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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 262 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (9 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (194 journals)

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Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [23 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
  • Identifying inhibitors/enhancers of quantitative real‐time PCR in
           food samples using a newly developed synthetic plasmid
    • Authors: Tereza Sovová; Barbora Křížová, Jan Hodek, Jaroslava Ovesná
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a common technique offering fast and sensitive analysis of DNA in food/feed samples. However, many substances, either already present in the sample or introduced during sample processing, inhibit the PCR and thus underestimate the DNA content. It is therefore necessary to identify the PCR inhibition in order to correctly evaluate the sample. RESULTS We designed and validated a synthetic plasmid DNA that can be used to detect and quantify PCR inhibition. The DNA sequence, appropriate primers and probe, were designed in silico, synthesized and the sequence was inserted in a plasmid vector. The performance of the plasmid was verified via calibration curves and by performing the assay in presence of various DNAs (crops, fungus, bacterium). The detection of PCR inhibition was assessed using six inhibiting substances with different modes of action; substances used in sample processing (EDTA, ethanol, NaCl, SDS) and food additives (sodium glutamate, tartrazine). The plasmid performance proved to be reproducible and there were no interactions with other DNAs. The plasmid was able to identify the presence of the inhibitors in a wide range of concentrations. CONCLUSION The presented plasmid DNA is a suitable and inexpensive possibility for evaluating PCR inhibition.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T11:24:45.687709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7178
       
  • Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from
           grazed pastures
    • Authors: Stewart F. Ledgard; Brendon Welten, Keith Betteridge
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late‐summer and early‐winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking‐water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine‐N concentration and urine‐N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases; a cattle metabolism‐stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine‐N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g heifer−1 day−1) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine‐N rate on N leaching. Results Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine‐N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine‐N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per‐hectare N leaching by 10‐22%. Conclusions Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine‐N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine‐N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early‐winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:52:43.55815-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7179
       
  • Production of novel vinegar having antioxidant and anti‐fatigue
           activities from Salicornia herbacea L.
    • Authors: Hyun‐Dong Cho; Ju‐Hye Lee, Ji‐Hye Jeong, Jae‐Yong Kim, Sung‐Tae Yee, Seok‐Kyu Park, Mi‐Kyung Lee, Kwon‐Il Seo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salicornia herbacea L. is a halophyte that grows in salt marshes and which contains significant amounts of salts and minerals. Because it is known as a folk medication to treat diseases, various processed products such as powder, globular type of powder, laver, and extract have been developed. However, it is difficult to process as a drink due to its high salinity. In the present study, glasswort vinegar (GV) containing high contents of organic acids and minerals was developed via two‐step fermentation with unpolished rice substrates and investigated its antioxidant and anti‐fatigue activities. RESULTS GV showed various free radical scavenging effects, reducing power, oxidized‐LDL inhibition and SOD‐like activities. Compared with the control group (orally administered 7 g kg−1 distilled water), GV supplementation group showed increased running endurance and had higher glycogen accumulation in liver and muscles of rats exhausted by exercise. Furthermore, GV administrated group significantly elevated lactate and ATP metabolism promoting enzyme activities such as muscle creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, whereas serum fatigue biomarkers such as ammonia, lactate, and inorganic acid were markedly decreased. CONCLUSION These results indicate that GV can be used as a functional food for the development of a dietary beverage to alleviate fatigue.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:46.60253-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7180
       
  • Identifying N fertilizer regime and vegetable production system in
           tropical Brazil using 15 N natural abundance
    • Authors: Caio T Inácio; Segundo Urquiaga, Phillip M Chalk, Maria Gabriela F Mata, Paulo O Souza
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study was conducted in areas of vegetable production in tropical Brazil, with the objectives of (i) to measure the variation in δ15N in soils, organic N‐fertilizer sources and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from different farming systems, (ii) to test whether plant δ15N can differentiate organic vs. conventional lettuce and (iii) to identify the factors affecting the lettuce δ15N. Results Samples of soil, lettuce and organic inputs were taken from two organic, one conventional and one hydroponic farm. The two organic farms had different N‐sources with δ15N values ranging from 0.0 to +14.9 ‰ (e.g. legume‐green manure and animal manure compost, respectively), and differed significantly (p < 0.05) in lettuce δ15N (+9.2 ± 1.1 ‰ and +14.3 ± 1.0 ‰). The conventional lettuce δ15N (+8.5 ± 2.7 ‰) differed from the hydroponic lettuce δ15N (+4.5 ± 0.2 ‰) due to manure inputs. The N from legume‐green manure had a small contribution to the N nutrition of lettuce in the multi‐N‐source organic farm. Conclusion To differentiate organic vs. conventional farms using δ15N the several subsets of mode of fertilization should be considered. Comparisons of δ15N of soil, organic inputs and lettuce allowed a qualitative analysis of the relative importance of different N inputs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:25.105527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7177
       
  • Novel chelating agents for iron, manganese, zinc, and copper mixed
           fertilization in high pH soil‐less cultures
    • Authors: Sandra López‐Rayo; Paloma Nadal, Juan J. Lucena
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies about simultaneous fertilization with several micronutrients have increased in the last years, as Fe, Mn, and Zn deficiencies may appear in the same culture conditions. In fertigation, the replacement of sulfates by synthetic chelates is mandatory in areas with high pH irrigation water and substrates. The ethylenediamine‐N‐(2‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid)‐ N'‐(4‐hydroxyphenylacetic acid), o,p‐EDDHA, and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, EDDS are novel chelating agents which efficacy in simultaneous fertilization of Zn, Mn and Cu is unknown. This work evaluates the effectiveness of both ligands compared to traditional ligands (EDTA, HEEDTA and DTPA) applied as micronutrient chelate mixtures to soybean and navy bean plants grown in soil‐less cultures at high pH by analyzing the SPAD and micronutrient nutritional status, including the Composition Nutritional Diagnosis (CND) analysis tool. RESULTS The micronutrients application using o,p‐EDDHA was more effective in providing Mn and Zn than traditional ligands or sulfates. The application using EDDS increased the Zn nutrition. The results are well correlated with the chemical stability of the formulations. CONCLUSION The combined application of Mn and Zn as o,p‐EDDHA chelates can represent a more effective source than traditional chelates in micronutrient fertilizer mixtures in soil‐less cultures at a high pH.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:49:01.251004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7183
       
  • Rice bran protein hydrolysates exhibit strong in vitro
           α‐amylase, β‐glucosidase and ACE‐inhibition
           activities
    • Authors: Chatchaporn Uraipong; Jian Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to systematically examine the in vitro health‐promotion activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates. Rice bran proteins were fractioned into albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin, which were subjected to hydrolysis by four protease preparations, namely Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme and Protamax, and the inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates against α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were monitored over a hydrolysis period of 240 min. Active peptides in the hydrolysates were isolated by ultrafiltration and ion‐exchange chromatography and the peptide sequences of the active fractions were identified by LC‐MS/MS. RESULTS Hydrolysis of the proteins resulted in significant increases in these bioactivities, which were generally correlated with the degree of protein hydrolysis. In general, highest bioactivities were found with albumin and glutelin hydrolysates, followed by globulin hydrolysates, while prolamin hydrolysates showed the lowest activities. Of the four enzymes used, Alcalase and Protamax‐catalysed hydrolysates generally had the highest activities while Flavourzyme‐produced hydrolysates had the lowest activity. The MW < 3 KDa fraction of the Alcalase‐catalysed glutelin hydrolysates had the highest β‐glucosidase inhibition activity, which was identified to contain 13 peptides with 6–32 amino acid residues. CONCLUSION The α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activities of albumin and glutelin hydrolysates produced by Alcalase and Protamax were comparable in magnitude to those of the standard antidiabetic drug, acarbose, and had the potential to be developed into a dietary or nutraceutical supplement for diabetic management.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:47:36.627264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7182
       
  • In vitro study of biological activities of anthocyanin‐rich berry
           extracts on porcine intestinal epithelial cells
    • Authors: Petra Kšonžeková; Ruslan Mariychuk, Adriana Eliašová, Dagmar Mudroňová, Tomáš Csank, Ján Király, Dana Marcinčáková, Juraj Pistl, Ľudmila Tkáčiková
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins, compounds that represent the major group of flavonoids in berries, are one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological activities and comparison of anthocyanin‐rich extracts prepared from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and blueberry (V. corymbosum) on porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC‐1 cell line. RESULTS The IC50 values calculated in antioxidant cell‐based dichlorofluorescein assay (DCF assay) were 1.129 mg L−1 for chokeberry, 1.081 mg L−1 for elderberry, 2.561 mg L−1 for bilberry and 2.965 mg L−1 for blueberry, respectively. We found significant negative correlation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T10:47:14.709799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7181
       
  • Properties and stability of blueberry anthocyanin – bovine
           serum albumin nanoparticles
    • Authors: Jian Chen; Xiaoyun Tao, Meng Zhang, Aidong Sun, Liyi Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This article corrects: Retracted: Properties and stability of blueberry anthocyanin – bovine serum albumin nanoparticles
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:38:44.698597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7170
       
  • From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step
    • Authors: Sicignano A; Di Monaco R, Masi P, Cavella S.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal‐based food, worldwide popular, because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this paper is to present a step‐by‐step guide to facilitate the understanding of all the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Results Due to its unique flavor, color, composition and its rheological properties durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for the pasta production. Although pasta is made traditionally from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical‐physical characteristics of the final product may largely vary. Starting from the same ingredients, during pasta production there are a lot of different events in each step that could develop a variety of pasta with different characteristics. Conclusion Moreover illustrative purposes, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of the temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance in the choice of the raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T01:55:31.884536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7176
       
  • Aspergillus oryzae fermented germinated soybeans extract alleviate
           perimenopausal symptoms in ovariectomized rats
    • Authors: Mingeum Jeong; Dong Sung Lee, Hyung Joo Suh, Yooheon Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Soybeans have been widely used to alleviate climacteric symptoms. In this study, we investigated the estrogenic activities of isoflavones extracted from Aspergillus oryzae‐challenged germinated soybeans (AO‐GS). Methods Eight‐week‐old virgin Sprague–Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX). The rats were orally administrated 0.1 mg/kg 17α‐ethinyl estradiol or 3 different doses of AO‐GS (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g//kg/day) in distilled water for 6 weeks, while control rats were administered vehicle alone. Uterine weights and levels of estradiol and testosterone in serum were measured. Other than serum parameters, bone parameters were also acquired by using micro‐computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results Treatments of OVX rats with AO‐GS changed the secretory profile of serum estradiol and testosterone. Serum estradiol levels were significantly increased in OVX rats treated with and AO‐GS (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg/day), while serum testosterone levels were not significantly increased in OVX rats treated with 1.0 g/kg/day of AO‐GS Furthermore, AO‐GS (2.0 g/kg/day) significantly attenuated bone loss, increased BV/TV,and Tb.Th, and significantly decreased TB.pf, Conclusion AO‐GS treatments exhibits moderate estrogenic activity in OVX rats, than the ones treated with estradiol, suggesting the potential for its use in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:55:57.701147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7174
       
  • Effect of irrigation regime on anthocyanin content and antioxidant
           activity of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions
    • Authors: Maria Kyraleou; Stefanos Koundouras, Stamatina Kallithraka, Nikolaos Theodorou, Niki Proxenia, Yorgos Kotseridis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Irrigation management is a powerful technique to control grape and wine colour. However, water deficit effects on anthocyanins are often contrasting depending on the severity of water restriction. In addition, the effect of irrigation on the antiradical capacity of grapes has not been extensively studied. In this work, the effect of water availability on anthocyanin profile and content, as well as on the antioxidant activity of Syrah grapes was investigated in an irrigation trial under semiarid climate conditions. RESULTS Three irrigation treatments were applied in a 15 year‐old Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah vineyard, starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% of ETc and non‐irrigated (NI). NI grapes were characterized by increased individual anthocyanin content. However, differences among irrigation treatments were significant only around 18–24 days after veraison, when anthocyanin accumulation was maximum. The antioxidant activity of the skin extracts was not affected by irrigation. CONLUSIONS Irrigation proved to be an effective technique to control anthocyanin content in Syrah grapes, under semiarid conditions. However, anthocyanin accumulation pattern should be considered by winemakers to appropriately select harvest time for improved wine color.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:39:04.296667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7175
       
  • Trypsin from unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) pyloric caeca:
           Purification and its use for preparation of fish protein hydrolysate with
           antioxidative activity
    • Authors: Abbas Zamani; Soottawat Benjakul
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fish proteases, especially trypsin could be used to prepare fish protein hydrolysate with antioxidative activities. In this study, trypsin from the pyloric caeca of unicorn leatherjacket was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and SBTI‐Sepharose 4B column. Hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs) (20, 30 and 40%) was prepared using the purified trypsin and antioxidative activities of hydrolysate including DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous chelating activity were determined. RESULTS Trypsin was purified with the purity of 26.43 fold and the yield of 13.43%. It had the molecular weight (MW) of 23.5 kDa with the optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C. It displayed high stability in the pH range of 6.0‐11.0 and was stable up to 50 °C. SBTI (0.05 mmol L−1) and TLCK (5 mmol L−1) completely inhibited trypsin activity. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (DH) up to 40% (P< 0.05). Based on SDS‐PAGE, hydrolysate with 40% DH showed MW lower than 6.5 kDa. CONCLUSION The purified protease from unicorn leatherjacket pyloric caeca was identified as trypsin based on its ability to hydrolyse specific synthetic substrate and the response to specific trypsin inhibitor. The purified trypsin could hydrolyze Indian mackerel protein isolate and the resulting hydrolysate exhibited antioxidative activity, depending upon DHs.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:38:47.377134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7172
       
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of anchovy fine powder at high and ambient pressure,
           and characterization of the hydrolyzates
    • Authors: Namsoo Kim; So‐Hee Son, Jin‐Soo Maeng, Yong‐Jin Cho, Chong‐Tai Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND At specific condition of high pressure, the stability and activity of some enzymes have been reportedly known to increase. The aim of this study is to apply pressure‐tolerant proteases to hydrolyzing anchovy fine powder (AFP) and to determine product characteristics of the resultant hydrolyzates. RESULTS Anchovy fine powder enzyme hydrolyzates (AFPEHs) were produced at 300 MPa and ambient pressure using combinations of Flavourzyme 500MG, Alcalase 2.4L, Marugoto E and Protamex. When the same protease combination was used for hydrolysis, the contents of total soluble solid, total water‐soluble nitrogen and trichloroacetic acid‐soluble nitrogen in the AFPEHs produced at 300 MPa were conspicuously higher than those in the AFPEHs produced at ambient pressure. This result and electrophoretic characteristics indicated that the high‐pressure process of this study accelerates protein hydrolysis compared to the ambient‐pressure counterpart. Most peptides in the hydrolyzates obtained at 300 MPa had molecular masses less than 5 kDa. Functionality, sensory characteristics and the content of total free amino acids for the selected hydrolyzates were also determined. CONCLUSION The high‐pressure hydrolytic process, utilizing pressure‐tolerant proteases, was found to be an efficient method for producing protein hydrolyzates with good product characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:38:31.072268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7173
       
  • Optimisation of α‐terpineol production by limonene
           biotransformation using Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840
    • Authors: Ya‐Nan Tai; Min Xu, Jing‐Nan Ren, Man Dong, Zi‐Yu Yang, Si‐yi Pan, Gang Fan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, R‐(+)‐limonene biotransformation using three fungal strains was compared. Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840 was distinguished for its capacity to transform limonene into α‐terpineol with high regioselectivity. Growth kinetics in submerged liquid culture and the effects of growth phase and contact time on biotransformation were studied using this strain. Substrate concentration, co‐solvent selection, and cultivation conditions were subsequently optimised. RESULTS The maximum concentration of α‐terpineol (833.93 mg/L) was obtained when the preculture medium was in medium log‐phase by adding 840 mg/L substrate dissolved in ethanol and cultivation was performed at 24 °C, 150 rpm, and pH 6.0 for 12 h. Addition of small amounts of R‐(+)‐limonene (84 mg/L) at the start of fungal log‐phase growth obtained 1.5‐fold yield of α‐terpineol, indicating that the enzyme was inducible. CONCLUSION Among these three strains tested, P. digitatum DSM 62840 was proved to be an efficient biocatalyst to transform R‐(+)‐limonene to α‐terpineol. Further studies revealed that the optimal growth phase for biotransformation was in the medium log phase of this strain. The biotransformation represented a wide tolerance of temperature; α‐terpineol concentration underwent no significant change at 8–32 °C. The biotransformation could also be performed using resting cells.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T02:24:23.723543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7171
       
  • Cell wall metabolism of peaches and nectarines treated with UV‐B
           radiation: a biochemical and molecular approach
    • Authors: Claudia Scattino; Noemi Negrini, Silvia Morgutti, Maurizio Cocucci, Carlos H. Crisosto, Pietro Tonutti, Antonella Castagna, Annamaria Ranieri
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background UV‐B radiation has been shown to improve, at least in selected genotypes, both the health‐promoting potential and the aesthetic properties of tomato and peach fruits during their postharvest period. The effects of postharvest UV‐B treatment on the cell wall metabolism of peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica L. Batsch) was assessed in this study. Three cultivars, Suncrest’ (Melting Flesh, MF) and ‘Babygold 7’(Non‐Melting Flesh, NMF) peaches and ‘Big Top’ (Slow Melting, SM) nectarine, differing for the characteristics of textural changes and softening during ripening, were analysed. Results UV‐B effects differ in relation to the cultivar considered. In MF ‘Suncrest’ fruit, UV‐B treatment significantly reduced the flesh firmness loss despite the slight increase in Endo‐PG presence and activity. Exo‐PG activity increased as well, while EGase, β‐Gal and PME were substantially unaffected by the treatment. The UV‐B‐induced reduction of flesh softening was paralleled by the inhibition of PpExp gene transcription and expansin protein accumulation. The UV‐B treatment did not induce differences in flesh firmness between control and UV‐B‐treated NMF ‘Babygold 7’ and SM ‘Big Top’ fruit. Conclusion Based on these results, postharvest UV‐B treatment may be considered a promising tool to improve shelf‐life and quality of peach fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13T02:04:17.58017-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7168
       
  • Compound specific stable carbon isotopic signature of carbohydrate
           pyrolysis products from C3 and C4 plants (Py‐CSIA)
    • Authors: José A. González‐Pérez; Nicasio T. Jiménez‐Morillo, José M. de la Rosa, Gonzalo Almendros, Francisco‐J. González‐Vila
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pyrolysis‐compound specific isotopic analysis (Py‐CSIA: Py‐GC‐(FID)‐C‐IRMS) is a relatively novel technique that allows on‐line quantitation of stable isotope proportions in chromatographically separated products released by pyrolysis. Validation of Py‐CSIA technique is compulsory for molecular traceability in basic and applied research. In this work, commercial sucrose from C4‐ (sugarcane) and C3‐ (sugar beet) photosystem plants and admixtures, were studied using analytical pyrolysis (Py‐GC/MS), bulk δ13C IRMS and δ13C Py‐CSIA. Results Major pyrolysis compounds were furfural (F), furfural‐5‐hydroxymethyl (HMF) and levoglucosan (LV). Bulk and main pyrolysis compound δ13C (‰) were dependent on plant origin: C3 (F: −24.65 ± 0.89; HMF: −22.07 ± 0.41 ‰; LV: −21.74 ± 0.17 ‰.) and C4 (F: −14.35 ± 0.89 ‰; HMF: −11.22 ± 0.54 ‰; LV −11.44 ± 1.26 ‰). Significant regressions were obtained for δ13C of bulk and pyrolysis compounds in C3‐ and C4 admixtures. Furfural (F) was found 13C depleted with respect to bulk and HMF and LV indicating the incorporation of the light carbon atom in position 6 of carbohydrates in the furan ring after pyrolysis. Conclusion This is the first detailed report on δ13C signature of major pyrolytically‐generated carbohydrate‐derived molecules. The information provided by Py‐CSIA is valuable to identify source marker compounds of use in food science/fraud detection or in environmental research.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13T02:03:45.039818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7169
       
  • Chemical quality assessment of traditional salt‐fermented shrimp
           paste from Northern Mindanao, Philippines
    • Authors: Anna R. Pilapil; Ellen Neyrinck, Daphne Deloof, Karen Bekaert, Johan Robbens, Katleen Raes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Shrimp paste is an important fermented commodity in the Philippines, but so far their quality parameters are hardly characterized. Paste samples were procured in the province Agusan del Norte, Philippines from three different traditional manufacturers and one from a commercial supermarket. All samples were analyzed for their chemical composition. RESULTS Both traditional and commercial shrimp pastes ranged in content of protein (12.9‐15.3 g/100 g), fat (0.50‐1.94 g/100 g), SAFA (32.6‐39.1 g/100 g FAME), MUFA (15.1‐18.7 g/100 g FAME), and PUFA (30.7‐40.8 g/100 g FAME). The pH value ranged between 6.8‐7.7. The samples were microbiological stable due to the low aw‐value and high NaCl content, ranging between 0.70‐0.74 and 4.04‐5.15 g/100 g respectively. Although samples were processed in the same country and under similar conditions, differences were observed for the following parameters: TBARS (2.32‐5.03 μgMDA/g), total NPN (3.07‐5.15 gN/100 g), free NPN (1.17‐2.39 gN/100 g), biogenic amines and mineral content. The Biogenic Amine Index varied between 0 and 976 for the different samples, resulting that only one sample could be considered as class 1 quality. CONCLUSIONS Results showed that there is a high variation in the quality of the product which could be linked to differences in the fermentation process and hygienic quality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12T00:58:03.203479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7167
       
  • Leaf Proteome Comparison of Two GM Common Bean Varieties and Their
           Non‐GM Counterparts by Principal Component Analysis
    • Authors: Pedro A. Valentim‐Neto; Gabriela B. Rossi, Kelly B. Anacleto, Carla S. de Mello, Geisi M. Balsamo, Ana Carolina M. Arisi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, was approved for commercialization in Brazil. The present work aimed to use principal component analysis (PCA) to compare the proteomic profile of this GM common bean and its non‐GM counterpart. RESULTS Seedlings from four Brazilian common bean varieties were grown under controlled environmental conditions. Leaf proteomic profiles were analyzed by two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Firstly, a comparison among 12 gels from four common bean varieties was performed by PCA using volume percentage of 198 matched spots, presented in all gels. The first two principal components (PC) accounted for 46.8% of total variation. Two groups were clearly separated by the first component: Pérola and GM Pérola from Pontal and GM Pontal. Secondly, another comparison among six gels from the same variety GM and its non‐GM counterpart was performed by PCA, in this case it was possible to distinguish GM and non‐GM. CONCLUSION Separation between leaf proteomic profile of GM common bean variety and its counterpart was observed only when they were compared in pairs. These results showed higher similarity between GM variety and its counterpart than between two common bean varieties. PCA is a useful tool to compare proteomes of GM and non‐GM plant varieties.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11T10:31:51.863744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7166
       
  • Clonal differences and impact of defoliation on Sauvignon blanc (Vitis
           vinifera L.) wines: a chemical and sensory investigation
    • Authors: Katja Šuklje; Guillaume Antalick, Astrid Buica, Jennifer Langlois, Zelmari A Coetzee, Julia Gouot, Leigh M Schmidtke, Alain Deloire
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study, performed on Sauvignon blanc clones SB11 and SB316, grafted on the same rootstock 101–14 Mgt (V. riparia x V. ruperstris) and grown at two adjacent vineyards, was twofold; i) to study wine chemical and sensory composition of both clones within an unaltered canopy and ii) to determine the effect of defoliation (e.g. bunch microclimate) on wine chemical and sensory composition. Results Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminate Analysis (OPLS‐DA) was applied to the concentration profiles of volatile compounds derived from GC‐MS data. The loadings directions inferred that 3‐isobutyl‐2‐methoxypyrazine (IBMP) discriminated control treatments (shaded fruit zone) of both clones from defoliation treatments (exposed fruit zone), whereas 3‐sulfanyl‐hexan‐1‐ol (3SH), 3‐sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), hexanol, hexyl hexanoate and some other esters discriminated defoliated treatments from the controls. The OPLS‐DA indicated the importance of IBMP, higher alcohol acetates and phenylethyl esters, for discrimination of clone SB11 from clone SB316 irrespective of the treatment. Defoliation in the fruit zone significantly decreased perceived greenness in clone SB11 and elevated fruitier aromas, whereas in clone SB316 the effect of defoliation on wine sensory perception was less noticeable regardless the decrease in IBMP concentrations. Conclusion These findings highlight the importance of clone selection and bunch microclimate to diversify produced wine styles.
      PubDate: 2015-03-09T01:54:55.857218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7165
       
  • Cinnamaldehyde promotes root branching by regulating endogenous hydrogen
           sulfide
    • Authors: Yan‐Feng Xue; Meng Zhang, Zhong‐Qiang Qi, You‐Qin Li, Zhiqi Shi, Jian Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been widely applied in medicine and food preservation. However, whether and how CA regulates plant physiology is largely unknown. To address these gaps, the present study investigated the beneficial effect of CA on root branching and its possible biochemical mechanism. Results The lateral root (LR) formation of pepper seedlings could be remarkably induced by CA at specific concentrations without showing any inhibitory effect on the growth of primary root (PR). CA could induce the generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by increasing the activity of L‐cysteine desulfhydrase (DES) in roots. By fluorescently tracking endogenous H2S in situ, it could be observed that H2S accumulated clearly in the outer layer cells in PR where LR emerges. NaHS (H2S donor) treatment induced LR formation while HT (H2S scavenger) showed adverse effect. The addition of HT could mitigate CA‐induced increase in endogenous H2S level, which in turn counteracted the inducible effect of CA on LR formation. Conclusion CA showed great potential in promoting LR formation, which was mediated by endogenous H2S. These results not only shed new light on the application of CA in agriculture, but also extend the knowledge of H2S signaling in the regulation of root branching.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06T01:47:06.677034-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7164
       
  • Double emulsions to improve frankfurters lipid content: impact of perilla
           oil and pork backfat
    • Authors: María Freire; Ricard Bou, Susana Cofrades, María Teresa Solas, Francisco Jiménez‐Colmenero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The technology involving the use of water‐in‐oil‐in‐water emulsions (DE) offers an interesting approach to improve the fat content of foods. With this aim, the effect on frankfurter properties of replacing pork backfat with two different DE prepared using perilla oil and pork backfat as lipid phases was assessed. This strategy was compared with straightforward addition of the lipid source and addition by means of an oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsion. RESULTS As compared with all‐pork‐fat frankfurters, the ones with perilla oil had a higher proportion of n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Reduced‐fat frankfurters had similar water and fat binding properties irrespective of the lipid source or the technological strategy used to incorporate them. Moreover, the oil source but not its mode of incorporation determined the oxidation levels of frankfurters. In reduced‐fat samples, except in the case of frankfurters formulated with a perilla oil‐in‐water emulsion, hardness was unaffected either by the type of fat or by its mode of incorporation. The replacement of pork backfat by perilla oil reduced the overall acceptability of products when perilla oil was added by means of the O/W emulsion and DE approaches. CONCLUSION This technology is suitable for labelling meat products with specific nutritional and health claims.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06T01:46:36.196723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7163
       
  • Generation and identification of anti‐inflammatory peptides from
           bovine β‐casein using enzyme preparations from cod and hog
    • Authors: Karina Altmann; Adam Wutkowski, Martin Klempt, Ingrid Clawin‐Rädecker, Hans Meisel, Peter Chr. Lorenzen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of the present study was to generate and identify potential anti‐inflammatory peptides from bovine β‐casein with enzyme preparations from cod and hog. Furthermore, the potential of Cod Trypsin, derived from fishery by‐products, to produce these bioactive peptides for replacement of non‐food grade TPCK treated porcine Trypsin enzyme preparation was evaluated. Results Potential anti‐inflammatory peptides were obtained by hydrolysis of β‐casein with the tryptic enzyme preparations cod trypsin, porcine trypsin (tosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK)‐treated) and a porcine trypsin and chymotrypsin preparation (PTN 6.0 S). Proteolysates generated with enzyme preparations containing mainly chymotryptic activity (Cryotin, Cryotin F) did not exhibit any effect. Conclusion The more chymotryptic enzyme activity is present, the lower is the potential anti‐inflammatory activity of the hydrolysates in HEKnfκb‐RE‐cells. Comparable peptides were produced by application of porcine Trypsin (TPCK) and Cod Trypsin. Therefore, the enzyme preparation Cod Trypsin can replace the non‐food grade porcine enzyme preparation Trypsin (TPCK) for the generation of potential anti‐inflammatory peptides from β‐casein.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:34:31.060738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7159
       
  • Authentication of commercial candy ingredients using DNA PCR‐cloning
           methodology
    • Authors: Marta Muñoz‐Colmenero; Jose Luis Martínez, Agustín Roca, Eva García‐Vázquez
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Commercial candies are consumed by all population age sectors worldwide, thus methods for quality control and composition authentication are needed for best compliance of consumer's preferences. In this study the applications of DNA‐based methodology for candy quality control have been tested. Eighteen samples of commercial candies (marshmallows, gumdrops, jelly, sherbet, gelatin‐based desserts) produced by five countries were analyzed to identify the component species by Polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA and ribulose ‐1,5‐diphosphate carboxylase oxygenase genes, and the species determined from BLAST comparison with universal databases and phylogenetic analysis. Results Positive DNA extraction and amplification of the target genes was obtained for 94% of candies assayed, even those containing as little as
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:33:17.550501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7158
       
  • Effect of garlic powder on acrylamide formation in a low‐moisture
           model system and bread baking
    • Authors: Jinwang Li; Jie Zuo, Xuguang Qiao, Yongju Zhang, Zhixiang Xu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Acrylamide (AA) is of concern worldwide because of its neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and reproductive‐developmental toxicity. Consequently, methods for minimizing AA formation during food processing are vital. RESULTS In this paper, the formation and elimination of AA in an asparagine/glucose low‐moisture model system were studied by response surface methodology. The effect of garlic powder on the kinetics of AA formation/elimination was also evaluated. The AA content reached a maximum level (674.0 nmol) with 1.2 mmol of glucose and 1.2 mmol of asparagine after heating at 200 °C for 6.0 min. The AA content was greatly reduced with the addition of garlic powder. Compared to without garlic powder, an AA reduction rate of 43 % was obtained with addition of garlic powder at a mass fraction of 0.05 g. Garlic powder inhibited formation of AA during the generation‐predominant kinetic stage, and had no effect on the degradation‐predominant kinetic stage. The effect of garlic powder on AA formation in bread and bread quality was also investigated. Adding a garlic powder mass fraction of 15 g to 500 g dough significantly (P
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:29:58.732542-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7162
       
  • Microbial bioconversion and processing methods enhanced the phenolic acid
           and flavonoids and the radical scavenging capacity of Smilax china L. leaf
           
    • Authors: Ju‐Hyeong Kim; Tae‐Sik Park, Seung‐Hwan Yang, Joo‐Won Suh, Soon‐Mi Shim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background It has been reported that Smilax china L. leaf (SCL) provided various biological functions owing to polyphenols. The objective of the current study was to assess enhancing effect of processing methods and microbial conversions on phenolic acid and flavonoids contents and radical scavenging capacity of SCL for potential applications of diverse food products. Results Targeted phenolic acid (chlorogenic acid) and flavonoids (piceid and quercetin) were identified in fresh SCL by using liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS). The total amount of identified phenolic acid and flavonoids was the highest in steamed SCL (12.70 ± 0.12 mg g−1 on a dry matter basis, dmb). A substantial amount of chlorogenic acid (5.81 ± 0.16 mg g−1 dmb), piceid (3.96 ± 0.04 mg g−1 dmb), and quercetin (6.06 ± 0.12 mg g−1 dmb) were quantified in SCL fermented by the Bacillus species, roasted, and steamed, respectively (p 
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:25:55.071543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7160
       
  • UV‐B‐induced anthocyanin accumulation in hypocotyls of radish
           sprouts continues in the dark after irradiation
    • Authors: Nana Su; Yanwu Lu, Qi Wu, Yuanyuan Liu, Yan Xia, Kai Xia, Jin Cui
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Raphanus sativus L. cv. Yanghua sprouts are rich in health‐promoting anthocyanins; thus the hypocotyls show red‐color under light. In this study, effects of UV‐B irradiation at 5 W m−2 on the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts were investigated. Results Anthocyanins began to accumulate rapidly from 24 h irradiation and increased continuously till 48 h, which showed a similar pattern with PAL activity with the correlation coefficient of 0.804. The expression of DFR and ANS paralleled the upward trend in anthocyanin accumulation, while CHS, CHI and F3H were up‐regulated before the accumulation. When the sprouts were moved into the dark from UV‐B, the anthocyanin accumulation did not stop immediately. By contrast, anthocyanin accumulated continuously for more than 12 h in the dark, which was further supported by the significantly higher PAL activity monitored at 24 h after irradiation. Similarly, the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis‐related genes were much higher over 6 h after 12 h UV‐B irradiation. Conclusion UV‐B‐induced anthocyanin accumulation continues in the dark after irradiation, which was supported by unfading PAL activity and high levels of biosynthesis‐related genes. This will provide evidence to produce high‐quality sprouts with more anthocyanins but less energy wastage in practice.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:24:36.222962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7161
       
  • Volatile composition and sensory properties of
           Vanilla × tahitensis bring new insights for vanilla
           quality control
    • Authors: Christel Brunschwig; Sophie Rochard, Alexandre Pierrat, Anne Rouger, Perrine Senger‐Emonnot, Gérard George, Phila Raharivelomanana
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Vanilla × tahitensis produced in French Polynesia has a unique flavour among vanilla species. However data on volatiles and sensory properties remain limited. In this study, the volatile composition and sensory properties of V. ×tahitensis from three Polynesian cultivars and two origins (French Polynesia/Papua New Guinea) were determined by GC‐MS and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis respectively and compared to Vanilla planifolia. Results Vanilla species, origins and cultivars were differentiated by their volatile and sensory profiles using Principal Component Analysis. The V. ×tahitensis flavour from French Polynesia was characterized by a well‐balanced sensory profile, having strong anise and caramel notes due to high levels of anisyl compounds. V. ×tahitensis from Papua New Guinea was distinct from that of French Polynesia, having strong spicy, fruity, brown rum notes due to p‐vinylguaiacol, p‐cresol and esters. V. planifolia showed stronger phenolic, woody, smoky notes, due to guaiacol, creosol and phenol which were found to be biomarkers of the species. Vanilla sensory properties were linked by Partial Least Squares Regression to key volatile compounds like guaiacol or creosol, which are indicators of lower quality. Conclusion This study brings new insights for vanilla quality control, with a focus on key volatile compounds, irrespective of origin.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T06:24:30.256-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7157
       
  • Techno‐Functional Characterization of Salad Dressing Emulsions
           Supplemented with Pea, Lentil and Chickpea Flours
    • Authors: Zhen MA; Joyce I. Boye, Kevin Swallow, Linda Malcolmson, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours are novel products. A three‐factor face‐centered central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effect of pulse flour concentration (3.5%, 7%, 10.5% w/w), egg yolk concentration (3%, 5%, 7% w/w) and oil concentration (20%, 35%, 50% w/w) on the rheological and color characteristics of salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours. RESULTS: The consistency coefficient m, plateau modulusGN0, recoverable strain Q(t) and color values were all affected by the concentrations of pulse flours used. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dressings with lower oil and egg yolk contents had a less densely packed network compared with dressings with higher oil and egg yolk contents. Sensory results were most promising for salad dressings supplemented with the whole green lentil, yellow pea with low flour content, and chickpea with high oil content. CONCLUSION: This study should be useful for designing novel types of salad dressings to meet market requirements as well as helping to increase pulse consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T05:40:24.484679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7156
       
  • Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Origanum
           majorana and investigation of antiproliferative and antioxidant activities
           
    • Authors: Ramazan Erenler; Ozkan Sen, Huseyin Aksit, Ibrahim Demirtas, Ayse Sahin Yaglioglu, Mahfuz Elmastas, İsa Telci
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The Origanum majorana L. belonging to the Lamiaceae family has a great potential and used as folk medicine against asthma, indigestion, headache, and rheumatism; in addition, the essential oils of this plant have been used widely in food industries. The plant materials have been harvested from the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Field of Gaziosmanpasa University. Air‐dried plant materials were boiled in water, filtered then solvent part was extracted subsequently with hexane and ethyl acetate. The chromatographic method was applied for ethyl acetate extract to isolate bioactive secondary metabolites of which the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, basically 1D‐NMR, 2D‐NMR and LC‐QTOF. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities were carried out of isolated secondary metabolites. Results 5,6,3'‐trihydroxy‐7,8,4'‐trimethoxyflavone, hesperetin, hydroquinone, arbutin and rosmarinic acid were isolated from the water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts of Origanum majorana. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds and water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract were investigated using the assays of DPPH•, ABTS·+, reducing power and total phenolic contents. The antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds and plant extracts were investigated against C6 and HeLa cell lines using BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA and xCELLigence assays, respectively. Both hesperetin and hydroquinone were determined to have stronger antiproliferative activities against C6 and HeLa cells than the other isolated compounds and 5‐FU. Conclusion The results showed that the extract and isolated compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Hence, this plant has a potential to be a natural antioxidant in food industries and an anticancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T01:01:21.615588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7155
       
  • Bioactive quinone derivatives from marine brown algae Sargassum thunbergii
           induce anti‐adipogenic and pro‐osteoblastogenic activities
    • Authors: Jung‐Ae Kim; Fatih Karadeniz, Byul‐Nim Ahn, Myeong Sook Kwon, Ok‐Ju Mun, Min Joo Bae, Youngwan Seo, Mihyang Kim, Sang‐Hyeon Lee, Yuck Yong Kim, Chang‐Suk Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Lack of bone formation‐related health problems is a major problem for aging population in modern world. As a part of ongoing trend to develop natural substances that attenuate osteoporotic bone loss conditions, the effect of edible brown algae, Sargassum thunbergii and its active contents on adipogenic differentiation in 3T3‐L1 fibroblasts and osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3‐E1 pre‐osteoblasts were evaluated. Sargassum thunbergii treatment significantly reduced the lipid accumulation and the expression of adipogenic differentiation markers such as peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c. In addition, S. thunbergii successfully enhanced the osteoblast differentiation as indicated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity along raised levels of osteoblastogenesis indicators, namely bone morphogenetic protein‐2, osteocalcin and collagen type I. Two compounds, sargaquinoic and sargahydroquinoic acid, were isolated from active extract and shown to be active by means of osteogenesis inducement. In conclusion, S. thunbergii could be a source for functional food ingredients for improved osteoporosis and obesity.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T21:46:05.480274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7148
       
  • Comparative study on acid‐soluble and pepsin‐soluble collagens
           from skin and swim bladder of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: Xiaosa Wu; Luyun Cai, Ailing Cao, Yanbo Wang, Tingting Li, Jianrong Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Collagen has a wide range of applications in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical products. Results The collagens in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin and swim bladder were extracted using acetic acid and pepsin, respectively. Higher yield (178 g kg−1) was obtained for pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from fish skin than that PSC from swim bladder (114 g kg−1). Not surprisingly, yields of PSC from fish skin and swim bladder were also higher than that of acid soluble collagen (ASC) from the same organs (89 and 51 g kg−1). The SDS‐PAGE profile showed that ASC and PSC belonged to type I collagen, and PSC contained higher α‐components than ASC. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that those collagens were almost similar in their protein secondary structures. The micrographs showed collagens had a spongy structure, and more pores were obtained in swim bladder than skin. Collagens showed high solubilities in acidic pH ranges. However, the solubilities decreased in the presence of NaCl at concentrations over 20 g kg−1. Conclusion Collagens were successfully extracted from the skin and swim bladder of grass carp. These byproducts could serve as an alternative source of collagens for a wide variety of applications in food and nutraceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T03:42:34.350419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7154
       
  • Metabolomic changes in grains of well‐watered and
           drought‐stressed transgenic rice
    • Authors: Kyong‐Hee Nam; Hee Jae Shin, In‐Soon Pack, Jung‐Ho Park, Ho Bang Kim, Chang‐Gi Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Drought induces a number of physiological and biochemical responses in cereals. This study was designed to examine the metabolite changes in grains of drought‐tolerant transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) that over‐expresses AtCYP78A7 encoding cytochrome P450 protein using 1H‐NMR and GC‐MS. Results Principal component analysis showed that 1H‐NMR‐based profile was definitely separated by soil‐water status of well‐watered and water‐deficit. A discrimination of metabolites between transgenic and non‐transgenic grains appeared under both watering regimes. Variations in the levels of amino acids and sugars led to the discrimination of metabolites among genotypes. In particular, drought significantly enhanced the levels of γ–aminobutyric acid (244.6%), fructose (155.7%), glucose (211.0%), glycerol (57.2%), glycine (65.8%), and aminoethanol (192.4%) in the transgenic grains compared with the non‐transgenic control grains. Conclusion These changes in amounts of metabolites may assist in improving drought tolerance in transgenic rice by playing crucial roles in stress‐responsive pathways including GABA biosynthesis, sucrose metabolism, and antioxidant defenses.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:57.238389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7152
       
  • Influence of pig's genetic type on sensory properties and consumer's
           acceptance of Parma, San Daniele and Toscano dry‐cured hams
    • Authors: Ella Pagliarini; Monica Laureati, Caterina Dinnella, Erminio Monteleone, Cristina Proserpio, Edi Piasentier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study investigated sensory properties and acceptability of different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) dry‐cured hams. For each PDO, two genotypes were selected: ILxLW cross (reference hybrid) and Goland cross (commercial hybrid). Results According to descriptive analysis genetic variance affected few attributes describing Toscano and San Daniele hams sensory quality. The commercial hybrid Parma ham was distinct from the traditional one. Goland genotype was significantly higher in red color, saltiness, dryness and hardness and showed a lower intensity of pork‐meat odor/flavor and sweetness than the ILxLW. Consumer's acceptance was mainly influenced by the PDO technology. Genotype effect on acceptance was only observed in Toscano ham. PCR analysis revealed that Toscano ham was the preferred sample. Considering that the consumers involved were from Tuscany, it's likely that Toscano ham was the preferred product according to a higher familiarity with this product. Conclusion Sensory properties of ham samples were better discriminated according to their PDO than genotype. Likewise, consumer liking was more affected by the specific PDO technology than genetic type. Toscano ham resulted the most preferred and the most familiar product among the Tuscan consumers, indicating that familiarity with product was the best driver of dry‐cured ham preference.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:40.508223-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7151
       
  • Hepatoprotective effects of soluble rice protein in primary hepatocytes
           and in mice
    • Authors: Bok Kyung Han; Yooheon Park, Hyeon‐Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The production of rice‐derived by‐products has increased due to the growing use of processed rice products. The objective of this study was to isolate highly‐purified proteins from a rice by‐product—rice syrup meal—and to examine their hepatoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Result Soluble rice protein (SRP70) was obtained via enzymatic processing of rice syrup meal using Termamyl SC and Alcalase. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that SRP70 contained low molecular‐weight (
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:25.812918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7153
       
  • Fermented sorghum/millet based beverage, Obiolor, extenuates high fat
           diet‐induced dyslipidemia and redox imbalance in the liver of rats
    • Authors: Ajiboye T.O; Iliasu G. A, Adeleye A. O, Ojewuyi O. B, Kolawole F. L, Bello S. A, Mohammed A. O.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Obiolor, a nonalcoholic beverage produced from fermented sorghum and millet malts, is widely consumed on the daily basis by the Igala tribe in Nigeria and highly associated with good health. This effect of Obiolor on dyslipidemia, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in the liver of high fat diet fed rats was investigated. Results High fat diet mediated alterations in liver and serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, low‐density cholesterol, very low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, were significantly (P
      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:17:51.847849-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7150
       
  • Agronomic and environmental consequences of using liquid mineral
           concentrates on arable farms
    • Authors: René LM Schils; Romke Postma, Debby van Rotterdam, Kor B Zwart
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In regions with intensive livestock systems, the processing of manure into liquid mineral concentrates is seen as an option to increase the nutrient use efficiency of manures. The agricultural sector anticipates that these products may in future be regarded as regular mineral fertilizers. We assessed the agronomic suitability and impact on GHG and ammonia emissions of using liquid mineral concentrates on arable farms. RESULTS The phosphate requirements on arable farms were largely met by raw pig slurry, given its large regional availability. After the initial nutrient input by means of pig slurry, the nitrogen/phosphate ratio of the remaining nutrient crop requirements determined the additional amount of liquid mineral concentrates that can be used. For sandy soils, liquid mineral concentrates could supply 50% of the nitrogen requirement, whereas for clay soils the concentrates did not meet the required nitrogen/phosphate ratio. The total GHG emissions per kg of plant available nitrogen ranged from −65 to 33 kg CO2‐equivalents. It increased in the order digestates 
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:33.321923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7146
       
  • Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Regional Emission Information in
           Agricultural Systems
    • Authors: Junbeum Kim; Albina Yalaltdinova, Natalia Sirina, Natalia Baranovskaya
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a compilation and evaluation of the input energy and materials, output emissions and the potential environmental impacts of a product, service or system throughout its life cycle. While methodological issues of LCA are still being developed and much research is being conducted worldwide in order to improve them. One of the important advances in LCA is a regionalized LCA, meaning the development of regionalized databases, inventories, and impact assessment methods and models. RESULTS Regional emission information (REI) was developed and integrated with the characterization results in LCA of an agricultural product in the study area. Comparison of obtained outcomes with LCA characterization results that did not include REI shows that the characterization results taking REI into account are much higher as regards human toxicity, from 0.02% to 0.18%, freshwater ecotoxicity from 89% to 99% and terrestrial ecotoxicity from 8.006 % to 26.177%. CONCLUSION Results of current LCA studies on agricultural products and systems that do not include REI are underestimating the life cycle environmental impact. For the LCA of agricultural products and systems, the REI as well as regionalized life cycle inventory (LCI) data should be developed and integrated into the current LCA approach.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:18.519573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7149
       
  • Evaluation of the in vitro alpha‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of
           green tea polyphenols and different tea types
    • Authors: Xiaoping Yang; Fanbin Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea, and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α‐glucosidase and whether they can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS Green tea polyphenols (TP) strongly inhibited α‐glucosidase activity by non‐competitive inhibition with the IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL−1 and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea also had dose‐dependent inhibitory potential with the IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25, and 1.38 µg mL−1 (µg polyphenol mL−1), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TP changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TP during enzymatic hydrolysis. CONCLUSION Green TP, green tea, black tea, and oolong tea are excellent α‐glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TP. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea, and oolong tea can be potentially used to the control of postprandial hyperglycemia.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:37:45.290842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7147
       
  • Incorporation Of Liposomes Containing Squid Tunic Ace‐Inhibitory
           Peptides To Fish Gelatin
    • Authors: Mauricio Mosquera; Begoña Giménez, Pilar Montero, M. Carmen Gómez‐Guillén
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background hydrolysates from collagen of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas tunics have shown excellent angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, however, peptides directly included in food systems may suffer a decrease in activity, which could be minimized by loading them into nanoliposomes. Results a fraction of peptides with molecular weights
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T01:47:14.170154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7145
       
  • Impact of casein and egg white proteins on the structure of wheat
           gluten‐based protein‐rich food
    • Authors: Arno G.B. Wouters; Ine Rombouts, Bert Lagrain, Jan A. Delcour
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There is a growing interest in texturally and nutritionally satisfying vegetable alternatives for meat. Wheat gluten proteins have unique functional properties but a poor nutritional value in comparison to animal proteins. This study investigated the potential of egg white and bovine milk casein with well‐balanced amino acid composition to increase the quality of wheat gluten‐based protein‐rich foods. RESULTS Heating a wheat gluten (51.4 g) ‐ water (100.0 ml) blend for 120 minutes at 100 °C increased its firmness less than heating a wheat gluten (33.0 g) ‐ freeze dried egg white (16.8 g) ‐ water (100.0 ml) blend. In contrast, the addition of casein to the gluten‐water blend negatively impacted firmness after heating. Firmness was correlated to loss of protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium during heating, which was higher with egg white than with casein. Even more, heat‐induced polymerization of the gluten‐water blend with egg white but not with casein was larger than expected from the losses in extractability of gluten and egg white on their own. CONCLUSION Structure formation was favored by mixing gluten with egg white but not with casein. These observations were linked to the intrinsic polymerization behavior of egg white and casein, but also to their interaction with gluten. Thus, not all nutritionally suitable proteins can be used for enrichment of gluten‐based protein‐rich foods.
      PubDate: 2015-02-19T02:04:05.191418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7143
       
  • Anti‐hyperglycemic and anti‐hyperlipidemic effects of
           Vaccinium myrtillus fruit in experimentally‐induced diabetes
           (antidiabetic effect of Vaccinium myrtillus fruit)
    • Authors: Sedigheh Asgary; Mahmood RafieianKopaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Fatemeh shamsi, Najmeh Goli‐malekabadi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) is a useful plant with anti‐diabetic properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bilberry against DM. Diabetes was induced using intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight (bw)). Bilberry powder (2g/day) and glibenclamide (positive control; 0.6 mg/kgbw) were administered for 4 weeks following alloxan injection. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C), very low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL‐C), triglycerides (TG) and C‐reactive protein (CRP) were determined at baseline and at 2nd and 4th week of the study. Results Bilberry supplementation resulted in a significant reduction of glucose compared with the diabetic control as well as glibenclamide treatment. Bilberry elevated insulin, reduced TC, LDL‐C, VLDL‐C and TG levels, and prevented HDL‐C decline. Serum insulin, TC and LDL‐C levels were not affected by glibenclamide, and CRP did not significantly change with either bilberry or glibenclamide. Histological examinations revealed a significant elevation of islet size in the bilberry and glibenclamide‐treated. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with bilberry fruits may protect against impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in DM.
      PubDate: 2015-02-19T02:03:47.618078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7144
       
  • Tea Waste: an Effective and Economic Substrate for Oyster Mushroom
           Cultivation
    • Authors: Doudou Yang; Jin Liang, Yunsheng Wang, Feng Sun, Hong Tao, Qiang Xu, Liang Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Chi‐Tang Ho, Xiaochun Wan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tea waste was left after tea leaves were extracted by hot water to obtain water‐soluble components. But it still contains reusable energy substrate and nutrients which may pollute environment if it is dealt in inappropriate ways. Other agricultural wastes have been widely studied in cultivating of mushroom on various agricultural wastes. In the present study, we cultivated oyster mushroom using tea waste as substrate. To study the feasibility of reusing it, tea waste was added in substrate at different ratios in different experiment groups. Three mushroom strains (39, 71 and YOU) were compared and evaluated. Mycelia growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and growth duration were measured. RESULTS Substrate with different tea waste ratios showed different growth and yield performance. Substrate containing 40%‐60% of tea waste obtained the highest yield. CONCLUSION Tea waste could be used as an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. This study also provided an available way dealing with massive tea waste.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T02:40:27.80245-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7140
       
  • Evaluation of Different Drying Temperatures on Physico‐chemical and
           Antioxidant Properties of Water Soluble Tomato Powders and on Their Use in
           Pork Patties
    • Authors: Hyeong Sang Kim; Koo Bok Chin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato and tomato products provide various antioxidant activities, which could be changed by the processing method. This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of water soluble tomato powder (WSTP) as affected by different oven temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C), and to evaluate the physicochemical property and antioxidative activity of pork patties containing these powders. RESULTS The contents of total phenolic compounds of WSTP ranged from 22.2 to 69.6g kg−1 dry matter. The antioxidant activities increased significantly with increasing drying temperatures (p < 0.05). The physicochemical properties of pork patties containing tomato powders were also evaluated. WSTP at 100 °C showed the highest redness value compared to those dried at 60 and 80 °C. Lipid oxidation of pork patties was retarded by 7 days with the addition of WSTP. Especially, pork patties containing WSTP showed antimicrobial activity at 14 days of refrigerated storage, regardless of drying temperatures. CONCLUSION WSTP, especially prepared at 100 °C, could be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in meat products.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17T01:38:03.177606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7141
       
  • Silicon biofortification of leafy vegetables and its bioaccessibility in
           the edible parts
    • Authors: Massimiliano D'Imperio; Massimiliano Renna, Angela Cardinali, Donato Buttaro, Pietro Santamaria, Francesco Serio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The mineral silicon (Si) is an essential element for humans and a general component of the diet found mainly in plant‐based foods. The aim of this study was to obtain Si biofortificated leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, basil, swiss chard, and chicory) to use for the IV gamma products (ready to use). For the biofortified plants production, a floating system with 0, 50, and 100 mg L−1 of Si in nutrient solution, was used. In addition, the assessment of bioaccessibility of biofortified plants, by in vitro gastro‐digestion process, was performed. Results The added silicon in nutrient solution did not influence yield and colour of vegetables but a species‐related accumulation of Si was found: from 18 to 69 mg kg−1 fresh weight (FW) in tatsoi, from 19 to 106 mg kg−1 FW in mizuna, from 15 to 93 mg kg−1 FW in purslane, from 41 to 294 mg kg−1 FW in basil, from 17 to 76 mg kg−1 FW in Swiss chard, and from 23 to 76 mg kg−1 FW in chicory. The Si resulted bioaccessible in all species considered in a range from 23% (basil) to 64% (chicory). Conclusion The application of Si to the nutrient solution in the range 50–100 mg L−1 allows to obtain biofortified leafy vegetables. In addition, the biofortificated vegetables have showed, on average, much bioaccessible Si, respect to unbiofortified.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17T01:36:52.335629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7142
       
  • Identification and molecular characterization of 48 kDa calcium binding
           protein as calreticulin from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) using
           peptide mass fingerprinting and transcript profiling
    • Authors: Manoj Singh; Mamta Metwal, Vandana A. Kumar, Anil Kumar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Attempts were made to identify and characterize the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in grain filling stages of finger millet using different omics approaches. Results A distinctly observed blue color band of 48 kDa stained by Stains‐all was eluted and analyzed as calreticulin (CRT) using Nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Nano LC–MS). Based on the top hits of peptide mass fingerprinting results, conserved primers were designed for isolation of the CRT gene from finger millet using calreticulin sequences of different cereals. The deduced nucleotide sequence analysis of 600 bp amplicon showed upto 91% similarity with CRT gene(s) of rice and other plant species and designated as EcCRT1. Transcript profiling of EcCRT1 showed different level of relative expression at different stages of developing spikes. The higher expression of EcCRT1 transcripts and protein were observed in later stages of developing spikes which might be due to greater translational synthesis of EcCRT1 protein during seed maturation in finger millet. Conclusions Preferentially higher synthesis of this CaBP during later stages of grain filling may be responsible for the sequestration of calcium in endoplasmic reticulum of finger millet grains.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T04:38:09.372053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7139
       
  • Berry ripening, pre‐processing and thermal treatments affect the
           phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.)
           juice
    • Authors: Giuseppe Genova; Roberta Tosetti, Pietro Tonutti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Grape juice is an important dietary source of health‐promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre‐processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Results Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red‐skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1,000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 minutes) juices were produced using a water‐bath. 3‐Way ANOVA showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre‐processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan‐3‐ol contents in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. Conclusion These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T04:29:31.827921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7138
       
  • Grape skin extracts from winemaking by‐products as a source of
           trapping agents for reactive carbonyl species
    • Authors: P.S.C. Sri Harsha; M. Mesias, V. Lavelli, F. J. Morales
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Clinical evidences support the relationship between carbonyl stress and type II diabetes and its related pathologies. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is the major dicarbonyl compound involved in carbonyl stress. Therefore, efforts are being made to find dietary compounds from natural sources that could exert a MGO trapping response. Results The in vitro MGO trapping capacity of six red and seven white grape skin extracts (GSE) obtained from winemaking by‐products was investigated. Methanolic GSE exhibited a promising MGO trapping capacity that was higher in red GSE (IC50 2.8 mg mL−1) when compared with white GSE (IC50 3.2 mg mL−1). The trapping ability for red GSE correlated significantly with total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. However, no correlations were observed for white GSE, which suggests that other compounds were involved in the trapping activity. Conclusion GSE may be considered a natural source of carbonyl stress inhibitors, thus opening up its possible utilization as a nutraceutical ingredient. Further investigations are required to understand the mechanism involved in the carbonyl trapping ability of red and white grape skin samples and their relationship with glycation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:47:33.319852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7137
       
  • Microbial release of ferulic and p‐coumaric acids from forages and
           their digestibilities in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with
           different forage combinations
    • Authors: Bin‐Bin Cao; Xin Jin, Hong‐Jian Yang, Sheng‐Li Li, Lin‐Shu Jiang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ferulic acid (FA) and p‐coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell wall. This study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester‐linked FA (FAest) and ester‐linked PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cow. Results Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acids profile, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with ether‐linked FA content and original PCA : FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72‐h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA : FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in whatever rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than PCAest. Conclusion Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification indicated by the original dietary PCA : FA ratio.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13T03:43:06.095297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7136
       
  • Optimization of a cheap and residential small‐scale production of
           edible crickets with local by‐products as an alternative
           protein‐rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
    • Authors: Rudy Caparros Megido; Taofic Alabi, Clément Nieus, Christophe Blecker, Sabine Danthine, Jan Bogaert, Éric Haubruge, Frédéric Francis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew‐based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:34:21.779734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7133
       
  • Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial
           sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to
           physicochemical characteristics
    • Authors: Brittany Graf; Leonel E. Rojo, Jose Delatorre‐Herrera, Alexander Poulev, Camila Calfio, Ilya Raskin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100‐seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4‐fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 µg/g to 570 ± 124 µg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 µg/g to 804 ±#x2009;91 µg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 µg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 µg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t‐test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:29:31.554269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7134
       
  • Hypolipidemic effects of oat flakes and β‐glucans derived from
           four Chinese naked oat (Avena nuda) cultivars in Wistar‐Lewis rats
    • Authors: Xianrong Zhou; Weijing Lin, Litao Tong, Xingxun Liu, Kui Zhong, Liya Liu, Lili Wang, Sumei Zhou
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND β‐Glucan has been widely considered to be the major ingredient which is responsible for the hypolipidemic effects of oat. Content determination of β‐glucan in naked oat cultivars in China has been largely performed for breeding and food processing. Since oat was generally consumed as oat flake in China, bioactivity evaluation of oat flake might be more direct and comprehensive than the inside β‐glucan. However, hypolipidemic activity of oat flake processed from Chinese oat cultivars was rarely reported. RESULTS The nutritional components of four naked oat cultivars were analyzed before they were processed to oat flakes. Hypolipidemic effects of oat flakes and the extracted β‐glucans were testified on rats fed a high‐fat diet for 30 days. Oat flakes and β‐glucans of different origin showed different preventing effects on hyperlipidemia. Among the four cultivars, β‐gucan of “Bayou‐1” showed the highest hypolipidemic effect. However, oat flake processed from “Dingyou‐7” showed the best bioactivity to mediate the increase of serum lipid. CONCLUSION The hypolipidemic effect of oat might not only depend on β‐glucan, but also be related to other components. “Dingyou‐7” might be suitable for oat flake processing for its superior bioactivity.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:28:36.728137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7135
       
  • Shelf life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa
           protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film
    • Authors: Abugoch L; Tapia C, Plasencia D, Pastor A, Castro‐Mandujano O, López L, Escalona V.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating to extend the shelf‐life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75 % RH, this condition was used to simulate the storage condition of supermarkets and have adverse conditions to test the effect of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by the changes of weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. RESULTS The tensile strength and elongation at break of edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa, and 117.2 ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3•10−12 ± 4.0•10−13 g s−1 m−1 Pa−1. In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher TA (0.3‐0.5 g citric acid 100 g−1) and lower pH (3.4 to 3.6) than control during storage, however it showed reduced firmness (until 38 %). CONCLUSION The use of Q/CH/SO as coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 d of storage, instead, the control showed an increasing between 1.8 to 3.1 log cycles (between 20–35 d).
      PubDate: 2015-02-11T06:25:52.202028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7132
       
  • Rapid detection of ochratoxin A on membrane by dot‐immunogold
           filtration assay
    • Authors: Weifeng Chen; Yucui Jin, Aiping Liu, Xiaohong Wang, Fusheng Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ochratoxin A (OTA), a widely distributed mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus and Penicillium, is a nephrotoxic toxin that has been identified as a carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic, nephrotoxic and immunotoxic toxin. To reduce risk of its contamination, a rapid, inexpensive, suitable and on‐site assay for the detection of OTA is required. RESULTS: In this study, dot‐immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) of OTA on high‐flow nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) was developed. Firstly, the colloidal gold was synthesized and colloidal gold‐PcAb conjugates against OTA were prepared at the optimum colloidal gold‐labeled pH value and package amount. Then the colloidal gold polyclonal antibody (gold‐PcAb) conjugates were used to develop OTA DIGFA and the results demonstrated a visual detection limit of approximately 10 ng mL−1 of OTA. In addition, this method had no cross‐reaction with zearalenone (ZEN), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and citrinin (CIT). CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the developed DIGFA assay could be applied for the actual detection of samples without complicated steps.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T00:57:31.091854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7130
       
  • The effect of astaxanthin on the aging rat brain: gender‐related
           differences in modulating inflammation
    • Authors: Marta Balietti; Stefano R. Giannubilo, Belinda Giorgetti, Moreno Solazzi, Angelo Turi, Tiziana Casoli, Andrea Ciavattini, Patrizia Fattorettia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Astaxanthin (Ax) is a ketocarotenoid belonging to the xanthophylls family with activity in antioxidation, integrity of cell membranes preservation and redox state and functional mitochondria integrity preservation. The aim was to investigate potential gender‐related differences in astaxanthin (Ax) effects aged rats brain. Results In females, IL1 beta was significantly lower in treated rats in both cerebral areas, and in cerebellum, treated animals had also a significantly higher concentration of IL10; in males, no differences were envisaged in cerebellum, but in hippocampus, IL1 beta and IL10 were significantly higher in treated rats. Conclusion These are the first results that showed gender‐related differences in the Ax effect on the aging brain, strengthening the necessity to carefully analyze female and male peculiarities when the anti‐aging potentialities of this ketocarotenoid are evaluated. Our observation leads to the hypothesis that Ax exerted different anti‐inflammatory effects in female and in male brain.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T00:57:12.404674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7131
       
  • Posidonia oceanica banquettes as a substitute for straw in dairy goat
           rations: metabolic and productive effects
    • Authors: Cristina Castillo; Angel R. Mantecón, Juan Sotillo, Cándido Gutiérrez, Angel Abuelo, Joaquín Hernández
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The marine plant Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile can be a source of fibre to increase the efficiency of product costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the productive (milk production and performance) and metabolic (blood metabolites) effects of P. oceanica into the ration of dairy goats as a substitute for straw. P. oceanica was used at 225 and 450 g goat−1 day−1 in lieu of barley straw. Result Supplementation with P. oceanica had no detrimental effects on the body weight, milk production and the metabolic status of goats. Goats fed with P. oceanica produced more milk‐fat and had a lower somatic cell count in milk, and showed a decreased risk of oxidative stress. Conclusion Goat can fed with P oceanic up to 450 g/ day without detrimental effects on milk production and health, therefore, P. oceanica can be a substitute for barley straw in the nutrition of goats.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T00:57:01.62554-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7129
       
  • Characterization of general proteolytic, milk clotting and antifungal
           activity of Ficus carica latex during fruit ripening
    • Authors: Brankica Raskovic; Jelena Lazic, Natalija Polovic
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fig latex's physiological role is protection from pathogens. Latex is a rich source of proteases, predominantly ficin. Fig latex contains collagenolytic protease and chitinolytic enzymes, too. Our aim was to investigate changes in protein composition, enzyme and antifungal activities of fig latex during fruit ripening. Results Comparison of latex samples in different time periods showed uniform increase of protein concentration in chronological order. The content of collagenolytic protease did not differ significantly in the latex samples, while the content of ficin decreased. Ficin specific activity towards casein was the highest in the beginning of fruit development (about 80 U mg−1). Specific milk clotting activity increased as well as the abundance of casein band in the clots. Specific chitinolytic activity at the beginning of flowering was 6.5 times higher than the activity in the period when fruits are ripe. Antifungal activity is the most extensive in spring. Conclusion Ficin forms with different casein specificities are present in different proportions during fruit ripening which is of importance for applications in dairy industry. Protection mechanism against insects and fungi which relies on chitinolytic activity is the most important in the early phases of flowering and is replaced with other strategies during time.
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T05:37:39.746954-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7126
       
  • Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of
           Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical
           origin, cultivar and ripening stage
    • Authors: Nalda Romero; Jorge Saavedra, Francisco Tapia, Betsabet Sepúlveda, Ramón Aparicio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Results Varieties of Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T02:40:14.904408-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7127
       
  • Assessment of probiotic, antifungal, cholesterol lowering properties of
           Pediococcus pentosaceus ‐KCC‐23 isolated from Italian ryegrass
           
    • Authors: Soundarrajan Ilavenil; Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar, Da Hye Kim, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Hyung Su Park, Sivanesan Ravikumar, Ki Choon Choi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important for processing of various food products. The genetically modified organisms have been contributed to improve the various food products. However, it has some limitation. Thus, discovery of wild strains from natural sources must be considered as the most suitable approach for identifying the new LAB. Therefore, we plan to isolate and characterize the LAB from Italian rye‐grass forage and evaluate their biological potentials. Results Totally 28 strains were isolated and screened their anti‐fungal and probiotic properties. Single strain was selected due to its antifungal and probiotic efficiency. The strain was identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus KCC‐23. The KCC‐23 showed effective inhibition against A. fumigatus, P.chrysogenum, P. roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica and F. oxysporum. Further, it survives against low pH, bile salts and gastric juice. It exhibited a significant aggregation and hydrophobicity property. The KCC‐23 effectively assimilated the cholesterol and it had ability to utilize the pre‐biotic such as raffinose and inulin. Finally, KCC‐23 exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity. Conclusion The P. pentosaceus‐KCC‐23 showed effective anti‐fungal, probiotic and anti‐oxidant properties would be promising isolate for exploitation in the formulation of food for ruminant and human.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T02:30:23.993266-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7128
       
  • The kinetics for the inhibition of acrylamide by glycine in potato model
           systems
    • Authors: Yuchen Zhu; Pengpu Wang, Fei Wang, Mengyao Zhao, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Acrylamide (AA) is a potential carcinogen widely existed in heat‐processed foods. Addition of glycine (Gly) has been shown to reduce the formation of AA. The objective of this work was to investigate the kinetics for the inhibition of AA by Gly in both asparagine (Asn)/glucose (Glc) and Asn/Glc/Gly potato model systems during heating at 160 °C, 180 °C, and 200 °C. Results The simplified two consecutive first‐order kinetic model fitted well to the changes of AA in both systems. No significant difference in rate constant (kF) and apparent activation energy (EaF) was observed for AA formation between the two systems (p > 0.05). Whereas EaE and only kE (200 °C) for AA elimination in Asn/Glc/Gly system was significantly higher than Asn/Glc system (p < 0.05). The elimination reaction between Gly and AA was confirmed by the identification of their major reaction product 2‐((3‐amino‐3‐oxopropyl)amino)acetic acid in Asn/Glc/15N‐Gly system. Conclusion The reduction of AA by Gly predominantly attributed to the elimination reaction between Gly and AA.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T06:32:55.163988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7122
       
  • Expression of recombinant Arabian Camel lactoferricin‐related
           peptide in pichia pastoris and its antimicrobial identification
    • Authors: Mahmood Chahardooli; Ali Niazi, Farzaneh Aram, Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi Sohrabi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Lactoferricin (LFcin) is a strong cationic peptide released from the N‐terminus of Lactoferrin by gastric pepsin digestion. LFcin has some important properties including high antimicrobial activity. To date lactoferricins have been isolated and characterized from various animal species, but not from camel.The aim of this study was to characterize and express recombinant camel lactoferricin (LFcinC) in pichia pastoris and investigate its antimicrobial activity. Results After methanol induction, LFcinC were expressed and secreted into a culture brothmedium and the results determined byconcentrated supernatant culture mediumshowed high antimicrobial activity against the following microbes ;Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739), Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112(ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 (ATCC 9027),Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 (ATCC 6633) ,Candida albicans PTCC 5027 (ATCC 10231).Thermal‐stability was clarified with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coliPTCC 1330(ATCC 8739). Conclusion Results confirmed that camel lactoferricin had suitable antimicrobial activity and its production by Pichia pastoris can be used for recombinant production.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T05:17:34.668605-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7125
       
  • Spatial Pattern Characteristics of Water Footprint for Maize Production in
           Northeast China
    • Authors: Peili Duan; Lijie Qin, Yeqiao Wang, Hongshi He
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Water footprint (WF) methodology is essential for quantifying total water consumption of crop production and making efficient water management policies. This study calculated the green, blue, grey and total WFs of maize production in Northeast China from 1998 to 2012 and compared the values of the provinces. This study also analyzed the spatial variation and structure characteristics of the WFs on the prefecture level. Results The annual average WF of maize production was 1029 m3 ton−1, which was 51% green, 21% blue and 28% grey. The WF of maize production was highest in Liaoning Province, moderate in Heilongjiang Province and lowest in Jilin Province. The spatial differences of the WFs calculated for the 36 major maize production prefectures were significant in Northeast China. There was a moderate positive spatial autocorrelation among prefectures that had similar WFs. The Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation Index (LISA) analysis identified prefectures with higher WFs in the southeast region of Liaoning Province and southwest region of Heilongjiang Province and prefectures with lower WFs in the middle of Jilin Province. Conclusion Spatial differences in the WF of maize production were caused mainly by variations of climate conditions, soil quality, irrigation facilities and maize yield. The spatial distribution of the WFs can help provide a scientific basis for optimizing maize production distribution and then formulate strategies to reduce the WF of maize production.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T02:25:39.647607-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7124
       
  • Mapping B‐cell epitopes of major and minor peanut allergens and
           identifying residues contributing to IgE binding
    • Authors: Ankita Mishra; Anuja Jain, Naveen Arora
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Epitope identification provides valuable information essential for understanding antigen components involved in food allergic reactions. In the present study, an in‐silico approach is employed to map IgE binding epitopes of major and minor peanut allergens. RESULTS B cell epitopes were identified for peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens namely Ara h 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. A total of 10 web‐servers were used in the study and twenty six linear and eighteen conformational epitopes were predicted by a combination of methods. Majority of the predicted B cell residues were present in the coil regions and the highest percentage of hydrophilic residues were observed for Ara h 6 (70.49%). The absolute solvent accessibility for all the B cell epitopes was > 70% indicating antibody recognition. Property distance index assessed for the predicted epitopes using SDAP showed that six linear epitopes shared similarity with soybean, hazel nut, tomato, maize, apple, banana allergens. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that the identified regions may share cross reactivity with some of the known food allergens or may act as novel antigenic determinants. Further, B‐cell epitopes of Ara h 1, 2 & 3 identified by in silico methods correlated well with the experimentally identified regions.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T09:10:50.125837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7121
       
  • Modified QuEChERS Method for Rapid Determination of Diazepam and Its Major
           Metabolites in Fish Samples by High Performance Liquid
           Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization–Tandem Mass
           Spectrometry
    • Authors: Jincheng Li; Jing Zhang, Huan Liu, Lidong Wu, Yi Song
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A simple and fast modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was presented for determination of diazepam and its three major metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam (benzodiazepines) in fish samples by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC‐ESI‐MS/MS) . RESULTS Muscle tissues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned with primary secondary amino (PSA). The chromatography separation was achieved within 5.0 min on a C18 column. The limit of detection (LODs) was 0.5 µg kg−1 and the limit of quantification (LOQs) was 2.5 µg kg−1. Average recoveries of diazepam and its main metabolites were in the range of 88.5%‐110.1%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 10.0%. CONCLUSION The proposed method for fish samples give good recoveries, linearity, precision and accuracy.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T08:58:48.104525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7123
       
  • Changes in the polyphenol compound and barley laccase expression during
           malting process
    • Authors: Lenka Tomková‐Drábková; Vratislav Psota, Lenka Sachambula, Leona Leišová‐Svobodová, Alexandr Mikyška, Ladislav Kučera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Polyphenols and phenolic acid are able to slow down or prevent oxidation processes and are therefore thought to have important effects in malting and brewing. Laccase catalyses the oxidation of a wide variety of substrates, including polyphenols. The aim of this paper was to determine the changes in polyphenol compounds and the relative expression of the HvLac1 gene during malting. Results The dominant phenolic acid were ferulic acid. The amount of ferulic acid increased, while the amount of vanillic acid decreased during malting. The highest levels of expression of the HvLac1 gene were observed during the third air rest period in varieties with the “Haruna Nijo” (HN) allele, as recommended for the production of beer with the protected geographical indication (PGI) “Česke pivo” (Czech Beer), whereas the highest expression was observed in the first day of germination in varieties with the “Morex” (M) allele. However, the profiles of HvLac1 gene expression in varieties with alternative alleles during malting were similar, and the level of polyphenol compounds throughout malting was different. Conclusion The polyphenol contents in barley increased several‐fold during malting, and the degree of increase differed with variety. The expression of HvLac1 transcript was similar in every barley variety.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:51.610185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7116
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus
           fruit to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    • Authors: Yahan Zhou; Shunmin Li, Kaifang Zeng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. Results The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol · L−1 sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate‐glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity contents, and delay the increase in the total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. Conclusions The results suggested that the use of exogenous NO was a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:34.539231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7117
       
  • Determination of alpha‐tocopherol by reversed phase HPLC in feed and
           animal‐derived foods without saponification
    • Authors: Erik Claeys; Els Vossen, Stefaan De Smet
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The analysis of α‐tocopherol in feed and animal‐derived foods usually involves a saponification step. However, since saponification often leads to losses of α‐tocopherol, a method for the determination of α‐tocopherol in feed and in animal‐derived foods was developed without a saponification step. Results In this method, α‐tocopherol is extracted with hot ethanol and the co‐extracted fat is removed by centrifugation. Removal of the fat fraction is made possible by the addition of water, to achieve an ethanol:water ratio of 40:7, followed by cooling on ice before centrifugation. This procedure allows removing the fat fraction, while α‐tocopherol is retained. Matrices differing in gross composition and α‐tocopherol content were analyzed: fresh pork, cooked ham, subcutaneous fat, liver, egg yolk, milk and a compound pig feed. Higher α‐tocopherol concentrations were found for this novel method compared to a conventional method with saponification, particularly for subcutaneous fat (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:19.875571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7119
       
  • Comparative analysis of RGAs encoding NBS‐LRR domains in cotton
    • Authors: Abdul Manan Khan; Asif Ali Khan, Muhammad Tehseen Azhar, Luqman Amrao, Hafiza Masooma Naseer Cheema
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Plant production is severely affected by diseases. On other hand, R‐genes exhibited resistance against range of diseases and pathogens in plants. BACKGROUND: The nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat (NBS‐LRR) class of R‐genes is the most comprehensively studied in terms of sequence evolution and genome distribution and makes it a super‐family of R genes. The differential response for resistance against biotic and abiotic stress has been observed in cultivated and wild relatives of genus Gossypium. RESULTS: The efforts have been made to address the recent evolution of NBS‐LRR sequences within the Gossypium hrisutum and RGAs sequences derived from G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Percent identity and phylogenetic analysis of NBS‐LRR encoded RGAs from tetraploid new world cotton and its diploid ancestors, G. raimondii and G. arboreum suggest that the evolution of NBS‐LRR encoding sequences in G. hirsutum occurred by gradual accumulation of mutants that led to positive selection and slow rate of divergence within distinct R‐gene families. CONCLUSION: The allotetraploid genome of cotton after separating from its diploid parents experienced polyploidization, natural and artificial selection, hybrid necrosis, duplication and recombination which became the reason to shed off and evolve new genes for its survival. These driving forces influence the development of genomic architecture that makes it susceptible to diseases and pathogens as compared to donor parents.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:00.725139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7120
       
  • Sensory Characterizarion During Repeated Ingestion Of Small Molecular
           Weight Phenolic Acids
    • Authors: Lisa M Duizer; Allison Langfried
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Characterization of the sensory properties of small molecular weight phenolic acids such as ferulic and vanillic acids has been limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sensory perceptions of these acids and the effects of their repeated consumption on sourness, bitterness and astringency. This knowledge will further understanding of their impact on the sensory characteristics of foods in which they are typically consumed. Results Two time‐intensity sensory evaluation experiments were conducted with nine trained panelists: a single sip study and a sequential sip study. Concentrations of phenolic acids typically found in whole grain bread were tested. For both experiments, vanillic acid was perceived to be significantly more sour than ferulic acid, and ferulic acid was perceived to be significantly more bitter than vanillic acid. Maximum sourness, bitterness and astringency intensities significantly increased with increasing molarity for both acids. During sequential sipping, astringency and bitterness intensity increased with each sip. Sourness, however, increased to sip 3 but did not significantly increase after that point. Conclusion This research demonstrates that even small quantities of phenolic acids can be perceived as increasingly bitter and astringent with repeated exposures.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:18:45.231969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7118
       
  • The physicochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of fermented
           milks prepared with Anemarrhena asphodeloides water extracts
    • Authors: Rong Zhang; Liu Yang, Jing Ji, Bei‐bei Li, Lan Li, Ming Ye
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this research, Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA) rhizomes water extract solutions were added to reconstituted milk at 5%, 10% and 15% (v/v) to prepare AA fermented milk (AAFM5, AAFM10 and AAFM15). The AAFM10 was selected for investigation of hypoglycemic activity. Results Compared with the control fermented milk (CFM), titratable acidity (TA) values and water‐holding capacities (WHC) of AA fermented milk were increased at different extents, but syneresis values were reduced. The viable counts of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were significantly increased, respectively. It was found that blood sugar level of streptozotocin diabetic mice intaking AAFM10 was reduced by 14.4%, and the food intake was decreased. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C) were reduced by different degrees, and insulin (INS) and total superoxide dismutase (T‐SOD) were significantly increased. Conclusion AAFM10 had significantly hypoglycemic effect and improvement in the complications (such as kidney disease and hyperlipemia).
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T03:06:33.457256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7115
       
  • The Differentiation of Tuna (Family: Scombridae) Products through the
           
    • Authors: Asadatun Abdullah; Hartmut Rehbein
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In spite of the many studies performed over the years, there are still problems in the authentication of closely related tuna species, not only for canned fish but also for raw products. With the aim of providing screening methods to identify different tuna species and related scombrids, segments of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and nuclear parvalbumin genes were amplified and sequenced or subjected to single‐strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. Results The nucleotide diagnostic sites in the cyt b gene of 5 tuna species from Indonesia were determined in this study and used to construct a phylogenetic tree. In addition, the suitability of the nuclear gene that encodes parvalbumin for the differentiation of tuna species was determined by SSCP and RFLP analyses of an intron segment. The RFLP differentiated Thunnus albacares and from T. obesus, and fish species in the Thunnus genus could be distinguished from bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) by SSCP. Conclusions The parvalbumin‐based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems could serve as an additional tool in the detection and identification of tuna and other Scombridae fish species for routine seafood control. This reaction can be performed in addition to the cyt b analysis as previously described.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T03:54:01.059742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7111
       
  • New assessment based on the use of principal factor analysis to
           investigate corn silage quality from nutritional traits, fermentation end
           products and mycotoxins
    • Authors: Antonio Gallo; Terenzio Bertuzzi, Gianluca Giuberti, Maurizio Moschini, Sara Bruschi, Carla Cerioli, Francesco Masoero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A survey on sixty‐eight dairy farms was carried out to evaluate the ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silage. Samples from core, lateral and apical zones of feed‐out face of silos were analysed. A principal factor analysis (PFA) was carried out on the entire database (196 silage sample and 36 variables) and 11 principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Results Ensiling procedures influenced area exposed to risk of air penetration. Cores had higher DM, starch and lactic acid contents or lower pH, fibre, propionate and butyrate concentrations than peripheral samples (P 
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T03:53:46.621311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7109
       
  • Impairment of rumen biohydrogenation and bacteria of the Butyrivibrio
           group in the rumen of goats through a 20:5 n‐3 (EPA) rich supplement
           
    • Authors: Xuejiao Lv; Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Marine products can inhibit biohydrogenation in the rumen, but the mechanism is not clear. This study investigated a 20:5 n‐3 rich supplement effects on rumen biohydrogenation, microbial change and fermentation characteristics in goats. Results The supplementation decreased 18:0 proportions in rumen fatty acids (P < 0.001), while increased cis‐9, trans‐11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (P < 0.001) and trans‐10, cis‐12 CLA proportions (P < 0.001). The supplement reduced the number of Butyrivibrio spp and B. proteoclasticus (P < 0.01). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis redundancy analysis indicated that some species, mainly from the rumen of goats receiving the 2.5 and 5.0 g d−1 supplement, were positively correlated with cis‐9, trans‐11 CLA proportions; some species, mainly from the rumen of control goats, were positively correlated with 18:0 proportions. The supplement reduced the NH3‐N concentrations and acetate molar proportions in the rumen (P < 0.05), but increased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01), and had no effect on total volatile fatty acid concentration. Conclusion The 20:5 n‐3 rich supplement reduced the biohydrogenation of 18‐carbon unsaturated fatty acids with significant reduction of 18:0 proportion and this was coupled with the suppression of the abundance of biohydrogenating bacteria and unknown bacteria.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:49:18.996943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7113
       
  • Effects of processing conditions and formulation on spray drying of sour
           cherry juice concentrate
    • Authors: Asli Can Karaca; Onder Guzel, M. Mehmet Ak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sour cherries are rich in phenolic compounds possessing several health‐promoting effects. Processing of sour cherry juice into powder form offers additional advantages such as increased utilization, reduced volume, easier handling and transportation. However, spray drying of fruit juices is difficult due to their low glass transition temperature (Tg). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inlet temperature (130–150 °C), feed flow rate in terms of pump setting (30–50%), sour cherry content (25–50% of total dry matter) and carrier type (maltodextrin DE6, maltodextrin DE12, gum arabic) on yield, Tg and total phenolic content (TPC) of spray‐dried sour cherry powder. Results Feed flow rate, sour cherry content and carrier type significantly affected yield and Tg; whereas TPC was affected by sour cherry content and carrier type. Effect of sour cherry content on yield depended on the carrier type. Although gum arabic provided better protection of phenolic content than maltodextrins, it resulted in lower average yield. Conclusion Spray‐dried sour cherry powder with high yield (>85%) and high Tg (60 °C) was obtained using the following conditions: 150 °C inlet temperature, 30% pump setting, 25% sour cherry content and maltodextrin DE 12 as carrier.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:48:59.7052-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7110
       
  • QTL mapping based on the embryo and maternal genetic systems for
           non‐essential amino acids in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal
    • Authors: Juan Wen; Jian‐Feng Xu, Yan Long, Jian‐Guo Wu, Hai‐Ming Xu, Jin‐Ling Meng, Chun‐Hai Shi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Non‐essential amino acids are a good source of nitrogen and also very important contributors to the metabolic process. Analysis of quantitative trait locus (QTL) simultaneously located on the amphidiploid embryo and maternal plant nuclear genomes for non‐essential amino acid contents in rapeseed meal across different environments was conducive to further clarify the genetic mechanism of seed quality traits. Results 28 QTLs associated with arginine (5 QTLs), histidine (4 QTLs), glutamic acid (3 QTLs), glycine (3 QTLs), proline (3 QTLs), alanine (4 QTLs) and aspartic acid (6 QTLs) contents were identified in present study. All of these QTLs had significant additive main effects from embryo and maternal plant nuclear genomes with 8 of them showing significant embryo dominance main effects and 12 showing notable QTL × environment interaction effects. Among them, 12 QTLs were major QTLs which could explain 13.27 ~ 35.71% of the phenotypic variation. Specially; and five QTL clusters associated with several QTLs related to multiple traits were distributed on chromosomes A1, A4, A5, A7 and C2. Conclusion Non‐essential amino acids in rapeseed meal could be simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects from the QTLs which were located on the chromosomes both in the embryo and maternal plant genetic systems.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:48:44.111603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7112
       
  • The effect of oat β‐glucan on in vitro glucose diffusion and
           glucose transport in rat small intestine
    • Authors: Yu Zhang; Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, Xiguang Qi, Xiangli Ding, Bo Hu, Jiajia Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Many previous studies have reported the role of oat β‐glucan (OBG) in the reduction of postprandial glucose, and hypothesised that OBG may form a protective layer along the intestinal wall, acting as a viscous barrier to decrease glucose transportation. This study examined whether the molecular weight (MW) and concentration of OBG affected the diffusion of glucose in vitro. The effect of OBG on glucose transportation in vitro and sodium‐potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+‐ATPase) activity in the everted small intestines of normal rats was also examined. Results In vitro, higher MWs and concentrations of OBG, increased the inhibitory effects on glucose diffusion and glucose adsorption. The transport of glucose by glucose transporters and Na+/K+‐ATPase activity in the small intestinal mucosa of rats were significantly lower following the addition of OBG than those in the absence of OBG at the same time‐points throughout glucose transportation (P < 0.05). In the OBG‐treated group, the Na+/K+‐ATPase activity decreased with increasing OBG MW. However, as the concentration of OBG in the solution increased, the Na+/K+‐ATPase activity in the small intestine increased due to stronger gastrointestinal motility. We also found that higher MWs of OBG had a greater inhibitory effect on intestinal disaccharidase activities in vitro. Conclusion Oat β‐glucan is able to adsorb glucose molecules, inhibit glucose transport, decrease the concentration of available glucose and suppress disaccharidase activities in the small intestine.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:48:27.897161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7114
       
  • Food Safety Issues in China: A Case Study of Dairy Sector
    • Authors: Xiaoxia Dong; Zhemin Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents occured frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained attention of Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers’ response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Till 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from the influence. Using the radom effect model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consujmption. Overall, the results show that consumers in low income group are more sensitive to safety risk than high income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents’ dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption which was affected by the crime culprit of melamine incident was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for high income group even increased.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29T01:36:51.061431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7107
       
  • Nitrate content in a collection of higher mushrooms
    • Authors: Renáta Bóbics; Dániel Krüzselyi, János Vetter
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Data of mushroom nitrate content from scientific studies is limited. There have been two such recent investigations (mainly regarding certain cultivated species). To obtain comparable analytical data, we analyzed 134 samples of 54 taxa gathered and prepared by our Department. Results The mushroom species were evaluated according to their nutritional types: saprotrophic, mycorrhizal and wood‐decaying groups. Low and relative invariable contents were found in the mycorrhizal (216.5 mg kg−1 dry matter [D.M.] and wood‐decaying groups (228.6 mg kg−1 D.M.), but in the saprotrophic group we observed wide variability (151.4 – 12715 mg kg−1 D.M.). Conclusion Considerable nitrate contents were found in samples of seven “accumulator” species (Clitocybe nebularis, C. odora, Lepista nuda, L. personata, L. irina, Macrolepiota rachodes and M. procera). Toxicological relevance of daily uptake of acceptable nitrate content via mushrooms only is not presumable, but the “accumulator” saprotrophic species can be “contributors” of our nitrate intake by foods.
      PubDate: 2015-01-28T02:52:59.220163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7108
       
  • Health‐promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var
           Italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future
           climatic change environments
    • Authors: Chokri Zaghdoud; Micaela Carvajal, Diego A Moreno, Ali Ferchichi, María del Carmen Martínez‐Ballesta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased‐N fertilisation regimes (NO3−/NH4+ ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100, respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2], under non‐saline (0 mM NaCl) and saline conditions (80 mM NaCl). Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. Results In NH4+‐fed broccoli plants a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4+ toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] ‐ ameliorating adverse effects of salinity – was only observed when N was supplied as NO3−. Under reduced N‐fertilisation the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3−/NH4+ ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Conclusion Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S‐metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3−/NH4+ (50:50 ratio) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4+ toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolates content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N‐fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T01:49:09.816147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7102
       
  • Graphene Quantum dots as Enhanced Plant Growth Regulators: Effects on
           Coriander and Garlic plant
    • Authors: Disha Chakravarty; Manisha B. Erande, Dattatray, J. Late
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We report investigations on the use of graphene quantum dots for growth enhancement in Coriander (Coriandrum sativam L.) and Garlic plant (Allium Sativum) plants. The as received seeds of coriander and garlic were treated with 0.2 mg/ml of graphene quantum dots for 3 hrs before planting. It has been observed that the graphene quantum dots enhance the growth rate in these plants including leaves, roots, shoots, flowers, fruits with the seeds treated with graphene quantum dots. Our investigations open up the opportunity to use graphene quantum dots as plant growth regulator which can be used in a variety of other food plants for high yield.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T01:47:02.083373-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7106
       
  • Development of delayed bitterness and effect of harvest date in stored
           juice from two complex citrus hybrids
    • Authors: Smita Raithore; Sharon Dea, Greg McCollum, John A. Manthey, Jinhe Bai, Clotilde Leclair, Faraj Hijaz, Jan A Narciso, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Anne Plotto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mandarins and mandarin hybrids have excellent flavor and color attributes making them good candidates for consumption as fresh fruit. When processed into juice, however, they are less palatable as they develop delayed bitterness when stored for a period of time. In this study, kinetics of delayed bitterness in two citrus mandarin hybrid siblings: ‘Ambersweet’ and USDA 1‐105‐106 were explored by sensory and instrumental analyses. In addition to the bitter limonoids, other quality factors (i.e., sugars, acids, pH, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and the ratio SSC/TA) were also measured. Results The two citrus hybrid siblings had different chemical profiles, which were perceived by taste panels. USDA 1‐105‐106 developed delayed bitterness when the juice was stored for more than 4 hours, similar to juice from ‘Navel’ oranges but ‘Ambersweet’ did not. Bitterness in ‘Ambersweet’ was more affected by harvest maturity as juice from earlier harvest had lower SSC but higher TA and bitter limonoids. Conclusion Since juice of USDA 1‐105‐106 shows delayed bitterness when stored for more than 4 hours, this cultivar is not suitable for juice processing. Our finding that siblings can differ in chemical and sensory properties emphasize the importance of post‐processing storage studies before releasing cultivars for juice.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:32:45.933565-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7105
       
  • Impact of polyphenolic components from mulberry on apoptosis of vascular
           smooth muscle cells
    • Authors: Kuei‐Chuan Chan; Hsieh‐Hsun Ho, Ming‐Cheng Lin, Chien‐Ning Huang, Hui‐Pei Huang, Chau‐Jong Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Previous studies have shown that mulberry polyphenolic compounds have an anti‐atherosclerotic effect in rabbits. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the key determinant of the number of VSMCs in remodeling. To examine the effect of mulberry polyphenols (MPEs) on the apoptosis of VSMCs and thus the prevention of atherosclerosis, we investigated the ability of MPEs to induce apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. Results In this in vitro study, we found that mulberry polyphenol extracts initially activated JNK/p38 and p53, which in turn activated both Fas‐ligand and mitochondria pathways thereby causing mitochondria translocation of Bax and the reduction of Bcl‐2. This then triggered the cleavage of procaspases, finally resulting in apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Conclusion This study shows mulberry polyphenols may suppress atherosclerosis through stimulating apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells via activating JNK/p38 and p53 signaling.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:32:29.540571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7100
       
  • Nutritional aspects of gluten‐free products
    • Authors: Nicoletta Pellegrini; Carlo Agostoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In recent years, gluten free (GF) goods have become popular, fuelling a growing market as they do not only cater to individuals with medical needs, but also to consumers who seek a GF diet. In their development, it is pivotal to pay attention to nutritional quality. This review aims to provide some insights on the nutritional quality of GF products, focusing on major concerns and the strategies to overcome them. In order to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten, a large number of flours and starches and other ingredients have been used. Therefore, the different mixtures of these ingredients bring a wide difference in the nutritional composition of GF foods with respect to gluten‐containing counterparts. Several GF foodstuffs contain more fat, including saturated, and salt, but less minerals and vitamins than their equivalent with gluten. The increased fibre content and the improved technological processes have positively affected the glycemic responses from these goods. However, in order to improve their nutritional quality wholemeal GF cereals and pseudocereals with high nutritive value should replace the low nutritional GF flours and consequently the technological processes would be optimized. The improvement of the nutritional quality of GF products, and in turn that of the GF diet, should also be aimed at improving the risk of later chronic degenerative disorders, especially for infants and young children.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:30:57.42984-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7101
       
  • Classification of potato cultivars to establish their processing aptitude
    • Authors: Yali Yang; Isabel Achaerandio, Montserrat Pujolà
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The commercial potato cultivars are diverse, not only in their physical characteristics but also in their nutritional compositions and their content of functional compounds (resistant starch (RS), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA)), but there is little information about these differences. The aim of this study was to characterise the nutritional value (focusing in carbohydrates and functional compounds) and instrumental parameters of eight potato cultivars consumed in Spain and to determine whether these parameters are useful for classifying the cultivars. Results Significant Pearson's correlations were found due to the common and complex interactions between the constituents of potatoes and their properties (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:56.15102-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7104
       
  • Novel assay procedures for the measurement of α‐amylase in
           weather damaged wheat
    • Authors: Claudio Cornaggia; Ruth Ivory, David Mangan, Barry V. McCleary
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The measurement of α‐amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) in sprout‐damaged grains is a crucial analysis yet a problematic one due to the typically low α‐amylase levels in these samples. A number of standardized methods such as the Falling Number Method and Ceralpha Method exist which are routinely used for the assay of α‐amylase. These methods, however, are either highly‐substrate dependent or lack the required sensitivity to assess sprout damage. Results Novel colorimetric and fluorometric reagents have been prepared (Amylase HR, Amylase SD, BzCNPG7 reagent and BzMUG7 reagent) for the direct and specific assay of α‐amylase activity in sprout‐damaged wheat. Assays employing these reagents have been developed and optimized to include a decolorisation step using activated charcoal. When used in a convenient assay format, Amylase SD ‐ containing EtNPG7, (II) as the colorimetric substrate and α‐glucosidase as the ancillary enzyme ‐ was found to be an excellent reagent for the assessment of sprout damage in wheat with incubations as short as 5 min. Conclusion The assay using Amylase SD is completely specific for α‐amylase. The use of the Amylase SD assay represents a sensitive and valid alternative to the traditionally used Falling Number values for the assessment of sprout‐damage in wheat samples.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:38.87846-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7103
       
  • Evaluation of Muscodor suthepensis strain CMU‐Cib462 as a
           postharvest biofumigant for tangerine fruit rot caused by Penicillium
           digitatum
    • Authors: Nakarin Suwannarach; Boonsom Bussaban, Wipornpan Nuangmek, Wasna Pithakpol, Bantoon Jirawattanakul, Kenji Matsui, Saisamorn Lumyong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study investigated both in vitro and in vivo biofumigant ability of the endophytic fungus, Muscodor suthepensis CMU‐Cib462 to control Penicillium digitatum, the main cause of tangerine fruit rot. Results Volatile compounds from Muscodor suthepensis inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. The most abundant compound was 2‐Methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3‐Methylbutan‐1‐ol. They showed median effective doses (ED50) on P. digitatum growth of 74.91±0.73 and 250.29±0.29 μL L−1 of airspace, respectively. Rye grain was a suitable solid medium for M. suthepensis inocula production. The result indicated that mycofumigation with 30 g rye grain culture of M. suthepensis for 12 h controlled tangerine fruit rot. The percent weight loss and soluble solids concentrations in fumigated tangerines were similar to the non‐infected and non‐fumigated treatment. Conclusion Muscodor suthepensis has potential as a biofumigant for controlling postharvest disease of tangerine fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:23.318023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7099
       
  • Effect of oxidant stressors and phenolic antioxidants on the
           ochratoxigenic fungus Aspergillus carbonarius
    • Authors: Ana Crespo‐Sempere; Cristina Selma‐Lázaro, Jeffrey D. Palumbo, Luis González‐Candelas, Pedro V. Martínez‐Culebras
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background There are few studies dealing with the relationship between oxidative stress and ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. In this work, we analyzed the effect of the oxidant stressor menadione and the antioxidants 3,5‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐hydroxytoluene (BHT), catechin, resveratrol and a polyphenolic extract on growth, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), OTA production and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes of Aspergillus carbonarius. Results Exposure to menadione concentrations higher than 20 μM led to increases in ROS and OTA levels and a decrease in growth rate. Exposure to 2.5‐10 mM BHT also led to higher ROS and OTA levels, although growth rate was only affected above 5 mM. Naturally occurring concentrations of catechin, resveratrol and polyphenolic extract barely affected growth rate, but they produced widely different effects on OTA production level depending on the antioxidant concentration used. In general, gene expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), was down regulated after exposure to oxidant and antioxidant concentrations that enhanced OTA production level. Conclusion A. carbonarius responds to oxidative stress increasing OTA production. Nevertheless, the use of naturally occurring concentrations of antioxidant phenolic compounds to reduce oxidative stress is not a valid approach by itself for OTA contamination control in grapes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T02:04:25.802422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7077
       
  • Prevention of retinoic‐acid‐induced osteoporosis in mice by
           isoflavone‐enriched soy protein
    • Authors: Juan Yang; Nana Wu, Jie Peng, Xiaoquan Yang, Jian Guo, Shouwei Yin, Jinmei Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A novel soy protein aggregate enriched with isoflavones (SPA‐IS), the mixture of soy protein and isoflavones (Mix), the isoflavones (IS), and the soy protein were obtained to investigate the preventive effects on osteoporosis (OP) induced by retinoic acid (RA) in Kunming (KM) mice. Results The serum osteocalcin (s‐BGP) levels in the Mix and SPA‐IS groups decreased compared with the model group (the RA‐induced OP mice) (p < 0.05). The trabecular analysis results prove the increased preventive effect of the SPA‐IS group over the Mix group, the IS group, and the soy protein group. The results of both left tibial maximum load and the 4th lumbar structural strength differ between the IS and the SPA‐IS groups. Conclusion The SPA‐IS exhibited obvious estrogenic activities on RA‐induced OP in KM mice compared to Mix, IS, and soy protein. The results suggest that it is potential for use of SPA‐IS in treatment of OP induced by intake of RA. The improvement of bone indicators might be attributed to the formation of aggregate particles and the improvement of IS solubility.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:31:24.413932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7098
       
  • Salinity thresholds and genotypic variability of cabbage (Brassica
           oleracea L.) grown under saline stress
    • Authors: Rabab Sanoubar; Antonio Cellini, Anna Maria Veroni, Francesco Spinelli, Andrea Masia, Livia Vittori Antisari, Francesco Orsini, Giorgio Gianquinto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Two botanical varieties of cabbage, namely Savoy (Brassica oleracea var. Sabauda L.) and White (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L.) were used in order to understand the morphological, physiological and biochemical elements of functional salt stress response. Thirteen salt concentrations (range 0 to 300 mM NaCl) were considered in Exp. 1# and out of them three (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) were used in Exp. 2#. Results Exp. 1# enabled to define two salinity thresholds (100 and 200 mM NaCl), associated with morphological and physiological adaptations. In Exp. 2#, moderate salinity (100 mM NaCl) had lower effects on Savoy than in White cabbage yield (respectively – 16% and −62% from control). Concurrently, 100 mM NaCl resulted in a significant increase of antioxidant enzymes from control conditions, that was greater in Savoy (+289, +423 and +88% respectively) as compared to White (+114, +356 and +28% respectively) cabbage. Ions accumulation resulted to be a key determinant in tissue osmotic adjustment (mainly in Savoy) whereas the contribution of organic osmolites was negligible. Conclusions Higher antioxidative enzymatic activities in Savoy vs White cabbage upon 100 mM NaCl were associated with improved water relations, thus suggesting a possible physiological pathway for alleviating perceived salt stress.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:29:43.351283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7097
       
  • Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in
           virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approach
    • Authors: Giuseppe Procida; Angelo Cichelli, Corrado Lagazio, Lanfranco S. Conte
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterized by low molecular weight compounds that vaporize at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, volatile compounds composition was determined by applying dynamic headspace, performed at room temperature, with cryogenic trap directly connected to gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer. Samples were also evaluated according to UE and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analyzed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Results Forty‐two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analyzed samples, classified as extra virgin by Panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odor properties (“green‐fruity” and “sweet”) and olfactory perception. Conclusion Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and Panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups as sweet or green types. As regards, sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odor properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms prove to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-19T05:57:59.918012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7096
       
  • Biogenic amines in Zamorano cheese: factors involved in their accumulation
    • Authors: Combarros‐Fuertes P; Fernández D, Arenas R, Diezhandino I, Tornadijo M.E, Fresno J.M.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ripened cheese is among fermented food the most often associated with food‐poisoning from biogenic amines. The influence of ripening time, heat treatment of milk and the effect of using milk from a different ewe breed on the biogenic amines (BA) content of Zamorano cheese was studied by HPLC. Physicochemical, proteolytic and microbiological parameters were also studied. Results BA content increased significantly during ripening and their final values were around 400 mg Kg−1. Cheeses elaborated with raw milk duplicated the concentration of BA relative to those elaborated with pasteurized milk (72 °C for 20 seconds). The average levels of putrescine, spermine and tyramine were higher in cheeses made with a greater proportion of milk from Churra breed. Significant differences in microbial counts and nitrogen soluble in 5% phosphotungstic acid (PTA5%‐SN) were observed between the different batches. Conclusion Ripening time and heat treatment applied to milk were the factors that exercised the greatest influence upon the concentration of BA in Zamorano cheese.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:51.31951-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7093
       
  • Effects of Amaranth Addition on the Pro‐vitamin A Content, and
           Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Pro‐Vitamin
           A‐Biofortified Maize Snacks
    • Authors: Daniso Beswa; Nomusa R. Dlamini, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, John Derera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health‐promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding Amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro‐vitamin A content of extruded pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize varieties that were composited with Amaranth leaf powder at 0, 1 and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. Results At higher Amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, whilst their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may thus need improvement. As Amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro‐vitamin A content. Conclusion Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize with added Amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro‐vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in Southern Africa‐ thus the current study serves as a baseline.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:36.008689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7092
       
  • Application of self‐organising maps towards segmentation of soybean
           samples by determination of inorganic compounds content
    • Authors: Hágata Cremasco; Dionísio Borsato, Karina Gomes Angilelli, Olívio Fernandes Galão, Evandro Bona, Marcos Eduardo Valle
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this study, 20 samples of soybean, both transgenic and conventional cultivars, which were planted in two different regions, Londrina and Ponta Grossa, both located at Paraná, Brazil, were analysed. In order to verify whether the inorganic compound levels in soybeans varied with the region of planting, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and B contents were analysed by an Artificial Neural network Self‐Organising Map. Results It was observed that with a topology 10 x 10, 8000 epochs, initial learning rate of 0.1 and initial neighbourhood ratio of 4.5, the network was able to differentiate samples according to region of origin. Among all of the variables analysed by the artificial neural network, the elements Zn, Ca and Mn were those which most contributed to the classification of the samples. Conclusion This means that samples planted in these two regions differ in their mineral content; however, conventional and transgenic samples grown in the same region show no difference in mineral contents in the grain.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:17.75635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7094
       
  • Enzymatic cell wall degradation of high pressure homogenized tomato puree
           and its effect on lycopene bioaccessibility
    • Authors: Paola Palmero; Ines Colle, Lien Lemmens, Tuyen Thi My Nguyen, Marc Hendrickx, Ann Van Loey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background High pressure homogenization disrupts cell structures assisting carotenoid release from the matrix and subsequent micellarization. However, lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato puree upon high pressure homogenization is limited by the formation of a process‐induced barrier. In this context, cell wall degrading enzymes were applied to hydrolyze the formed barrier and enhance lycopene bioaccessibility. Results The effectiveness of the enzymes in degrading their corresponding substrates was evaluated (consistency, amount of reducing sugars, molar mass distribution and immunolabeling). An in vitro digestion procedure was applied to evaluate the effect of the enzyme treatments on lycopene bioaccessibility. Enzyme treatments with pectinases and cellulase were proved to effectively degrade their corresponding cell wall polymers, however, no further significant increase of lycopene bioaccessibility was obtained. Conclusion A process‐induced barrier consisting of cell wall material is not the only factor governing lycopene bioaccessibility upon high pressure homogenization.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:42:20.79766-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7088
       
  • Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen
           aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): Factors which may affect the
           tenderness
    • Authors: Greta Geldenhuys; Nina Muller, Lorinda Frylinck, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Baseline research investigating the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. To achieve this, the study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min – 4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca2+ dependant protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. Results No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = ‐0.806; ultimate pH = ~5.86) compared to other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20°C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the μ/m‐calpain activity remains constant during the rigor period while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepspin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. Conclusions Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during ageing is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:41:36.72472-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7090
       
  • Pre‐Cooking Protein Paste Gelation Conditions and Post‐Cooking
           Gel Storage Conditions on Gel Texture
    • Authors: Ilgin Paker; Kristen E. Matak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gelation conditions affect setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore, the impact of widely applied pre‐cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post‐cooking period on texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre‐cooking gelation strategies (no‐setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C, or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were either analyzed directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. Results No‐set gels were harder, gummier, and chewier (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:41:20.735096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7091
       
  • Application of Serratia marcescens RZ‐21 significantly enhances
           peanut yield and remediates the continuously cropped peanut soil
    • Authors: Hai‐Yan Ma; Bo Yang, Hong‐Wei Wang, Qi‐Yin Yang, Chuan‐Chao Dai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backround The continuous cropping obstacles cause severe decline of peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on the continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment under natural conditions was conducted to detect the peanut agronomic indexes, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzymes activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to the red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ‐21), a sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) or distilled water (CK). Results S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1), and apparently reduced these two pathogens population in rhizosphere soil. The RZ‐21 treatment significantly increased the peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3%, 33%, 72% and 61.4%, respectively, followed by the M treatment. And P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ‐21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at some different stages. In addition, RZ‐21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except M in the case of fungal population of Flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. Conclusion This is the first report of S. marcescens applied to continuously cropped peanut soil, suggesting that S. marcescens RZ‐21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products, and develop sustainable management practices.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:37:47.011622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7087
       
  • Fast pyrolysis biochar from sawdust improves quality of desert soils and
           enhances plant growth
    • Authors: Mahmood Laghari; Zhiquan Hu, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat, Bo Xiao, Ahmed Ali Tagar, Mian Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Biochar has been mostly used in conventional arable soils for improving soil fertility. This study investigated the effect of biochars of different temperatures on plant growth and desert soil properties. Biochars of different temperatures (i.e., 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) were mixed in the soil with 5% by mass, and the treatments were designated as T‐400, T‐500, T‐600, T‐700, and T‐800, respectively. Sorghum was used as a test crop, and the effect of biochar on plant height, yield, and soil properties was evaluated. Results Sorghum yield increased by 19% and 32% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively, above the control. Biochar reduced depth‐wise moisture depletion in soil columns and hence improved soil water‐holding capacity by 14% and 57% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Soil hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 15% and 42%, and moisture‐retention capacity was improved by 16% and 59%. Hence, sorghum net water‐use efficiency increased by 52% and 74% in T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Biochar also improved soil total carbon, cation exchange capacity and plant nutrient content. Conclusion The addition of fast pyrolysis biochar made from pine sawdust improved the quality of Kubuqi Desert soil and enhanced plant growth. Hence, it can be used for desert modification.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:56:50.207796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7082
       
  • Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium
           caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance,
           digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler
           chickens
    • Authors: Hong Mei Shang; Hui Song, Ya Li Xing, Shu Li Niu, Guo Dong Ding, Yun Yao Jiang, Feng Liang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with 6 pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg−1 flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg−1 HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. Results The results revealed that the average daily gain (linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01) of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (d 1–21), finisher (d 22–42), and the overall experiment period (d 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts and inhibited Escherichia coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:47:39.55541-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7084
       
  • Petroselinum crispum has antioxidant properties, protects against DNA
           damage and inhibits proliferation and migration of cancer cells
    • Authors: Esther Lai‐Har Tang; Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, ShinYee Fung, M S Kanthimathi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Petroselinum crispum (English parsley) is a common herb of the Apiaceae family that is cultivated throughout the world and is widely used as a seasoning condiment. Studies have shown its potential as a medicinal herb. In this study, P. crispum leaf and stem extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage in normal 3T3‐L1 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation and migration of the MCF‐7 cells. Results The dichloromethane extract of P. crispum exhibited the highest phenolic content (42.31 ± 0.50 mg GAE g−1) and ferric reducing ability (0.360 ± 0.009 mmol g−1) of the various extractions performed. The extract showed DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 3310.0 ± 80.5 µg mL−1. Mouse fibroblasts, 3T3‐L1, pre‐treated with 400 µg mL−1 of the extract showed 50.9% protection against H2O2‐induced DNA damage, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention. The extract (300 µg mL−1) inhibited H2O2‐induced MCF‐7 cell migration by 41 ± 4%. As cell migration is necessary for metastasis of cancer cells, inhibition of migration is an indication of protection against metastasis. Conclusion P. crispum has health promoting properties with the potential to prevent oxidative stress‐related diseases and can be developed into functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:52:23.016853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7078
       
  • In vitro anti‐inflammatory properties of fermented pepino (Solanum
           muricatum) milk by γ‐aminobutyric Acid‐producing
           Lactobacillus brevis and an in vivo animal model for evaluating its
           effects on hypertension
    • Authors: Vincent Hung‐Shu Chang; Tsai‐Hsin Chiu, Szu‐Chieh Fu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objectives of this study were to determine the in vitro anti‐inflammatory and in vivo antihypertensive effects of fermented pepino (Solanum muricatum) milk by Lactobacillus brevis with the goal of developing functional healthy products. The inflammatory factors of fermented pepino milk with L. brevis were assessed in RAW 264.7 macrophages, including nitric oxide (NO) production. Inflammatory factor genes of cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and −2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α were also assayed by a reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). Results Results showed that fermented PE inhibited NO production in LPS‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with 150 mg/ml fermented PE completely blocking LPS‐induced NO production. The mRNA expressions of COX‐1, COX‐2, and iNOS were attenuated by treatment with higher concentrations of fermented PE (150 mg/ml). Cells treated with fermented PE (100 ng/ml) exhibited strikingly decreased LPS‐induced expression of TNF‐α mRNA. During the feeding trial, rats treated with 10% fermented pepino milk (100 µg/2.5 ml) and 100% fermented pepino milk (1000 µg/2.5 ml) exhibited significant decreases in the systolic blood pressure. Conclusion Our results showed that fermented pepino milk has wide potential applications for development as a health food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:52:08.566861-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7081
       
  • Thermal‐aided Phosvitin Extraction from Egg Yolk
    • Authors: Jiandong Ren; Jianping Wu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backgound Phosvitin is the principal phosphoprotein in egg yolk with great potential for uses as functional food ingredients in improving bone health. This study reported a thermal‐aided extraction method without using organic solvents or non‐food compatible chemicals. Results Egg yolk was two times diluted by water, and then extracted by 10% NaCl at 90 °C. Effects of pHs and heating temperatures on the extracts were examined. The phosvitin purity was increased from 75.7% at pH 8.0 to 80.1% at pH 5.0 and then started to decrease, but the yield decreased at decreasing pHs. The phosvitin purity increased at increasing temperature up to 90 °C, and then started to decrease at 95 °C, while the yield increased from 70 °C to 80 °C, and then started to decline at 85 °C. Conclusion A purity of 88.0% and a yield of 23.5 g/kg yolk dry matter were obtained at 90 °C. The purity and yield were comparable or higher than previous methods. The developed method in the study is simple, including mainly two steps: water dilution of egg yolk and NaCl extraction with heating, and can be scaled up for industrial production.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T03:49:09.68181-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7073
       
  • Influence of temperature during grain filling on gluten viscoelastic
           properties and gluten protein composition
    • Authors: Shiori Koga; Ulrike Böcker, Anette Moldestad, Paola Tosi, Peter R. Shewry, Ellen F. Mosleth, Anne Kjersti Uhlen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low to moderate temperatures on gluten functionality and gluten protein composition. Four spring wheat cultivars were therefore grown in climate chambers with three temperature regimes (day/night temperatures of 13/10, 18/15 and 23/20 °C) during grain filling. Results Temperatures strongly influenced grain weight and protein content. Gluten quality measured by resistance to extension (Rmax) was the highest in three cultivars grown at 13 °C. Rmax was positively correlated with the proportion of SDS‐unextractable polymeric proteins (%UPP). The proportions of ω‐gliadins and D‐type LMW‐GS were increased and the proportions of α‐ and γ‐gliadins, and B‐type LMW‐GS were decreased as temperature increased, while the proportion of HMW‐GS was constant between temperatures. The cultivar Berserk had strong and constant Rmax between the different temperatures. Conclusion Constant low temperatures, even as low as 13 °C, had no negative effects on gluten quality. The observed variation in the Rmax related to temperature could be explained more by %UPP than by changes in the proportions of HMW‐GS or other gluten proteins. The four cultivars responded differently to temperature as gluten from Berserk was stronger and more stable over a wide range of temperatures.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:55:10.470065-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7068
       
  • Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranate
    • Authors: Sunil Pareek; Daniel Valero, María Serrano
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pomegranate is a subtropical and tropical fruit with great importance from the health point of view. Despite the increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of pomegranate, consumption of the fruit is still limited due to poor postharvest handling, storage recommendations, short shelf life, and quality deterioration during transportation, storage and marketing. Occurrence of physiological disorders such as husk scald, splitting, and chilling injury are another challenges which reduces marketability and consumers acceptance. Recently, remarkable work on postharvest biology and technology has been done. Pomegranate is highly sensitive to low‐oxygen atmospheres (
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:54:53.151914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7069
       
  • Identification of antioxidant peptides of Jinhua ham generated in the
           products and through the simulated gastro‐intestinal digestion
           system
    • Authors: Chao‐Zhi Zhu; Wan‐Gang Zhang, Guang‐Hong Zhou, Xing‐Lian Xu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to purify and identify antioxidant peptides present in the extract of Chinese dry‐cured Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham extracts were separated into five fractions (A‐E) by size‐exclusion chromatography. Each fraction was subjected to a simulated gastro‐intestinal (GI) digestion system and fractions showing strong antioxidant activities were collected and subjected to liquid chromatography combined with mass/mass‐spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for further purification and identification. Results Using MS/MS analysis, 33 peptides were identified in these fractions. Several key peptides were selected for synthesis and determined their antioxidant activity. The peptide showing strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was GKFNV which showed 92.7% antioxidant activity at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the peptide LPGGGHGDL showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and LPGGGT and HA showed strong inhibition activity against erythrocyte haemolysis (about 45%) before digestion. On the other hand, KEER may contribute to Fe2+‐chelating ability in fraction C after GI digestion. Conclusion In conclusion, Jinhua dry‐cured ham seems to be a potential source of antioxidant peptides generated in the products and GI digestion.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T05:06:58.304896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7065
       
  • New insights into the dynamics of vacuum impregnation of plant tissues and
           its metabolic consequences
    • Authors: Federico Gómez Galindo; Noor Liyana Yusof
      Pages: 1127 - 1130
      Abstract: The complex and highly interconnected intercellular air spaces of plant tissues occupied by gas or native liquid has offered the possibility for impregnation with a wide range of compounds. In food processing, the development of vacuum impregnation has allowed a controlled way to introduce these compounds to the tissue structure aiming at modifying structural, nutritional, and/or functional properties as well as improving the processability of fruits and vegetables. In the last 10 years, more than 100 research articles have been published on the topic and significant insights had been gained including improved understanding of mechanisms for mass transfer as well as the development of new, fascinating industrial applications. In the recent years, our knowledge on these aspects has increased by bringing new exploration technologies for studying the impregnation of porous materials and plant cell physiology approaches to bear on the topic. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of these exciting advances. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-04T06:11:36.632199-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6777
       
  • Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient
           release patterns
    • Authors: Yakindra Prasad Timilsena; Raju Adhikari, Phil Casey, Tim Muster, Harsharn Gill, Benu Adhikari
      Pages: 1131 - 1142
      Abstract: Fertilisers are one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. The application of fertilisers in agricultural practices has markedly increased the production of food, feed, fuel, fibre and other plant products. However, a significant portion of nutrients applied in the field is not taken up by plants and is lost through leaching, volatilisation, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss increases the cost of fertiliser and severely pollutes the environment. To alleviate these problems, enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEFs) are produced and used in the form of controlled release fertilisers and nitrification/urease inhibitors. The application of biopolymers for coating in EEFs, tailoring the release pattern of nutrients to closely match the growth requirement of plants and development of realistic models to predict the release pattern of common nutrients have been the foci of fertiliser research. In this context, this paper intends to review relevant aspects of new developments in fertiliser production and use, agronomic, economic and environmental drives for enhanced efficiency fertilisers and their formulation process and the nutrient release behaviour. Application of biopolymers and complex coacervation technique for nutrient encapsulation is also explored as a promising technology to produce EEFs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:20:08.455212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6812
       
  • The use of vermicompost in organic farming: overview, effects on soil and
           economics
    • Authors: Su Lin Lim; Ta Yeong Wu, Pei Nie Lim, Katrina Pui Yee Shak
      Pages: 1143 - 1156
      Abstract: Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus‐like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost‐treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth‐influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:11:56.482189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6849
       
  • Effects of different concentrations of salt and sugar on biogenic amines
           and quality changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio) during chilled storage
    • Authors: Yuemei Zhang; Na Qin, Yongkang Luo, Huixing Shen
      Pages: 1157 - 1162
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biogenic amines have gained a great deal of attention due to their toxic potential in humans. Carp is one of the most important freshwater fish species in China. Salt and sugar are capable of preserving food. There is a limited amount of information on the changes of biogenic amines in freshwater fish influenced by salt and sugar. This study aimed to detect the changes in biogenic amines, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) and total viable counts (TVC) of carp influenced by different concentrations of salt and sugar stored at 4 °C. RESULTS TVB‐N and TVC increased with storage time, which was in accordance with the changes of sensory scores. The eight biogenic amines were detected in fresh carp. Putrescine and cadaverine were the main biogenic amines found in carp fillets stored at 4 °C; they had a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TVB‐N. CONCLUSION Salt processing was found to inhibit the increase of TVB‐N, TVC, putrescine and cadaverine in carp. High salt concentration had a positive effect on extending the shelf‐life of the carp, compared to low salt concentration. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:04:28.943443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6803
       
  • Variation in bioactive content in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.
           italica) grown under conventional and organic production systems
    • Authors: Juan Valverde; Kim Reilly, Salvador Villacreces, Michael Gaffney, James Grant, Nigel Brunton
      Pages: 1163 - 1171
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular glucosinolates and polyphenols, which are proposed to confer health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is at least partly based on a perception that organic crops may contain higher levels of bioactive compounds; however, insufficient research has been carried out to either support or refute such claims. RESULTS In this study we examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total and individual glucosinolates in two varieties of broccoli grown over 2 years in a split‐plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year‐on‐year variation but were not significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. In contrast, levels of the indolyl glucosinolates glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. CONCLUSION Organic cultivation practices resulted in significantly higher levels of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin in broccoli florets; however, other investigated compounds were unaffected by production practices. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-30T09:39:42.328434-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6804
       
  • Production performance, meat composition and oxidative susceptibility in
           broiler chicken fed with different phenolic compounds
    • Authors: Kristina Starčević; Luka Krstulović, Diana Brozić, Maja Maurić, Zvonko Stojević, Željko Mikulec, Miroslav Bajić, Tomislav Mašek
      Pages: 1172 - 1178
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of phenolic compounds on production animals. Supplementation of animal diets with phytogenic compounds, such as different essential oils and polyphenols, could improve animal productivity as well as the chemical composition and oxidative stability of food derived from those animals. RESULTS During the trial, 80 male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were allocated to four dietary groups: control and three groups supplemented with thymol, tannic acid and gallic acid. Feed utilisation was improved in all experimental groups and tannic acid also improved final body weight. Gallic acid significantly increased n‐3 long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. A hypocholesterolaemic effect was noticed in all groups in liver, but not in muscle. The glucose lowering effect in serum was noticed in the tannic acid group in comparison to other experimental groups. Oxidative susceptibility was improved by tannic acid in liver and breast and by gallic acid in breast muscle. CONCLUSION The inclusion of phenolic compounds enhanced growth performance, decreased lipid oxidation, decreased cholesterol value and increased beneficial fatty acids content. Positive effects varied depending on phenolic compound used and, therefore, it would be interesting to further investigate synergistic effects of investigated phenolic compound. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:04:59.689043-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6805
       
  • An active recombinant cocoonase from the silkworm Bombyx mori: bleaching,
           degumming and sericin degrading activities
    • Authors: Sasimanas Unajak; Suradet Aroonluke, Amornrat Promboon
      Pages: 1179 - 1189
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cocoonase is a serine protease produced by silk moths and used for softening the cocoons so that they can escape. Degumming is one of the important steps in silk processing. This research aimed to produce an active recombinant Bombyx mori cocoonase (BmCoc) for the silk degumming process. RESULTS A recombinant BmCoc was successfully expressed in a Pichia pastoris system. The purified enzyme showed specific activity of 227 U mg−1 protein, 2.4‐fold purification, 95% yield and a molecular weight of 26 kDa. The enzyme exhibited optimal temperature at 40 °C and optimal pH at 8, and showed thermal stability at 25–45 °C and pH stability at 5–9. The recombinant enzyme exhibited sericin degumming ability and color bleaching characteristics, and did not affect the fibroin fiber. The enzyme also degraded sericin substrate with a product size about 30–70 kDa. CONCLUSION In this study, we successfully produced the active recombinant BmCoc in P. pastoris with promising functions for the Thai silk degumming process, which includes degumming, sericin degrading and color bleaching activities. Our data clearly indicated that the recombinant enzyme had proteolytic activity on sericin but not on fibroin proteins. The recombinant BmCoc has proven to be suitable for numerous applications in the silk industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T04:07:45.682931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6806
       
  • Production of γ‐aminobutyric acid by microorganisms from
           different food sources
    • Authors: Jozef Hudec; Ľubomír Kobida, Margita Čanigová, Magdaléna Lacko‐Bartošová, Otto Ložek, Peter Chlebo, Jana Mrázová, Ladislav Ducsay, Judita Bystrická
      Pages: 1190 - 1198
      Abstract: BACKGROUND γ‐Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a potentially bioactive component of foods and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was screen lactic acid bacteria belonging to the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, and microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) from 10 different food sources for GABA production by fermentation in broth or plant and animal products. RESULTS Under an aerobic atmosphere, very low selectivity of GABA production (from 0.8% to 1.3%) was obtained using yeast and filamentous fungi, while higher selectivity (from 6.5% to 21.0%) was obtained with bacteria. The use of anaerobic conditions, combined with the addition of coenzyme (pyridoxal‐5‐phosphate) and salts (CaCl2, NaCl), led to the detection of a low concentration of GABA precursor. Simultaneously, using an optimal temperature of 33 °C, a pH of 6.5 and bacteria from banana (Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae families), surprisingly, a high selectivity of GABA was obtained. A positive impact of fenugreek sprouts on the proteolytic process and GABA production from plant material as a source of GABA precursor was identified. CONCLUSIONS Lactic acid bacteria for the production of new plant and animal GABA‐rich products from different natural sources containing GABA precursor can be used. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T08:51:25.939274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6807
       
  • Effect of the antioxidants composition in diet on the sensory and physical
           properties of frozen farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)
    • Authors: Alicia Rodríguez; Mónica Latorre, Mónica Gajardo, Andrea Bunger, Alejandro Munizaga, Luis López, Santiago P Aubourg
      Pages: 1199 - 1206
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Great attention has been paid to the antioxidants present in farmed fish feeds, with the replacement of synthetic antioxidants by natural ones being a main objective. In the present study, Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was fed a conventional diet that was enriched with different kinds of antioxidants: synthetic antioxidants (butylated‐hydroxy toluene and ethoxyquin; diet I), a tocopherols‐rich mixture (diet II) and a tocopherols–rosemary extract mixture (diet III). A comparative study of the sensory and physical changes observed in the corresponding frozen products was undertaken. RESULTS After 18 months at −18 °C, fish previously fed on diet I showed higher putrid and rancid odours and rancid taste scores, while lower mean typical odour and taste values were attained. Dripping and expressible moisture values obtained for diet II‐fish were lower when compared with their counterparts belonging to the diet I; additionally, microstructure analysis revealed that Z‐lines integration was better preserved in fish corresponding to diets II and III. CONCLUSION Diet II has been recognised as being the most profitable to be employed to maintain the sensory and physical properties of the frozen product when long‐term storage is considered. Further research is to be continued to optimise the natural antioxidants profile. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T04:13:33.532601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6808
       
  • Improvement of the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of cowpea flours
           (Vigna unguiculata) by fermentation: results of in vitro and in vivo
           experiments
    • Authors: Garyfallia Kapravelou; Rosario Martínez, Ana M Andrade, Carlos López Chaves, María López‐Jurado, Pilar Aranda, Francisco Arrebola, Francisco J Cañizares, Milagros Galisteo, Jesús M Porres
      Pages: 1207 - 1216
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The antioxidant capacity and hypolipidaemic effects of Vigna unguiculata, as well as their potential improvement by different fermentation and thermal processes were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods. RESULTS Phenolic content and reducing capacity of legume acetone extract were significantly increased by different fermentation processes, and by the thermal treatment of fermented legume flours. TBARS inhibiting capacity was increased by fermentation but not by thermal treatment. A higher ability to decrease Cu2+/H2O2‐induced electrophoretic mobility of LDL was found in fermented when compared to raw legume extracts, and a higher protective effect on short term metabolic status of HT‐29 cells was found for raw and lactobacillus‐fermented Vigna followed by naturally fermented Vigna extracts. Significant improvements in plasma antioxidant capacity and hepatic activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in rats that consumed fermented legume flours when compared to the untreated legume or a casein–methionine control diet. In addition, liver weight and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were also positively affected by untreated or naturally fermented Vigna. CONCLUSION V. unguiculata has demonstrated its potential as a functional food with interesting antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, which can be further augmented by fermentation processes associated or not to thermal processing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T04:13:23.267131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6809
       
  • Inferring the origin of rare fruit distillates from compositional data
           using multivariate statistical analyses and the identification of new
           flavour constituents
    • Authors: Tatjana M Mihajilov‐Krstev; Marija S Denić, Bojan K Zlatković, Vesna P Stankov‐Jovanović, Violeta D Mitić, Gordana S Stojanović, Niko S Radulović
      Pages: 1217 - 1235
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In Serbia, delicatessen fruit alcoholic drinks are produced from autochthonous fruit‐bearing species such as cornelian cherry, blackberry, elderberry, wild strawberry, European wild apple, European blueberry and blackthorn fruits. There are no chemical data on many of these and herein we analysed volatile minor constituents of these rare fruit distillates. Our second goal was to determine possible chemical markers of these distillates through a statistical/multivariate treatment of the herein obtained and previously reported data. RESULTS Detailed chemical analyses revealed a complex volatile profile of all studied fruit distillates with 371 identified compounds. A number of constituents were recognised as marker compounds for a particular distillate. Moreover, 33 of them represent newly detected flavour constituents in alcoholic beverages or, in general, in foodstuffs. With the aid of multivariate analyses, these volatile profiles were successfully exploited to infer the origin of raw materials used in the production of these spirits. It was also shown that all fruit distillates possessed weak antimicrobial properties. CONCLUSION It seems that the aroma of these highly esteemed wild‐fruit spirits depends on the subtle balance of various minor volatile compounds, whereby some of them are specific to a certain type of fruit distillate and enable their mutual distinction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T08:57:39.739818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6810
       
  • Differing chemical compositions of three teas may explain their different
           effects on acute blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    • Authors: Shan‐Bing Li; Yi‐Fang Li, Zhong‐Fu Mao, Hui‐Hua Hu, Shu‐Hua Ouyang, Yan‐Ping Wu, Bun Tsoi, Pin Gong, Hiroshi Kurihara, Rong‐Rong He
      Pages: 1236 - 1242
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Heavy tea consumption is suggested to be unsuitable for hypertensive people. However, the bioactive substances in different varieties of tea leaves are very different. This study compares the effects of three Chinese teas – C. sinensis, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha – on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). RESULTS Intragastric administration of C. sinensis extract led to an acute increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate in SHRs. However, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha exerted no obvious influences on SBP, DBP or heart rate. Similar to the extract of C. sinensis, intragastric administration of caffeine also led to an acute increase in BP and heart rate in SHRs. In contrast, theobromine and theacrine – purine alkaloids predominantly contained in C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha, respectively – had no pressor effects. The effect of caffeine on BP was related to the regulation of plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in SHRs. CONCLUSION The different effects of C. sinensis, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha on BP might be explained, at least partially, by the differences in the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T09:22:52.876003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6811
       
  • Characterization of Phytophthora nicotianae isolates in southeast Spain
           and their detection and quantification through a real‐time TaqMan
           PCR
    • Authors: Josefa Blaya; Carmen Lacasa, Alfredo Lacasa, Victoriano Martínez, Ana B Santísima‐Trinidad, Jose A Pascual, Margarita Ros
      Pages: 1243 - 1251
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The soil‐borne pathogens Phytophthora nicotianae and P. capsici are the causal agents of root and stem rot of many plant species. Although P. capsici was considered the causal agent in one of the main pepper production areas of Spain to date, evidence of the presence of P. nicotianae was found. We aimed to survey the presence of P. nicotianae and study the variability in its populations in this area in order to improve the management of Tristeza disease. RESULTS A new specific primer and a TaqMan probe were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA to detect and quantify P. nicotianae. Both morphological and molecular analysis showed its presence and confirmed it to be the causal agent of the Phytophthora disease symptoms in the studied area. The genetic characterization among P. nicotianae populations showed a low variability of genetic diversity among the isolates. Only isolates of the A2 mating type were detected. CONCLUSIONS Not only is a specific and early detection of P. nicotianae essential but also the study of genetic variability among isolates for the appropriate management of the disease, above all, in producing areas with favorable conditions for the advance of the disease. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T09:02:05.910983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6813
       
  • Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the
           Taiwanese tea industry
    • Authors: Mao‐Chang Wang; Chin‐Ying Yang
      Pages: 1252 - 1259
      Abstract: BACKGROUND We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. RESULTS The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi‐rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non‐organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. CONCLUSION This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T09:28:31.081114-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6814
       
  • A comparison of actual versus stated label amounts of EPA and DHA in
           commercial omega‐3 dietary supplements in the United States
    • Authors: Alison C Kleiner; Dennis P Cladis, Charles R Santerre
      Pages: 1260 - 1267
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits throughout life and are obtained primarily through fish and fish oil supplements. Due to the growing popularity of dietary supplements, 47 commercial fish, krill, and algal oil supplements were analyzed for EPA, DHA, and other fatty acids. RESULTS For fish‐ and krill‐based supplements, the range of EPA was 81.8 to 454.6 mg g−1 oil and DHA was 51.6 to 220.4 mg g−1 oil. For algal oil supplements, EPA ranged from 7.7 to 151.1 mg g−1 oil and DHA ranged from 237.8 to 423.5 mg g−1 oil. The percentage of the stated label amount for EPA and DHA ranged from 66 to 184% and 62 to 184%, respectively. Only 10 supplements (21% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated label amount of EPA, while 12 supplements (25% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated amount of DHA. Over 70% of the supplements tested did not contain the stated label amount of EPA or DHA. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the quality of fish oil supplements is not being adequately monitored by manufacturers or government agencies and increased testing is needed to ensure regulatory compliance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-05T09:01:57.786231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6816
       
  • Comparison of lipids, fatty acids and volatile compounds of various
           kumquat species using HS/GC/MS/FID techniques
    • Authors: Murat Güney; Ayse Tulin Oz, Ebru Kafkas
      Pages: 1268 - 1273
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Kumquat (Fortunella spp.) is one of the important fruit species that has been introduced into Turkey recently. It is well adapted to the Mediterranean region in Turkey. Early research of kumquat was started on adaptation and pomological traits, and only a few studies have been concerned with chemical content. After understanding the health benefits of kumquat fruits farmers started their plantations in Turkey. Thus in this study the fruits of five kumquat species – Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle, F. crassifolia Swingle, F. obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, F. hindsii (Champ. ex Benth.) Swingle, and limequat [Citrus aurantifolia × F. japonica (Thumb.)] – were compared based on their lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles. The lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles were determined by using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS‐GC/MS) techniques. Volatile constituents of kumquat fruits were isolated by a headspace method. RESULTS The total lipid content (%) of kumquat species ranged from 0.26% to 0.37%. The polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected in a higher amount compared to the monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The headspace technique led to the identification of 39 compounds and among a total of 39 constituents identified, d‐limonene was the most abundant compound, comprising 67.78–88.72%. The results indicated that kumquats are rich in dietary and health benefits. CONCLUSION Thirty‐nine compounds were identified and terpenes were the major chemical group in all kumquat genotypes. Esters, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were also detected. The present study revealed that the kumquat fruits have a valuable levels of health beneficial chemo‐preventive effects and genotypes varied based on their lipid, fatty acids and volatile constituents. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T07:06:59.678525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6817
       
  • Assessment of cluster yield components by image analysis
    • Authors: Maria P Diago; Javier Tardaguila, Nuria Aleixos, Borja Millan, Jose M Prats‐Montalban, Sergio Cubero, Jose Blasco
      Pages: 1274 - 1282
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Berry weight, berry number and cluster weight are key parameters for yield estimation for wine and tablegrape industry. Current yield prediction methods are destructive, labour‐demanding and time‐consuming. In this work, a new methodology, based on image analysis was developed to determine cluster yield components in a fast and inexpensive way. RESULTS Clusters of seven different red varieties of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) were photographed under laboratory conditions and their cluster yield components manually determined after image acquisition. Two algorithms based on the Canny and the logarithmic image processing approaches were tested to find the contours of the berries in the images prior to berry detection performed by means of the Hough Transform. Results were obtained in two ways: by analysing either a single image of the cluster or using four images per cluster from different orientations. The best results (R2 between 69% and 95% in berry detection and between 65% and 97% in cluster weight estimation) were achieved using four images and the Canny algorithm. The model's capability based on image analysis to predict berry weight was 84%. CONCLUSION The new and low‐cost methodology presented here enabled the assessment of cluster yield components, saving time and providing inexpensive information in comparison with current manual methods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:21:17.346537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6819
       
  • Production of an anthocyanin‐rich food colourant from Thymus
           moroderi and its application in foods
    • Authors: Miriam Cristina Díaz‐García; María Rosario Castellar, José María Obón, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Diego Rivera
      Pages: 1283 - 1293
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from flowers and bracts of Thymus sp. are studied. An anthocyanin‐rich food colourant with interesting high antioxidant activity from Thymus moroderi has been obtained, and applied to colour foods. RESULTS Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from T. moroderi and another five Thymus sp. were extracted in methanol/hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol L−1 (50/50, v/v) 2 h stirring at 50 °C. They were identified and quantified by HPLC‐PDA‐MS and UHPLC‐PDA‐fluorescence, as total individual polyphenols. Total polyphenols were also determined. Flowers had higher anthocyanins and other polyphenols concentrations than bracts; for example, total polyphenols content of T. moroderi were 131.58 and 61.98 g GAE kg−1 vegetal tissue, respectively. A liquid concentrated colourant was obtained from T. moroderi using water/citric acid as solvent. It was characterised and compared with other two commercial anthocyanin‐rich food colourants from red grape skin and red carrot (colour strength of 1.7 and 3.6 AU, respectively). T. moroderi colourant had 1.2 AU colour strength, and high storage stability (>97.1% remaining colour after 110 days at 4 °C). It showed a higher polyphenols content than commercial colourants. Its antioxidant activity was 0.707 mmol Trolox eq. g−1 plant dry weight, 69.5 times higher than red carrot. The three colourants were applied to colour yogurts, giving pinky tonalities. The colour did not change evidently (ΔE*ab 
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:33:28.117731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6821
       
  • Management practices and forage quality affecting the contamination of
           milk with anaerobic spore‐forming bacteria
    • Authors: Maddalena Zucali; Luciana Bava, Stefania Colombini, Milena Brasca, Marilù Decimo, Stefano Morandi, Alberto Tamburini, G Matteo Crovetto
      Pages: 1294 - 1302
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anaerobic spore‐forming bacteria (ASFB) in milk derive from the farm environment, and the use of silages and management practices are the main responsible of milk ASFB contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between feeding, milking routine and cow hygiene and milk and Grana Padano cheese (produced with and without lysozyme) ASFB contamination. RESULTS The study involved 23 dairy farms. ASFB in corn silage were on average 2.34 ± 0.87 log10 MPN g−1. For grass, Italian ryegrass and alfalfa, ASFB (log10 MPN g−1) were numerically higher for silages (3.22) than hays (2.85). The use of corn silages of high quality (high lactic and acetic acids concentrations) decreased the milk ASFB contamination, whilst the use of herbage silages did not affect it. The presence (>40%) of cows with dirty udders increased the ASFB contamination of milk, while forestripping had a positive effect (−9% ASFB). Ripened Grana Padano had an ASFB count below the analytical limit; Clostridium tyrobutyricum DNA was found only in wheels produced without lysozyme, which also showed late blowing. CONCLUSION The factors increasing milk spore contamination were corn silage quality, cow udder hygiene and inadequate milking routine. Late blowing was present only in cheeses without lysozyme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T05:42:20.47677-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6822
       
  • Study on reducing antigenic response and IgE‐binding inhibitions of
           four milk proteins of Lactobacillus casei 1134
    • Authors: Minjing Yao; Qian Xu, Yongkang Luo, Jing Shi, Zheng Li
      Pages: 1303 - 1312
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cow's milk allergy has aroused public concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fermentation by Lactobacillus casei 1134 on the antigenicity and allergenicity (IgE‐binding inhibitions) of milk proteins. The effects of pH value on the antigenicity and allergenicity of four milk proteins (α‐lactalbumin, β‐lactoglobulin, α‐casein and β‐casein) were examined by indirect competitive enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. The free amino acids which were produced in the fermentation process were analysed and the proteolysis of milk proteins was detected. RESULTS Fermentation by L. casei 1134 could significantly reduce the antigenicity and allergenicity of the four proteins in reconstituted milk. The allergenicity of milk proteins was further reduced in the process of simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Moreover, we could deduce that one of the potential factors of antigenicity was lactic acid with the comparison of the antigenicity of the four proteins between L. casei 1134 fermented milk and lactic acid milk at different pH values. CONCLUSION There are many factors which can affect the milk proteins allergen, including lactic acid and proteolytic enzymes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:07:16.287848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6823
       
  • Wine evolution and spatial distribution of oxygen during storage in
           high‐density polyethylene tanks
    • Authors: María del Alamo‐Sanza; V Felipe Laurie, Ignacio Nevares
      Pages: 1313 - 1320
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Porous plastic tanks are permeable to oxygen due to the nature of the polymers with which they are manufactured. In the wine industry, these types of tanks are used mainly for storing wine surpluses. Lately, their use in combination with oak pieces has also been proposed as an alternative to mimic traditional barrel ageing. RESULTS In this study, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in a wine‐like model solution, and the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of high‐density polyethylene tanks (HDPE), was analysed by means of a non‐invasive opto‐luminescence detector. Also, the chemical and sensory evolutioof red wine, treated with oak pieces, and stored in HDPE tanks was examined and compared against traditional oak barrel ageing. The average OTR calculated for these tanks was within the commonly accepted amounts reported for new barrels. With regards to wine evolution, a number of compositional and sensory differences were observed between the wines aged in oak barrels and those stored in HDPE tanks with oak barrel alternatives. CONCLUSION The use of HDPE tanks in combination with oak wood alternatives is a viable alternative too for ageing wine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:16:11.605769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6824
       
  • Biochar–manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution
           alleviated salt stress and improved leaf bioactivity of maize in a saline
           soil from central China: a 2‐year field experiment
    • Authors: Muhammad Siddique Lashari; Yingxin Ye, Haishi Ji, Lianqing Li, Grace Wanjiru Kibue, Haifei Lu, Jufeng Zheng, Genxing Pan
      Pages: 1321 - 1327
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Salinity is a major stress threatening crop production in dry lands. A 2‐year field experiment was conducted to assess the potential of a biochar product to alleviate salt‐stress to a maize crop in a saline soil. The soil was amended with a compost at 12 t ha−1 of wheat straw biochar and poultry manure compost (BPC), and a diluted pyroligneous solution (PS) at 0.15 t ha−1 (BPC‐PS). Changes in soil salinity and plant performance, leaf bioactivity were examined in the first (BPC‐PS1) and second (BPC‐PS2) year following a single amendment. RESULTS While soil salinity significantly decreased, there were large increases in leaf area index, plant performance, and maize grain yield, with a considerable decrease in leaf electrolyte leakage when grown in amendments. Maize leaf sap nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increased while sodium and chloride decreased, leaf bioactivity related to osmotic stress was significantly improved following the treatments. These effects were generally greater in the second than in the first year. CONCLUSION A combined amendment of crop straw biochar with manure compost plus pyroligneous solution could help combat salinity stress to maize and improve productivity in saline croplands in arid/semi‐arid regions threatened increasingly by global climate change. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:18:42.667136-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6825
       
  • Molecular diversity and hypoglycemic polypeptide‐P content of
           Momordica charantia in different accessions and different seasons
    • Authors: Miao Tian; Xiang‐Qing Zeng, Huan‐Lei Song, Shan‐Xin Hu, Fu‐Jun Wang, Jian Zhao, Zhi‐Bi Hu
      Pages: 1328 - 1335
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Momordica charantia (MC) has been used for treating diabetes mellitus from ancient times in Asia, Africa and South America. There are many MC accessions in local markets. Polypeptide‐P as a main hypoglycemic component in MC was first studied in this experiment to illustrate the different contents in MC of different accessions and different harvesting times. RESULTS Nineteen MC accessions collected from different regions were clustered into three groups using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter‐simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Content of polypeptide‐P in the tested MC accessions was detected by western blot (WB) method. The WB results revealed that polypeptide‐P was detected in MC accessions harvested in June and July but not in September and October. Furthermore, Polypeptide‐P content corresponded well with the MC accessions. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the MC accessions and the harvesting times or the weather during harvest play significant roles in high content of polypeptide‐P. [[ArtCopyrightmsg]]
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T04:13:41.269921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6826
       
  • Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the
           nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean
    • Authors: Elena Bartkiene; Vita Krungleviciute, Grazina Juodeikiene, Daiva Vidmantiene, Zita Maknickiene
      Pages: 1336 - 1342
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The ability of bacteriocin‐like inhibitory substance (BLIS)‐producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce l(+) and d(−)‐lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupin and soya bean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. RESULTS Protein digestibility of fermented lupin and soya bean was found higher on average by 18.3% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly l‐lactic acid in soya bean and lupin (d/l ratio 0.38–0.42 and 0.35–0.54, respectively), while spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (d/l ratio 0.82–0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were able to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, whereas they were able to produce putrescine, histamine and tyramine. CONCLUSIONS SSF improved lupin and soya bean protein digestibility. BLIS‐producing LAB in lupin and soya bean medium produced a mixture of d‐ and l‐lactic acid with a major excess of the latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupin and soya bean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non‐producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T07:33:10.474531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6827
       
  • Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented
           with a diet rich in bioactive compounds
    • Authors: Dorota Cais‐Sokolińska; Jan Pikul, Jacek Wójtowski, Romualda Danków, Joanna Teichert, Grażyna Czyżak‐Runowska, Emilia Bagnicka
      Pages: 1343 - 1349
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d−1 per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. RESULTS The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n‐3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. CONCLUSION Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n‐3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T04:15:39.646721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6828
       
  • Elucidation of key aroma compounds in traditional dry fermented sausages
           using different extraction techniques
    • Authors: Sara Corral; Ana Salvador, Mónica Flores
      Pages: 1350 - 1361
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of different extraction techniques – solid phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) – can deliver different aroma profiles and it is essential to determine which is most suitable to extract the aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages. RESULTS Forty‐five aroma‐active compounds were detected by SPME and SAFE, with 11 of them reported for the first time as aroma compounds in dry fermented sausages: ethyl 3‐hydroxy butanoate, trimethyl pyrazine, d‐pantolactone, isobutyl hexanoate, ethyl benzoate, α‐terpineol, ethyl 3‐pyridinecarboxylate, benzothiazole, 2,3‐dihydrothiophene, methyl eugenol, γ‐nonalactone. The aroma concentration and odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Flavour reconstitution analyses were performed using 20 odorants with OAVs above 1 obtained from the SAFE and SPME extracts to prepare the aroma model. CONCLUSION SPME and SAFE techniques were complementary and necessary to reproduce the overall dry fermented sausage aroma. The final aroma model included the odorants from both extraction techniques (SPME and SAFE) but it was necessary to incorporate the compounds 2,4‐decadienal (E,E), benzothiazole, methyl eugenol, α‐terpineol, and eugenol to the final aroma model to evoked the fresh sausage aroma although a lowest cured meat aroma note was perceived. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:54:15.18089-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6830
       
  • A comparative study of aroma‐active compounds between dark and milk
           chocolate: relationship to sensory perception
    • Authors: Jianbin Liu; Mengya Liu, Congcong He, Huanlu Song, Jia Guo, Ye Wang, Haiying Yang, Xiaoxia Su
      Pages: 1362 - 1372
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The most important aroma‐active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry (GC‐O‐MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. RESULTS A total of 32 major aroma‐active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27–729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur‐containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. CONCLUSION Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma‐active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-15T05:24:26.885871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6831
       
  • Chitosan coating incorporated with the lactoperoxidase system: an active
           edible coating for fish preservation
    • Authors: Mohammad Sedigh Jasour; Ali Ehsani, Laleh Mehryar, Seyedeh Samaneh Naghibi
      Pages: 1373 - 1378
      Abstract: BACKGROUND As a result of consumers' concerns about chemicals there is a particular interest in the food industry to use natural bio‐preservatives such as antimicrobial enzymes for antimicrobial packaging. Based on the antimicrobial activity of the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS), the present study evaluated the coating effect of LPOS incorporated into chitosan solution (CH) on the quality and shelf life extension of rainbow trout during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C), for a period of 16 days. RESULTS The results indicated that samples of the CH+LPOS group had significantly lower numbers of Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria than did the CH and control group during the entire storage period. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) levels for the CH+LPOS samples (22.07 mg 100 g−1) did not exceed the limit of consumption (30–35 mg N 100 g−1), while the CH (31.03 mg 100 g−1) and control groups (37.78 mg 100 g−1) reached this level at days 12 and 16, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid values of the CH and CH+LPOS samples, ranged between 0.49 and 0.51 on day 0 and 4.59–4.66 mg kg−1 on day 16, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the corresponding values of the control samples (0.47 on day 0 to 4.78 mg kg−1 on day 16 of storage) during the chilled storage period. CONCLUSION The coating treatments (CH and CH+LPOS) extended the shelf life of trout fillets by at least 4 days as compared to the control samples, so that they showed moderate to high acceptability in all investigated sensory attributes even on the 16th day of storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:55:10.885742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6838
       
 
 
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