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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1602 journals]   [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]
  • Seasonal variability of the main components in essential oil of
           Mentha × piperita L.
    • Authors: Daniela Grulova; Laura De Martino, Emilia Mancini, Ivan Salamon, Vincenzo De Feo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mentha x piperita is animportant and commonly used flavoring plant worldwide. Its constituents, primarily menthol and menthone, change in the essential oil depending on internal and external factors, of which environmental conditions appear very important. The experiment was established in 2010 for three vegetation season, in order to observe the quantitative changes of the main components of peppermint. The determination of menthol, menthone, limonene, menthyl acetate, menthofuran and β-caryophyllene was registered. Results In the experimental season 2011 and 2012 it was noted a higher mean temperature than in 2010 and extreme rainfall were recorded in July 2011 and 2012. Different environmental conditions affected the development of M. x piperita plants and content and composition of the essential oil. Conclusion Seasonal and maturity variations are interlinked each other, because the specific ontogenic growth stage differed as the season progressed. Fluctuations in monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns affected the quality of peppermint essential oil.
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T12:08:37.943559-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6802
  • Development of crayfish bio-based plastic materials processed by
           small-scale injection moulding
    • Authors: Manuel Felix; Alberto Romero, Felipe Cordobes, Antonio Guerrero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Protein has been investigated as a source for biodegradable polymeric materials. This work evaluates the development of plastic materials based on crayfish and glycerol blends, processed by injection moulding, as a fully biodegradable alternative to conventional polymer-based plastics. The effect of different additives, namely sodium sulfite or bisulfite as reducing agents, urea as denaturing agent and l-cysteine as cross-linking agent, is also analysed. RESULTS The incorporation of any additive always yields an increase in energy efficiency at the mixing stage, but its effect on the mechanical properties of the bioplastics is not so clear, and even dampened. The additive developing a greater effect is l-cysteine, showing higher Young's modulus values and exhibiting a remnant thermosetting potential. Thus, processing at higher temperature yields a remarkable increase in extensibility. CONCLUSION This work illustrates the feasibility of crayfish-based green biodegradable plastics, thereby contributing to the search for potential value-added applications for this by-product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T08:51:38.454501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6747
  • Tocopherol and tocotrienol contents of different varieties of rice in
    • Authors: Balakrishnan Shammugasamy; Yogeshini Ramakrishnan, Hasanah M Ghazali, Kharidah Muhammad
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study examined the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols and their distribution in 58 different varieties of whole rice cultivated in Malaysia. The analytical method used was saponification of samples followed by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS The total vitamin E contents of different varieties of whole rice ranged between 19.36 and 63.29 mg kg−1. Contents of vitamin E isomers varied among rice varieties both within and between grain color groups. Black-pigmented rice showed significantly higher mean contents of α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol than non-pigmented rice and red-pigmented rice. Red-pigmented rice had significantly lower mean contents of γ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E than non-pigmented rice. The mean contents of δ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E in non-pigmented rice, however, were similar to those in black-pigmented rice. γ-Tocotrienol was the predominant form of vitamin E isomer in all analyzed varieties. The Pearson correlations among vitamin E isomers and total vitamin E content of whole rice were also studied. CONCLUSION This study provides information on vitamin E content of different rice varieties that would be beneficial for decision making in genetic breeding of bioactive compound-rich rice varieties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T08:49:54.56856-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6742
  • Interactive effects of vitamin D3 and strontium on performance, nutrient
           retention, and bone mineral composition in laying hens.
    • Authors: Linda C. Browning; Aaron J. Cowieson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Strontium is currently prescribed for patients with osteoporosis to increase bone density and reduce bone fractures but its relevance in animal nutrition is obscure. In order to investigate the effect of supplemental strontium and vitamin D3 on performance, egg quality and skeletal integrity in poultry a total of 108 laying hens, 99 weeks of age, were fed three levels of strontium (0, 500 mg kg−1, 1000 mg kg−1) and two levels of vitamin D3 (2,500iu kg−1, 5,000iu kg−1) over a 12 week period. Results There was an improvement (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T02:25:39.851744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6801
  • Effects Of Acute Ozone Stress On Reproductive Traits Of Tomato, Fruit
           Yield And Fruit Composition
    • Authors: Aye Aye Thwe; Gilles Vercambre, Hélène Gautier, Frédéric Gay, Jessada Phattaralerphong, Poonpipope Kasemsap
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition is altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. . Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m−3) for four hours. Results Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and young fruits at the time of ozone exposure were more affected. Contents of total soluble sugars (Total SS), total organic acids (Total OA) and ascorbic acid (AsA) increased in fruits harvested from ozone-treated plants. Tomato fruit composition was altered under ozone stress, leading to a lower sugar-acid ratio. These changes were mostly due to increased contents of malic acid, ascorbate , and glucose despite a decrease in sucrose. Conclusions Acute ozone exposure up to 500 µg m−3 greatly influences tomato fruit quality. As final fruit yield was not significantly reduced, it highlighted that there may be compensatory mechanisms present in the reproductive structures of tomato. Further research would be necessary to determine how reproductive traits are affected by repeated ozone exposure or longer term exposure.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T12:38:13.947618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6798
  • Characterisation of bacterial community of raw milk from dairy cows during
           subacute ruminal acidosis challenge by high throughput sequencing
    • Authors: Ruiyang Zhang; Wenjie Huo, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Four cannulated primiparous Holstein dairy cows (84 ± 25 DIM) were used in a 2 × 2 crossover experimental design. The two diets contained 40% (low-concentrate diet, or control diet, LC) and 70% (high-concentrate diet, or SARA induction diet, HC) concentrate feeds respectively. Milk samples were collected on day 17, 18, and 19 of each experimental period. DNA was extracted from each milk sample, and the pyrosequencing was applied to analyse the milk microbial community. Results Regardless of diet, the bacterial community of milk was dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. HC feeding showed a higher proportion of some mastitis-causing pathogen bacteria, such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus parauberis, and Brevundimonas diminuta, as well as of Psychrotrophic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingobacterium, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, and Lactobacillus. However, the diversity of the milk bacterial microbiota (ACE, Chao, and Shannon, index) was not affected by HC feeding. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of pyrosequencing for evaluating the impacts of nutrition on changes in the composition of milk microbiota. These findings indicate that HC feeding may increase the risk of dairy cows suffering from mastitis, decrease the organoleptic quality of raw milk and dairy products, and limit the shelf life of processed fluid milk.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T12:09:10.5395-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6800
  • Influence of Processing on Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Juice Flavor
           and Aroma
    • Authors: Kadri Koppel; Erika L. Anderson, Edgar Chambers
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to determine effect of technological treatment on pomegranate juice flavor characteristics, aromatic compounds, and physico-chemical properties. Fresh, fresh frozen, pasteurized, and reconstituted juice samples were made from Wonderful variety pomegranates. The samples were analyzed for their flavor profiles, aromatic compounds content, and physico-chemical parameters (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, and total phenolic content). Results The results indicated differences among the samples’ flavor characteristics. The most differentiated was the reconstituted sample with fermented and brown flavors while fresh, fresh frozen, and pasteurized samples did not vary as much. Concentration of aromatic compounds was lower than expected. However, this finding was in line with the flavor profiles of the samples. Some flavors as well as total phenolic content were found to be lower than what has been previously reported and this may be the result of a number of variables such as the season, growing region, and subspecies of the fruit variety. Conclusions Processing has an effect on pomegranate juice properties; however, the effect is different depending on the processing method chosen. Drying and reconstituting pomegranate seeds have an impact on flavor, aromatic compounds, as well as total phenolic content.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T12:05:26.541202-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6799
  • Anti-diabetic effects of the ethanol extract of a functional formula diet
           in mice fed with a fructose/fat-rich combination diet
    • Authors: Qian Cheng; Xiaofeng Zhang, Ou Wang, Jia Liu, Shengbao Cai, Ruojun Wang, Feng Zhou, Baoping Ji
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Rhizoma dioscorea, Lycium barbarum, Prunella vulgaris and hawthorn are well known in both traditional food and folk medicine. Each of these plants reportedly possesses beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes. In this study an anti-diabetic health-promoting diet was formulated by mixing the herbs in a ratio of 6:4:2:3, and the anti-diabetic effect and underlying mechanism were elucidated in vivo. RESULTS Compared with the model control group, the formula, especially its ethanol extract (EF), could improve glucose intolerance and normalize the lipid profile. The mechanisms responsible for the amelioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in mice were an increase in peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, a decrease in serum free fatty acid level, enhanced hepatic glucokinase activity and glycogen content and improved serum antioxidant activity. Hepatic histopathological examination also showed that EF administration markedly decreased fatty deposits in the liver of mice. CONCLUSION The results of the present study demonstrated that the prepared functional formula diet is a potent alternative as an anti-diabetic health-promoting diet. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T09:21:28.196114-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6737
  • Antioxidant effects of the monoterpenes carvacrol, thymol and sabinene
           hydrate on chemical and sensory stability of roasted sunflower seeds
    • Authors: Patricia R Quiroga; Claudia M Asensio, Valeria Nepote
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oxidation products and rancid flavors decrease the sensory quality of food products, making them unacceptable to consumers. Synthetic antioxidants are used in many foods to prevent rancidity, though their safety is questioned. Monoterpenes are obtained from essential oils and many of them have shown antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with carvacrol, thymol and sabinene hydrate monoterpenes. RESULTS Five samples were prepared: control roasted sunflower seeds (RS-C) and sunflower seeds treated with carvacrol (RS-Car), sabinene hydrate (RS-S), thymol (RS-T) and butylated hydroxytoluene (RS-BHT). The three monoterpenes (carvacrol, sabinene hydrate and thymol) provided protection to this food product, inhibiting the formation of oxidative deterioration compounds such as peroxides and hexanal and undesirable off-flavors such as oxidized and cardboard flavors. Sabinene hydrate had greater effect preventing peroxide formation during storage than the other monoterpenes. CONCLUSION Carvacrol, sabinene hydrate and thymol could be used as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants for preserving the quality of roasted sunflower seeds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T09:17:29.948659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6744
  • Flavonoids Protecting Food And Beverages Against Light
    • Authors: Kevin Huvaere; Leif H. Skibsted
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Flavonoids, ubiquitously present in plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at ppm level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions, are safe, and possibly attribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (i) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (ii) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitizers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (iii) quenching of singlet oxygen from Type II photosensitization; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in Type I photosensitization. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitizers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimized through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerization of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light to heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T05:24:17.568162-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6796
  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, clinical study on the
           effectiveness of collagen peptide on osteoarthritis
    • Authors: Suresh Kumar; Fumihito Sugihara, Keiji Suzuki, Naoki Inoue, Sriraam Venkateswarathirukumara
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recent studies show that enzymatically hydrolysed collagen, the collagen peptide, is absorbed and distributed to joint tissues and has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial with collagen peptides isolated from pork skin (PCP) and bovine bone (BCP) sources was carried out to study the effectiveness of orally supplemented collagen peptide to control the progression of osteoarthritis in patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. Improvement in treatment was assessed with reduction in Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC), visual analogue scale (VAS) and quality of life (QOL) scores from baseline to 13 weeks (Visit 7). Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. RESULTS There was significant reduction from baseline to Visit 7 in the primary end points of WOMAC and VAS scores and in the secondary end point of QOL score in subjects with PCP and BCP groups, while in subjects with placebo group the end point indices remained unaltered. Furthermore, all the score levels of WOMAC, VAS and QOL decreased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T00:57:12.003383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6752
  • A procedure for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo, a typical fermented
           sausage produced in Emilia Romagna Region (Italy)
    • Authors: Fabio Coloretti; Luigi Grazia, Fausto Gardini, Rosalba Lanciotti, Chiara Montanari, Giulia Tabanelli, Cristiana Chiavari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Salama da sugo is a fermented sausage from Ferrara tradition (Italy, Emilia-Romagna region), subjected to a long ripening period (4–6 months) and characterized by a high content of wine and spices in the mixture. It can be consumed after cooking and it is served with its sugo, i.e. the liquid extracted by cooking process. The aim of this work is the setting up of a method for the sensory profile of Salama da sugo, whereas it has been requested to the European Commission the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Results A system of sample preparation that provides for the precooking in autoclave and cooking in boiling water was set-up. A specific sheet for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo has been created and reports 23 descriptors identified during the lexicon development. The differences in sensory profile of four samples were evaluated and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has highlighted the more discriminant parameters i. e. odour intensity, wine odour, spicy aroma, fat/lean connection, sweet, bitter, juiciness, chewiness and pricking. Conclusions The proposed method allows the standardization of sensory profiling of Salama da sugo, also to verify compliance with the specification PGI.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T07:13:23.461092-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6793
  • Determination of β–N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic
           acid and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus and Lathyrus cicera by capillary
           zone electrophoresis
    • Authors: Mara Sacristán; Alejandro Varela, Mercedes M Pedrosa, Carmen Burbano, Carmen Cuadrado, M Estrella Legaz, Mercedes Muzquiz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Lathyrus species as legumes represent an alternative protein source for human and animal nutrition. Heavy consumption of these species can lead to lathyrism, caused by the non-protein amino acid β–N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Currently, there is no well-defined level below which β-ODAP is considered non-toxic. In this work, the β-ODAP content was determined in L. sativus and L. cicera samples to assess their potential toxicity. Homoarginine is another non-protein amino acid found in Lathyrus spp. with interesting implications for human and animal nutrition. Results The level of β-ODAP found in these two species ranged from 0.79 to 5.05 mg g−1. The homoarginine content of the samples ranged from 7.49 to 12.44 mg g−1. Conclusion This paper describes an accurate, fast and sensitive method of simultaneous detection and quantification of β-ODAP and homoarginine by capillary zone electrophoresis in L. cicera and L. sativus seeds. Moreover, several methods of extraction were compared to determine the highest performance.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T07:12:54.675851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6792
  • Water scarcity conditions affect peach fruit size and polyphenol contents
           more severely than other fruit quality traits
    • Authors: Mitra Rahmati; Gilles Vercambre, Gholamhossein Davarynejad, Mohammad Bannayan, Majid Azizi, Michel Génard
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Literature mostly abounds with the impacts of drought conditions on the concentration of non-structural compounds (NSC) and acids in peach fruits without distinction as to the direct effect of drought on fruit metabolism and its indirect effect through dilution. Moreover, there is a need to investigate the sensitivity of the fruit composition to progressive water deficit in semi-arid conditions, as well as the origin of variations in fruit composition – not only in carbohydrates and organic acids, but also in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols. Results The increase in stress intensity resulted in smaller fruits and a reduction in yield. Drought increased fruit dry matter content, structural dry matter (SDM) content and firmness due to lower water import to fruits although drought reduced fruit surface conductance and its transpiration. Drought significantly affected the concentrations of each NSC either through the decrease in dilution and/or modifications of their metabolism. The increase in hexoses and sorbitol concentrations of fruits grown under drought conditions resulted in an increase in the sweetness index but not near harvest. Malic acid concentration and content to SDM ratio increased as drought intensified, whereas those of citric and quinic acids decreased. Polyphenols concentration and content increased under severe drought. Conclusion The increase in stress intensity strongly affected fruit mass. The concentration of total carbohydrates and organic acid at harvest increased mainly through a decrease in fruit dilution whereas the concentrations of polyphenols were also strongly affected through an impact on their metabolism.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T06:59:08.446983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6797
  • Determination of Fifteen Sedative Residues in Mutton by Rapid Resolution
           Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Jinmei Wei; Yuzhu Luo, Li Zhang, Suli Fang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The use of xenobiotic compounds in animal husbandry has given rise to consumer anxieties regarding residual risk and food safety. Thus, animal tissues have become main samples for residue analysis and food safety for sedatives. In this study, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of fifteen sedatives residues in mutton. Results After enzymolysis, sedatives residues in mutton were extracted by ammonium hydroxide- acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) and determined by RRLC-MS/MS with quantification by standard curve method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the concentrations of 0.5-50 µg kg−1 with the correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.9639 to 0.9984. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were 0.25-2.5 and 0.5-5 µg kg−1, respectively. The average recoveries of spikes samples were in the ranges of 74.1-116.8% with relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day ranged from 2.6% to 11.2% and from 2.1% to 11.4%, respectively. Conclusion This method is simple, sensitive and accurate in the determination of sedative residues.
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T06:58:19.630836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6794
  • Soybean flour induces a greater increase of the antioxidant defenses in
           rats fed with normocaloric diet compared with hypercaloric diet
    • Authors: Gabriela S Razzeto; Viviana R Lucero López, María S Giménez, Nora L Escudero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Soybeans, due to their antioxidant properties, present beneficial health effects. The objective was to evaluate if replacing casein with soy flour, modifies antioxidant defenses in rat liver, compared to animals that continued being fed with casein based diets (normocaloric and hypercaloric). Results Four groups of rats were used: CC (control casein), CS (control soy), HC (hypercaloric casein) and HS (hypercaloric soy). Malondialdehyde, in serum and liver, did not present differences. In liver, when comparing CS vs. CC: increased superoxide dismutase 1 (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-20T06:58:05.162608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6795
  • Effects of dry brining, liquid smoking and high-pressure treatment on the
           physical properties of aquacultured King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
           during refrigerated storage
    • Authors: Kelvin Jia Wey Kong; Zayde Alçiçek, Murat O Balaban
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aquacultured King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) pieces were dry brined with a salt/brown sugar mix, dipped in liquid smoke for 3 min, vacuum packed, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treated at 600 or 200 MPa for 5 min and stored at 4 °C for up to 40 days. RESULTS The surface redness (average a*) of the samples increased after dry brining, then decreased after liquid smoke treatment. HHP did not change the outside color of liquid-smoked samples. However, the inside color changed depending on pressure. HHP-treated control samples without dry brining and liquid smoking changed to a pale pink color. HHP at 600 MPa resulted in a significant increase in hardness. Compared with fresh samples, dry-brined samples had reduced water activity, while samples dipped in liquid smoke had lower pH values. CONCLUSION Dry brining and liquid smoking protect the outside color of salmon against changes caused by HHP. The increase in hardness may counteract the softening of the smoked salmon tissue over time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-19T09:57:46.438377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6754
  • Characterization of nitrogen and water status in oat leaves using optical
           sensing approach
    • Authors: Baoping Zhao; Bao-Luo Ma, Yuegao Hu, Jinghui Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Optical sensing is a potential tool to estimate plant N status, but soil water deficits may interefere with forming a clear relationship. A greenhouse study was conducted with oat plants treated with three water regimes and four N levels to determine whether optical sensing could be used to estimate leaf N and relative water content (RWC). RESULTS Leaf N was strongly correlated with reflectance at 550 nm and at around 705 nm, and N treatments caused a red-edge peak shift to lower wavelength. The ratio of the first derivative reflectance at 741–696 nm (FDRE) was identified to be a good estimator of leaf N at jointing (R2 = 0.90) and heading (R2 = 0.86) stages across water treatments. Leaf N also had a stronger association with the red-edge position (REP) at both stages (R2 = 0.83 and 0.78), or with the ratio R4 (R760/R550) at jointing (R2 = 0.88), than with chlorophyll meter (SPAD) readings. Under water stress, the predictive accuracy of leaf N increased with these reflectance indices, but decreased using SPAD readings. CONCLUSION The results indicate that specific reflectance indices of FDRE, REP and R4 may be used for a rapid and non-destructive estimation of oat plant N status over a range of water regimes. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T09:12:51.902273-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6729
  • Rice fortification with zinc during parboiling may improve the adequacy of
           zinc intakes in Bangladesh
    • Authors: Christine Hotz; Khandaker A Kabir, Sharifa S Dipti, Joanne E Arsenault, Moniruzzaman Bipul
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Zinc deficiency is prevalent among children and women in Bangladesh and parboiled rice is the major staple food consumed. Parboiling offers an opportunity to increase the zinc and iron content of rice by adding fortificants to the soaking water. RESULTS Rice zinc content increased with increasing amounts of zinc sulfate added to the parboil soaking water. Addition of 1300 mg zinc L−1 increased raw polished rice zinc content from 16.6 to 44.9 mg kg−1 and from 12.6 to 32.9 mg kg−1 in the open and closed parboiling systems, equivalent to 170% and 161% increases, respectively. Retention of zinc after washing and cooking was 70–81% across all concentrations tested. Addition of iron–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and zinc sulfate together increased zinc, but not iron, content of polished rice. The simulated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was reduced by more than half among children and nearly two-thirds among women if 50% of the population were to consume the 1300 mg zinc L−1 parboiled fortified rice. CONCLUSION Addition of zinc sulfate to soaking water during parboiling increases the zinc content of rice and, if found to be bioavailable, could substantially reduce the prevalence of inadequate zinc intake by children and women in Bangladesh. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T08:55:08.296072-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6730
  • Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Irrigation on Phenolic Content,
    • Authors: Dongyun Ma; Dexiang Sun, Yaoguang Li, Chenyang Wang, Yingxin Xie, Tiancai Guo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Understanding the variance of antioxidant in wheat grain responses to irrigation and nitrogen (N) fertilizer management will improve the nutrient quality of wheat grain. Four N rates (0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha−1) combined with irrigation times (I0, no irrigation; I1, jointing time irrigation; I2, jointing + flowering time irrigation), were used to determine the effect of N fertilization and irrigation on total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity (AOA) of wheat grain. Results Irrigation, N fertilization and their interactions had significant effect on TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), AOA, p-coumaric acid (PCA), as well as vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic acid (CA). I1N300 treatment had the highest TPC at Zhengzhou and Wenxian (1451.5 µg g−1 and 1397.9 µg g−1, respectively) location, while I1N240 resulted in the highest TFC (0.75 mg g−1) and VA (19.77 µg g−1) at Wenxian. TPC, TFC, AOA, ferulic acid (FA), PCA and VA increased with N application rate (from 180 to 300 kg N ha−1). Conclusion An appropriate irrigation and N management improved antioxidant content and AOA in wheat grain. Generally, I1N240 and I1N300 treatment resulted in the higher TPC, TFC, AOA, as well as phenolic acid, i.e. FA and VA.
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T08:32:55.244952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6790
  • Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful
           tool for dairy production
    • Authors: Maria Selvaggi; Vito Laudadio, Cataldo Dario, Vincenzo Tufarelli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T04:15:31.278291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6750
  • Purification and identification of angiotensin I-converting
           enzyme-inhibitory peptides from apalbumin 2 during simulated
           gastrointestinal digestion
    • Authors: Xiang Xu; Yanxiang Gao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bee larvae are considered to be an important reservoir for proteins. However, little attention has been paid to the release of potential bioactive peptides from bee larva proteins. In this study the major protein in bee larvae was hydrolyzed in vitro by gastrointestinal enzymes. The peptide profile of the hydrolysis was characterized by gel filtration chromatography and tricine-SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, the bioactive peptide was isolated and identified by Q-TOF-MS/MS. RESULTS The major bee larva protein was identified as apalbumin 2 and was more digestible into peptides with molecular weights lower than 3 kDa. The hydrolysate obtained after 3 h of digestion exhibited angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and was purified sequentially by gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The molecular weights of peptide fractions with ACE-inhibitory activity were distributed between 0.5 and 1.5 kDa. A novel peptide with highest ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50 54.9 µmol L−1) was purified by further RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of this peptide was identified as LLKPY (632.40 Da). CONCLUSION ACE-inhibitory peptides could be formed from bee larvae through gastrointestinal digestion. The most active peptide (LLKPY) is potentially useful as a therapeutic agent in treating hypertension. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T04:14:05.242482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6755
  • Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and
           mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens)
    • Authors: Yongxin Yang; Xiaowei Zhao, Shumin Yu, Suizhong Cao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. Results We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Hemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. Conclusion These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival.
      PubDate: 2014-06-17T03:55:16.691108-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6791
  • Influence of viticulture practices on grape aroma precursors and their
           relation with wine aroma
    • Authors: Purificacion Hernandez-Orte; Belen Concejero, Jesus Astrain, Blanca Lacau, Juan Cacho, Vicente Ferreira
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of two different operations in the vineyard (basal leaf plucking and head trimming) on the synthesis of aromatic precursors in the grape and their impact on wine aroma have been studied and compared with a control sample. The study was carried out over two consecutive years with four different varieties. Glycosidic precursors were analysed in grapes and volatile compounds were studied in the wines. ANOVA studies were performed to study the effect of the vintage, variety and treatment for each of the compounds released from their precursors. RESULTS Regarding treatment, the highest values in the concentration of free aroma compounds were achieved in the leaf plucking grapes, except for Chardonnay. Significant and positive correlations between aromatic precursors of terpenes present in grapes and their released form in wines were found for all varieties. For norisoprenoids, significant and positive correlations were exclusively found for Chardonnay and for phenols and vanillins in the year 2010 the correlations were high in three of the four varieties studied. CONCLUSION In the assays of the 2 years, more precursors were synthesised in Merlot, Gewurztraminer and Tempranillo grapes if the vineyards were plucked. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:45:08.049379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6748
  • Influence of closure, phenolic levels and microoxygenation on Cabernet
           Sauvignon wine composition after 5 years' bottle storage
    • Authors: Guomin Han; Maurizio Ugliano, Bruce Currie, Stéphane Vidal, Jean-Baptiste Diéval, Andrew L Waterhouse
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wine aging is generally limited by the amount of oxidation, which is dependent on the amount of oxygen entering via the closure. Cabernet Sauvignon wine is well known for its high concentration of tannin, making it an ideal red wine for aging. The impact of closure type after 5 years' bottle aging has been investigated on a 2007 Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, treated with or without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and micro-oxygenation (Mox). Two oxygen transfer rate (OTR) conditions (16 and 5 µg per day) into 375 mL bottles were obtained by using different synthetic stoppers. RESULTS Color was evaluated by UV–visible spectrophotometry, carbonyls by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization, phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography and sulfur dioxide by the aspiration method. Closure type strongly influenced color parameters involving SO2 bleaching and some phenolics, particularly quercetin, were affected, but there was little effect on carbonyls other than acetaldehyde. PVPP treatment afforded wines with the lowest levels of phenolics and color density, but highest acetaldehyde. Few effects of Mox could be detected. CONCLUSIONS Closure OTR strongly affects sulfur dioxide levels – the primary antioxidant in wine – in aged wine, but phenolic levels substantially alter the secondary reactions of oxidative aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:43:39.90444-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6694
  • Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and naturally fermented beetroot juices from
           organic and conventional production: metabolomics, antioxidant levels and
           anticancer activity
    • Authors: Renata Kazimierczak; Ewelina Hallmann, Janusz Lipowski, Nadzieja Drela, Anna Kowalik, Tõnu Püssa, Darja Matt, Anne Luik, Dariusz Gozdowski, Ewa Rembiałkowska
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the paper was to determine the level of antioxidants and metabolomic fingerprinting in both raw beetroots and naturally fermented beetroot juices from organic (ORG) versus conventional (CONV) production. In addition, the anticancer properties of the fermented beetroot juices were evaluated. RESULTS The obtained results showed that ORG fresh beetroots contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C and some individual phenolic compounds than CONV beetroots. The content of total phenolic acids was significantly higher in CONV beetroots compared with the ORG ones. The level of flavonoids was similar in ORG and CONV beetroots. There were only slight differences in the chemical composition of ORG and CONV beetroot juices. Metabolomic analysis provided a possibility to distinguish clearly between ORG and CONV fermented beetroot juices. However, this method was less useful in the case of fresh whole beetroots. It was found that anticancer activity was stronger in the case of ORG fermented juices when compared with CONV ones. CONCLUSION The obtained results indicate that ORG- and CONV-produced beetroots and fermented beetroot juices have different chemical properties and different impacts on cancer cells. It is necessary to continue research on this topic in order to confirm and understand the achieved results. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:29:24.632431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6722
  • Effects of light quality on the accumulation of phytochemicals in
           vegetables produced in controlled environments: a review
    • Authors: Zhong Hua Bian; Qi Chang Yang, Wen Ke Liu
      Abstract: Phytochemicals in vegetables are important for human health, and their biosynthesis, metabolism and accumulation are affected by environmental factors. Light condition (light quality, light intensity and photoperiod) is one of the most important environmental variables in regulating vegetable growth, development and phytochemical accumulation, particularly for vegetables produced in controlled environments. With the development of LED (light-emitting diode) technology, light environment regulation has become increasingly feasible for the provision of ideal light quality, intensity and photoperiod for protected facilities. In this review, the effects of light quality regulation on phytochemical accumulation in vegetables produced in controlled environments are identified, highlighting the research progress and advantages of LED technology as a light environment regulation tool for modifying phytochemical accumulation in vegetables.
      PubDate: 2014-06-14T08:46:41.609579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6789
  • Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatments on ethylene production,
           water-soluble phenolic compounds and fruit quality of Japanese plums
    • Authors: Burhan Ozturk; Kenan Yıldız, Emine Kucuker
      Abstract: Background The effects of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatments on ethylene production, respiration rate, bioactive compounds and physico-chemical parameters of plum fruits (Prunus salicina Lindell cv. ‘Fortune’ and ‘Friar’) were investigated. Whole trees were sprayed once with an aqueous solution containing MJ (0, 1120 and 2240 mg L−1) two weeks before the anticipated commercial harvest for each cultivar. Results In both plum cultivars, 1120 mg L−1 MJ significantly increased hue angle of fruits. The fruit mass and geometric mean diameter were lower in MJ treatments while flesh firmness was higher, except at initial harvest date. Soluble solids concentration increased and titratable acidity decreased with MJ treatments. MJ-treated fruits exhibited higher levels of ethylene production and respiration rate. MJ was more effective in increasing water-soluble antioxidant activity, water-soluble phenolics and individual phenolics. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, naringenin and kaempferol contents significantly increased with 2240 mg L−1 MJ. Conclusions This study revealed that pre-harvest MJ treatments were effective in delaying softening of late-harvested fruits and increasing bioactive compounds of plum fruits.
      PubDate: 2014-06-14T08:46:35.966919-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6787
  • Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
           using liquid solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction
    • Authors: Laura Jaime; Erika Vázquez, Tiziana Fornari, María del Carmen Lopez-Hazas, Mónica R. Garcia-Risco, Susana Santoyo, Guillermo Reglero
      Abstract: Background In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid–liquid extraction (SLE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. Results The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO2 extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds shows the highest antioxidant activities, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also shows a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts present an important anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported.
      PubDate: 2014-06-14T08:26:37.320406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6788
  • Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants acclimated to Benin on in
           vitro ruminal fermentation of Andropogon gayanus grass
    • Authors: Jacques B Kouazounde; Long Jin, Fidele M Assogba, Marc A Ayedoun, Yuxi Wang, Karen A Beauchemin, Tim A McAllister, Joachim D Gbenou
      Abstract: Background Plants from West Africa commonly used in both human and veterinary medicine contain various secondary metabolites. However, their potential in mitigating ruminal methane production has not been explored. This study examined the effects of seven essential oils (EO) from plants acclimated to Benin at 4 dosages (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L−1), on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation and methane production using Andropogon gayanus grass as a substrate. Results Compared to control, Laurus nobilis (300–400 mg L−1), Citrus aurantifolia (300–400 mg L−1) and Ocimum gratissimum (200–400 mg L−1) decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T15:19:40.148749-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6785
  • Comparison on the fatty acid profiles of liver, subcutaneous fat and
           muscle from feedlot steers finished on diets supplemented with or without
           cinnamaldehyde or monensin
    • Authors: M. L. He; J. J. Jia, W. Z. Yang
      Abstract: Background Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) is the main active component of cinnamon (C. cassia) oil and has been tested as alternative feed additive in cattle production. Little information was available on the effect of dietary CIN in comparison to monensin (MO) on beef fatty acid (FA) profile. This study analysed FA profiles of liver, subcutaneous fat and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) muscle obtained from steers (n = 70) finished on diets: control, a barley grain – silage feedlot diet; 330 mg/ MO; and 400, 800 or 1600 mg/ CIN treatments. Results inclusion of MO or CIN did not affect total saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated FA and individual FA in the various tissues with exceptions that proportion of palmitic acid in PCD muscle was increased by 800 mg/ CIN (P < 0.05). There were positive correlations (P < 0.05) on oleic, linoleic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-c9,t11 and 18:1-t10 between the subcutaneous fat and PCD muscle, and on alpha-linolenic acid, CLA-c9,t11 and 18:1-t10 between PCD muscle and liver. Whereas, correlations on the FA between the subcutaneous fat and liver were not significant except for 18:1-t10 (P < 0.01). Conclusion The results indicate that the supplementation of CIN and MO to feedlot diet has limited effect on beef FA profiles.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T15:18:25.6275-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6786
  • Comparison of Extracellular DNase- and Protease-Producing Spoilage
           Bacteria Isolated from Delaware Pond-sourced and Retail Channel Catfish
           (Ictalurus punctatus)
    • Authors: Michael E. Hickey; Gina M. Accumanno, Dennis M. McIntosh, Grant S. Blank, Jung-Lim Lee
      Abstract: Background Spoilage of fishery products begins immediately following filleting due to microbial growth that degrades fish tissue quality prior to consumption. Extensive research has been conducted to identify such bacterial populations. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in fish spoilage are necessary as a novel remedy for microbial spoilage inhibition has yet to be established for fish tissue. The present study identified, for the first time, bacterial populations that produce extracellular DNase and protease from Delaware and local retail distributed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Results A clear trend was identified between bacteria derived from catfish filleted under aseptic conditions where Pseudomonas was the dominant genus. Bacteria isolated from retail catfish contained high quantities of DNase-producing isolates; contrary to aseptic-filleted catfish tissue which had none. Both catfish sample-types maintained high populations of protease-producing bacterial colonies throughout the duration of the study. Most bacteria isolated from catfish intestines exhibited DNase-production with no protease-production. Conclusion Specific spoilage organism (SSO) populations were significantly higher on retail-derived catfish in comparison to lab-filleted Delaware cultured catfish tissue. It is suggested that DNase- and protease-production contribute to the spoilage of fish tissue as a result of mishandling and septic-filleting being the major cause of rapid catfish tissue spoilage.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T15:18:10.476456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6784
  • Application of response surface methodology to optimize microbial
           inactivation of shrimp and conch by supercritical carbon dioxide
    • Authors: Manhua Chen; Xiao Sui, Xixiu Ma, Xiaomei Feng, Yuqian Han
      Abstract: Background Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been shown to have a good pasteurizing effect on food. However, very few research papers have investigated the possibility to exploit this treatment for solid foods, particularly for seafood. Considering the microbial safety of raw seafood consumption, the study aimed to explore the feasibility of microbial inactivation of shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and conch (Rapana venosa) by SC-CO2 treatment. Results Response surface methodology (RSM) models were established to predict and analyze the SC-CO2 process. A 3.69-log reduction in the total aerobic plate count (TPC) of shrimp was observed by SC-CO2 treatment at 53 °C, 15 MPa for 40 min, and the logarithmic reduction in TPC of conch was 3.31 at 55 °C, 14 MPa for 42 min. Sensory scores of the products achieved approximately 8 (desirable). The optimal parameters for microbial inactivation of shrimp and conch by SC-CO2 might be 55 °C, 15 MPa and 40 min. Conclusion SC-CO2 exerted a strong bactericidal effect on the TPC of shrimp and conch, and the products maintained good organoleptic properties. This study verified the feasibility of microbial inactivation of shrimp and conch by SC-CO2 treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T15:15:58.084683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6783
  • Whole-genome based validation of the adaptive properties of Indian origin
           probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463
    • Authors: Suja Senan; Jashbhai B Prajapati, Chaitanya G Joshi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to mine the Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 genome for genetic determinants to validate its ability to adapt to gut transit stresses and translate functionality to the host. RESULTS In silico analysis of the 1 911 350 bp single chromosome of the strain predicted that it had excellent adaptive features like the multisubunit F0F1 ATPase, conjugated bile salt hyrolase, chaperones like hsp33, HtrA, GroEL, GroES, dnaK, grpE, starvation-inducible proteins and heavy-metal transporting ATPases. The genome revealed genes for adhesion and aggregation including exopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides sortase, elongation factor Tu, aggregation promoting proteins, fibronectin-binding proteins, S-layer and mucus-binding proteins. We could identify genes conferring physiological benefits like immunostimulation, cholesterol reduction, antibacterial and folate production. Thus, through trait and gene matching, the study established that the strain possessed the genetic arsenal required to adapt to the gut milieu. The predictions of functional genes further validate the experimental evidences of adaptation and probiosis. CONCLUSION This study provides insight into the feasibility of applying probiogenomics to identify genes that could function as pre-selection criteria for identification of potential probiotic strains. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T05:53:33.324967-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6721
  • Optimization of extraction conditions and fatty acid characterization of
           Lactobacillus pentosus cell-bound biosurfactant/bioemulsifier
    • Authors: Xanel Vecino; Letricia Barbosa-Pereira, Rosa Devesa-Rey, José M Cruz, Ana B Moldes
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There is currently much interest in the use of natural biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, mainly in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. However, there are no studies on the optimization of the extraction conditions of cell-bound biosurfactants. In this work, a biosurfactant with emulsifier properties was extracted from Lactobacillus pentosus cells, under different extraction conditions, and characterized. RESULTS During extraction, the most influential independent variable, concerning the emulsifying capacity of biosurfactant, was the operation time, followed by temperature and salt concentration. Biosurfactant from L. pentosus was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the composition of fatty acids was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The hydrophobic chain of the biosurfactant from L. pentosus comprises 548 g kg−1 linoelaidic acid (C18:2), 221 g kg−1 oleic or elaidic acid (C18:1), 136 g kg−1 palmitic acid (C16) and 95 g kg−1 stearic acid (C18). In addition, emulsions of water and rosemary oil were stabilized with a biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus and compared with emulsions stabilized with polysorbate 20. CONCLUSION The optimum extraction conditions of biosurfactant were achieved at 45 °C at 120 min and using 9 g kg−1 of salt. In all the assays biosurfactant from L. pentosus yielded more stable emulsions and higher emulsion volumes than polysorbate 20. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T05:23:20.923253-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6720
  • Recycling slaughterhouse waste into fertilizer: how do pyrolysis
           temperature and biomass additions affect phosphorus availability and
    • Authors: Marie J Zwetsloot; Johannes Lehmann, Dawit Solomon
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pyrolysis of slaughterhouse waste could promote more sustainable phosphorus (P) usage through the development of alternative P fertilizers. This study investigated how pyrolysis temperature (220, 350, 550 and 750 °C), rendering before pyrolysis, and wood or corn biomass additions affect P chemistry in bone char, plant availability, and its potential as P fertilizer. RESULTS Linear combination fitting of synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra demonstrated that higher pyrolysis temperatures decreased the fit with organic P references, but increased the fit with a hydroxyapatite (HA) reference, used as an indicator of high calcium phosphate (CaP) crystallinity. The fit to the HA reference increased from 0% to 69% in bone with meat residue and from 20% to 95% in rendered bone. Biomass additions to the bone with meat residue reduced the fit to the HA reference by 83% for wood and 95% for corn, and additions to rendered bone by 37% for wood. No detectable aromatic P forms were generated by pyrolysis. High CaP crystallinity was correlated with low water-extractable P, but high formic acid-extractable P indicative of high plant availability. Bone char supplied available P which was only 24% lower than Triple Superphosphate fertilizer and two- to five-fold higher than rock phosphate. CONCLUSION Pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions can be used to design P fertilizer characteristics of bone char through changing CaP crystallinity that optimize P availability to plants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-10T10:34:20.497187-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6716
  • Identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of hydrocarbons in
           commercial fish oil supplements
    • Authors: Anna-Jean M Reid; Suzanne M Budge
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Heightened awareness of the health benefits of fish oil consumption has led to a great increase in the number of fish oil supplements available to the consumer. Therefore manufacturers are continually looking for ways to distinguish their products from those of competitors. Minimally refined or virgin fish oils provide a unique feature; however, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills is a reality in the world's oceans. The question arises whether oil produced from fish species caught in these polluted areas is free of petroleum hydrocarbons, with particular interest in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). This study investigates the presence of UCMs in commercially available fish oil supplements advertised as being virgin, as well as refined. RESULTS Weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the form of a UCM were found at 523 µg g−1 in a virgin Alaskan salmon oil supplement. Supplements that were refined were free of this contamination. CONCLUSION Fish used in the production of fish oil supplements appear to have accumulated petrogenic hydrocarbons in their tissues which were not removed by minimal oil refining. Further study is required to determine if there are any health implications associated with long-term consumption of these contaminated supplements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-10T10:33:48.368691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6741
  • Effects of UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic composition of
           leaves and berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano
    • Authors: María-Ángeles Del-Castillo-Alonso; María P Diago, Laura Monforte, Javier Tardaguila, Javier Martínez-Abaigar, Encarnación Núñez-Olivera
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces adaptive responses that can be used for plant production improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of solar UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic compounds of leaves and berry skins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano under field conditions. Phenolic compounds were analyzed globally and individually in both the vacuolar fraction and, for the first time in grapevine, the cell wall-bound fraction. These different locations may represent diverse modalities of phenolic response to and protection against UV. RESULTS UV exclusion led to a decrease in Fv/Fm in leaves, revealing that solar UV is needed for adequate photoprotection. Only p-caffeoyl-tartaric acid from the soluble fraction of leaves and myricetin-3-O-glucoside from the soluble fraction of berry skins were significantly higher in the presence of UV radiation, and thus they could play a role in UV protection. Other hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, flavanols and stilbenes did not respond to UV exclusion. CONCLUSION UV exclusion led to subtle changes in leaves and berry skins of Graciano cultivar, which would be well adapted to current UV levels. This may help support decision-making on viticultural practices modifying UV exposure of leaves and berries, which could improve grape and wine quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-10T05:51:41.277688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6738
  • Effect of cooking methods on cholesterol, mineral composition and
           formation of total heterocyclic aromatic amines in Muscovy drake meat
    • Authors: A Babatunde Omojola; Saheed A Ahmed, Victoria Attoh-Kotoku, GS Ikani Wogar
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cholesterol, minerals and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are of great importance in determining meat quality to humans and therefore of concern to meat consumers because of health reasons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various cooking methods (grilling, deep frying, pan frying and roasting) on the formation of total HAAs, cholesterol and mineral retention in Muscovy drake breast meat. Total HAAs and cholesterol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, while minerals were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS Muscovy drake breast meat cooked by deep frying had the highest content of total HAAs (31.83 ng g−1), followed by roasted (30.12 ng g−1), pan-fried (29.23 ng g−1) and grilled (27.34 ng g−1) fillets. The cholesterol content was highest in deep-fried fillets (59.09 mg g−1), followed by roasted fillets (58.61 mg g−1), while grilling resulted in the lowest cholesterol content (57.00 mg g−1). The mineral content was highest in deep-fried samples and lowest in roasted fillets. Magnesium retention was affected by the cooking method and was higher in deep-fried samples (110.57%) than in grilled (97.97%), pan-fried (88.99%) and roasted (78.46%) fillets. Generally, the total HAA, cholesterol and mineral content in cooked Muscovy drake breast meat varied with the cooking method. CONCLUSION Moderate consumption of deep-fried Muscovy drake meat should be encouraged, as deep frying increased its cholesterol, total HAA and mineral content compared with the other cooking methods investigated. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-09T05:05:44.716392-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6687
  • Effect of sorghum type and malting on production of free amino nitrogen in
           conjunction with exogenous protease enzymes
    • Authors: Bhekisisa C Dlamini; Elna M Buys, John RN Taylor
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sorghum types suitable for brewing and bioethanol production are required. The effect of sorghum type (white non-tannin versus white type II tannin) on free amino nitrogen (FAN) production from sorghum grain and malt using exogenous protease enzymes was investigated over extended incubation at moderate temperature (45 °C). RESULTS With grain in the absence of exogenous proteases, white non-tannin sorghum produced substantially higher levels of FAN than white type II tannin sorghum, due to the tannins in the latter. Incubating sorghum grain with neutral proteinase and amino-peptidase in combination improved FAN production. The two sorghum types produced similar FAN levels when malted and incubated in the absence of the exogenous proteases. When both sorghums were malted and incubated with neutral proteinase alone substantially more FAN yield (124–126 mg 100 g−1) occurred than with grains (61–84 mg 100 g−1). The combination of amino-peptidase and proteinase did not improve FAN further. Neither, did malting influence wort free amino acid profile. Group B amino acids constituted the highest percentage (42–47%). CONCLUSION With grain, white non-tannin sorghum plus proteinase and amino-peptidase yields the highest FAN, with malt both white non-tannin and white type II tannin sorghums plus proteinase yield the highest FAN. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-09T05:05:23.44369-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6739
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Huub Lelieveld; Hans Steinhart
      First page: 1917
      PubDate: 2014-06-05T04:16:26.635646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6746
  • Middle East food safety perspectives
    • Authors: Atef W Idriss; Mohammad S El-Habbab
      First page: 1922
      Abstract: Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T08:40:47.932662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6571
  • International perspectives on food safety and
           regulations – a need for harmonized regulations:
           perspectives in China
    • Authors: Xiumei Liu
      First page: 1928
      Abstract: Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the ‘Twelfth Five-year Plan’ of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-09T09:43:10.604854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6646
  • European perspectives of food safety
    • Authors: Diána Bánáti
      First page: 1941
      Abstract: Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety ‘from farm to fork’ aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-25T06:48:08.581547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6611
  • A perspective of food safety laws in Mexico
    • Authors: Marco A Leon; Esmeralda Paz
      First page: 1954
      Abstract: Mexico, with a population of 112 million, is one of the most interesting countries in the world with regard to food, hunger, domestic food consumption, tourism and international trade, and it deserves an in-depth study to explain the status of its food safety laws. Mexico has a strong and stable emerging economy and is the second country worldwide with regard to the number of free-trade agreements. Nevertheless, more than half the population lives in poverty. However, Mexico is a huge market for food consumption because, in addition to its own population, it receives 20 million international tourists per year. So, multi-national food companies have representatives and facilities throughout the country. This scenario may explain the evolution of food safety laws in Mexico, as well as the challenges that must be faced in order to achieve food safety. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T08:35:34.767215-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6430
  • Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards
    • Authors: Dilip Ghosh
      First page: 1970
      Abstract: Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi‐governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co‐operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-14T03:34:44.020518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6657
  • Study on an electrochromatography method based on organic–inorganic
           hybrid molecularly imprinted monolith for determination of trace
           trichlorfon in vegetables
    • Authors: Tao Zhao; Qingqing Wang, Jie Li, Xuguang Qiao, Zhixiang Xu
      First page: 1974
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Organophosphorus pesticides have been widely used in agricultural production. However, the wide use of organophosphate also results in pesticide residues on the plant, which are harmful to human health because of their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Therefore, it is vital to develop a sensitive and effective analysis method to control pesticide residues. RESULTS In this study, a novel molecularly imprinted capillary monolithic column was prepared using trichlorfon as the template molecule by combining non-hydrolytic sol–gel process with a molecular imprinting technique. The resulting material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. Under capillary electrochromatography, the effects of voltage, pH, ACN content and concentration of buffer solution on the electro-osmotic flow (EOF) of imprinted capillary monolithic column were evaluated in detail. Using this prepared material as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography, a novel method of molecularly imprinted capillary electrochromatography (MICEC) for the detection of trace trichlorfon residues in vegetables was developed. Under optimal conditions, appreciable sensitivity was achieved with a LOD (S/N = 3) of 92.5 µg kg−1 and method quantitation limit (MQL) of 305.3 µg kg−1, respectively. The linear ranges of the calibration graph were 0.1 µg L−1 to 10 mg L−1. The peak area precision (RSD) for five replicate extractions of 0.01 mg L−1 trichlorfon standard aqueous solution was 4.5%. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the blank cucumber and cauliflower samples spiked with trichlorfon were extracted and analyzed by this method with good recoveries, ranging from 80.2% to 95.8%. Moreover, this method was successfully applied to the quantitative detection of the trichlorfon residues in leek samples. CONCLUSION With good properties of high sensitivity and simple pre-treatment, this MICEC method could provide a new tool for the rapid determination of trace trichlorfon residue in complex food samples. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-02T10:22:35.013955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6511
  • Assessment of flower number per inflorescence in grapevine by image
           analysis under field conditions
    • Authors: Maria P Diago; Andres Sanz-Garcia, Borja Millan, Jose Blasco, Javier Tardaguila
      First page: 1981
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Flowers, flowering and fruit set are key determinants of grapevine yield. Currently, practical methods to assess the flower number per inflorescence, necessary for fruit set estimation, are time and labour demanding. This work aims at developing a simple, cheap, fast, accurate and robust machine vision methodology to be applied to RGB images taken under field conditions, to estimate the number of flowers per inflorescence automatically. RESULTS Ninety images of individual inflorescences of Vitis vinifera L. cultivars Tempranillo, Graciano and Carignan were acquired in the vineyard with a pocket RGB camera prior to flowering, and used to develop and test the ‘flower counting’ algorithm. Strong and significant relationships, with R2 above 80% for the three cultivars were observed between actual and automated estimation of inflorescence flower numbers, with a precision exceeding 90% for all cultivars. CONCLUSION The developed algorithm proved that the analysis of digital images captured by pocket cameras under uncontrolled outdoors conditions was able to automatically provide a useful estimation of the number of flowers per inflorescence of grapevines at early stages of flowering. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T09:24:25.288787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6512
  • Prediction of the ageing of commercial lager beer during storage based on
           the degradation of iso-α-acids
    • Authors: Carlos A Blanco; Dieudonné Nimubona, Isabel Caballero
      First page: 1988
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Iso-α-acids and their chemically modified variants are responsible for the bitterness of beer and play a disproportionately large role in the final quality of beer. The current study was undertaken to predict the degradation of commercial lager beers related to changes in the concentration of trans-iso-α-acids during storage by using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS In the analysed beers the concentration of isohumulone (average concentration 28 mg L−1) was greater than that of isocohumulone (20 mg L−1) and isoadhumulone (10 mg L−1). The kinetic parameters, activation energy and rate constant, of the trans-iso-α-acids were calculated. In the case of dark beers, the activation energy for the degradation of trans-isocohumulones was found to be higher than for trans-isohumulones and trans-isoadhumulones, whereas in pale and alcohol-free beers activation energies for the degradation of the three trans isomers were similar. CONCLUSION The loss of iso-α-acids can be calculated using the activation energy of the degradation of trans-iso-α-acids and the temperature profile of the accelerated ageing. The results obtained in the investigation can be used in the beer industry to predict the alteration of the bitterness of beer during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-02T11:08:26.941185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6513
  • Enhancement of survival of alginate-encapsulated Lactobacillus casei NCDC
    • Authors: Surajit Mandal; Subrota Hati, Anil Kumar Puniya, Kaushik Khamrui, Kishan Singh
      First page: 1994
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Micro-encapsulation of hydrocolloids improves the survival of sensitive probiotic bacteria in the harsh conditions that prevail in foods and during gastrointestinal passage by segregating them from environments. Incorporation of additives in encapsulating hydrocolloids and coatings of microcapsules further improves the survival of the probiotics. In this study, the effect of incorporation of resistant-maize starch in alginate for micro-encapsulation and coating of microcapsules with poly-l-lysine, stearic acid and bees wax on the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei NCDC 298 at pH 1.5, 2% high bile salt, 65 °C for 20 min and release of viable lactobacilli cells from the capsule matrix in simulated aqueous solutions of colonic pH were assessed. RESULTS Addition of resistant maize starch (2%) improved the survival of encapsulated L. casei NCDC 298. Coating of microcapsules with poly-l-lysine did not further improve the protection of encapsulated cells from the harsh conditions; however, bees wax and stearic acid (2%) improved the survival under similar conditions. Incorporation of maize starch (2%) in alginate followed by coating of beads with stearic acid (2%) led to better protection and complete release of entrapped lactobacilli in simulated colonic pH solution was observed. CONCLUSION Additional treatments improve the survival of alginate-encapsulated lactobacilli cells without hindering the release of active cells from the capsule matrix and hence, the resulting encapsulated probiotics can be exploited in the development of probiotic functional foods with better survival of sensitive probiotic organisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T04:51:05.634623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6514
  • Effect of combining conventional frying with radio-frequency post-drying
           on acrylamide level and quality attributes of potato chips
    • Authors: Esra Koklamaz; T Koray Palazoğlu, Tolgahan Kocadağlı, Vural Gökmen
      First page: 2002
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In conventional manufacturing of potato chips, achieving an extremely low moisture content (2% by weight) in the final product necessitates prolonged exposure of potato slices to high oil temperatures. This promotes acrylamide formation and causes an exponential increase in acrylamide level toward the end of the frying process. In this regard, frying potato slices partially in hot oil followed by a radio-frequency (RF) drying treatment to selectively heat the remaining moisture appears to be a viable approach in terms of limiting acrylamide formation. RESULTS RF post-drying of partially fried potato slices resulted in lower acrylamide levels (80.4 ng g−1 for control, 59.4 ng g−1 for RF post-dried potato slices partially fried for 95 s, 54.8 ng g−1 for RF post-dried potato slices partially fried for 80 s). This process modification also led a to 12% reduction in oil content in the final product. According to instrumental analysis results, RF post-dried samples had lower hardness and a slightly lower degree of browning in comparison to control. No significant difference (α = 0.05) was found between samples in terms of sensory characteristics. CONCLUSION Results demonstrate that RF post-processing may be an effective strategy for minimising acrylamide levels of potato chips without adversely affecting quality attributes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T09:51:49.373547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6516
  • Formation of heat-induced cottonseed congossypin(7S) fibrils at pH 2.0
    • Authors: Jian-Zhong Zhou; Hui Zhang, Hai-Yan Yang, Li Wang, Hai-Feng Qian
      First page: 2009
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Heat-induced protein aggregation is important for the texture of various food products. Many types of food proteins have been found to assemble into fibrillar structures under certain conditions. We studied fibril formation of cottonseed 7S storage protein upon heating (for 0–720 min) at 90°C and pH 2.0, investigated the conversion rate, and determined the extent of thermal aggregation. RESULTS Thioflavin-T fluorescence and Congo-red analysis indicated the formation of amyloid-like fibrils upon heating. Centrifugal filtration indicated that the conversion was very low (
      PubDate: 2014-01-03T04:44:17.770542-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6517
  • Comparison of soil and foliar zinc application for enhancing grain zinc
           content of wheat when grown on potentially zinc-deficient calcareous soils
    • Authors: Ai-qing Zhao; Xiao-hong Tian, Yu-xian Cao, Xin-chun Lu, Ting Liu
      First page: 2016
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The concentration of Zn and phytic acid in wheat grain has important implications for human health. We conducted field and greenhouse experiments to compare the efficacy of soil and foliar Zn fertilisation in improving grain Zn concentration and bioavailability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain grown on potentially Zn-deficient calcareous soil. RESULTS Results from the 2-year field experiment indicated that soil Zn application increased soil DTPA-Zn by an average of 174%, but had no significant effect on grain Zn concentration. In contrast, foliar Zn application increased grain Zn concentration by an average of 61%, and Zn bioavailability by an average of 36%. Soil DTPA-Zn concentrations varied depending on wheat cultivars. There were also significant differences in grain phytic acid concentration among the cultivars. A laboratory experiment indicated that Zn (from ZnSO4) had a low diffusion coefficient in this calcareous soil. CONCLUSION Compared to soil Zn application, foliar Zn application is more effective in improving grain Zn content of wheat grown in potentially Zn-deficient calcareous soils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T05:58:17.316649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6518
  • Interactions between accumulated copper, bacterial community structure and
           histamine levels in crayfish meat during storage
    • Authors: Bernadeta Soedarini; Cornelis AM van Gestel, Nico M van Straalen, Budi Widianarko, Wilfred FM Röling
      First page: 2023
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pollution in aquaculture areas may negatively impact edible species and threaten seafood quality and safety. The aim of this study was to determine the interaction between copper and bacteria in the aquatic habitat and their impact upon crustaceans. Marbled crayfish was chosen as a model of aquatic crustaceans and the influence of metal contamination on bacterial community structure in water used to culture crayfish and in crayfish themselves was investigated. Histamine, an allergen commonly formed by certain groups of bacteria in crustacean edible tissue during storage, was also determined. RESULTS Copper exposure increased its concentration in crayfish meat by 17.4%, but the copper concentration remained within acceptable food safety limits. Elevated copper levels affected the bacterial community both in the water used to cultivate crayfish and in the marbled crayfish themselves. Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA-gene based microbial community fingerprints revealed that copper impacted the bacterial community in the water and in the crayfish meat. However, copper exposure reduced the formation of histamine in crayfish meat during storage by 66.3%. CONCLUSION Copper from the habitat appears to reduce histamine accumulation in crayfish meat during storage by affecting the bacterial community structure of the cultivation water and most likely also in the intestine of the crayfish. From a food safety point of view, copper treatment during the aqua culturing of crustaceans has a positive impact on the postharvest stage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-15T07:02:05.875606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6519
  • Sensory preferences among general Japanese consumers and physicochemical
           evaluation of deep-fried peanuts
    • Authors: Atsushi Miyagi; Yoshihiro Ogaki
      First page: 2030
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The development of food that satisfies consumer preferences is very important for producing commodities. In the present study, 132 Japanese consumers carried out sensory evaluation of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying times (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C, and the relationships among sensory elements and physicochemical properties were investigated. RESULT The sensory scores for colour, bitterness, and deep-fried peanut aroma increased (darker or stronger) with frying time, whereas the sweetness score was relatively high (strong) for frying times of 2, 4, 6 and 9 min, and then decreased (weaker) with increasing frying time. Frying times of 4, 6 and 9 min scored higher in overall liking than other times. Multiple-regression analysis indicated that the overall liking score was positively correlated with sweetness (standardised regression coefficient, β = +0.51) and deep-fried peanut aroma (β = +0.26) scores but negatively correlated with bitterness score (β = −0.25). Multiple-regression analysis also indicated a difference in sensory preference by gender. Sensory elements were closely related to the physicochemical properties, including the colour indexes (CIELAB colour space) and the sucrose and water contents. When L* (CIELAB colour space, lightness index) was 53–64 and water content was 10–30 g kg−1, the mean overall liking score was relatively high implying acceptable fried peanut quality. CONCLUSION Relationships among individual sensory elements were confirmed. Multiple-regression analysis indicated a strong positive correlation between sweetness and overall liking and a small difference in sensory preference by gender. Sensory evaluations can thus be expressed by physicochemical properties. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-31T05:58:54.125372-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6521
  • The effect of macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits on their
           sensory properties and on hedonic liking of older people
    • Authors: Roussa Tsikritzi; Paula J Moynihan, Margot A Gosney, Victoria J Allen, Lisa Methven
      First page: 2040
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Under-nutrition in older adults is widespread. Oral nutritional supplement beverages (ONS) are prescribed, yet consumption by older people is often insufficient. A variety of supplement formats may improve nutrient intake. This study developed protein and micro-nutrient fortified biscuits and evaluated their sensory attributes and liking by older people. Two micro-nutrient strategies were taken, to match typical ONS and to customise to the needs of older people. RESULTS Oat biscuits and gluten-free biscuits developed contained over 12% protein and over 460 kcal 100 g−1. Two small (40 g) biscuits developed to match ONS provided approximately 40% of an ONS portion of micro-nutrients and 60% of macro-nutrients; however, the portion size was considered realistic whereas the average ONS portion (200 mL) is excessive. Biscuits developed to the needs of older adults provided, on average, 18% of the reference nutrient intake of targeted micro-nutrients. Sensory characteristics were similar between biscuits with and without micro-nutrient fortification, leading to no differences in liking. Fortified oat biscuits were less liked than commercial oat biscuits, partly attributed to flavour imparted by whey protein fortification. CONCLUSION Macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits could provide an alternative fortified snack to help alleviate malnutrition in older adults. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-28T06:03:53.397536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6522
  • Color and illuminance level of lighting can modulate willingness to eat
           bell peppers
    • Authors: Aimee Hasenbeck; Sungeun Cho, Jean-François Meullenet, Tonya Tokar, Famous Yang, Elizabeth A Huddleston, Han-Seok Seo
      First page: 2049
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Food products are often encountered under colored lighting, particularly in restaurants and retail stores. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether the color of ambient lighting can affect consumers' motivation for consumption. This study aimed to determine whether color (Experiment 1) and illuminance level (Experiment 2) of lighting can influence consumers' liking of appearance and their willingness to eat bell peppers. RESULTS For red, green, and yellow bell peppers, yellow and blue lighting conditions consistently increased participants' liking of appearance the most and the least, respectively. Participants' willingness to consume bell peppers increased the most under yellow lighting and the least under blue lighting. In addition, a dark condition (i.e. low level of lighting illuminance) decreased liking of appearance and willingness to eat the bell peppers compared to a bright condition (i.e. high level of lighting illuminance). CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrate that lighting color and illuminance level can influence consumers' hedonic impression and likelihood to consume bell peppers. Furthermore, the influences of color and illuminance level of lighting appear to be dependent on the surface color of bell peppers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T09:26:26.939399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6523
  • Biogenic amines formation, nucleotide degradation and TVB-N accumulation
           of vacuum-packed minced sturgeon (Acipenser schrencki) stored at
           4 °C and their relation to microbiological attributes
    • Authors: Meng Gui; Binzhao, Juyi Song, Zhichao Zhang, Pengzhao Hui, Pinglan Li
      First page: 2057
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sturgeon (Acipenser schrencki) were filleted, minced, vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C. Minced sturgeon muscles were analysed for 10 days to determine biochemical [eight biogenic amines, ATP and breakdown products, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and pH], microbiological (total viable counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Lactobacillus and Brochothrix thermosphacta) changes and their relationships. RESULTS The shelf-life of sturgeon was found to be 3–4 days according to microbiological assessment. At the end of the storage, Psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas became the dominant bacteria, reaching 7.85, 7.98 and 8.02 log cfu g−1, respectively. Biogenic amines, hypoxanthine and the K value increased significantly (P < 0.05) during the storage. Putrescine and cadaverine was the dominant biogenic amines while tryptamine was not detected during the storage. In addition, putrescine, cadaverine and hypoxanthine were highly related to storage time and total viable counts (r2, 0.876–0.962), indicating that they can be good biomarkers for quality assessment of vacuum-packed minced sturgeon stored at 4 °C. CONCLUSION In this study, key biochemical and microbiological attributes were established to monitor the spoilage and shelf life of vacuum-packed sturgeon. These results could help to establish better cold storage management of minced sturgeon products under commercial conditions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-29T09:05:27.460179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6524
  • Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid
           concentrations in Vitis vinifera var. Riesling musts and wines
    • Authors: Inga Smit; Marco Pfliehinger, Antonie Binner, Manfred Großmann, Walter J Horst, Otmar Löhnertz
      First page: 2064
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wines rich in biogenic amines can cause adverse health effects to the consumer. Being nitrogen-containing substances, the amount of amines in wines might be strongly influenced by the rate of nitrogen fertiliser application during grape production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation in the vineyard on the formation of biogenic amines in musts and wines. RESULTS In a field experiment which compared unfertilised and fertilised (60 and 150 kg N ha−1) vines over two separate years, the total amine concentrations in must and wine increased. The latter was due to an increase of individual amines such as ethylamine, histamine, isopentylamine, phenylethylamine and spermidine in the musts and wines with the nitrogen application. Furthermore, the fermentation process increased the concentration of histamine and ethylamine in most of the treatments, while spermidine, spermine and isopentylamine concentrations generally decreased. Throughout both vintages, the concentrations of tyramine and histamine of the investigated musts and wines never reached detrimental levels to the health of non-allergenic people. CONCLUSIONS Nitrogen fertilisation has a significant effect on amines formation in musts and wines. Furthermore, during fermentation, ethylamine and histamine increased while other amines were presumably serving as N sources during fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-15T08:17:02.425099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6525
  • Study of the effect of vintage, maturity degree, and irrigation on the
           amino acid and biogenic amine content of a white wine from the Verdejo
    • Authors: Miriam Ortega-Heras; Silvia Pérez-Magariño, Vanesa Del-Villar-Garrachón, Carlos González-Huerta, Luis Carlos Moro Gonzalez, Alberto Guadarrama Rodríguez, Sonia Villanueva Sanchez, Rubén Gallo González, Sara Martín de la Helguera
      First page: 2073
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three factors directly related to the amino acid content of grapes and their interaction. These three factors were vintage, maturity degree and irrigation. The evolution of amino acid was also assessed during the winemaking along with the effect of maturity and irrigation on the biogenic amine formation. The grapes used for this study were of the Verdejo variety. RESULTS The results indicated that there was a strong vintage effect on amino acid content in grapes, which seemed to be clearly related to climatic conditions. The effect of maturity on amino acid content depended on vintage, irrigation and the amino acid itself although it was observed that irrigation caused the increase of most amino acids present in the berry. Irrigation did not affect the evolution of nitrogen compounds during the alcoholic fermentation process but the maturity degree in some of the amino acids tested did so. No direct relationship could be established between irrigation or maturity degree and biogenic amines. However, it should be noted that the biogenic amine content was very low. CONCLUSIONS Vintage has a strong effect on the amino acid content in grapes which appears to be related to weather conditions. No direct relationship has been found between irrigation or maturity degree and biogenic amines content. Furthermore, it is noted that biogenic amine content found in final wines was very low. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-17T04:40:32.405352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6526
  • Investigation of overfoaming activities and gushing mechanisms of
           individual beer ingredients as model substances in bottled carbonated
    • Authors: Ahmet Alper Aydın; Vladimir Ilberg, Jean Titze
      First page: 2083
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Researchers in several disciplines are interested in understanding the spontaneous and eruptive overfoaming (gushing) of carbonated beverages, as it is an essential problem of both the brewing and beverage industries. In order to understand the mechanism(s) taking place in gushing beer, several beer ingredients have been investigated as model substances in a much simpler matrix of carbonated water. For this purpose, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and palmitic acid have been chosen as model beer ingredients. RESULTS Gushing formation of the investigated beer ingredients depends on the degree of stabilized solvated molecular carbon dioxide in water. For this purpose, functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds with electronegative oxygen atoms of carbon dioxide are needed. However, the solubility of the substances plays an important role in the abundance of these functional groups in undissociated form to interact with molecular carbon dioxide. CONCLUSION The reported data provide valuable insights into the gushing problem and help to understand its formation pathways. Each gushing-positive substance has an individual mechanism related to its structural conformation and solubility level. Therefore possible gushing mechanisms have been proposed with respect to the structural changes in model substances to clarify the differences in observed overfoaming and gushing stability levels. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-20T10:38:17.026886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6528
  • Optimization of methyl jasmonate application to broccoli florets to
           enhance health-promoting phytochemical content
    • Authors: Kang Mo Ku; Elizabeth H Jeffery, John A Juvik
      First page: 2090
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Spray treatment of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been shown to increase glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and health-promoting activity in Brassica vegetables. Since there is no reported standardized protocol, several MeJA treatment studies have been conducted to maximize human health bioactivity using the F1 broccoli cultivar ‘Green Magic’. RESULTS Foliar MeJA application 4 days prior to harvest of broccoli at commercial maturity resulted in enhanced total GS concentrations. Although a single application of 250 µmol L−1 MeJA maximized GS concentrations in broccoli florets, two days of consecutive treatments (4 and 3 days prior to harvest) of 250 µmol L−1 MeJA further enhanced neoglucobrassicin concentrations and floret extract quinone reductase (QR)-inducing activity. With increasing concentrations of MeJA in spray applications to broccoli florets, concentrations of the glucosinolates glucoraphanin, gluconasturtiin and neoglucobrassicin and the isothiocyanate sulforaphane as well as anticancer and anti-inflammatory bioactivities as measured by QR induction and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production respectively were significantly increased. Concentrations of these phytochemicals showed strong positive correlations with QR-inducing and NO-inhibitory activities. CONCLUSION These application protocols were found to maximize GS and GS hydrolysis product concentrations and putatively enhance the health-promoting properties of broccoli heads for consumers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T04:55:45.756584-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6529
  • Characterization and antimicrobial properties of food packaging
           methylcellulose films containing stem extract of Ginja cherry
    • Authors: Débora Campos; Clara Piccirillo, Robert C Pullar, Paula ML Castro, Maria ME Pintado
      First page: 2097
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Food contamination and spoilage is a problem causing growing concern. To avoid it, the use of food packaging with appropriate characteristics is essential; ideally, the packaging should protect food from external contamination and exhibit antibacterial properties. With this aim, methylcellulose (MC) films containing natural extracts from the stems of Ginja cherry, an agricultural by-product, were developed and characterized. RESULTS The antibacterial activity of films was screened by the disc diffusion method and quantified using the viable cell count assay. The films inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains (Listeria innocua, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli). For the films with lower extract content, effectiveness against the microorganisms depended on the inoculum concentration. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that those containing the extracts had a smooth and continuous structure. UV–visible spectroscopy showed that these materials do not transmit light in the UV. CONCLUSION This study shows that MC films containing agricultural by-products, in this case Ginja cherry stem extract, could be used to prevent food contamination by relevant bacterial strains and degradation by UV light. Using such materials in food packaging, the shelf life of food products could be extended while utilizing an otherwise wasted by-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-24T04:35:29.997358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6530
  • Quality characterization of wheat, maize and sorghum steamed breads from
    • Authors: Pulane Nkhabutlane; Gerrie E du Rand, Henriëtte L de Kock
      First page: 2104
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In Lesotho, traditional bread covers different types of dumplings prepared with cereal flour, water, salt and sourdough. This study characterized eight steamed breads prepared from wheat, maize and sorghum. Breads were prepared from both commercial and self-milled flours according to the procedures followed in rural and urban areas of Lesotho. Descriptive sensory evaluation was conducted to profile sensory properties of the breads. Flour particle sizes, sourdough properties and bread colour, volume and texture were also characterized. RESULTS The type of cereal and milling properties of the flour used had substantial effects on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Steamed wheat breads had greater volume, softer crumb and more bland flavour compared with sorghum and maize breads. Both sorghum and maize steamed breads prepared according to traditional Basotho procedures were characterized by low loaf volume, denser crumb, more complex and strong flavours and aroma, notably sour, musty, malty, dairy sour and fermented aroma. The texture of the non-wheat bread types was heavy, chewy, dry, fibrous and more brittle and needed a higher compression force to deform. CONCLUSION This study provided insight on the sensory properties of steamed bread as prepared in Lesotho. Further research is needed to optimize sensory properties of the non-wheat steamed breads by controlling the flour particle size, compositing non-wheat flours with different levels of wheat flour, addition of protein sources and gums, altering the amount of water, improving the pre-gelatinization process and optimizing the steaming method of cooking bread. [[ArtCopyrightmsg]]
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T09:18:31.076803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6531
  • Chlorogenic acid in raw materials for the production of chicory coffee
    • Authors: Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak; Elżbieta Wojtowicz, Krzysztof Przygoński, Mariola Olkowicz
      First page: 2118
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chicory coffee is produced from traditional raw materials. Other materials are added to improve its aroma. The aim of this study was to test new raw materials with a high content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) as the criterion for their selection. This acid is degraded in the course of roasting and is a source of phenolic compounds affecting coffee aroma. For this reason, contents of CGAs were analyzed in traditional and new materials before and after roasting and compared with the chemicals formed in the roasted pure standard of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). RESULTS It was shown that the novel raw materials contained considerable amounts of 5-CQA, frequently higher than in traditional chicory. The roasting process caused significant losses of 5-CQA in the tested raw materials, amounting to 55–91%. In turn, the analysis of volatile compounds in roasted materials showed the presence of certain phenolic and heterocyclic compounds that were also formed as degradation products of the pure 5-CQA chemical standard. CONCLUSION Novel raw materials, mainly chokeberry, artichoke and lovage, are rich sources of CGAs, particularly 5-CQA. Their application in the production of chicory coffee may result in an increased content of primarily phenolic compounds in its aroma. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-22T03:54:11.314074-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6532
  • Sensory analysis and consumer acceptance of 140 high-quality extra
           virgin olive oils
    • Authors: Enrico Valli; Alessandra Bendini, Martin Popp, Annette Bongartz
      First page: 2124
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sensory analysis is a crucial tool for evaluating the quality of extra virgin olive oils. One aim of such an investigation is to verify if the sensory attributes themselves – which are strictly related to volatile and phenolic compounds – may permit the discrimination of high-quality products obtained by olives of different cultivars and/or grown in various regions. Moreover, a crucial topic is to investigate the interdependency between relevant parameters determining consumer acceptance and objective sensory characteristics evaluated by the panel test. RESULTS By statistically analysing the sensory results, a grouping – but not discriminatory – effect was shown for some cultivars and some producing areas. The preference map shows that the most appreciated samples by consumers were situated in the direction of the ‘ripe fruity’ and ‘sweet’ axis and opposite to the ‘bitter’ and ‘other attributes’ (pungent, green fruity, freshly cut grass, green tomato, harmony, persistency) axis. CONCLUSION Extra virgin olive oils produced from olives of the same cultivars and grown in the same areas shared similar sensorial attributes. Some differences in terms of expectation and interpretation of sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oils might be present for consumers and panellists: most of the consumers appear unfamiliar with positive sensorial attributes, such as bitterness and pungency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-28T05:58:04.754854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6535
  • High-throughput micro-plate HCl–vanillin assay for screening tannin
           content in sorghum grain
    • Authors: Thomas J Herald; Priyadarshini Gadgil, Ramasamy Perumal, Scott R Bean, Jeff D Wilson
      First page: 2133
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The HCl–vanillin assay is a well-accepted method for determining tannin content in sorghum but is limited to small sample sets due to the time-consuming nature of the method. The objective was to develop an accurate and repeatable high-throughput 96-well plate assay for breeders to screen large sample sets of sorghum for tannin content. Validation of the high-throughput assay was tested on 25 sorghums suspected to contain tannin. RESULTS Approximately 30 measurements per day were completed using the conventional assay compared to 224 measurements using the 96-well platform. The correlation between the two tannin assays was 0.98. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.54% and 3.21% for the 96-well and conventional method, respectively. The 96-well assay exhibited good repeatability, with the inter-plate CV between 2.77% and 4.85%. CONCLUSION The high-throughput 96-well HCl–vanillin assay exhibited an eightfold increase in the number of measurements completed and was as accurate as the conventional HCl–vanillin assay. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-01-24T08:39:46.152426-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6538
  • African perspectives on the need for global harmonisation of food safety
    • Authors: Lucia E C M Anelich
      First page: 1919
      Abstract: Africa is a large continent consisting of 54 countries at different levels of development and reflecting numerous diverse cultures. Africa's agricultural potential is largely untapped, with approximately 60% of the world's non-cultivated arable land found in sub-Saharan Africa. Excluding South Africa, which is the largest economy in Africa and which has a well-established food sector with a substantial export market, economies in sub-Saharan Africa have been steadily growing at over 5% per annum. Whilst most African countries face many challenges, including weak infrastructure as well as political and economic instability, many changes are occurring, one of these being identifying specific commodities in a particular country which warrant substantial investment for growth into export opportunities. These opportunities create an immediate need for development of food standards, including food safety standards, based on scientific principles to enable regional and international trade in food, thereby assisting in ensuring Africa's role in the global food economy. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-11-25T08:20:59.264305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6465
  • Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of
           Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system
    • Authors: Mun-Gi Sohn; Sangsuk Oh
      First page: 1932
      Abstract: Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority—the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)—has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40 000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-08-09T09:00:45.478984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6278
  • Global harmonization of food safety regulations: perspectives from Japan
           after the Fukushima nuclear accident
    • Authors: Mitsuru Yoshida
      First page: 1938
      Abstract: Japanese food self-sufficiency was only 39% on the basis of kcal in 2012, so Japan relies heavily on imported food. Hence the necessity of having international rules on the regulation of food contaminants is important especially for countries like Japan that depend on food imports. A One-Stop-Testing system is desired, in which the test result obtained from a single testing laboratory is accepted as valid worldwide. To establish this system, laboratory accreditation under international standards is a necessary step. Furthermore, the importance of supply of reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing for external quality control of each laboratory's analytical system is reviewed in connection with the experience of radioactive nuclide contamination resulting from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T08:00:33.714747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6399
  • Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US
           and Canada perspective
    • Authors: Larry Keener; Sophia M Nicholson-Keener, Tatiana Koutchma
      First page: 1947
      Abstract: Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA, for example, have very stable governments, are leaders in trade and commerce and enjoy high standards of public health. It is not by accident or coincidence that these nations are also among the world's wealthiest. Attainment of national priorities, especially those related to promoting trade in foodstuffs and also in preserving public health (food safety), would benefit greatly from international efforts in harmonizing food safety regulations and legislation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-08-12T08:48:32.007154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6295
  • A need for harmonized legislation: perspectives in South America
    • Authors: M Cecilia de F Toledo
      First page: 1958
      Abstract: The harmonization of national food standards in South America has been undertaken by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay within the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR). Since food is among the most important commodities traded internationally, the harmonization of national food standards has been considered a priority. MERCOSUR countries have different laws governing food that are based, among other things, on historical, cultural and economic factors. Some regulations are complex and contain many controls while others are less developed and lack basic requirements. As a consequence, from the inception of preparing a common legislation through its adoption by the member countries, a long and difficult task has been foreseen. Although not immediately apparent, the difficulty in achieving consensus within MERCOSUR is not unlike that experience by the members of the European Union. Currently, food harmonization within MERCOSUR has been reached for issues where technical standards may represent serious trade barriers. These decisions have been based on Codex limentarius Commission guidelines and recommendations as well as on the European Union experience. This article will briefly discuss the current status of the MERCOSUR harmonization process with focus on issues related to food safety. A historical background of MERCOSUR and its institutional structure are included. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-05-29T03:07:13.189328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6163
  • The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and
           regulations: issues for India
    • Authors: Jamuna Prakash
      First page: 1962
      Abstract: Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-04-22T05:36:42.842279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6147
  • Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia
    • Authors: Mark Shamtsyan
      First page: 1966
      Abstract: Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import–export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2013-06-26T12:14:06.923134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6197
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