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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.822]   [H-I: 100]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Characteristics and intestinal immunomodulating activities of
           water-soluble pectic polysaccharides from Chenpi with different storage
    • Authors: Changcheng Tian; Xu Hui, Jing Li, Zhuo Han
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTraditional view considers that the long-term stored Chenpi (dried citrus peel) has better health efficacies as compared with the fresh Chenpi, but the detailed mechanism remains obscure.RESULTSThe three water-soluble pectic polysaccharides (CPP1, CPP5 and CPP10) were obtained from one-year, five-year and ten-year Chenpi, respectively, and their physicochemical characteristics and intestinal immunomodulating activities were investigated and compared. Our results showed that CPP5 and CPP10 showed the lower dynamic viscosity and degree of methylesterification, as well as the higher molecular heterogeneity as compared with CPP1. The monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that CPP1 was composed of arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose and a little of rhamnose, however CPP5 and CPP10 consisted of arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, xylose and a little of rhamnose. With the extension of storage period of Chenpi, the content of soluble conjugate phenolic acids increased in the pectic polysaccharide. Furthermore, it was proven that the pectic polysaccharides extracted from the five-year and ten-year Chenpi could significantly enhance the proliferation of bone marrow cells via activating the Peyer’s patch cells in vitro.CONCLUSIONThe present study demonstrated the differences of the pectic polysaccharides from Chenpi with different storage periods, and proved that the pectic polysaccharides extracted from the long-term stored Chenpi had the more significant intestinal activities than that from the fresh Chenpi. This phenomenon might partly explain why the long-term stored Chenpi had better health care effects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13T00:26:50.620606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8888
  • Bioavailability and Metabolism of Rosemary Infusion Polyphenols Using
           CACO-2 and HEPG2 Cell Model Systems
    • Authors: Mariem Achour; Saad Saguem, Beatriz Sarriá, Laura Bravo, Raquel Mateos
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRosmarinus officinalis is an aromatic plant used in folk medicine due to the therapeutic properties associated to its phenolic composition, rich in rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). To better understand the bioactivity of these compounds, their absorption and metabolism were assessed in human Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, as small intestine and liver models, respectively, using RA and CA standards, as well as a rosemary infusion and ferulic acid (FA).RESULTSTest compounds were partially up-taken and metabolized by Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, although higher metabolization rate was observed after hepatic incubation than intestinal. CA was the compound best absorbed followed by RA and FA, showing metabolites percentages of 30.4%, 11.8% and 4.4% in Caco-2 and 34.3%, 10.3% and 3.2% in HepG2 cells, respectively. RA in the rosemary infusion showed improved bioavailability compared to pure RA. Methyl derivatives were the main metabolites detected for CA and RA after intestinal and hepatic metabolism, followed by methyl-glucuronidates and glucuronidates. RA was also minimally hydrolyzed into CA while FA only was glucuronidated. Rosemary polyphenols followed the same biotransformation pathways as the standards. In addition, phase II derivatives of luteolin were observed.CONCLUSIONRosemary polyphenols are partially metabolized in both intestine and liver.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T02:35:22.166983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8886
  • Quality of fresh-cut products as affected by harvest and postharvest
    • Authors: Francisca A Ansah; Maria L Amodio, Giancarlo Colelli
      Abstract: There is a rising demand for fresh-cut convenience products with high quality and nutritional standards that need to be met by the fresh-cut industry. It is well known that harvest and postharvest handling of fresh produce has a paramount impact on its quality and storage, but most of the existing literature focused on these impacts only related to fresh produce as destined to final consumers. In fact, current harvest methods and postharvest technologies have improved fruit and vegetable handling and distribution processes by slowing down physiological processes and senescence. Nonetheless, these technologies and methods may influence the quality of fresh produce as raw material for fresh-cut processing, due to the dynamic responses of fresh produce to handling procedures and treatments. This paper seeks to review existing literature on challenges facing the fresh-cut industry, focusing on the impact of harvest, maturity, and handling of fruit and vegetables on the quality of raw materials, and its implication on fresh-cut products. The review also pointed out areas for further research with the aim of enhancing the sensorial, nutritional and biochemical quality of such products.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T02:15:22.021468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8885
  • Effect of farming system on donkey milk composition
    • Authors: Emanuela Valle; Luisa Pozzo, Marzia Giribaldi, Domenico Bergero, Maria Silvia Gennero, Daniela Dezzutto, Amy McLean, Giorgio Borreani, Mauro Coppa, Laura Cavallarin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDonkey milk is considered as a functional food for sensitive consumers, such as children who are allergic to cow milk. No information is available regarding the effect of farming systems on the quality of donkey milk. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the farming system and lactation stage on donkey milk with respect to gross composition, as well as fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids (FA).RESULTSIndividual milk samples were collected from lactating jennies (n = 53) on the six of the largest farms located in North West Italy. The performance of lactating jennies, herd characteristics and feeding strategies were recorded at each milk sampling. The gross composition of the milk, along with the fat-soluble vitamin content, differed in accordance with the farming system. The lactation stage had limited effects on milk quality. A higher milk fat content corresponded to a higher amount of fresh herbage proportion in the diet, with the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), C18:1c9, C18:3n-3, n-3 FA, retinol and α-tocopherol content and the lowest concentrations of the FA that are less favorable for human health in the milk of animals fed on only forage diets.CONCLUSIONExtensive farming of dairy donkeys increased the fat content and fat-soluble vitamin concentration of milk and also altered the FA composition to a more favorable profile for human nutrition. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T02:40:47.974063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8777
  • Cover Image, Volume 98, Issue 3
    • Authors: Elizângela M Ogawa; Helber B Costa, José A Ventura, Luiz CS Caetano, Fernanda E Pinto, Bruno G Oliveira, Maria Eduarda S Barroso, Rodrigo Scherer, Denise C Endringer, Wanderson Romão
      Abstract: The cover image, by Elizângela M Ogawa et al., is based on the Research Article Chemical profile of pineapple cv. Vitória in different maturation stages using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.8561. Image Credit: José A Ventura.The cover image, by Elizângela M Ogawa et al., is based on the Research Article Chemical profile of pineapple cv. Vitória in different maturation stages using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.8561. Image Credit: José A Ventura.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T10:22:40.788044-05:
  • Relationships between tyrosine, phenylalanine, chlorogenic acid, and
           ascorbic acid concentrations and blackspot biochemical potential and
           blackspot susceptibility in stored russet potatoes
    • Authors: Aymeric Goyer; Julien Pellé
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBlackspot in potato is an internal tissue discoloration that occurs during handling and transport of potato tubers. Blackspot is cosmetically undesirable and represents a huge economic cost for the potato industry. The aim of this study was to test whether concentrations of certain metabolites in the potato tuber cortex could predict blackspot susceptibility.RESULTSSeven russet potato varieties were stored for eight months at 8.80C. Stored tubers were subjected to mechanical impact and evaluated for blackspot susceptibility. A blackspot susceptibility index was calculated for each variety by determining an index for the percentage of the tuber cortex area that was covered with blackspot, and an index for the intensity of blackspot discoloration. Concentrations of tyrosine, chlorogenic acid, phenylalanine, and ascorbic acid, and blackspot biochemical potential of tubers to synthesize pigments, were measured in the tuber cortex. Blackspot indices, metabolites concentrations and blackspot biochemical potential varied significantly between varieties. Tyrosine concentrations strongly, significantly, and positively correlated with blackspot biochemical potential. Phenylalanine concentrations showed good, significant, and positive correlation with blackspot biochemical potential and discoloration index. None of the analyzed metabolites correlated with blackspot susceptibility.CONCLUSIONConcentrations of tyrosine and phenylalanine explained up to ~80% of the variation in blackspot biochemical potential between varieties, but did not correlate with blackspot susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T08:16:11.599031-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8884
  • The Influence of acid whey on the Antioxidant Peptides Generated to Reduce
           Oxidation and Improve Colour Stability in Uncured Roasted Beef
    • Authors: Karolina M. Wójciak; Paulina Kęska, Anna Okoń, Elżbieta Solska, Justyna Libera, Zbigniew J. Dolatowski
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of marinating beef in acid whey on the generated antioxidant peptides and their influence on lipid oxidation, colour stability, sensory analysis and protein degradation products in uncured roasted beef stored six weeks in vacuum conditions (T = 4°C) were determined. Measurements of the pH value, water activity, oxidation-reduction potential, colour, TBARS, the cutting force, texture and amino acid profile, the total content of peptides, antioxidant activity of isolated peptides were conducted immediately after production and during 42 days of storage.RESULTSThe non-nitrite control batch (C) was characterized by a lower a* value (6.33-6.70) during the whole storage period compared to the non-nitrite sample with acid whey (W). In addition, it appears that meat with the worst colour stability has the poorest oxidative stability (C = 1.57 mg MDA kg-1, W=0.76 mg MDA kg-1). Activity against reactive forms of oxygen to fraction A and fraction B (P
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T08:08:29.575533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8883
  • Soil organic matter doubles the cation exchange capacity of tropical soil
           under no-till farming in Brazil
    • Authors: Fabricio T Ramos; Eliana F G de Carvalho Dores, Oscarlina L dos Santos Weber, Daniel C Beber, José H Campelo, João C de Souza Maia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConservation agricultural practices increase total organic carbon storage in soil (TOCS), a factor that is correlated with the physical and chemical qualities of highly weathered soils. In this study, we investigated the effects of TOCS on the physicochemical attributes of a Latosol after 10 years of no-till management in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.RESULTSTCOS was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with cation exchange capacity (CEC, pH = 7) and soil density. In the top 0.2 m soil layer, CEC increased by 25% with every 1.8 kg m-2 of stored organic carbon. Eliminating soil organic matter reduced CEC from an already low value of 8.40 cmolc kg-1 to 4.82 cmolc kg-1. Therefore, humus is clearly important for the formation of a negative liquid charge in a predominantly electropositive but clayey soil.CONCLUSIONWe confirmed that TOCS is an indicator related to the physiochemical characteristics of weathered soils. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the increased carbon storage under non-tilling systems is essential for guaranteeing weathered soil fertility in tropical climates.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T08:03:43.483903-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8881
  • American Cranberries and Health Benefits – an Evolving Story of 25
    • Authors: Shaomin Zhao; Haiyan Liu, Liwei Gu
      Abstract: Cranberries contain various type of bioactive components. Scientists have been studying cranberries’ beneficial effects on urinary tract health since the 20th century. Entering the 21st century, the protection of cranberry phytochemicals against cancer and vascular diseases has drawn more attention from researchers. Anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonols in cranberries were all documented to have potential effects on cancer prevention. The cardiometabolic effects of cranberries have been investigated in several clinical trials. It was found that cranberries positively affect atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles and decreased several cardiometabolic risk factors. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests other important role of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. Cranberry juice or cranberries have been shown to inhibit the colonization of H. Pylori in stomach and protect against intestinal inflammation. For future research, clinical trials with improved study design are urgently needed to support cranberries’ health benefits on urinary tract health and cardiometabolic diseases. Hypothesis-driven studies using animals or cell culture are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberries’ effects on digestive health.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T07:55:25.821398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8882
  • Comparison of Two Docking Methods for Peptide-Protein Interactions
    • Authors: Qiuying Yu; Fangyu Wang, Xiaofei Hu, Guangxu Xing, Ruiguang Deng, Junqing Guo, Anchun Cheng, Jing Wang, Junfang Hao, Dong Zhao, Man Teng, Gaiping Zhang
      Abstract: BackgroundBased on the importance of peptides in regulatory interactions, peptide-protein docking has attracted many researchers’ attention. Currently, a variety of methods specialized for molecular modeling of peptide-protein docking such as local search and global search are implemented.ResultsIn this work, the interactions of eleven peptides and CSFV E2 protein were evaluated by GalaxyPepDock and FlexX/ SYBYL program, respectively. Then, the assessment scores of all the peptides were conducted a correlation analysis with their KD values. The final results showed that compared with GalaxyPepDock docking method, a moderate correlation coefficient was represented between KD values and CScores of predicted models by FlexX/ SYBYL.ConclusionOur results demonstrate that fully considering the flexibility of peptide is better than searching more potential binding sites on target protein surface while performing peptide-protein molecular docking. From this work, these validated data provide reasonable reference for the molecular design of peptide and an efficient guidance for the functional assignment of target protein.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T07:10:30.371879-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8880
  • Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. improves meat quality,
           antioxidant capacity and energy status of breast muscle in heat-stressed
    • Authors: Xiaoli Wan; Hussain Ahmad, Lili Zhang, Zhiyue Wang, Tian Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeat stress (HS) is detrimental to animal origin food production. Artemisia annua L., a natural source of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, exhibits antioxidant property. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and energy status of breast muscle in heat-stressed broilers.RESULTSThe EA inclusion increased the redness value, reduced drip loss, decreased reactive oxygen metabolites and thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced the ferric reducing antioxidant power and free radical scavenging abilities of breast muscle in heat-treated broilers. Dietary EA supplementation increased adenosine phosphate concentrations and energy charge, and decreased the mRNA expression levels of heat shock protein 70 and 90, whereas increased the mRNA expression levels of avian uncoupling protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and sirtuin 1 in breast muscle of broilers exposed to HS.CONCLUSIONDietary EA supplementation improved meat quality, antioxidant capacity and energy status in breast muscle of heat-stressed broilers, which might be associated with altering pertinent mRNA expression. Therefore, EA could be used as a promising feed additive to mitigate HS in poultry industry. 1.00-1.25 g/kg EA in broiler diet was recommended in this study.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T06:55:57.224891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8879
  • Vacuum Impregnation of Firming Agents in Red Raspberries
    • Authors: Armando Quintanilla; Alejandra Mencia, Joseph Powers, Barbara Rasco, Juming Tang, Shyam S. Sablani
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRed raspberries are a delicate and highly perishable fruit with a fragile pulp tissue. In this study, we used vacuum impregnation (VI) methods to incorporate pectin and calcium chloride into whole red raspberries to improve their firmness. Specifically, we impregnated low methoxyl pectin (LMP) at 10 g of pectin Kg-1 of solution and calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O) at 30 g calcium Kg-1 of pectin, and on the other side pectin methylesterase (PME) at 10 g of enzyme Kg-1 of solution, and (CaCl2·2H2O) at 10 g of calcium Kg-1 of solution, into whole red raspberries. We tested three vacuum levels 33.9, 50.8, and 67.8 kPa, three vacuum impregnation times 2, 7, and 15 min, and two temperatures 20 and 40°C during VI treatment. Maximum force (FM) and gradient (GC3) were evaluated to assess raspberry firmness.RESULTSA vacuum level of 50.8 kPa, processing time of 7 min, and a LMP and calcium infusion at 20oC resulted in the firmest fruit compared to the other treatments. At these VI treatment conditions, FM and GC3 values of red raspberries obtained were 28 N, and 8.4 N mm-1, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe optimal VI conditions identified in this study can be used to improve firmness and structural integrity of red raspberries by infusion of LMP and calcium. Findings on vacuum-impregnated red raspberries may be used to develop dehydrofrozen berries for incorporation into bakery and dairy products.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T06:15:23.522767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8878
  • The health-nutrition dimension: a methodological approach to asses the
           nutritional sustainability of the typical agro-food products and the
           Mediterranean diet
    • Authors: Elena Azzini; Giuseppe Maiani, Aida Turrini, Federica Intorre, Gabriella Lo Feudo, Roberto Capone, Francesco Bottalico, Hamid El Bilali, Angela Polito
      Abstract: BackgroundThe aim of this paper is to work out a methodological approach for the evaluation nutritional sustainability of typical agro-food products, representing the Mediterranean eating habits and included in the Mediterranean food pyramid.ResultsFor each group of foods, were identified different suitable and easily measurable indicators. Two macro-indicators were used to assess the nutritional sustainability of each product. The first macro-indicator called “business distinctiveness” takes into account the application of different regulations and standards regarding quality, safety and traceability as well as the origin of raw materials. The second macro-indicator called “nutritional quality” assesses product nutritional quality taking into account the contents of key compounds including micronutrient and bioactive phytochemical. For each indicator was set-up a 0-10 scoring system; from 0 (unsustainable), to 10 (very sustainable) with 5 as a sustainability benchmark value. The benchmark value is the value from which a product can be considered sustainable. A simple formula has been developed to get a sustainability index.ConclusionThe proposed sustainability index could be considered a useful tool to describe both qualitative and quantitative value of micronutrients and bioactive phytochemical present in foodstuffs. Furthermore, this methodological approach can be applied beyond the Mediterranean to food products in other world regions.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T05:55:24.175255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8877
  • Unraveling the metabolic response of Brassica oleracea exposed to
           Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris
    • Authors: María Tortosa; María E Cartea, Víctor M Rodríguez, Pablo Velasco
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBrassica crops together with cereals represent the basis of world supplies. Due to their importance, the production losses caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) infection represent a high economic impact. Understanding molecular and biochemical mechanisms of plants is essential to develop resistant crops with durable protection against diseases. In this regard, metabolomics has emerged as a valuable technology to provide an overview of the biological status of a plant exposed to a disease. This study investigated the dynamic changes in the metabolic profile of Brassica oleracea plants during a Xcc infection from leaves collected at five different days post-infection by using a mass spectrometry approach.RESULTSResults showed that Xcc infection causes dynamic changes in the metabolome of B. oleracea. Moreover, induction/repression pattern of the metabolites implicated in the response follow a complex dynamics during infection progression, indicating a complex temporal response. Specific metabolic pathways as alkaloids, coumarins or sphingolipids, are postulated as promising key role candidates in the infection response.CONCLUSIONThis work tries to decipher the changes produced on Brassica crops metabolome under the Xcc infection and represents a step forward the understanding of B. oleracea-Xcc interaction.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T05:43:31.508476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8876
  • Preferential Adsorption of Flavonoids from Peanut Shell by Amino-modified
           Fe3O4 Nanoparticles (MNP-NH2)
    • Authors: Xuexiao Cao; Meng Wang, Lili Sun, Xiaoliang Ren, Gaosheng Pei
      Abstract: BackgroundThe highly selective capture of individual components of complex systems such as Chinese medicine extracts is a great challenge. With the rapid development of nanoscience, magnetic materials have attracted increased attention as suitable candidates for use in drug transport vehicles.ResultsIn this work, amino-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP-NH2) have been synthesized and successfully used to selectively isolate Luteolin, a type of flavonoid, from peanut shell, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The MNP-NH2 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis, which showed that the amino functional groups were successfully bound to the surface of the magnetic particles. Six different flavonoids were adsorbed by MNP-NH2 preliminary illustrated that the mechanism of adsorption was related to the amount of ortho-phenolic hydroxyl groups. The optimized adsorption conditions were extracted 40 min at 30°C by single factor experiments and the final elution conditions were determined to be 5 mL of 20% glacial acetic acid (methanol:water = 60:40) and ultrasonication for 40 min by L9 (34) orthogonal test.ConclusionBased on this, we first created a method for separating Luteolin from peanut shell extract by MNP-NH2. This newly developed magnetic method of extracting chemical compounds from herbal foodstuffs and medicines provides new ideas for the utilization of a cash crop.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T05:18:57.409553-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8875
  • Statistical modeling for estimating glucosinolate content in Chinese
           cabbage by growth conditions
    • Authors: Do-Gyun Kim; Joon-Yong Shim, Myung-Jun Ko, Sun-Ok Chung, Milon Chowdhury, Wang-Hee Lee
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGlucosinolate in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr) has potential benefits for human health, and its content is affected by growth conditions. In this study, we used a statistical model to identify the relationship between glucosinolate content and growth conditions, and to predict glucosinolate content in Chinese cabbage.RESULTMultiple-regression analysis was employed to develop the model's growth condition parameters of growing period, temperature, humidity, and glucosinolate content measured in Chinese cabbage grown in a plant factory. The developed model was represented by a second-order multi-polynomial equation with two independent parameters: growth duration and temperature (Adjusted R2 = 0.81), and accurately predicted glucosinolate content after 14 days of seeding.CONCLUSIONTo our knowledge, this study presents the first statistical model for evaluating glucosinolate content, suggesting a useful methodology for designing glucosinolate-related experiments, and optimizing glucosinolate content in Chinese cabbage cultivation.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T05:08:02.372508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8874
  • Magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction based on graphene
           oxide/Fe3O4@polythionine nanocomposite followed by atomic absorption
           spectrometry for zinc monitoring in water, flour, celery and egg
    • Authors: Azar babaei; Mohsen Zeeb, Ali Es-haghi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMagnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite has been proposed as promising and sustainable sorbent for the extraction and separation of target analytes from food matrices. Sample preparation based on nanocomposite presents several advantages such as desired efficiency, reasonable selectivity and high surface area-to-volume ratio.RESULTSA new graphene oxide/Fe3O4@polythionine (GO/Fe3O4@PTh) nanocomposite sorbent was introduced for magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE) and flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) detection of zinc (II) in water, flour, celery and egg. To fabricate the sorbent, an oxidative polymerization of thionine on the surface of magnetic GO was applied while polythionine was simply employed as a surface modifier to improve extraction yield. The properties of the sorbent were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The calibration curve showed linearity in the range of 0.5-30 ng mL-1. Limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were 0.08 and 0.5 ng mL-1, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe method was applied for trace level determination of Zn (II) in water and food samples and its validation was investigated by recovery experiments and analyzing certified reference material.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T04:55:22.024057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8873
  • The effect of cooking temperatures on the aggregation and digestion rate
           of myofibrillar proteins in Jinhua ham
    • Authors: Chang-Yu Zhou; Dao-Dong Pan, Yang-Ying Sun, Chun-Bao Li, Xing-Lian Xu, Jin-Xuan Cao, Guang-Hong Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to evaluate the effect of cooking temperatures on the nutrition quality of dry-cured hams, 60 biceps femoris samples from 16 Jinhua hams were divided into four groups (the control, 70, 100 and 120 °C) and cooked for 30 min. Carbonyls content, sulfhydryl groups, surface hydrophobicity, microstructure, proteins aggregation and digestibility of myofibrillar proteins were investigated.RESULTSCooking promoted the carbonylation and decreased sulfhydryl groups in temperatures-dependent ways. Scanning electron microscope and Nile Red revealed that proteins aggregation became a main phenomenon at 120 °C; it was coincided with surface hydrophobicity. The increased carbonyls content and decreased sulfhydryl groups contributed to the formation of aggregates. The SDS-PAGE profiles showed the initial difference of proteolysis rate among four groups. The in vitro digestibility of pepsin and trypsin & α-chymotrypsin increased from the control to 100 °C and decreased from 100 to 120 °C.CONCLUSIONThe increased digestibility could be attributed to the oxidation of proteins and exposing recognition sites of digestive enzymes, while the decreased digestibility was due to the formation of aggregates. Cooking was a main factor that affected the digestibility of Jinhua ham, and cooking at 100 °C could be an ideal way to gain the highest digestibility of Jinhua ham.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T04:45:21.562295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8872
  • Influence of the drying method on the bioactive compounds and
           pharmacological activities of rhubarb
    • Authors: Jiachen Sun; Yueting Wu, Shengjie Dong, Xia Li, Wenyuan Gao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRaw rhubarb samples that have been subjected to different drying procedures will have different therapeutic effects possibly due to processing-induced variations in the chemical composition. In the present work, the fresh materials were processed by smoking, sun-drying, shade-drying and oven-drying at low, moderate and high temperatures. To facilitate the selection of a suitable drying method for rhubarb, the quality of rhubarb processed under various drying conditions was evaluated based on the simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents in combination with bioactivity assays.RESULTSThe total concentrations of twelve compounds in smoked rhubarb were higher than the concentrations of the same components in raw rhubarb and rhubarb products processed using other drying techniques. Smoked rhubarb was found to substantially inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase and thrombin. In addition, higher contents of anthraquinones lead to higher Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitory activities, and higher gallic acid contents increased the anti-thrombin capacity.CONCLUSIONSThe results confirmed that post-harvest fresh plant materials, especially roots, were still physiologically active organs that could undergo series of anti-dehydration mechanisms, including the production of related secondary metabolites during the early stages of dehydration. Therefore, the proper design of drying processes could enhance the quality of rhubarb as well as other similar medicinal plants.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T04:35:27.17489-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8871
  • Differentiation of Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their
           mixtures by computer vision
    • Authors: Juan C Jimenez; Freddy M Amores, Eddyn G Solórzano, Gladys A Rodríguez, Alessandro La Mantia, Paolo Blasi, Rey G Loor
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEcuador exports two major types of cocoa beans, the highly regarded and lucrative National, known for its fine aroma, and the CCN-51 clone type, used in bulk for mass chocolate products. In order to discourage exportation of National cocoa adulterated with CCN-51, a fast and objective methodology for distinguishing between the two types of cocoa beans is needed.RESULTSThis study reports a methodology based on computer vision, which makes it possible to recognize these beans and determine the percentage of their mixture. The methodology was challenged with 336 samples of National cocoa and 127 of CCN-51. By excluding the samples with a low fermentation level and white beans, the model discriminated with a precision higher than 98%. The model was also able to identify and quantify adulterations in 75 export batches of National cocoa and separate out poorly fermented beans.CONCLUSIONA scientifically reliable methodology able to discriminate between Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures was successfully developed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T06:55:25.695632-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8790
  • Effect of quality and origin of technical sucrose solutions on the
           inclusion of colourants into the sugar crystal matrix
    • Authors: Karl Schlumbach; Maria Scharfe, Eckhard Flöter
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDue to the liberalisation of the European sugar market the pressure to improve factory utilisation is growing. Currently, beet and cane as sucrose sources are produced in isolation, according to geography. Co-production of sugar from beet and cane origin in one stream is a promising option. However, the knowledge base for production sugar is practically non-existent. This paper is part of our contribution to this field and specifically addresses effects of raw material quality.RESULTSThis framework formulated for the colouring of sugars crystallised from mixed syrups is also valid for different raw material qualities: raw cane sugars: colour values 1221 to 2505 IU, dextran levels 50 to 1200 mg kg−1; beet syrups: 1509 to 2058 IU. Co-crystallisation is the main colour incorporation mechanism. Colour due to liquid inclusion increases strongly at cane inclusion levels in excess of 60%. The prediction of final sugar colour based on characteristics of pure mixture constituents is verified and indicates significant differences to current recommendations.CONCLUSIONA first comprehensive description of the colour values in sugars produced from mixed cane and beet syrups is presented. Prediction of colour values from data on sugar colour of single sources marks a major contribution to future applications of co-production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T04:27:10.155255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8792
  • Multilayer emulsions as a strategy for linseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid
           micro-encapsulation: Study on preparation and in vitro characterization
    • Authors: Juan Huang; Qiang Wang, Tong Li, Nan Xia, Qiang Xia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLinseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid are bioactive ingredients, which play an important role in human's nutrition and health. However, their application in functional foods is limited because of their instabilities and poor solubilities in hydrophilic matrices. Multilayer emulsions are particularly useful to protect encapsulated bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to fabricate multilayer emulsions by high pressure homogenization method to encapsulate linseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid simultaneously. Tween 20 and lecithin were used as surfactants to stabilize the oil droplets of primary emulsions. Multilayer emulsions were produced by using an electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition process of lecithin-chitosan membranes.RESULTSThermal treatment exhibited that chitosan encapsulation could improve the thermal stability of primary emulsions. During in vitro digestion, it was found that chitosan encapsulation had little effects on the lipolysis of linseed oil and bio-accessibility of alpha-lipoic acid. The oxidation stability of linseed oil in multilayer emulsions was improved effectively by chitosan encapsulation and alpha-lipoic acid. Chitosan encapsulation could inhibit the degradation of alpha-lipoic acid. Physical stability study indicated that multilayer emulsions had good centrifugal, dilution and storage stabilities.CONCLUSIONMultilayer emulsion is an effective delivery system to incorporate linseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid into functional foods and beverages.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T10:05:42.371565-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8870
  • Monitoring of starter culture-initiated liquid wheat and teff sourdough
           fermentations by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Simon Van Kerrebroeck; Henning Harth, Andrea Comasio, Luc De Vuyst
      Abstract: BackgroundSelected ion flow tube–mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is a direct-injection mass spectrometric technique that has been introduced recently into the field of food and flavor analysis. It shows potential to be used for the monitoring of food fermentations too. Therefore, this study aimed at the online monitoring of different volatile compounds produced during starter culture-initiated liquid sourdough fermentations by SIFT-MS, for which a new workflow was developed.ResultsThe online monitoring of the volatile sample compounds acetoin and ethyl acetate, diacetyl, and ethanol was made possible during the production of sourdoughs obtained through fermentation with several interesting strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus crustorum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus sakei, and Gluconobacter oxydans. Acetoin and ethyl acetate could not be distinguished based on SIFT-MS data solely. Diacetyl production was monitored in the case of Lb. crustorum LMG 23699 as a starter culture strain, thereby making the distinction between those volatiles produced in sourdough without extra ingredients added or after the addition of citrate or malate.ConclusionStarter culture-initiated liquid sourdough fermentations were monitored successfully. The volatile compound production of the different starter culture strains tested reflected differences in their metabolism and/or competitiveness in a sourdough matrix.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T09:50:20.627998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8869
  • Effect of drying methods (microwave-vacuum, freeze, hot air and sun
           drying) on physical, chemical and nutritional attributes of five pepper
           (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) cultivars
    • Authors: Vaibhav Kumar Maurya; Kodiveri Muthukaliannan Gothandam, Vijay Ranjan, Amita Shakya, Sunil Pareek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA randomized block design experiment was performed to investigate the influence of drying on the physical, chemical and nutritional quality attributes of five prominent cultivars of India under sun drying (SD) (mean temperature 35.5 oC, average daily radiation 5.26kWh/m-2 and mean relative humidity 73.66% RH), hot air drying (HD) at 65 °C, microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) (800W- 5KPa) and freeze drying (FD) (-50 °C, 5KPa). Water activity, pH, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA), capsaicin, β-carotene, color, and Scoville heat unit were studied.RESULTSTPC, AA, capsaicin content, β-carotene, color, and water activity significantly affected with the drying methods. FD was observed most efficient in minimizing the loss of color, capsaicin and β-carotene. The hotness of analyzed samples decreased in order Birds Eye> Sannam S4> CO-4> PLR-1> PKM-1 among the studied cultivars and FD> MVD> HD> SD among the drying methods.CONCLUSIONThe FD method was observed most efficient drying method for retaining capsaicin content over other drying methods (SD, HD, MVD) while MVD was found to be most efficient in minimizing the loss to nutritional attributes for all five pepper cultivars.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T09:30:26.202984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8868
  • Stable Isotope Labeling Assisted GC-MS/MS Method for Determination of
           Methyleugenol in Food Samples
    • Authors: Jincheng Li; Huan Liu, Chaoying Wang, Jien Yang, Gang Han
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMethyleugenol is a common phenylpropanoid compound found in many plant and has been widely used as a flavoring agent in people's daily life. In the present study, a stable isotope dilution assay gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SIDA-GC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantitative determination of methyleugenol in food samples. Methyleugenol-D3 was synthesized and used as an isotope internal standard for the determination of methyleugenol. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method was applied to the clean-up of food sample extracts. The confirmation and quantification were carried out by GC-MS/MS.RESULTSThe analytical performance of the method was validated. The determination range of methyleugenol was linear in the range of 4–500 μg L-1. Method detection limits for solid food samples, semi-solid food samples and liquid beverages were 50.0 μg kg-1, 50.0 μg kg-1 and 1.0 μg kg-1. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained in the range of 94.15-101.18%. Intra- and inter-day precision were also validated and the values were all lower than 9.0%. This method was successfully applied to quantify methyleugenol in different kinds of food samples.CONCLUSIONThis article describes a new method for accurate quantification of methyleugenol in food samples based on stable isotope labeling assisted GC-MS/MS method. Methyleugenol-D3 was synthesized and used as an isotope internal standard for the determination of methyleugenol. Excellent result generated with our method and the detection sensitivity and accuracy of our method were good.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T08:30:34.128457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8867
  • Sensory Quality of Milk Fat With Low Cholesterol Content Fractioned by
           Molecular Distillation
    • Authors: Julia Berti; Nelson R. Grosso, Héctor Fernandez, María C. Pramparo, María F. Gayol
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAnhydrous Milk Fat (AMF) is a valuable ingredient in several industries, but its cholesterol content is a disadvantage because it is associated to several diseases. The objective of this study was to remove the largest amount possible of cholesterol from anhydrous milk fat (AMF), using molecular distillation, and to analyze the sensory properties of the obtained product. AMF was subjected to various molecular distillation arrangements.RESULTSThe first set of experiments involved molecular distillations performed over a range of evaporation temperatures. Then, according to the outcome of the first set of experiments, a second set of experiments was carried out in order to study the effect of the feeding flow rate. Finally, the number of distillation stages was modified.CONCLUSIONSThe best results were obtained in a three-stage arrangement, in which ≅60% of cholesterol was removed with a 30.48% distillate yield. The sensory properties of this distillation cut were also the most similar to those of the untreated milk fat.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T08:15:29.533512-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8866
  • Detection and classification of citrus green mold caused by Penicillium
           digitatum using multispectral imaging
    • Authors: Mahmood Reza Golzarian; Narges Ghanei Ghooshkhaneh, Mojtaba Mamarabadi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFungal decay is a prevalent condition that mainly occurs during transportation of products to consumers (from harvest to consumption) and adversely affect post-harvest operations and sales of citrus fruit. There are a variety of methods to control pathogenic fungi including UV-assisted removal of fruit with suspected infection before storage, which is a time-taking task coupled with human health risks. Therefore, it is essential to adopt efficient dependable alternatives for early decay detection. In this paper detection of orange decay caused by Penicillium genus fungi using spectral imaging, a novel automated inspection technique for agricultural products, was examined.RESULTSThe reflectance parameter (including mean reflectance), and reflectance distribution parameters of surface (including standard deviation and skewness) were extracted from decayed and rotten regions of infected samples and the healthy regions of non-infected samples. The classification accuracy of rotten, decayed and healthy regions at four and five days after fungal inoculation was 98.6 % and 100 % using the mean values and skewness of 500 nm, 800 nm and 900 nm spectra and MNDVI.CONCLUSIONComparison results between healthy and infected samples showed that early real-time detection of Penicillium digitatum using multispectral imaging was possible within the near infrared (NIR) range.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T08:05:38.999993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8865
  • Combining Color Chart, Colorimetric Measurement and Chemical Compounds for
           Postharvest Quality of White Wine Grapes
    • Authors: Marco Sollazzo; Simone Baccelloni, Claudio D'Onofrio, Andrea Bellincontro
      Abstract: BackgroundThis paper provides data for the potential use of a color chart to establish the best quality of white wine grape destined to postharvest processing. Grechetto, Vermentino and Muscat of Alexandria white wine varieties, were tested by sampling berries at different dates along quality attributes evolution. A color chart and reflectance spectrocolorimeter were used in combination with analyses of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in all three varieties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Grechetto alone.ResultsTotal carotenoids decreased from 0.85 to 0.76 μg g-1 in Grechetto berries during ripening and from 0.70 to 0.46 in Vermentino berries, and increased from 0.70 to 0.80 in Muscat. Total chlorophyll decreased in all varieties, and a strict correlation was found between the hue angle (measured by the chart or spectrocolorimeter) and chlorophyll disappearance, with the R2 ranging from 0.81 and 0.95, depending on the variety. VOCs were only measured in the Grechetto grapes, and a significant increase in glycosilation was found with ripening. The concentration of different classes of VOCs exhibited a clear decrease during ripening, except for terpenoids and esters which showed a peak at the beginning. The benzenoid class reached the highest concentration, which was almost 50% of the total. A cluster analysis using Ward's method enabled the best grape quality to be identified.ConclusionsThis experimental work highlights that color charts are cheap and easy to use to define the right quality stage for white wine grape. Color chart enabled the enochemical features to be matched with the VOC results for the aromatic maturity of Grechetto.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T06:05:22.865883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8864
  • Impact of a packing medium with alga Bifurcaria bifurcata extract on
           canned Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) quality
    • Authors: Roberta G. Barbosa; Marcos Trigo, Roseane Fett, Santiago P. Aubourg
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present research focused on the quality of canned fish. Its primary objective was the quality enhancement of canned Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by including an aqueous Bifurcaria bifurcata extract in the packing medium. Various alga extract concentrations were tested and compared to a control without alga extract. After a 3-month canned storage, the cans were opened, and quality changes in fish white muscle were analyzed.RESULTSAn inhibitory effect on the lipid oxidation development (tertiary compounds formation) and on color parameters (L* and b*) values was observed as a result of the alga presence in the packing medium. On the contrary, the presence of the alga extract did not produce any effect on the formation of volatile compounds (total and trimethylamine) and the lipid hydrolysis (free fatty acids formation) development.CONCLUSIONA preservative effect derived from the use of an aqueous B. bifurcata extract as packing medium is concluded, and this result is primarily linked to the presence of hydrophilic preservative molecules. The packing system proposed in this work constitutes a novel and promising strategy to enhance the quality of commercial canned fish products.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T05:45:28.321406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8861
  • Demonstration tests of irrigation water disinfection with chlorine dioxide
           in open field cultivation of baby spinach
    • Authors: Francisco López-Gálvez; Maria I Gil, Ana Meireles, Pilar Truchado, Ana Allende
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTreatments for the disinfection of irrigation water have to be evaluated by demonstration tests carried out under commercial settings taking into account not only their antimicrobial activity but also the potential phytotoxic effects on the crop. The consequences of the treatment of irrigation water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) used for sprinkler irrigation of baby spinach in two commercial agricultural fields was assessed.RESULTSResidual ClO2 levels at the sprinklers in the treated field were always below 1 mg L−1. ClO2 treatment provoked limited but statistically significant reductions in culturable Escherichia coli counts (0.2–0.3 log reductions), but not in the viable E. coli counts in water, suggesting the presence of viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC). Although disinfected irrigation water did not have an impact on the microbial loads of Enterobacteriaceae nor on the quality characteristics of baby spinach, it caused the accumulation of chlorates (up to 0.99 mg kg−1 in plants) and the reduction of the photosynthetic efficiency of baby spinach.CONCLUSIONLow concentrations of ClO2 are effective in reducing the culturable E. coli present in irrigation water but it might induce the VBNC state. Presence of disinfection by-products and their accumulation in the crop must be considered to adjust doses in order to avoid crop damage and chemical safety risks. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2018-01-02T03:45:27.001591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8794
  • Mechanisms involved in hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of lipids in washed
           fish muscle and inhibitory effects of phospholipase A2
    • Authors: Nantawat Tatiyaborworntham; Mark P Richards
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHemoglobin (Hb) is a lipid oxidation promoter in fish muscle. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC is linked to an increased resistance to lipid oxidation of frozen–thawed cod fillets via an unknown mechanism. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Hb-mediated lipid oxidation with a focus on ferryl Hb and methemoglobin (metHb), the pro-oxidative Hb species, and to examine how porcine pancreatic PLA2 inhibits Hb-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle (WCM). Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, respectively. The formation of metHb and ferryl Hb was also monitored.RESULTSFerryl Hb and metHb formed during the Hb-mediated lipid oxidation. PLA2 inhibited the formation of LOOHs and TBARS and suppressed the formation of metHb and ferryl Hb. WCM was pre-oxidized by hemin to increase the amount of LOOHs. PLA2 promoted the depletion of LOOHs in the pre-oxidized WCM with limited TBARS formation at the expense of the heme moiety of Hb.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study suggest that ferryl Hb may play a role in Hb-mediated lipid oxidation and that PLA2 from pig pancreas may work together with Hb as a novel antioxidant with an ability to remove pre-formed LOOHs from a lipid substrate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2018-01-02T03:40:36.599913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8779
  • Disinfection by-products in baby lettuce irrigated with electrolysed water
    • Authors: Francisco López-Gálvez; Silvia Andújar, Alicia Marín, Juan A Tudela, Ana Allende, María I Gil
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIrrigation water disinfection reduces the microbial load but it might lead to the formation and accumulation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the crop. If DBPs are present in the irrigation water, they can accumulate in the crop, particularly after the regrowth, and be affected by the postharvest handling such as washing and storage. To evaluate the potential accumulation of DBPs, baby lettuce was grown using irrigation water treated with electrolysed water (EW) in a commercial greenhouse over three consecutive harvests and regrowths. The impact of postharvest practices such as washing and storage on DBP content was also assessed.RESULTSUse of EW caused the accumulation of chlorates in irrigation water (0.02–0.14 mg L−1), and in the fresh produce (0.05–0.10 mg kg−1). On the other hand, the disinfection treatment had minor impact regarding the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water (0.3–8.7 μg L−1 max), and in baby lettuce (0.3–2.9 μg kg−1 max).CONCLUSIONSDisinfection of irrigation water with EW caused the accumulation of chlorates in the crop reaching levels higher than the current maximum residual limit established in the EU legislation for leafy greens. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2018-01-02T03:40:30.829817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8796
  • Issue Information - ToC
    • Pages: 827 - 832
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T10:22:48.119363-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8579
  • Insects as Human Food; From Farm to Fork
    • Authors: L.W. Bessa; E. Pieterse, G. Sigge, L.C. Hoffman
      Abstract: Over the course of the last few years the consumption of insects, known as entomophagy, has sparked increasing interest amongst scientists and environmentalists alike, as a potential solution to the inevitable global food security and sustainability issues humans will be facing in the coming years. Despite the fact that insects have been an integral part of over 2 billion people's diet worldwide, the concept of eating insects is still a new concept to the Western culture. As a result, there are many unknowns regarding insects as a food source, and this has led to a number of studies and investigations being done in recent years to create more knowledge and awareness around this new concept in the food industry. This review discusses some of the key topics and new developments published over the recent years, such as the nutritional benefits, food safety concerns, functional properties, potential product concepts and the current ideas and attitudes towards insects as food source in the Western culture.
      PubDate: 2017-12-30T00:40:30.494764-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8860
  • Artificially modified collagen fibril orientation affects leather tear
    • Authors: Susyn. J. Kelly; Hannah. C. Wells, Katie. H. Sizeland, Nigel Kirby, Richard L. Edmonds, Tim Ryan, Adrian. Hawley, Stephen Mudie, Richard G. Haverkamp
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOvine leather has around half the tear strength of bovine leather and is therefore not suitable for high value applications such as shoes. Tear strength has been correlated with the natural collagen fibril alignment (orientation index, OI). It is hypothesized that it could be possible to artificially increase the OI of the collagen fibrils and that an artificial increase in OI could increase tear strength.RESULTSOvine skins, after the pickling and bating, were strained bi-axially during chrome tanning. The strain ranged from 2% to 15% of the initial sample length, either uniformly in both directions by 10% or with 3% in one direction and 15% in the other. Once tanned the leather tear strengths were measured and the collagen fibril orientation measured using synchrotron based small angle X-ray scattering.CONCLUSIONSThe OI increased as a result of strain during tanning, from 0.48 to 0.79 (P = 0.001), measured edge-on and the thickness normalized tear strength increased from 27 N/mm to 43 N/mm (P
      PubDate: 2017-12-30T00:35:31.035391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8863
  • Display stability of fresh and thawed lamb supplemented with vitamin E or
           sprayed with an antioxidant borage seed extract
    • Authors: Marc Bellés; Verónica Alonso, Pedro Roncalés, Jose A Beltrán
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe commercialization of thawed lamb packaged in modified atmosphere and maintained on display could serve as an alternative capable of satisfying the requirements of both customers and distributors. However, previous studies have suggested that lipid oxidation may accelerate post-thawing because peroxidation occurs during frozen storage, thereby leading to rapid and severe secondary lipid oxidation. The addition of an antioxidant compound either in the lamb diet or in the packaged meat could resolve this problem. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the effect of dietary vitamin E (1000 mg of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate per kg of basal diet) and the spraying of borage seed aqueous extract (10% p/v) on the quality of fresh and thawed lamb leg chops.RESULTSBoth borage extract and vitamin E improved colour (as measured via instrumental and visual assessment of colour) and lipid stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) of fresh and thawed lamb throughout display, although neither of them had any antimicrobial effect. Freezing/thawing accelerated bone marrow darkening and reduced redness but delayed microbial growth.CONCLUSIONBoth of these antioxidant strategies would be very profitable for the preservation of lamb meat, allowing thawed meat packaged in a modified atmosphere to be commercialized. However, additional studies should be carried out to determine how bone darkening in thawed chops can be avoided. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-12-29T09:26:06.975486-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8780
  • Storage stability of egg sticks fortified with omega-3 fatty acids
    • Authors: Elizabeth Smith; Sarah K. Beamer, Kristen E. Matak, Jacek Jaczynski
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEgg sticks fortified with omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (ω-3 PUFAs) were developed by replacing egg yolk with salmon, algae, and flax oils. Egg sticks were cooked before analysis. Quality indicators for storage stability under different packaging and temperature were determined throughout a 28-day storage. Egg sticks were vacuum and non-vacuum packed. Further, both packaging treatments were divided into two storage temperatures of 4 and 10°C. Quality indicators were determined every seven days, including pH, syneresis, texture, color, microbial growth, proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and lipid oxidation.RESULTSVacuum packed egg sticks stored at 4°C had slower degradation over time than all other treatments; however, they also had higher syneresis, harder texture, and higher anaerobic growth. Although vacuum packaging slowed lipid oxidation, it had limited effect on prevention of ω-3 PUFAs degradation; whereas refrigeration (4°C) seemed to prevent degradation of ω-3 PUFAs better than it could slow lipid oxidation.CONCLUSIONBased on the results, it can be concluded that both vacuum packaging and refrigeration at 4°C decrease degradation of egg sticks developed in the present study during storage. Under these conditions, egg sticks may maintain stability for at least 21 days of storage.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T10:50:25.644971-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8858
  • Effect of Harvest Time on the Levels of Phytochemicals, Free Radical
           Scavenging Activity, α-Amylase Inhibition, and Bile Acid Binding Capacity
           of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)
    • Authors: Noorani Barkat; Jashbir Singh, G.K. Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S. Patil
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSpinach is a green leafy vegetable, rich in health-promoting compounds. The present study analyzed the levels of phytochemicals and health-promoting properties of spinach harvested at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after planting.RESULTSThe time of harvest had a significant effect on nitrate levels, which increased from 1909±70.6 μg g-1 (20 days) to 3668±101.3 μg g-1 (40 days) and then decreased to 974±164 μg g-1 (60 days). Lutein, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b were found to be maximum at 60 days whereas β-carotene was higher at 50 days. Liquid chromatography high resolution time-of-flight quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to identify 12 flavonoids and their tentative fragmentation pathways have been proposed. Spinach harvested at 30 and 60 days exhibited significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical-scavenging activities, and inhibition of amylase. The levels of total phenolics ranged from 885±35.1 to 1162±112.4 μg g-1 in the samples. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity showed that glycochenodeoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate were bound to maximum levels in all spinach samples.CONCLUSIONThe harvest time has a major effect on the levels of phytochemicals and health-beneficial properties, which indicates that consumption of both baby and mature spinach will provide maximum health benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T03:45:24.930802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8862
  • Use of Tunisian flavored Olive Oil as anisakicidal agent in industrial
           anchovy marinating process
    • Authors: Najla Trabelsi; Stefania M Marotta, Filippo Giarratana, Amani Taamali, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Graziella Ziino, Alessandro Giuffrida
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNatural compounds are more frequently used against Anisakis, responsible of an important fish borne disease, anisakidosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enriched Tunisian olive oil with different spices (Cumin, Turmeric, Clove, Thyme and Lemon) against Anisakis larvae Type 1.RESULTSIn vitro experiment: larvae were submerged separately in the above mentioned oils, and then, examined, to check viability. For each oil, LT50 and LT100 were calculated. Turmeric and Cumin oils are the most effective against the parasites; followed by Lemon, Thyme and Clove ones. For the in vivo experiment, Turmeric and Cumin oils were tested in anchovy fillets previously artificially parasitized with L3 larvae. Cumin was the most effective against parasites (dead after 5 days) as compared to Turmeric (8 days). For the two oils, the odor resulted pleasant as well as the taste, while, changes in color were much more evident in Turmeric fillets.CONCLUSIONAll the flavored oils demonstrated a good nematodical action against Anisakis. Cumin oil resulted the most effective against encysted larvae. Turmeric oil showed the best activity in the in vitro experiment. The employ of flavored oils in marinating process could represent an efficient strategy to devitalize Anisakis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T03:30:26.996113-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8857
    • Authors: Raceli Sandrin; Thiago Caon, André Wüst Zibetti, Alicia de Francisco
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWhole oat and rice flours were mixed to develop instant flours by a high pressure and low mechanical shear extrusion process. The screw profile was designed aiming to obtain an infant food with gelatinized starch and high hydration ability. Response surface methodology was selected to study the impact of operating parameters such as temperature and screw speed (73-186 °C; 109-391 rpm) on physicochemical and pasting properties of the final extruded product. The main challenge of this study was to process high oats content since they are characterized by high lipid and fiber content, which impact on material processing.RESULTSThe optimal response was achieved at 170 °C and 350 rpm. The optimal expansion ratio, bulk density, water absorption index and water solubility index were 2.24, 289.65 kg m-3, 6.42 g g-1 and 4.75 g g-1, respectively. Overall, both temperature and screw speed affected the responses studied, except for WAI (only screw speed affected this response). Although lipids from oats reduce the expansion ratio of extrudates compared to samples containing higher starch proportions, their lipids protect the starch granules from mechanical degradation when higher screw speed values are used. As a result, both ungelatinized and gelatinized starches may be found in extrudates, which was confirmed by pasting property analyses.CONCLUSIONHigh oat content may be efficiently processed by optimizing the extruder conditions (temperature, screw speed and profile), improving the nutritional properties of the final product.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T21:15:53.972323-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8855
  • Shelf-life dating of shelf-stable strawberry juice based on survival
           analysis of consumer acceptance information
    • Authors: Carolien Buvé; Tine Van Bedts, Annelien Haenen, Biniam Kebede, Roel Braekers, Marc Hendrickx, Ann Van Loey, Tara Grauwet
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAccurate shelf-life dating of food products is crucial for consumers and industries. Therefore, present work applied a science-based approach for shelf-life assessment, including accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT), acceptability testing and the screening of analytical attributes for fast shelf-life predictions. Shelf-stable strawberry juice was selected as a case study.RESULTSAmbient storage (20 °C) had no effect on the aroma-based acceptance of strawberry juice. The colour-based acceptability decreased during storage at ambient and accelerated (28-42 °C) conditions. The application of survival analysis showed that the colour-based shelf-life was reached in the early stages of storage (≤11 weeks) and that the shelf-life was shortened at higher temperatures. None of the selected attributes (a* and ∆E* value, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content) is an ideal analytical marker for shelf-life predictions in the investigated temperature range (20-42 °C). Nevertheless, an overall analytical cut-off value over the whole temperature range can be selected.CONCLUSIONSColour changes of strawberry juice during storage are shelf-life limiting. Combining ASLT with acceptability testing allowed to gain faster insight into the change in colour-based acceptability and to perform shelf-life predictions relying on scientific data. An analytical marker is a convenient tool for shelf-life predictions in the context of ASLT.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:45:23.55076-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8856
  • Bioactive hydrolysates from casein: Generation, identification, and in
           silico toxicity and allergenicity prediction of peptides
    • Authors: Maolin Tu; Hanxiong Liu, Hui Chen, Fengjiao Fan, Pujie Shi, Xianbing Xu, Weihong Lu, Ming Du
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBioactive casein peptides have attracted considerable attention for their applications in industry. However, there is little clarity regarding mass spectrometric profiles for peptides in enzymatic hydrolysates of casein produced under varying conditions. In this study, the compositions of the peptides from casein hydrolysates were compared for different E/S and hydrolysis times. The toxicity, allergenicity and bioactivity of the identified peptides were assessed in silico.RESULTSA total of 70 unique peptides were identified, and there were 28, 21, 13 and 8 peptides from αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein and κ-casein, respectively. The peptide number decreased with the increase in E/S and hydrolysis time. Moreover, peptides with molecular mass (Mr.) ranging from 1000 to 1500 Da occupied the highest proportion of 31.43%, and almost all of the peptides showed relative Mr. less than 5000 Da. In silico analysis showed that all of the peptides were non-toxic and non-allergenic, and several of them were assessed by PeptideRanker as having a relatively high likelihood of being bioactive peptides.CONCLUSIONSComposition of the peptides in the casein hydrolysates varied with the enzymolysis conditions. This study's results may facilitate the production of target bioactive peptides by controlling E/S and hydrolysis time, which is beneficial for the application of casein peptides in the functional food industry.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:40:21.455248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8854
  • Review of Pentosidine and Pyrraline in Food and Chemical Models:
           Formation, Potential Risks and Determination
    • Authors: He Li; Shu-Juan Yu
      Abstract: Pyrraline and pentosidine are advanced Maillard reaction products derived from the reaction of glucose with the lysine amino group on proteins. They have been implicated in uremia, diabetes and related complications, including inflammation, retinopathy and nephropathy. This review focused on the formation mechanism, human potential risks and detections of pentosidine and pyrraline and laid the foundation for further study of pentosdine and pyrraline.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T03:47:50.710599-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8853
  • Comparative Analysis of Volatile Compound Profiles of Propolis From
           Different Provenances
    • Authors: Lina G. Mohtar; Sergio A. Rodríguez, Mónica A. Nazareno
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPropolis is a complex mixture that honey bees produce from the exudates of various plants and presents many medicinal properties. Its chemical compositions varies according to the phytogeography characteristics of each region, among others. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in Venezuelan propolis and compare with reference samples such as Brazilian and Argentinian ones.RESULTSA total of 90 VOCs were identified in a series of propolis samples using both Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) and Dynamic Headspace (DHS), both coupled to C-EI-MS. In the case of Venezuelan propolis, sesquiterpenes, esters, aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons were identified. The limonene was found only in Venezuelan samples being the first time it is identified in samples from this country. In the case of green propolis, β-caryophyllene and nerolidol were the major ones. As for the Argentinian samples, the prenyl acetate, benzyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate were detected only in these samples.CONCLUSIONSPossible chemical markers of natural sources such as limonene were detected using DHS extraction. Several compounds have also been identified for the first time in Venezuelan propolis. Cluster analysis allowed to relate propolis VOCs profile with their provenance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T03:40:25.484259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8852
  • Immunostimulatory Effect of Pepsin Enzymatic Extract from Porphyra
           Yezoensis on Murine Splenocytes
    • Authors: Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka Madushani Herath; Jeong Ha Lee, Jinhee Cho, Areum Kim, Su Min Shin, Bohyung Kim, You-Jin Jeon, Youngheun Jee
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPorphyra yezoensis is a red algae consumed mainly in Korea, Japan, and China for food. In the present study, we studied the immunological effect of pepsin extract of P. yezoensis (PPEE) on murine splenocytes.RESULTSPPEE was not toxic on murine splenocytes and dramatically increased the proliferation of splenocytes compared to untreated control. Flow cytometry assay performed to sum up the effect of PPEE (31.3 and 62.5 μg/ml) on major immune cells revealed that PPEE had no effect on the function of CD3e+CD4+ T-helper cells, CD3e+CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells, CD44+CD62L- effector T cells in splenocytes compared to untreated control. More importantly, CD45+CD11b+ macrophage and dendritic cell populations and Ly-6C+Ly-6G+ macrophages/monocytes in splenocytes were activated by PPEE treatment compared to untreated control. Further experiments showed that PPEE treatment increased the secretion of macrophage-derived cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and macrophage-activating cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared to untreated control.CONCLUTIONTaken together, these results suggest that PPEE has immune stimulatory effect on macrophages, dendritic cells, and memory T cells. This property signifies the potential medicinal value of PPEE in clinical implications for immune-compromised diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T03:26:21.776915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8851
  • Volatile Changes in Hawaiian Noni Fruit, Morinda citrifolia L., During
           Ripening and Fermentation
    • Authors: Marisa M. Wall; Samuel Miller, Matthew S. Siderhurst
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNoni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L., Rubiaceae) has been used in traditional medicine throughout the tropics and subtropics, and are now attracting interest in western medicine. Fermented noni juice is of particular interest for its promising antitumor activity. The current study collected and analyzed volatiles released at nine time intervals by noni fruit during ripening and fermentation using headspace autosampling coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTSTwenty three noni volatiles were identified and relatively quantified. In addition to volatiles previously identified in noni, four novel volatile 3-methyl-2/3-butenyl esters were identified through synthesis of reference compounds. Principle component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used to facilitate multidimensional pattern recognition. PCA showed that ripening noni fruit cluster into three groups, pre-ripe, fully ripe (translucent), and fermented, based on released volatiles. CDA could 83.8% correctly classify noni samples when all ripeness stages were analyzed and 100% when samples were classified into the three PCA groupings.CONCLUSIONThe results confirm the identities of 3-methyl-2/3-butenyl esters, both novel and previously identified, through the synthesis of reference compounds. These esters constitute a large percentage of the volatiles released by fully ripe and fermented noni and likely produced from the decomposition of noniosides, a group of unique glucosides present in the fruit.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T03:07:38.514919-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8850
    • Authors: Alessandro Genovese; Tiziana Rispoli, Raffaele Sacchi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe interindividual variability, observed in saliva characteristics, raises the question of its relationship with variability in fat sensory perception, particularly in aroma compounds. In this study, in order to measure the aroma release from different individuals, eleven key aroma compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were monitored and quantified in dynamic headspace after an in-vitro interaction between EVOO and human saliva. Therefore, sixty individuals among normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (O) were studied.RESULTSOW and O have higher release of C6 compounds in comparison to NW. On the contrary, NW have higher release of C5 compounds. Pentanal and hexanal increased after saliva interaction also in a refined olive oil (ROO), which is free from volatiles. Among saliva samples with the higher release in NW individuals, only pentanal resulted different. However, the low levels of these lipid oxidation end-products seem not to be very important to increase the odorous fat sensitivity.CONCLUSIONThese results showed the important role of saliva in aroma release of EVOO, indicating that humans can differently perceive it in relation to their BMI.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25T22:35:25.110704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8848
  • Impact of food processing and simulated gastro-intestinal digestion on
           gliadin immunoreactivity in rolls
    • Authors: Bartosz Brzozowski
      Abstract: BackgroundEnzymatic modification of wheat proteins during dough fermentation, and its digestion supported by peptidases of microbiological origin can cause degradation of important peptides in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. However, baking bread and the high temperature associated with could change a physicochemical and immunological properties of proteins. Thermal changes in spatial structure of proteins and its hydrolysis can lead to masking or degrading immunoreactive peptides.ResultsThe addition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), peptidases isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus 5e2 (LA) or transglutaminase (TG) in the course of fermentation decreases its immunoreactivity by 83.9%, 51.9% and 18.5%, respectively. An analysis of the fractional composition of gliadins revealed that γ- and ω-gliadins are the most susceptible to enzymatic modifications. Hydrolysis of wheat storage proteins with PEP and LA reduces the content of αβ-, γ- and ω-gliadins by 13.7%, 60.2% and 41.9%, and by 22.1%, 43.5% and 36.9%, respectively. Cross-linking of proteins with TG or their hydrolysis by PEP and LA peptidases during the process of forming wheat dough, followed by digesting bread samples with PEP and LA peptidases decreases the immunoreactivity of bread hydrolysates by 2.4% to 0.02%. The content of peptide detected in polypeptide sequences is 263.4±3.3, 30.9±1.5 and 7.9±0.4 mg kg-1 in samples of hydrolysates of bread digested with PEP, produced from dough modified by TG, PEP and LA, respectively.ConclusionEnzymatic pre-modification of proteins during the process of dough fermentation decreases their immunoreactive potential, whereby fewer peptides recognised by R5 antibodies are released during the digestion process from the bread matrix. Immunoreactive peptides are degraded more effectively when digestive enzymes are supported by an addition of prolyl endopeptidase.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25T22:00:38.339724-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8847
  • Milk adulteration with acidified rennet whey: a limitation for the
           caseinomacropeptide detection by high-performance liquid chromatography
    • Authors: Érika de Pádua Alves; Anna Laura D'Amico de Alcântara, Anselmo José Klaechim Guimarães, Elsa Helena Walter de Santana, Bruno Garcia Botaro, Rafael Fagnani
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely employed to determine the caseinomacropeptide (CMP) index and detect milk tampering with rennet whey. Prior to HPLC analysis, CMP is subject to a trichloracetic acid (TCA) isolation causing further soluble proteins in the sample to precipitate. On this basis, we wanted to estimate if rennet whey acidification could adversely affect the HPLC sensitivity to detect this peptide.RESULTSAs hypothesized, the CMP index from milk added with acidified rennet whey was, on average, half as less as that quantified from milk added with rennet whey. Moreover, quantum satis of acidified whey added into milk enough to evidence a HPLC CMP> 30 mg L-1 was 94% greater than that required for this threshold to be reached with rennet whey.CONCLUSIONMilk tampering with acidified rennet whey may limit the analytical sensitivity of the reversed-phase HPLC employed on the screening of CMP, and ultimately, disguise the fraudulent addition of whey to milk.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25T21:45:48.034368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8846
  • A novel purple acid phytase from an earthworm cast bacterium
    • Authors: Reza Ghorbani Nasrabadi; Ralf Greiner, Ahad Yamchi, Elham Nourzadeh Roshan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytases are a diverse group of enzymes initiating the dephosphorylation of phytate. Phytate is considered as an anti-nutritional compound because of its capability to chelate nutrients such as Fe2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. In this study, several bacterial isolates obtained from earthworm casts were evaluated for their phytate degrading capability. Enzymatic properties and the sequence of the corresponding phytase-encoding gene of the selected isolate were determined.RESULTSThe phytase exhibited its highest activity at pH 4.0 and was stable from pH 3 up to pH 9. The temperature optimum was determined to be 65°C. The strongest inhibitors of enzymatic activity were identified as vanadate, Cu2+ and Zn2+. High performance ion chromatography (HPIC) analysis of enzymatic phytate dephosphorylation revealed that the first dephosphorylation product was D/L-myo-inositol(1,2,3,4,5)pentakisphosphate.CONCLUSIONDue to its enzymatic properties such as tolerance to tartrate and the presence of the consensus motifs PDTVY, GNHE, DLG, VLFH and GHDH, this phytase could be classified as a purple acid phytase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a bacterial purple acid phytase.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T22:45:25.375245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8845
  • Comparison of Sensory and Chemical Evaluation of Lager Beer Aroma by GC
           and GC/MS
    • Authors: Miha Ocvirk; Nataša Kočar Mlinarič, Iztok J. Košir
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlthough beer evaluation runs with sensory experts, we cannot neglect the influence of the human factor and subjectivity. This problem could be solved with chemical analysis of the volatile part of beer aroma from which we can build a data bank for construction a model to classify samples comparable to sensory assessment.RESULTS22 batches of the same beer brand were assessed for sensory and chemically described with the contents of alcohols and esters (9),hop essential oils compounds (15) by GC and other aroma volatiles (33), analysed by head space SPME-GC/MS.The best matchings of 91 % regarding samples classification on the base of chemical analyses to sensory scores were achieved with a data set of results from HS-SPME and higher alcohols and esters analyses by RDA.CONCLUSIONResults shows that deviations in beer aroma are not a consequence of a permanent repeatable error in brewing process and are not influenced by raw materials but are the consequences of the alcoholic fermentation. The sensory analysis could be replaced with chemical/statistical analysis on an appropriate data set and for a distinct beer brand. Good results confirm our approach, however for different beer brands or types, this method should me optimised.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T04:19:56.921703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8840
  • Dietary synbiotic incorporation as an alternative to antibiotic improves
           growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity and antioxidant
           capacity of broilers
    • Authors: Y. P. Chen; C. Wen, Y. M. Zhou
      Abstract: BACKGROUDThis study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary synbiotic supplementation as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity and oxidative status of broilers. 1-day-old male chicks were allocated to 3 treatments, and given a basal diet free from antibiotic (Control group), and the basal diet supplemented with either chlortetracycline or synbiotic for 42 days, respectively.RESULTSCompared with control group, the supplementation of synbiotic increased average daily gain and gain : feed ratio of broilers from 22 to 42 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and the relative weight of thymus and secretory immunoglobulin A level in the jejunum and ileum at 42 days of age, with the values of these parameters being similar to antibiotic group. Dietary synbiotic inclusion promoted the ratio of ileal villus height to crypt depth of broilers at 21 days of age. The supplementation of synbiotic also reduced ileal malondialdehyde accumulation of broilers at 42 days of age to a level comparable with antibiotic group.CONCLUSIONDietary synbiotic supplementation as an alternative to antibiotic could exert beneficial consequences on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity and antioxidant capacity of broilers.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T04:13:34.77056-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8838
  • Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low
           temperature storage
    • Authors: Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli; Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Hajar Musa, Razmah Ghazali
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPalm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories shall have quality control procedure for monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. In order to establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters need to be evaluated.RESULTSIn this study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products were examined over a period of ten months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested herein include crude palm oil (CPO), refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO), RBD palm olein (RBDPOo), and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils, i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP), were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature.CONCLUSIONThe storage condition has preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products; CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples for validation of test results.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T03:57:47.645097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8839
  • Effects of microwave-assisted hot water treatments designed against
           Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens) on grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)
    • Authors: Nohemi Soto-Reyes; Aurelio Lopez-Malo, Roberto Rojas-Laguna, Julián Andrés Gómez-Salazar, María Elena Sosa-Morales
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHot water treatment (HWT) against Anastrepha ludens were developed achieving 48°C in the core of grapefruits and holding it for 6 min. After heating, the grapefruits were hydro-cooled and stored at 23°C and analyzed for 16 days. The effect of microwave-assisted hot water treatment (MW-HWT) on grapefruit quality was analyzed and compared with the quality of fruits treated with HWT and control fruits (without treatment). The physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of essential oil were analyzed.RESULTSMW-HWT was equivalent to HWT according to accumulated heat calculations, with the advantage of being shorter. Treatments significantly affected the weight, color, maturity index, juice content, firmness, titratable acidity, pH and ascorbic acid content of the grapefruits (P < 0.05), but had no effect on the total soluble solids (P> 0.05). The major components identified in the essential oil were D-limonene and β-myrcene, compounds responsible of the scent of the grapefruits.CONCLUSIONMicrowave-assisted hot water treatment (MW-HWT) was shorter (130 min) and had a lesser effect on the quality of the grapefruit when compared to fruits under HWT (188 min duration). Thus, this treatment could be considered as an alternative method against the Mexican fruit fly in grapefruit.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T00:26:07.00479-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8844
  • Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during
           low temperature storage
    • Authors: Danshi Zhu; Jieyu Liang, He Liu, Xuehui Cao, Yonghong Ge, Jianrong Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 °C and 4 °C were studied. In addition, Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C.RESULTSMoisture content correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with both skin and flesh hardness of cherry fruit at the two storage temperatures. According to the transverse relaxation curve, relaxation time, as T21 (0.01–10 ms), T22 (10–150 ms) and T23 (150–1000 ms) were ascribed to cell wall protons, cytoplasmic water, and vacuolar water respectively. Contents of cytoplasmic (p < 0.05) and vacuolar water (p < 0.01) changed significantly with storage time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results illustrated that water distributes uniformly in fresh tissue. With prolonged storage time, free water content increased gradually, and then internal damage occurred.CONCLUSIONSweet cherry softening closely correlated with moisture loss during low temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T00:06:46.591726-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8843
  • Laminaria digitata phlorotannins decrease protein degradation and
           methanogenesis during in vitro ruminal fermentation
    • Authors: Anne M. Vissers; Wilbert F. Pellikaan, Anouk Bouwhuis, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen, Wouter H. Hendriks
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhlorotannins (PhT) are marine tannins consisting of phloroglucinol subunits connected via carbon-carbon and ether linkages. These have non-covalent protein binding properties and are, therefore, expected to be beneficial in protecting protein from hydrolysis during ruminal fermentation. In this study, the effectiveness of a methanolic PhT extract from Laminaria digitata (10, 20, 40, 50, 75 and 100 g kg-1 tannin free grass silage with or without addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG)) was investigated in vitro on protection of dietary protein and reduction of methane (CH4) in ruminal fluid.RESULTSAddition of PhT had linear (P < 0.0001) and quadratic (P = 0.0003) effects on gas and CH4 production, respectively. Optimal dosage of PhT was 40 g kg-1 as at this point CH4 decreased (P < 0.0001) from 24.5 to 15.2 mL g-1 organic matter (OM), without affecting gas production (P = 0.3115) and total VFA (P = 1.000). Ammonia trended (P = 0.0903) to decrease from 0.49 to 0.39 mmol g-1 OM indicating protection of protein. Addition of PEG inhibited the effect of tannins at all dosage levels and none of the fermentation parameters differed from the control.CONCLUSIONPhlorotannins effectively protected protein from fermentation and reduced ruminal methanogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-17T23:45:29.571876-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8842
  • An effective HPLC-based approach for the evaluation of the content of
           total phenolic compounds transferred from olives to virgin olive oil
           during the olive milling process
    • Authors: Lorenzo Cecchi; Marzia Migliorini, Bruno Zanoni, Carlotta Breschi, Nadia Mulinacci
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDseveral studies demonstrate a strong interest in learning more about the phenolic transfer during oil extraction, with the main goal of increase the phenolic concentration in olive oils. We aimed to propose and apply a new methodological approach for evaluating phenolic transfer from olives into oil during milling, based on the quantification of phenolic content in whole lyophilized fruits and the corresponding oils and considering the oil extraction yields.RESULTSwe investigated the phenols transferred into the oil during olive milling in continuous extraction systems in Tuscany. In 2012, oils were extracted from cv Frantoio by a two-phase extraction system; in 2016, oils were extracted from cvs Leccio del Corno and Arbequina by a three-phase extraction system. Results highlighted very low percentages of extracted phenols: up to 0.40% by the two-phase system and up to 0.19% by the three-phase system (0.08% for cv Arbequina and 0.19% for cv Leccio del Corno).CONCLUSIONThe usefulness of a simple and effective methodological approach for evaluating the extracted phenols was highlighted. Values of extracted phenols were up to 25 times lower than previous literature data. The proposed approach is applicable in all types of milling processes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-17T22:36:02.29641-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8841
  • Evaluation of microfiltration and heat treatment on the microbiological
           characteristics, phenolic composition and volatile compounds profile of
           pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.)
    • Authors: Antonio Colantuono; Paola Vitaglione, Nadia Manzo, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Immacolata Montefusco, Andrea Marrazzo, Fabiana Pizzolongo, Raffaele Romano
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSince processing technology and storage may influence both sensory and nutritional value as well as the shelf-life of pomegranate juice (PJ), mild technologies based on microfiltration may be a promising alternative to heat treatments for fruit juices preservation. In this study, physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw (RPJ), microfiltered (MPJ) and cloudy pasteurized PJ (PPJ) were compared over a period of 4 weeks.RESULTSData demonstrated that microfiltration was comparable to pasteurization in guarantying the microbiological stability of the juice avoiding spoilage of the final product. After treatment, PPJ showed the highest amounts of gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid derivatives (EAs). During storage, the amount of ellagitannins, EAs and GA similarly decreased in all types of juice. Trends towards variations of monomeric anthocyanins in MPJ and variations of polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins in both MPJ and PPJ were found over storage.CONCLUSIONThe optimization of pre-treatments and filtration parameters can lead to the industrial scale-up of microfiltration technology for the development of high-quality not heat-treated PJ.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T11:02:12.290067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8836
  • Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea subsp. edulis (Turcz. Ex Herder)
           Hultén.) berries and changes in their ingredients across different
    • Authors: Mateja Senica; Martina Bavec, Franci Stampar, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInterest in organic blue honeysuckle berries has increased in recent years. They are rich in various health promoting compounds, which are sensitive to different environmental factors and are modified during the growing season.RESULTSHoneysuckle berries from different locations significantly differed in contents of primary and secondary metabolites. The location Ogulin, with the highest altitude and, consequently, high UV-radiation, had the highest phenolics content (259.85mg per 100g). Additionally, Vukovski Vrh, with the lowest temperature, had the highest ascorbic acid content (36.83 mg per 100g) and Šmartno pri Litiji and Višnja Gora, with the highest precipitation, had the highest organic acid contents (885.85mg per 100g). A combination of “stress” environmental conditions: temperature, water source and light intensity bring the highest saponin contents in Višnja Gora (695 mg per 100g), the highest tannin in Dolnje Impolje (134 mg per 100g), and the highest sugar (2885.45mg per 100g) contents in Vučetinac.CONCLUSIONThe contents of bioactive substances were influenced by various environmental factors, such as temperature, UV-radiation, altitude, light intensity and fruit ripening stage. Different compounds respond distinctly to different environmental factors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T11:01:05.487262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8837
  • Polyamines regulating phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts
    • Authors: Ting Zhou; Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Zhenxin Gu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPolyamines are essentially involved in cell division and differentiation. Transport of polyamine is ATP dependent, while phytic acid is the major reserve of phosphate essential to the energy-producing machinery of cells. Thus, polyamines might enhance phytic acid degradation during mung bean germination. In this study, different polyamines [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)] and dicyclohexylamine (DCHA, a Spd synthesis inhibitor) were applied to investigate the function of polyamines on phytic acid degradation.RESULTSSpd exhibited the better effect at the same concentration. Simultaneously, exogenous Spd improved sprouts growth and enhanced the accumulation of gibberellin acid 3 (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (CTK). This must be due to the increased endogenous polyamines contents. Except for dramatically reducing phytic acid content, Spd resulted in the up-regulation of PA, PAP, MIPP and ALP transcript levels and the enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activity. However, DCHA application caused the opposite results, because it decreased endogenous polyamines contents. Furthermore, Spd alleviated the DCHA-induced inhibitory effect to some extent.CONCLUSIONOverall, polyamines, especially Spd could accelerate phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts by inducing the synthesis of endogenous polyamines and phytohormones and enhancing the growth of sprouts.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T08:24:01.024737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8833
  • Proteomic changes of the porcine skeletal muscle in response to chronic
           heat stress
    • Authors: Yanjun Cui; Yue Hao, Jielei Li, Yanli Gao, Xianhong Gu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeat stress (HS) has an adverse effect on meat quality; yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms altering meat quality due to muscle responses to stress remain unclear. Sixteen castrated male crossbreeds between Landrace × Yorkshire sows and Duroc boars (79.00 ± 1.50 kg body weight) were exposed to either thermal neutral (22 °C, n=8) or heat stress (30 °C, n=8) conditions for 3 weeks. Subsequently, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of all pigs was assayed for meat quality parameters and proteome analysis.RESULTSHS decreased postmortem pH (24 h) and intramuscular fat, changed ultimate L*a*b*values, and increased drip loss and shear force. Proteome analysis of the LD was conducted by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 23 differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 3 were verified by western blotting analysis. The identified proteins were involved in six type of biological process: carbohydrate metabolism, myofibrillar and cytoskeleton structure, stress response, antioxidant and detoxification, calcium binding and cellular apoptosis. Interestingly, heat stress induced higher levels of heat shock protein, antioxidants, and calcium-binding proteins, which are involved in the mechanisms of defense and homeostasis.CONCLUSIONSThe results indicate that HS-induced changes in the expression of myofibrillar proteins, glucose and energy metabolism-related proteins, heat shock protein, and antioxidant enzymes might, at least partly, contribute to increase in meat tenderness. These findings will provide the foundation for developing future mitigating solutions and preventative therapies to reduce the detrimental effects of chronic heat stress on muscle function, metabolism and meat quality.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T08:15:34.639429-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8835
  • Effect of Incorporation of Nature Chemicals in Water Ice-glazing on
           Freshness and Shelf-life of Pacific Saury (Cololabis saira) During –18
           °C Frozen Storage
    • Authors: Haibo Luo; Weihua Wang, Wei Chen, Haiqing Tang, Li Jiang, Zhifang Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicrobial spoilage and lipid oxidation are two major factors causing freshness deterioration of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during frozen storage. To provide a remedy, the effects of several natural chemicals incorporated alone or in combination in traditional water ice-glazing on the freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury during frozen storage at –18 °C were investigated. Pacific sauries were subjected to individual quick freezing (IQF) followed by immediately dipping into cold tap water (control) or solutions containing nisin, chitosan, phytic acid (single-factor experiment) or their combinations [(L9(34) orthogonal experiment] for 10 s at 1 °C, and then packaged in polypropylene bags before frozen storage at –18 °C. The storage duration tested was up to 12 months.RESULTSAll ice-glazing treatments with individual chemicals could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) and histamine content as well as the increase in bacterial total viable count (TVC) as compared to controls, while the combination treatments give even better effects. The L9(34) orthogonal experiment showed that the optimum combination was A2B1C2 (i.e. 0.5 g L–1 nisin, 5 g L–1 chitosan and 0.2 g L–1 phytic acid). The TBARS, TVB-N histamine and TVC values in A2B1C2 treated samples remained far below the maximum acceptable limit for good freshness fish after 12 months of frozen storage at –18 °C.CONCLUSIONThe incorporation of tested herein natural chemicals in ice-glazing could inhibit microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation, and therefore maintain the freshness of Pacific saury during frozen storage. Under the optimum conditions, the shelf-life of Pacific saury could be extended up to 12 months at –18 °C. Our studies indicated that the combination treatment with natural chemicals could be commercially utilized to maintain the freshness and prolong shelf-life of Pacific saury.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T07:45:20.782602-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8834
  • The production of hydrolysates from industrially defatted rice bran and
           its surface image changes during extraction
    • Authors: Geerada Kaewjumpol; Maria J Oruna-Concha, Keshavan Niranjan, Supawan Thawornchinsombut
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis research employed mild-subcritical alkaline water extraction (SAW) technique to overcome the difficulty of active compounds extractability from an industrially defatted rice bran (IDRB). Mild-SAW (pH 9.5, 130 °C, 120 min) treatment, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (Protease G6) were applied to produce rice bran hydrolysate (RBH). Response surface methodology was used to identify proteolysis conditions for maximizing protein content and ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA). The microstructural changes during the extraction occurring in the IDRB were monitored. The selected RBH was characterised for protein recovery, yield, antioxidant activities, phenolic profile and hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) content.RESULTSOptimal proteolysis conditions were at 20 mL kg-1 IDRB (E/S) for 6 h. Under these conditions, the yield, ABTS-RSA, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and the total phenolic content of the RBH were 46.1%, 294.22 μmol trolox g-1, 57.72 μmol FeSO4 g-1, and 22.73 mg gallic acid g-1, respectively, with relatively low HMF level (0.21 mg g-1). The protein recovery was 4.8 times greater than the recovery obtained by conventional alkaline extraction. Its major phenolic compounds were p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The microstructural changes of IDRB confirmed that the mild-SAW/Protease G6 process enhanced the release of active compounds.CONCLUSIONThe process of mild-SAW followed by proteolysis promotes the release of active compounds from IDRB.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T07:36:08.123411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8832
  • Occurrence of variable levels of health-promoting fruit compounds in
           horn-shaped Italian sweet pepper varieties assessed by a comprehensive
    • Authors: Giuseppe Mennella; Antonietta D'Alessandro, Gianluca Francese, Daniela Fontanella, Mario Parisi, Pasquale Tripodi
      Abstract: BackgroundCultivated pepper is a rich source of diverse bioactive compounds with potential properties related to the prevention of major degenerative and proliferative diseases. In the present study, 15 sweet pepper varieties highly appreciated on the Italian market, were assessed for variation in the content of ascorbic acid, isoprenoids, flavonoids, morpho-agronomic performances and molecular diversity.ResultsThe collection under study showed a wide variability for all traits considered. Traditional cultivars, although less productive, were characterized by a high content of β-carotene and ascorbic acid reaching maximum concentrations of 230.5 mg kg-1 f.w. and 2750 mg kg-1 f.w., respectively. Strong correlations were evidenced between neoxanthin and luteolins. Fruit weight was positively correlated to α-tocopherol and negatively correlated to luteolins contents. The genotyping by sequencing platform has allowed the identification of 1,833 SNPs, which better defined the relationships among cultivars, based on provenance and improvement rate.ConclusionsThe present study overviews the variability in the expression of fruit nutritional traits in a collection of horn-shaped pepper cultivars, integrating agronomic and molecular data. The impact for breeding and consumers is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:44:41.232221-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8831
  • Relationship between carbohydrate composition and fungal deterioration of
           functional strawberry juices preserved using non-thermal treatments
    • Authors: Lucía Cassani; Gabriel Quintana, María R Moreira, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe quantification of the main carbohydrates present in strawberry juices enriched with inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and preserved by non-thermal techniques (vanillin and ultrasound) were studied, as well as the evolution of these compounds and their relationship with fungal deterioration during 14 days of refrigerated storage.RESULTSA simple and environmentally friendly analytical approach based on high performance liquid chromatography with reflection index detector was developed for simultaneous determination of inulin, FOS and mono and disaccharides present in the juices. When analyzing the evolution of carbohydrates during storage, a direct relationship between the consumption of sucrose and the growth of yeasts and molds (main spoilage flora in strawberry) was observed, especially in untreated samples (control). On the contrary, no sucrose consumption was observed during storage of treated sample, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the non-thermal treatments to control yeasts and molds growth. In turn, inulin and FOS added to juices were not degraded during storage.CONCLUSIONThe results demonstrated that non-thermal treatments are adequate to prevent the growth of deteriorative flora in strawberry juices and adding inulin and FOS can be a good strategy to functionalize them, improving their nutritional properties.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T01:36:07.690618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8830
  • Genotype-environment interaction on tocochromanol and plastochromanol-8
           contents in seeds of doubled haploids obtained from F1 hybrid black ×
           yellow seeds of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)
    • Authors: Aleksander Siger; Michał Michalak, Justyna Lembicz, Małgorzata Nogala-Kałucka, Teresa Cegielska-Taras, Laurencja Szała
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of the study was to determine the effect of the genotype-environment interaction on the levels of α-, β-, γ- and δ-T and PC-8 in seeds of 17 doubled haploids obtained from the F1 hybrid derived from crossing black (DH H2-26) × yellow (DH Z-114) seeds of winter oilseed rape.RESULTSThe content of tocopherols in the tested DH lines ranged from 415.6 to 540.1 mg kg-1 seeds, while PC-8 content ranged from 56.3 to 89.0 mg kg-1 seeds. The α-T/γ-T ratio reached the level of 0.78 - 1.29. Studies have shown that heritability for α-T, β-T, γ-T, total-T and PC-8 is mainly due to genotypic variation. For the δ-T homologue the level was dependent on environmental effect.CONCLUSIONThe obtained DH lines population of oilseed rape is characterized by high heritability coefficients for α-T, β-T, γ-T, the total-T and PC-8 levels, which indicates a greater influence of genotype than the environment on the content of these compounds. Among all studied doubled haploids, seven DHs were selected which were characterized by stable contents of α-T, β-T, γ-T, δ-T and total-T with the simultaneous stable content of PC-8.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T01:11:04.072722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8829
  • Tree age affects physico-chemical, functional quality and storability of
           Amrapali mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits
    • Authors: Nirmal Kumar Meena; Ram Asrey
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of tree age on physicochemical quality attributes and storage behaviour of stored Amrapali mango fruit was evaluated. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from 6, 18 and 30 years old trees and kept for ripening under ambient condition (temperature 35 ± 3 °C, relative humidity 60 ± 5 %). Observations were recorded at three days interval.RESULTSHighest total soluble solids and total sugars were found in the fruit sourced from 18 years old trees. At the end of storage, least titratable acidity (0.17%) and higher carotenoids (10.86 mg 100g-1) was found in 30 years old tree fruits during last day of storage. Highest total phenols (TP) (251.33 μg gallic acid g-1), antioxidant capacity (AC) (5.63 μmol trolox g-1) and ascorbic acid (AA) (31.13 mg 100 g-1) were reported in fruits from younger trees of 6 years old. Maximum respiratory and ethylene evolution peak was observed in fruits obtained from oldest trees whereas least activities of pectin methyl esterase (0.31 μmol min−1 g−1 FW) and polygalacturonase (53.67 μg galacturonic acid g-1 h-1) were observed in 6 years old tree fruits at the end of storage of 9 days period.CONCLUSIONHigher total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugars were found in fruit harvested from middle age group (18-year-old) trees during the entire storage period of 9 days. Most of the functional parameters like TP, AC and AA were observed higher in fruits from younger (6-year-old) trees. The obtained results revealed that middle age group (18-year-old) Amrapali mango orchards produce suits to consumers and processors requirements.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:21:43.757645-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8828
  • Genetic inheritance of pulp colour and selected traits of cassava (Manihot
           esculenta Crantz) at early generation selection
    • Authors: Athanase Nduwumuremyi; Rob Melis, Paul Shanahan, Asiimwe Theodore
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe early generation selection of cassava quantitative and qualitative traits saves breeding resources as it can shorten breeding schemes. The inheritance analysis provides important breeding information for developing new improved varieties. This study aimed at developing an F1 segregating cassava population and determining mode of gene action of pulp colour and selected traits at early generation selection (F1 seedling and clones).RESULTSThe fifteen families exhibited significant (p
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:02:38.944708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8825
  • In vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids from persimmon
           (Diospyros kaki, cv. Rojo Brillante) used as an ingredient in a model
           dairy food
    • Authors: Tomás García-Cayuela; Beatriz Nuño Escobar, Jorge Welti-Chanes, M. Pilar Cano
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAddition of persimmon fruit, which is highly rich in carotenoids, to dairy products represents an alternative to obtain functional foods. However, carotenoid bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by fat content and food composition. That is why in vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids was evaluated in persimmon-based dairy products formulated with whole (3.6 % fat) or skimmed milk (0.25% fat) and different freeze-dried persimmon tissues.RESULTSUnambiguous identification of 7 xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide and β-cryptoxanthin) and 3 hydrocarbon carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene) was achieved using high perfomance liquid chromatography with a reverse phase C-30. Total carotenoid content declined up 71% through the digestion process. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids was significantly higher in dairy products formulated with whole milk that those with skimmed milk, representing a difference of more than 21% (in the formulation using persimmon whole fruit as ingredient). Furthermore, addition of whole milk to any type of persimmon tissue significantly improved the bioaccessibility of total provitamin A carotenoids, reaching the highest values (38%) with whole fruit and whole milk.CONCLUSIONThe higher fat content in whole milk exerted a significant influence on the carotenoid bioaccessibility, especially when using freeze-dried persimmon whole fruit.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T23:56:34.129444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8827
  • In vitro digestibility, free and bound phenolic profiles and antioxidant
           activity of thermally-treaded Eragrostis tef L.
    • Authors: Eva Koubová; Martina Mrázková, Daniela Sumczynski, Jana Orsavová
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTotal phenolic content, the most common phenolics profile and antioxidant activity have been determined in free and bound phenolic fractions of thermally treated brown and white teff grains.RESULTSPhenolic content in raw brown and white teff (1540 and 992 mg GAE kg-1) as well as antioxidant activity (6.3 and 5.5 mmol TE kg-1) were higher in free phenolic fractions. The most significant decrease in total phenolics has been observed after the application of sous-vide method (35% for brown and 11% for white variety). Main free phenolics of heat treated teff were ferulic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, rutin and epigallocatechin. Main bound phenolics were ferulic, gallic, sinapic and ellagic acids, catechin and epigallocatechin. Detrimental effect on free and bound quercetin and bound cinnamic acid concentration has also been examined during the heat treatment. Thermally treated brown teff demonstrated a high level of in vitro organic matter digestibility if water and rice cooking (both 99.5%) and sous-vide (96.5%) methods had been applied.CONCLUSIONThe method sous-vide may be recommended as the most suitable hydrothermal treatment for grains of teff if compared with water or rice cooking methods.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T10:15:37.490488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8800
  • Characteristics of the Water Footprint of Rice Production under Different
           Rainfall Years in Jilin Province, China
    • Authors: Hongying Li; Lijie Qin, Hongshi He
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRice is a special crop, and its production differs from that of other crops because it requires a thin layer of water coverage for a long period. The calculation of the water footprint of rice production should differ from that of other crops due to the rice growing process. This study improved the calculation of blue and grey water footprints of rice production and analysed the variations of the water footprints for rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province.RESULTSIn the drought year the green water footprint was the lowest, and the blue water footprint was the highest among the three years, while in the humid year, the green water footprint was the highest, but the blue water footprint was not the lowest. The areas with higher water footprints were found in the east and west regions of Jilin Province, and areas with lower water footprints were found in the middle east and middle regions of Jilin Province.CONCLUSIONBlue water was the primary water resource for rice production, although more precipitation provided the highest green water in the humid year; and the spatial distribution of water footprints were not the same under different rainfall years.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T10:00:50.671598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8799
  • Optimization of protein recovery from bovine lung by pH shift process
           using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Sarah A Lynch; Carlos Álvarez, Eileen E O'Neill, Derek F Keenan, Anne Maria Mullen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDResponse surface methodology (RSM) was used in a sequential manner to optimize solubilization and precipitation conditions in the recovery of protein from bovine lung using pH shift.RESULTSSeparate D-optimal designs were employed for protein solubilization and precipitation. Independent variables investigated for protein solubilization were time (10–120 min), temperature (4–20 °C), pH (8.0–11.0) and solvent/sample ratio (2.5–10). Variables for protein precipitation were time (0–60 min) and pH (4.25–6.00). Soluble protein yields ranged from 323 to 649 g kg−1 and the quadratic model for protein solubilization revealed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9958. Optimal conditions for maximum protein solubility were extraction time 140 min, temperature 19 °C, pH 10.8 and solvent/sample ratio 13.02. Protein precipitation yields varied from 407 to 667 g kg−1, giving a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9335. Optimal conditions for maximum protein precipitation were pH 5.03 and 60 min. Based on the RSM model, solubilization conditions were manipulated to maximize protein solubilization under reduced water and alkaline usage. These conditions were also validated.CONCLUSIONModels for solubilization and precipitation using bovine and porcine lung were validated; predicted and actual yields were in good agreement, showing cross-species applicability of the results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T02:30:40.513115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8678
  • Authentication of commercial spices based on the similarities between gas
           chromatographic fingerprints
    • Authors: Takaya Matsushita; JingJing Zhao, Noriyuki Igura, Mitsuya Shimoda
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA simple and solvent-free method was developed for the authentication of commercial spices. The similarities between gas chromatographic fingerprints were measured using similarity indices and multivariate data analyses, as morphological differentiation between dried powders and small spice particles was challenging. The volatile compounds present in 11 spices (i.e., allspice, anise, black pepper, caraway, clove, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, star anise, and white pepper) were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTSThe largest 10 peaks were selected from each total ion chromatogram, and a total of 65 volatiles were tentatively identified. The similarity indices (i.e., the congruence coefficients) were calculated using the data matrices of the identified compound relative peak areas to differentiate between two sets of fingerprints. Where pairs of similar fingerprints produced high congruence coefficients (>0.80), distinctive volatile markers were employed to distinguish between these samples. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to visualize the similarity among fingerprints, and the analyzed spices were grouped and characterized according to their distinctive major components.CONCLUSIONThis method is suitable for screening unknown spices, and can therefore be employed to evaluate the quality and authenticity of various spices.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:11:59.265165-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8797
  • Efficient Quantification of Water Content in Edible Oils by Headspace Gas
           Chromatography with Vapor Phase Calibration
    • Authors: Wei-Qi Xie; Yi-Xian Gong, Kong-Xian Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyze the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapor phase calibration technique with an external vapor standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified.RESULTSThe data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e., the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%.CONCLUSIONThe present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T10:20:22.87777-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8795
  • Changes in phytochemical composition, bioactivity and in vitro
           digestibility of guayusa leaves (Ilex guayusa Loes.) in different ripening
    • Authors: José Villacís-Chiriboga; Almudena García-Ruiz, Nieves Baenas, Diego A Moreno, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Carla M Stinco, Lourdes Jerves-Andrade, Fabián León-Tamariz, Johanna Ortiz-Ulloa, Jenny Ruales
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGuayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes.) leaves, native of the Ecuadorian Amazon, are popularly used for preparing teas. This study aimed to assess the influence of leaf age on the phenolic compounds and carotenoids and the bioactivity and digestibility (in vitro) of aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf extracts.RESULTSIn total, 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O-hexose were the main representatives of the hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols respectively. Seven carotenoids were quantified, lutein being the main compound. Ripening affected phenolic content significantly, but there was no significant difference in carotenoid content. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the DPPH• method, was also significantly affected by leaf age. The measurement of in vitro digestibility showed a decrease in phenolic content (59%) as well as antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS•+ method, in comparison with initial conditions of the guayusa infusion. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities were assayed with young leaves owing to their higher phenolic contents. Guayusa did not show any antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 or Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Finally, the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts exhibited high in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (>65%).CONCLUSIONYoung guayusa leaves have potential applications as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T09:40:27.650198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8675
  • Preparation and Mechanism Analysis of an Environment- friendly Maize Seed
           Coating Agent
    • Authors: Defang Zeng; Zhao Fan, Xu Tian, Wenjin Wang, Mingchun Zhou, Haochuan Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTraditional seed coating agents often contain toxic ingredients, which contaminate environment and threaten human health. This paper expounds a method of preparing a novel environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize and researches its mechanism of action. The natural polysaccharide polymer, which is the main active ingredient of this environment-friendly seed coating agent, has the characteristics of innocuity and harmlessness, and it can replace the toxic ingredients used in the traditional seed coating agents.RESULTThis environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize was mainly made up of the natural polysaccharide polymer and other additives. The field trials results showed that the control efficacy of Helminthosporiun maydis came to 93.72%, the anti-feeding rate of cutworms came to 81.29%, and the maize yield was increased by 17.75%. Besides, the LD50 value (half the lethal dose of rats) of this seed coating agent was 10 times higher than that of the traditional seed coating agents. This seed coating agent could improve the activity of plant protective enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxidase dismutase) and increase the chlorophyll content.CONCLUSIONThis seed coating agent has four characteristics of disease prevention, desinsectization, increasing yield and safety. The mechanism analyses results showed that this seed coating agent could enhance the disease control effectiveness by improving plant protective enzymes activity and increase maize yield by improving chlorophyll content.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T08:15:21.64035-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8783
  • Modification of pomological characteristics and flavor components of
           fruits and virgin olive oil following wastewater irrigation and soil
    • Authors: Meriem Tekaya; Hechmi Chehab, Guido Flamini, Ines Gharbi, Zoubeir Mahjoub, Salwa Laamari, Badreddine Chihaoui, Dalenda Boujnah, Mohamed Hammami, Beligh Mechri
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe experiment was carried out on olive trees cv. Chemlali, during two successive years (2013/2014). Two irrigation treatments (IT: Trees irrigated with wastewater; TRC: Trees grown under rainfed condition) were combined with two tillage practices (TTS: Trees grown in tilled soil; TNTS: Trees grown in non-tilled soil).RESULTSThe results of the study showed that WW irrigation combined with soil tillage improved the pomological characteristics of olive fruits. The tree yield increase was substantial for IT and TTS. However, most of the identified phenolic compounds, especially oleuropein, mainly accumulated in olive fruits of the TC block (TNTS + TRC), suggesting a marked improvement in the nutritional value of these fruits. Moreover, fruits of TNTS had high contents of sugar compounds, required for the synthesis of the fruit storage material. The study also showed that the agronomic practices affected the amounts of some aromatic compounds responsible for the distinctive flavor notes of olive oil.CONCLUSIONHence, agronomic practices may affect considerably the commercial and nutritional values and the sensorial quality of the commodities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:55:20.875848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8791
  • Innovative food products for cancer patients: future directions
    • Authors: Itziar Tueros; Matxalen Uriarte
      Abstract: One of the main challenges for cancer patients under treatment is to prevent and tackle malnutrition. The current clinical nutrition market offers different food supplements or oral nutritional support products (mainly milkshakes or modified texture products) for cancer patients under risk of malnutrition. However, it is worth mentioning, that these products do not address the pleasure of eating, since they do not meet sensory requirements, such as taste and smell alterations, nor patients’ food preferences, leading to a big impact on their quality of life (QOL). Still, controversy remains regarding the specific nutritional requirements for cancer patients during the disease. Several randomized controlled clinical trials yield opposite results when using different bioactive compounds such as omega 3 fatty acids or antioxidants in order to prevent malnutrition or improve the QOL. The use of ‘omics’ technologies in oncology, such as membrane lipidomics, as a powerful tool to provide new insights for the understanding of diet and cancer and their interacting metabolic pathways, will be discussed. The better knowledge of specific requirements (nutrients, sensory parameters and food preferences) for cancer patients provide valuable information for the food industry in the design of customised food products capable to prevent malnutrition, alleviate symptoms and improve the QOL.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:41:12.79837-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8789
  • Effect of Ultra Superheated Steam on Aflatoxin Reduction and Roasted
           Peanut Properties
    • Authors: Parawee Pukkasorn; Wannasawat Ratphitagsanti, Vichai Haruthaitanasan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAflatoxins are carcinogenic toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that are found naturally in peanut. It requires extremely high temperatures for eliminating aflatoxins from the nuts. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of ultra superheated steam (USS) on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) accompanying roasting process and to determine roasted peanut qualities that affected consumer acceptance.RESULTSWhole peanut kernels were intentionally contaminated by AFB1 standard solution at the level of 50±10 μg kg-1 before subjected to USS treatment at 300-400°C between 10 and 80 s. High temperature of USS could significantly decrease AFB1 level to 9.83±3.51, 15.33±2.23 and 8.95±2.32 μg kg-1 when 300°C for 80 s, 350°C for 40 s and 400°C for 40 s were employed, respectively. AFB1 was reduced as high as 83.86±2.66% when 400°C for 40 s was applied. The moisture content of treated peanuts was decreased to less than 3% and browning index was developed from 30.96±1.59 to 95.76±7.23.CONCLUSIONHigher roasting degree was obtained according to the increase in browning index. Oil quality showed that peroxide values and acid values were greatly below the allowance level. USS could effectively decrease AFB1 and render expectable roasting qualities of peanut.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:11:40.070016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8788
  • Insights on the stilbenes in Raboso Piave grape (Vitis vinifera L.) as a
           consequence of postharvest vs on-vine dehydration
    • Authors: Luca Brillante; Mirko De Rosso, Antonio Dalla Vedova, Itay Maoz, Riccardo Flamini, Diego Tomasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGrape withering is a process used to produce reinforced wines and raisins. Dehydration is usually carried out postharvest by keeping ripe grapes in special warehouses in controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air flow. Alternatively, grape clusters can be left on the vines after the canes have been pruned. In general, dehydration increases stilbenes in grape, but there are few studies on the effects of on-vine withering. The stilbene profiles of Raboso Piave grape during postharvest and on-vine dehydration were studied here.RESULTSHigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify 19 stilbenes, including resveratrol monomers, dimers (viniferins), oligomers and glucoside derivatives. The two dehydration methods generally had different effects on the above nutraceuticals in grape. The samples kept in warehouses revealed significant increases in Z-ω-viniferin, E-ϵ-viniferin, δ-viniferin and another resveratrol dimer which were not observed in the plants. Trans-Resveratrol increased significantly only in samples dehydrated in the warehouse at 21 °C and 60–70% RH.CONCLUSIONThe findings increase knowledge of stilbene composition in grapes subjected to withering on-vine. The choice of dehydration method affects the contents of these nutraceuticals in the grape and consequently in wines. Reasonably, it could also affect other secondary metabolites important for wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T02:45:27.913803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8679
  • Persistent sample circulation microextraction combined with graphite
           furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy for trace determination of heavy
           metals in fish species marketed in Kermanshah, Iran and human health risk
    • Authors: Yahya Safari; Mostafa Karimaei, Kiomars Sharafi, Hossein Arfaeinia, Masoud Moradi, Nazir Fattahi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe persistent sample circulation microextraction (PSCME) joined with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed as a high preconcentration technique for the determination of heavy metals in fish species. In this method, a few microliter of organic solvent (40.0 µl carbon tetrachloride) was transferred to the bottom of a conical sample cup. Then a 10.0 ml of aqueous solution transformed to fine droplets while passing through an organic solvent. At this stage, metal-ligand hydrophobic complex was extracted into the organic solvent. After extraction, 20 µl of extraction solvent was injected into the graphite tube using an auto-sampler.RESULTSUnder the optimum conditions, enrichment factors and enhancement factor were in the range of 180–240 and 155–214, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.03–200 µg kg−1 and the limits of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.01–0.05 µg kg−1. The Repeatability (intra–day) and reproducibility (inter–day) for 0.50 µg l−1 of Hg and 0.10 µg l−1 of Cd and Pb were in the range of 3.1–4.2% (n = 7) and 4.3–6.1% (n = 7), respectively.CONCLUSIONA potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating fish and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. EWI data for the studied metals through fish consumption were lower than the PTWI values.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T09:05:23.530675-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8786
  • Inhibition effects of flavonoids on
           2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline and
           2-amino-3,7,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline formation and alkoxy
           radical scavenging capabilities of flavonoids in a model system
    • Authors: Zeping Shao; Zhonghui Han, Jinhui Zhang, Yan Zhang, Shuo Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) have been considered as carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals generated during thermal processing of protein-rich foods which can be inhibited by some flavonoids. And free radical scavenging is a major characteristic of flavonoids.RESULTSThe half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of nine flavonoids were determined by evaluating their capacity to inhibit 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx) formation in a model system. The results of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) test validated that MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx formed via a free radical pathway. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic analysis with spin trapping (α-(4-pyridyl N-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN) spin adduct, aN = 15.2 G and aH = 2.7 G) revealed that an alkoxy radical was the generated intermediate. Then, the scavenging capacities of the nine flavonoids on alkoxy radicals were evaluated based on the ESR spectra of the POBN spin adducts.CONCLUSIONThe weak correlation between the alkoxy radical scavenging capacities and IC50 of the flavonoids suggested that their inhibitory activity against MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx formation operates by a more complex mechanism than simply scavenging alkoxy radicals.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T08:40:33.81874-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8785
  • Effects of High Temperatures and Drought During Anthesis and Grain Filling
           Period on Wheat Processing Quality and Underlying Gluten Structural
    • Authors: Jasna Mastilović; Dragan Živančev, Eva Lončar, Radomir Malbaša, Nikola Hristov, Žarko Kevrešan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDClimate changes do not only affect wheat yield, but also its quality. The information on this topic gathered so far is somewhat contradictory and insufficient. Climate changes are also affecting wheat indirectly through their influence on the ecosystem, including insects and fungi that affect the wheat technological quality. The aim of this study has been to examine trends in structural and technological changes of wheat quality under conditions typical of climate changes. With this in mind, three groups of wheat varieties with the same Glu-score were examined in three production years, characterized by different production conditions.RESULTSProduction season which is characterized by climate change conditions, results in lower activity of amylolitic enzymes. What is more, it results in lower content of gluten, higher gluten index value, its decrease after 1h to 37 °C, lower number of free SH groups and higher content of free amino groups that result in lower alwegraph W, lower farinograph WA and higher extensograph dough resistance.CONCLUSIONVariability in wheat quality produced under different climatic conditions is mainly influenced by the production conditions, including their influence on ecosystem factors. The influence of wheat cultivar genetic predisposition is much less expressed. This indicates that differences among cultivars with different Glu-score might be diminished under the influence of altered production conditions, as a consequence of climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T06:30:20.431519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8784
  • Effects of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide combined with nisin edible
    • Authors: Wang Fengping; Huijun Zhang, Jin Wengang, Li Lirong
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to investigate the effect of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide (TBP) combined with nisin edible coatings on the preservation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets, fillets were dip treated with different concentrations of TBP (5 g kg-1, 10 g kg-1, and 15 g kg-1) combined with nisin and stored at 4°C for 12 days. The pH values, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) contents, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable count (TVC), surface colors, textures, and sensory properties of the tilapia fillets at storage were all periodically investigated.RESULTSTBP combined with nisin-treated groups significantly improved the bacteriological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of the tilapia fillets to a greater extent than did the control group and presented better quality preservation effects than nisin coating alone. Based on the limits of the TVB-N, TVC, and sensory scores, the shelf lives of the control tilapia fillets were 4 days, whereas that for nisin with TBP-coated fillets was 8–10 days.CONCLUSIONedible coatings made from TBP combined with nisin are suitable for maintaining qualities and enhancing the shelf lives of tilapia fillets stored at 4°C.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T06:10:27.810023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8781
  • Heavy metal contamination, microbiological spoilage and biogenic amines
           content in sushi available on the Polish market
    • Authors: Piotr Kulawik; Dani Dordevic, Florian Gambuś, Katarzyna Szczurowska, Marzena Zając
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study determined the heavy metal contamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel) of nori, restaurant-served sushi and ready-to-eat sushi meals available through retail chains. Moreover the microbiological loads and biogenic amines content in ready-to-eat sushi meals were analysed.RESULTSAll the nori samples contained high levels of Cd (2.122 mg kg-1), Ni (0.715 mg kg-1), As (34.56 mg kg-1) and Pb (0.659 mg kg-1). The studied sushi samples contained high levels of Ni and Pb, reaching 0.194 and 0.142 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively, and being potentially hazardous to women during pregnancy and lactation and small children. None of the studied samples contained high levels of Hg. 37% of ready-to-eat sushi meals exceeded the microbiological loads of 106 cfu g-1. However the biogenic amines content in all the samples was low, with the highest histamine content of 2.05 mg kg-1.CONCLUSIONSSushi is not the source of biogenic amines even with high microbiological loads. Nevertheless high microbiological loads at the end of the shelf-life indicate that some processors might have issues with distribution chain or implement poor hygienic regime. Moreover due to possible risk associated with heavy metals contamination, the study underlines the necessity to establish new regulations regarding the contamination of nori and sushi.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T23:15:36.900496-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8778
  • Near-infrared Hyperspectral Imaging for Detection and Quantification of
           Azodicarbonamide in Flour
    • Authors: Xiaobin Wang; Chunjiang Zhao, Wenqian Huang, Qingyan Wang, Chen Liu, Guiyan Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aimed to establish a method for the detection and quantification of azodicarbonamide (ADC) in flour using hyperspectral imaging technology. Hyperspectral images of pure flour, pure ADC, and flour-ADC mixtures with different concentrations of ADC were collected. F values of one-way ANOVA for all possible wavebands within the spectra of the flour and ADC were calculated, and the maximum value indicated that the two wavebands have more significant differences, that is, the optimal two wavebands. Threshold segmentation was used for band ratio images of two wavebands to create binary image. This allowed visual identification of ADC rich pixels in the mixtures.RESULTSThe two wavebands with the largest difference between flour and ADC were 2039 nm and 1892 nm. Using the binary image construction method, different concentrations of ADC in flour were identified. The minimum detected concentration was 0.2 g kg-1. In the mixtures, the number of ADC rich pixels detected had a good linear relationship with the ADC concentrations, correlation coefficient was 0.9845.CONCLUSIONThis study indicated that the band ratio algorithm combination with threshold segmentation for hyperspectral images provides a non-destructive method for detecting and quantifying of ADC in flour.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T00:35:23.17781-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8776
  • Field findings about milk ethanol stability: a first report of
           interrelationship between α-lactalbumin and lactose
    • Authors: Rafael Fagnani; João Paulo Andrade de Araújo, Bruno Garcia Botaro
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMilk ethanol stability is not only associated with microbiological acidification, but a phenomenon with many variables that influence the balance of soluble salts, mainly the calcium ion activity. On this basis, we wanted to find out more information about milk ethanol stability by studying its relationship with milk's proteins fractions and others major components. The influence of milk composition over the ethanol stability was assessed through a predictive model comprising 180 individual raw milk samples. An additional model was used to assess the ethanol stability status as a response to the proteins fractions quantified by electrophoresis.RESULTSOut of total of samples, 68% were classified as stable and 32% as unstable to alcohol. Milk ethanol instability increased at low values of lactose content and high values of ash percentage. α-Lactalbumin (α-La) was also associated with the ethanol stability, and the higher the α-La percentage the lower the chances of ethanol instability.CONCLUSIONThe lower values of α-La in unstable milk samples might be related to lower content of lactose, as α-La promotes the lactose synthesis, a key component for the osmotic balance of milk, and thus, its ethanol stability. This is the first field report linking indirectly ethanol stability with α-La.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T00:10:23.645053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8775
  • Consumption of orange fermented beverage improves antioxidant status and
           reduces peroxidation lipid and inflammatory markers in healthy humans
    • Authors: Blanca Escudero-López; Ángeles Ortega, Isabel Cerrillo, María-Rosario Rodríguez-Griñolo, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Hada C. Macher, Franz Martín, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez, Pedro Mena, Daniele Del Rio, María-Soledad Fernández-Pachón
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlcoholic fermentation of fruits has generated novel products with high concentrations of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect on cardiovascular risk factors of the regular consumption by healthy humans of a beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice.RESULTSThirty healthy volunteers were enrolled in a randomized controlled study. The experimental group (n=15) drank 500 mL orange beverage (OB) day-1 for 2 weeks (intervention phase), followed by a 3-week washout phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline (E-T0) and at the end of the intervention (E-T1) and washout (E-T2) phases. Controls (n=15) did not consume OB during a 2-week period. OB intake significantly increased ORAC (43.9%) and reduced uric acid (-8.9%), CAT (-23.2%), TBARS (-30.2%), and C-reactive protein (-2.1%) (E-T1 vs. E-T0). These effects may represent longer-term benefits, given the decreased uric acid (-8.9%), CAT (-34.6%), TBARS (-48.4%), and oxidized LDL (-23.9%) values recorded after the washout phase (E-T2 vs. E-T0).CONCLUSIONThe regular consumption of OB improved antioxidant status and decreased inflammation state, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid levels. Thus, OB may protect the cardiovascular system in healthy humans and be considered a novel functional beverage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T23:50:27.313213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8774
  • Impact of Infrared Treatment on Quality and Fungal Decontamination of Mung
           Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Inoculated with Aspergillus spp.
    • Authors: Maninder Meenu; Paramita Guha, Sunita Mishra
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMung bean is a rich source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber content. It also exhibits a high level of antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger are the two major fungal strains associated with stored mung bean that lead to post-harvest losses of grains and also cause serious health risks to human beings. So there is a need to explore an economical decontamination method that can be used without affecting the biochemical parameters of grains.RESULTSIt was observed that infrared (IR) treatment of mung bean surface up to 70°C for 5 min at an intensity of 0.299 kW m-2 lead to complete visible inhibition of fungal growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surface irregularities and physical disruption of spores coat are the major reasons behind the inactivation of IR treated fungal spores. It was also reported that IR treatment up to 70°C for 5 min does not cause any negative impact on the biochemical and physical properties of mung bean.CONCLUSIONFrom the results of the present study, it was concluded that IR treatment at 70°C for 5 min using IR source having intensity of 0.299 kW m-2 can be successfully used as a method of fungal decontamination. The fungal spore population was reduced (approximately 5.3 log10 CFU/g reductions) without significantly altering the biochemical and physical properties of grains.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T23:00:32.167391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8773
  • Recovery and stability over time of phenolic fractions by an industrial
           filtration system of olive mill wastewaters: a three years study
    • Authors: Maria Bellumori; Lorenzo Cecchi, Annalisa Romani, Nadia Mulinacci, Marzia Innocenti
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe recovery of phenolic compounds from olive milling is recognized as strategic for producers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and stability of retentates obtained from olive mill wastewaters treated with a membrane filtration system constituted by a micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration followed by a final reverse osmosis, over three crop seasons. Efficiency was evaluated in terms of phenolic amount in the retentates and of organic load in the final discarded waters. Phenolic compounds were quantified using tyrosol as external standard.RESULTSOur study highlighted a reproducibility of the process over years and a low organic load in permeates from reverse osmosis. Hydroxytyrosol was very stable in the liquid products at 18-28°C over 24 months of storage. The retentates from reverse osmosis showed the highest phenolic content (78.6 mg g-1 dm in 2015), associated with a potassium content of 22 g kg-1.CONCLUSIONSThe liquid concentrated retentates showed an unexpected stability over time of their bioactive phenolic compounds, particularly of hydroxytyrosol. These samples recovered from olive mill wastewaters can be good sources of natural antioxidants and potassium to guarantee the correct intake and to formulate new food ingredient or food products.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T08:05:24.100612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8772
  • Structural, thermal, and morphological characteristics of cassava
    • Authors: Mariana Souza Costa; Diogo Paschoalini Volanti, Maria Victória Eiras Grossmann, Célia Maria Landi Franco
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAmylodextrins from cassava starch were obtained by acid hydrolysis and their structural, thermal, and morphological characteristics were evaluated and compared to those from potato and corn amylodextrins.RESULTSCassava starch was the most susceptible to hydrolysis due to imperfections in its crystalline structure. The crystalline patterns of amylodextrins kept unchanged and crystallinity and peak temperature increased with hydrolysis time, while thermal degradation temperature decreased, independently of treatment time and starch source. Cassava amylodextrins had similar structural and morphological characteristics to those from corn amylodextrins due to their A-type crystalline arrangements. A-amylodextrins were structurally and thermally more stable than potato amylodextrins (B-type). Starch nanocrystals (SNC) were observed by transmission electron microscopy from the third day of hydrolysis in cassava amylodextrins, while potato and corn amylodextrins displayed SNC only on the fifth day. A-SNC displayed platelet shapes, while B-SNC were rounded. The SNC shape was related to the packing form and geometry of unit cell of allomorphs A and B.CONCLUSIONMicro (agglomerated crystalline particles) and nano (double helices organization)-structures were observed for amylodextrins. Cassava starch showed to be a promising material for SNC production, since it requires less hydrolysis time to obtaining more stable crystals.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:55:54.900211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8771
  • Preharvest treatments with salicylates enhance nutrient and antioxidant
           compounds in plum at harvest and after storage
    • Authors: Alejandra Martínez-Esplá; Pedro J. Zapata, Daniel Valero, Domingo Martínez-Romero, Huertas M. Díaz-Mula, María Serrano
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPrevious reports have addressed the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and methylsalicylate (MeSA) postharvest treatments on maintaining quality properties along storage in several commodities. However, there is no literature regarding the effect of preharvest treatments with salicylates on plum quality attributes (at harvest or after long term cold storage), which was evaluated on this research.RESULTSAt harvest, weight, firmness, individual organic acids, sugars, phenolics, anthocyanins and total carotenoids were found at higher levels in plums from SA, ASA and MeSA treated trees than in those from controls. Along storage, softening, colour changes and acidity losses were delayed in treated fruits as compared to controls. In addition, organic acids and antioxidant compounds were still found at higher levels in treated than in control plums after 40 days of storage. Results show a delay on the postharvest ripening process due to salicylate treatments, which could be attributed to their effect on delaying and decreasing ethylene production.CONCLUSIONPreharvest treatment with salicylates could be a safety, eco-friendly and new tool to improve (at harvest) and maintain (along storage) plum quality and especially its content on bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties, increasing the health effects of plum consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:45:28.904978-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8770
  • Ultrafine fibers of zein and anthocyanins as natural pH indicator
    • Authors: Luciana Prietto; Vania Zanella Pinto, Shanise Lisie Mello El Halal, Michele Greque de Morais, Jorge Alberto Vieria Costa, Loong-Tak Lim, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDpH-sensitive indicator membranes, useful for pharmaceutical, food, and packaging applications, can be formed by encapsulating halochromic compounds within various solid supports. To this end, electrospinning is a versatile technique for the development of these indicators, by entrapping pH dyes within ultrafine polymer fibers.RESULTSThe ultrafine zein fibers, containing 5% (w/v) anthocyanins, had an average diameter of 510 nm. The pH-sensitive membrane exhibited color changes from pink to green, when exposed to acidic and alkaline buffers, respectively. The contact angle was negligible after 10 and 2 s for neat and 5% anthocyanins-loaded zein membranes, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe pH membranes exhibited color changes in a board pH range, which potentially can be used in various active packaging applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03T04:30:23.170408-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8769
  • Application of visible/near infrared spectroscopy to quality control of
           fresh fruits and vegetables in large-scale mass distribution channels: a
           preliminary test on carrots and tomatoes
    • Authors: R. Beghi; V. Giovenzana, A. Tugnolo, R. Guidetti
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe market for fruits and vegetables is mainly controlled by the mass distribution channel (MDC). MDC buyers do not have useful instruments to rapidly evaluate the quality of the products. Decisions by the buyers are driven primarily by pricing strategies rather than product quality. Simple, rapid and easy-to-use methods for objectively evaluating the quality of postharvest products are needed. The aim of this study was to use visible and near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectroscopy to estimate some qualitative parameters of two low-price products (carrots and tomatoes) of various brands, and to evaluate the applicability of this technique for use in stores.RESULTSA non-destructive optical system (vis/NIR spectrophotometer with a reflection probe, spectral range 450–1650 nm) was tested. The differences in quality among carrots and tomatoes purchased from 13 stores on various dates were examined. The reference quality parameters (firmness, water content, soluble solids content, pH and colour) were correlated to the spectral readings. The models derived from the optical data gave positive results, in particular for the prediction of the soluble solids content and the colour, with better results for tomatoes than for carrots.CONCLUSIONThe application of optical techniques may help MDC buyers to monitor the quality of postharvest products, leading to an effective optimization of the entire supply chain.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:50:22.932999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8768
  • Development of a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product by sodium
           replacement using water vapour permeable bags
    • Authors: Arantxa Rizo; Ana Fuentes, José M. Barat, Isabel Fernández-Segovia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood manufacturers need to reduce sodium contents to meet consumer and public health demands. In this study the use of sodium-free (SF) salt and KCl to develop a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product with reduced sodium content was evaluated. Fifty percent of NaCl was replaced with 50% of SF salt or 50% KCl in the salmon smoke-flavouring process carried out using water vapour permeable bags.RESULTSTriangle tests showed that samples with either SF salt or KCl were statistically similar to the control samples (100% NaCl). Since no sensorial advantage in using SF salt was found compared with KCl and given the lower price of KCl, the KCl-NaCl samples were selected for the next phase. The changes of physicochemical and microbial parameters in smoke-flavoured salmon during 42 days showed that partial replacement of NaCl with KCl did not significantly affect the quality and shelf-life of smoke-flavoured salmon, which was over 42 days.CONCLUSIONSmoke-flavoured salmon with 37% sodium reduction was developed without affecting sensory features and shelf-life. This is an interesting option for reducing sodium content in such products to help meet the needs set by both health authorities and consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:40:22.454001-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8767
  • Regioisomeric distribution of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy linoleic acid in
           vegetable oils during storage and heating
    • Authors: Marc Pignitter; Mathias Zaunschirm, Judith Lach, Laura Unterberger, Antonio Kopic, Claudia Keßler, Julia Kienesberger, Monika Pischetsrieder, Manfred Eggersdorfer, Christoph Riegger, Veronika Somoza
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative deterioration of vegetable oils is commonly measured by the peroxide value, thereby not considering the contribution of individual lipid hydroperoxide isomers, which might have different bioactive effects. Thus, the formation of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HpODE and 13- HpODE), was quantitated after short-term heating and conditions representative of long-term domestic storage in samples of linoleic acid, canola, sunflower and soybean oil, by means of stable isotope dilution analysis-LC-MS/MS.RESULTSWhile heating of pure linoleic acid at 180 °C for 30 min led to an almost complete loss of 9-HpODE and 13-HpODE, heating of canola, sunflower and soybean oil resulted in the formation of 5.74 ± 3.32, 2.00 ± 1.09, 16.0 ± 2.44 mM 13-HpODE and 13.8 ± 8.21, 10.0 ± 6.74 and 45.2 ± 6.23 mM 9-HpODE. An almost equimolar distribution of the 9- and 13-HpODE was obtained during household-representative storage conditions after 56 days, whereas under heating conditions, an approximately 2.4-, 2.8- and 5.0-fold (p ≤ 0.001) higher concentration of 9-HpODE than 13-HpODE was detected in canola, soybean and sunflower oil, respectively.CONCLUSIONA temperature-dependent distribution of HpODE regioisomers could be shown in vegetable oils suggesting them as markers of lipid oxidation in oils used for short-term heating.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:30:22.502866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8766
  • Steady and dynamic shear rheological behavior of semi dilute Alyssum
           homolocarpum seed gum solutions: Influence of concentration, temperature
           and heating-cooling rate
    • Authors: Behzad Alaeddini; Arash Koocheki, Jafar Mohammadzadeh Milani, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Babak Ghanbarzadeh
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) solution exhibits high viscosity at low shear rates, and has anionic feature. However there is no information regarding the flow and dynamic properties of this gum in semi dilute solutions. The purpose of the present research was to study the dynamic and steady shear behavior of AHSG at semi diulte region.RESULTSViscosity profile demonestrated a shear thinning behavior at all temperatures and concentrations. An increase in the AHSG concentration was acompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity degree, whereas by increasing the temperature , the pseudoplasticity of AHSG decreased. At low gum concentration, solutions had more viscosity dependency to temperature. The mechanical spectra obtained from the frequency sweep experiment demonstrated viscoelastic properties for gum solutions. AHSG solutions showed typical weak gel-like behavior revealing G' greater than G" within the experimental range of frequency (Hz), with slight frequency dependency. The influence of temperature on viscoelastic properties of AHSG solutions was studied during heating (5-85°C) and cooling (85-5°C) processes. The complex viscosity of AHSG was more when compared to the apparent viscosity, exhibiting the disruption of AHSG network structure under continuous shear rates and deviation from Cox-Merz rule. During the initial heating, the storage modulus showed a decreasing trend and with further increase in the temperature, the magnitude of storage modulus increased. The influence of temperature on the storage modulus was more considerable when higher heating rate was applied.CONCLUSIONAHSG can be applied as a thickening and stabilizing agents in food products that need good stability against temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T10:15:20.525381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8765
  • The determination of the botanical origin in honeys with over-represented
           pollen: combination of melissopalynological, sensory and physicochemical
    • Authors: M. Rodopoulou; C. Tananaki, M. Dimou, V. Liolios, D. Kanelis, G. Goras, A. Thrasyvoulou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPollen analysis of honey is the basic method for the determination of its botanical origin. However, the presence of over-represented pollen in honeys may lead the analysis to false results. This can be more severe if this pollen is present in unifloral under-represented honeys of commercial importance, for instance thyme honey. In this study, we investigated the abundance of over-represented pollen grains on several quality characteristics in honey samples. In particular, we mixed honeys characterised as over-represented, specifically chestnut and eucalyptus, with thyme honeys in different analogies; and we analysed the melissopalynological, organoleptic, physicochemical (water content, electrical conductivity, colour) and volatile characteristics of the blends.RESULTSThe most sensitive parameters were the microscopic characteristics, followed by the organoleptic ones. Blends of thyme honey with originally low percentage of thyme pollen were the most influenced and could not be characterised as unifloral, regarding their melissopalynological characteristics even when they were mixed with small quantities of honeys with over-represented pollen (i.e. 5 %).CONCLUSIONThis study confirms that in case of presence of over-represented pollen in honeys, the pollen analysis alone cannot give trustworthy results for the determination of the botanical origin even though their exclusion during pollen analysis, when they are present in percentages up to 30 %, could provide more accurate results. Consequently, pollen analysis should be combined with the other analyses as well, especially in honeys with under - represented and over – represented pollens, in order to give safer results for the botanical characterisation of honeys.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T09:35:25.271081-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8764
  • Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded
           Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation
           and grape ripeness level
    • Authors: Jacobus J. Hunter; Cornelis G. Volschenk
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NE, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23 °Balling, 25 °B, 27 °B) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt).RESULTSSoluble solids:Titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides, N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions.CONCLUSIONA large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorizing terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T10:30:23.683144-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8763
  • Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of Biomass and Nitrogen in
           Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under Different Fertilization
    • Authors: Baige Zhang; Mingzhu Li, Qiang Li, Jian Cao, Changyuan Zhang, Fusuo Zhang, Xinping Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe elemental uptake and allocation patterns of crops create insight for nutrient management. Two-year field experiments were conducted to determine the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake patterns of bitter gourd and to evaluate different N management strategies. Two N practices during the nursery stage, namely, the conventional fertilizer method (Scon) and the controlled-release fertilizer management method (Scrf), combined with three N management strategies after transplanting, namely, zero N fertilizer application (Nno), the conventional strategy (Ncon) and the systematic N management strategy (Nopt) were assessed.RESULTSAveraged over two years, the Scrf-Nopt treatment performed best, producing 33.1 t ha-1 fruit yield with 310 kg N ha-1, indicating that the yield was 22.6% greater by using 18.8% less fertilizer N than in the Scon-Ncon treatment. The Scrf-Nopt treatment facilitated plant growth by accumulating 20.0% more total dry weight and prioritized its allocation to productive organ (57.2%), while the Scon-Ncon strategy was biased towards leaves (56.3%) over fruits (43.8%). N uptake and distribution closely followed the pattern of biomass.CONCLUSIONThe Scrf-Nopt fertilization strategy coordinated the important role of N plays in total accumulation and well-proportion of biomass and N in bitter gourd developmental processes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T10:20:21.914792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8762
  • Validation of floral food resources for pollinators in agricultural
           landscape in SE Poland
    • Authors: Jacek Jachuła; Bożena Denisow, Małgorzata Wrzesień
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProper management of bee pastures is considered an important activity for diversity of pollinators and conservation of the population size. In the present study, we evaluated the floral composition and diversity, flowering spectrum, and availability of food resources in natural and man-made habitats in four rural municipalities in the Lublin Upland, SE Poland. We also determined the connection between pollinator-friendly biotopes and made some suggestions on creation/supplementation of bee pastures adapted to the arable land structure in eastern Poland (mean acreage 7.65 ha).RESULTSForage species richness (S) differed among vegetation types - the highest S value was found in field margins, while mixed forests represented the lowest species richness (mean ± SD = 37.8±9.5 vs 16.5±2.3). In all habitats, the most abundant flowering was recorded in May. Then, the blooming abundance decreased until a complete decline at the end of summer. The mean distance between the pollinator-friendly biotopes is 2.4±1.53 km, which is out of the flying range/foraging distance of most pollinators.CONCLUSIONShortages of nectar and pollen resources in agricultural landscape of SE Poland are evident. Therefore, we assume that the landscape structure requires support in terms of food niches for pollinators and creation/supplementation of bee pastures is necessary, e.g. 6-9 patches of 0.025-0.3 ha each within an area of 100 ha.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T10:15:24.134157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8761
  • Inclusion complexes of yellow bell pepper pigments with β-cyclodextrin:
           Preparation, characterisation and application as food natural colorant
    • Authors: Francine Albernaz T F Lobo; Vitoria Silva, Josiane Domingues, Silvana Rodrigues, Valéria Costa, Deborah Falcão, Kátia G de Lima Araújo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work aimed to prepare inclusion complexes using yellow bell pepper pigments and β-cyclodextrin with two different procedures (method A: ultrasonic homogenization and method B: kneading), to characterize them and evaluate their color stability in an isotonic beverage model. The ratio of extract to β-cyclodextrin was 1:2, for both inclusion methodologies evaluated. The formed extract:β-cyclodextrin complexes and a physical mixture of extract and β-cyclodextrin were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods.RESULTSBoth methodologies resulted in good complex yield and inclusion efficiency. The color indexes L* (lightness) and a* and b* for the color opponents green-red and blue-yellow of isotonic drinks added of the complexes were measured after storage under irradiance (1,400 lx) and absence of light in temperature between 25 - 31 °C for 21 days.CONCLUSIONThe complex obtained by inclusion methodology B promoted a better color protection for the beverage when compared to the use of the raw extract, showing that the molecular inclusion of yellow bell pepper carotenoids can provide good results for that purpose.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T23:06:30.835835-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8760
  • Effect of Egg Freshness on Their Automatic Orientation
    • Authors: Song Jiang; Ticao Zhu, Danfeng Jia, Jun Yao, Yiyi Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh quality eggs in unified packaging are desired by egg production enterprises. Automatic orientation apparatus is frequently used to orient eggs uniformly to pointed-end-down position for packaging. However, such apparatus may not work accordingly if the eggs are stored under improper ways or excessive storage time. To study the effect of egg freshness on the efficiency of automatic orientation process, the relationship between egg freshness and its orientation motions was investigated under different storage conditions.RESULTSThe results showed that as the storage time increased, centroid position and pointed-end-down turnover ratio (TR) decreased, other parameters such as eggs’ obliquity at stationary state, horizontal deflection angle, speed, acceleration of axial motion, side-slip angle and rolling distance increased. However, the effects of storage time on the guiding distance of the guide rod were not apparent. In addition, the higher the storage temperature, the greater the changes of the final orientation states of eggs on the conveyor line. If the eggs were to be oriented uniformly, they should be stored for less than 25, 16, 10 and 7 days at 10 °C, 18 °C, 26 °C and 34 °C respectively under the relative humidity of 75%.CONCLUSIONThe experimental results presented in this paper are very useful for quality control and quality assurance in egg production enterprises.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T21:45:48.266821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8757
  • Oxidation pretreatment by calcium hypochlorite to improve the sensitivity
           of enzyme inhibition-based detection of organophosphorus pesticides
    • Authors: Xiao Yang; Juan Dai, Li Yang, Ming Ma, Sujuan Zhao, Xianggui Chen, Hang Xiao
      Abstract: Enzyme inhibition-based detection is the most widely used method for rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in food and agricultural products. However, the accuracy of the method were negatively affected by low inhibitory activities of OPs with P=S moiety on acetylcholinesterase. Herein, we demonstrated that oxidation pretreatments with bromine, hydrogen peroxide, or calcium hypochlorite significantly enhanced the enzyme inhibitory activities of these OPs. Especially, calcium hypochlorite (0.05%) pretreatment converted P=S moiety in OPs to P=O and produced the most potent and steady inhibitory effect on the enzyme. This in turn resulted in a dramatic increase in the sensitivity of enzyme inhibition-based detection of these OPs by as much as 2 to 7 orders of magnitude. Importantly, this enhanced detection of OPs was validated in various vegetable samples. Our findings provided a solid basis to use calcium hypochlorite pretreatment for the improved detection of OPs by enzyme inhibition-based method.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T10:00:52.512023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8755
  • Recent developments in nanotechnology transforming the agricultural
           sector: a transition replete with opportunities
    • Authors: Dae-Young Kim; Avinash Kadam, Surendra Shinde, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Jayanta Patra, Gajanan Ghodake
      Abstract: The applications and benefits of nanotechnology in agricultural sector have attracted considerable attention, particularly in the invention of unique nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. The contemporary developments in nanotechnology are acknowledged and the most significant opportunities awaiting in the agriculture sector from the recent scientific and technical literature are addressed. This review discusses the significance of recent trends in nanomaterial-based sensors available for the sustainable management of agricultural soil, as well as the role of nanotechnology in detection and protection against plant pathogens, and for food quality and safety. Novel nanosensors have been reported for primary applications in improving crop practices, food quality, and packaging methods, thus will change the agricultural sector for potentially better and healthier food products. Nanotechnology is well-known to play a significant role in the effective management of phytopathogens, nutrient utilization, controlled release of pesticides, and fertilizers. Research and scientific gaps to be overcome and fundamental questions have been addressed to fuel active development and application of nanotechnology. Together, nanoscience, nanoengineering, and nanotechnology, offer a plethora of opportunities, proving a viable alternative in the agriculture and food processing sector, by providing a novel and advanced solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T11:04:09.468596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8749
  • Effect of different light spectra on the pigmentation of stored elephant
    • Authors: Diego Comparini; Hieu T.H. Nguyen, Kota Ueda, Kyoshi Moritaka, Toshihiko Kihara, Kawano Tomonori
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn the present study high-brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) have been used to investigate the influence of different light spectra on garlic discoloration at different humidity and temperature. Many processes involved in the discoloration process of garlic/leek during storage at different conditions remain unanswered. For this reason in this study the ability of specific light spectra to enhance the production of desirable pigments has been evaluated in the Elephant Garlic. It is well known that the pigments involved in the discoloration reaction are of great interest because their potential ability to increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the food.RESULTSIn the present study, we show how the chlorophyll content of the sprout increase directly proportionally to the wavelength of the light tested, then green/blue light delay the greening process of garlic young shoots whilst red/infra-red lights irradiance conditions increase the greening process at different storage temperatures and humidity. Moreover different lights in the visible spectrum have been observed to stimulate and enhance the outer layer purple coloration.CONCLUSIONThe use of different lights to modulate garlic pigmentation has been demonstrated and in particular the utilization of RGB lights and lower temperature resulted in the higher red/pink pigments production supporting the hypothesis that this process involves more than one light to be fully performed and the low temperature is a condition that influences the formation of these products.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T09:57:49.119659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8752
  • The impact of short-term UV irradiation on grains of sensitive and
           tolerant cereal genotypes studied by EPR
    • Authors: Magdalena Kurdziel; Maria Filek, Maria Łabanowska
      Abstract: BackgroundUV irradiation has ionization character and leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Destructive character of ROS was observed among others during interaction of cereal grains with ozone and was caused by changes in structures of biomolecules leading to the formation of stable organic radicals. That effect was more evident for stress sensitive genotypes. In this study we investigated the influence of UV irradiation on cereal grains originating from genotypes with different tolerance to oxidative stress.ResultsGrains and their parts (endosperm, embryo and seed coat) of barley, wheat and oat were subjected to short term UV irradiation. It was found that UV caused the appearance of various kinds of reactive species (O2−, H2O2) and stable radicals (semiquinone, phenoxyl and carbon-centered). Simultaneously, lipid peroxidation occurred and the organic structure of Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes become disturbed.ConclusionsUV irradiation causes damage of main biochemical structures of plant tissues, the effect is more significant in sensitive genotypes. In comparison with ozone treatment, UV irradiation leads to stronger destruction of biomolecules in grains and their parts. It is caused by high energy of UV light, facilitating easier breakage of molecular bonds in biochemical compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:40:21.170028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8753
  • Bioactive compounds from orange epicarp to enrich fish burgers
    • Authors: Sara Spinelli; Lucia Lecce, Desislava Likyova, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Amalia Conte
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe orange industry produces considerable amounts of by-products, traditionally used for animal feed or fuel production. Most of these by-products could be used as functional ingredients. To assess the potential food application of orange epicarp, different percentages of microencapsulated orange extract were added to fresh fish burgers. Then, an in vitro digestion was also carried out, before and after microencapsulation, to measure the bio-accessibility of the active compounds.RESULTSA significant increase of bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds has been observed in the orange epicarp extract after microencapsulation by spray-drying. From the sensory point of view, the fish sample enriched with 50 g kg−1 microencapsulated extract was the most comparable to the control burger, even if it showed a higher phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid bio-accessibility.CONCLUSIONOrange epicarp may be used as food additive to enhance the health content of food products. The microencapsulation is a valid technique to protect the bioactive compounds and increase their bio-accessibility.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:32:00.900163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8750
  • Mycoflora assessment, growth and toxigenic features of patulin-producers
           in kiwifruit in China
    • Authors: Yuan Wang; Kewei Feng, Bin Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Jianping Wei, Yahong Yuan, Tianli Yue
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFungal development in agricultural products may cause mycotoxin contamination that are a significant threat to food safety. Patulin (PAT) and PAT-producers contamination has been established as a worldwide problem. The present study was conducted to investigate the mycoflora and PAT-producers present in kiwifruits and environmental samples collected from orchards and processing plants in Shaanxi Province, China.RESULTSVariations in mycoflora were observed in different samples, with penicillia and aspergilli as the predominant genera. Approximately 42.86% of dropped fruits were contaminated with PAT-producers, which harbored the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase and the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase genes that are involved in PAT biosynthesis. The growth of P. expansum, P. griseofulvum and P. paneum in kiwi puree agar (KPA) medium and kiwi juice (KJ) well fitted the modified Gompertz and Baranyi and Roberts models (R2 ≥ 0.95). A significant positive correlation between colony diameter and PAT content in KPA medium of P. expansum and P. griseofulvum was observed (p < 0.05).CONCLUSIONSThis research analyzed the mycofloral composition and the potential risk for PAT and PAT-producer contamination in kiwifruit, which may be utilized in the establishment of proper management practices in the kiwifruit industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T09:40:23.923786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8747
  • Preservation of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes treated
           wheat straw under anaerobic conditions
    • Authors: Lei Mao; Anton S. M. Sonnenberg, Wouter H. Hendriks, John W. Cone
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNo attention has been paid so far to the preservation of fungal treated lignocellulose for longer periods. Here we treated wheat straw (WS) with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks and assessed changes in pH, chemical composition and in vitro gas production (IVGP) weekly. Fungal treated WS was also stored for 64 days as is, with addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or with a combination of LAB and molasses in airtight glass jars mimicking ensiling conditions.RESULTSBoth fungi significantly reduced the lignin and hemicellulose content of WS, and increased the cellulose content. The IVGP increased with increasing time of incubation, indicating the increase in digestibility. Both fungi lowered the pH of WS under 4.3, which guarantees an initial and stable low pH during anaerobic storage. Minor changes in fibre composition and IVGP were observed for stored L. edodes treated WS while no change occurred for C. subvermispora.CONCLUSIONIt is possible to conserve C. subvermispora and L. edodes treated straw under anaerobic condition without additives up to 64 days. This finding is important for practical application to supply fungi treated feed to ruminant animals for a prolonged period.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T09:10:22.300855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8745
  • Changes in Polyphenol Profile of Dried Apricots Containing So2 at Various
           Concentrations during Storage
    • Authors: Melek Altındağ; Meltem Türkyılmaz, Mehmet Özkan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChanges in polyphenols have important effect on quality (especially color) and health benefits of dried apricots. SO2 concentration, storage and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were the factors which had significant effects on polyphenols. Polyphenol profile and activities of PPO and PAL in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs, 0, 451, 832, 2112 and 3241 mg SO2/kg) were monitored during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days for the first time.RESULTSEven the lowest SO2 concentration (451 ​​mg/kg) was sufficient to inactivate PPO during entire storage period. However, while SO2 led to the increase in PAL activity of the samples (r = 0.767) before storage, PAL activities of SDAs decreased during storage. After 90 days of storage, PAL activity was determined in only non-sulfured dried apricots (NSDAs) and dried apricots containing 451 ​​mg SO2/kg. Although major polyphenol in NSDAs was epicatechin (611.4 mg/kg), that in SDAs was chlorogenic acid (455–1508 mg/kg), followed by epicatechin (0–426.8 mg/kg), rutin (148.9–477.3 mg/kg), ferulic acid (23.3–55.3 mg/kg) and gallic acid (2.4–43.6 mg/kg). After storage at 30 °C for 379 days, the major polyphenol in SDAs was gallic acid (706–2324 mg/kg). However, the major polyphenol in NSDAs did not change after storage. The highest total polyphenol content was detected in SDAs containing 2112 mg SO2/kg and stored at 30 °C.CONCLUSIONTo produce dried apricots having high polyphenol content, ca. 2000 mg SO2/kg should be used. Low storage temperature (
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T05:00:22.845503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8740
  • The use of factorial design to evaluate the oxidation of oils containing
           different types of omega 3 fatty acids
    • Authors: Thamyris Dias Fabiano Agnes; Gabriela Grassmann Roschel, Inar Alves Castro
      Abstract: N3 FA promote beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, but they are highly susceptible to oxidation, which leads to the formation of potentially toxic secondary products. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of natural compounds (sinapic acid and rutin) was evaluated using an accelerated model to oxidize the oils. Five inducers (Temperature, Fe2+, AAPH, Ascorbyl palmitate and AMVN) were combined in a factorial design to accelerate the oxidation of three oils (flaxseed, echium and fish) containing different sources of n3 FA. Hydroperoxide (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations estimated using the regression models did not differ from the observed values. AMVN + Fe2+ increased TBARS in all samples. The values for the oxidative markers obtained 48 h after induction were similar to those obtained when the oils were heated at 60 °C for 15 days. Of a number of volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of different n3 FA sources, (E,E) 2,4-heptadienal, (E,E) 2,4-decadienal, decanal, undecanal and (E)-2-undecenal were identified in all samples and could be used as more specific oxidative markers. Using the accelerated model, rutin improved the oxidative stability of fish oil, probably due to the presence of a catechol group in its chemical structure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:20:22.030956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8739
  • Postharvest Monitoring of Organic Potato (CV. Anuschka) During Hot-Air
           Drying Using Vis/Nir Hyperspectral Imaging
    • Authors: R Moscetti; B. Sturm, S.O.J. Crichton, W. Amjad, R Massantini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe potential of hyperspectral imaging (500÷1010 nm) was evaluated for monitoring of the quality of potato slices (var. Anuschka) of 5-, 7- and 9-mm thicknesses subjected to air drying at 50 °C. The study investigated 3 different features selection methods for the prediction of dry basis moisture content and colour of potato slices using the partial least squares regression (PLS).RESULTSThe feature selection strategies tested include interval PLS regression (iPLS), and differences and ratios between raw reflectance values for each possible pair of wavelengths (R[λ1]-R[λ2] and R[λ1]:R[λ2], respectively). Moreover, the combination of spectral and spatial domains was tested.Excellent results were obtained using the iPLS algorithm. However, features from both datasets of raw reflectance differences and ratios represent suitable alternatives for development of low-complex prediction models. Finally, the dry basis moisture content was high accurately predicted by combining spectral data (i.e. R[511 nm]-R[994 nm]) and spatial domain (i.e. relative area shrinkage of slice).CONCLUSIONSModelling the data acquired during drying through hyperspectral imaging can provide useful information concerning the chemical and physicochemical changes of product. With all this information, the proposed approach lays the foundations for a more efficient smart dryer that can be designed and its process optimized for drying of potato slices.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:15:24.475294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8737
  • Preparative isolation and purification of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin
           from Capsici Fructus using supercritical fluid extraction combined with
           high speed countercurrent chromatography
    • Authors: Rongwei Yan; Leilei Zhao, Junfei Tao, Yong Zou, Xinjun Xu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSupercritical fluid extraction with CO2 (SFE-CO2) was utilized for extraction of capsaicin (CA) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCA) from Capsici Fructus, and then a two-step enrichment method about separating capsaicinoids from SFE-CO2 extracts was developed. The process involved extraction with aqueous methanol and crystallization by alkali-extraction and acid-precipitation. Finally, a consecutive high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) separation method was successfully applied in the purification of CA and DHCA from capsaicinoids crystal.RESULTSExtraction pressure, extraction temperature and the volume of co-solvent were optimized as 33 MPa, 41 °C and 75 mL by using response surface methodology, and the extraction rates of CA and DHCA were about 93.18% and 93.49%. 407.43 mg of capsaicinoids crystal was isolated from the SFE-CO2 extracts obtained from 100g capsicum powder by the two-step enrichment method. About 506 mg and 184 mg of CA and DHCA with the purities up to 98.31% and 96.68% were obtained from 1 g of capsaicinoids crystal in one HSCCC of three consecutive sample loadings without exchanging any solvent system.CONCLUSIONSThis method containing SFE-CO2, a two-step enrichment and HSCCC was efficient, powerful and practical for the large-scale preparation of CA and DHCA from Capsici Fructus with high purities and high yields.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T05:56:29.563891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8736
  • Enhancement of the water solubility and antioxidant activity of hesperidin
           by chitooligosaccharide
    • Authors: Ruge Cao; Yali Zhao, Zhongkai Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHesperidin is a natural product and a strong antioxidant with potential applications in various food and pharmaceutical products. However, its poor water solubility greatly limits its applications.RESULTSIn this study, chitooligosaccharide (COS) was applied to prepare a stable complex with hesperidin (Hesp-COS) via spray-drying method at 100 °C for 20 min. The resultant complex was characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the aromatic rings of hesperidin interacted with COS through hydrogen bonding and formed Hesp-COS complex. As a result, both the water solubility and antioxidant activity of Hesp-COS were higher than that of the free hesperidin.CONCLUSIONThe preparation conditions of Hesp-COS in this study were efficient and produced an increment in both the water solubility and antioxidant activity of hesperidin.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T09:50:21.270516-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8734
  • Protective effects of dietary polyphenols from black soybeans seed coats
    • Authors: Ju Qiu; Hong Zhu, Peng Liu, Jing Wang, Lingang Lu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of a crude polyphenols extract (BSCP) from black soybeans seed coats (BSC) and the BSC whole flour, and illustrate the mechanism in terms of islet and renal protection.RESULTSThe BSCP and BSC effectively controlled the increased blood glucose level and the impaired glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats after 8-week treatment. They increased the concentrations of serum insulin, C-peptide, and Glp-1 (P < 0.05) by improving the STZ-induced damage of islet β-cells and increasing its insulin expression (P < 0.05). Lipid profiles and antioxidant activities were also improved. Moreover, BSCP and BSC tended to decrease serum creatinine (0.05 < P < 0.1), and blood urea nitrogen was decreased by BSC significantly (P < 0.05). They also led to significantly lower glomerular volume (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONSA long-term intervention with BSC at a low dose of polyphenols plays a role in controlling blood glucose and lipids levels by promoting insulin secretion and restoring islet β-cells function, as the same as BSCP effects. These benefits are accompanied by their potential protection of diabetic renal dysfunction. BSCP is mainly responsible for the anti-diabetic effect of BSC.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T10:55:22.072138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8726
  • Effects of Late-Stage Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on the Starch
           Structure and Cooking Quality of Rice
    • Authors: XianMei Cao; HuiYan Sun, ChunGe Wang, XiaoJia Ren, HongFei Liu, ZuJian Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWith the rapid development of modern agriculture, high-quality rice production and consumption has become the current urgent demand for the development of rice production.RESULTIn this paper, the effects of late-stage nitrogen fertilizer application on rice quality were studied under the same genetic background, Wx near-isogenic lines were used as test materials to study the starch composition, amylopectin structure, and cooking quality of rice. Results showed that rice amylose content and gel consistency significantly differed when different Wx genes were tranformed into waxy rice, the law of apparent amylose content in rice is Wxa>Wxin>Wxb>wx at the same nitrogen level, while the trend of gel consistency was opposite to that of apparent amylose content, presenting obvious characteristics of Indica and Japonica varieties. As the amount of fertilizer application increased, apparent amylose content increased, gel consistency decreased, breakdown and peak viscosities dropped, and setback viscosity and peak time increased. Moreover, the cooking quality of rice significantly decreased with the use of nitrogen fertilizer, especially under low-level nitrogen fertilizer application. Amylopectin structure varied significantly in different genotypes of the Wx gene, and the degree of branching was as follows: wx>Wxb>Wxin>Wxa. This result indicated that the closer to Indica rice, the less short chains of amylopectin. Starch crystallinity and swelling potential were negatively correlated with amylose content but significantly positively correlated with amylopectin branching degree, decreasing with the increase of late-stage nitrogen fertilization.CONCLUSIONthe late-stage nitrogen fertilization reduced the cooking quality of rice by increasing amylose content, reducing amylopectin branching degree, which decreased starch crystallinity, and aggravated pasting properties. Obviously, controlling late nitrogen application is essential to optimize rice quality.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T10:10:20.966518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8723
  • Optimization of Saponin Extraction Conditions with Camellia sinensis var.
           assamica Seed and its Application for natural detergent
    • Authors: Wanying Gong; Huang Yewei, Aibing Ji, Wenshu Peng, Cong Liu, Ying Zeng, Ruijuan Yang, Liang Yan, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe Camellia sinensis var. assamica seed cake (by-product of tea-seed oil) is an abundant resource with poor utilization. The C. sinensis var. assamica seed saponin (CSS) is one kind of nonionic surfactant. In this study, The CSS extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and then the CSS detergent was developed. Additionally, the safety and decontamination ability of the developed detergent were evaluated.RESULTSThe optimized extraction conditions were including the extracting temperature of 40.04°C, extraction time of 4.97h, ethanol concentration of 64.11% and liquid-solid ratio of 14.57:1 mL g-1. The formula of the CSS detergent was as follows: 20% crude CSS, 0.3% oxidized tea polyphenols (OTP), 0.2% nisin, 0.3% sodium dehydroacetate, 0.7% sodium alginate and 0.5% sodium polyacrylate. The LD50 of the CSS detergent exceeds 14g kg-1 in mice, indicating the detergent was non-toxic. Both of the emulsifying and the pesticide residues removal ability of the CSS detergent was significantly stronger than the commercial detergent.CONCLUSIONA natural tea seed saponin detergent with good safety and decontamination ability was successfully developed. This can make better use of the tea seed cake, thereby creating added value in the tea seed oil industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T06:41:05.447141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8721
  • Effect of thyme oil-alginate based coating on quality and microbial safety
           of fresh-cut apples
    • Authors: Sarengaowa; Wenzhong Hu, Aili Jiang, Zhilong Xiu, Ke Feng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood preservation is critical for keeping fresh-cut products fresh, nutritious, safe, attractive and available for consumers. To improve the safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits, fifteen essential oils (EOs) were screened to test the antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7). The effect of alginate-based edible coating (EC) incorporating with different concentrations thyme oil on fresh-cut Red Fuji apples was investigated.RESULTSResults showed that thyme oil, cinnamon oil, and oregano oil were more effective on inhibition the microbes than other EOs. The result showed that the combined usage of 0.5 μL mL-1 thyme oil incorporated with alginate-based EC could significantly inhibited the microbial growth, respiration, weight loss, firmness and browning of fresh-cut Red Fuji apples.CONCLUSIONThe edible coating and natural additives like thyme oil could be used to preserve the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It revealed that EC incorporated with 0.5 μL mL-1 thyme oil can be a safe preservative for fresh-cut apples.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T06:10:26.498579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8720
  • Application and optimization of air/steam cooking on selected vegetables:
           impact on physical and antioxidant properties
    • Authors: Maria Paciulli; Chiara Dall'Asta, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Alessandro Pugliese, Emma Chiavaro
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeveral studies investigated the impact of different cooking techniques on the quality of vegetables. However, the use of the combined air–steam cooking is still scarcely debated, despite the advantages informally referred by professional catering workers. In this study, its optimization was studied on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin cubes to obtain the best physical (texture, color) and antioxidant (FRAP, total phenols) response, in comparison to a conventional steaming treatment.RESULTSIncreasing the strength of the air–steam treatment, Brussels sprouts resulted softer, less green (higher a* value), richer of phenol and exhibited lower FRAP values than the steamed ones. The air-steamed pumpkin cubes exhibited an equivalent softening degree than that of steamed one and, under the strongest cooking conditions, a higher antioxidant quality and a yellow darkening (lower b* value). Varying the cooking time and/or temperature, a linear change of force/compression hardness and a* (negative a*: greenness) for Brussels sprouts, b* (yellowness) and total phenol content for pumpkin cubes was observed. A predictive model for these variables was obtained by the response surface methodology. The best process conditions to achieve the optimal desirability were also identified.CONCLUSIONThe application of air–steam cooking under suitable time/temperature conditions could be proposed as an alternative method to a traditional steam cooking on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin, being able to preserve or improve their quality. The best air–steam cooking conditions were 25' at 90 °C for Brussels sprouts and 10' at 110 °C for pumpkin.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T07:40:33.159022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8715
  • Reduction of Androstenone Perception in Pan-Fried Boar Meat by Different
           Masking Strategies
    • Authors: Macarena Egea; Mª Belén Linares, Marta Gil, Mª Belén López, Mª Dolores Garrido
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConsumers highly sensitive to androstenone will probably reject meat from entire male pigs, which tends to have high levels of this hormone. To avoid this, the effect of different masking strategies (sprinkling with mixed spices or fennel, marinating and breading with garlic-parsley or curry) on the sensory parameters of pork loin chops obtained from entire animals with high levels of androstenone (AND) (1.0-2.9 mg kg −1 AND in fat) and castrated animals (
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T08:10:19.476532-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8712
  • Investigation of secondary structure evolution of micellar casein powder
           upon aging by FTIR and SRCD: Consequences on solubility
    • Authors: Sarah Nasser; Alain Hédoux, Alexandre Giuliani, Cécile Le Floch-Fouéré, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Isabelle de Waele, Guillaume Delaplace
      Abstract: BackgroundSynchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to examine the conformation evolution of micellar casein (MC) powder during storage and to determine whether the spectral changes could be related to their solubility evolution.ResultsA loss in intensity of SRCD spectra as a function of storage time has been observed. Quantification of secondary structures revealed losses of α-helix content during storage. Moreover, a redshift of Amide I band in the FTIR spectrum was demonstrated during the storage and was interpreted as a rearrangement of the secondary structure of the protein, which is in line with the SRCD results.The qualitative results obtained by FTIR clearly support the quantitative evolution of the secondary structure obtained by the analysis of SRCD spectra.Principal component analysis (PCA) of FTIR spectra permits a good separation of samples according to the storage time. PCA shows that the evolution of secondary structures and solubility loss are closely linked.ConclusionWith the quantitative data provided by SRCD spectra, it was established that, whatever the storage conditions, a unique curve exists between loss of α-helix content and loss in solubility, showing that loss of α-helix content is a marker of solubility loss for the MC powders studied.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:55:20.973627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8711
  • High oxygen facilitates wound-induced suberin polyphenolics formation in
    • Authors: Xiaopeng Wei; Linchun Mao, Xueyuan Han, Wenjing Lu, Dandan Xie, Xingchen Ren, Yuying Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRapid wound-healing would be critical for successful long-term storage of fruits and vegetables. However, there was no direct evidence for the requirement and efficiency of oxygen in fruit wound-healing process. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxygen in wound-induced suberization by analyzing melanin, suberin polyphenolics (SPP) and related enzymes in half-cut kiwifruits exposed to 100%, 50%, 21% and 0% oxygen.RESULTSBy three days after wounding, the wound surface of kiwifruit in high oxygen (50% and 100% O2) appeared a continuous layer of melanin and underneath SPP, which effectively resist fruit halves from excessive water vapor loss. Whereas melanin and SPP deposition in the wound surface in 0% oxygen was significantly reduced with high water vapor loss. Rapid decrease of soluble phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic acids) was coupled with the increase of bound ferulic acid (coniferyl diacetate) especially in high oxygen by 9 days after wounding. Meanwhile, high oxygen enhanced peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities.CONCLUSIONOxygen is required for wound-induced melanin and SPP formation, and that high oxygen is effective in promoting wound suberization in postharvest kiwifruit.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:25:20.355305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8709
  • No induced mutagenesis in human lymphoblast cell line and bacterial
           systems upon their prolonged sub-culturing in irradiated food blended
    • Authors: Sudhanshu Saxena; Sanjeev Kumar, Jyoti Tripathi, Satyendra Gautam
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConfound apprehension towards safety of irradiated food has remained a major cause behind tardy acceptance of this technology though it has immense socio-economic potential. Generation of in depth scientific evidences will help to refute these apprehensions. With this prospective, present study was undertaken where safety of various irradiated (Dmin up to 25 kGy) foods was evaluated through long term exposure studies in models including human lymphoblast TK6 cell line (100 generations) and Escherichia coli MG1655 cells (exclusive subcuturing in irradiated food medium for 3000 generations). Besides, Ames test, micronucleus test, comet assay, DNA sequencing and restriction profiling of phagemid DNA from E. coli cells subcultured in irradiated food medium were also performed.RESULTSNo induced mutagenesis was observed in these cells during long term subculturing in various irradiated food medium. Also no change was observed in profiles of comet, micronucleus restriction digestion, RAPD as well as DNA sequences. The later also ruled out the possibility of any silent mutation.CONCLUSIONFindings of the current study thus provided credible molecular evidences supporting the safety of irradiated foods. This would be helpful in confidence building among consumers, entrepreneurs, and strengthening the overall food irradiation program to achieve ‘food safety’ and ‘security’.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T07:36:37.169527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8686
  • Nitrogen dynamics in flooded soil systems: An overview on concepts and
           performance of models
    • Authors: Nurulhuda Khairudin; Donald S. Gaydon, Qi Jing, Mohamad P. Zakaria, Paul C. Struik, Karel J. Keesman
      Abstract: Extensive modelling studies on nitrogen (N) dynamics in flooded soil systems have been published. Consequently, many N dynamics models are available for users to select from. With the current research trend, inclined towards multi-disciplinary research, and with substantial progress in understanding of N dynamics in flooded soil systems, the objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the modelling concepts and performance of 14 models developed to simulate N dynamics in flooded soil systems. This overview provides breadth of knowledge on the models, and, therefore, is valuable as a first step in the selection of an appropriate model for a specific application.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T07:32:08.335293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8683
  • Ca2+ influxes and transmembrane transport are essential for phytic acid
           degradation in mung bean sprouts
    • Authors: Ting Zhou; Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Xinyue Wang, Zhenxin Gu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytic acid is considered as an antinutrient. Ca2+ addition during germination has been proved to be an effective method for reducing phytic acid content in seeds. In this study, mung bean sprouts were treated with LaCl3 (La), verapamil (VP), ruthenium red (RR) and CaCl2 to explore the effect of Ca2+ influxes on phytic acid degradation.RESULTS6 mM CaCl2 significantly improved extracellular and intracellular calcium precipitates and calcium content, elevated phytase and acid phosphatase activity and further enhanced phytic acid degradation. Conversely, La, VP or RR induced the opposite results. Among them, RR exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect. Decreased PA, PAP, MIPP and ALP gene expression after VP or RR treatment was also observed. Enhanced or weakened extracellular Ca2+ influx or intracellular Ca2+ efflux was detected with increased or decreased calcium precipitates distributed in different compartments. However, CaCl2 addition differentially reversed the inhibitory effects of all channel blockers.CONCLUSIONCaCl2 enhanced Ca2+ influxes and accumulation in cells, which contributed to the regulation of phytic acid degradation. This study demonstrated that calcium channels played an essential role in mediating phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts and both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+-regulation were involved in phytic acid degradation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T11:00:26.15295-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8680
  • Biological, medicinal and toxicological significance of Eucalyptus leaf
           essential oil: a review
    • Authors: Ashok K Dhakad; Vijay V Pandey, Sobia Beg, Janhvi M Rawat, Avtar Singh
      Pages: 833 - 848
      Abstract: The genus Eucalyptus L'Heritier comprises about 900 species, of which more than 300 species contain volatile essential oil in their leaves. About 20 species, within these, have a high content of 1,8-cineole (more than 70%), commercially used for the production of essential oils in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, Eucalyptus is extensively planted for pulp, plywood and solid wood production, but its leaf aromatic oil has astounding widespread biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorder treatment, wound healing, and insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, and perfumes, soap making and grease remover. In the present review, we have made an attempt to congregate the biological ingredients of leaf essential oil, leaf oil as a natural medicine, and pharmacological and toxicological values of the leaf oil of different Eucalyptus species worldwide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T02:20:36.15629-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8600
  • Balanced N and C input recommendations for rain-fed maize production in
           northern China based on N balances and grain yields
    • Authors: Xiaobin Wang; Dianxiong Cai, Quansheng Zhao, Xiaohong Xie, Willem B Hoogmoed, Oene Oenema
      Pages: 872 - 883
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study aimed to assess longer-term (1993–2009) effects of combined applications of fertiliser, maize stover, and cattle manure on maize yields, partial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) balances, and water and N-use efficiencies, to guide N and C input recommendations for rain-fed maize production in northern China.RESULTSThe field trial, with three factors at five levels and 12 treatments, was conducted at Shouyang Dryland-Farming Experimental Station, Shanxi, China. Data analysis revealed higher N balances but lower C balances significantly occurred in a dry year than in a wet year. Positive N balances related to higher N inputs resulted in higher soil available N, even downward to deep layers with increasing N inputs, while positive C balances due to higher C inputs could be benefit to increase soil organic C. Based on partial N balances and grain yields, N and C inputs at ranges of 100 kg N ha−1 and 1.9–2.9 Mg C ha−1 could be recommended for target yields of 6.7–7.2 Mg ha−1 in rain-fed maize production.CONCLUSIONThe study suggests that N balances close to neutral be given priority to improving N-use efficiency, and more positive C balances also be important for sustaining target yields and soil fertility levels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:25:59.592929-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8531
  • Comparative efficacy of Bentonite clay, activated charcoal and
           Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans in regulating the feed-to-tissue transfer of
    • Authors: Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti; Muhammad Zargham Khan, Zahoor Ul Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Muhammad Saqib, Aisha Khatoon, Masood Akhter
      Pages: 884 - 890
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMycotoxins contamination in animal products and by-products is a persistent threat to the food and feed industry. The present study was designed to evaluate the comparative inhibitory effects of Bentonite (BN), activated charcoal (AC) and a newly discovered yeast, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (TM), against feed-to-tissue transfer of mycotoxins.RESULTSA dose dependent increase as determined by HPLC, in the residues of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was exhibited in the groups of birds fed AFB1 and OTA alone. The dietary addition of BN and AC to AFB1-contaminated diets resulted in a 41–87% and 16–72% decrease in AFB1 residues in liver of the birds, respectively. However, this decrease was non-significant with addition of TM as AFB1 binder. A partial to non-significant protection was observed by dietary BN and AC, against OTA residues, while a significant decrease in OTA residues (38–84%) was noted in TM-OTA co-fed groups.CONCLUSIONThe order of efficacy in terms of lowering AFB1 residues in the liver was BN > AC > TM, while against OTA it was TM > BN > AC. The findings of present study suggest that, based upon the nature of target mycotoxins, a mixture of multi-mycotoxins binders/detoxifiers should be incorporated in the animal feeds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-16T09:46:07.85658-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8533
  • Effects of correcting in situ ruminal microbial colonization of feed
           particles on the relationship between ruminally undegraded and
           intestinally digested crude protein in concentrate feeds
    • Authors: Javier González; Rabiaa Mouhbi, Jesús Alberto Guevara-González, José María Arroyo
      Pages: 891 - 895
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn situ estimates of ruminally undegraded protein (RUP) and intestinally digested protein (IDP) of ten concentrates, uncorrected or corrected for the ruminal microbial colonization, were used to examine the effects of this correction on the relationship between IDP and RUP values. Both variables were established for three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers using 15N labeling-techniques and considering measured rates of ruminal particle comminution (kc) and outflow (kp).RESULTSA covariance analysis showed that the close relationship found between both variables (IDP = –0.0132 ± 0.00679 + 0.776 ± 0.0002 RUP; n = 60; P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T02:21:55.68921-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8534
  • Microencapsulation of borage oil with blends of milk protein, β-glucan
           and maltodextrin through spray drying: physicochemical characteristics and
           stability of the microcapsules
    • Authors: Ru-yi Li; Yan Shi
      Pages: 896 - 904
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBorage oil is a rich commercial source of γ-linolenic acid (18:3n-6). However, borage oil is rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vulnerable to oxidation. Thus, selecting appropriate wall materials is critical to the encapsulation of borage oil. The present study investigated the influence of wall materials on the physicochemical characteristics and stability of microencapsulated borage oil by spray drying. Blends of milk protein [sodium caseinate (CAS) or whey protein concentrate], β-glucan (GLU) and maltodextrin (MD) were used as the wall materials for encapsulating borage oil.RESULTSThe microencapsulation of borage oil with different wall materials attained high encapsulation efficiencies. The microencapsulated borage oil prepared with CAS–MD achieved the optimal encapsulation efficiency of 96.62%. The oxidative stabilities of borage oil and microencapsulated borage oil were measured by accelerated storage test at 45 °C and 33% relative humidity for 30 days. The microencapsulated borage oil presented lower peroxide values than those of borage oil, and the microcapsules prepared with CAS–10GLU–MD (consisting of CAS 50 g kg–1, GLU 100 g kg–1 and MD 475 g kg–1 of microencapsulation) conferred borage oil with high protection against lipid oxidation.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study demonstrate that the CAS–GLU–MD blend is appropriate for microencapsulating borage oil. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T01:51:00.696918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8535
  • Rapid sensory profiling and hedonic rating of whole grain sorghum-cowpea
           composite biscuits by low income consumers
    • Authors: Koya AP Dovi; Constance Chiremba, John RN Taylor, Henriëtta L de Kock
      Pages: 905 - 913
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand the development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (i.e. cookies; a popular snack) from whole grain staples are an option. The present study aimed to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L*a*b* colour and texture of the biscuits were determined.RESULTSThe CATA method is suitable for rapidly determining which attributes consumers perceive in food products and relating these to acceptability. Consumers preferred the lighter, more yellow wheat biscuits with ginger, vanilla, sweet and cinnamon flavours compared to the stronger flavours (sorghum, beany and nutty) and harder but brittle, grittier, dry and rough textured sorghum or sorghum-cowpea biscuits. However, a substantial proportion of consumers also liked the latter biscuits. The composite biscuits had higher dietary fibre content and a similar protein quality to the standards.CONCLUSIONSWhole grain sorghum-cowpea biscuits could serve as acceptable value-added nutritious complementary snacks for consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. The biscuits are simple to produce for the creation of viable small enterprises. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:40:35.022192-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8536
  • Rheology and microstructure of gels based on wheat arabinoxylans
           enzymatically modified in arabinose to xylose ratio
    • Authors: Jorge A Marquez-Escalante; Elizabeth Carvajal-Millan, Madhav P Yadav, Madhuvanti Kale, Agustín Rascon-Chu, Alfonso A Gardea, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto, Yolanda L Lopez-Franco, Jaime Lizardi-Mendoza, Craig B Faulds
      Pages: 914 - 922
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDArabinoxylans (AX) are polysaccharides consisting of a backbone of xyloses with arabinose substituents ester-linked to ferulic acid (FA). The arabinose to xylose ratio (A/X) in AX may vary from 0.3 to 1.1. AX form covalent gels by cross-linking of FA but physical interactions between AX chains also contribute to the network formation. The present study aimed to investigate the rheological and microstructural characteristics of gels based on AX enzymatically modified in A/X.RESULTSTailored AX presented A/X ranging from 0.68 to 0.51 and formed covalent gels. Dimers of FA content and elasticity (G′) increased from 0.31 to 0.39 g kg–1 AX and from 106 to 164 Pa when the A/X in the polysaccharide decreased from 0.68 to 0.51. Atomic force microscopy images of AX gels showed a sponge-like microstructure at A/X = 0.68, whereas, at lower values, gels presented a more compact microstructure. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of AX gels show an arrangement of different morphology, passing from an imperfect honeycomb (A/X = 0.68) to a flake-like microstructure (A/X = 0.51).CONCLUSIONLower A/X values favor the aggregation of AX chains resulting in an increase in di-FA content, which improves the rheological and microstructural characteristics of the gel formed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:21:11.49178-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8537
  • Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous
           activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system
    • Authors: Lanxi Zhou; Motoko Ohata, Chisato Owashi, Katsuya Nagai, Issei Yokoyama, Keizo Arihara
      Pages: 923 - 927
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSystolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action.RESULTSAmong the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF.CONCLUSIONIt is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-16T09:50:23.135347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8538
  • Lactulose production by a thermostable glycoside hydrolase from the
           hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167
    • Authors: Rebaone Letsididi; Hinawi AM Hassanin, Marwa YF Koko, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Pages: 928 - 937
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLactulose has various uses in the food and pharmaceutical fields. Thermostable enzymes have many advantages for industrial exploitation, including high substrate solubilities as well as reduced risk of process contamination.RESULTSEnzymatic synthesis of lactulose employing a transgalactosylation reaction by a recombinant thermostable glycoside hydrolase (GH1) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167 was investigated. The optimal pH for lactulose production was found to be 4.5, while the optimal temperature was 85 °C, before it dropped moderately to 83% at 90 °C. However, the relative activity for lactulose synthesis dropped sharply to 35% at 95 °C. At optimal reaction conditions of 70% (w/w) initial sugar substrates with molar ratio of lactose to fructose of 1:4, 15 U mL−1 enzyme concentration and 85 °C, the time course reaction produced a maximum lactulose concentration of 108 g L−1 at 4 h, corresponding to a lactulose yield of 14% and 27 g L−1 h−1 productivity with 84% lactose conversion. The transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis was greatly influenced by the ratio of galactose donor to acceptor.CONCLUSIONThis novel GH1 may be useful for process applications owing to its high activity in very concentrated substrate reaction media and promising thermostability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:11:03.711433-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8539
  • Organic meat quality of dual purpose young bulls supplemented with pea
           (Pisum sativum L.) or soybean
    • Authors: Mirco Corazzin; Edi Piasentier, Elena Saccà, Ilario Bazzoli, Stefano Bovolenta
      Pages: 938 - 944
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOne of the main constraints established by organic legislation that limits the development of the rearing of young bulls is the ban on the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). Most of the worldwide cultivated soybean is GMO, therefore the use of alternative protein sources should be evaluated. In this study, the effect of dietary substitution of soybean with pea (Pisum sativum L.) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of dual purpose young bulls reared following the organic method was investigated.RESULTSTwenty-four young bulls of Rendena breed were randomly assigned to two diet treatments differing in protein supplement (soybean (SB) or field pea (FP)). Carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition, colour, cooking loss and Warner–Bratzler shear force did not differ between groups. Regarding meat fatty acid composition, SB showed higher concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 t and lower C16:1n-9c, C14:0, C17:1n-9c and C18:1n-9c than FP. In descriptive sensory analysis, trained judges were not able to differentiate meats from SB and FP, which also had similar overall liking expressed by consumers.CONCLUSIONThe results of this study indicate that FP can replace SB in the diet of dual purpose young bulls with only a minor influence on fatty acid composition and no effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T03:45:24.501306-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8540
  • Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in edible wild
           leafy vegetables by UHPLC/Orbitrap-MS
    • Authors: Elisa Giambanelli; L Filippo D'Antuono, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
      Pages: 945 - 954
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA recent interest in edible wild leafy vegetables has been documented. Consumers often associate these species with health promotion. In this study, several wild species of the Asteraceae family and Knautia integrifolia (Dipsacaceae) were locally documented for their use in traditional cuisine and sampled from the wild.RESULTSPhenolic compounds were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. Hydroxycinnamic acids ranging from 1388 to 53 076 mg kg−1 dry weight (DW) were the most abundant compounds in all species (69–98% of the total phenolic content) except Tragopogon pratensis. Thirty compounds were identified as flavonoids, mostly as glycosidic forms of luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol and quercetin. The sum of flavonoids ranged between 212 and 12 598 mg kg−1 DW; they represented 65% of the total phenolic content for T. pratensis. Three anthocyanins were detected, representing in most cases less than 1% of the total phenolic content (3–627 mg kg−1 DW). Higher anthocyanin contents were observed for Cichorium types.CONCLUSIONDifferent phenolic profiles were observed between species, especially considering the class of flavonoids. Individual species may be of some interest for their content of specific minor flavonoids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T06:35:33.646745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8541
  • Kernel oil content and oil composition in walnut (Juglans regia L.)
           accessions from north-eastern Italy
    • Authors: Luca Poggetti; Claudio Ferfuia, Cristina Chiabà, Raffaele Testolin, Mario Baldini
      Pages: 955 - 962
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWalnut oil use is currently limited by its poor oxidative stability due to the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Modifying the oil composition may be a goal in walnut breeding to increase interest in this crop. Exploring natural variability and identifying the main environmental factors affecting oil quality are necessary in crop selection. Therefore 190 wild accessions were collected and evaluated during 2013 and 2014 for oil content and its fatty acid profile and compared with five commercial cultivars as references.RESULTSHigh variation in kernel oil content and fatty acid composition was found in the native walnut. Kernel oil content ranged from 54.2 to 72.2% (w/w). The major fatty acids were linoleic (range 46.9–68.6%), oleic (10.0–25.1%), linolenic (6.9–17.6%), palmitic (3.9–11.4%) and stearic (1.1–5.2%) acids. Some accessions had oil with a fatty acid ratio very different from the reference commercial cultivars, especially the oleic acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. A significant linear relationship and positive correlation between the daily minimum temperature and oleic acid content was observed in the wild walnuts.CONCLUSIONThe wide variation in fatty acid content and composition allows superior accessions to be selected for diffusion among growers. A suitable strategy would be to make a selection against PUFA content rather than just for high oleic acid. In addition, the selected high oleic accessions, before being utilized per se or as donor parents in breeding programs, have to demonstrate they are not adversely affected by the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:20:34.899722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8542
  • Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis to
           monitor molecular changes during heating and cooling of Cantal-type
           cheeses with different NaCl and KCl contents
    • Authors: Mohammed Loudiyi; Romdhane Karoui, Douglas N Rutledge, Marie-Christine Montel, Etienne Rifa, Abderrahmane Aït-Kaddour
      Pages: 963 - 975
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDReduction of NaCl content of cheeses has received considerable attention by research during the past decades because of its health effects. Nonetheless, NaCl reduction is a challenge since it plays an important role in cheese quality, such as structure, texture and functional properties. Several methods were used to evaluate the effect of NaCl on these attributes. In this study, Cantal-type cheeses with different salts (NaCl and KCl) were analyzed for their structure at a molecular level and rheological properties during heating (20–60 °C) and cooling (60–20 °C). The structure was investigated by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and the rheological properties by small-amplitude oscillatory test.RESULTSIndependent components analysis (ICA) gave three independent components that were attributed to coenzyme/Maillard reaction products (IC1), tryptophan (IC2) and vitamin A (IC3). Signal proportions of each IC depicted information regarding the changes in those fluorophores with salts, heating and cooling. In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of the IC proportions and rheological measurements related modifications at a molecular level evaluated by fluorescence to cheese texture (0.34 
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T00:17:27.654677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8544
  • Transepithelial transport of milk-derived angiotensin I-converting enzyme
           inhibitory peptide with the RLSFNP sequence
    • Authors: Yuxing Guo; Junai Gan, Qian Zhu, Xiaoqun Zeng, Yangying Sun, Zhen Wu, Daodong Pan
      Pages: 976 - 983
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo exert an antihypertensive effect after oral administration, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides must remain active after intestinal transport. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the transport permeability and route of ACE-inhibitory peptide Arg-Leu-Ser-Phe-Asn-Pro (RLSFNP) across the intestinal epithelium using Caco-2 cell monolayers.RESULTSIntact RLSFNP and RLSFNP breakdown fragments F, FNP, SFNP and RLSF were found in RLSFNP transport solution across Caco-2 cell monolayers using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. RLSFNP fragments FNP, SFNP and RLSF also contributed to ACE inhibitory effects. Protease inhibitors (bacitracin and leupeptin) and absorption enhancers (sodium glycocholate hydrate, sodium deoxycholate and Na2EDTA) improved the transport flux of RLSFNP. A transport inhibitor experiment showed that intact RLSFNP may be transported via the paracellular route.CONCLUSIONIntact RLSFNP can be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers via the paracellular route. Extensive hydrolysis was the chief reason for the low permeability of RLSFNP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T08:40:33.836822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8545
  • Omics-prediction of bioactive peptides from the edible cyanobacterium
           Arthrospira platensis proteome
    • Authors: Chaofan Ji; Jing Han, Jingbo Zhang, Jing Hu, Yinghuan Fu, Hang Qi, Yue Sun, Chenxu Yu
      Pages: 984 - 990
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBioinformatics approaches are widely used to evaluate the prospects of novel protein sources in bioactive peptide research. Edible cyanobacteria are considered as potential protein precursors. However, the abundance of unicellular cyanobacterial proteins is largely unknown and highly dynamic according to the cultivation conditions, which need to be considered in this research field. The objective of this work was to evaluate the protein abundance of Arthrospira platensis, as well as to map the bioactive peptide sequences from the high-abundance proteins of the A. platensis proteome.RESULTSThe high-abundance proteins of the A. platensis proteome were identified with a high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry-based method. A total of 593 proteins were detected and quantified. The occurrence frequency of the bioactive peptides in A. platensis proteome was calculated according to the amino acid sequences via the bioinformatics approaches. Further in silico digested by trypsin, pepsin and chymotrypsin, these proteins liberated 78, 99, and 96 bioactive peptides, respectively. In each case, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors were enriched.CONCLUSIONThis work will help rationally design the protocols for cyanobacterial cultivation, protein pre-treatment and peptide separation, and further produce more peptides with specific functions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T01:40:51.0126-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8546
  • Graded replacement of maize grain with molassed sugar beet pulp modulated
           ruminal microbial community and fermentation profile in vitro
    • Authors: Matthias Münnich; Annabella Khol-Parisini, Fenja Klevenhusen, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
      Pages: 991 - 997
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMolassed sugar beet pulp (Bp) is a viable alternative to grains in cattle nutrition for reducing human edible energy input. Yet little is known about the effects of high inclusion rates of Bp on rumen microbiota. This study used an in vitro approach and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique to establish the effects of a graded replacement of maize grain (MG) by Bp on the ruminal microbial community, fermentation profile and nutrient degradation.RESULTSSix different amounts of Bp (0–400 g kg−1), which replaced MG in the diet, were tested using the in vitro semi-continuous rumen simulation technique. The increased inclusion of Bp resulted in greater dietary content and degradation of neutral detergent fibre (P < 0.01). Further, Bp feeding enhanced (P < 0.01) the abundance of genus Prevotella and shifted (P < 0.01) the short-chain fatty acid patterns in favour of acetate and propionate and at the expense of butyrate. A total replacement of MG with Bp resulted in an increased daily methane production (P < 0.01).CONCLUSIONResults suggest positive effects of the replacement of MG by Bp especially in terms of stimulating ruminal acetate and propionate fermentation. However, high replacement rates of Bp resulted in lowered utilization of ammonia and higher ruminal methane production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T02:50:29.327566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8547
  • Cookies elaborated with oat and common bean flours improved serum markers
           in diabetic rats
    • Authors: Iza F Pérez-Ramírez; Laura J Becerril-Ocampo, Rosalía Reynoso-Camacho, Mayra D Herrera, S Horacio Guzmán-Maldonado, Raquel K Cruz-Bravo
      Pages: 998 - 1007
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCommon beans have been associated with anti-diabetic effects, due to its high content of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, its consumption has decreased worldwide. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the development of novel functional foods elaborated with common beans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of oat–bean flour cookies, and to analyze its bioactive composition, using commercial oat–wheat cookies for comparative purposes.RESULTSOat-bean cookies (1.2 g kg−1) slightly decreased serum glucose levels (∼1.1-fold) and increased insulin levels (∼1.2-fold) in diabetic rats, reducing the hyperglycemic peak in healthy rats (∼1.1-fold). Oat–bean cookies (0.8 and 1.2 g kg−1) exerted a greater hypolipidemic effect than commercial oat–wheat cookies (1.2 g kg−1), as observed in decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, the supplementation with 1.2 g kg−1 oat–bean cookies decreased atherogenic index and serum C-reactive protein levels, suggesting their cardioprotective potential. The beneficial effect of oat–bean cookies was associated with their high content of dietary fiber and galacto oligosaccharides, as well as chlorogenic acid, rutin, protocatechuic acid, β-sitosterol and soyasaponins.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that common beans can be used as functional ingredients for the elaboration of cookies with anti-diabetic effects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T09:45:04.560594-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8548
  • Effects of short-term heat stress at the grain formation stage on
           physicochemical properties of waxy maize starch
    • Authors: Xiaotian Gu; Tianqi Huang, Mengqiu Ding, Weiping Lu, Dalei Lu
      Pages: 1008 - 1015
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWaxy maize (Zea mays L. sinensis Kulesh) suffers short-term exposure to high temperature during grain filling in southern China. The effects of such exposure are poorly understood.RESULTSStarch granule size was increased by 5 days' short-term heat stress (35.0 °C) and the increase was higher when the stress was introduced early. Heat stress increased the iodine binding capacity of starches and no difference was observed among the three stages. Starch relative crystallinity was increased and swelling power was decreased only when heat stress was introduced early. Heat stress also increased the pasting viscosity, and this effect became more pronounced with later applications of stress. Heat stress reduced starch gelatinization enthalpy, and the reduction gradually increased with later exposures. Heat stress increased the gelatinization temperature and retrogradation enthalpy and percentage of the samples, with the increases being largest with earlier introduction of high temperature.CONCLUSIONHeat stress increased the pasting viscosities and retrogradation percentage of starch by causing change in granule size, amylopectin chain length distribution and crystallinity, and the effects observed were more severe with earlier introduction of heat stress after pollination. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T01:31:05.894965-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8549
  • Maturation-related changes of carrot lignins
    • Authors: Judith Schäfer; Bernhard Trierweiler, Mirko Bunzel
      Pages: 1016 - 1023
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLignified cell walls are important factors for textural and physiological properties of plant-based foods. However, carrot lignins and their modifications during maturation are poorly described. The objective of this study was to describe carrot lignins in detail and to study lignin structural alterations at later stages of maturity.RESULTSKlason and acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents of insoluble fibers of carrots harvested at different times (26, 29 and 35 weeks after seeding) ranged between 46.38 and 62.68 g kg−1 and between 19.79 and 28.08 g kg−1, respectively. As determined by both 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance and the derivatization followed by reductive cleavage method, coniferyl alcohol heavily dominated the traditional monolignol composition in carrot lignins, independently of harvest times. By using 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on isolated lignins, p-hydroxybenzoate was identified as a less common lignin constituent, attached to lignin γ-hydroxyl groups and being increasingly incorporated with maturation. β-Aryl ethers, phenylcoumaran, resinol and dibenzodioxocin structures were identified as lignin interunit linkages, largely independent of harvest times and with β-aryl ethers being expectedly dominant.CONCLUSIONCarrots contain guaiacyl-rich lignins that incorporate increasing amounts of p-hydroxybenzoate with maturation. All other lignin characteristics appear to be widely independent of harvest times. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T02:50:27.479365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8550
  • Gelation kinetics and characterization of enzymatically enhanced fish
           scale gelatin–pectin coacervate
    • Authors: Tao Huang; Zong-Cai Tu, Xinchen Shangguan, Hui Wang, Nanhai Zhang, Lu Zhang, Xiaomei Sha
      Pages: 1024 - 1032
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProtein–polysaccharide complex coacervations have been considered extensively for the development of functional foods. The main problem of the complex coacervates is that they are highly unstable under different conditions and that cross-linking is necessary to stabilize them. In this study, the effects of pectin at different concentrations on the gel and structural properties of fish scale gelatin (FSG)–high methoxyl citrus pectin (HMP) coacervate enhanced by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) were studied.RESULTSThe gelation rates and gel strength of the MTGase-enhanced FSG–HMP coacervate gels decreased with increasing HMP concentration. However, the enhanced coacervate gels exhibited better thermal behavior and mechanical properties compared with the original gels. Also, TG-P8 exhibited the highest melting point (27.15 ± 0.12 °C), gelation point (15.65 ± 0.01 °C) and stress (15.36 ± 0.48 kPa) as HMP was 8 g kg−1. Particle size distribution, fluorescence emission and UV absorbance spectra indicated that MTGase and HMP could make FSG form large aggregates. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy of treated coacervate gels showed a continuous protein phase at low HMP concentrations.CONCLUSIONFSG and HMP could form soluble coacervate, and MTGase could improve the thermal and mechanical properties of coacervate gels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:10:36.855473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8551
  • Microcapsules biologically prepared using Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
           essential oil and their use for extension of fruit shelf life
    • Authors: Na Li; Zhi-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Jun Li, Hui-Zhen Li, Li-Xia Cui, Dong-Liang He
      Pages: 1033 - 1041
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPerilla essential oil (EO) possesses high antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities, and has proven to be more reliable than chemically synthesized food preservatives. Nevertheless, EOs have disadvantages of facile photo-degradation and oxidation, which limit their use in agriculture and food industries. Microencapsulation technology that generates a polymeric coating surrounding EOs could overcome these disadvantages.RESULTSThe EO concentration had a significant effect on encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC). The best encapsulation conditions were obtained with 2% v/v EO, for which EE and LC were 57% and 36%, respectively. EO-loaded microspheres exhibited a crimped surface with phanic lumps by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal stability experiments revealed droplets that began to decompose sharply at 108 °C, with a 61% weight, loss, which was much lower than EOs of 98%. EO-loaded microcapsules demonstrated good antibacterial activity. Strawberry preservation studies showed that EO-loaded microcapsules could significantly inhibit strawberry decay, maintain the quality of strawberries and prolong shelf life.CONCLUSIONPerilla EO-loaded microcapsules were successfully prepared by ionic gelation and were effective at inhibiting several bacterial strains. EO–alginate microcapsules could effectively delay the volatilization of EO. Perilla EO-loaded microcapsules therefore have potential for use as an antimicrobial and preservative agent in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:25:48.638888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8552
  • Physical compatibility between wax esters and triglycerides in hybrid
           shortenings and margarines prepared in rice bran oil
    • Authors: Chi Diem Doan; Iris Tavernier, Sabine Danthine, Tom Rimaux, Koen Dewettinck
      Pages: 1042 - 1051
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWax esters contribute to the transformation of liquid oils into solid-like oleogel systems, which can act as alternatives for trans- and/or saturated fats in food products. The use of solely waxes reduces the solid content, consistency and sensory quality in the final products. Therefore, a combination of sunflower wax and palm fat in rice bran oil was created to accomplish the hybrid low-saturated shortenings and margarines with a compatible structure and lower amounts of saturated fats.RESULTSDuring cooling of the hybrid shortenings, sunflower wax crystallized first and acted as nucleation sites for the crystallisation of palm fat. At 5 °C, a mixture of different crystal morphologies (α, β', and β crystals) existed in the hybrid shortening. In margarine processing, the hybrid samples were subjected to a simultaneous cooling–emulsification, in which sunflower wax crystallised first at the interface and adsorbed onto the water droplets. Based on the hardness measurements, the maximum amount of palm fat replaceable by 1.0%wt sunflower wax was up to 40% in shortenings and 25% in margarines. A higher amount of sunflower wax (2.5%wt) reduced up to 40% of saturated fats in the hybrid emulsions.CONCLUSIONThe addition of 1.0%wt sunflower wax enhanced the solid content and network strength of hybrid palm-based shortenings. Sunflower wax helped to stabilise the water droplets inside the wax-based crystalline network without flocculation during shear-cooling. This research provides fundamental insight into the structuring of hybrid systems containing waxes, which could be interesting for the production of low-saturated fat products in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T10:00:59.830184-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8553
  • Comparative study of submerged and surface culture acetification process
           for orange vinegar
    • Authors: Cristina Cejudo-Bastante; Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Carmelo García-Barroso, Remedios Castro-Mejías
      Pages: 1052 - 1060
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe two main acetification methodologies generally employed in the production of vinegar (surface and submerged cultures) were studied and compared for the production of orange vinegar. Polyphenols (UPLC/DAD) and volatiles compounds (SBSE-GC/MS) were considered as the main variables in the comparative study. Sensory characteristics of the obtained vinegars were also evaluated.RESULTSSeventeen polyphenols and 24 volatile compounds were determined in the samples during both acetification processes. For phenolic compounds, analysis of variance showed significant higher concentrations when surface culture acetification was employed. However, for the majority of volatile compounds higher contents were observed for submerged culture acetification process, and it was also reflected in the sensory analysis, presenting higher scores for the different descriptors. Multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis demonstrated the possibility of discriminating the samples regarding the type of acetification process. Polyphenols such as apigenin derivative or ferulic acid and volatile compounds such as 4-vinylguaiacol, decanoic acid, nootkatone, trans-geraniol, β-citronellol or α-terpineol, among others, were those compounds that contributed more to the discrimination of the samples.CONCLUSIONThe acetification process employed in the production of orange vinegar has been demonstrated to be very significant for the final characteristics of the vinegar obtained. So it must be carefully controlled to obtain high quality products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T04:04:05.097968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8554
  • Microstructure and tensile properties of various varieties of rice husk
    • Authors: Ziyong Chen; Yangzi Xu, Satya Shivkumar
      Pages: 1061 - 1070
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRice husk is a complex hierarchical assembly of hollow fibers consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In addition, it can also contain pectin and significant amounts of silica. Rice husk can be used in diverse applications and generally in the form of rice husk powder. This study aimed to investigate the structural features and mechanical properties of various varieties of whole rice husks.RESULTSRice husk consists of three sections: epidermis, sub-hypodermis and hypodermis. The thickness of these layers, the diameters of the hollow fibers and the wall thickness vary with the variety of rice husk. The elastic modulus is typically between 0.3 and 2.6 GPa, and the ultimate tensile strength varies from 19 to 135 MPa depending on the variety of rice husk.CONCLUSIONRice husk has a unique hierarchical structure in which the fibers exhibit a staggered perpendicular arrangement and the entire fiber sections are covered by an external shell. The tensile properties vary with the variety of rice husk. The wide range in these tensile properties may be attributed to the size and orientation of the fibers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:26:33.240601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8556
  • Fruit quality of sweet pepper as affected by foliar Ca applications to
           mitigate the supply of saline water under a climate change scenario
    • Authors: María Carmen Piñero; Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, Josefa López-Marín, Francisco M del Amor
      Pages: 1071 - 1078
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSweet pepper fruit quality disorders have been related mainly to an unbalanced nutrient supply and non-optimal growth conditions. Increases in the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) have been associated with a reduction of transpiration, which can affect calcium (Ca) uptake as it is linked closely to water uptake. We investigated whether foliar application of Ca can counterbalance the effects of saline water and elevated [CO2].RESULTSHigh CO2 favoured generative growth instead of vegetative growth. Foliar Ca supply did not affect the marketable yield, but reduced the total yield when combined with salinity and 400 µmol mol−1 CO2. Salinity affected negatively the total yield but this was overcome when CO2 was applied. The B and K concentrations were reduced by foliar Ca application, while Ca and Mn were increased at 400 µmol mol−1 CO2. Salinity increased the Mn, Cl, and Na concentrations, regardless of the [CO2], and decreased K at 800 µmol mol−1 CO2. The total protein was affected negatively only by elevated [CO2], and the total free amino acid concentration was reduced by all treatments.CONCLUSIONThe effect of Ca application differed according to the other treatments applied. This procedure should be optimised to overcome future climate impacts on fruit quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:30:56.650201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8557
  • Effects of alternative cropping systems on globe artichoke qualitative
    • Authors: Emanuela Spanu; Paola A Deligios, Emanuela Azara, Giovanna Delogu, Luigi Ledda
      Pages: 1079 - 1087
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTraditionally, globe artichoke cultivation in the Mediterranean basin is based on monoculture and on use of high amounts of nitrogen fertiliser. This raises issues regarding its compatibility with sustainable agriculture. We studied the effect of one typical conventional (CONV) and two alternative cropping systems [globe artichoke in sequence with French bean (NCV1), or in biannual rotation (NCV2) with cauliflower and with a leguminous cover crop in inter-row spaces] on yield, polyphenol and mineral content of globe artichoke heads over two consecutive growing seasons.RESULTSNCV2 showed statistical differences in terms of fresh product yield with respect to the monoculture systems. In addition, the dihydroxycinnamic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids of non-conventional samples were one-fold significantly higher than the conventional one. All the samples reported good mineral content, although NCV2 achieved a higher Fe content than conventional throughout the two seasons. After two and three dates of sampling, the CONV samples showed the highest levels of K content.CONCLUSIONIn our study, an acceptable commercial yield and quality of ‘Spinoso sardo’ were achieved by shifting the common conventional agronomic management to more sustainable ones, by means of an accurate choice of cover crop species and rotations introduced in the systems. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:30:44.841038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8558
  • Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and
           fruit quantity
    • Authors: Ilda Caldeira; Daniel Lopes, Teresa Delgado, Sara Canas, Ofélia Anjos
      Pages: 1088 - 1094
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics.RESULTSThree factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel.CONCLUSIONThe three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:10:41.762574-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8559
  • Application of a sensory–instrumental tool to study apple texture
           characteristics shaped by altitude and time of harvest
    • Authors: Mathilde Charles; Maria Laura Corollaro, Luigi Manfrini, Isabella Endrizzi, Eugenio Aprea, Angelo Zanella, Luca Corelli Grappadelli, Flavia Gasperi
      Pages: 1095 - 1104
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTexture is important in the preferences of apple consumers. Of the pre-harvest factors affecting fruit quality and especially texture, altitude and subsequent climatic conditions are crucial, determining differences in the physiological mechanisms of fruit growth, ripening stage and chemical composition, as demonstrated by several studies. This work applies a detailed sensory-instrumental protocol developed in a previous paper to investigate the impact of altitude, time of harvest and their cross-effect on sensory characteristics of apple, with a focus on texture.RESULTSSensory differences were found in relation to altitude, although the profile results were mainly affected by the time of harvest. Fruit from lower altitude was described as juicier, crunchier and sweeter than samples from higher altitude, which were floury, sourer and more astringent. Texture performance, soluble solids content and titratable acidity corroborated this sensory description. Moreover, anatomical data showed that fruit from lower altitude had a larger volume, a higher number of cells and a higher percentage of intercellular spaces.CONCLUSIONWe demonstrated that differences between fruit from various altitudes can be perceived through human senses, and that the proposed sensory–instrumental tool can be used to describe such differences. This study brings more understanding about the impact of altitude and time of harvest on apple sensory properties. This work could support apple producers, from semi-mountainous regions (Alps, Tyrol, etc.), in advertising and valorising their products with their specific characteristics in a more efficient manner. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T03:06:34.772361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8560
  • Chemical profile of pineapple cv. Vitória in different maturation stages
           using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Elizângela M Ogawa; Helber B Costa, José A Ventura, Luiz CS Caetano, Fernanda E Pinto, Bruno G Oliveira, Maria Eduarda S Barroso, Rodrigo Scherer, Denise C Endringer, Wanderson Romão
      Pages: 1105 - 1116
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPineapple is the fruit of Ananas comosus var. comosus plant, being cultivated in tropical areas and has high energy content and nutritional value. Herein, 30 samples of pineapple cv. Vitória were analyzed as a function of the maturation stage (0–5) and their physico-chemical parameters monitored. In addition, negative-ion mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [ESI(−)FT-ICR MS] was used to identify and semi-quantify primary and secondary metabolites present in the crude and phenolic extracts of pineapple, respectively.RESULTSPhysico-chemical tests show an increase in the total soluble solids (TSS) values and in the TSS/total titratable acidity ratio as a function of the maturity stage, where a maximum value was observed in stage 3 (¾ of the fruit is yellow, which corresponds to the color of the fruit peel). ESI(−)FT-ICR MS analysis for crude extracts showed the presence mainly of sugars as primary metabolites present in deprotonated molecule form ([M − H]− and [2 M − H]− ions) whereas, for phenolic fractions, 11 compounds were detected, being the most abundant in the third stage of maturation. This behavior was confirmed by quantitative analysis of total polyphenols.CONCLUSIONESI-FT-ICR MS was efficient in identifying primary (carbohydrates and organic acids) and secondary metabolites (13 phenolic compounds) presents in the crude and phenolic extract of the samples, respectively. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T09:45:38.30726-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8561
  • Influence of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and
           contents of health and sensory-related compounds in swede roots (Brassica
           napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.)
    • Authors: Jørgen AB Mølmann; Sidsel Fiskaa Hagen, Gunnar B Bengtsson, Tor J Johansen
      Pages: 1117 - 1123
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDVegetable growers in Arctic areas must increasingly rely on market strategies based on regional origin and product quality. Swede roots (rutabaga) were grown in a phytotron to investigate the effect of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and some health and sensory-related compounds. Experimental treatments included modifications of 24 h natural day length (69° 39' N) by moving plants at daily intervals to dark chambers with either no light, fluorescent growth light and/or low intensity photoperiod extension.RESULTSShortening the photosynthetic light period to 12 h produced smaller roots than 15.7 h and 18 h, with highest scores for bitter and sulfur taste, and lowest scores for sweetness, acidic taste and fibrousness. The photoperiod in combination with the photosynthetic light period also had an influence on glucosinolate (GLS) contents, with lowest concentrations in 24 h natural light and highest in 12 h natural light. Concentrations of vitamin C, glucose, fructose and sucrose were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments.CONCLUSIONHigh latitude light conditions, with long photosynthetic light periods and 24 h photoperiod, can enhance sweet/less bitter taste and reduce GLS contents in swede roots, compared to growth under short day conditions. This influence of light conditions on eating quality may benefit marketing of regional products from high latitudes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T04:30:55.397994-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8562
  • Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin
           relatives and other citrus genotypes
    • Authors: Yuan Yu; Jinhe Bai, Chunxian Chen, Anne Plotto, Elizabeth A Baldwin, Frederick G Gmitter
      Pages: 1124 - 1131
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCitrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu).RESULTSLarge differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. ‘Goutou’ sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. ‘Ponkan’ mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and ‘Owari’ satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. ‘Goutou’ sour orange and ‘Moro’ blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles.CONCLUSIONSThe clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:49:37.714279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8563
  • Impact of soybean aging conditions on tofu sensory characteristics and
    • Authors: Neide Kiyoko Kondo Kamizake; Lilian Catarini Pereira Silva, Sandra Helena Prudencio
      Pages: 1132 - 1139
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTofu from aged soybeans is of poor quality, mainly with respect to texture. Texture defects described in the literature are contradictory. No study has investigated all sensory properties simultaneously. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of soybean aging conditions [natural: ambient temperature and RH, 18 months, and accelerated: 30 °C, 84% relative humidity (RH), 6 months] on all of the sensory characteristics and the acceptance of tofu. Texture and color were also evaluated via an instrumental method. The control condition was –20 °C and 47% RH. Coodetec 214 and BRS 267 cultivars were studied.RESULTSThe effect of soybean accelerated aging on tofu sensory characteristics and acceptance was more pronounced compared to the natural condition. The two cultivars had a similar behavior. Tofu control exhibited a light, uniform and bright color, cohesive appearance, sweet aroma and flavor, as well as a firm and elastic texture. Tofu made from both aged cultivars showed a gray color with dark spots, a rough appearance, fermented aroma, rancid flavor, an astringent and bitter taste, a fracturable texture and adherence to the oral cavity after chewing. These characteristics of tofu from aged soybeans implied a low acceptance by consumers.CONCLUSIONTofu from natural and accelerated aged soybeans has sensory attributes of appearance, as well as aroma, flavor and damaged texture, that are unacceptable by consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T08:41:12.777952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8564
  • Water stress and ripeness effects on the volatile composition of Cabernet
           Sauvignon wines
    • Authors: Inmaculada Talaverano; Cristina Ubeda, Alejandro Cáceres-Mella, María Esperanza Valdés, Claudio Pastenes, Álvaro Peña-Neira
      Pages: 1140 - 1152
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDControlled water deficits affect grape berry physiology and the resulting wines, with volatile composition being the one of the affected parameters. However, there is a potential disconnect between aromatic maturity and sugar accumulation. Accordingly, the effects of three different water status levels over two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) and two different harvest dates on the aroma compounds from Cabernet Sauvignon wines were studied. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatoghraphy/mass spectrometry.RESULTSAround 45 volatile compounds were determined in the wines and, among these, esters were affected the most, presenting lower concentrations when the most restrictive water treatment was applied in both years. By contrast, volatile acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest level of irrigation was applied. On the other hand, a delay in harvesting produced an increase in the total amount of volatile compounds in samples from the most restrictive water treatment. These results are coincident with a principal component analysis that indicated a great separation between years, deficit irrigation treatments and harvest dates.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study suggest that a low water supply had a negative effect on the aromatic potential of wines at a similar ripening stage. However, this effect could be countered by harvesting at a later date. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T04:41:06.671434-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8565
  • Metabolomic analysis reveals the composition differences in 13 Chinese tea
           cultivars of different manufacturing suitabilities
    • Authors: Pengliang Li; Weidong Dai, Meiling Lu, Dongchao Xie, Junfeng Tan, Chen Yang, Yin Zhu, Haipeng Lv, Qunhua Peng, Yue Zhang, Li Guo, Dejiang Ni, Zhi Lin
      Pages: 1153 - 1161
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGreen tea and black tea are manufactured using appropriate tea cultivars in China. However, the metabolite differences relating to the manufacturing suitability of tea cultivars are unclear. In the present study, we performed a non-targeted metabolomic analysis on 13 Chinese tea cultivars using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate comprehensively the metabolite differences between cultivars suitable for manufacturing green tea (GT cultivars) and cultivars suitable for manufacturing both green tea and black tea (G&BT cultivars).RESULTSMultivariate statistical analysis and cluster analysis divided the 13 cultivars into two groups, namely GT cultivars and G&BT cultivars, which correlated with their manufacturing suitability. The GT cultivars contained higher levels of flavonoid glycosides, whereas the G&BT cultivars contained higher levels of catechins, dimeric catechins, phenolic acids and alkaloids.CONCLUSIONMetabolic pathway analysis revealed that the flavonoid pathway inclined toward the synthesis of flavonoid glycosides in GT cultivars, whereas it inclined toward the synthesis of catechins and phenolic acids in G&BT cultivars. The results of the present study will be helpful for discriminating the manufacturing suitability of tea cultivars and investigating their breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T03:36:18.637752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8566
  • Non-anthocyanin polyphenolic transformation by native yeast and bacteria
           co-inoculation strategy during vinification
    • Authors: Apramita Devi; Kodira Muthanna Archana, Panikuttria Kuttappa Bhavya, Konerira Aiyappaa Anu-Appaiah
      Pages: 1162 - 1170
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCo-inoculation has been adapted by many wine-producing countries because it enhances the success of malolactic fermentation and reduces the fermentation cost, as well as time. However, wine phenolics have been sparsely highlighted during co-inoculation, even though polyphenols are an important parameter affecting wine colour, astringency and aroma. In the present study, we investigated the impact of co-inoculation on non-anthocyanin polyphenol profile for two different grape varieties.RESULTSCo-inoculation of native yeast strain (AAV2) along with Oenococcus oeni was adapted for Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wine. It was observed that the co-inoculation had minimal yet significant impact on the phenolic composition of wines for both the grape varieties. Color loss, as well as fruity aroma development, was observed in co-inoculated wines. The wines were on a par with the commercial wine, as well as wines without malolactic fermentation, in terms of phenolic compounds and overall organoleptic acceptance. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis further suggested that the varietal influence on phenolic composition was dominating compared to inoculation strategies. Among the varieties, the inoculation strategies have significantly influenced the Cabernet wines compared to Shiraz wines.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study demonstrate that the phenolic compounds are not drastically affected by metabolic activities of malolactic bacteria during co-inoculation and, hence, are equally suitable for wine fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T03:10:40.148344-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8567
  • The effect of sucrose addition at dosage stage on the foam attributes of a
           bottle-fermented English sparkling wine
    • Authors: Mark Crumpton; Christopher J Rice, Andrew Atkinson, Geoff Taylor, Matteo Marangon
      Pages: 1171 - 1178
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDApproximately two-thirds of wine produced in the UK is bottle-fermented sparkling wine. Effervescence and foamability are key features used to assess English sparkling wine (ESW) quality. A critical, yet understudied, area of research is the potential for dosage to influence foam behaviour via associated changes in wine viscosity.RESULTSIn this study, dosage treatments of five increasing levels of sucrose (from 0 to 31 g L−1) were added to an ESW. After storage, the foamability attributes of the wines were analysed via an adapted Mosalux method and a novel image analysis method combined with free pour of the wine. Results indicate that increasing sucrose concentration improved foam formation, but reduced foam stability, likely due to the sucrose added causing a modification in wine viscosity.CONCLUSIONSThese results highlight the impact that dosage treatments can have on the quality of foam produced upon pouring, and therefore have the potential to inform future sparkling winemaking practices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T01:50:57.73289-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8570
  • Investigation of sensory profiles and hedonic drivers of emerging
           aquaculture fish species
    • Authors: Niki Alexi; Derek V Byrne, Evangelia Nanou, Kriton Grigorakis
      Pages: 1179 - 1187
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aquaculture sector needs to increase the diversity fish species and their processed products to cover rising consumer demands. Candidates for this diversification have been identified to be meagre, greater amberjack, pikeperch and wreckfish. Yet scientific knowledge on their sensory profiles and consumer hedonic responses is scarce. The aim of the current study was to investigate these aspects, since they are essential for product development and market targeting.RESULTSSpecies exhibited different sensory profiles with the exception of the odor/flavor profiles of meagre and greater amberjack, which were similar. Texture was more important than odor/flavor in explaining interspecies differences. Yet the hedonic responses were equally related to texture and odor/flavor. None of the species received negative hedonic scores. Both positive and negative hedonic drivers were identified within the odor/flavor and texture modalities.CONCLUSIONThe distinct profiles of meagre, greater amberjack, pikeperch and wreckfish make these fish species valuable first materials for new product development and for covering markets with different sensory preferences. Differences in fish texture are more easily perceivable, yet small variations in fish odor/flavor can have a great impact on consumers' hedonic responses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:38:48.877824-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8571
  • In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approach for authentication of meat
           species from minced meat and meat products
    • Authors: Basappa M Naveena; Deepak S Jagadeesh, Veeranna Kamuni, Muthupalani Muthukumar, Vinayak V Kulkarni, Mohan Kiran, Srikanth Rapole
      Pages: 1188 - 1196
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFraudulent mislabelling of processed meat products on a global scale that cannot be detected using conventional techniques necessitates sensitive, robust and accurate methods of meat authentication to ensure food safety and public health. In the present study, we developed an in-gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2DE) and OFFGEL-based proteomic method for authenticating raw and cooked water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Caprus hircus) meat and their mixes.RESULTSThe matrix-assisted liquid desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of proteins separated using 2DE or OFFGEL electrophoresis delineated species-specific peptide biomarkers derived from myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) of buffalo–sheep–goat meat mix in definite proportions at 98:1:1, 99:0.5:0.5 and 99.8:0.1:0.1 that were found stable to resist thermal processing. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approaches are efficient in authenticating meat mixes spiked at minimum 1.0% and 0.1% levels, respectively, in triple meat mix for both raw and cooked samples.CONCLUSIONSThe study demonstrated that authentication of meat from a complex mix of three closely related species requires identification of more than one species-specific peptide due to close similarity between their amino acid sequences. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:05:01.306762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8572
  • Pleurotus sajor-caju can be used to synthesize silver nanoparticles with
           antifungal activity against Candida albicans
    • Authors: Siti Fadhilah Musa; Ting Seng Yeat, Laina Zarisa Mohd Kamal, Yasser M Tabana, Mowaffaq Adam Ahmed, Ahmad El Ouweini, Vuanghao Lim, Lee Chee Keong, Doblin Sandai
      Pages: 1197 - 1207
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGreen synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become widely practiced worldwide. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized using a hot-water extract of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. The product, PSC-AgNPs, was characterized by using UV–visible spectra, dynamic light scattering analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. To assess its antifungal activity against Candida albicans, gene transcription and protein expression analyses were conducted for CaICL1 and its product, ICL, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively.RESULTSPSC-AgNPs with an average particle size of 11.68 nm inhibited the growth of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. Values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were 250 and 500 mg L−1, respectively. TEM images revealed that the average particle size of PSC-AgNPs was 16.8 nm, with the values for zeta potential and the polydispersity index being −8.54 mV and 0.137, respectively. XRD and FTIR spectra showed PSC-AgNPs to have a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. The polysaccharides and amino acid residues present in P. sajor-caju extract were found to be involved in reducing Ag+ to AgNP. Both CaICL1 transcription and ICL protein expression were found to be suppressed in the cells treated with PSC-AgNPs as compared with the control.CONCLUSIONOur PSC-AgNP preparation makes for a promising antifungal agent that can downregulate isocitrate lyase. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T01:31:41.368313-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8573
  • Assessment of the potential of the multi-enzyme producer Bacillus
           amyloliquefaciens US573 as alternative feed additive
    • Authors: Ameny Farhat-Khemakhem; Monia Blibech, Ines Boukhris, Mohamed Makni, Hichem Chouayekh
      Pages: 1208 - 1215
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecently, probiotics have increasingly been used as feed additives in poultry diets as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters fostering resistance development.RESULTSThis study was aimed at assessing the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 as a direct-fed microbial. The US573 strain was found to be free of harmful enzymatic activities and sensitive to antibiotics. In addition, it showed a good acid and bovine bile tolerance, high adhesion efficacy to chicken enterocytes, and an ability to form biofilms, which may favor its survival and persistence in the animal gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, besides the previously described extremely salt-tolerant and highly thermostable phytase, the US573 strain secretes xylanase, β-glucanase and amylase activities useful in neutralizing antinutritional factors and maximizing the absorption of nutrients. The secretion of such enzymes may be responsible for the good performance of the US573 isolate in the digestibility of wheat in vitro. Indeed, using the vegetative cells, a yield of wheat dry matter digestibility of approximately 48% was achieved, which is slightly lower than the commercial feed additive Rovabio used as a reference (56.73% digestibility).CONCLUSIONThe obtained results illustrate the potential of US573 strain as a promising direct-fed microbial candidate for application in the poultry industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T04:30:25.236568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8574
  • Effect of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle
           antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers
    • Authors: Cheng Zhang; Lei Yang, Xiaohui Zhao, Xingyong Chen, Li Wang, Zhaoyu Geng
      Pages: 1216 - 1221
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol has been acknowledged with many beneficial biological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers. One hundred and eighty 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to two groups and fed on a 0 mg kg−1 or 400 mg kg−1 resveratrol-supplemented diet for 21 days. Then, chickens were slaughtered and pectoralis major muscle (PM) samples were collected for analysis.RESULTSThe results showed that resveratrol not only tended to increase (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:24:20.018448-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8576
  • Effects of simple rain-shelter cultivation on fatty acid and amino acid
           accumulation in ‘Chardonnay’ grape berries
    • Authors: Nan Meng; Zhi-Yuan Ren, Xiao-Fan Yang, Qiu-Hong Pan
      Pages: 1222 - 1231
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation.RESULTSFifteen fatty acids and 21 amino acids were detected in total. The rain-shelter cultivation led to an increase in the total concentration of fatty acids, and a decrease in the total concentration of amino acids compared with the open-field cultivation in 2012, while no significant difference was observed between two cultivation modes in 2013 vintage. Concentrations of palmitoleic acid, isoleucine and cysteine were significantly promoted in the rain-shelter grape berries, whereas those of tyrosine and ornithine were markedly reduced in both vintages.CONCLUSIONThe rain-shelter cultivation of wine grapes in the rainy region is beneficial for improving grape quality and fermentation activity by influence on the concentration of fatty acids and amino acids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T00:16:59.976041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8593
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