury. Conclusion Our results provide a tool to predict chilling susceptibility in banana fruit whatever the thermal conditions in tropical regions.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:37:52.638993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7354
       
  • Assessment of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and pesticide residues in domestic
           and imported Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fish in India
    • Authors: Niladri Sekhar Chatterjee; Kaushik Banerjee, Sagar Utture, Narayan Kamble, B. Madhusudana Rao, Satyen Kumar Panda, Suseela Mathew
      Abstract: Background The Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a ubiquitous item of seafood in global markets. However, pesticide residues in aquaculture fish, arising from agricultural runoff and/or direct application during pond preparation, pest control and harvest is a potential food safety concern. This study assessed the level of chemical hazard in domestic and imported pangasius fish in India. Results A total of 119 contaminants including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines (OCs) and other groups of pesticides were screened in 148 samples during 2014–2015 as the first endeavour of its kind in Indian context, employing a validated GC‐MS/MS method. Apart from the low level incidence of OCs, pesticides like quinalphos, malathion, methyl parathion, etc. were detected in 38% of the samples. In comparison to the Indian pangasius, less number of contaminants at low residue level was detected in pangasius fillets imported from Vietnam. Conclusion The human dietary exposures of the residue concentrations detected were less than the maximum permissible intakes and hence appeared safe. However, detection of commonly used pesticides indicated their direct application in aquaculture and contamination from agricultural runoff. This emphasizes the need of continual residue monitoring in aquaculture fish.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:37:28.409663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7352
       
  • Aroma volatiles obtained at harvest by HS‐SPME/GC‐MS and
           INDEX/MS‐E‐nose fingerprint discriminate climacteric behavior
           in melon fruit
    • Authors: L.A. Chaparro‐Torres; M.C. Bueso, J.P. Fernández‐Trujillo
      Abstract: Background Melon aroma volatiles were extracted at harvest from juice of a climacteric near‐isogenic line (NIL) SC3‐5‐1 with two QTLs introgressed which produced climacteric behavior and its non‐climacteric parental (PS) using two methodologies of analysis: static headspace solid phase micro‐extraction (HS‐SPME) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and inside needle dynamic extraction (INDEX) by MS‐based electronic nose (MS‐E‐nose). Results Of the 137 volatiles compounds identified most of them found at significantly higher concentrations in SC3‐5‐1 than in PS in both seasons. These volatiles were mostly esters, alcohols, sulfur‐derived esters and even some aldehydes and others. The number of variables with high correlation values was reduced by using correlation network analysis. Partial least squares‐discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) achieved the correct classification of PS and SC3‐5‐1. The ions m/z 74, 91, 104, 105, 106 and 108, mainly volatile derivatives precursor phenylalanine, were the most discriminant in SC3‐5‐1 and PS. As many as 104 QTLs were mapped in season 1 and at least 78 QTLs in each season with an effect above the PS mean. Conclusion GC‐MS gave better discrimination than E‐nose. Most of the QTLs that mapped in both seasons enhanced aroma volatiles associated with climacteric behavior.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T03:02:02.922097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7350
       
  • Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic
    • Authors: Xinyan Zhang; Ningyang Li, Xiaoming Lu, Pengli Liu, Xuguang Qiao
      Abstract: Background Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristic of quality formation of black garlic during processing of varied temperatures. Results In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5‐Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavor of black garlic was various at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. Sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) than those with other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavor of black garlic during processing. Conclusion Temperatures had remarkable impacts on the quality and flavor of black garlic.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T03:01:02.961206-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7351
       
  • Effect of spinach aqueous extract on wound healing in experimental model
           diabetic rats with streptozotocin
    • Authors: Sara Rahati; Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Abdolali Ebrahimi, Hamideh Pishva
      Abstract: Background Chronic ulcer is still a serious issue for diabetic patients. Diabetes is a prevalent cause of ulcer regeneration delay and (or) disruption. Since Spinacia oleracea extract contains compounds with anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory effects, this may be effective in accelerating the healing process of ulcers; especially, diabetic ulcers. Hence, this study examined the effect of Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract on ulcer regeneration in an experimental‐animal model. Results Macroscopic examination of the wounds of the control group and spinach aqueous extract group between 7 to 21 days compared with diabetic group, significant changes were observed (P˂0.05). On microscopic examination, the epithelial tissue formation, formation of granulation tissue and new blood vessels in the spinach aqueous extract group and non diabetic group than in the diabetic group showed significant improvements (P˂0.05). Also, VEGF were observed significant differences between groups on the Third and seventh day(P˂0.05). Conclusion the Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract can be effective in regenerating diabetic ulcers. It affects the speed and structure of the ulcer.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23T01:27:25.796735-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7349
       
  • The effect of raw materials on thermo‐oxidative stability and
           glycidyl esters content of palm oil during frying
    • Authors: Magda A Aniołowska; Agnieszka M Kita
      Abstract: Background The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the water content of food incorporated into the frying oil on oil degradation and the content of glycidyl esters. Potato chips, French fries and snacks were fried intermittently in palm oil, which was heated at 180 °C for 8 h per day over five consecutive days. Thermo‐oxidative and physical alterations, changes in fatty acid composition, total polar components, polar fraction composition, and water contentwere analysed. The content of glycidyl esters was measured by liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Results More polar compounds were formed in the oil used for frying chips (252 g kg−1) than for French fries (229 g kg−1) or snacks (196 g kg−1). Reductions in glycidyl esters were found in oils used for frying – greater for frying snacks and French fries (95% and 93%) than for potato chips (87%). The rate of decrease of glycidyl esters was correlated with frying parameters, most strongly with the concentrations of diacylglycerols (r = 0.98) and total polar components (r = −0.98). Conclusion The raw material had a greater influence on polymerisation conversion and glycidyl esters content than on hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the frying oil.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:09:30.268923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7345
       
  • Azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract stimulates the phosphorylation of
           AMP‐activated protein kinase in HepG2 cells and diabetic rat liver
    • Authors: Shin Sato; Yuuka Mukai, Saori Kataoka, Masaaki Kurasaki
      Abstract: Background The activation of AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a beneficial effect on hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to examine whether an azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract (ABE) stimulates the AMPK or insulin signalling pathways in a liver cell line in response to hyperglycaemia, as well as in a diabetic rat liver. Results HepG2 cells were incubated with 5 or 20 mmol L−1 glucose and then treated with ABE. Streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats received 0, 10, or 40 mg kg−1 of ABE orally. Blood chemistry and phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in the livers were examined. There was a significant increase in the levels of AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in ABE‐treated HepG2 cells. AMPK phosphorylation increased significantly in glucose‐stimulated HepG2 cells that were treated with ABE. In the 40 mg kg−1 ABE‐treated diabetic rats, the glucose levels were lower than in the control. The phosphorylation of AMPK in the ABE‐untreated diabetic rat livers decreased significantly. Conversely, ABE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in the diabetic rat liver. Conclusion ABE treatment upregulated AMPK phosphorylation in HepG2 cells, and upregulated AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in the diabetic rat liver. These data suggest that ABE can potentially improve glucose intolerance.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:06:58.659301-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7346
       
  • The effect of spray drying on sucrose‐glycine caramel powder
           preparation
    • Authors: Kai Huang; Ping‐Jun Zhang, Biao Hu, Shu‐Juan Yu
      Abstract: Background aramel is used as food colorant in many parts of the world. However, there have been no studies investigating the effects of spray drying on sucrose and glycine solutions. In this study, model sucrose and glycine solutions at different pH levels (pH 4, 3, 2 and 1) were treated with different inlet air temperatures (160, 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C) for durations of 50 s in the spray drying process. Results With increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH, the morphology of the caramel agglomerates tended to be more scattered; however, the solubility of the caramel decreased. With increasing inlet temperature, the glycine and sucrose contents decreased but the fructose and glucose contents increased. Conclusion The content of the intermediate products, the browning intensity and the amount of 5‐hydroxymethyl‐2‐furaldehyde (HMF) increased with increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH. Therefore, the amount of sucrose degradation and the change in pH can be used to evaluate caramel properties in the spray drying process.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:06:36.146128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7347
       
  • Casein/natamycin edible films efficiency for controlling mould growth and
           on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties during the ripening of
           Kashar cheese
    • Authors: Filiz Yangılar; Pınar Oğuzhan Yıldız
      Abstract: Background The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the dipping coating application of coated materials as casein (Cas), casein/natamycin (Cas/N) and natamycin (N) solutions of the chemical (e.g. the rates of pH, dry matter, fat, acidity, salt, protein, water soluble nitrogen, ripening index, 12% trichloroacetic acid‐soluble nitrogen and pH 4.6 soluble‐nitrogen), microbial (e.g. total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria in MRS, lactic acid bacteria in M17, coliform and mould) and organoleptic properties of samples during ripening time (3rd, 30th, 60th and 90th days). Results The difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples were found to be significant (P
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:04:40.529761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7348
       
  • The influence of post mortem conditioning on the tenderness of Egyptian
           goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) breast meat (M. pectoralis major)
    • Authors: Greta Geldenhuys; Nina Muller, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Abstract: Background Egyptian goose breast meat has been found to be very tough compared to the meat of other well‐known fowl species. In attempting to clarify the toughness of the meat, the physical and biochemical changes during post mortem conditioning (14 days) was investigated. Results Although there was an increased cathepsin (B, B & L and H) activity together with a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the myofibrillar fragmentation lengths (32–25 µm) with conditioning, no change (decline) in the shear force values was observed. The higher (P ≤ 0.05) shear force of the male breast portions may be linked to the higher (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations of total and insoluble collagen. Conclusions No significant change (decline) in the shear force values was observed. The conditioning of Egyptian goose meat as a means of improving the overall toughness, can, therefore, not be proposed. The higher shear force and lower sensory tenderness of the male breast portions as previously observed may be linked to higher concentrations of total and insoluble collagen.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17T02:03:09.166233-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7344
       
  • Conidia survival of Aspergillus section Nigri, Flavi and Circumdati under
           
    • Authors: García‐Cela E, Marín S; Reyes M, Sanchis V, Ramos A. J.
      Abstract: Background Bio‐geographical differences in fungal infection distribution have been observed around the world, confirming that the climatic conditions are decisive in colonization. This research is focused on the impact of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on Aspergillus species, based on the consideration that an increase in UV‐B radiation may have large ecological effects. Methods and Resuts Conidia of six mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species isolated from vineyards located in the Northeast and South of Spain were incubated for 15 days under light/dark cycles and temperatures between 20 to 30 °C per day. Additionally, six hours of exposure to UV‐A or UV‐B radiation per day were included in the light exposure. UV irradiance used were 1.7 ± 0.2 mW·cm−2 of UV‐A (peak 365 nm) and 0.10 ± 0.2 mW·cm−2 of UV‐B (peak 312 nm). The intrinsic decrease of viability of conidia along time was accentuated when they were UV irradiated. UV‐B radiation was more harmful. Conclusions Conidial sensitivity to UV light was marked in A. section Circumdati. Conidia pigmentation could be related to UV sensitivity. Different resistance was observed within species belonging to sections Flavi and Nigri. Impact of Study An increase in UV radiation could lead to a reduction in the Aspergillus spp. inoculum present in field (vineyards, nuts, cereal crops). In addition, it could unbalance the spore species present in field leading to a higher predominance of dark pigmented conidia.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16T01:52:36.774821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7343
       
  • Effect of supplementation of cows diet with linseed and fish oil and
           different variants of ß–lactoglobulin on fatty acid composition
           and antioxidant capacity of milk
    • Authors: Kamila Puppel; Beata Kuczyńska, Teresa Nałęcz‐Tarwacka, Marcin Gołębiewski, Tomasz Sakowski, Aleksandra Kapusta, Arkadiusz Budziński, Marek Balcerak
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to determine the influence of polymorphic variants of ß–lactoglobulin in cows supplemented with linseed and fish oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk. From the herd of 320 Polish Holstein Friesian cows three groups of cows were selected according to the variants of β–LG (β–LGAA, β–LGBB, β–LGAB). During the first 7 days (the initial period) all the cows were fed the same TMR diet. From day 8 to 28,150 g fish oil and 250 g linseed (FOL) was added to the TMR diet of each cow. Results The results showed that the diet supplemented with FOL was effective in reducing atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Introducing supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity: higher concentration of C18:2cis‐9trans‐11, C20:5 n‐3, C22:6n‐3, bioactive whey proteins and vitamin soluble in fat has been recorded. The results showed that ß–LGAA was associated with lower levels of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and higher concentration of C22:5n‐6, phospholipids and β‐carotene. ß–LGBB favours a higher content of C18:1trans‐11, C18:2cis‐9trans‐11 and lactoferrin. ß–LGAB was associated with higher concentrations of C20:5n‐3, Lysozyme, α–retinol, α–tocopherol and total antioxidant status. Conclusion Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of milk. The effect of β‐LG phenotype on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk is variable, which could partly be the result of a β‐LG phenotype × diet interaction.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T00:21:27.007224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7341
       
  • Canopy management in rainfed vineyards (cv. Tempranillo) for optimizing
           water use and enhancing wine quality
    • Authors: Miquel Pascual; Maria‐Paz Romero, Josep Rufat, Josep M. Villar
      Abstract: Background Rainfed viticulture, mainly in semiarid environments, is limited by environmental variability, particularly precipitation and its seasonal distribution, and soil water availability, thus ultimately determining the final quality of grape and wine. Studies on the feasibility of practices such as canopy management to adapt plant growth and yield to soil water availability open up possibilities to preserve wine quality and reinforce the characteristics of the terroir. Results Principal components analysis was used to identify the relationships between a large set of variables, including soil, plant, canopy management, and wine characteristics. Canopy management was found to have a predominant influence on plant response to soil water by modifying plant water status, changing the amino acid profile in berries and, concomitantly, altering the sensorial attributes of the wine obtained. Conclusions Grapevine canopy management strategies, such as reiterate shoot trimming to restrict growth during early phases, are effective in adapting plant response to soil water availability. Such strategies affect berry and wine quality, mainly the amino acid profile and sensorial attributes of the wine, without changing yield or grape harvest quality control parameters. Also, in such conditions, nitrogen does not make a significant contribution to grapevine growth or yield or to grape quality.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T00:21:05.807097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7342
       
  • Effect of Feed Moisture, Extrusion Temperature and Screw Speed on
           Properties of Soy White Flakes Based Aquafeed: A Response Surface Analysis
           
    • Authors: Sushil K. Singh; Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan
      Abstract: Background Soy white flakes (SWF) is an intermediate product during soy bean processing. It is untoasted inexpensive product and contains around 51% of crude protein. It can be a potential source of protein to replace fish meal for developing aquafeed. Extrusion process is versatile and is used for the development of aquafeed. Our objective was to study the effects of inclusion of SWF (up to 50%) and other extrusion processing parameters such as barrel temperature and screw speed on the properties of aquafeed extrudates using a single‐screw extruder. Results Extrudate properties including pellet durability index, bulk density, water absorption and solubility indices and mass flow rate, were significantly (P
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:56:27.682288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7339
       
  • Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota
    • Authors: Eva Weiss; Tobias Aumiller, Hanna K Spindler, Pia Rosenfelder, Meike Eklund, Maren Witzig, Henry Jørgensen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Rainer Mosenthin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T‐cannulas to compare short‐term‐effects of 8 different wheat or barley genotypes and period‐to‐period effects on 7 bacterial groups in ileal digesta and feces by qPCR. RESULTS Within genotypes of wheat and barley, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in contents of analyzed NSP, yet cereal types differed (P < 0.001) except for soluble arabinoxylans. Genotypes showed no effect on bacterial gene copy numbers. In ileal digesta of barley‐ compared to wheat‐fed pigs, log10 copy numbers were lower (P < 0.05) for total eubacteria (9.6 to 9.8), Bacteroides‐Prevotella‐Porphyromonas (6.5 to 6.8), Clostridium cluster IV (6.7 to 6.9), and Roseburia spp. (6.6 to 7.2), while higher copy numbers were found for Lactobacillus spp. (9.4 to 8.8). Enterobacteriaceae (7.0 to 7.8) and Bifidobacterium spp. (7.0 to 7.7) were lower (P < 0.001) in feces of barley‐ compared to wheat‐fed pigs. Ileal eubacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and Roseburia spp. linearly increased from period 1 to 8 for both cereals (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Wheat and barley differently influence microbial composition particularly in the small intestine, with barley increasing Lactobacillus spp.:Enterobacteriaceae. ratio, underlining its potential to beneficially manipulate the intestinal microbial ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:56:25.967811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7340
       
  • Exposure to a novel feedstuff by goat dams during pregnancy and lactation
           versus pregnancy alone does not further improve post weaning acceptance of
           this feedstuff by their kids
    • Authors: Vu Hai Phan; J Thomas Schonewille, Tien Van Dam, Henk Everts, Wouter H Hendriks
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous experiments demonstrated the existence of in utero learning in goats. However, in contrast to other animal species, in goats there is no information about the potential of flavor transmission from maternal feed to goat kids during lactation. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of postnatal exposure of Chromonaela odorata leaf meal (COLM) in relation to the preferences to this feedstuff by goat kids after weaning. It was hypothesized that exposure of COLM to the dams during both pregnancy and lactation versus pregnancy alone, additionally affects post weaning intake of COLM by their offspring. RESULTS Consumption of COLM by the goat kids was similar during the first week post weaning for all treatments. However, after 4 weeks the intake of COLM was at least 1.8 times greater when kids were exposed to COLM during pregnancy whereas it remained virtually unchanged when kids were exposed to COLM during lactation only. The increase in COLM consumption was in line with the observations on latency to eat and meal size. CONCLUSION Transmission of feeding behavior from goat dams to offspring does not occur during lactation. However, the concept of in utero learning in goats was confirmed.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:56:24.222934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7338
       
  • Use of descriptive analysis and preference mapping for early‐stage
           assessment of new and established apples
    • Authors: Margaret A. Cliff; Kareen Stanich, Ran Lu, Cheryl R. Hampson
      Abstract: Background This research compared four new apple selections with sixteen established apples using descriptive analysis (DA), instrumental analyses and preference mapping, in order to identify suitable selections for commercialization and further research. Results DA revealed that the new apple selections (PARC1, PARC2, PARC3, PARC4) were very similar in texture/mouthfeel (T) but differed in their flavor (F) and appearance (A) characteristics. Preference mapping revealed that consumers’ T preferences were driven primarily by crispness, juiciness and lack of skin toughness, while F preferences were driven by sweetness, lack of tartness and presence of fruity flavor. Consumers’ A preferences were driven by a high percentage of red color and degree of striping. The majority of consumers had similar T (82‐85%) and F (88‐92%) preferences for the early‐ and mid/late‐harvest apples. In contrast, consumers’ A preferences were differentiated into three subgroups (60%, 24%, 16%) for the early‐harvest apples, but not for the mid/late‐harvest apples. The new apple selections were among those most liked for T, F and A. Conclusion This early‐stage consumer research confirmed that the new apples were comparable, if not superior, to the established apples. As such, it provided the necessary feedback to industry to proceed with commercialization and optimization of cultural and storage practices.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:55:28.715175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7334
       
  • An integrated molecular docking and rescoring method for predicting the
           sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to organophosphorus
           pesticides
    • Authors: Ling‐Ling Yang; Xiao Yang, Guo‐Bo Li, Kai‐Ge Fan, Peng‐Fei Yin, Xiang‐Gui Chen
      Abstract: Background The enzymatic chemistry method is currently the most widely used method for the rapid detection of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but the used enzymes such as cholinesterases lack sufficient sensitivity to detect low concentration of OP pesticides present in given samples. Serine hydrolase is considered as an ideal enzyme source to seek high‐sensitivity enzymes used for OP pesticide detection. However, it is difficult to systematically evaluate sensitivities of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides by in vitro experiments. This study aimed to establish an in silico method to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides. Results A serine hydrolase database containing 219 representative serine hydrolases was constructed. Based on this database, an integrated molecular docking and rescoring method was established, in which AutoDock Vina program was used to produce the binding poses of OP pesticides to various serine hydrolases and the ID‐Score method developed recently by us was adopted as a rescoring method to predict their binding affinities. In the retrospective case studies, this method showed a good performance on predicting the sensitivities of known serine hydrolases to the two OP pesticides: paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The sensitivity spectrum of the 219 collected serine hydrolases to 37 commonly used OP pesticides was finally obtained by using this method. Conclusion Overall, this study presented a promising in silico tool and use it to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides, which will help seek high‐sensitivity serine hydrolases for OP pesticide detection.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:55:26.728024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7335
       
  • Characteristics and gel properties of gelatin from goat skin as affected
           by pretreatments using sodium sulfate and hydrogen peroxide
    • Authors: Sulaiman Mad‐Ali; Soottawat Benjakul, Thummanoon Prodpran, Sajid Maqsood
      Abstract: Background Goat skin can be used as an alternative raw material for gelatin production, in which pretreatment conditions can determine the characteristics or properties of resulting gelatin. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment using sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on properties of goat skin gelatin. Results Pretreatment of skin using Na2SO4 (0–1 mol L−1) increased the yield of gelatin in a concentration dependent manner. When skins with prior Na2SO4 treatment were bleached using H2O2 (0–2 mol L−1), the resulting gelatin showed the higher yield and gel strength than those without prior Na2SO4 treatment. All gelatins had α‐chain as major components, followed by β‐chain. The degradation induced by H2O2 was lower in gelatin with prior Na2SO4 treatment. L*‐values increased with increasing H2O2 concentrations (p < 0.05) due to the bleaching effect of H2O2. With Na2SO4 and H2O2 pretreatments, gelatin had finer and more ordered microstructure. Gelatin had the imino acid content of 217 residues/1000 residues with gelling and melting temperature of 22.49 and 32.28 °C, respectively. Conclusion The optimal pretreatment condition for gelatin extraction from goat skin included soaking the skin in 0.75 mol L−1 NaOH, followed by treatment using 0.75 mol L−1 Na2SO4 and subsequent bleaching with 2 mol L−1 H2O2. This resulted in gelatin with superior quality to untreated counterpart.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:55:24.767465-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7336
       
  • Utilization of magnetically responsive cereal by‐product for organic
           dyes removal
    • Authors: Eva Baldikova; Dorothea Politi, Zdenka Maderova, Kristyna Pospiskova, Dimitris Sidiras, Mirka Safarikova, Ivo Safarik
      Abstract: Background Barley straw, an agricultural by‐product, can also serve as a low‐cost and relatively efficient adsorbent of various harmful compounds. In this case, adsorption of four water‐soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes (specifically Bismarck brown Y‐ representing azo group; methylene blue (quinone‐imine group); safranin O (safranin group); and crystal violet from triphenylmethane group) on native and citric acid‐NaOH modified barley straw, both in magnetic and nonmagnetic versions, was studied. Results The adsorption was characterized using three adsorption models, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips ones. To compare the maximum adsorption capacities (qmax), the Langmuir model was employed. The qmax values reached 86.5 ‐ 124.3 mg of dye per g of native nonmagnetic straw and 410.8 – 520.3 mg of dye per g of magnetic chemically modified straw. Performed characterization studies suggested that the substantial increase in qmax values after chemical modification could be caused by rougher surface of adsorbent (SEM) and by presence of higher amount of carboxyl groups (FTIR). The adsorption processes followed the pseudo‐second‐order kinetic model and the thermodynamic studies indicated spontaneous and endothermic adsorption. Conclusion The chemical modification of barley straw led to the significant increase in maximum adsorption capacities for all tested dyes, while magnetic modification substantially facilitated the manipulation with adsorbent.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:54:52.157379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7337
       
  • Is there willingness to buy and pay a surcharge for agro‐ecological
           products? ‐ Case study of the production of vegetables in
           Xochimilco, Mexico
    • Authors: Daniel A. Revollo‐Fernández
      Abstract: Background Around the world there are approximately 2.5 trillion of small‐scale farmers, most of them subsistence farmers. In the decade of the 70s the green revolution unfolded, which brought benefits to some producers; but it also brought costs, especially for small producers. Agro‐ecology is presented as an alternative, but it is necessary to examine whether if it is accepted in the markets, especially in developing countries. Results This study proves that there is a potential market, in this case in Mexico, but that it will depend on some socio‐economic variables such as age, income, gender, product information, among others. Similarly, it is evident that buyers are willing to make an additional payment as compensation. Conclusion Agro‐ecology should not be considered as subsistence farming incompatible with the markets. It offers good prospects for increasing production and improving the sustainability of agriculture in marginal areas with few economic resources.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T07:59:57.353369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7333
       
  • Factors affecting the content of the ursolic and oleanolic acid in apple
           peel: influence of cultivars, sun‐exposure, storage conditions,
           bruising and Penicillium expansum infection
    • Authors: Yanrong Lv; Ibrahim I. Tahir, Marie E. Olsson
      Abstract: Background As health‐promoting and a part of natural plant protection, the content of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) might be interesting to increase by biofortification in breeding programmes, though the extent of genetic and environmental factors’ influence on the content need to be clarified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cultivar, sun‐exposure, storage, bruising and fungal infection on the OA and UA content in apple peel. Results Three apple cultivars with different ripening times: ‘Discovery’ (early), ‘Aroma’ (middle), and ‘Gloster’ (late) were investigated. The content of OA and UA was mainly influenced by cultivar and sun‐exposed side, and to a minor extent by storage and seasonal year. ‘Gloster’ had highest OA and UA content of the investigated cultivars. OA and UA content in the shaded side were higher than that in the sun‐exposed side in all three cultivars. Inoculation with Penicillium expansum did not have any consistent effect on OA or UA, except in a few cases where the levels decreased. Conclusions OA and UA content can be increased by choice of cultivars in breeding processes and to some extent by cultural practice.
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T05:49:23.000852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7332
       
  • Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei 01 fermented milk beverage on
           protection of intestinal epithelial cell in vitro
    • Authors: Yen‐Po Chen; Chih‐An Hsu, Wei‐Ting Hung, Ming‐Ju Chen
      Abstract: Background Intestinal protection is an important function of probiotic. However, there is no evidence shown that potential probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei 01 is able to improve intestinal functions. In the present study, the protective effect and the underlying mechanisms of L. paracasei 01 on intestinal epithelial cell in vitro was investigated. Results The fermented milk beverage containing L. paracasei 01 at 3x108 CFU mL−1 was made from skim milk powder, glucose, sucrose, isomalto‐oligosaccharide. Results indicated that L. paracasei 01 fermented milk beverage could reduce macromolecule permeability caused by dextran sodium sulfate induced damage. Besides, 50 mL L−1 fermented milk beverage with live L. paracasei 01 in cell medium could increase intestinal epithelial cell Caco‐2 growth, decrease lipopolysaccharide / tumor necrosis factor‐α / interferon‐γ induced Caco‐2 cell death and chemokine CCL‐20 production. The protecting mechanisms involve promoting intestinal epithelial cell growth and intestinal epithelial integrity to strengthen the intestinal barrier against chemical and inflammation stimuli induced damage. Inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine such as IFN‐γ, TNF‐α and CCL‐20 also contributes to the beneficial effects of this product on epithelial function. Conclusions The L. paracasei 01 fermented milk beverage may be a new functional food with intestinal protecting effects in vitro.
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T05:48:35.154772-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7331
       
  • Effects of poplar buds as an alternative to propolis on postharvest
           diseases control of strawberry fruits
    • Authors: Shuzhen Yang; Yefeng Zhou, Junli Ye, Gang Fan, Litao Peng, Siyi Pan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, two main postharvest pathogens, cause great loss of strawberry fruits. Here, the effects of poplar buds extracts, a main plant source for Chinese propolis, on disease control were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS HPLC profile of poplar buds ethanol extract(PBEE) was almost identical to that of propolis ethanol extract(PEE), with the active flavonoids identified as pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. PBEE exhibited similar inhibitory activities on spore germination of both pathogens compared with PEE, and PBEE also strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. In vivo, PBEE could effectively reduce decay of strawberry fruits stored at 13 °C. Although the weight loss was slightly increased, the contents of total soluble solid, titritable acid,vitamin C and total anthocynins were significantly higher in PBEE treated fruits than those of the control. CONCLUSION PBEE had the similar antifungal activity with propolis and had great potential as propolis alternative to control strawberry fruits diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T05:05:12.938007-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7329
       
  • The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a
           cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in
           marine food model systems
    • Authors: Rósa Jónsdóttir; Margrét Geirsdóttir, Patricia Y. Hamaguchi, Polona Jamnik, Hordur G. Kristinsson, Ingrid Undeland
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in hemoglobin fortified washed cod mince and iron containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. Progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and TBA‐reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as redness loss and protein carbonyls in the cod system. RESULTS The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and high ORAC‐value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. CONCLUSION The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro‐oxidants present.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T00:38:48.888112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7328
       
  • Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis
    • Authors: Nélida Nina; Cristina Quispe, Felipe Jiménez‐Aspee, Cristina Theoduloz, Alberto Giménez, Guillermo Schmeda‐Hirschmann
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC‐DAD, HPLC‐DAD‐MS/MSn and NMR analysis. RESULTS TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC‐DAD‐MS/MSn achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic‐rich and triterpene‐rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic‐rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene‐rich propolis were weakly active. CONCLUSION High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T00:36:50.408887-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7330
       
  • Combination of selenium‐enriched green tea polysaccharides and
           Huo‐ji polysaccharides synergistically enhances antioxidant and
           immune activity in mice
    • Authors: Chengfu Yuan; Zhihong Li, Fan Peng, Fangxiang Xiao, Dongming Ren, Hui Xue, Tao Chen, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a combination of selenium‐enriched green tea polysaccharides (Se‐GTP) and Huo‐ji polysaccharides (HJP) on the immune function and antioxidant activity in mice. RESULTS The results showed that the indices of spleen and thymus were markedly increased, and the activity of natural killer (NK) cell was promoted in mice treated with the combination of Se‐GTP and HJP. The combined treatment of Se‐GTP and HJP also reduced the content of tumour necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) in splenocytes. In addition, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were remarkably enhanced, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in mice treated with combination of Se‐GTP and HJP. Furthermore, the combined treatment of Se‐GTP and HJP increased nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor (Nrf2) expression at mRNA and protein levels in splenocytes. The effects of the combination treatment of Se‐GTP and HJP in mice were stronger than with Se‐GTP or HJP treatment alone. CONCLUSION Our study suggests that the combined administration of Se‐GTP and HJP can synergistically improve immune function and decrease the oxidative stress by enhancing the mechanisms involved in the clearance of free radicals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T03:20:42.743895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7287
       
  • Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of natural phenolic extract from
           defatted soybean flour byproduct for stone fruit postharvest application
    • Authors: María del Carmen Villalobos; Manuel Joaquín Serradilla, Alberto Martín, Elena Ordiales, Santiago Ruiz‐Moyano, María de Guía Córdoba
      Abstract: Background Fresh fruit is highly perishable during storage and transport, so there has been growing interest in finding safe and natural antimicrobial compounds as control tool. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites naturally present in vegetable material and have been associated with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and potential antimicrobial effect of phenolic extract obtained from defatted soybean flour against selected pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms responsible of fruit decay. Results Analysis of phenolic composition by HPLC‐MS showed the presence of a wide range of compounds, with isoflavones and phenolic acids the main polyphenols identified. Furthermore, the phenolic extract had important antioxidant activity by two different assays. Related to antimicrobial activity, in vitro experiments demonstrated that phenolic extract displayed a high activity against the main foodborne pathogens. While, a moderate inhibition was found against five yeast spoilage and Monilia laxa and scarce effect for Penicillium glabrum, Cladosporium uredinicola and Botrytis cinerea. Interestingly these compounds considerably inhibited the mycelial growth of Monilia laxa, in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed that defatted soybean flour is an important source of phenolic compounds with remarkable antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, suggesting the possibility of using them as natural additives in postharvest treatments to extend the shelf life of fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T02:28:18.892284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7327
       
  • Preservation of Different Fig Cultivars (Ficus carica L.) under Modified
           Atmosphere Packaging during Cold Storage
    • Authors: María del Carmen Villalobos; Manuel Joaquín Serradilla, Alberto Martín, Margarita López Corrales, Cristina Pereira, María de Guía Córdoba
      Abstract: Background The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the stability of ‘Cuello Dama Blanco’ (CDB), ‘Cuello Dama Negro’ (CDN) and ‘San Antonio’ (SA) figs during postharvest cold storage was evaluated by using three different films with a diverse number of microperforations (ø = 100 µm): M10 (16 holes), M30 (five holes) and M50 (three holes). A macroperforated film was used as control (five holes, ø = 9 mm). Gas composition, weight loss, percentage disorder, microbial counts and physicochemical parameters were monitored during cold storage for 21 days. Furthermore, sensory quality was also evaluated. Results MAP has allowed the extension of cold storage and distribution time for the three different cultivars of figs, minimising weight loss and delaying pathological disorders related to endosepsis, smut, and souring. Of the three cultivars, the M50 batch (one hole per 50 mm) showed the best efficiency in terms of physicochemical quality and delay of postharvest decay, although the M30 batch was also found to be suitable for delaying the postharvest decay, especially for the CDB cultivar. Conclusion MAP is a useful tool to extend the storability with optimal quality properties for CDN and SA during 21 days of cold storage and 14–17 days of cold storage for CDB.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T04:02:16.17941-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7326
       
  • Espresso coffee residues as a nitrogen amendment for small scale vegetable
           production
    • Authors: Soraia Cruz; Cláudia M.d.S Cordovil
      Abstract: Background Espresso coffee grounds IS a residue which is produced daily in considerable amounts, and is often pointed out as potentially interesting for plant nutrition. Two experiments (incubations and field experiments) were carried out to evaluate the potential nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) supply for carrot (Daucus carota L.), spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) nutrition. Results Immobilization of nitrogen and phosphorus was detected in all the incubations and, in the field experiments, germination and yield growth were decreased by the presence of espresso coffee grounds, in general for all the species studied. Conclusion The study showed an inhibition of N and P mineralization and a reduction of plant germination and growth. Further research is required to determine whether this is related to the immobilizing capacity of the residue or possibly due to the presence of caffeine.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T04:01:53.951211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7325
       
  • Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and anticancer activities of
           chestnut inner shell extracts prepared with various solvents
    • Authors: Byeong Su Jung; Na‐Kyoung Lee, Da Som Na, Hwan Hee Yu, Hyun‐Dong Paik
      Abstract: Background The chestnut inner shell (CIS) has long been used as a medicinal herb for strengthening the antioxidant in cosmetic industry. However, little is known about the antioxidant and anticancer effects of the CIS. Results The antioxidant and anticancer effects of CIS extracts (CISEs) were investigated by the use of various methods and cancer cell lines, respectively. The total polyphenol content of CISEs using ethanol, methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate and water were 53.30, 43.98, 32.16, 26.79 and 11.53 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1, respectively. The CISEs using ethanol and methanol exhibited high antioxidant activities in the 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, β‐carotene bleaching and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays; the effects were equivalent to them of butylated hydroxyltoluene. All CISEs at 2.5 mg mL−1 were shown to have a cytotoxic effect over 50%, and the CISE using ethyl acetate at 0.6 mg mL−1 was proved to have 90% cytotoxic effect against the tested cancer cells. Conclusion The ethanol and methanol CISEs had potent antioxidant effects, and the ethyl acetate CISE had the highest cytotoxicity. These results suggest that CISEs could be used as functional ingredients for antioxidant and anticancer effects in foods as extraction solvents.
      PubDate: 2015-06-27T03:47:27.511567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7324
       
  • Accumulation of γ‐aminobutyric acid in soybean by hypoxia
           germination and freeze–thawing incubation
    • Authors: Runqiang Yang; Li Feng, Shufang Wang, Nanjing Yu, Zhenxin Gu
      Abstract: Background Γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) can be synthesized by GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway in plant under hypoxia stress and lower temperature. The hypoxia germination–freeze thawing–incubation was used as a new technique for accumulating more GABA in soybean. Results Results showed that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content increased during germination within 24 h under hypoxia. However, the contents of dry matters and protein decreased. When the hypoxia‐treated sprouts were frozen at −18 °C for 12 h and thawed at 25 °C for 6 h, GABA content increased drastically to 7.21‐fold of the non‐frozen sprouts. Subsequently, the freeze thawing sprouts were ground into homogenates and incubated. GABA content was 14.20 ‐fold of the only‐soaked seeds when homogenates was incubated at 45 °C for 80 min within 400 µmol L−1 pyridoxine (VB6) (pH 6.5). Conclusion The hypoxia germination–freeze thawing–incubation was an effective method for accumulating GABA in soybean. During incubation, DAO was more important for GABA formation in homogenate of germinated soybean compared with GAD.
      PubDate: 2015-06-27T03:47:06.482418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7323
       
  • Monitoring the freshness of fish: development of a qPCR method applied to
           MAP chilled whiting
    • Authors: Alexandre Dehaut; Frédéric Krzewinski, Thierry Grard, Marlène Chollet, Philippe Jacques, Anne Brisabois, Guillaume Duflos
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Monitoring of early stages of freshness decay is a major issue for the fishery industry to guarantee the best quality for this highly perishable food matrix. Numerous techniques have been developed, but most of them have the disadvantage of being reliable only either in the last stages of fish freshness or for the analysis of whole fish. This study describes the development of a qPCR method targeting the torA gene harboured by fish spoilage microorganisms. torA encodes an enzyme that leads to the production of trimethylamine responsible for the characteristic spoiled‐fish odour. RESULTS A degenerate primer pair was designed. It amplified torA gene of both Vibrio and Photobacterium with good efficiencies on 7‐log DNA dilutions. The primer pair was used during a shelf‐life monitoring study achieved on modified atmosphere packed, chilled, whiting (Merlangius merlangus) fillets. The qPCR approach allows detecting an increase of torA copies throughout the storage of fillets in correlation with the evolution of both total volatile basic nitrogen (−0.86) and trimethylamine concentrations (−0.81), known as spoilage markers. CONCLUSION This study described a very promising, sensitive, reliable, time‐effective, technique in the field of freshness characterisation of processed fish.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26T01:23:56.263062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7322
       
  • Effect of egg freshness on texture and
           baking characteristics of batter systems
           formulated using egg, flour and sugar
    • Authors: Liting Xing; Fuge Niu, Yujie Su, Yanjun Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of egg freshness to baking properties and final qualities in batter systems. Batters were made with different freshness of eggs, and the properties of batter systems were studied through rheological analysis, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), batter density and expansion rate during baking and cooling process. Moreover, the qualities of final baked systems were investigated, including specific volume and texture profile analysis (TPA). RESULTS The flow behaviour of batters showed that the consistency index (K) decreased as HU decreased, while the flow index (n) increased. Both of the storage modulus (G′) and the loss modulus (G″) determined by mechanical spectra at 20 °C decreased with decreasing HU. RVA and DSC determinations found that lower HU samples had a lower viscosity in baking process and a shorter time for starch gelatinisation and egg protein denaturation. Observation of the batter density revealed an increase change, which was reflected by the decrease of specific volumes of final model. TPA showed significant differences in hardness and chewiness, but no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness were found. CONCLUSIONS The egg freshness affected the properties of batter systems.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:48:40.320679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7316
       
  • Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties,
           bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders
    • Authors: Xu Si; Qinqin Chen, Jinfeng Bi, Xinye Wu, Jianyong Yi, Linyan Zhou, Zhaolu Li
      Abstract: Background Dehydration has been considered as one of the traditional but most effective techniques for perishable fruits. Raspberry powders obtained after dehydration can be added as ingredients into food formulations, like bakery and dairy products. Raspberry powders obtained by hot air drying (HAD), infrared radiation drying (IRD), hot air and explosion puffing drying (HA‐EPD), infrared radiation and microwave vacuum drying (IR‐MVD) and freeze drying (FD) were compared from physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Results Drying techniques affected the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders greatly. Freeze dried raspberry powders showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values in terms of water solubility (45.26%), soluble solid (63.46%), hygroscopicity (18.06%), color parameters and anthocyanin retention (60.70%) than other drying methods. However, thermal drying techniques, especially combined drying methods were superior to FD in the final total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The combined drying methods, especially IR‐MVD showed the highest total polyphenol content (123.22 g GAE kg−1 dw) and total flavonoid content (0.30 g CAE kg−1 dw). Additionally, IR‐MVD performed better in antioxidant activity retention. Conclusion Overall, combined drying methods, especially IR‐MVD was noted to present better quality in raspberry powders among the thermal drying techniques. IR‐MVD techniques could be recommended in drying industry in terms of its advantages in the features of timesaving and nutrient retention.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:48:14.296416-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7317
       
  • Intracellular synthesis of glutamic acid in Bacillus methylotrophicus
           SK19.001, a glutamate‐independent poly (γ‐glutamic
           acid)‐producing strain
    • Authors: Yingyun Peng; Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Ming Miao, Bo Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001 is a glutamate‐independent strain that produces poly (γ‐glutamic acid) (γ‐PGA; a polymer of D‐ and L‐glutamic acids that possesses applications in food, the environment, agriculture, etc.). This study was undertaken to explore the synthetic pathway of intracellular L‐ and D‐glutamic acid in SK19.001 by investigation of the effects of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and different amino acids as metabolic precursors on the production of γ‐PGA and analysing the activities of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of L‐ and D‐glutamate. RESULTS Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could participate in the synthesis of γ‐PGA via independent pathways in SK19.001. L‐aspartate aminotransferase, L‐glutaminase and L‐glutamate synthase were the enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate. Glutamate racemase was responsible for the formation of D‐glutamate for the synthesis of γ‐PGA, and the synthetase had stereoselectivity for glutamate substrate. CONCLUSIONS The enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate were investigated for the first time in the glutamate‐independent γ‐PGA‐producing strain, and multiple enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate were verified in SK19.001, which will benefit efforts to improve production of γ‐PGA with metabolic engineering strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:47:51.771558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7318
       
  • Potential use of microwave treatment on fresh‐cut carrots: physical,
           chemical and microbiological aspects
    • Authors: Ginés Benito Martínez‐Hernández; Maria Luisa Amodio, Giancarlo Colelli
      Abstract: Background The effect of microwave treatments (900 W and 750 W for 45 s and 60 s) on the microbial, physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh‐cut carrot slices and the contents of several bioactive compounds was studied. Carrot samples were stored for 7 days at 5 °C. Results The microwaving of fresh‐cut carrots reduced the initial respiration rate (8.6 CO2 mL kg−1 h−1) by 55‐74% compared to untreated samples, although the rates then increased during storage. The initial pH (6.7), titratable acidity (0.036%), soluble solids content (8.2 °Brix) and shelf‐life of the samples did not differ greatly from those of the untreated samples. Microwaving prevented the incipient whitening and surface dryness during the storage. In general, no significant changes in the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity (5.5 µmol t‐cinnamic acid kg−1 h−1), total phenolics content (TP, 81.3 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg−1 fw) or total antioxidant capacity (TAC, 74.2 Trolox equivalent kg−1 fw) were observed on the processing day or over storage. However, the mildest treatment (750 W for 45 s) caused TP and TAC enhancements of 118 % and 394 %, respectively, after 7 days of shelf‐life. Microwave treatments reduced the initial microbial loads of the samples by up to 1.8‐log units, although their microbial growth was greater than that of the untreated samples throughout storage. Conclusion Mild microwave treatments, such as 750 W/45 s and 750 W/60 s, are a good sustainable alternative to the use of NaOCl; however, combining this other sanitising techniques is needed to control microbial growth throughout the shelf‐life of fresh‐cut carrot slices.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:47:18.80267-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7319
       
  • Phospholipids in Foods: Prooxidants or Antioxidants?
    • Authors: Leqi Cui; Eric A. Decker
      Abstract: Lipid oxidation is one of the major causes of quality deterioration in natural and processed foods and thus a large economic concern in the food industry. Phospholipids, especially lecithins, are already widely used as a natural emulsifier and have been gaining increasing interest as natural antioxidant to control lipid oxidation. This review summarizes the fatty acid composition and content of phospholipids naturally occurring in several foods. The role of phospholipids as a substrate for lipid oxidation is discussed with a focus on meats and dairy products. Prooxidant and antioxidant mechanisms of phospholipids are also discussed to get a better understanding of the possible opportunities for using phospholipids as food antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:46:57.384833-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7320
       
  • Reactivity change of IgE to buckwheat protein treated with high pressure
           treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis
    • Authors: Chaeyoon Lee; Sooyeon In, Youngshin Han, Sangsuk Oh
      Abstract: Background Buckwheat is a popular food material for eastern Asian countries that can cause allergenic response. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrolysis with papain and high pressure (HP) treatment of buckwheat protein (BWP) on reactivity of IgE and its secondary structure. Results Reactivity of IgE was examined using ELISA with serum samples from sixteen patients allergic to buckwheat. Reactivity of IgE to hydrolysate of BWP with papain showed a maximum decrease of 79.8%. After HP treatment at 600 MPa for 1 min, reactivity of IgE to BWP decreased up to 55.1%. When extracted, BWP was hydrolyzed with papain overnight following HP treatment at 600 MPa. Reactivity of IgE decreased significantly, up to 87.1%. Significant changes in secondary structure of BWP were observed in circular dichroism (CD) analysis after hydrolysis with papain following HP treatment. Conclusion Reduction of the reactivity of IgE showed a correlation with changes in the secondary structure of BWP, which may cause changes in conformational epitopes. This suggests the possibility of decreasing reactivity of IgE to BWP using combined physical and enzymatic treatments.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:46:35.84748-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7321
       
  • Effect of the mechanical harvest of drupes on the quality characteristics
           of green fermented table olives
    • Authors: Alessandra Martorana; Antonio Alfonzo, Luca Settanni, Onofrio Corona, Francesco La Croce, Tiziano Caruso, Giancarlo Moschetti, Nicola Francesca
      Abstract: Background Due to the damages caused by mechanical harvest, the drupes for table olive production are traditionally hand harvested. So far, no data are available on the microbiological and chemical features during the fermentation of drupes mechanically harvested. Results The drupes mechanically harvested and inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 were characterized by the lowest concentrations of potential spoilage microorganisms. On the other hand, the drupes mechanically harvested and subjected to the spontaneous fermentation showed the highest concentration of Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads during tranformation. The lowest decrease of pH (4.20) was registered for the trials inoculated with the starter culture. Differences in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were estimated among trials. The multivariate analysis showed that the olives processed from the drupes mechanically harvested and inoculated with starter were closely related to the control productions (drupes manually harvested) in terms of microbiological and pH values. The sensory analysis evidenced come negative evaluations only for the uninoculated trials. Conclusion The drupes mechanically harvested and subjected to a driven fermentation with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 determined the production of table olives with appreciable organoleptic features. Thus, the mechanical harvest performed by a trunk shaker equipped with an inversa umbrella and the addition of starter lactic acid bacteria represent a valuable alternative to the manual harvest for table olive production at industrial level.
      PubDate: 2015-06-18T04:25:04.370246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7311
       
  • Different actions of salt and pyrophosphate on protein extraction from
           myofibrils reveal the mechanism controlling myosin dissociation
    • Authors: Qingwu W. Shen; Darl R. Swartz, Zhenyu Wang, Yue Liu, Yuan Gao, Dequan Zhang
      Abstract: Background Myosin is the major functional protein in muscle foods for water retention, protein binding/gelation and fat holding/emulsification. To maximize its functionality, myosin needs to be released from thick filaments. Understanding of the mechanism controlling myosin extraction will help improve quality traits of meat products. Results The data obtained show that actomyosin binding is the rate‐limiting constraint for myosin release in rigor condition. MgPPi increased myosin extraction by weakening actomyosin interaction and maximized myosin extraction at 0.4 M NaCl, which was not attained at 1.0 M NaCl in the absence of PPi. Interaction between myosin rod domains is another critical constraint for myosin extraction, which is, rather than PPi, salt dependent. Further, our data suggest that MyBP‐C (myosin binding protein C) and M‐line might not be of significance in the process of NaCl induced myosin extraction though further study was needed. Conclusion Our study provides new insight into the mechanism that control myosin extraction from intact sarcomere, which could be applied to maximize myosin function and to improve meat quality in practice.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:59:23.014388-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7314
       
  • Effects of processing on the polyphenol and phenolic acid content and
           antioxidant capacity of semi‐dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon
           esculentum M.)
    • Authors: Valeria Rizzo; Mike N. Clifford, Jonathan E. Brown, Laura Siracusa, Giuseppe Muratore
      Abstract: Background This study was performed to test the effects of pre‐treating cherry tomatoes with a solution containing citric acid: NaCl: CaCl2(10:10:24 g/L), followed by one of three different drying regimes (40, 60, 80 °C) on the antioxidant capacity of their aqueous extracts and the extent of phenolic compound degradation. Results Chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and naringenin were all detected in the aqueous extracts. In fresh cherry tomatoes the predominant phenolic compound was rutin, followed by naringenin, which corresponded to 79 % and 8 % of the total phenolic compounds present, respectively. Pre‐treatment was protective towards naringenin and had a modest protective effect on rutin and ferulic acid (0.1 > p > 0.05). Total phenolic content was similar in all samples, but there was a trend for the level of free polyphenols to be lower in treated tomatoes. The destruction of naringenin was confirmed by LC‐MS data. Conclusions A significant effect of temperature on the antioxidant capacity was observed. After this treatment the industry might introduce some advances in the processing of tomatoes, preserving the main nutritive characteristics and saving the products as semi‐dried.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:59:01.128435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7315
       
  • Quality and PR gene expression of table grapes treated with ozone and
           sulfur dioxide to control fungal decay
    • Authors: Arturo Duarte‐Sierra; Emmanuel Aispuro‐Hernández, Irasema Vargas‐Arispuro, María A. Islas‐Osuna, Gustavo A. González‐Aguilar, Miguel Ángel Martínez‐Téllez
      Abstract: Background Gaseous fumigants are commonly employed to control fungal decay of cold‐stored grapes. So far it is not clear if these fumigants, beside the direct interaction against fungal structures, induce transcriptional responses of defensive markers. In order to contribute to understand the mechanisms by which these fumigants exert their effect, it was studied the influence of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on the decay caused by Botrytis cinerea, and the quality and expression of the defense related genes chitinase, β‐1,3‐glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase (PAL) in the table grape cultivars ‘Redglobe’ and ‘Sugraone’. Results The application of SO2 or O3 delayed both table grape cultivars decay caused by B. cinerea compared with the inoculated control. O3 treatments altered weight loss, firmness and shatter in both cultivars. Significant up‐regulation of chitinase and β‐1,3‐glucanase were observed in SO2‐treated ‘Redglobe’ berries stored at 2 °C. O3 treatment transiently increased the expression of chitinase and PAL in ‘Redglobe’ and ‘Sugraone’ berries, respectively. Conclusion Ozone and sulfur dioxide treatments can influence the expression patterns of PAL, chitinase and β‐1,3‐glucanase to different extents in different grape cultivars and under different exposure conditions. The upregulation of these genes may be involved in the mechanism by which these fumigants inhibit the decay caused by pathogenic fungi.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:45:21.664412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7312
       
  • Effect of the use of anti‐hail nets on codling moth (Cydia
           pomonella) and organoleptic quality of apple (cv. Braeburn) grown in Alto
           Adige Region (Northern Italy)
    • Authors: Irene Baiamonte; Antonio Raffo, Nicoletta Nardo, Elisabetta Moneta, Marina Peparaio, Antonio D'Aloise, Markus Kelderer, Claudio Casera, Flavio Paoletti
      Abstract: Background The anti‐hail nets are widely used to protect apple fruit against hailstorms and hail damage. They can have also beneficial effects against pests in apple orchard, in particular codling moth (Cydia pomonella). However, covering the trees with the anti‐hail nets can modify the orchard microclimate and reduce the interception of light, thus potentially causing negative consequences on the organoleptic quality of apple fruits. Results A consistent reduction of the percentage of the apple fruits infested by codling moth was registered due to the use of the anti‐hail nets during two consecutive harvest years. Their use did not affect fruit maturity, but reduced the skin color, sugar content, pulp total phenol content, volatile compound composition and sensory characteristics. However, the results were inconsistent over the years apart for: total phenols, formation of two volatile compounds (butyl and hexenyl acetate, the first one being one of the main odorants in most apple cultivars), sensory attributes of flavor of lemon and juiciness. For these parameters, the fruits from the plot where the trees were not covered showed higher values than those from the plots where the anti‐hail nets were used. Conclusions The use of anti‐hail nets resulted effective in preventing the attack of codling moth to apple fruits, suggesting their use in organic management where the conventional insecticides are prohibited. In the conditions tested, the anti‐hail nets showed a negative effect on some of the quality characteristics measured on apple fruits, that could influence the consumers acceptability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:43:56.877145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7313
       
  • Effects of nitric oxide on mitochondrial oxidative defence in postharvest
           peach fruits
    • Authors: Guangqin Jing; Jie Zhou, Shuhua Zhu
      Abstract: Background It has been confirmed that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fruit can cause oxidative damage and nitric oxide (NO) can regulate the accumulation of ROS and the antioxidative defence of fruit. However, little is known about the roles of NO on the antioxidant system in mitochondria of fruit. In this study, Feicheng peach fruits were dipped with 2‐(4‐carboxyphenyl)‐4,4,5,5‐tetramethylimidazoline‐1‐oxyl‐3‐oxide (c‐PTIO) and NO solutions to explore the effects of NO on the membrane permeability transition and antioxidant system in mitochondria of peach fruit. Results Treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO solution could delay the decrease of mitochondrial permeability transition and decrease the content of ROS in mitochondria. Besides, when the endogenous NO was scavenged by c‐PTIO, the ROS in mitochondria increased greatly and the SOD activity decreased, while the contents and activities of POD and CAT changed slightly. Conclusion By delaying the decrease of mitochondrial permeability transition, 15 µmol L−1 NO treatment could promote a more stable internal medium in mitochondria of Feicheng peach fruit. The increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria caused by the remove of endogenous NO suggested that NO also plays an important role in the mitochondrial antioxidant system of Feicheng peach fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:51:38.192629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7310
       
  • Impact of pre‐harvest light spectral properties on health‐ and
           sensory related compounds in broccoli florets
    • Authors: Anne Linn Hykkerud Steindal; Tor J. Johansen, Gunnar B. Bengtsson, Sidsel F. Hagen, Jørgen A. B. Mølmann
      Abstract: Background Plants grown at different latitudes experience differences in light spectral composition. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants were grown in climate‐controlled chambers under supplemental wavelengths (red, far‐red, red + far‐red or blue) from light emitting diodes (LEDs). The light treatments were combined with two cold climate temperatures (12 and 15 °C) during the broccoli head formation to investigate the effects on morphology and contents of the health‐ and sensory related compounds; glucosinolates, flavonols, ascorbic acid, and soluble sugars. Results Supplemental far‐red and red + far‐red light led to elongated plants and the lowest total glucosinolate content in broccoli florets. The content of quercetin was highest with supplemental red light. Vitamin C was not significantly affected by the light treatments, but 12 °C gave a higher content than 15 °C. Conclusion The effects of supplemental red and far‐red light suggest an involvement of phytochromes in the regulation of glucosinolates and flavonols. A shift in red:far‐red ratio could cause changes in their content besides altering the morphology. The sugar and vitamin C contents, appear to be unaffected by these light conditions. Supplemental blue light had little effect on plant morphology and contents of the health‐ and sensory related compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:49.43609-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7307
       
  • Bioactive compounds of juices from two brazilian grape cultivars
    • Authors: Juliana Kelly da Silva; Cinthia Baú Betim Cazarin, Luiz Claudio Correa, Ângela Giovana Batista, Cibele Priscila Busch Furlan, Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Giuliano Elias Pereira, Adriano Costa de Camargo, Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior
      Abstract: Background Grape juice consumption may prevent several chronic diseases due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which have an important role in the reduction of oxidative stress. This study investigated the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of grape juices from two cultivars: BRS‐Cora and Isabella. Total polyphenol content (TPC), anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH), and phenolic profile (HPLC‐DAD‐FLD) were determined. Results BRS‐Cora grape juice showed higher concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant potential than those of Isabella grape juice. A significant positive correlation was found in TPC or anthocyanin contents when correlated with the remaining antioxidant assays. In addition, the HPLC‐DAD‐FLD showed higher total phenolic content in BRS‐Cora grape juice compared to Isabella. Conclusion The present results show BRS‐Cora as a promising cultivar for grape juice production with an improved functional potential.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:14.820121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7309
       
  • Differential expression of genes in purple‐shoot tea tender leaves
           and mature leaves during leaf growth
    • Authors: Qiongqiong Zhou; Weijiang Sun, Zhongxiong Lai
      Abstract: Background Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), contains high level of secondary metabolic products with both commercial and medicinal value. At present, most cultivated tea plant have green leaves, although tea plant with purple leaves exist, their supply is inadequate. During leaf growth and maturation, the contents of secondary metabolic compounds decrease, resulting in higher content in tender‐purple leaves (TPL), and lower content in mature‐green leaves (MGL). The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of genes in these two tissues, with cDNA‐AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) approach and biochemical analysis. Results Compared to MGL samples, TPL samples had higher content of anthocyanin, total polyphenols, total catechins, a higher carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, and lower content of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose). TPL samples showed a lower photosynthetic ability demonstrated by a lower CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate accumulation rate. Using cDNA‐AFLP with 256 primer combinations, differential transcript profiling generated 148 matched transcript‐derived fragments (TDFs). Among these TDFs, 77 genes were up‐regulated and 71 were down‐regulated. These were grouped into 11 functional categories which are important for final tea quality parameters. Conclusions Our data presented the first effort to elucidate the molecular basis of differential accumulation of key metabolites during tea leaf maturation. Our findings also provided a theoretical molecular explanation for the color change during leaf growth.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:03.2592-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7308
       
  • Physiological responses to low temperature in spring and winter wheat
           varieties
    • Authors: Bin Zhang; Dong Jia, Zhiqiang Gao, Qi Dong, Liheng He
      Abstract: Background Northward expansion of winter wheat is an efficient means to improve crop yield and quality in many countries. However, inadequate cold hardiness restricts the northward expansion of winter wheat. This study aimed to investigate cold adaption of different wheat varieties and underlying physiological mechanism. Results In the field experiment, soluble sugar and proline content, relative electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were higher in wheat varieties in the over‐wintering period than those in the pre‐wintering period. SOD activity was lower in the over‐wintering period than those in the pre‐wintering period and spring growth period. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was reduced dramatically in the winter variety (Suyin 10), weak winter variety (Lumai 22) and spring (Jinchun 9) variety after low temperature treatment. Cold treatment inhibited stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr). Influences of high temperature treatment and cold acclimation after vernalization were further analyzed in greenhouse in wheat variety Jinghe 1. High temperature treatment after vernalization significantly inhibited SOD and POD activities in the vernalized plants, while cold acclimation after vernalization enhanced POD activity. Conclusion Cold tolerance of wheat varieties may be associated with effective osmoregulation ability, photosynthetic capacity, Gs and Tr, as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T01:26:19.876968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7306
       
  • A Review on Flow Characterization Methods for Cereal Grain‐Based
           Powders
    • Authors: R. P. Kingsly Ambrose; Shumaila Jan, Kaliramesh Siliveru
      Abstract: Flow difficulties during handling, storage, and processing are common in cereal grain‐based powder industries. The many studies that focus on the flow properties of powders can be classified as flow indicators, shear properties, and dynamic flow properties. The non‐uniformity of physical and chemical characteristics of the individual particles that make up the bulk solid of cereal grain‐based powders adds complexity to the characterization of flow behavior. Even so, knowledge of flow behavior is critical to the design of productive and cost‐effective equipment for handling and processing of these powders. Because many factors influence flow, a single property/index value may not satisfactorily quantify the flow or no‐flow of powders. For powders of biological origin, chemical composition and environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity complicate flow characterization. This review focuses on the specific flow characteristics that directly affect powder flow during handling, processing, and storage.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T01:25:57.061857-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7305
       
  • Decomposition and Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid
    • Authors: Visenuo Aiko; Edamana Prasad, Alka Mehta
      Abstract: Background Degradation study of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was carried out using a combination of physical and chemical methods. AFB1 was heated at 80 °C in the presence of acetic, citric and lactic acids for various time periods. The cytotoxicity of the degraded AFB1 and its products were determined by MTT assay. Result The result showed that among the three organic acids, lactic acid was most efficient in degrading AFB1. Although complete degradation was not observed, up to 85% degradation of AFB1 was obtained when heated for 120 min. Degradation of AFB1 was confirmed by the reduced toxicity on HeLa cells using MTT assay. Treatment with lactic acid resulted in the conversion of AFB1 into two degradation products. These products were observed at lower retention factors of 0.63 and 0.38 which were identified as AFB2 and AFB2a, respectively. The cytotoxicity of AFB2a exhibited much reduced toxicity on HeLa cells compared to that of AFB1. Conclusion The results have shown the efficiency of lactic acid in degrading AFB1. This study suggest that lactic acid may be considered for use in food and feed industry since it is present naturally in food and is considered safe.
      PubDate: 2015-06-10T10:28:32.554196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7304
       
  • Chemical and organoleptic characteristics of tomato puree enriched with
           lyophilized tomato pomace
    • Authors: Lucio Previtera; Gabriella Fucci, Anna De Marco, Valeria Romanucci, Giovanni Di Fabio, Armando Zarrelli
      Abstract: Background Epidemiological studies have proved that tomato consumption is associated with the lower risk of developing several diseases (for example certain types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration, age‐related eye disease…). Many of micronutrients and bioactive compounds are mainly present in peel and seeds and are lost during the processing into sauce, puree, paste and juice. Results The addition of lyophilized and powdered tomato pomace enhances the properties of puree. In this paper we reported the chemical and physico‐chemical characterization of a puree enriched with 2% of dry pomace. The comparison of the analytical data of starting puree with the enriched puree showed a significant increase of all micronutrients, without the taste and appearance are compromised or altered negatively. Conclusion The product obtained is an example of a functional food rich in health promoting phytochemicals, with the significant aspect of recovering a waste fraction of the tomato processing that must be disposed of in a landfill with an increase in costs and environmental impact.
      PubDate: 2015-06-10T10:19:25.000148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7303
       
  • Trichoderma saturnisporum, a new biological control agent
    • Authors: Diánez F; Santos M, Carretero F, Marín F.
      Abstract: Background Biocontrol agents (BCAs) could be a viable alternative to chemicals in the management of fungal crop diseases. Screening for potential biocontrol and plant growth promoter isolates from a soil in Cádiz (Spain) was conducted. Several isolates showed antagonism in vitro tests to several plant pathogens. Results Two isolates of T. saturnisporum (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) were identified by sequencing of the rDNA region. One isolate was selected for further in vivo plant growth promotion and biological control assays. Results indicate that substrate application of T. saturnisporum improved plant quality and showed biological control activity against Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora parasitica (Peronosporales, Peronosporaceae). Conclusions There are a few references of T. saturnisporum isolated from different media but not its ability to promote plant growth or biocontrol. This is the first report of T. saturnisporum as a seedling growth promoter and as biological control agent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:42:03.752398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7301
       
  • Long‐term impacts of grazing intensity on soil carbon sequestration
           and selected soil properties in the arid Eastern Cape, South Africa
    • Authors: Deribe G. Talore; Eyob Tesfamariam, Abubeker Hassen, Du Toit JCO, Katja Klampp, Soussana Jean‐Francois
      Abstract: Background Little is known how basic soil properties respond to contrasting grazing intensities in the Karoo biome, South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate impacts of long‐term (>75 years) grazing at 1.18 heads ha−1 (heavy; CGH), 0.78 heads ha−1 (light; CGL), and exclosure on selected soil properties. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm from the long‐term experimental site of Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute, Eastern Cape. The samples were analyzed for C, N, bulk density, and infiltration rate among others. Results Generally, heavy and light grazing reduced soil N storage by 27.5% and 22.6%, respectively, compared with the exclosure. Animal exclusion improved water infiltration rate and C stocks significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:41:15.445662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7302
       
  • Forage legumes rich in condensed tannins may increase n–3 fatty acid
           levels and sensory quality of lamb meat
    • Authors: Marion Girard; Frigga Dohme‐Meier, Paolo Silacci, Silvia Ampuero Kragten, Michael Kreuzer, Giuseppe Bee
      Abstract: Background Tannins intensively interact with rumen microbes which is expected to have consequences for meat quality. Results Silages prepared from birdsfoot trefoil (BT), sainfoin (SF), alfalfa (AF) or red clover (RC), were fed alone to 48 lambs. The SF contained 5‐times more condensed tannins than BT, the other tanniferous plant. Growth and carcass performance, but not general meat quality, was reduced with BT and SF compared to AF and RC. Lambs fed SF had half the skatole levels in the perirenal fat than AF‐lambs. The Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of the SF‐lambs, compared to RC and BT, had a lower intensity for ‘livery’ and ‘sheepy’ flavors but a stronger ‘grassy’ flavor. The intramuscular fat of BT‐ and SF‐lambs contained less saturated and more polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 20:4n–6, 20:3n–6, 20:5n–3 and 22:5n–3 with SF being more efficient than BT. Conclusion The SF was most promising to increase beneficial fatty acids and to reduce skatole content in lamb meat.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:35:31.789582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7298
       
  • Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional
           food—roast duck
    • Authors: Yiming Zhou; Fan Xie, Xiaoli Zhou, Yuqiang Wang, Wen Tang, Ying Xiao
      Abstract: Background Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food, whose flavour is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process, and can induce health risk. The aim of this work was to analysis effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food—roast duck. Results Ducks with different roasting time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40‐ and 50‐min roast ducks exhibited the acceptable degree of sensory, but the 60‐min roast duck shown the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed increasing with roasting, and the 60‐min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (DPPH, 39.3 µmol Trolox g−1 sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g−1) and 5‐hydroxy‐methyl‐furfural (0.089 µg g−1) were detected in the 50‐ and 60‐min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60‐min roast ducks manifested the higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. Conclusion The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be better for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial for health.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:33:31.618243-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7297
       
  • pH and heat‐dependent behaviour of glucose oxidase down to single
           molecule level by combined fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular
           modeling
    • Authors: Loredana Dumitrașcu; Nicoleta Stănciuc, Gabriela Elena Bahrim, Alexandrina Ciumac, Iuliana Aprodu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In food industry, glucose oxidase is used for the improvement of shelf life of food materials. The pH and heat induced conformational changes of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger were quantified by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. RESULTS Phase diagram showed an all‐or none transition process, indicating that pH and temperature largely influence the conformational state of GOX. Shifts in maximum wavelength of Trp, Tyr were registered as the protein encounters a lower pH (pH 4.0), suggesting significant changes of the polarity around the chromophore molecule. Quenching experiments using KI showed higher quenching constants of Trp and FAD upon heating or by changing pH value, and were mainly correlated to the conformational changes upon protein matrix. Finally, valuable insights into the thermal behavior of GOX were obtained from molecular modeling results. CONCLUSIONS The conformation and structure of GOX protein is dependent upon the pH and heat treatment applied. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated significant changes in the substrate binding region at temperatures over 60 °C that might affect enzyme activity. Moreover important alteration of the small pocket hosting the positively charged His516 residue responsible for oxygen activation appears evident at high temperatures.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:59:20.608794-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7296
       
  • Phytochemicals determination and classification in purple and red fleshed
           potato tubers by analytical methods and near‐infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: R. Tierno; A. López, P. Riga, S. Arazuri, C. Jarén, L. Benedicto, J. I. Ruiz de Galarreta
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Over the last two decades, the attractive colours and shapes of pigmented tubers and the increasing concern about the relationship between nutrition and health are contributing to the expansion of their consumption and specialty market. Thus, we have quantified the concentration of health promoting compounds such as soluble phenolics, monomeric anthocyanins, carotenoids, vitamin C, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, in a collection of 18 purple and red fleshed potato accessions. RESULTS Cultivars and breeding lines high in vitamin C, such as Blue Congo, Morada and Kasta, have been identified. Deep purple cultivars Violet Queen, Purple Peruvian and Vitelotte showed high levels of soluble phenolics, monomeric anthocyanins, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, whereas relatively high carotenoid concentrations were found in partially yellow coloured tubers, such as Morada, Highland Burgundy Red, and Violet Queen. CONCLUSION The present characterization of cultivars and breeding lines with high concentrations of phytochemicals is an important step both to support the consideration of specialty potatoes as a source of healthy compounds, and to obtain new cultivars with positive nutritional characteristics. Moreover, by using near‐infrared spectroscopy a non‐destructively identification and classification of samples with different levels of phytochemicals is achieved, offering an unquestionable contribution to potato industry for future automatic discrimination of varieties.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:43:28.088242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7294
       
  • Physicochemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars
           grown in soils with different phosphorus availability
    • Authors: Magali Leonel; Ezequiel L. Carmo, Adalton M. Fernandes, Célia M. L. Franco, Rogério P. Soratto
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Starch is the major component of potato tubers amounting approximately to 1.5‐2.0 g kg−1 of its weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical method and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. RESULTS For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P avaliability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged of 0.252 to 0.647 g kg−1 and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. CONCLUSION The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:43:06.799766-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7295
       
  • Rapid and Non‐destructive Determination of Rancidity Levels in
           Butter Cookies by Multispectral Imaging
    • Authors: Qing Xia; Changhong Liu, inxia Liu, Wenjuan Pan, Xuzhong Lu, Jianbo Yang, Wei Chen, Lei Zheng
      Abstract: Background Rancidity is an important attribute for quality assessment of butter cookies, while traditional methods for rancidity measurement are usually laborious, destructive and prone to operational error. In the present paper, the potential of applying multispectral imaging (MSI) technology with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405–970 nm to evaluate the rancidity in butter cookies was investigated. Results Moisture contents, acid value and peroxide value were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back‐propagation artificial neural network (BP‐ANN). The optimal models for predicting moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were obtained by PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained by PLSR models revealed that MSI had a perfect ability to predict moisture content (r = 0.909), acid value (r = 0.944) and peroxide value (r = 0.971). Conclusion The paper demonstrated that the rancidity level of butter cookies can be continuously monitored and evaluated in real‐time by the Multispectral imaging, which is of great significance for developing online food safety monitoring solution.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:11:53.671145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7292
       
  • Sequential culture with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae and management of fermentation temperature to improve cherry
           wine quality
    • Authors: Shu Yang Sun; Han Sheng Gong, Yu Ping Zhao, Wen Li Liu, Cheng Wu Jin
      Abstract: Background There has been limited research on the use of non‐Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of cherry wines. This work used an autochthonous T. delbrueckii strain 49 (TD49) in association with a commercial S. cerevisiae RC212 yeast, to investigate the effect of multistarter culture (sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation) and fermentation temperature on the quality of cherry wines. Results Both TD49 and RC212 proliferated during AF under sequential inoculation conditions, whereas in the case of simultaneous inoculation, TD49 increased slowly at first and then declined sharply near the fermentation end. The analytical profile showed that both mixed fermentations produced lower levels of volatile acidy and higher levels of aromatic compounds than those from RC212 mono‐culture. During sensory analysis, wines from sequential fermentation obtained the highest score, mainly due to the higher intensity in ‘fruity’ and ‘floral’ characters. As for the influence of temperature, a low temperature (20 °C) enhanced TD49 persistence during AF, but the sensory quality decreased anyway; 30 °C resulted in decreases in most measured descriptors. Therefore, 25 °C was selected as the best culture temperature. Conclusion TD49/RC212 sequential inoculation and fermentation at 25 °C significantly enhanced the cherry wine quality.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:11:31.482864-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7293
       
  • Deficit irrigation strategies enhance health‐promoting compounds
           through the intensification of specific enzymes in early peaches
    • Authors: Natalia Falagán; Francisco Artés, Perla Azucena Gómez, Francisco Artés‐Hernández, Wenceslao Conejero, Encarna Aguayo
      Abstract: Background Biochemical and enzymatic responses to long‐term regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) at harvest, during cold storage and after retail sale period of ‘Flordastar’ early peaches were evaluated. Irrigation strategies were Control, and two RDI applied during postharvest period (RDI1: severe; RDI2: moderate), based on different thresholds of maximum of daily shrinkage signal intensity (RDI1: 1.4 to dry; RDI2: 1.3 to 1.6). Results Both RDI provoked stress in the plant. This meant higher antioxidant concentration (averaging 1.30 ± 0.27 g AAE kg−1 f.w. for control and 1.77 ± 0.35 and 1.50 ± 0.30 g AAE kg−1 f.w. for RDI1 and RDI2, respectively). Antioxidant levels decreased with storage by polyphenoloxydase action, which increased (from 0.04 ± 0.01 U mg−1 protein to 0.32 ± 0.08 U mg−1 protein). Vitamin C was initially higher in RDI samples (44.22 ± 0.05 g total vitamin C kg−1 f.w. for control vs. 46.77 ± 0.02 and 46.27 ± 0.03 g total vitamin C kg−1 f.w. for RDI1 and RDI2, respectively). Conclusion The way RDI was applied affected bioactive fruit composition, being catalase and dehydroascorbic acid good water stress indicators. RDI strategies can be used as field practice, allowing water savings while enhanced healthy compound content in early peaches.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:09:19.876694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7290
       
  • Hyperimmunised bovine milk and whey: Influence of pH and enzymatic
           treatments on the antigen‐binding capacity of immunoglobulin G
    • Authors: Julia Dugnol Menéndez; Francisco A. Riera
      Abstract: Background Hyperimmunised bovine milk and whey (whole and defatted) were submitted at 37°C to different pH (between 1 and 10) and enzymes (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin) at their optimum pH and the IgG immunoactivity against Campylobacter jejuni was measured by means of ELISA assays. Results The kinetic ABC Losses follows a hyperbolic‐type equation. The antigen binding capacity of IgG is strongly reduced at low pH (1 and 2) and the effect is lower at alkaline pH (8 and 10). The presence of pepsin (at their optimum pH of 2) almost completely reduced the IgG antigen binding capacity after 2 hours of treatment. The antigen binding capacities are higher in whole products (milk and whey). Influence of trypsin and quimotrypsin on the antigen binding capacities is moderate (ABC Losses lower that 25%). Conclusions The antigen binding capacity of IgG obtained from hyperimmunised bovine defatted milk and whey is largely reduced in conditions similar to those found in the human digestive tract. Only whole milk can maintain around 40% of their initial antigen binding capacity. IgG encapsulation or other methods to protect the immunoglobulin activities could be an alternative to use these type of products in final foods formulae.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:08:17.189578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7291
       
  • Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) a potential biomass candidate for
           bioethanol: cell wall structural changes enhancing hydrolysis in a mild
           alkali pretreatment regime
    • Authors: Md. Azizul Haque; Dhirendra Nath Barman, Min Keun Kim, Han Dae Yun, Kye Man Cho
      Abstract: Background Imperata cylindrica is being considered as a biomass candidate for bioethanol. This work aimed to evaluate a mild alkali pretreatment effect on the Imperata recalcitrant structure. Therefore, varied concentrations of NaOH (0, 7.5, 15, 20, and 25 g L−1) were applied as treatments to Imperata at 105 °C for 10 min. Results Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that 20 to 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treated Imperata exposed amorphous cellulose on surface granules composed of lignin, waxes, and partly hemicelluloses were abolished due to the comprehensive disruption of the linkages between lignin and carbohydrates. The cellulose crystalline index was increased with 7.5 to 20 g L−1 NaOH‐treatments and reduced with a 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treatment. In fact, the cellulose content in solids increased with the increasing NaOH‐concentration and was estimated to be 720 and 740 g kg−1 for the 20 and 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treatments, respectively. The yield of the reducing sugar was obtained 805 and 813 mg g−1 from 20 and 25 g L−1 NaOH‐treated Imperata, respectively. Conclusion Considering the cost of pretreatment, the 20 g L−1 NaOH‐treatment is judged to be effective for disrupting Imperata recalcitrance in this pretreatment regime.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T03:48:55.629469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7288
       
  • Proanthocyanidins in an astringent persimmon inhibit Salmonella
           Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1) secretion
    • Authors: Ai Morita; Akihiro Tai, Hideyuki Ito, Natsuki Ganeko, Shin‐Ichi Aizawa
      Abstract: Astringent compounds contained in persimmon fruits have been widely used in Japan as food‐preservatives and thus as anti‐bacterial and anti‐fungi reagents. However, the molecular mechanism of the anti‐microbial activity has been unclear. One of the virulence secretion systems in Salmonella enterica was used to test the anti‐microbial activity of extracts from a persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb ‘Saijo’). We found that the extract could inhibit the secretion of virulence proteins but did not affect cell growth and determined the critical concentrations of the extract to show the effect. Then, the effective fraction on the suppression of secretion of virulence proteins was purified from the crude extracts using solvent partition, absorption chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The anti‐bacterial fraction was analyzed by HCl‐Butanol treatment and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and identified as the octamers of epigallocatechin and its gallate as major components. In conclusion, proanthocyanidins suppress the secretion of SPI1 virulence proteins.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T03:46:18.76858-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7289
       
  • Optimized extraction of β‐carotene from Spirulina platensis and
           hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice
    • Authors: Qiu‐Yue Ma; Ming Fang, Jia‐Hui Zheng, Di‐Feng Ren, Jun Lu
      Abstract: Background Spirulina platensis is rich in β‐carotene which possesses many important biological activities. This study investigated the ultrasound‐assisted extraction and purification of β‐carotene from Spirulina platensis by using response surface methodology (RSM), determined its antioxidant capacity in vitro and explored its hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mice. Results The raw β‐carotene extract with a concentration of 1,942.14 ± 10.03 µg/mL was obtained at the optimized condition by RSM (0.40 of the solid–liquid ratio, 51% of the extraction power, and 17 min of the extraction time), and the purity of evaporated β‐carotene extract reached 816.32 ± 10.57 mg/g after purified by a NKA‐9 resin with a sampling and elution rate of 1 mL/min. The β‐carotene extract scavenged 1, 1‐Diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radicals with the highest ratios of 44 ± 0.26% and 35 ± 0.45% respectively, and exhibited strong inhibiting capacity on anti‐lipid peroxidation. The blood glucose level of streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice was significantly reduced from 15.81 ± 1.71 mmol/L to 8.10 ± 0.88 mmol/L after 10 d administration of the β‐carotene extract (100 mg/kg b.w.), and the increased food and water intakes in the diabetic mice were also significantly relieved after β‐carotene treatment. Conclusion Our results suggested that extraction of β‐carotene from Spirulina platensis had potential prospects in scaled‐up industrialization and healthcare application.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T05:28:47.671919-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7286
       
  • Fatty acid composition of the ovine Longissimus dorsi muscle: effect of
           feed restriction in three breeds of different origin
    • Authors: Sofia van Harten; Tanya Kilminster, Timothy Scanlon, John Milton, Chris Oldham, Johann Greeff, André M Almeida
      Abstract: Background Muscle fatty acid profile reflects the body condition of animals and has a noticeable effect on meat quality. Herein, longissimus dorsi muscle of three different sheep breeds, Damara (a fat‐tailed breed), Dorper and Australian Merino sheep, were analysed for fatty acid composition. The three breeds were subjected to two distinctive feeding levels (ad libitum and restricted feeding) over 42 days. Results The Damara sheep revealed several differences compared to the other two breeds, namely a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can be related to being a fat‐tailed breed. Even in restricted feeding conditions, this breed revealed the highest levels compared to Merino and Dorper sheep respectively, of LA (+31% and +28%), LNA (+97% and +51%), EPA (+65% and +37%), DPA (+31% Merino) and DHA (+63% and +77%), being EPA, DPA and DHA three omega‐3 fatty acids, with described beneficial characteristics. Conclusion With this work we show other qualities (higher levels of the omega‐3 fatty acids – EPA, DPA and DHA) of Damara meat that might present this breed as an interesting alternative for animal production in semi‐arid climates.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T05:26:52.886419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7285
       
  • Anti‐inflammatory effect of water extracts of Graptopetalum
           paraguayense supplementation in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a
           preliminary study
    • Authors: Shu‐Ju Chen; Chi‐Hua Yen, Jen‐Tzu Liu, Yu‐Fen Tseng, Ping‐Ting Lin
      Abstract: Background Many studies have demonstrated that Graptopetalum paraguayense has good antioxidant ability; however, few studies have examined its anti‐inflammatory effect. The study aimed to investigate the anti‐inflammatory effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C‐reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α), and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6)] and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured. Results Forty‐two subjects completed the 12 week intervention study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). After 12 weeks supplementation, subjects in WGP group had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers than the baseline (p < 0.05) and the placebo group (CRP, p = 0.07; TNF‐α, p = 0.04; IL‐6, p = 0.03). The changes in levels of the inflammatory markers were significantly decreased in WGP group (CRP, p = 0.04; TNF‐α, p = 0.06; IL‐6, p = 0.01) compared to the placebo group. Levels of inflammatory markers were significantly negatively correlated with the antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation. Conclusion This study demonstrated a significant reduction in inflammatory status in MS after WGP supplementation. WGP may exert an anti‐inflammatory effect on MS in addition to its antioxidant ability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T05:25:58.49771-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7284
       
  • Soluble protein, sugar, GA3 and sHSPs genes related with seed germination
           during maturation of hybrid rice seed
    • Authors: Li‐Wei Zhu; Dong‐Dong Cao, Qi‐Juan Hu, Ya‐Jing Guan, Wei‐min Hu, Aamir Nawaz, Jin Hu
      Abstract: Background During the production of early hybrid rice seed, the seeds dehydrated slowly and kept high moisture when the rainy weather lasted for a couple of days, and the rice seeds were easy to occur pre‐harvest sprouting (PHS) along with high temperature, therefore it is necessary to harvest the seeds before the PHS happened. Results The seeds of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica) cv. Qianyou No1 that harvest from 19 to 28 days after pollination (DAP) all had high seed vigor. The seed moisture content at 10 DAP was 36.1 %, and declined to 28.6 % at 19 DAP; the contents of soluble sugar and total starch increased significantly with the development of seeds. The soluble protein content, the level of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA3), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity kept decreasing from 10 DAP to 19 DAP. The seeds of 19 DAP had the highest peroxidase (POD) activity and lowest catalase (CAT) activity while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity had no significant difference among the different developing periods. The relative expressions of genes, 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 transcripts increased significantly from 10 to 19 DAP, and then decreased. However, no significant change was recorded in soluble protein, sugar and GA3 after 16 DAP, and they all significantly correlated with seed viability and vigor during the process of seed maturity. Conclusion The seeds of hybrid rice Qianyou No1 had a higher viability and vigor when harvesting from 19 DAP to 28 DAP, the transcription levels of 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 increased significantly from 10 DAP to 19 DAP and the highest value was recorded at 19 DAP. The seeds could be harvested as early as 19 DAP without negative influence on seed vigor and viability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T08:44:02.817098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7283
       
  • Effects of technological processes on enniatins levels in pasta
    • Authors: Ana B. Serrano; Guillermina Font, Jordi Mañes, Emilia Ferrer
      Abstract: Background Potential human health risks posed by enniatins (ENs) require its control primarily from cereal products, creating a demand for harvesting, food processing and storage techniques capable to prevent, reduce and/or eliminate the contamination. In this study, different methodologies to pasta processing simulating traditional and industrial processes were developed in order to known the fate of the mycotoxins ENs. The levels of ENs were studied at different steps of pasta processing. The effect of the temperature during processing were evaluated in two types of pasta (white and whole‐grain pasta). Mycotoxin analysis was performed by LC‐MS/MS. Results High reductions up to 50% and 80% were achieved during drying pasta at 45‐55 °C and 70‐90 °C, respectively. The treatments at low temperature (25 °C) did not change ENs levels. The effect of pasta composition did not evidenced a significant effect on the stability of ENs. The effect of the temperature allowed a marked mycotoxin reduction during pasta processing. Generally, ENA1 and ENB showed higher thermal stability than ENA and ENB1. Conclusions The findings from the present study suggested that pasta processing at medium‐high temperatures is a potential tool to remove an important fraction of ENs from the initial durum wheat semolina.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T05:11:21.426364-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7282
       
  • Aqueous extract of tomato seeds attenuate rotenone‐induced oxidative
           stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Gokul Krishna; Mura Muralidhara
      Abstract: Background Tomato seeds, a major by‐product from food processing industry, constitute a rich source of bioactives and a large population consumes tomato (either in raw or cooked form). In the present study, initially we assessed the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) in selected chemical systems and further explored the neuroprotective effects of TSE utilizing rotenone (ROT) model of neurotoxicity in Drosophila. Results Adult male flies (Oregon K) were fed TSE‐enriched medium (0.1–0.2%) with or without ROT (500 μM) for 7 days. The propensity of TSE to protect flies against ROT‐induced lethality, locomotor phenotype, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity was investigated. TSE offered marked protection against ROT‐induced mortality, while survivors exhibited improved locomotor phenotype. TSE significantly attenuated ROT‐induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, protein carbonyls content, restored the cholinergic function and dopamine levels. Conclusion We hypothesize that the efficacy of tomato seed extract to attenuate ROT‐mediated neurotoxicity may be largely related to the combined antioxidant activity of bioactives resulting in abrogation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. More importantly, our approach provides an experimental paradigm to rapidly assess the potential neuroprotective effects of common dietary components employing Drosophila, since it corroborates with previous evidence in a mice model.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T04:52:21.332519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7281
       
  • Impact of Electron Beam Irradiation on Quality of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae
           rhamnoides L.) Oil
    • Authors: Monica R. Nemţanu; Mirela Braşoveanu
      Abstract: Background Sea buckthorn oil is a valuable product that can be incorporated into daily foodstuffs, cosmetics, or pharmaceuticals. The effect of accelerated electron irradiation up to 8 kGy on quality characteristics of sea buckthorn oil was investigated in this study. Results Irradiation had no significant influence on phenolic content. Conversely, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity, and oxidative status suffered alterations as the irradiation dose increased. Although no color changes were visible for oil irradiated up to 3 kGy, the total color difference indicated clearly changes that involved a two‐step pattern associated with slow degradation of oil color up to 3 kGy, followed by a fast degradation up to 8 kGy. Some changes of the oil spectral features related to the frequency and intensity of some bands have been found after irradiation, indicating an alteration of the structural integrity induced by irradiation. Conclusion The present investigation may be a useful starting point for irradiation processing of food or non‐food matrices containing sea buckthorn oil. Thus, sea buckthorn oil safety can be ensured with minimal undesirable changes in its quality by applying irradiation doses up to 3 kGy, which allow to control the microbial contamination depending on microorganism type and initial microbial load.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T04:01:43.8997-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7280
       
  • Physico‐chemical properties and fatty acid composition of
           pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils
    • Authors: Francesco Siano; Maria C Straccia, Marina Paolucci, Gabriella Fasulo, Floriana Boscaino, Maria G Volpe
      Abstract: Background Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health.The aim of this work was to compare the physico‐chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. Results High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UVA and UVB range. Conclusion Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T01:27:22.868779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7279
       
  • Effect of immobilization materials on viability and fermentation activity
           of dairy starter culture in whey based substrate
    • Authors: Tanja Ž. Krunić; Maja Lj. Bulatović, Nataša S. Obradović, Maja S. Vukašinović‐Sekulić, Marica B. Rakin
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The main objectives of the paper were to study influence of immobilization of dairy starter culture ‘Lactoferm ABY 6’ on fermentation and probiotic potential of fermented whey‐based substrate. RESULTS Fermentation with free cells takes 1.5 h less than fermentation with encapsulated cells, but samples with encapsulated cells have better characteristics after 28 days of storage. Chitosan coating provides additional protection of cells in bile salt solution (95.86 % of viable cells compared to the initial number) and simulated gastric juice (37.8 % for pH 2.5) compared to the alginate beads (94.54% in bile salt solution and 36.18 % in simulated gastric juice for pH 2.5). Free cells had a drastic reduction in the number of viable cells (83.0 % in bile salt solution and no viable cells in simulated gastric juice for pH 2.5). CONCLUSION Samples with alginate beads and chitosan‐coated alginate beads have significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T11:53:42.413656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7278
       
  • Dietary supplementation of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens alters fatty acids of
           milk and rumen fluid in lactating goats
    • Authors: Swati Shivani; Anima Srivastava, Umesh K. Shandilya, Vishnu Kale, Amrish K. Tyagi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have high health amelioration potential hence of great interest to increase the CLA content in dairy products. Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of administration of high CLA producing Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In‐1 on fatty acid composition of milk and rumen fluid in lactating goats. Four groups (n = 5) of lactating goats were assigned the following treatments: Control (C) ( basal diet); T1 (Basal diet + linoleic acid source), T2 (Basal diet + suspension of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In‐1 @ 109 CFU/head) and T3 (Basal diet + linoleic acid source + suspension of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens In‐1 @ 109 CFU/head). RESULTS Rumen liquor and milk samples were collected on 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90th days of experiment and linoleic isomerase enzyme (LA‐I) activity and fatty acid profiles were elucidated. Major effects of treatments were seen on the 30th day of experiment. Total CLA content of rumen fluid increased (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T02:04:20.990284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7277
       
  • Analysis of volatiles from stored wheat and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) with
           solid phase microextraction‐gas chromatography mass spectrometry
           (SPME‐GCMS)
    • Authors: Yonghao Niu; Lei Hua, Giles Hardy, Manjree Agarwal, Yonglin Ren
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contribute significantly to food flavour and can be used as indicators of quality, age of storage, and hygiene condition of stored products. The VOCs in the headspace of 3 different samples; healthy wheat, Rhyzopertha dominica and wheat with R. dominica, were analysed at 25 °C by solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography‐flame ionization detection (GC‐FID) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). All the experimental conditions were kept consistent except a polar column and a non‐polar column were used to assess the differences in volatile fingerprints. RESULTS A total of 114 volatiles were identified by both the polar and non‐polar columns, of which 48 were specific to one of the 3 samples tested. The volatiles were mainly carbonyl chemical compounds such as aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. GC‐MS results showed slightly more VOCs were identified from the polar column. The total number for the 3 samples was 43 from the polar column compared to 39 from the non‐polar column. Conversely, 30 VOCs unique to a given sample were identified from the non‐polar column compared to 18 from the polar column. CONCLUSION The use of both polar and non‐polar columns is essential to capture the full range of VOCs produced by the 3 specific sample types investigated. The data can form the basis of enquiry into the relationship between storage and grain quality, and insect infestation and grain quality by observing the impact that these circumstances have on the production of volatile organic compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T01:48:24.602141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7274
       
  • Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in smoked buffalo mozzarella
           cheese produced in Campania Region (Italy)
    • Authors: E. Fasano; F. Esposito, G. Scognamiglio, T. Cirillo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The smoked mozzarella is obtained through traditional smoking techniques or liquid smoke use. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be produced during the organic matrix combustion. The aim of this study was to evaluate Benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P), benzo[a]anthracene (B(a)A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B(b)FA), benzo[k]fluoranthene (B(k)FA), benzo[ghi]perylene (B(g,h,i)PE), chrysene (CHR), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB(a,h)A) and indeno[1,2,3‐cd]pyrene (IP) in smoked buffalo mozzarella produced in Campania, evaluating also the influence of the different smoking techniques. Milk and mozzarella of the same batch, before and after smoking, were collected. Detection method was made of basic hydrolysis, clean up with silica and detection by HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. RESULTS About milk, only 30% was contaminated. In non smoked products the medians were >LODs only for B(a)A and CHR. In smoked mozzarellas highest median was 0.37 ng g−1 wet weight (CHR). CONCLUSION It was found that the assumption of this typical food of Campania does not represent a risk for the consumer considering that the incidences on EFSA dietary intake were always lower than 1.5% for Mozzarella cheese and than 3% for Smoked Mozzarella Cheese.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T01:48:08.741065-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7275
       
  • Comparison of free amino acids, antioxidants, soluble phenolic acids,
           cytotoxicity and immunomodulation of fermented mung bean and soybean
    • Authors: Norlaily Mohd Ali; Swee‐Keong Yeap, Hamidah Mohd Yusof, Boon‐Kee Beh, Wan‐Yong Ho, Soo‐Peng Koh, Mohd Puad Abdullah, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Kamariah Long
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects while fermentation is a well‐known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non‐fermented mung bean and soybean were compared. RESULTS Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF‐7 cell by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin‐2 (IL‐2) and interferon‐gamma (IFN‐γ). CONCLUSION Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T23:25:15.251001-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7267
       
  • Use of principal factor analysis to generate a corn silage fermentative
           quality index to rank well‐ or poorly‐preserved forages
    • Authors: Antonio Gallo; Gianluca Giuberti, Sara Bruschi, Paola Fortunati, Francesco Masoero
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To investigate corn silage fermentative quality, a principal factor analysis was carried out on a database consisting of 196 corn silages sampled from the core, lateral and apical parts of silo feed‐out face and characterised by 36 variables. Eleven principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Two PCs were related to chemical and digestibility variables; four PCs were characterised by end‐products associated with clostridia, heterolactic, homolactic or aerobic fermentations; two PCs were associated with mycotoxins produced by Penicillium roqueforti or by Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium spp., while three PCs explained ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silages. RESULTS Lower (P
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:26:34.419624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7272
       
  • Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows†
    • Authors: Wilhelm Knaus
      Abstract: The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high‐input/high‐output system maximizing annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate‐based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture‐based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high‐yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals’ health. On pasture, lighter‐weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year‐round indoor feeding of high‐yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human‐edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilize the evolutionary advantages of ruminants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T05:25:34.629489-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7273
       
  • Effects of applying molasses, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on
           fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro gas production of
           total mixed ration silage prepared with oat‐common vetch intercrop
           on the Tibetan plateau
    • Authors: L. Chen; G. Guo, X.J. Yuan, J. Zhang, J. F. Li, T. Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of molasses, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on the fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro gas production of total mixed ration (TMR) silage prepared with oat‐common vetch intercrop on the Tibetan plateau. TMR (436 g/kg dry matter (DM)) was ensiled with six experimental treatments: (1) no additives (control); (2) molasses (M); (3) an inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) (L); (4) propionic acid (P); (5) molasses + propionic acid (MP); (6) inoculant + propionic acid (LP). RESULT All silages were well preserved with low pH (
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T08:54:26.612182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7271
       
  • Evaluation of PPARα activation by known blueberry constituents
    • Authors: Agnes M. Rimando; Shabana I. Khan, Cassia S. Mizuno, Guang Ren, Suresh T. Mathews, Hyunsook Kim, Wallace Yokoyama
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins are known to have hypolipidemic property. It was deemed necessary to determine whether major blueberry anthocyanins and catechins are ligands for the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha isoform (PPARα), and compare activation with known PPARα agonistic constituents, pterostilbene and resveratrol. It was also considered important to investigate the effect of pterostilbene on PPARα gene expression, and relate results with hepatic mRNA PPARα expression up‐regulation observed previously in hamsters fed diet supplemented with blueberry peels extract (BBX). RESULTS The anthocyanins and catechins did not activate PPARα. Only pterostilbene exhibited a dose‐dependent activation of PPARα in H4IIEC3 cells. The resveratrol responses were lower than those of pterostilbene. Pterostilbene significantly and dose‐dependently (at 10, 20 and 50 μM) increased PPARα gene expression and the effect at 10 μM was greater than 100 and 200 μM of fenofibrate. Analysis of BBX showed levels of pterostilbene and resveratrol at 418 and 2,381 ng g−1, respectively. CONCLUSION Anthocyanins and catechins do not appear to contribute to the up‐regulation of hepatic PPARα expression observed in hamsters. While pterostilbene and resveratrol demonstrated PPARα activation, their levels in BBX do not seem to be at efficacious concentrations. These stilbenes may contribute to the up‐regulation of PPARα expression by acting synergistically with each other or with other constituents in BBX.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T08:44:13.676883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7269
       
  • Detection of undeclared animal by‐products in commercial canine
           canned foods: Comparative analyses by ELISA and PCR‐RFLP coupled
           with slab gel electrophoresis or capillary gel electrophoresis
    • Authors: Ming‐Kun Hsieh; Pei‐Yin Shih, Chia‐Fong Wei, Thomas W. Vickroy, Chi‐Chung Chou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The potential presence of undeclared animal by‐products in pet foods is not subject to routine examination. Previously published methods for species‐based identification of animal by‐products have not been used routinely owing to inconsistent results. The present study evaluated the utility of several approaches for accurate identification of animal by‐products in 11 commercial brands of canine canned foods. RESULTS Canine canned foods from several countries were analyzed by ELISA, PCR‐RFLP coupled with slab‐gel electrophoresis (SGE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) to test for evidence of by‐products derived from cattle, chicken, sheep or pig. While CGE‐based analysis detected all (24) animal‐derived by‐products that were reported for the 11 test samples, SGE and ELISA detected only 22/24 (92%) and 14/24 (58%) of labeled by‐products, respectively. In addition, undeclared animal by‐products were found using all three analytical approaches with CGE detecting more positives (19) than SGE (17) or ELISA (5). CONCLUSION Significant disparities were evident between the labeled contents and the detected content of animal by‐products. CGE‐based testing for PCR products appears to provide greater sensitivity and accuracy than either SGE or ELISA‐based methods. As testing of commercial products becomes more reliable and mainstream, manufacturers will need to develop more thorough and accurate labeling protocols.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T08:26:30.78371-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7268
       
  • Flavor Compounds and Sensory Profiles of a Novel Chinese Marinated Chicken
    • Authors: Hai Li; Xia Li, Chun‐hui Zhang, Jin‐zhi Wang, Chun‐hong Tang, Lin‐li Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUD Marinating is Chinese traditional meat process method using aged brine that bring popular flavor together with food safety issues. This study developed a novel marinated method named as quantitative marinating (QM) to improve Chinese traditional marinating (TM). Flavor compounds and sensory profiles of two marinated products were determined to verify if the improved marinated method could maintain the characteristic flavor of traditional marinated products. RESULTS 54, 60, 60, 60 and 44 volatile flavor compounds were identified from four processed stages of QM and TM, respectively. Contents of taste compounds increased firstly and then decreased in the processed stages of QM. The total free amino acids content of QM and TM product was 789 and 536 mg/100 g respectively. Total nucleotide content of QM product (22.21 mg/100 g) was higher than that of TM (20.75 mg/100 g), but the fatty acids content of QM product (26.66 mg/g) was lower than that of TM (44.43 mg/g). Finally, QM received higher sensory scores than TM. CONCLUSION Volatile flavor compounds, taste compounds and sensory properties of QM were richer than that of TM, which indicated QM can not only maintain original aroma of traditional marinating, but also have advantages in taste compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T01:04:42.067659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7263
       
  • Chicken Surimi Fortified by Omega‐3‐fatty‐acid Addition:
           Manufacturing and Quality Properties
    • Authors: Hao‐Lun Wang; Chung‐Hsi Chou, Yu‐Shan Yu, Chin‐Lin Hsu, Sheng‐Yao Wang, Yi‐Feng Ko, Yi‐Chen Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The meat in spent hens is hard to use due to small amount and poor quality. The washing processing is to remove sarcoplasmic proteins and other impurities which can prolong the shelf life of surimi‐like products. Due to the benefits of ω‐3 PUFAs, functional foods fortified with ω‐3 PUFAs are marketed increasingly. Hence, manufacture of ω‐3 FA fortified chicken surimi was made; meanwhile, how to ameliorate its lipid peroxidation during a frozen storage was investigated. RESULTS 0.10% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution instead of distilled water in the third washing step decreased (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:54:33.362399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7262
       
  • Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by anti‐microbial
           photodynamic technology using methylene blue
    • Authors: Xi Deng; Shuze Tang, Qian Wu, Juan Tian, William W. Riley, Zhenqiang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causative pathogen of gastroenteritis often related to contaminated seafood. Photodynamic inactivation has been recently proposed as a strategy for killing cells and virus. The objective of this study was to verify the bactericidal effects caused by photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using methylene blue (MB) over V. parahaemolyticus via flow cytometry (FCM), agarose gel electrophoresis and SDS‐PAGE. V. parahaemolyticus counts were determined by using the most probable number (MPN) method. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to intuitively analyze internal and external cell structure. RESULTS Combination of MB and laser treatment significantly inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. The inactivation rate of V. parahaemolyticus was >99.99%, and its counts were reduced by 5‐log10 in the presence of 0.05 mg/mL MB when illuminated with visible light (power density 200 mW/cm2) for 25 min. All inactivated cells showed morphological changes, leakage of cytoplasm and degradation of protein and DNA. CONCLUSION Results from this study indicated that photodynamic technology using methylene blue produced significantly inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus mainly brought about by the degradation of protein and DNA.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:47:53.189514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7261
       
  • Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia,
           dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose‐induced metabolic
           syndrome rats
    • Authors: Ajiboye T. O; Raji H. O, Adeleye A. O, Adigun N. S, Giwa O. B, Ojewuyi O. B, Oladiji A. T.
      Abstract: Background The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract was evaluated in high‐fructose induced metabolic syndrome rats. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout were induced in rats using high‐fructose diet. High‐fructose diet‐fed rats were administered 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract for 3 weeks, starting from the seventh week of high‐fructose diet treatment. Results High fructose diet significantly (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:42.267523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7254
       
  • The Use of Core‐Shell High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography
           Column Technology to Improve the Biogenic Amine Quantification in Wine
    • Authors: Carmen Berbegal; Isabel Pardo, Sergi Ferrer
      Abstract: Background HPLC column technology has been improved, providing better resolution of closely eluting compounds, better analyte sensitivity, and shorter analysis times. The core‐shell technology columns offer a faster analysis through the use of shorter columns without compromising resolution. The aim of this work was to improve the methods of BA determination in wine using the new HPLC PFP core‐shell column technology. Results Two different elution programs were designed to quantify BA with the core‐shell PFP column. Program I flow rate was 2 mL min−1. The total elution time was 10 min. In the elution program II, the flow rate was 0.8 mL min−1 and the total elution time was 25 min. The two elution programs used with the core‐shell PFP HPLC column showed differences related manly to the histamine peak. The chromatograms showed that when a temporary isocratic elution was added in the gradient (program II), the histamine peak was eluted later, causing its isolation, and therefore its quantification was easier. Conclusions Compared to the previous C18 HPLC column for the BA determination in wine, the main advantage of the presented technique is the reduction of the run times and solvent volumes, and has a better sensitivity and selectivity as peaks are higher and sharper.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09T06:21:31.308899-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7249
       
  • Nutrient retention and fate of iron‐binding phenolic compounds
           
    • Authors: Yohannes Seyoum; Negussie Retta, Kaleab Baye
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Traits like bird‐, insect‐, and mold‐resistance are the focus in selecting improved sorghum varieties, but this often increases the tannin content, which can negatively affect iron bioavailability. The grain characteristics, nutrient retention, and the fate of iron‐binding polyphenols (IBP) during injera processing, an Ethiopian traditional fermented pancake, were investigated using agriculturally improved tannin‐free (TFC) and high‐tannin (HTC) sorghum cultivars. RESULTS The HTC had significantly higher IBP contents than the TFC (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T22:02:35.888369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7246
       
  • Application of ZnSO4 or Zn‐EDTA fertilizer to a calcareous soil: Zn
           diffusion in soil and its uptake by wheat plants
    • Authors: Ai‐qing Zhao; Xiao‐hong Tian, Yan‐long Chen, Shuo Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of two Zn sources and two application methods on (1) Zn diffusion from fertilized soil to unfertilized soil, (2) grain Zn concentration, and (3) grain Zn bio‐accessibility to humans. In the laboratory experiment, 20 mg of ZnSO4 or 4 mg of Zn‐EDTA was applied to a 5‐mm and 1‐mm‐wide space in the soil in the half‐cell technique. In the greenhouse experiment, Zn‐ZnSO4 or Zn‐EDTA was mixed or banded with the soil at a rate of 20 or 4 mg Zn kg−1, respectively. RESULTS The results from the diffusion experiment showed that both the extractability and the diffusion coefficient of Zn were higher when Zn fertilizer was applied to a 1‐mm‐wide space than when it was applied to a 5‐mm‐wide space. Zn‐EDTA had a greater diffusion distance than ZnSO4. The greenhouse experiment showed that the mixed ZnSO4 application and the Zn‐EDTA application (both mixed and banded) treatments significantly increased grain Zn concentration and bio‐accessibility. The positive effect of Zn‐EDTA on grain Zn concentrations and bio‐accessibility was greater than that of ZnSO4. The banded application reduced the effectiveness of ZnSO4 but not of Zn‐EDTA. CONCLUSION It was concluded that Zn‐EDTA was a better Zn source than ZnSO4 for increasing grain Zn content in a potentially Zn‐deficient calcareous soil.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T21:56:06.411151-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7245
       
  • Age and gender differences in the influence of extrinsic product
           information on acceptability for RTD green tea beverages
    • Authors: Ye‐Won Bae; Soh Min Lee, Kwang‐Ok Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The introduction of ready‐to‐drink (RTD) green tea beverage has allowed diverse consumers to consume green teas and related products. Green tea that has been traditionally consumed for its delicate flavor characteristics is also widely consumed for its recognition as a healthy product. Because it is reported that age difference exists in consideration of health related information, the study was objected to investigate the how sensory and non‐sensory factors, in particular health related information, price and packaging, would affect the flavor acceptability of green tea beverages depending on consumers’ age and gender. RESULTS Regardless of the product information, the old consumers preferred products that provided an indication of health beneficial effect. On the other hand, the young consumers tended to get influenced by the extrinsic product information such as packaging, brand/manufacturer and/or price, though these consumers were not much influenced by health beneficial information as the old. CONCLUSION The findings of the study implied that the influence of non‐sensory information such as health beneficial information in flavor liking differed depending on consumers’ age mostly, and little on gender for RTD green tea beverages.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T07:08:03.799066-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7232
       
  • Selenium (Se)improves drought tolerance in crop plants ‐ a myth or
           fact?
    • Authors: Rashid Ahmad; Ejaz Ahmad Waraich, Fahim Nawaz, M.Y. Ashraf, Muhammad Khalid
      Abstract: Climate change has emerged as one of the most complex challenges of the 21st century and has become an area of interest in the past few decades. Many countries of the world have become extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The scarcity of water is the serious concern for food security of these countries and climate change has aggravated the risks of extreme events like drought. Oxidative stress caused by a variety of active oxygen species formed under drought stress, damage many cellular constituents such as, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, which ultimately reduces plant growth, respiration and photosynthesis. Se has become an element of interest to many biologists due to its physiological and toxicological importance. It plays beneficial role in plants by enhancing growth of plants, reducing damage caused by oxidative stress, enhancing chlorophyll contents under light stress, stimulating the senesce to produce antioxidants, and improving plant tolerance to drought stress by regulating water status. The researchers have adopted different strategies to evaluate the role of selenium in plants under drought stress. Some of the relevant work available regarding the role of Se in alleviating adverse effect of drought stress is discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T06:39:31.651633-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7231
       
  • Melatonin in Mediterranean diet, a new perspective
    • Authors: Marcello Iriti; Elena Maria Varoni
      Pages: 2355 - 2359
      Abstract: The health‐promoting properties of the Mediterranean diet have been attributed, at least in part, to the chemical diversity of plant foods. Among phytochemicals, polyphenols represent the paradigm of the relationship between healthy foods and reduced risk of chronic‐degenerative diseases, although, in the past few years, a new element has enriched this scenario. Melatonin, and possibly other indoleamines recently discovered in some relevant Mediterranean foods, may represent a new factor contributing to the elucidation of the protective effects of diets rich in plant products. Therefore, in synergy with polyphenols and other bioactive phytochemicals (e.g. carotenoids and glucosinolates), melatonin may contribute to maximizing the benefits of healthy dietary styles. This brief survey deals with the occurrence of melatonin in the Mediterranean diet, with an emphasis on grape products, and focuses on the biological significance of dietary melatonin, an emerging and exciting topic in the field of nutritional sciences. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-26T06:00:10.497203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7051
       
  • Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranate
    • Authors: Sunil Pareek; Daniel Valero, María Serrano
      Pages: 2360 - 2379
      Abstract: Pomegranate is a subtropical and tropical fruit of great importance from a health point of view. Despite increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of pomegranate, consumption of the fruit is still limited owing to poor postharvest handling, storage recommendations, short shelf life and quality deterioration during transportation, storage and marketing. The occurrence of physiological disorders such as husk scald, splitting and chilling injury is another challenge reducing marketability and consumer acceptance. Recently, notable work on postharvest biology and technology has been done. Pomegranate is highly sensitive to low‐oxygen (
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:24:52.64837-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7069
       
  • Nutritional aspects of gluten‐free products
    • Authors: Nicoletta Pellegrini; Carlo Agostoni
      Pages: 2380 - 2385
      Abstract: In recent years, gluten‐free (GF) goods have become popular, fuelling a growing market, as they not only cater to individuals with medical needs but also to consumers who seek a GF diet. In their development, it is pivotal to pay attention to nutritional quality. This review aims to provide some insights on the nutritional quality of GF products, focusing on major concerns and the strategies to overcome them. In order to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten, a large number of flours and starches and other ingredients have been used. Therefore the different mixtures of these ingredients bring a wide difference in the nutritional composition of GF foods with respect to gluten‐containing counterparts. Several GF foodstuffs contain more fat, including saturated, and salt but fewer minerals and vitamins than their equivalents with gluten. The increased fibre content and improved technological processes have positively affected the glycaemic responses from these goods. However, in order to improve their nutritional quality, wholemeal GF cereals and pseudocereals with high nutritive value should replace the low‐nutritional GF flours and consequently the technological processes would be optimized. The improvement of the nutritional quality of GF products, and in turn that of the GF diet, should also be aimed at lowering the risk of later chronic degenerative disorders, especially for infants and young children. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-19T05:42:42.409207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7101
       
  • Integration of life cycle assessment and regional emission information in
           agricultural systems
    • Authors: Junbeum Kim; Albina Yalaltdinova, Natalia Sirina, Natalia Baranovskaya
      Pages: 2544 - 2553
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a compilation and evaluation of the input energy and materials, output emissions and the potential environmental impacts of a product, service or system throughout its life cycle. While methodological issues of LCA are still being developed, much research is being conducted worldwide in order to improve them. One of the important advances in LCA is a regionalised LCA, i.e. the development of regionalised databases, inventories, and impact assessment methods and models. RESULTS Regional emission information (REI) was developed and integrated with the characterisation results in LCA of an agricultural product in the study area. Comparison of outcomes obtained with LCA characterisation results that did not include REI shows that the characterisation results taking REI into account are much higher as regards human toxicity, from 0.02% to 0.18%, freshwater ecotoxicity from 89% to 99% and terrestrial ecotoxicity from 8.006% to 26.177%. CONCLUSION Results of current LCA studies on agricultural products and systems that do not include REI are under‐estimating the life cycle environmental impact. For the LCA of agricultural products and systems, the REI as well as regionalised life cycle inventory data should be developed and integrated into the current LCA approach. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-03-31T09:19:25.620735-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7149
       
  • Structural characteristics of pineapple pulp polysaccharides and their
           antitumor cell proliferation activities
    • Authors: Ling Wang; De‐Qiang Tang, Yu Kuang, Feng‐Jiao Lin, Yu Su
      Pages: 2554 - 2561
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pineapple has a delicious taste and good health benefits. Bioactive polysaccharides are important components of pineapple that might contribute to its health benefits. Since little structural information on these polysaccharides is currently available, the aim of this study was to investigate their structural characteristics and bioactivities. RESULTS The polysaccharides of pineapple pulp were fractionated into three fractions (PAPs 1–3) by anion exchange chromatography. Their structural characteristics were first identified, including molecular weights and glycosidic linkages. The monosaccharide compositions were revealed as PAP 1 (Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal), PAP 2 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal) and PAP 3 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man and Gal). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested that PAP 2 had a backbone of → 4)‐α‐d‐Manp‐(1 → 2,4)‐α‐d‐Manp‐(1 → with branches attached to O‐4 of Manp. The NMR data of α‐l‐Araf‐(1→, →3)‐α‐l‐Araf‐(1→, →4)‐β‐d‐Galp‐(1 → and → 4)‐α‐d‐GalpAMe‐(1 → were assigned. PAPs 1 and 2 showed significant antitumor cell proliferation activities against breast carcinoma cell line and strong antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION The above findings indicated that PAPs 1–3 contributed much to the health benefits of pineapple. They could be used as health‐beneficial food additives in functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T07:27:07.039651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7185
       
 
 
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