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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.822]   [H-I: 100]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Statistical Analysis of Wheat Under Different Seed Treatments: Development
           of A Discriminative Model Based on Physicochemical and Rheological
    • Authors: Luiz Antonio Molotto; Daniele Scheres Firak, Priscila Lagner da Silveira Estevão, Beatriz Boger, Noemi Nagata, Patricio Peralta-Zamora, Daiane Garabeli Trojan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe quality control in wheat industry comprises numerous analyses that are time-consuming and demand numerous procedures and specific apparatus. The application of multivariate calibration techniques contributes to the interpretation of the data generated during these analyses. The main purpose of this work was to correlate a representative number of wheat properties with the treatment applied to the wheat seeds using multivariate calibration techniques.RESULTSDuring this work, a wheat pilot planting experiment applying different fungicides combination as a seed treatment (Carbendazim, Carbendazim + Thiram, Carboxin + Thiram, and Triadimenol) was conducted. The resulting wheat grains were subjected to 33 analyses routinely performed in industry. A Principal Components Analysis indicated all analyses were relevant for the different seed treatment discrimination. Afterwards, a k-Nearest Neighbors discriminative model was developed and was able to classify the seed treatments. In accordance with this model, the most relevant variables for the seed treatment discrimination were the rheological properties of the dough.CONCLUSIONIt was possible to develop a discriminative model that directly correlated the wheat seed treatment to the properties of the resulting grains and flours.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T02:40:21.614396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8808
  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of freeze-dried grapefruit
           phenolics as affected by gum arabic and bamboo fibre addition and
           microwave pretreatment
    • Authors: Eva García-Martínez; Isabel Andújar, Alberto Yuste del Carmen, Jaime Prohens, Nuria Martínez-Navarrete
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecent epidemiological studies have suggested that phenolic compounds present in grapefruit play an important role in the bioactive properties of this fruit. However, the consumption of fresh grapefruit is low. Freeze dried powdered grapefruit can be an alternative to promote this fruit consumption. To improve the quality and stability of the powdered fruit, the addition of encapsulating and anticaking agents can be used. In this work, different grapefruit powders obtained by freeze drying with addition of gum arabic (1.27 g/100 g), and bamboo fibre (0.76 g/100 g) with and without a pre-drying microwave treatment were compared with the fresh and freeze-dried fruit with no carriers added in order to evaluate the effect of these preservation processes on phenolics content and on its antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) and anti-inflamatory (evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophages) capacities.RESULTSFreeze drying and gum arabic and bamboo fibre addition significantly increased the total phenolics, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (by inhibiting NO production of LPS activated RAW 264.7 macrophages) of grapefruit. An additional increase in these parameters was obtained with a microwave pretreatment before freeze-drying.CONCLUSIONSThe combined addition of gum arabic and bamboo fibre to the grapefruit puree and the application of a microwave pretreatment improve the functional properties of the fruit without showing cytotoxicity in vitro.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:16:12.10809-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8807
  • Effect of Fermentation on Anthocyanin Stability and in vitro
           Bioaccessibility During Shalgam (ŞALGAM) Beverage Production
    • Authors: Betül Toktaş; Fatih Bildik, Beraat Özçelik
      Abstract: Shalgam is a traditional lactic acid fermented beverage highly popular in southern Turkey. Main raw material, black carrot contains a significant amount of anthocyanins. In this study, changes in polyphenols including anthocyanins, related total antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility during shalgam fermentation and main raw material were evaluated. Compared to the last twelve days of the fermentation, a higher increase in total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanins (AC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed in the first twelve days of the fermentation during shalgam production. Although black carrot exhibited the highest TFC, TPC, AC, and TAC values before bioaccessibility tests, the recovery of shalgam beverage was found to be mostly identical with black carrot results in terms of flavonoids, phenolics, and anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity after in vitro digestion. In vitro digestion significantly reduced the recovery of initial samples in terms of TFC, TPC, AC and TAC analysis. The amount of beneficial compound in early fermentation stage was significantly lower compared with end product. 16 different phenolics were detected from shalgam beverage samples in HPLC analysis. After performing bioaccessibility tests, only 5 phenolics were detected. As anthocyanins, only cyanidin content was identified. The degradation of phenolics and anthocyanins has observed after bioaccessibility tests.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T07:50:20.737473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8806
  • Rapid authentication of edible bird's nest by FTIR spectroscopy combined
           with chemometrics
    • Authors: Lili Guo; Yajun Wu, Mingchang Liu, Yiqiang Ge, Ying Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEdible bird's nests (EBNs) have been traditionally regarded as a kind of medicinal and healthy food in China. For economic reasons, they are frequently subjected to be adulterated with some cheaper substitutes such as Tremella fungus, agar, fried pigskin and egg white. As a kind of precious and functional product, it is necessary to establish a robust method for the rapid authentication of EBNs with small amount of samples by simple processes. In this study, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) system was utilized and its feasibility for identification of EBNs was verified.RESULTSFTIR spectra data of authentic and adulterated EBNs were analyzed by chemometrics analysis including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and One-class Partial Least Squares (OCPLS). The results showed that the established LDA and SVM models performed well and had satisfactory classification ability with the former 94.12% and the latter 100%. The OCPLS model was developed with prediction sensitivity of 0.937 and specificity of 0.886. Further detection of commercial EBN samples confirmed these results.CONCLUSIONFTIR is applicable in the scene of rapid authentication of EBNs, especially for quality supervision departments, entry-exit inspection & quarantine and customs administration.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T07:40:22.541442-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8805
  • The Microvine, A Plant Model to Study the Effect of Vine-Shoot Extract on
           the Accumulation of Glycosylated Aroma Precursors in Grapes
    • Authors: Rosario Sánchez-Gómez; Laurent Torregrosa, Amaya Zalacain, Hernán Ojeda, Virginie Bouckenooghe, Rémi Schneider, Gonzalo L Alonso, M Rosario Salinas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMicrovine plant model displays an unique reproductive organ behaviors and is suitable for grapevine fruit physiological studies: allow to undertake studies until 5 times more rapidly than the current situation with grapevines. Recently, vine-shoot aqueous extracts, which have an interesting phenolic and aroma composition, have been proposed as viticultural biostimulants, since their post-veraison foliar application to grapevines impacts on wine aroma profile. Using Microvines, the aim of this study was to determine the vine-shoot extract foliar application effect on twenty-one stages of grapes development. The application was carried out from BBCH 53 (inflorescences clearly visible) to BBCH 85 (softening of berries), to reveal stage-specific responses of the accumulation of glycosylated aroma precursors at BBCH 89 (berries ripe for harvest), phenological stage selected to study the treatment effect.RESULTSMicrovines use made possible to take fifteen sampling time points on eighty-six days of experiment, which were established by cumulative degree days parameter. Results confirmed that vine-shoot treatment had a positive impact on total glycosylated compounds, especially on alcohols, terpenes and C13-norisoprenoids aglycones, with a higher effect when treatment was applied during ripening.CONCLUSIONThe results extrapolation to grapevines suggests that vine-shoot treatment could modulate the synthesis of grape glycosylated aroma precursors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T07:25:20.833916-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8802
  • Chemometric analysis of minerals in gluten-free products
    • Authors: Anna Gliszczyńska-Świgło; Inga Klimczak, Iga Rybicka
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNumerous studies indicate mineral deficiencies in people on a gluten-free (GF) diet. These deficiencies may indicate that GF products are less valuable source of minerals than gluten-containing products. In the study, the nutritional quality of fifty GF products is discussed taking into account the nutritional requirements for minerals expressed as % Recommended Daily Allowance (%RDA) or % Adequate Intake (%AI) for a model celiac patient. Analysed elements were: calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. Analysis of %RDA or %AI was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA).RESULTSUsing PCA, the differentiation between products based on rice, corn, potato, GF wheat starch and based on buckwheat, chickpea, millet, oats, amaranth, teff, quinoa, chestnut, and acorn was possible. In the HCA, four clusters were created. The main criterion determining the adherence of the sample to the cluster was the content of all minerals included to HCA (K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn), however only the content of Mn differentiated four formed groups.CONCLUSIONGF products made of buckwheat, chickpea, millet, oats, amaranth, teff, quinoa, chestnut, and acorn are better source of minerals than based on other GF raw materials, what was confirmed by PCA and HCA.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T07:10:28.266014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8803
  • Gene analysis and structure prediction for the cold-adaption mechanism of
           trypsin from the Krill, Euphausia superba (Dana, 1852)
    • Authors: Tingting Zhou; Xichang Wang, Juan Yan, Yan Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe ability of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba (Dana, 1852) to thrive in cold environment comes from its capacity to synthesize cold-adapted enzymes. Its trypsin, as a main substance in the metabolic reactions, plays a key role in the adaption to low temperatures. However, the progress of research on its cold-adaption mechanism is being influenced due to the limited information on its gene and spatial structure.RESULTSIn this paper, we studied the gene of E. superba trypsin with transcriptome sequencing first, and then discussed its cold-adaption mechanism with the full gene and predicted structure basing on bioinformatics. The results showed the proportion of certain residues played important roles in cold-adaptation behavior for trypsin. Furthermore, higher proportion of random coils and reduced steric hindrance might be also the key factors promoting its cold-adaption.CONCLUSIONThis research aimed to reveal the cold-adaption mechanism of E. superba trypsin and provide support for basic research on molecular modification by site-directed mutagenesis of cDNA used to produce new and improved recombinant variants with cold-adaption. Furthermore, it may broaden its commercial application on minimizing undesirable changes elevated at higher temperature in food processing and treatment of trauma and inflammation in medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T06:55:23.830808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8804
  • Prediction of benzo[a]pyrene content of smoked sausage using
           back-propagation artificial neural network
    • Authors: Yan Chen; Kezhou Cai, Zehui Tu, Wen Nie, Tuo Ji, Bing Hu, Conggui Chen, Shaotong Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBenzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determining the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, we used an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage.RESULTSThe results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters. The optimal network structure was 3-7-1 and the learning rate was 0.6. This BP-ANN model allowed for accurate predictions, with the correlation coefficients (R) for the experimentally determined training, validation, testing, and global data sets being 0.94, 0.96, 0.95, and 0.95 respectively. The validation performance was 0.013, suggesting that the proposed BP-ANN may be used to predictively detect the BaP content of smoked meat products.CONCLUSIONEffective predictive models was constructed for the estimation of BaP content of smoked sausage using ANN modeling techniques, which shows potential to predict BaP content in smoked sausage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T00:05:26.750111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8801
  • Chemical characterization of 21 species of marine macroalgae common in
           Norwegian waters: benefits of and limitations to their potential use in
           food and feed
    • Authors: Biancarosa Irene; Belghit Ikram, Bruckner G. Christian, Liland S. Nina, Waagbø Rune, Amlund Heidi, Heesch Svenja, Lock Erik-Jan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn the past few years, much effort has been invested into developing a new blue economy based on harvesting, cultivating and processing marine macroalgae in Norway. Macroalgae have a high potential for a wide range of applications, e.g. as source of pharmaceuticals, production of biofuels or as food and feed. However, data on the chemical composition of macroalgae from Norwegian waters are scant. This study was designed to characterize the chemical composition of 21 algae species. We analyzed both macro- and micronutrients. We also quantified concentrations of the heavy metals and the metalloid arsenic in the algae.RESULTSThe results confirm that marine macroalgae contain nutrients which are relevant for both human and animal nutrition, the concentrations whereof are highly depending on species. Although heavy metals and arsenic were detected in the algae studied, concentrations were mostly below maximum allowed levels set by the food and feed legislation in the EU.CONCLUSIONThis study provides chemical data on a wide range of algae species covering the three taxonomic groups (brown, red and green algae) and discusses both benefits of and potential limitations to their use for food and feed purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T23:45:22.983987-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8798
  • In vitro digestibility, free and bound phenolic profiles and antioxidant
           activity of thermally-treaded Eragrostis tef L.
    • Authors: Eva Koubová; Martina Mrázková, Daniela Sumczynski, Jana Orsavová
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTotal phenolic content, the most common phenolics profile and antioxidant activity have been determined in free and bound phenolic fractions of thermally treated brown and white teff grains.RESULTSPhenolic content in raw brown and white teff (1540 and 992 mg GAE kg-1) as well as antioxidant activity (6.3 and 5.5 mmol TE kg-1) were higher in free phenolic fractions. The most significant decrease in total phenolics has been observed after the application of sous-vide method (35% for brown and 11% for white variety). Main free phenolics of heat treated teff were ferulic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, rutin and epigallocatechin. Main bound phenolics were ferulic, gallic, sinapic and ellagic acids, catechin and epigallocatechin. Detrimental effect on free and bound quercetin and bound cinnamic acid concentration has also been examined during the heat treatment. Thermally treated brown teff demonstrated a high level of in vitro organic matter digestibility if water and rice cooking (both 99.5%) and sous-vide (96.5%) methods had been applied.CONCLUSIONThe method sous-vide may be recommended as the most suitable hydrothermal treatment for grains of teff if compared with water or rice cooking methods.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T10:15:37.490488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8800
  • Characteristics of the Water Footprint of Rice Production under Different
           Rainfall Years in Jilin Province, China
    • Authors: Hongying Li; Lijie Qin, Hongshi He
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRice is a special crop, and its production differs from that of other crops because it requires a thin layer of water coverage for a long period. The calculation of the water footprint of rice production should differ from that of other crops due to the rice growing process. This study improved the calculation of blue and grey water footprints of rice production and analysed the variations of the water footprints for rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province.RESULTSIn the drought year the green water footprint was the lowest, and the blue water footprint was the highest among the three years, while in the humid year, the green water footprint was the highest, but the blue water footprint was not the lowest. The areas with higher water footprints were found in the east and west regions of Jilin Province, and areas with lower water footprints were found in the middle east and middle regions of Jilin Province.CONCLUSIONBlue water was the primary water resource for rice production, although more precipitation provided the highest green water in the humid year; and the spatial distribution of water footprints were not the same under different rainfall years.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T10:00:50.671598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8799
  • Optimization of protein recovery from bovine lung by pH shift process
           using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Sarah A Lynch; Carlos Álvarez, Eileen E O'Neill, Derek F Keenan, Anne Maria Mullen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDResponse surface methodology (RSM) was used in a sequential manner to optimize solubilization and precipitation conditions in the recovery of protein from bovine lung using pH shift.RESULTSSeparate D-optimal designs were employed for protein solubilization and precipitation. Independent variables investigated for protein solubilization were time (10–120 min), temperature (4–20 °C), pH (8.0–11.0) and solvent/sample ratio (2.5–10). Variables for protein precipitation were time (0–60 min) and pH (4.25–6.00). Soluble protein yields ranged from 323 to 649 g kg−1 and the quadratic model for protein solubilization revealed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9958. Optimal conditions for maximum protein solubility were extraction time 140 min, temperature 19 °C, pH 10.8 and solvent/sample ratio 13.02. Protein precipitation yields varied from 407 to 667 g kg−1, giving a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9335. Optimal conditions for maximum protein precipitation were pH 5.03 and 60 min. Based on the RSM model, solubilization conditions were manipulated to maximize protein solubilization under reduced water and alkaline usage. These conditions were also validated.CONCLUSIONModels for solubilization and precipitation using bovine and porcine lung were validated; predicted and actual yields were in good agreement, showing cross-species applicability of the results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T02:30:40.513115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8678
  • Authentication of commercial spices based on the similarities between gas
           chromatographic fingerprints
    • Authors: Takaya Matsushita; JingJing Zhao, Noriyuki Igura, Mitsuya Shimoda
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA simple and solvent-free method was developed for the authentication of commercial spices. The similarities between gas chromatographic fingerprints were measured using similarity indices and multivariate data analyses, as morphological differentiation between dried powders and small spice particles was challenging. The volatile compounds present in 11 spices (i.e., allspice, anise, black pepper, caraway, clove, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, star anise, and white pepper) were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTSThe largest 10 peaks were selected from each total ion chromatogram, and a total of 65 volatiles were tentatively identified. The similarity indices (i.e., the congruence coefficients) were calculated using the data matrices of the identified compound relative peak areas to differentiate between two sets of fingerprints. Where pairs of similar fingerprints produced high congruence coefficients (>0.80), distinctive volatile markers were employed to distinguish between these samples. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to visualize the similarity among fingerprints, and the analyzed spices were grouped and characterized according to their distinctive major components.CONCLUSIONThis method is suitable for screening unknown spices, and can therefore be employed to evaluate the quality and authenticity of various spices.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:11:59.265165-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8797
  • Disinfection by-products in baby lettuce irrigated with electrolyzed water
    • Authors: Francisco López-Gálvez; Silvia Andújar, Alicia Marín, Juan A. Tudela, Ana Allende, María I. Gil
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIrrigation water disinfection reduces the microbial load but it might lead to the formation and accumulation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the crop. If DBPs are present in the irrigation water, they can accumulate in the crop, particularly after the regrowth, and be affected by the postharvest handling such as washing and storage. To evaluate the potential accumulation of DBPs, baby lettuce was grown using irrigation water treated with electrolyzed water (EW) in a commercial greenhouse over three consecutive harvests and regrowths. The impact of postharvest practices such as washing and storage on DBP content was also assessed.RESULTSUse of EW caused the accumulation of chlorates in irrigation water (0.02-0.14 mg/L), and in the fresh produce (0.05-0.10 mg/kg). On the other hand, the disinfection treatment had minor impact regarding the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water (0.3-8.7 μg/L max), and in baby lettuce (0.3-2.9 μg/kg max).CONCLUSIONSDisinfection of irrigation water with EW caused the accumulation of chlorates in the crop reaching levels higher than the current maximum residual limit established in the EU legislation for leafy greens.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T10:35:23.039532-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8796
  • Efficient Quantification of Water Content in Edible Oils by Headspace Gas
           Chromatography with Vapor Phase Calibration
    • Authors: Wei-Qi Xie; Yi-Xian Gong, Kong-Xian Yu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyze the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapor phase calibration technique with an external vapor standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified.RESULTSThe data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e., the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%.CONCLUSIONThe present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T10:20:22.87777-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8795
  • Demonstration tests of irrigation water disinfection with chlorine dioxide
           in open field cultivation of baby spinach
    • Authors: Francisco López-Gálvez; Maria I. Gil, Ana Meireles, Pilar Truchado, Ana Allende
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTreatments for the disinfection of irrigation water have to be evaluated by demonstration tests carried out under commercial settings taking into account not only their antimicrobial activity but also the potential phytotoxic effects on the crop. The consequences of the treatment of irrigation water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) used for sprinkler irrigation of baby spinach in two commercial agricultural fields was assessed.RESULTSResidual ClO2 levels at the sprinklers in the treated field were always below 1 mg/L. ClO2 treatment provoked limited but statistically significant reductions in culturable Escherichia coli counts (0.2-0.3 log reductions), but not in the viable E. coli counts in water, suggesting the presence of viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC). Although disinfected irrigation water did not have an impact on the microbial loads of Enterobacteriaceae nor on the quality characteristics of baby spinach, it caused the accumulation of chlorates (up to 0.99 mg/kg in plants) and the reduction of the photosynthetic efficiency of baby spinach.CONCLUSIONLow concentrations of ClO2 are effective in reducing the culturable E. coli present in irrigation water but it might induce the VBNC state. Presence of disinfection by-products and their accumulation in the crop must be considered to adjust doses in order to avoid crop damage and chemical safety risks.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T10:05:22.657765-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8794
  • Transcriptomic analysis on responses of the liver and kidney of finishing
           pigs feeding cadmium contaminated rice
    • Authors: Yaoyao Xia; Jun Li, Wenkai Ren, Zemeng Feng, Ruilin Huang, Yulong Yin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCadmium (Cd) is a common harmful substance that has many deleterious effects on the liver and kidney. Most reports about Cd toxic studies focused on its inorganic status, whereas the toxicity of Cd in organic materials is less studied. Here, we performed RNA-seq to explore the influences of Cd contaminated rice on function of the liver and kidney of finishing pigs.RESULTSThe concentration of Cd in liver and kidney of pigs feeding Cd contaminated rice increased by 4.00 and 2.94 times, respectively, compared to those in the control group. With transcriptomic analysis, approximately 4-6*107 clean reads were acquired. 5 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the liver, and 12 DEGs in the kidney. SPHK2 was commonly down-regulated. No significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) terms were identified. By Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichments, 4 pathways were identified in hepatic tissue, and 5 pathways in nephritic tissue. Intriguingly, 2 pathways (sphingolipid metabolism and VEGF signaling pathway) were altered both in the liver and kidney.CONCLUSIONCd contaminated rice may cause liver and kidney damage and inflammation, or even leading to more severe harm to these tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T10:00:21.468689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8793
  • Changes in phytochemical composition, bioactivity and in vitro
           digestibility of guayusa leaves (Ilex guayusa Loes.) in different ripening
    • Authors: José Villacís-Chiriboga; Almudena García-Ruiz, Nieves Baenas, Diego A Moreno, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Carla M Stinco, Lourdes Jerves-Andrade, Fabián León-Tamariz, Johanna Ortiz-Ulloa, Jenny Ruales
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGuayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes.) leaves, native of the Ecuadorian Amazon, are popularly used for preparing teas. This study aimed to assess the influence of leaf age on the phenolic compounds and carotenoids and the bioactivity and digestibility (in vitro) of aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf extracts.RESULTSIn total, 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O-hexose were the main representatives of the hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols respectively. Seven carotenoids were quantified, lutein being the main compound. Ripening affected phenolic content significantly, but there was no significant difference in carotenoid content. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the DPPH• method, was also significantly affected by leaf age. The measurement of in vitro digestibility showed a decrease in phenolic content (59%) as well as antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS•+ method, in comparison with initial conditions of the guayusa infusion. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities were assayed with young leaves owing to their higher phenolic contents. Guayusa did not show any antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 or Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Finally, the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts exhibited high in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (>65%).CONCLUSIONYoung guayusa leaves have potential applications as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T09:40:27.650198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8675
  • Preparation and Mechanism Analysis of an Environment- friendly Maize Seed
           Coating Agent
    • Authors: Defang Zeng; Zhao Fan, Xu Tian, Wenjin Wang, Mingchun Zhou, Haochuan Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTraditional seed coating agents often contain toxic ingredients, which contaminate environment and threaten human health. This paper expounds a method of preparing a novel environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize and researches its mechanism of action. The natural polysaccharide polymer, which is the main active ingredient of this environment-friendly seed coating agent, has the characteristics of innocuity and harmlessness, and it can replace the toxic ingredients used in the traditional seed coating agents.RESULTThis environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize was mainly made up of the natural polysaccharide polymer and other additives. The field trials results showed that the control efficacy of Helminthosporiun maydis came to 93.72%, the anti-feeding rate of cutworms came to 81.29%, and the maize yield was increased by 17.75%. Besides, the LD50 value (half the lethal dose of rats) of this seed coating agent was 10 times higher than that of the traditional seed coating agents. This seed coating agent could improve the activity of plant protective enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxidase dismutase) and increase the chlorophyll content.CONCLUSIONThis seed coating agent has four characteristics of disease prevention, desinsectization, increasing yield and safety. The mechanism analyses results showed that this seed coating agent could enhance the disease control effectiveness by improving plant protective enzymes activity and increase maize yield by improving chlorophyll content.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T08:15:21.64035-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8783
  • Effect of quality and origin of technical sucrose solutions on the
           inclusion of colorants into the sugar crystal matrix
    • Authors: K Schlumbach; M Scharfe, E Flöter
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDue to the liberalization of the European sugar market the pressure to improve factory utilization is growing. Currently beet and cane as sucrose sources are produced in isolation, according to geography. Co-production of sugar from beet and cane origin in one stream is a promising option. However, knowledge base for production sugar is practically non-existing. This manuscript is part of our contribution to this field and specifically addresses effects of raw material quality.RESULTSThis framework formulated for the coloring of sugars crystallized from mixed syrups is also valid for different raw material qualities: raw cane sugars: color values 1221 to 2505 IU, dextran levels 50 to 1200 mg kg-1; beet syrups: 1509 to 2058 IU. Co-crystallization is the main color incorporation mechanism. Color due to liquid inclusion increases strongly at cane inclusion levels in excess of 60%. The prediction of final sugar color based on characteristics of pure mixture constituents is verified and indicates significant differences to current recommendations.CONCLUSIONA first comprehensive description of the color values in sugars produced from mixed cane and beet syrups is presented. Prediction of color values from data on sugar color of single sources marks a major contribution to future applications of co-production.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T05:50:24.217144-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8792
  • Differentiation of Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their
           mixtures by computer vision
    • Authors: Juan C. Jiménez Barragán; Freddy Marcelo Amores Puyutaxi, Eddyn Gabriel Solórzano, Gladys Angélica Rodríguez, Alessandro La Mantia, Paolo Blasi, Rey Gastón Loor Solórzano
      Abstract: BackgroundEcuador exports two major types of cocoa beans, the highly regarded and lucrative National, known for its fine aroma, and the CCN-51 clone type, used in bulk for mass chocolate products. In order to discourage exportation of National cocoa adulterated with CCN-51, a fast and objective methodology for distinguishing between the two types of cocoa beans is needed.ResultsThis study reports a methodology based on computer vision, which makes it possible to recognize these beans and determine the percentage of their mixture. The methodology was challenged with 336 samples of National cocoa and 127 of CCN-51. By excluding the samples with a low fermentation level and white beans, the model discriminated with a precision higher than 98%. The model was also able to identify and quantify adulterations in 75 export batches of National cocoa and separate out poorly fermented beans.ConclusionA scientifically reliable methodology able to discriminate between Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures was successfully developed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T03:15:55.458704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8790
  • Modification of pomological characteristics and flavor components of
           fruits and virgin olive oil following wastewater irrigation and soil
    • Authors: Meriem Tekaya; Hechmi Chehab, Guido Flamini, Ines Gharbi, Zoubeir Mahjoub, Salwa Laamari, Badreddine Chihaoui, Dalenda Boujnah, Mohamed Hammami, Beligh Mechri
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe experiment was carried out on olive trees cv. Chemlali, during two successive years (2013/2014). Two irrigation treatments (IT: Trees irrigated with wastewater; TRC: Trees grown under rainfed condition) were combined with two tillage practices (TTS: Trees grown in tilled soil; TNTS: Trees grown in non-tilled soil).RESULTSThe results of the study showed that WW irrigation combined with soil tillage improved the pomological characteristics of olive fruits. The tree yield increase was substantial for IT and TTS. However, most of the identified phenolic compounds, especially oleuropein, mainly accumulated in olive fruits of the TC block (TNTS + TRC), suggesting a marked improvement in the nutritional value of these fruits. Moreover, fruits of TNTS had high contents of sugar compounds, required for the synthesis of the fruit storage material. The study also showed that the agronomic practices affected the amounts of some aromatic compounds responsible for the distinctive flavor notes of olive oil.CONCLUSIONHence, agronomic practices may affect considerably the commercial and nutritional values and the sensorial quality of the commodities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:55:20.875848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8791
  • Innovative food products for cancer patients: future directions
    • Authors: Itziar Tueros; Matxalen Uriarte
      Abstract: One of the main challenges for cancer patients under treatment is to prevent and tackle malnutrition. The current clinical nutrition market offers different food supplements or oral nutritional support products (mainly milkshakes or modified texture products) for cancer patients under risk of malnutrition. However, it is worth mentioning, that these products do not address the pleasure of eating, since they do not meet sensory requirements, such as taste and smell alterations, nor patients’ food preferences, leading to a big impact on their quality of life (QOL). Still, controversy remains regarding the specific nutritional requirements for cancer patients during the disease. Several randomized controlled clinical trials yield opposite results when using different bioactive compounds such as omega 3 fatty acids or antioxidants in order to prevent malnutrition or improve the QOL. The use of ‘omics’ technologies in oncology, such as membrane lipidomics, as a powerful tool to provide new insights for the understanding of diet and cancer and their interacting metabolic pathways, will be discussed. The better knowledge of specific requirements (nutrients, sensory parameters and food preferences) for cancer patients provide valuable information for the food industry in the design of customised food products capable to prevent malnutrition, alleviate symptoms and improve the QOL.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:41:12.79837-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8789
  • Effect of Ultra Superheated Steam on Aflatoxin Reduction and Roasted
           Peanut Properties
    • Authors: Parawee Pukkasorn; Wannasawat Ratphitagsanti, Vichai Haruthaitanasan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAflatoxins are carcinogenic toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that are found naturally in peanut. It requires extremely high temperatures for eliminating aflatoxins from the nuts. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of ultra superheated steam (USS) on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) accompanying roasting process and to determine roasted peanut qualities that affected consumer acceptance.RESULTSWhole peanut kernels were intentionally contaminated by AFB1 standard solution at the level of 50±10 μg kg-1 before subjected to USS treatment at 300-400°C between 10 and 80 s. High temperature of USS could significantly decrease AFB1 level to 9.83±3.51, 15.33±2.23 and 8.95±2.32 μg kg-1 when 300°C for 80 s, 350°C for 40 s and 400°C for 40 s were employed, respectively. AFB1 was reduced as high as 83.86±2.66% when 400°C for 40 s was applied. The moisture content of treated peanuts was decreased to less than 3% and browning index was developed from 30.96±1.59 to 95.76±7.23.CONCLUSIONHigher roasting degree was obtained according to the increase in browning index. Oil quality showed that peroxide values and acid values were greatly below the allowance level. USS could effectively decrease AFB1 and render expectable roasting qualities of peanut.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:11:40.070016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8788
  • Phenolic and physicochemical stability of a functional beverage powder
           mixture during storage – effect of the microencapsulant inulin and food
    • Authors: Dalene de Beer; Claire E Pauck, Marique Aucamp, Wilna Liebenberg, Nicole Stieger, Marieta van der Rijst, Elizabeth Joubert
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe need for a convenience herbal iced tea product with reduced kilojoules merited investigation of the shelf-life of powder mixtures containing a green Cyclopia subternata Vogel (honeybush) extract with proven blood glucose-lowering activity and alternative sweetener mixture.RESULTSPrior to long-term storage testing, the wettability of powder mixtures containing food ingredients and the compatibility of their components were confirmed using the static sessile drop method and isothermal microcalorimetry, respectively. The powders packed in semi-sealed containers remained stable during storage at 25 °C/60% relative humidity (RH) for 6 months, except for small losses of specific phenolic compounds, namely mangiferin, isomangiferin, 3-β-D-glucopyranosyliriflophenone, vicenin-2 and 3′,5′-di-β-D-glucopyranosylphloretin, especially when both citric acid and ascorbic acid were present. These acids drastically increased the degradation of phenolic compounds under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C/75% RH). Accelerated storage also caused changes in the appearance of powders and the colour of the reconstituted beverage solutions. Increased moisture content and aw of the powders, as well as moisture released due to dehydration of citric acid monohydrate, contributed to these changes.CONCLUSIONSA low-kilojoule honeybush iced tea powder mixture will retain its functional phenolic compounds and physicochemical properties during shelf-life storage at 25 °C for 6 months.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T01:40:56.84172-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8787
  • Insights on the stilbenes in Raboso Piave grape (Vitis vinifera L.) as a
           consequence of postharvest vs on-vine dehydration
    • Authors: Luca Brillante; Mirko De Rosso, Antonio Dalla Vedova, Itay Maoz, Riccardo Flamini, Diego Tomasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGrape withering is a process used to produce reinforced wines and raisins. Dehydration is usually carried out postharvest by keeping ripe grapes in special warehouses in controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air flow. Alternatively, grape clusters can be left on the vines after the canes have been pruned. In general, dehydration increases stilbenes in grape, but there are few studies on the effects of on-vine withering. The stilbene profiles of Raboso Piave grape during postharvest and on-vine dehydration were studied here.RESULTSHigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify 19 stilbenes, including resveratrol monomers, dimers (viniferins), oligomers and glucoside derivatives. The two dehydration methods generally had different effects on the above nutraceuticals in grape. The samples kept in warehouses revealed significant increases in Z-ω-viniferin, E-ϵ-viniferin, δ-viniferin and another resveratrol dimer which were not observed in the plants. Trans-Resveratrol increased significantly only in samples dehydrated in the warehouse at 21 °C and 60–70% RH.CONCLUSIONThe findings increase knowledge of stilbene composition in grapes subjected to withering on-vine. The choice of dehydration method affects the contents of these nutraceuticals in the grape and consequently in wines. Reasonably, it could also affect other secondary metabolites important for wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T02:45:27.913803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8679
  • Persistent sample circulation microextraction combined with graphite
           furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy for trace determination of heavy
           metals in fish species marketed in Kermanshah, Iran and human health risk
    • Authors: Yahya Safari; Mostafa Karimaei, Kiomars Sharafi, Hossein Arfaeinia, Masoud Moradi, Nazir Fattahi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe persistent sample circulation microextraction (PSCME) joined with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed as a high preconcentration technique for the determination of heavy metals in fish species. In this method, a few microliter of organic solvent (40.0 µl carbon tetrachloride) was transferred to the bottom of a conical sample cup. Then a 10.0 ml of aqueous solution transformed to fine droplets while passing through an organic solvent. At this stage, metal-ligand hydrophobic complex was extracted into the organic solvent. After extraction, 20 µl of extraction solvent was injected into the graphite tube using an auto-sampler.RESULTSUnder the optimum conditions, enrichment factors and enhancement factor were in the range of 180–240 and 155–214, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.03–200 µg kg−1 and the limits of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.01–0.05 µg kg−1. The Repeatability (intra–day) and reproducibility (inter–day) for 0.50 µg l−1 of Hg and 0.10 µg l−1 of Cd and Pb were in the range of 3.1–4.2% (n = 7) and 4.3–6.1% (n = 7), respectively.CONCLUSIONA potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating fish and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. EWI data for the studied metals through fish consumption were lower than the PTWI values.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T09:05:23.530675-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8786
  • Inhibition effects of flavonoids on
           2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline and
           2-amino-3,7,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline formation and alkoxy
           radical scavenging capabilities of flavonoids in a model system
    • Authors: Zeping Shao; Zhonghui Han, Jinhui Zhang, Yan Zhang, Shuo Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) have been considered as carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals generated during thermal processing of protein-rich foods which can be inhibited by some flavonoids. And free radical scavenging is a major characteristic of flavonoids.RESULTSThe half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of nine flavonoids were determined by evaluating their capacity to inhibit 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx) formation in a model system. The results of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) test validated that MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx formed via a free radical pathway. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic analysis with spin trapping (α-(4-pyridyl N-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN) spin adduct, aN = 15.2 G and aH = 2.7 G) revealed that an alkoxy radical was the generated intermediate. Then, the scavenging capacities of the nine flavonoids on alkoxy radicals were evaluated based on the ESR spectra of the POBN spin adducts.CONCLUSIONThe weak correlation between the alkoxy radical scavenging capacities and IC50 of the flavonoids suggested that their inhibitory activity against MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx formation operates by a more complex mechanism than simply scavenging alkoxy radicals.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T08:40:33.81874-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8785
  • Cover Image, Volume 98, Issue 1
    • Authors: Livnat Goldenberg; Yossi Yaniv, Ron Porat, Nir Carmi
      Abstract: The cover image, by Livnat Goldenberg et al., is based on the Review Mandarin fruit quality: a review,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.8495.The cover image, by Livnat Goldenberg et al., is based on the Review Mandarin fruit quality: a review,
      DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.8495.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T07:29:40.236064-05:
  • Effects of High Temperatures and Drought During Anthesis and Grain Filling
           Period on Wheat Processing Quality and Underlying Gluten Structural
    • Authors: Jasna Mastilović; Dragan Živančev, Eva Lončar, Radomir Malbaša, Nikola Hristov, Žarko Kevrešan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDClimate changes do not only affect wheat yield, but also its quality. The information on this topic gathered so far is somewhat contradictory and insufficient. Climate changes are also affecting wheat indirectly through their influence on the ecosystem, including insects and fungi that affect the wheat technological quality. The aim of this study has been to examine trends in structural and technological changes of wheat quality under conditions typical of climate changes. With this in mind, three groups of wheat varieties with the same Glu-score were examined in three production years, characterized by different production conditions.RESULTSProduction season which is characterized by climate change conditions, results in lower activity of amylolitic enzymes. What is more, it results in lower content of gluten, higher gluten index value, its decrease after 1h to 37 °C, lower number of free SH groups and higher content of free amino groups that result in lower alwegraph W, lower farinograph WA and higher extensograph dough resistance.CONCLUSIONVariability in wheat quality produced under different climatic conditions is mainly influenced by the production conditions, including their influence on ecosystem factors. The influence of wheat cultivar genetic predisposition is much less expressed. This indicates that differences among cultivars with different Glu-score might be diminished under the influence of altered production conditions, as a consequence of climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T06:30:20.431519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8784
  • Effects of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide combined with nisin edible
    • Authors: Wang Fengping; Huijun Zhang, Jin Wengang, Li Lirong
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to investigate the effect of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide (TBP) combined with nisin edible coatings on the preservation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets, fillets were dip treated with different concentrations of TBP (5 g kg-1, 10 g kg-1, and 15 g kg-1) combined with nisin and stored at 4°C for 12 days. The pH values, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) contents, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable count (TVC), surface colors, textures, and sensory properties of the tilapia fillets at storage were all periodically investigated.RESULTSTBP combined with nisin-treated groups significantly improved the bacteriological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of the tilapia fillets to a greater extent than did the control group and presented better quality preservation effects than nisin coating alone. Based on the limits of the TVB-N, TVC, and sensory scores, the shelf lives of the control tilapia fillets were 4 days, whereas that for nisin with TBP-coated fillets was 8–10 days.CONCLUSIONedible coatings made from TBP combined with nisin are suitable for maintaining qualities and enhancing the shelf lives of tilapia fillets stored at 4°C.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T06:10:27.810023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8781
  • Comparative study of the influence of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) berry
           ethanolic extract and butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) on lipid
           peroxidation, myoglobin oxidation, consistency and firmness of minced pork
           during refrigeration
    • Authors: Camelia Papuc; Corina Nicoleta Predescu, Liliana Tudoreanu, Valentin Nicorescu, Iuliana Gâjâilă
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFollowing public concern on the use of synthetic food antioxidants, there is an increasing demand for the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to maintain quality of meat products quality during storage. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of hawthorn berry, compared to butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), on lipid peroxidation, myoglobin oxidation, protein electrophoresis pattern, consistency and firmness of minced pork during refrigeration at 4 °C, and to identify the relationship between chemical modifications and consistency variation.RESULTSAfter 6 days of refrigeration it was found that the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of minced pork containing 200 mg GAE kg−1 total phenolics in minced meat (200 HP) was significantly lower (0.1543 ± 0.006 mg) compared to BHA-treated meat. The ratio of oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin in treated minced pork was respectively 0.845 for 200 HP and 0.473 for BHA-treated minced meat. Concentrations of 100 HP or 300 HP will generate statistically higher firmness than BHA in minced pork.CONCLUSIONHawthorn berry ethanolic extract was more effective than BHA in reducing lipid oxidation and protein degradation, for maintaining firmness and consistency of minced pork during 6 days of refrigeration at 4 °C. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T04:04:37.562775-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8599
  • Display stability of fresh and thawed lamb supplemented with vitamin E or
           sprayed with an antioxidant borage seed extract
    • Authors: M. Bellés; V. Alonso, P. Roncalés, J. A. Beltrán
      Abstract: BackgroundThe commercialization of thawed lamb packaged in modified atmosphere and maintained on display could serve as an alternative capable of satisfying the requirements of customers as well as distributors. However, previous studies have suggested that lipid oxidation may accelerate post-thawing, as peroxidation occurs during frozen storage, thereby leading to rapid and severe secondary lipid oxidation. The addition of an antioxidant compound either in the lamb diet or in the packaged meat could resolve this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary vitamin E (1000 mg of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg of basal diet) and the spraying of borage seed aqueous extract (10% p/v) on the quality of fresh and thawed lamb leg chops.ResultsIt was found that both borage extract and vitamin E improved colour (measured via instrumental and visual assessment of colour) and lipid stability (TBARS) of fresh and thawed lamb throughout display, though neither of them had any antimicrobial effect. Freezing/thawing accelerated bone marrow darkening and reduced redness, but delayed microbial growth.ConclusionBoth of these antioxidant strategies would be very profitable for the preservation of lamb meat, allowing thawed meat packaged in modified atmosphere to be commercialized. However, new studies should be carried out to ascertain how bone darkening in thawed chops can be avoided.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T06:35:20.517359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8780
  • Microwave heating modelling of a green smoothie: Effects on glucoraphanin,
           sulforaphane and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide changes during storage
    • Authors: Noelia Castillejo; Ginés Benito Martínez-Hernández, Antonio José Lozano-Guerrero, Juan Luis Pedreño-Molina, Perla A Gómez, Encarna Aguayo, Francisco Artés, Francisco Artés-Hernández
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe heating of a green smoothie during an innovative semi-continuous microwave treatment (MW; 9 kW for 15 s) was modelled. Thermal and dielectric properties of the samples were previously determined. Furthermore, the heating effect on the main chemopreventive compounds of the smoothie and during its subsequent storage up to 30 days at 5 or 15 °C were studied. Such results were compared to conventional pasteurisation (CP; 90 °C for 45 s) while unheated fresh blended samples were used as the control.RESULTSA procedure was developed to predict the temperature distribution in samples inside the MW oven with the help of numerical tools. MW-treated samples showed the highest sulforaphane formation after 20 days, regardless of the storage temperature, while its content was two-fold reduced in CP samples. Storage of the smoothie at 5 °C is crucial for maximising the levels of the bioactive compound S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide.CONCLUSIONThe proposed MW treatment can be used by the food industry to obtain an excellent homogeneous heating of a green smoothie product retaining high levels of bioactive compounds during subsequent retail/domestic storage up to 1 month at 5 °C. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:06:04.208072-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8665
  • Characterization and oxidative stability of purslane seed oil
           microencapsulated in yeast cells biocapsules
    • Authors: Maryam Kavosi; Abdorreza Mohammadi, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Ramin Khaksar, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPurslane seed oil, as a potential nutritious source of omega-3 fatty acid, is susceptible to oxidation. Encapsulation in yeast cells is a possible approach for overcoming this problem. In the present study, purslane seed oil was encapsulated in non-plasmolysed, plasmolysed and plasmolysed carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)-coated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and measurements of oil loading capacity (LC), encapsulation efficiency (EE), oxidative stability and the fatty acid composition of oil-loaded microcapsules were made. Furthermore, investigations of morphology and thermal behavior, as well as a Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) analyses of microcapsules, were performed.RESULTSThe values of EE, LC were approximately 53–65% and 187–231 g kg–1, respectively. Studies found that the plasmolysis treatment increased EE and LC and decreased the mean peroxide value (PV) of microencapsulated oil. The presence of purslane seed oil in yeast microcapsules was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The lowest rate of oxidation belonged to the oil-loaded plasmolysed CMC-coated microcapsules (16.73 meqvO2 kg–1), whereas the highest amount of oxidation regardless of native oil referred to the oil-loaded in non-plasmolysed cells (28.15 meqvO2 kg–1).CONCLUSIONThe encapsulation of purslane seed oil in the yeast cells of S. cerevisiae can be considered as an efficient approach for extending the oxidative stability of this nutritious oil and facilitating its application in food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T11:00:46.290785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8696
  • Heavy metal contamination, microbiological spoilage and biogenic amines
           content in sushi available on the Polish market
    • Authors: Piotr Kulawik; Dani Dordevic, Florian Gambuś, Katarzyna Szczurowska, Marzena Zając
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study determined the heavy metal contamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel) of nori, restaurant-served sushi and ready-to-eat sushi meals available through retail chains. Moreover the microbiological loads and biogenic amines content in ready-to-eat sushi meals were analysed.RESULTSAll the nori samples contained high levels of Cd (2.122 mg kg-1), Ni (0.715 mg kg-1), As (34.56 mg kg-1) and Pb (0.659 mg kg-1). The studied sushi samples contained high levels of Ni and Pb, reaching 0.194 and 0.142 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively, and being potentially hazardous to women during pregnancy and lactation and small children. None of the studied samples contained high levels of Hg. 37% of ready-to-eat sushi meals exceeded the microbiological loads of 106 cfu g-1. However the biogenic amines content in all the samples was low, with the highest histamine content of 2.05 mg kg-1.CONCLUSIONSSushi is not the source of biogenic amines even with high microbiological loads. Nevertheless high microbiological loads at the end of the shelf-life indicate that some processors might have issues with distribution chain or implement poor hygienic regime. Moreover due to possible risk associated with heavy metals contamination, the study underlines the necessity to establish new regulations regarding the contamination of nori and sushi.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T23:15:36.900496-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8778
  • Mechanisms involved in hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of lipids in washed
           fish muscle and inhibitory effects of phospholipase A2
    • Authors: Nantawat Tatiyaborworntham; Mark P. Richards
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHemoglobin is a lipid oxidation promoter in fish muscle. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC, is linked to increased resistance to lipid oxidation of frozen-thawed cod fillets via an unknown mechanism. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanism of hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation with a focus on ferryl hemoglobin and methemoglobin, the pro-oxidative hemoglobin species, and to examine how porcine pancreatic PLA2 inhibits hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle (WCM). Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, respectively. Formations of methemoglobin and ferryl hemoglobin were also monitored.RESULTSFerryl hemoglobin and methemoglobin formed during the hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation. PLA2 inhibited formations of LOOHs and TBARS and suppressed formations of methemoglobin and ferryl hemoglobin. WCM was pre-oxidized by hemin to increase amounts of LOOHs. PLA2 promoted depletion of LOOHs in the pre-oxidized WCM with limited TBARS formation at the expense of the heme moiety of hemoglobin.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that ferryl Hb may play a role in hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation and that PLA2 from pig pancreas may work together with hemoglobin as a novel antioxidant with an ability to remove pre-formed LOOHs from a lipid substrate.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T23:15:27.062616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8779
  • Production of probiotic bovine salami using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v
           as adjunct
    • Authors: Giuseppe Blaiotta; Nicoletta Murru, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Raffaele Romano, Maria Aponte
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFive probiotic lactobacilli were tested, alone or in combination with two commercial starters, to select the most suitable strain for a probiotic bovine salami production. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v was used with both starters, to make salami according to a traditional recipe. Salami obtained by using just the starters and by spontaneous fermentation, served as control. Microbial dynamics, as well as the main physico-chemical parameters, were monitored throughout ripening. The survival of probiotic 299v was confirmed by strains' tracking by means of RAPD-PCR coupled to a culture-independent approach PCR-DGGE-based.RESULTSThe results showed a remarkable viability of the probiotic strain even after 60 days of storage. Experimental salami exhibited the same level of sensory acceptance of control salami, were hygienically safe, and characterised by pH, weight loss and microbiological loads within the ranges conventionally advocated for optimal fermented sausages.CONCLUSIONOutcomes indicate the workable possibility of using second-quality beef cuts for probiotic salami production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T06:01:07.895761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8717
  • Effect of farming system on donkey milk composition
    • Authors: Emanuela Valle; Luisa Pozzo, Marzia Giribaldi, Domenico Bergero, Maria Silvia Gennero, Daniela Dezzutto, Amy McLean, Giorgio Borreani, Mauro Coppa, Laura Cavallarin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDonkey milk is considered a functional food for sensitive consumers, such as children allergic to cow milk. No information is available regarding the effect of farming systems on the quality of donkey milk. The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the farming system and lactation stage on gross composition, fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids (FA) in donkey milk.RESULTSIndividual milk samples were collected from lactating jennies (n=53) on the six of the largest farms located in North West Italy. The performance of lactating jennies, the herd characteristics, and feeding strategies were recorded at each milk sampling. The gross composition of the milk along with the fat-soluble vitamin content differed according to the farming system. The lactation stage had limited effects on milk quality. A higher milk fat content corresponded to a higher amount of fresh herbage proportion in the diet, with the highest polyunsaturated (PUFA) FA, C18:1c9, C18:3n-3, n-3 FA, retinol and α-tocopherol content and the lowest concentrations of the FA less favorable for human health in the milk of animals fed on only forage diets.CONCLUSIONSExtensive farming of dairy donkeys increased fat content and fat-soluble vitamin concentration of milk and altered the FA composition to a more favorable profile for human nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:38:21.600081-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8777
  • Effect of β-mannanase domain from Trichoderma reesei on its biochemical
           characters and synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse
    • Authors: Lijuan Ma; Qing Ma, Rui Cai, Zhiyou Zong, Liping Du, Gaojie Guo, Yingying Zhang, Dongguang Xiao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDβ-mannanase is a key enzyme for hydrolyzing mannan, a major constituent of hemicellulose, which is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature. Different structural domains greatly affect its biochemical characters and catalytic efficiency. However, the effects of linker and carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) on β-mannanase from Trichoderma reesei (Man1) have not yet been fully described. The present study aimed to determine the influence of different domains on the expression efficiency, biochemical characteristics and hemicellulosic deconstruction of Man1.RESULTSThe expression efficiency was improved after truncating CBM. Activities of Man1 and Man1ΔCBM (CBM) in the culture supernatant after 168 h of induction were 34.5 and 42.9 IU mL–1, although a value of only 0.36 IU mL–1 was detected for Man1ΔLCBM (lacking CBM and linker). Man1 showed higher thermostability than Man1ΔCBM at low temperature, whereas Man1ΔCBM had a higher specificity for galactomannan (Km = 2.5 mg mL–1) than Man1 (Km = 4.0 mg mL–1). Both Man1 and Man1ΔCBM could synergistically improve the hydrolysis of cellulose, galactomannan and pretreated sugarcane bagasse, with a 10–30% improvement of the reducing sugar yield.CONCLUSIONLinker and CBM domains were vital for mannanase activity and expression efficiency. CBM affected the thermostability and adsorption ability of Man1. The results obtained in the present study should help guide the rational design and directional modification of Man with respect to improving its catalytic efficiency. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:37:39.736027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8741
  • Relating sensory profiles of canned amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), cleome
           (Cleome gynandra), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Swiss chard (Beta
           vulgaris) leaves to consumer acceptance
    • Authors: Isiguzoro O Onyeoziri; Marise Kinnear, Henriëtta L de Kock
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe younger generation of South Africans generally do not consume traditional meals prepared using African green leafy vegetables, primarily because they are regarded as bitter, “poverty” foods. Canning of these vegetables could create value-added products that can be sold in the commercial market. Descriptive sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance testing with young females were used to assess the potential of such products.RESULTSThe sensory attributes of amaranth, cleome and cowpea leaves canned in brine and in a cream sauce were described using 21 attributes grouped by aroma, taste, texture/mouthfeel and aftertaste. Amaranth and Swiss chard products were described as sweet with a popcorn-like aroma. Cleome products were described as bitter, sour, pungent, chemical-tasting, astringent, sandy with a metallic mouthfeel and strong aftertaste. Cowpea products were described as having woody and tobacco aromas as well as a chewy and cohesive texture. Among the products canned with a cream sauce, young female consumers preferred amaranth and Swiss chard; cowpea was less liked, while cleome was least liked.CONCLUSIONSCanned amaranth leaves have potential as a commercial product that may be well liked by young consumers. The cowpea leaves product has consumer potential, but the formulation needs revision, while canned cleome leaves need further research work. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:36:11.522959-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8710
  • White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics: dry matter
           digestibility and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores
    • Authors: Lene Stødkilde; Vinni K Damborg, Henry Jørgensen, Helle N Lærke, Søren K Jensen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aimed to evaluate the use of white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats.RESULTSProtein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) contents of 451 g kg–1 and 530 g kg–1 DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively, and a pulp with CP contents of 313 and 374 g kg–1 DM from plant and leaves, respectively. The amino acid composition ranged from 4.72 to 6.49 g per 16 g of nitrogen (N) for lysine, 1.82–2.6 g per 16 g N for methionine and cysteine, and 3.66–5.24 g per 16 g N for threonine. True faecal digestibility of protein varied from 0.81 to 0.88, whereas DM digestibility was in the range 0.72–0.80. Methionine and cysteine were found to be limiting in all fractions, regardless of the reference group used.CONCLUSIONA high digestibility of white clover protein was found irrespective of the physical fractionation. Together with a well-balanced amino acid composition, this makes white clover a promising protein source for monogastrics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T04:06:15.743056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8744
  • Real-time prediction of pre-cooked Japanese sausage color with different
           storage days using hyperspectral imaging
    • Authors: Chao-Hui Feng; Yoshio Makino, Masatoshi Yoshimura, Francisco J Rodríguez-Pulido
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRedness can greatly influence the freshness of sausages. A precise, rapid and noncontact analytical method or tool is needed to quantify the color. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that integrates spectroscopy and imaging to obtain the spectral and spatial information simultaneously. In the present study, the redness of cooked sausages stored up to 57 days was predicted using HSI in tandem with multivariate data analysis. The mean spectra of the sausages were extracted from the hyperspectral images. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and forward stepwise multiple regression (FSMR) models were used to develop the relavent spectral profiles with the redness of the cooked sausages.RESULTSTen important wavelengths were selected based on the regression coefficient values from the PLSR model. The PLSR model established using the full wavelengths presented a good performance, with Rc of 0.934 and a root mean square error of calibration of 0.642 (redness ranged between 14.99 and 21.48). The prediction maps for demonstrating evolution of redness in sausages were developed for the first time using R statistics (R Foundation for Statistical Computing) and Matlab (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA).CONCLUSIONHSI combined with PLSR and FSMR can be used to quantify and visualize evolution of sausage redness under different storage days. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T03:55:56.981187-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8746
  • Variations in yield and gluten proteins in durum wheat varieties under
           late-season foliar versus soil application of nitrogen fertilizer in a
           northern Mediterranean environment
    • Authors: Giovanna Visioli; Urbana Bonas, Cristian Dal Cortivo, Gabriella Pasini, Nelson Marmiroli, Giuliano Mosca, Teofilo Vamerali
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWith the increasing demand for high-quality foodstuffs and concern for environmental sustainability, late-season nitrogen (N) foliar fertilization of common wheat is now an important and widespread practice. This study investigated the effects of late-season foliar versus soil N fertilization on yield and protein content of four varieties of durum wheat, Aureo, Ariosto, Biensur and Liberdur, in a three-year field trial in northern Italy.RESULTSVariations in low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMW-GS), high-molecular-weight glutenins (HMW-GS) and gliadins were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It was found that N applied to the canopy did not improve protein rate compared with N application to the soil (general mean 138 mg g−1), but moderately increased productivity in the high-yielding varieties Liberdur and Biensur (three-year means 7.23 vs 7.13 and 7.53 vs 7.09 t ha−1 respectively). Technological quality was mainly related to variety choice, Aureo and Ariosto having higher protein rates and glutenin/gliadin ratios. Also found was a strong ‘variety × N application method’ interaction in the proportions of protein subunits within each class, particularly LMW-GS and gliadins. A promising result was the higher N uptake efficiency, although as apparent balance, combined with higher HMW/LMW-GS ratio in var. Biensur.CONCLUSIONLate-season foliar N fertilization allows N fertilizer saving, potentially providing environmental benefits in the rainy climate of the northern Mediterranean area, and also leads to variety-dependent up-regulation of essential LMW-GS and gliadins. Variety choice is a key factor in obtaining high technological quality, although it is currently associated with modest grain yield. This study provides evidence of high quality in the specific high-yielding variety Biensur, suggesting its potential as a mono-varietal semolina for pasta production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:51.42111-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8727
  • Near-infrared Hyperspectral Imaging for Detection and Quantification of
           Azodicarbonamide in Flour
    • Authors: Xiaobin Wang; Chunjiang Zhao, Wenqian Huang, Qingyan Wang, Chen Liu, Guiyan Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study aimed to establish a method for the detection and quantification of azodicarbonamide (ADC) in flour using hyperspectral imaging technology. Hyperspectral images of pure flour, pure ADC, and flour-ADC mixtures with different concentrations of ADC were collected. F values of one-way ANOVA for all possible wavebands within the spectra of the flour and ADC were calculated, and the maximum value indicated that the two wavebands have more significant differences, that is, the optimal two wavebands. Threshold segmentation was used for band ratio images of two wavebands to create binary image. This allowed visual identification of ADC rich pixels in the mixtures.RESULTSThe two wavebands with the largest difference between flour and ADC were 2039 nm and 1892 nm. Using the binary image construction method, different concentrations of ADC in flour were identified. The minimum detected concentration was 0.2 g kg-1. In the mixtures, the number of ADC rich pixels detected had a good linear relationship with the ADC concentrations, correlation coefficient was 0.9845.CONCLUSIONThis study indicated that the band ratio algorithm combination with threshold segmentation for hyperspectral images provides a non-destructive method for detecting and quantifying of ADC in flour.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T00:35:23.17781-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8776
  • Field findings about milk ethanol stability: a first report of
           interrelationship between α-lactalbumin and lactose
    • Authors: Rafael Fagnani; João Paulo Andrade de Araújo, Bruno Garcia Botaro
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMilk ethanol stability is not only associated with microbiological acidification, but a phenomenon with many variables that influence the balance of soluble salts, mainly the calcium ion activity. On this basis, we wanted to find out more information about milk ethanol stability by studying its relationship with milk's proteins fractions and others major components. The influence of milk composition over the ethanol stability was assessed through a predictive model comprising 180 individual raw milk samples. An additional model was used to assess the ethanol stability status as a response to the proteins fractions quantified by electrophoresis.RESULTSOut of total of samples, 68% were classified as stable and 32% as unstable to alcohol. Milk ethanol instability increased at low values of lactose content and high values of ash percentage. α-Lactalbumin (α-La) was also associated with the ethanol stability, and the higher the α-La percentage the lower the chances of ethanol instability.CONCLUSIONThe lower values of α-La in unstable milk samples might be related to lower content of lactose, as α-La promotes the lactose synthesis, a key component for the osmotic balance of milk, and thus, its ethanol stability. This is the first field report linking indirectly ethanol stability with α-La.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T00:10:23.645053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8775
  • Consumption of orange fermented beverage improves antioxidant status and
           reduces peroxidation lipid and inflammatory markers in healthy humans
    • Authors: Blanca Escudero-López; Ángeles Ortega, Isabel Cerrillo, María-Rosario Rodríguez-Griñolo, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Hada C. Macher, Franz Martín, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez, Pedro Mena, Daniele Del Rio, María-Soledad Fernández-Pachón
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlcoholic fermentation of fruits has generated novel products with high concentrations of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect on cardiovascular risk factors of the regular consumption by healthy humans of a beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice.RESULTSThirty healthy volunteers were enrolled in a randomized controlled study. The experimental group (n=15) drank 500 mL orange beverage (OB) day-1 for 2 weeks (intervention phase), followed by a 3-week washout phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline (E-T0) and at the end of the intervention (E-T1) and washout (E-T2) phases. Controls (n=15) did not consume OB during a 2-week period. OB intake significantly increased ORAC (43.9%) and reduced uric acid (-8.9%), CAT (-23.2%), TBARS (-30.2%), and C-reactive protein (-2.1%) (E-T1 vs. E-T0). These effects may represent longer-term benefits, given the decreased uric acid (-8.9%), CAT (-34.6%), TBARS (-48.4%), and oxidized LDL (-23.9%) values recorded after the washout phase (E-T2 vs. E-T0).CONCLUSIONThe regular consumption of OB improved antioxidant status and decreased inflammation state, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid levels. Thus, OB may protect the cardiovascular system in healthy humans and be considered a novel functional beverage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T23:50:27.313213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8774
  • Tritordeum: a novel cereal for food processing with good acceptability and
           significant reduction in gluten immunogenic peptides in comparison with
    • Authors: Luis Vaquero; Isabel Comino, Santiago Vivas, Laura Rodríguez-Martín, María J Giménez, Jorge Pastor, Carolina Sousa, Francisco Barro
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTritordeum is a novel cereal obtained from the hybridization between durum wheat and a wild barley. This study evaluates acceptance, digestibility and immunotoxic properties of tritordeum, a novel cereal for food processing. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in a study with different diets to compare tritordeum bread with wheat and gluten-free breads.RESULTSTritordeum breads had a similar acceptance to the wheat bread usually consumed, and the acceptance was significantly higher than the gluten-free bread and standardized wheat bread supplied in the study. There was no evidence for gastrointestinal symptoms among volunteers during the study. The reductions in the numbers of immunogenic epitopes in tritordeum in comparison with wheat were 78% for α-gliadins, 57% for γ-gliadins and 93% for ω-gliadins. The analysis of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stool samples showed a significantly lower excretion in the tritordeum ingestion phase than in the wheat ingestion phase.CONCLUSIONSThese results suggest that tritordeum may be an option of interest for general food processing, and especially for those who want to reduce their intake of gluten. However, it is not suitable for celiac disease sufferers as it contains gluten. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:35:34.121813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8705
  • Analysis of volatiles in brown rice, germinated brown rice, and selenised
           germinated brown rice during storage at different vacuum levels
    • Authors: Kunlun Liu; Shuang Zhao, Yang Li, Fusheng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe quality of nutritionally enhanced foods can be determined by evaluating changes in the volatile compounds produced in these foods over time. In this work, selenium-enriched germinated brown rice (Se-GBR), germinated brown rice (GBR), and brown rice (BR) stored under 90% relative humidity, 38 °C, and various vacuum levels were investigated. The relative abundance and differences of volatile compounds in Se-GBR, GBR, and BR over various storage periods were detected. The correlation of volatile compound abundance with vacuum level and storage time was analysed using principal component analysis (PCA).RESULTSVolatile compounds in the three samples were quantified at various storage periods (0, 90 and 150 days). Approximately 100 volatile compounds and eight species were identified and classified. Various proportions or types of volatile compounds were found in each sample at different sampling times. PCA results showed an isolation of volatile compounds in terms of sampling day and vacuum level at each storage period.CONCLUSIONChanges in volatile compounds over time and vacuum levels can provide bases for assessing of the nutritional quality of Se-GBR, GBR, and BR. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:30:32.709146-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8718
  • Impact of Infrared Treatment on Quality and Fungal Decontamination of Mung
           Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Inoculated with Aspergillus spp.
    • Authors: Maninder Meenu; Paramita Guha, Sunita Mishra
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMung bean is a rich source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber content. It also exhibits a high level of antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger are the two major fungal strains associated with stored mung bean that lead to post-harvest losses of grains and also cause serious health risks to human beings. So there is a need to explore an economical decontamination method that can be used without affecting the biochemical parameters of grains.RESULTSIt was observed that infrared (IR) treatment of mung bean surface up to 70°C for 5 min at an intensity of 0.299 kW m-2 lead to complete visible inhibition of fungal growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surface irregularities and physical disruption of spores coat are the major reasons behind the inactivation of IR treated fungal spores. It was also reported that IR treatment up to 70°C for 5 min does not cause any negative impact on the biochemical and physical properties of mung bean.CONCLUSIONFrom the results of the present study, it was concluded that IR treatment at 70°C for 5 min using IR source having intensity of 0.299 kW m-2 can be successfully used as a method of fungal decontamination. The fungal spore population was reduced (approximately 5.3 log10 CFU/g reductions) without significantly altering the biochemical and physical properties of grains.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T23:00:32.167391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8773
  • Recovery and stability over time of phenolic fractions by an industrial
           filtration system of olive mill wastewaters: a three years study
    • Authors: Maria Bellumori; Lorenzo Cecchi, Annalisa Romani, Nadia Mulinacci, Marzia Innocenti
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe recovery of phenolic compounds from olive milling is recognized as strategic for producers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and stability of retentates obtained from olive mill wastewaters treated with a membrane filtration system constituted by a micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration followed by a final reverse osmosis, over three crop seasons. Efficiency was evaluated in terms of phenolic amount in the retentates and of organic load in the final discarded waters. Phenolic compounds were quantified using tyrosol as external standard.RESULTSOur study highlighted a reproducibility of the process over years and a low organic load in permeates from reverse osmosis. Hydroxytyrosol was very stable in the liquid products at 18-28°C over 24 months of storage. The retentates from reverse osmosis showed the highest phenolic content (78.6 mg g-1 dm in 2015), associated with a potassium content of 22 g kg-1.CONCLUSIONSThe liquid concentrated retentates showed an unexpected stability over time of their bioactive phenolic compounds, particularly of hydroxytyrosol. These samples recovered from olive mill wastewaters can be good sources of natural antioxidants and potassium to guarantee the correct intake and to formulate new food ingredient or food products.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T08:05:24.100612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8772
  • Structural, thermal, and morphological characteristics of cassava
    • Authors: Mariana Souza Costa; Diogo Paschoalini Volanti, Maria Victória Eiras Grossmann, Célia Maria Landi Franco
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAmylodextrins from cassava starch were obtained by acid hydrolysis and their structural, thermal, and morphological characteristics were evaluated and compared to those from potato and corn amylodextrins.RESULTSCassava starch was the most susceptible to hydrolysis due to imperfections in its crystalline structure. The crystalline patterns of amylodextrins kept unchanged and crystallinity and peak temperature increased with hydrolysis time, while thermal degradation temperature decreased, independently of treatment time and starch source. Cassava amylodextrins had similar structural and morphological characteristics to those from corn amylodextrins due to their A-type crystalline arrangements. A-amylodextrins were structurally and thermally more stable than potato amylodextrins (B-type). Starch nanocrystals (SNC) were observed by transmission electron microscopy from the third day of hydrolysis in cassava amylodextrins, while potato and corn amylodextrins displayed SNC only on the fifth day. A-SNC displayed platelet shapes, while B-SNC were rounded. The SNC shape was related to the packing form and geometry of unit cell of allomorphs A and B.CONCLUSIONMicro (agglomerated crystalline particles) and nano (double helices organization)-structures were observed for amylodextrins. Cassava starch showed to be a promising material for SNC production, since it requires less hydrolysis time to obtaining more stable crystals.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:55:54.900211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8771
  • Preharvest treatments with salicylates enhance nutrient and antioxidant
           compounds in plum at harvest and after storage
    • Authors: Alejandra Martínez-Esplá; Pedro J. Zapata, Daniel Valero, Domingo Martínez-Romero, Huertas M. Díaz-Mula, María Serrano
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPrevious reports have addressed the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and methylsalicylate (MeSA) postharvest treatments on maintaining quality properties along storage in several commodities. However, there is no literature regarding the effect of preharvest treatments with salicylates on plum quality attributes (at harvest or after long term cold storage), which was evaluated on this research.RESULTSAt harvest, weight, firmness, individual organic acids, sugars, phenolics, anthocyanins and total carotenoids were found at higher levels in plums from SA, ASA and MeSA treated trees than in those from controls. Along storage, softening, colour changes and acidity losses were delayed in treated fruits as compared to controls. In addition, organic acids and antioxidant compounds were still found at higher levels in treated than in control plums after 40 days of storage. Results show a delay on the postharvest ripening process due to salicylate treatments, which could be attributed to their effect on delaying and decreasing ethylene production.CONCLUSIONPreharvest treatment with salicylates could be a safety, eco-friendly and new tool to improve (at harvest) and maintain (along storage) plum quality and especially its content on bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties, increasing the health effects of plum consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:45:28.904978-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8770
  • Ultrafine fibers of zein and anthocyanins as natural pH indicator
    • Authors: Luciana Prietto; Vania Zanella Pinto, Shanise Lisie Mello El Halal, Michele Greque de Morais, Jorge Alberto Vieria Costa, Loong-Tak Lim, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDpH-sensitive indicator membranes, useful for pharmaceutical, food, and packaging applications, can be formed by encapsulating halochromic compounds within various solid supports. To this end, electrospinning is a versatile technique for the development of these indicators, by entrapping pH dyes within ultrafine polymer fibers.RESULTSThe ultrafine zein fibers, containing 5% (w/v) anthocyanins, had an average diameter of 510 nm. The pH-sensitive membrane exhibited color changes from pink to green, when exposed to acidic and alkaline buffers, respectively. The contact angle was negligible after 10 and 2 s for neat and 5% anthocyanins-loaded zein membranes, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe pH membranes exhibited color changes in a board pH range, which potentially can be used in various active packaging applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03T04:30:23.170408-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8769
  • Application of visible/near infrared spectroscopy to quality control of
           fresh fruits and vegetables in large-scale mass distribution channels: a
           preliminary test on carrots and tomatoes
    • Authors: R. Beghi; V. Giovenzana, A. Tugnolo, R. Guidetti
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe market for fruits and vegetables is mainly controlled by the mass distribution channel (MDC). MDC buyers do not have useful instruments to rapidly evaluate the quality of the products. Decisions by the buyers are driven primarily by pricing strategies rather than product quality. Simple, rapid and easy-to-use methods for objectively evaluating the quality of postharvest products are needed. The aim of this study was to use visible and near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectroscopy to estimate some qualitative parameters of two low-price products (carrots and tomatoes) of various brands, and to evaluate the applicability of this technique for use in stores.RESULTSA non-destructive optical system (vis/NIR spectrophotometer with a reflection probe, spectral range 450–1650 nm) was tested. The differences in quality among carrots and tomatoes purchased from 13 stores on various dates were examined. The reference quality parameters (firmness, water content, soluble solids content, pH and colour) were correlated to the spectral readings. The models derived from the optical data gave positive results, in particular for the prediction of the soluble solids content and the colour, with better results for tomatoes than for carrots.CONCLUSIONThe application of optical techniques may help MDC buyers to monitor the quality of postharvest products, leading to an effective optimization of the entire supply chain.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:50:22.932999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8768
  • Development of a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product by sodium
           replacement using water vapour permeable bags
    • Authors: Arantxa Rizo; Ana Fuentes, José M. Barat, Isabel Fernández-Segovia
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood manufacturers need to reduce sodium contents to meet consumer and public health demands. In this study the use of sodium-free (SF) salt and KCl to develop a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product with reduced sodium content was evaluated. Fifty percent of NaCl was replaced with 50% of SF salt or 50% KCl in the salmon smoke-flavouring process carried out using water vapour permeable bags.RESULTSTriangle tests showed that samples with either SF salt or KCl were statistically similar to the control samples (100% NaCl). Since no sensorial advantage in using SF salt was found compared with KCl and given the lower price of KCl, the KCl-NaCl samples were selected for the next phase. The changes of physicochemical and microbial parameters in smoke-flavoured salmon during 42 days showed that partial replacement of NaCl with KCl did not significantly affect the quality and shelf-life of smoke-flavoured salmon, which was over 42 days.CONCLUSIONSmoke-flavoured salmon with 37% sodium reduction was developed without affecting sensory features and shelf-life. This is an interesting option for reducing sodium content in such products to help meet the needs set by both health authorities and consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:40:22.454001-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8767
  • Regioisomeric distribution of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy linoleic acid in
           vegetable oils during storage and heating
    • Authors: Marc Pignitter; Mathias Zaunschirm, Judith Lach, Laura Unterberger, Antonio Kopic, Claudia Keßler, Julia Kienesberger, Monika Pischetsrieder, Manfred Eggersdorfer, Christoph Riegger, Veronika Somoza
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe oxidative deterioration of vegetable oils is commonly measured by the peroxide value, thereby not considering the contribution of individual lipid hydroperoxide isomers, which might have different bioactive effects. Thus, the formation of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HpODE and 13- HpODE), was quantitated after short-term heating and conditions representative of long-term domestic storage in samples of linoleic acid, canola, sunflower and soybean oil, by means of stable isotope dilution analysis-LC-MS/MS.RESULTSWhile heating of pure linoleic acid at 180 °C for 30 min led to an almost complete loss of 9-HpODE and 13-HpODE, heating of canola, sunflower and soybean oil resulted in the formation of 5.74 ± 3.32, 2.00 ± 1.09, 16.0 ± 2.44 mM 13-HpODE and 13.8 ± 8.21, 10.0 ± 6.74 and 45.2 ± 6.23 mM 9-HpODE. An almost equimolar distribution of the 9- and 13-HpODE was obtained during household-representative storage conditions after 56 days, whereas under heating conditions, an approximately 2.4-, 2.8- and 5.0-fold (p ≤ 0.001) higher concentration of 9-HpODE than 13-HpODE was detected in canola, soybean and sunflower oil, respectively.CONCLUSIONA temperature-dependent distribution of HpODE regioisomers could be shown in vegetable oils suggesting them as markers of lipid oxidation in oils used for short-term heating.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:30:22.502866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8766
  • Steady and dynamic shear rheological behavior of semi dilute Alyssum
           homolocarpum seed gum solutions: Influence of concentration, temperature
           and heating-cooling rate
    • Authors: Behzad Alaeddini; Arash Koocheki, Jafar Mohammadzadeh Milani, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Babak Ghanbarzadeh
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) solution exhibits high viscosity at low shear rates, and has anionic feature. However there is no information regarding the flow and dynamic properties of this gum in semi dilute solutions. The purpose of the present research was to study the dynamic and steady shear behavior of AHSG at semi diulte region.RESULTSViscosity profile demonestrated a shear thinning behavior at all temperatures and concentrations. An increase in the AHSG concentration was acompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity degree, whereas by increasing the temperature , the pseudoplasticity of AHSG decreased. At low gum concentration, solutions had more viscosity dependency to temperature. The mechanical spectra obtained from the frequency sweep experiment demonstrated viscoelastic properties for gum solutions. AHSG solutions showed typical weak gel-like behavior revealing G' greater than G" within the experimental range of frequency (Hz), with slight frequency dependency. The influence of temperature on viscoelastic properties of AHSG solutions was studied during heating (5-85°C) and cooling (85-5°C) processes. The complex viscosity of AHSG was more when compared to the apparent viscosity, exhibiting the disruption of AHSG network structure under continuous shear rates and deviation from Cox-Merz rule. During the initial heating, the storage modulus showed a decreasing trend and with further increase in the temperature, the magnitude of storage modulus increased. The influence of temperature on the storage modulus was more considerable when higher heating rate was applied.CONCLUSIONAHSG can be applied as a thickening and stabilizing agents in food products that need good stability against temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T10:15:20.525381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8765
  • The determination of the botanical origin in honeys with over-represented
           pollen: combination of melissopalynological, sensory and physicochemical
    • Authors: M. Rodopoulou; C. Tananaki, M. Dimou, V. Liolios, D. Kanelis, G. Goras, A. Thrasyvoulou
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPollen analysis of honey is the basic method for the determination of its botanical origin. However, the presence of over-represented pollen in honeys may lead the analysis to false results. This can be more severe if this pollen is present in unifloral under-represented honeys of commercial importance, for instance thyme honey. In this study, we investigated the abundance of over-represented pollen grains on several quality characteristics in honey samples. In particular, we mixed honeys characterised as over-represented, specifically chestnut and eucalyptus, with thyme honeys in different analogies; and we analysed the melissopalynological, organoleptic, physicochemical (water content, electrical conductivity, colour) and volatile characteristics of the blends.RESULTSThe most sensitive parameters were the microscopic characteristics, followed by the organoleptic ones. Blends of thyme honey with originally low percentage of thyme pollen were the most influenced and could not be characterised as unifloral, regarding their melissopalynological characteristics even when they were mixed with small quantities of honeys with over-represented pollen (i.e. 5 %).CONCLUSIONThis study confirms that in case of presence of over-represented pollen in honeys, the pollen analysis alone cannot give trustworthy results for the determination of the botanical origin even though their exclusion during pollen analysis, when they are present in percentages up to 30 %, could provide more accurate results. Consequently, pollen analysis should be combined with the other analyses as well, especially in honeys with under - represented and over – represented pollens, in order to give safer results for the botanical characterisation of honeys.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T09:35:25.271081-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8764
  • Minimising food waste: a call for multidisciplinary research
    • Authors: Maria del Carmen Alamar; Natalia Falagán, Emel Aktas, Leon A Terry
      Abstract: Food losses and waste have always been a significant global problem for mankind, and one which has become increasingly recognised as such by policy makers, food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers. It is, however, an emotive subject whereby the extent, accuracy and resolution of available data on postharvest loss and waste are questionable, such that key performance indicators on waste can be misinformed. The nature and extent of food waste differ among developed economies, economies in transition and developing countries. While most emphasis has been put on increasing future crop production, far less resource has been and is still channelled towards enabling both established and innovative food preservation technologies to reduce food waste while maintaining safety and quality. Reducing food loss and waste is a more tractable problem than increasing production in the short to medium term, as its solution is not directly limited, for instance, by available land and water resources. Here we argue the need for a paradigm shift of current funding strategies and research programmes that will encourage the development, implementation and translation of collective biological, engineering and management solutions to better preserve and utilise food. Such multidisciplinary thinking across global supply chains is an essential element in the pursuit of achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. The implementation of allied technological and management solutions is reliant on there being sufficient skilled human capital and resources. There is currently a lack of robust postharvest research networks outside of the developed world, and insufficient global funding mechanisms that can support such interdisciplinary collaborations. There is, thus, a collective need for schemes that encourage inter-supply chain research, knowledge exchange and capacity building to reduce food losses and waste. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:40:24.349-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8708
  • Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded
           Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation
           and grape ripeness level
    • Authors: Jacobus J. Hunter; Cornelis G. Volschenk
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NE, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23 °Balling, 25 °B, 27 °B) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt).RESULTSSoluble solids:Titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides, N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions.CONCLUSIONA large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorizing terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T10:30:23.683144-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8763
  • Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of Biomass and Nitrogen in
           Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under Different Fertilization
    • Authors: Baige Zhang; Mingzhu Li, Qiang Li, Jian Cao, Changyuan Zhang, Fusuo Zhang, Xinping Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe elemental uptake and allocation patterns of crops create insight for nutrient management. Two-year field experiments were conducted to determine the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake patterns of bitter gourd and to evaluate different N management strategies. Two N practices during the nursery stage, namely, the conventional fertilizer method (Scon) and the controlled-release fertilizer management method (Scrf), combined with three N management strategies after transplanting, namely, zero N fertilizer application (Nno), the conventional strategy (Ncon) and the systematic N management strategy (Nopt) were assessed.RESULTSAveraged over two years, the Scrf-Nopt treatment performed best, producing 33.1 t ha-1 fruit yield with 310 kg N ha-1, indicating that the yield was 22.6% greater by using 18.8% less fertilizer N than in the Scon-Ncon treatment. The Scrf-Nopt treatment facilitated plant growth by accumulating 20.0% more total dry weight and prioritized its allocation to productive organ (57.2%), while the Scon-Ncon strategy was biased towards leaves (56.3%) over fruits (43.8%). N uptake and distribution closely followed the pattern of biomass.CONCLUSIONThe Scrf-Nopt fertilization strategy coordinated the important role of N plays in total accumulation and well-proportion of biomass and N in bitter gourd developmental processes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T10:20:21.914792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8762
  • Validation of floral food resources for pollinators in agricultural
           landscape in SE Poland
    • Authors: Jacek Jachuła; Bożena Denisow, Małgorzata Wrzesień
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDProper management of bee pastures is considered an important activity for diversity of pollinators and conservation of the population size. In the present study, we evaluated the floral composition and diversity, flowering spectrum, and availability of food resources in natural and man-made habitats in four rural municipalities in the Lublin Upland, SE Poland. We also determined the connection between pollinator-friendly biotopes and made some suggestions on creation/supplementation of bee pastures adapted to the arable land structure in eastern Poland (mean acreage 7.65 ha).RESULTSForage species richness (S) differed among vegetation types - the highest S value was found in field margins, while mixed forests represented the lowest species richness (mean ± SD = 37.8±9.5 vs 16.5±2.3). In all habitats, the most abundant flowering was recorded in May. Then, the blooming abundance decreased until a complete decline at the end of summer. The mean distance between the pollinator-friendly biotopes is 2.4±1.53 km, which is out of the flying range/foraging distance of most pollinators.CONCLUSIONShortages of nectar and pollen resources in agricultural landscape of SE Poland are evident. Therefore, we assume that the landscape structure requires support in terms of food niches for pollinators and creation/supplementation of bee pastures is necessary, e.g. 6-9 patches of 0.025-0.3 ha each within an area of 100 ha.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T10:15:24.134157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8761
  • Inclusion complexes of yellow bell pepper pigments with β-cyclodextrin:
           Preparation, characterisation and application as food natural colorant
    • Authors: Francine Albernaz T F Lobo; Vitoria Silva, Josiane Domingues, Silvana Rodrigues, Valéria Costa, Deborah Falcão, Kátia G de Lima Araújo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work aimed to prepare inclusion complexes using yellow bell pepper pigments and β-cyclodextrin with two different procedures (method A: ultrasonic homogenization and method B: kneading), to characterize them and evaluate their color stability in an isotonic beverage model. The ratio of extract to β-cyclodextrin was 1:2, for both inclusion methodologies evaluated. The formed extract:β-cyclodextrin complexes and a physical mixture of extract and β-cyclodextrin were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods.RESULTSBoth methodologies resulted in good complex yield and inclusion efficiency. The color indexes L* (lightness) and a* and b* for the color opponents green-red and blue-yellow of isotonic drinks added of the complexes were measured after storage under irradiance (1,400 lx) and absence of light in temperature between 25 - 31 °C for 21 days.CONCLUSIONThe complex obtained by inclusion methodology B promoted a better color protection for the beverage when compared to the use of the raw extract, showing that the molecular inclusion of yellow bell pepper carotenoids can provide good results for that purpose.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T23:06:30.835835-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8760
  • Consumer visual appraisal and shelf life of leg chops from suckling kids
           raised with natural milk or milk replacer
    • Authors: Guillermo Ripoll; María J. Alcalde, Anastasio Argüello, María G. Córdoba, Begoña Panea
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe use of milk replacers to feed suckling kids could affect the shelf life and appearance of the meat. Leg chops were evaluated by consumers and the instrumental color was measured. A machine learning algorithm was used to relate them. The aim of this experiment was to study the shelf life of the meat of kids reared with dam's milk or milk replacers and to ascertain which illuminant and instrumental color variables are used by consumers as criteria to evaluate that visual appraisal.RESULTSMeat from kids reared with milk replacers was more valuable and had a longer shelf life than those reared with natural milk. Consumers used the color of the whole surface of the leg chop to assess the appearance of meat. Lightness and hue angle were the prime cues used to evaluate the appearance of meat.CONCLUSIONSIlluminant D65 was more useful for relating the visual appraisal with the instrumental color using a machine learning algorithm. The machine learning algorithms showed that the underlying rules used by consumers to evaluate the appearance of suckling kid meat are not at all linear and can be computationally schematized into a simple algorithm.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T22:45:33.038917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8758
  • Effect of Egg Freshness on Their Automatic Orientation
    • Authors: Song Jiang; Ticao Zhu, Danfeng Jia, Jun Yao, Yiyi Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh quality eggs in unified packaging are desired by egg production enterprises. Automatic orientation apparatus is frequently used to orient eggs uniformly to pointed-end-down position for packaging. However, such apparatus may not work accordingly if the eggs are stored under improper ways or excessive storage time. To study the effect of egg freshness on the efficiency of automatic orientation process, the relationship between egg freshness and its orientation motions was investigated under different storage conditions.RESULTSThe results showed that as the storage time increased, centroid position and pointed-end-down turnover ratio (TR) decreased, other parameters such as eggs’ obliquity at stationary state, horizontal deflection angle, speed, acceleration of axial motion, side-slip angle and rolling distance increased. However, the effects of storage time on the guiding distance of the guide rod were not apparent. In addition, the higher the storage temperature, the greater the changes of the final orientation states of eggs on the conveyor line. If the eggs were to be oriented uniformly, they should be stored for less than 25, 16, 10 and 7 days at 10 °C, 18 °C, 26 °C and 34 °C respectively under the relative humidity of 75%.CONCLUSIONThe experimental results presented in this paper are very useful for quality control and quality assurance in egg production enterprises.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T21:45:48.266821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8757
  • Impact of nano/micron vegetable carbon black on mechanical, barrier and
           anti-photooxidation properties of fish gelatin film
    • Authors: Junsheng Ding; Xiaomeng Wu, Xiaona Qi, Heng Guo, Anjun Liu, Wenhang Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn this paper, two kinds of commonly used vegetable carbon black (VCB, 3000 mesh; nano) at 50 g·kg-1 concentration (based on dried gelatin) were added to 48 g·kg-1 of fish gelatin (GEL) solutions and their effects on mechanical, barrier and anti-photooxidation properties of GEL films were investigated.RESULTSFrom the SEM images, it showed that compared with 3000 mesh VCB (1-2 μm), nano VCB (100-200 nm) made the microstructure of GEL film more compact and more gelatin chains were cross-linked by nano VCB. The addition of nano VCB significantly increased gelatin film strength with the biggest tensile strength of 52.589 MPa and stiffness with the biggest E of 968.874 MPa, but led to the reduction of film elongation. Also, the VCB presence significantly improved water vapor and oxygen barrier properties of GEL film. Importantly, nano VCB increased GEL film better UV barrier property due to its stronger UV absorption nature when compared with micron VCB. This property could help in the preservation of oil samples in the photooxidation accelerated test.CONCLUSIONWith improved properties, the nano VCB-reinforced GEL film may have great application potentiality in edible packaging field, especially for the anti-photooxidation property.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T21:20:42.11415-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8756
  • Oxidation pretreatment by calcium hypochlorite to improve the sensitivity
           of enzyme inhibition-based detection of organophosphorus pesticides
    • Authors: Xiao Yang; Juan Dai, Li Yang, Ming Ma, Sujuan Zhao, Xianggui Chen, Hang Xiao
      Abstract: Enzyme inhibition-based detection is the most widely used method for rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in food and agricultural products. However, the accuracy of the method were negatively affected by low inhibitory activities of OPs with P=S moiety on acetylcholinesterase. Herein, we demonstrated that oxidation pretreatments with bromine, hydrogen peroxide, or calcium hypochlorite significantly enhanced the enzyme inhibitory activities of these OPs. Especially, calcium hypochlorite (0.05%) pretreatment converted P=S moiety in OPs to P=O and produced the most potent and steady inhibitory effect on the enzyme. This in turn resulted in a dramatic increase in the sensitivity of enzyme inhibition-based detection of these OPs by as much as 2 to 7 orders of magnitude. Importantly, this enhanced detection of OPs was validated in various vegetable samples. Our findings provided a solid basis to use calcium hypochlorite pretreatment for the improved detection of OPs by enzyme inhibition-based method.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T10:00:52.512023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8755
  • Effects of Posidonia oceanica banquettes on intake, digestibility,
           nitrogen balance and metabolic profiles in sheep
    • Authors: Cristina Castillo; Joaquín Hernández, Juan Sotillo, Cándido Gutiérrez, Ana M. Montes, Ángel R. Mantecón
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe marine plant Posidonia oceanica (L.) (PO) has been demonstrated in goats to be a source of fibre. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of introducing this marine plant as a substitute for barley straw in the feed of mature ewes, assessing the effects of their addition on intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation, and on the ewes’ metabolic profiles (energy and protein). P. oceanica was used at 75 g ewe−1 day−1 (15% of the total forage), 150 g ewe−1 day−1 (30% of the total forage) and 300 g ewe−1 day−1 (60% of the total forage).RESULTSSubstitution of 15% of the forage with this PO has no negative consequences on dry matter intake, final live weights and metabolic status in mature ewes; in addition, PO may improve the animal's N-utilisationThe upper limit of substitution was 30%, where only few changes were noted without metabolic consequences. Substitution of 60% impaired performance and affects tissue functions in the animal's body.CONCLUSIONModerate quantities of barley straw (ranging between 75–150 g ewe−1 day−1) can be replaced by PO in feed rations for mature ewes
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T10:00:49.87439-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8759
  • Influence of polysaccharide-based edible coatings as carriers of prebiotic
           fibers on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries
    • Authors: María V Alvarez; Alejandra G Ponce, María R Moreira
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLittle information is available regarding the effect of dietary fibers added into edible coatings on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) edible coatings enriched with four different dietary fibers (apple fiber, orange fiber, inulin and oligofructose) on microbiological, nutritional, physicochemical and sensorial properties of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries stored for 18 days at 5 °C.RESULTSThe most encouraging results were found for CH coatings (with and without fibers) which significantly inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and yeasts/molds (reductions up to 1.9 log CFU g−1), reduced decay rate by more than 50%, enhanced antioxidant properties, retained fruit firmness, delayed off-odor development and improved overall visual quality of blueberries. Oligofructose and orange fiber added to CH coatings enhanced antioxidant properties of fruits and allowed higher reductions in yeast/mold counts compared to the use of CH alone. CH-based coatings enriched with inulin, oligofructose and apple fiber extended sensory shelf life of blueberries by 6 days. Although AL coatings (with and without fiber) allowed delaying fungal decay and also retaining antioxidant properties but did not improve the microbiological and sensory quality of fruits.CONCLUSIONThe results proved that fiber-enriched CH treatments allowed the maintenance of freshness and the improvement of the quality of ready-to-eat blueberries. It might be an interesting option to offer consumers a healthy product with prebiotic potential and an extended shelf life.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T11:04:40.938749-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8751
  • Recent developments in nanotechnology transforming the agricultural
           sector: a transition replete with opportunities
    • Authors: Dae-Young Kim; Avinash Kadam, Surendra Shinde, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Jayanta Patra, Gajanan Ghodake
      Abstract: The applications and benefits of nanotechnology in agricultural sector have attracted considerable attention, particularly in the invention of unique nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. The contemporary developments in nanotechnology are acknowledged and the most significant opportunities awaiting in the agriculture sector from the recent scientific and technical literature are addressed. This review discusses the significance of recent trends in nanomaterial-based sensors available for the sustainable management of agricultural soil, as well as the role of nanotechnology in detection and protection against plant pathogens, and for food quality and safety. Novel nanosensors have been reported for primary applications in improving crop practices, food quality, and packaging methods, thus will change the agricultural sector for potentially better and healthier food products. Nanotechnology is well-known to play a significant role in the effective management of phytopathogens, nutrient utilization, controlled release of pesticides, and fertilizers. Research and scientific gaps to be overcome and fundamental questions have been addressed to fuel active development and application of nanotechnology. Together, nanoscience, nanoengineering, and nanotechnology, offer a plethora of opportunities, proving a viable alternative in the agriculture and food processing sector, by providing a novel and advanced solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T11:04:09.468596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8749
  • Preparation and characterization of a novel hydrogel based on Auricularia
           polytricha β-glucan and its bio-release property for vitamin B12 delivery
    • Authors: Kai Zhu; Xiaoyuan Chen, Da Yu, Yue He, Guanglei Song
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study investigates a novel hydrogel synthesis method and its bio-release property. This hydrogel with three-dimensional network structure based on Auricularia polytricha β-glucan was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H-NMR and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Vitamin B12 (VB12, cobalamin) as a hydrophilic functional food component was entrapped into these hydrogels, in vitro release profile of VB12 was established in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF).RESULTSThe results showed that the hydrogel had medium pore size from 30 to 300 µm, and the swelling ratio increased with the degree of substitution. The hydrogel demonstrated good stability in SGF and bio-release capability in SIF for VB12. The accumulated release rate is about 80% in SIF and below 20% in SGF, which indicated the significant different release property in stomach and intestinal.CONCLUSIONThe Auricularia polytricha β-glucan based hydrogel has good swelling ratio, pepsin stability and pancrelipase-catalyzed biodegradation property. The bio-release rate is significant different in SIF and SGF, which indicated that this hydrogel could be a good intestinal target carrier of VB12.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T09:58:11.190179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8754
  • Effect of different light spectra on the pigmentation of stored elephant
    • Authors: Diego Comparini; Hieu T.H. Nguyen, Kota Ueda, Kyoshi Moritaka, Toshihiko Kihara, Kawano Tomonori
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn the present study high-brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) have been used to investigate the influence of different light spectra on garlic discoloration at different humidity and temperature. Many processes involved in the discoloration process of garlic/leek during storage at different conditions remain unanswered. For this reason in this study the ability of specific light spectra to enhance the production of desirable pigments has been evaluated in the Elephant Garlic. It is well known that the pigments involved in the discoloration reaction are of great interest because their potential ability to increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the food.RESULTSIn the present study, we show how the chlorophyll content of the sprout increase directly proportionally to the wavelength of the light tested, then green/blue light delay the greening process of garlic young shoots whilst red/infra-red lights irradiance conditions increase the greening process at different storage temperatures and humidity. Moreover different lights in the visible spectrum have been observed to stimulate and enhance the outer layer purple coloration.CONCLUSIONThe use of different lights to modulate garlic pigmentation has been demonstrated and in particular the utilization of RGB lights and lower temperature resulted in the higher red/pink pigments production supporting the hypothesis that this process involves more than one light to be fully performed and the low temperature is a condition that influences the formation of these products.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T09:57:49.119659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8752
  • The impact of short-term UV irradiation on grains of sensitive and
           tolerant cereal genotypes studied by EPR
    • Authors: Magdalena Kurdziel; Maria Filek, Maria Łabanowska
      Abstract: BackgroundUV irradiation has ionization character and leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Destructive character of ROS was observed among others during interaction of cereal grains with ozone and was caused by changes in structures of biomolecules leading to the formation of stable organic radicals. That effect was more evident for stress sensitive genotypes. In this study we investigated the influence of UV irradiation on cereal grains originating from genotypes with different tolerance to oxidative stress.ResultsGrains and their parts (endosperm, embryo and seed coat) of barley, wheat and oat were subjected to short term UV irradiation. It was found that UV caused the appearance of various kinds of reactive species (O2−, H2O2) and stable radicals (semiquinone, phenoxyl and carbon-centered). Simultaneously, lipid peroxidation occurred and the organic structure of Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes become disturbed.ConclusionsUV irradiation causes damage of main biochemical structures of plant tissues, the effect is more significant in sensitive genotypes. In comparison with ozone treatment, UV irradiation leads to stronger destruction of biomolecules in grains and their parts. It is caused by high energy of UV light, facilitating easier breakage of molecular bonds in biochemical compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:40:21.170028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8753
  • Bioactive compounds from orange epicarp to enrich fish burgers
    • Authors: Sara Spinelli; Lucia Lecce, Desislava Likyova, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Amalia Conte
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe orange industry produces considerable amounts of by-products, traditionally used for animal feed or fuel production. Most of these by-products could be used as functional ingredients. To assess the potential food application of orange epicarp, different percentages of microencapsulated orange extract were added to fresh fish burgers. Then, an in vitro digestion was also carried out, before and after microencapsulation, to measure the bio-accessibility of the active compounds.RESULTSA significant increase of bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds has been observed in the orange epicarp extract after microencapsulation by spray-drying. From the sensory point of view, the fish sample enriched with 50 g kg−1 microencapsulated extract was the most comparable to the control burger, even if it showed a higher phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid bio-accessibility.CONCLUSIONOrange epicarp may be used as food additive to enhance the health content of food products. The microencapsulation is a valid technique to protect the bioactive compounds and increase their bio-accessibility.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:32:00.900163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8750
  • Sensory quality and fatty acid content of springbok (Antidorcas
           marsupialis) meat: Influence of farm location and gender
    • Authors: Jeannine Neethling; Magdalena Muller, Marieta van der Rijst, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSpringbok are harvested for meat production irrespective of farm location or gender from which the meat is derived. This study investigated the influence of farm location (three farms containing different vegetation types) and gender on the sensory quality of springbok longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. The sensory profile (aroma, flavour and texture) was determined by descriptive sensory analysis, in addition to determining the physical meat quality, proximate and fatty acid composition.RESULTSFarm location had a significant influence on the sensory quality (gamey and liver-like aroma; beef, liver-like, lamb-like and herbaceous flavour; sweet taste; tenderness; residue; mealiness; Warner-Bratzler shear force; moisture, protein and intramuscular lipid content) and fatty acid content (oleic acid, C18:1n9c; α-linolenic acid, C18:3n3; total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio; total omega-3 PUFA; and omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio) of springbok meat. Gender influenced the chemical composition of springbok meat, however, the influence on the sensory profile was minor (sweet taste; P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONFarm location could influence the sensory quality and composition of springbok meat and should be considered when harvesting for meat production. Gender does not have to be considered for the marketing of springbok meat.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T04:35:22.90581-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8743
  • Mycoflora assessment, growth and toxigenic features of patulin-producers
           in kiwifruit in China
    • Authors: Yuan Wang; Kewei Feng, Bin Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Jianping Wei, Yahong Yuan, Tianli Yue
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFungal development in agricultural products may cause mycotoxin contamination that are a significant threat to food safety. Patulin (PAT) and PAT-producers contamination has been established as a worldwide problem. The present study was conducted to investigate the mycoflora and PAT-producers present in kiwifruits and environmental samples collected from orchards and processing plants in Shaanxi Province, China.RESULTSVariations in mycoflora were observed in different samples, with penicillia and aspergilli as the predominant genera. Approximately 42.86% of dropped fruits were contaminated with PAT-producers, which harbored the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase and the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase genes that are involved in PAT biosynthesis. The growth of P. expansum, P. griseofulvum and P. paneum in kiwi puree agar (KPA) medium and kiwi juice (KJ) well fitted the modified Gompertz and Baranyi and Roberts models (R2 ≥ 0.95). A significant positive correlation between colony diameter and PAT content in KPA medium of P. expansum and P. griseofulvum was observed (p < 0.05).CONCLUSIONSThis research analyzed the mycofloral composition and the potential risk for PAT and PAT-producer contamination in kiwifruit, which may be utilized in the establishment of proper management practices in the kiwifruit industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T09:40:23.923786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8747
  • Preservation of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes treated
           wheat straw under anaerobic conditions
    • Authors: Lei Mao; Anton S. M. Sonnenberg, Wouter H. Hendriks, John W. Cone
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNo attention has been paid so far to the preservation of fungal treated lignocellulose for longer periods. Here we treated wheat straw (WS) with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks and assessed changes in pH, chemical composition and in vitro gas production (IVGP) weekly. Fungal treated WS was also stored for 64 days as is, with addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or with a combination of LAB and molasses in airtight glass jars mimicking ensiling conditions.RESULTSBoth fungi significantly reduced the lignin and hemicellulose content of WS, and increased the cellulose content. The IVGP increased with increasing time of incubation, indicating the increase in digestibility. Both fungi lowered the pH of WS under 4.3, which guarantees an initial and stable low pH during anaerobic storage. Minor changes in fibre composition and IVGP were observed for stored L. edodes treated WS while no change occurred for C. subvermispora.CONCLUSIONIt is possible to conserve C. subvermispora and L. edodes treated straw under anaerobic condition without additives up to 64 days. This finding is important for practical application to supply fungi treated feed to ruminant animals for a prolonged period.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T09:10:22.300855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8745
  • Changes in Polyphenol Profile of Dried Apricots Containing So2 at Various
           Concentrations during Storage
    • Authors: Melek Altındağ; Meltem Türkyılmaz, Mehmet Özkan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChanges in polyphenols have important effect on quality (especially color) and health benefits of dried apricots. SO2 concentration, storage and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were the factors which had significant effects on polyphenols. Polyphenol profile and activities of PPO and PAL in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs, 0, 451, 832, 2112 and 3241 mg SO2/kg) were monitored during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days for the first time.RESULTSEven the lowest SO2 concentration (451 ​​mg/kg) was sufficient to inactivate PPO during entire storage period. However, while SO2 led to the increase in PAL activity of the samples (r = 0.767) before storage, PAL activities of SDAs decreased during storage. After 90 days of storage, PAL activity was determined in only non-sulfured dried apricots (NSDAs) and dried apricots containing 451 ​​mg SO2/kg. Although major polyphenol in NSDAs was epicatechin (611.4 mg/kg), that in SDAs was chlorogenic acid (455–1508 mg/kg), followed by epicatechin (0–426.8 mg/kg), rutin (148.9–477.3 mg/kg), ferulic acid (23.3–55.3 mg/kg) and gallic acid (2.4–43.6 mg/kg). After storage at 30 °C for 379 days, the major polyphenol in SDAs was gallic acid (706–2324 mg/kg). However, the major polyphenol in NSDAs did not change after storage. The highest total polyphenol content was detected in SDAs containing 2112 mg SO2/kg and stored at 30 °C.CONCLUSIONTo produce dried apricots having high polyphenol content, ca. 2000 mg SO2/kg should be used. Low storage temperature (
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T05:00:22.845503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8740
  • The use of factorial design to evaluate the oxidation of oils containing
           different types of omega 3 fatty acids
    • Authors: Thamyris Dias Fabiano Agnes; Gabriela Grassmann Roschel, Inar Alves Castro
      Abstract: N3 FA promote beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, but they are highly susceptible to oxidation, which leads to the formation of potentially toxic secondary products. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of natural compounds (sinapic acid and rutin) was evaluated using an accelerated model to oxidize the oils. Five inducers (Temperature, Fe2+, AAPH, Ascorbyl palmitate and AMVN) were combined in a factorial design to accelerate the oxidation of three oils (flaxseed, echium and fish) containing different sources of n3 FA. Hydroperoxide (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations estimated using the regression models did not differ from the observed values. AMVN + Fe2+ increased TBARS in all samples. The values for the oxidative markers obtained 48 h after induction were similar to those obtained when the oils were heated at 60 °C for 15 days. Of a number of volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of different n3 FA sources, (E,E) 2,4-heptadienal, (E,E) 2,4-decadienal, decanal, undecanal and (E)-2-undecenal were identified in all samples and could be used as more specific oxidative markers. Using the accelerated model, rutin improved the oxidative stability of fish oil, probably due to the presence of a catechol group in its chemical structure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:20:22.030956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8739
  • Biological activities of Agave by-products and their possible applications
           in food and pharmaceuticals
    • Authors: Julio Cesar López-Romero; Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala, Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar, Etna Aida Peña-Ramos, Humberto González-Ríos
      Abstract: Agave leaves are considered a by-product of alcoholic beverage production (tequila, mezcal and bacanora) because they are discarded during the production process, despite accounting for approximately 50 % of the total plant weight. These by-products constitute a potential source of Agave extracts rich in bioactive compounds, such as saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenes, and possess different biological effects, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo tests (e.g., antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antiparasitic, and anticancer activity). Despite their positive results in biological assays, Agave extracts have not been widely evaluated in food systems and pharmaceutical areas, and these fields represent a potential route to improve the usage of Agave plants as food additives and agents for treating medical diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:07:13.227853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8738
  • Postharvest Monitoring of Organic Potato (CV. Anuschka) During Hot-Air
           Drying Using Vis/Nir Hyperspectral Imaging
    • Authors: R Moscetti; B. Sturm, S.O.J. Crichton, W. Amjad, R Massantini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe potential of hyperspectral imaging (500÷1010 nm) was evaluated for monitoring of the quality of potato slices (var. Anuschka) of 5-, 7- and 9-mm thicknesses subjected to air drying at 50 °C. The study investigated 3 different features selection methods for the prediction of dry basis moisture content and colour of potato slices using the partial least squares regression (PLS).RESULTSThe feature selection strategies tested include interval PLS regression (iPLS), and differences and ratios between raw reflectance values for each possible pair of wavelengths (R[λ1]-R[λ2] and R[λ1]:R[λ2], respectively). Moreover, the combination of spectral and spatial domains was tested.Excellent results were obtained using the iPLS algorithm. However, features from both datasets of raw reflectance differences and ratios represent suitable alternatives for development of low-complex prediction models. Finally, the dry basis moisture content was high accurately predicted by combining spectral data (i.e. R[511 nm]-R[994 nm]) and spatial domain (i.e. relative area shrinkage of slice).CONCLUSIONSModelling the data acquired during drying through hyperspectral imaging can provide useful information concerning the chemical and physicochemical changes of product. With all this information, the proposed approach lays the foundations for a more efficient smart dryer that can be designed and its process optimized for drying of potato slices.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:15:24.475294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8737
  • Preparative isolation and purification of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin
           from Capsici Fructus using supercritical fluid extraction combined with
           high speed countercurrent chromatography
    • Authors: Rongwei Yan; Leilei Zhao, Junfei Tao, Yong Zou, Xinjun Xu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSupercritical fluid extraction with CO2 (SFE-CO2) was utilized for extraction of capsaicin (CA) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCA) from Capsici Fructus, and then a two-step enrichment method about separating capsaicinoids from SFE-CO2 extracts was developed. The process involved extraction with aqueous methanol and crystallization by alkali-extraction and acid-precipitation. Finally, a consecutive high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) separation method was successfully applied in the purification of CA and DHCA from capsaicinoids crystal.RESULTSExtraction pressure, extraction temperature and the volume of co-solvent were optimized as 33 MPa, 41 °C and 75 mL by using response surface methodology, and the extraction rates of CA and DHCA were about 93.18% and 93.49%. 407.43 mg of capsaicinoids crystal was isolated from the SFE-CO2 extracts obtained from 100g capsicum powder by the two-step enrichment method. About 506 mg and 184 mg of CA and DHCA with the purities up to 98.31% and 96.68% were obtained from 1 g of capsaicinoids crystal in one HSCCC of three consecutive sample loadings without exchanging any solvent system.CONCLUSIONSThis method containing SFE-CO2, a two-step enrichment and HSCCC was efficient, powerful and practical for the large-scale preparation of CA and DHCA from Capsici Fructus with high purities and high yields.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T05:56:29.563891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8736
  • Application of Rape Pod Sealants to Reduce Adverse Environmental Impacts
    • Authors: Laimis Bauša; Dainius Steponavičius, Eglė Jotautienė, Aurelija Kemzūraitė, Ernestas Zaleckas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterised by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed.RESULTSComparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg−1), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs.CONCLUSIONThe results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68–104 kg ha−1 in 2014 and 194–305 kg ha−1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T05:40:34.647411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8735
  • Effects of dietary hop (Humulus lupulus L.) β-acids on quality
           attributes, composition and oxidative stability of pork meat
    • Authors: Maicon Sbardella; Aline M C Racanicci, Franz D Gois, Cristiane B de Lima, Dannielle L Migotto, Leandro B Costa, Valdomiro S Miyada
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effects of dietary levels of hop β-acids on physical attributes, lipid oxidation, and chemical composition of pork meat was evaluated. Thirty-two castrated male pigs obtained from a complete block design feeding experiment (6.23 ± 0.42 kg initial BW to 20.45±0.95 kg final BW) and fed diets supplemented with 0, 120, 240 or 360 mg kg-1 hop β-acids during 35-d were slaughtered to sample Longissimus dorsi muscle for meat analysis.RESULTSNo effects (P>0.05) of dietary hop β-acids were observed on meat physical attributes. Quadratic effects (P
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T04:46:07.838542-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8730
  • Enhancement of the water solubility and antioxidant activity of hesperidin
           by chitooligosaccharide
    • Authors: Ruge Cao; Yali Zhao, Zhongkai Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHesperidin is a natural product and a strong antioxidant with potential applications in various food and pharmaceutical products. However, its poor water solubility greatly limits its applications.RESULTSIn this study, chitooligosaccharide (COS) was applied to prepare a stable complex with hesperidin (Hesp-COS) via spray-drying method at 100 °C for 20 min. The resultant complex was characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the aromatic rings of hesperidin interacted with COS through hydrogen bonding and formed Hesp-COS complex. As a result, both the water solubility and antioxidant activity of Hesp-COS were higher than that of the free hesperidin.CONCLUSIONThe preparation conditions of Hesp-COS in this study were efficient and produced an increment in both the water solubility and antioxidant activity of hesperidin.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T09:50:21.270516-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8734
  • Protective effects of dietary polyphenols from black soybeans seed coats
    • Authors: Ju Qiu; Hong Zhu, Peng Liu, Jing Wang, Lingang Lu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of a crude polyphenols extract (BSCP) from black soybeans seed coats (BSC) and the BSC whole flour, and illustrate the mechanism in terms of islet and renal protection.RESULTSThe BSCP and BSC effectively controlled the increased blood glucose level and the impaired glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats after 8-week treatment. They increased the concentrations of serum insulin, C-peptide, and Glp-1 (P < 0.05) by improving the STZ-induced damage of islet β-cells and increasing its insulin expression (P < 0.05). Lipid profiles and antioxidant activities were also improved. Moreover, BSCP and BSC tended to decrease serum creatinine (0.05 < P < 0.1), and blood urea nitrogen was decreased by BSC significantly (P < 0.05). They also led to significantly lower glomerular volume (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONSA long-term intervention with BSC at a low dose of polyphenols plays a role in controlling blood glucose and lipids levels by promoting insulin secretion and restoring islet β-cells function, as the same as BSCP effects. These benefits are accompanied by their potential protection of diabetic renal dysfunction. BSCP is mainly responsible for the anti-diabetic effect of BSC.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T10:55:22.072138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8726
  • Elicitor and nitrogen applications to Garnacha, Graciano, and Tempranillo
           vines: Effect on grape amino acid composition
    • Authors: Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa; Javier Portu, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDElicitors and nitrogen foliar applications to the vineyards could regulate grape nitrogen composition, which has an important effect on grape and wine quality. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the effect of foliar elicitor treatments, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and a yeast extract (YE), and foliar nitrogen applications, urea (Ur) and phenylalanine (Phe) to Garnacha, Graciano, and Tempranillo vines on grape amino acid composition.RESULTSThe results showed that elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to Garnacha and Tempranillo grapevines decreased the must amino acid concentration. However, Phe application to these two grapevines increased the must Phe content. The treatments applied to Graciano grapevines barely effected the grape amino acid content. According to the percentage of variance attributable, the variety had a higher impact on the must amino acid composition than the treatments and their interaction, except in certain amino acids such as Phe.CONCLUSIONThe influence of elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to the grapevines on grape amino acids concentration was strongly conditioned by the variety.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T10:31:01.360094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8725
  • Effects of Late-Stage Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on the Starch
           Structure and Cooking Quality of Rice
    • Authors: XianMei Cao; HuiYan Sun, ChunGe Wang, XiaoJia Ren, HongFei Liu, ZuJian Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWith the rapid development of modern agriculture, high-quality rice production and consumption has become the current urgent demand for the development of rice production.RESULTIn this paper, the effects of late-stage nitrogen fertilizer application on rice quality were studied under the same genetic background, Wx near-isogenic lines were used as test materials to study the starch composition, amylopectin structure, and cooking quality of rice. Results showed that rice amylose content and gel consistency significantly differed when different Wx genes were tranformed into waxy rice, the law of apparent amylose content in rice is Wxa>Wxin>Wxb>wx at the same nitrogen level, while the trend of gel consistency was opposite to that of apparent amylose content, presenting obvious characteristics of Indica and Japonica varieties. As the amount of fertilizer application increased, apparent amylose content increased, gel consistency decreased, breakdown and peak viscosities dropped, and setback viscosity and peak time increased. Moreover, the cooking quality of rice significantly decreased with the use of nitrogen fertilizer, especially under low-level nitrogen fertilizer application. Amylopectin structure varied significantly in different genotypes of the Wx gene, and the degree of branching was as follows: wx>Wxb>Wxin>Wxa. This result indicated that the closer to Indica rice, the less short chains of amylopectin. Starch crystallinity and swelling potential were negatively correlated with amylose content but significantly positively correlated with amylopectin branching degree, decreasing with the increase of late-stage nitrogen fertilization.CONCLUSIONthe late-stage nitrogen fertilization reduced the cooking quality of rice by increasing amylose content, reducing amylopectin branching degree, which decreased starch crystallinity, and aggravated pasting properties. Obviously, controlling late nitrogen application is essential to optimize rice quality.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T10:10:20.966518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8723
  • Measuring consumers’ interest in instant fortified pearl millet
           products: A field experiment in Touba, Senegal
    • Authors: Hugo De Groote; Sarah W. Kariuki, Djibril Traore, John R.N. Taylor, Mario Ferruzzi, Bruce R. Hamaker
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn Africa, food-processing industries are emerging fast, especially for cereals. New low-cost extrusion cookers give small enterprises an opportunity to enter the market for processed cereal products, in particular instant, fortified and flavored mixes. Before engaging in the marketing of these products, consumers’ interest needs to be assessed. This study used a combination of affective tests and experimental auctions with 200 consumers in Touba, Senegal to evaluate four new products with conventional pearl millet flour as the control: instant pearl millet flour, instant pearl millet flour with added dry mango and carrot powder (naturally fortified), and the previous products with added conventional chemical micronutrient fortificants.RESULTSDuring affective tests, consumers made little distinction between the five products in appearance, aroma, taste and overall appreciation. The experimental auctions showed that, without providing additional information on the products, there was no difference in ‘willingness to pay’ (WTP) between them. However, after that information is provided, consumers were willing to pay a modest premium for instant flour, and a large premium for added mango and carrot extract and for added micronutrients, but were not willing to pay a premium if those micronutrients came from natural sources. Income increased overall WTP, while education increased WTP for instant flour.CONCLUSIONWe conclude that there is a potential market in low-income African countries for instant and fortified cereal food products, but likely in the higher income and education groups. The increased cost needs to be compared to the premiums consumers are willing to pay. In the next step, the new and promising products could be tested in pilot markets, with target consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:10:47.300072-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8722
  • Optimization of Saponin Extraction Conditions with Camellia sinensis var.
           assamica Seed and its Application for natural detergent
    • Authors: Wanying Gong; Huang Yewei, Aibing Ji, Wenshu Peng, Cong Liu, Ying Zeng, Ruijuan Yang, Liang Yan, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe Camellia sinensis var. assamica seed cake (by-product of tea-seed oil) is an abundant resource with poor utilization. The C. sinensis var. assamica seed saponin (CSS) is one kind of nonionic surfactant. In this study, The CSS extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and then the CSS detergent was developed. Additionally, the safety and decontamination ability of the developed detergent were evaluated.RESULTSThe optimized extraction conditions were including the extracting temperature of 40.04°C, extraction time of 4.97h, ethanol concentration of 64.11% and liquid-solid ratio of 14.57:1 mL g-1. The formula of the CSS detergent was as follows: 20% crude CSS, 0.3% oxidized tea polyphenols (OTP), 0.2% nisin, 0.3% sodium dehydroacetate, 0.7% sodium alginate and 0.5% sodium polyacrylate. The LD50 of the CSS detergent exceeds 14g kg-1 in mice, indicating the detergent was non-toxic. Both of the emulsifying and the pesticide residues removal ability of the CSS detergent was significantly stronger than the commercial detergent.CONCLUSIONA natural tea seed saponin detergent with good safety and decontamination ability was successfully developed. This can make better use of the tea seed cake, thereby creating added value in the tea seed oil industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T06:41:05.447141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8721
  • Effect of thyme oil-alginate based coating on quality and microbial safety
           of fresh-cut apples
    • Authors: Sarengaowa; Wenzhong Hu, Aili Jiang, Zhilong Xiu, Ke Feng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFood preservation is critical for keeping fresh-cut products fresh, nutritious, safe, attractive and available for consumers. To improve the safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits, fifteen essential oils (EOs) were screened to test the antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7). The effect of alginate-based edible coating (EC) incorporating with different concentrations thyme oil on fresh-cut Red Fuji apples was investigated.RESULTSResults showed that thyme oil, cinnamon oil, and oregano oil were more effective on inhibition the microbes than other EOs. The result showed that the combined usage of 0.5 μL mL-1 thyme oil incorporated with alginate-based EC could significantly inhibited the microbial growth, respiration, weight loss, firmness and browning of fresh-cut Red Fuji apples.CONCLUSIONThe edible coating and natural additives like thyme oil could be used to preserve the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It revealed that EC incorporated with 0.5 μL mL-1 thyme oil can be a safe preservative for fresh-cut apples.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T06:10:26.498579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8720
  • Application and optimization of air/steam cooking on selected vegetables:
           impact on physical and antioxidant properties
    • Authors: Maria Paciulli; Chiara Dall'Asta, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Alessandro Pugliese, Emma Chiavaro
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeveral studies investigated the impact of different cooking techniques on the quality of vegetables. However, the use of the combined air–steam cooking is still scarcely debated, despite the advantages informally referred by professional catering workers. In this study, its optimization was studied on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin cubes to obtain the best physical (texture, color) and antioxidant (FRAP, total phenols) response, in comparison to a conventional steaming treatment.RESULTSIncreasing the strength of the air–steam treatment, Brussels sprouts resulted softer, less green (higher a* value), richer of phenol and exhibited lower FRAP values than the steamed ones. The air-steamed pumpkin cubes exhibited an equivalent softening degree than that of steamed one and, under the strongest cooking conditions, a higher antioxidant quality and a yellow darkening (lower b* value). Varying the cooking time and/or temperature, a linear change of force/compression hardness and a* (negative a*: greenness) for Brussels sprouts, b* (yellowness) and total phenol content for pumpkin cubes was observed. A predictive model for these variables was obtained by the response surface methodology. The best process conditions to achieve the optimal desirability were also identified.CONCLUSIONThe application of air–steam cooking under suitable time/temperature conditions could be proposed as an alternative method to a traditional steam cooking on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin, being able to preserve or improve their quality. The best air–steam cooking conditions were 25' at 90 °C for Brussels sprouts and 10' at 110 °C for pumpkin.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T07:40:33.159022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8715
  • Reduction of Androstenone Perception in Pan-Fried Boar Meat by Different
           Masking Strategies
    • Authors: Macarena Egea; Mª Belén Linares, Marta Gil, Mª Belén López, Mª Dolores Garrido
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConsumers highly sensitive to androstenone will probably reject meat from entire male pigs, which tends to have high levels of this hormone. To avoid this, the effect of different masking strategies (sprinkling with mixed spices or fennel, marinating and breading with garlic-parsley or curry) on the sensory parameters of pork loin chops obtained from entire animals with high levels of androstenone (AND) (1.0-2.9 mg kg −1 AND in fat) and castrated animals (
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T08:10:19.476532-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8712
  • Investigation of secondary structure evolution of micellar casein powder
           upon aging by FTIR and SRCD: Consequences on solubility
    • Authors: Sarah Nasser; Alain Hédoux, Alexandre Giuliani, Cécile Le Floch-Fouéré, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Isabelle de Waele, Guillaume Delaplace
      Abstract: BackgroundSynchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to examine the conformation evolution of micellar casein (MC) powder during storage and to determine whether the spectral changes could be related to their solubility evolution.ResultsA loss in intensity of SRCD spectra as a function of storage time has been observed. Quantification of secondary structures revealed losses of α-helix content during storage. Moreover, a redshift of Amide I band in the FTIR spectrum was demonstrated during the storage and was interpreted as a rearrangement of the secondary structure of the protein, which is in line with the SRCD results.The qualitative results obtained by FTIR clearly support the quantitative evolution of the secondary structure obtained by the analysis of SRCD spectra.Principal component analysis (PCA) of FTIR spectra permits a good separation of samples according to the storage time. PCA shows that the evolution of secondary structures and solubility loss are closely linked.ConclusionWith the quantitative data provided by SRCD spectra, it was established that, whatever the storage conditions, a unique curve exists between loss of α-helix content and loss in solubility, showing that loss of α-helix content is a marker of solubility loss for the MC powders studied.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:55:20.973627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8711
  • High oxygen facilitates wound-induced suberin polyphenolics formation in
    • Authors: Xiaopeng Wei; Linchun Mao, Xueyuan Han, Wenjing Lu, Dandan Xie, Xingchen Ren, Yuying Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRapid wound-healing would be critical for successful long-term storage of fruits and vegetables. However, there was no direct evidence for the requirement and efficiency of oxygen in fruit wound-healing process. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxygen in wound-induced suberization by analyzing melanin, suberin polyphenolics (SPP) and related enzymes in half-cut kiwifruits exposed to 100%, 50%, 21% and 0% oxygen.RESULTSBy three days after wounding, the wound surface of kiwifruit in high oxygen (50% and 100% O2) appeared a continuous layer of melanin and underneath SPP, which effectively resist fruit halves from excessive water vapor loss. Whereas melanin and SPP deposition in the wound surface in 0% oxygen was significantly reduced with high water vapor loss. Rapid decrease of soluble phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic acids) was coupled with the increase of bound ferulic acid (coniferyl diacetate) especially in high oxygen by 9 days after wounding. Meanwhile, high oxygen enhanced peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities.CONCLUSIONOxygen is required for wound-induced melanin and SPP formation, and that high oxygen is effective in promoting wound suberization in postharvest kiwifruit.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:25:20.355305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8709
  • Valorization of underutilized North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba):
           investigation as a lipid oxidation inhibitor in turkey homogenate model
    • Authors: Robert G. Brannan; Trisha E. Peters, Kathleen J. Black, Benjamin J. Kukor
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective of this study was to characterize the ability of extracts from nine varieties of pawpaw pulp standardized to the phenolics level of 0.1% grape seed extract (GSE) on inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) in a turkey model system. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was also determined using four common assays.RESULTSOver the 240 min sampling time, the standardized pawpaw extracts from all nine varieties were as effective as GSE in inhibiting TBARS formation in turkey muscle homogenate compared to the untreated control. Extracts from all pawpaw varieties and GSE began to inhibit TBARS formation at 60 minutes of incubation, and by 240 min TBARS were reduced from 35 µmol malondialdehyde/kg tissue in the homogenate to which no antioxidant was added to 4–18 µmol malondialdehyde/kg tissue in the antioxidant-enriched extracts. There does not appear to be clear relationship between inhibition of TBARS and any of the antioxidant capacity measurements (ORAC, DPPH inhibition, reducing potential as measured by the FRAP assay, or pyrogallol red bleaching).CONCLUSIONThe results of this research indicate that there is potential to add value to pawpaw as a functional food source of natural antioxidants, particularly in meat products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T01:30:51.963705-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8706
  • Effects of immediate-release niacin and dietary fatty acids on acute
           insulin and lipid status in individuals with metabolic syndrome
    • Authors: Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz; Sergio Lopez, Beatriz Bermudez, Juan M. Guerrero, Rocio Abia, Francisco J.G. Muriana
      Abstract: BackgroundThe nature of dietary fats profoundly affects postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and glucose homeostasis. Niacin is a potent lowering-lipid agent. However, limited data exist on postprandial triglycerides and glycemic control following co-administration of high-fat meals with a single-dose of niacin in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, the study aim was to explore whether a fat challenge containing predominantly saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated (LCPUFAs) fatty acids together with a single-dose of immediate-release niacin have a relevant role on postprandial insulin and lipid status in subjects with MetS.ResultsIn a randomized crossover within-subject design, 16 subjects with MetS were given a single-dose of immediate-release niacin (2 g) and ~15 calorie per kilogram of body weight meals containing either SFAs, MUFAs, MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs or no fat. At baseline and hourly over 6 h, plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFAs), total cholesterol, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol were assessed. Co-administered with niacin, high-fat meals significantly increased the postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, FFAs, and postprandial indices of β-cell function. However, postprandial indices of insulin sensitivity were significantly decreased. These effects were significantly attenuated with MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs when compared with SFAs.ConclusionIn the setting of niacin co-administration and compared to dietary SFAs, MUFAs limit the postprandial insulin, triglyceride, and FFA excursions and improve the postprandial glucose homeostasis in the MetS.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:25:19.16235-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8704
  • Standardized ileal digestibility and digestible indispensable amino acid
           score of porcine and bovine hydrolyzates in pigs
    • Authors: Yugal Raj Bindari; Helle Nygaard Lærke, Jan Værum Nørgaard
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUsing protein hydrolyzates in food and feed ingredients is a growing area of interest. The present study was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) and to evaluate protein quality of porcine and bovine hydrolyzates. The SID values were determied in pigs, and these values were used to calculate DIAAS values.RESULTSThe SID of crude protein of hydrolyzates of porcine plasma, bovine muscle, bovine collagen, porcine heart, and porcine muscle was 0.81, 0.84, 0.79, 0.79, and 0.91, respectively. Based on the DIAAS, hydrolyzates of porcine plasma and porcine heart DIAAS = 87 and 76) are considered good quality protein sources for younger children. For older children, adolescent, and adults, the hydrolyzates of bovine muscle and porcine heart (DIAAS = 81 and 87) are considered good quality protein sources and the hydrolyzate of porcine plasma (DIAAS = 102) a high quality protein source.CONCLUSIONDIAAS values indicate that the porcine and bovine hydrolyzates tested in this work have low and medium to high protein values, and that the protein products can be included in human nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T05:26:51.506862-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8697
  • Fortified tuna bone powder supplementation increases bone mineral density
           of lactating rats and their offspring
    • Authors: Panan Suntornsaratoon; Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Nateetip Krishnamra
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBreastfeeding leads to bone calcium loss for milk production, resulting in progressive maternal osteopenia. Calcium supplement from natural sources has been postulated to be more beneficial to bone health than purified CaCO3 because natural sources also contain other nutrients such as certain amino acids that might enhance calcium metabolism. Herein, we examined the effect of calcium supplementation from tuna bone powder and CaCO3 on bones of dams and the offspring.RESULTSBoth forms of calcium supplement, i.e., tuna bone powder and CaCO3, increased maternal BMD. However, bone histomorphometry revealed that only tuna bone had beneficial effect on maternal bone microstructure, i.e., increased bone formation, decreased bone resorption and increased in bone volume. Regarding the mechanical properties, the decreased ultimate load in non-supplement lactating mothers was restored to the load seen in nulliparous by calcium supplementation. Moreover, both tuna bone and CaCO3 supplementation in mothers led to increased milk calcium concentration and consequently increased BMD in the growing offspring.CONCLUSIONCalcium supplement from tuna bone powder was effective in preventing maternal osteopenia. Tuna bone, which is a readily available fishing industrial waste, is a good alternative source of calcium supplement that increases BMD in both lactating mothers and the neonates.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T10:58:53.793836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8688
  • No induced mutagenesis in human lymphoblast cell line and bacterial
           systems upon their prolonged sub-culturing in irradiated food blended
    • Authors: Sudhanshu Saxena; Sanjeev Kumar, Jyoti Tripathi, Satyendra Gautam
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDConfound apprehension towards safety of irradiated food has remained a major cause behind tardy acceptance of this technology though it has immense socio-economic potential. Generation of in depth scientific evidences will help to refute these apprehensions. With this prospective, present study was undertaken where safety of various irradiated (Dmin up to 25 kGy) foods was evaluated through long term exposure studies in models including human lymphoblast TK6 cell line (100 generations) and Escherichia coli MG1655 cells (exclusive subcuturing in irradiated food medium for 3000 generations). Besides, Ames test, micronucleus test, comet assay, DNA sequencing and restriction profiling of phagemid DNA from E. coli cells subcultured in irradiated food medium were also performed.RESULTSNo induced mutagenesis was observed in these cells during long term subculturing in various irradiated food medium. Also no change was observed in profiles of comet, micronucleus restriction digestion, RAPD as well as DNA sequences. The later also ruled out the possibility of any silent mutation.CONCLUSIONFindings of the current study thus provided credible molecular evidences supporting the safety of irradiated foods. This would be helpful in confidence building among consumers, entrepreneurs, and strengthening the overall food irradiation program to achieve ‘food safety’ and ‘security’.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T07:36:37.169527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8686
  • Nitrogen dynamics in flooded soil systems: An overview on concepts and
           performance of models
    • Authors: Nurulhuda Khairudin; Donald S. Gaydon, Qi Jing, Mohamad P. Zakaria, Paul C. Struik, Karel J. Keesman
      Abstract: Extensive modelling studies on nitrogen (N) dynamics in flooded soil systems have been published. Consequently, many N dynamics models are available for users to select from. With the current research trend, inclined towards multi-disciplinary research, and with substantial progress in understanding of N dynamics in flooded soil systems, the objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the modelling concepts and performance of 14 models developed to simulate N dynamics in flooded soil systems. This overview provides breadth of knowledge on the models, and, therefore, is valuable as a first step in the selection of an appropriate model for a specific application.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T07:32:08.335293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8683
  • Ca2+ influxes and transmembrane transport are essential for phytic acid
           degradation in mung bean sprouts
    • Authors: Ting Zhou; Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Xinyue Wang, Zhenxin Gu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhytic acid is considered as an antinutrient. Ca2+ addition during germination has been proved to be an effective method for reducing phytic acid content in seeds. In this study, mung bean sprouts were treated with LaCl3 (La), verapamil (VP), ruthenium red (RR) and CaCl2 to explore the effect of Ca2+ influxes on phytic acid degradation.RESULTS6 mM CaCl2 significantly improved extracellular and intracellular calcium precipitates and calcium content, elevated phytase and acid phosphatase activity and further enhanced phytic acid degradation. Conversely, La, VP or RR induced the opposite results. Among them, RR exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect. Decreased PA, PAP, MIPP and ALP gene expression after VP or RR treatment was also observed. Enhanced or weakened extracellular Ca2+ influx or intracellular Ca2+ efflux was detected with increased or decreased calcium precipitates distributed in different compartments. However, CaCl2 addition differentially reversed the inhibitory effects of all channel blockers.CONCLUSIONCaCl2 enhanced Ca2+ influxes and accumulation in cells, which contributed to the regulation of phytic acid degradation. This study demonstrated that calcium channels played an essential role in mediating phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts and both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+-regulation were involved in phytic acid degradation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T11:00:26.15295-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8680
  • Methane delays the senescence and browning in daylily buds by
           re-established redox homeostasis
    • Authors: Huali Hu; Dan Liu, Pengxia Li
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDuring the postharvest senescence of fruits and vegetables, redox imbalance occurs. Although the release of methane (CH4) has been observed for a long time and its antioxidant properties have recently been demonstrated in animals and plants, the corresponding physiological role of CH4 in regulating plant senescence has not yet been elucidated.RESULTSHere, our results indicate that the postharvest deterioration of daylily buds during storage is greatly ameliorated by the exogenous application of CH4, particularly in the inhibition of tissue browning. The results are supported by a decrease in the degree of browning and the corresponding phenotype, which are correlated with the suppressed polyphenoloxidase activity. CH4 also maintains the re-establishment of redox balance, as indicated by the lower relative leakage rate, lipid peroxidation level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in daylily buds. Furthermore, the decrease of the unsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio and energy charge during storage was also attenuated.CONCLUSIONThese results clearly suggest that the postharvest treatment of CH4 is an effective means of prolonging the storage life of daylily buds.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T06:08:48.621229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8681
  • Climate change does not impacts on Coffea arabica yield in Brazil
    • Authors: Williams Pinto Marques Ferreira; José Ivo Ribeiro Júnior, Cecília de Fátima Souza
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBrazil is the largest producer of coffee in the world. Studies on climate change estimate large impacts on production of Coffea arabica (C. arabica). In this context, it is necessary to know the quantitative production values to provide evidence for policy makers to target the prompt answer.RESULTSUsing data from 18 municipalities located in five Brazilian States that produce more coffee in Brazil, in an unprecedented way, in this work it is shown that although the minimum temperature is the most important climatic variable for the production, its effect, although positive, and its degree of explanation, were technically too small to explain the volume of production in Brazilian conditions. According to the model of non-stationary time series ARIMA (1, 1, 0) the coffee production in the future may reach almost four million tons, and the productivity almost 2,500 kg ha−1 on average, being the advancement of technology the main factor that should promote the simultaneous increases in production and productivity. However, despite the natural climate variations, which make it the most responsible for the variability of annual coffee production, the producer must increase the use of the technologies to support the Brazilian coffee agribusiness.CONCLUSIONSThe results of this study reveal that the coffee production in Brazil is much more due to productivity than to the minimum ambient temperature change over the long term, despite this climate variable be considered the most influential on the production and productivity of coffee.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T21:40:21.596201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8465
  • Issue Information - ToC
    • Pages: 1 - 6
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T07:29:32.474444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8577
  • Keeping the wheels of peer review turning
    • Authors: Mark Shepherd
      Pages: 7 - 7
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T07:29:43.28664-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8742
  • An overview of genetically modified crop governance, issues and challenges
           in Malaysia
    • Authors: Johnny Andrew; Normaz Wana Ismail, Marcel Djama
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, have been rapidly increasing in production for the last 20 years. Despite their known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also to the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks. This paper provides an overview of GM crop technology from international and national context and explores the governance and issues surrounding this technology application in Malaysia. Basically, GM research activities in Malaysia are still at an early stage of research and development and most of the GM crops approved for release are limited for food, feed and processing purposes. Even though Malaysia has not planted any GM crops commercially, actions toward such a direction seem promising. Several issues concerning GM crops as discussed in this paper will become more complex as the number of GM crops and varieties commercialised globally increase and Malaysia starts to plant GM crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T03:30:26.953111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8666
  • Mandarin fruit quality: a review
    • Authors: Livnat Goldenberg; Yossi Yaniv, Ron Porat, Nir Carmi
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T08:55:31.129787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8495
  • Reducing anti-nutritional factor and enhancing yield with advancing time
           of planting and zinc application in grasspea in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Ashutosh Sarker; Asnake Fikre, Ali M Abd El-Moneim, Hani Nakkoul, Murari Singh
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGrasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important pulse crop for food, feed and sustainable crop production systems in Ethiopia. Despite its advantages in nutrition and adaptability to harsh climate and low fertile soil, it contains a neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-α,β-diamiono propionic acid (β-ODAP), which paralyses the lower limbs and is affected by genotypic and agronomic factors. To determine the effect of zinc application and planting date on yield and β-ODAP content of two genotypes, experiments were conducted in two regions of Ethiopia.RESULTSThe main effects of variety, sowing date and zinc and their interactions were significant (P < 0.001) for β-ODAP and seed yield, which had a linear relationship with zinc. For the improved grasspea variety, an application of 20 kg ha−1 zinc showed a reduction of β-ODAP from 0.15% to 0.088% at Debre Zeit and 0.14% to 0.08% at Sheno and increased its yield from 841 kg ha−1 to 2260 kg ha−1 at Debre Zeit and from 715 to 1835 kg ha−1 at Sheno. Early sowing showed a reduction in ODAP content in relation to the late sowing.CONCLUSIONAn application of Zn beyond even 20 kg ha−1 with an early sowing is recommended for the improved variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T07:25:20.991445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8433
  • Harvesting and blending options for lower alcohol wines: a sensory and
           chemical investigation
    • Authors: Rocco Longo; John W Blackman, Guillaume Antalick, Peter J Torley, Suzy Y Rogiers, Leigh M Schmidtke
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLower alcohol wines often have a poor reputation among consumers, in part due to their unsatisfactory flavours such as reduced overall aroma intensity or herbaceous characters. The aim of this study, performed on Verdelho and Petit Verdot, was to quantify the effectiveness of a monovarietal blend in which wines made from less ripe grapes were blended with an equivalent volume of a wine vinified from riper fruit to produce wines with a lower alcohol content and desirable ripe fruit flavours.RESULTSEleven and 13 attributes, for Verdelho and Petit Verdot, respectively, were selected during sensory descriptive analysis. Intensities of perceived ‘acidity’, ‘sweetness’ and ‘alcohol’ attributes were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) between the blend (8.8 ± 0.1% v/v) and mature Verdelho (10.3 ± 0.1% v/v) wines, while no significant differences were found between the Petit Verdot blend (11.0 ± 0.1% v/v) and mature (12.6 ± 0.2% v/v) treatments. Volatile composition of wines was assessed using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Partial least square regression suggested relationships between sensory descriptors and chemical attributes in the wines, as well as the modifications of sensory and compositional profiles following blending.CONCLUSIONSThe blending practice described allowed the production of wines with lower alcohol content while retaining similar sensory profiles of the later harvested, riper fruit wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T06:17:50.519465-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8434
  • Weed interference with peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and spearmint
           (Mentha spicata L.) crops under different herbicide treatments: effects on
           biomass and essential oil yield
    • Authors: Anestis Karkanis; Christos Lykas, Vasiliki Liava, Anna Bezou, Spyridon Petropoulos, Nikolaos Tsiropoulos
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: BACKGROUND‘Minor crops’ such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments.RESULTSThe application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield. Additionally, when treated with herbicides both crops were more competitive against annual weeds in the second year than in the first year. All pre-emergence herbicides increased biomass yield, since pendimethalin, linuron and oxyfluorfen reduced the density of annual weeds by 71–92%, 63–74% and 86–95%, respectively. Weed interference and herbicide application had no effect on essential oil content; however, a relatively strong impact on essential oil production per cultivated area unit was observed, mainly due to the adverse effect of weed interference on plant growth.CONCLUSIONConsidering that pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were effective against annual weeds in both spearmint and peppermint crops, these herbicides should be included in integrated weed management systems for better weed management in mint crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T07:30:28.141674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8435
  • Determination of oral bioavailability of curcuminoid dispersions and
           nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus
    • Authors: Pei Shan Lu; Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Bing Huei Chen
      Pages: 51 - 63
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCurcuminoid from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has been demonstrated to be effective in anti-cancer and anti-inflammation. The objectives of the present study were to prepare curcuminoid dispersion and nanoemulsion from C. longa and determine their oral bioavailabilities in rats.RESULTSAfter curcuminoid extraction using 99.5% ethanol, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and curcumin were separated within 10 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 1 mL min−1, column temperature of 35 °C and detection wavelength of 425 nm. Curcuminoid nanoemulsion at a particle size of 12.1 nm and encapsulation efficiency 98.8% was prepared using lecithin, Tween 80 and water. A pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that the parameters including Tmax, Cmax, t1/2 and the area under the curve were higher for curcuminoid nanoemulsions than for curcuminoid dispersion at the same dose employed for gavage administration, whereas, for intravenous injection, an opposite trend was shown. The oral bioavailabilities of BDMC, DMC, curcumin and total curcuminoids in nanoemulsion and dispersion were 34.39 and 4.65%, 39.93 and 5.49%, 47.82 and 9.38%, and 46 and 8.7%, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study demonstrate a higher oral bioavailability after incorporation of curcuminoid into nanoemulsion, facilitating its application as a botanic drug. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T04:25:55.334497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8437
  • Feasibility of near infrared transmittance spectroscopy to predict fatty
           acid composition of commercial processed meat
    • Authors: Massimo De Marchi; Carmen L Manuelian, Sofia Ton, Martino Cassandro, Mauro Penasa
      Pages: 64 - 73
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe new European Regulation 1169/2011 concerning nutrition declaration of food products compels the addition of saturated fatty acids, whereas the declaration of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids remains voluntary. Therefore, the industry is interested in a more rapid, easy and less cost-effective analysis method for accomplishing this labelling regulation. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (wavelengths between 850 and 1050 nm) to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of commercial processed meat samples (n = 310).RESULTSGood predictions were achieved for the absolute content of saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, as well as ω-6 groups, and also for a few individual FA (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and 18:1n7), with the coefficient of determination in cross-validation being> 0.90 and the residual prediction deviation being> 3.15. Unsatisfactory models were obtained for the relative content of FA.CONCLUSIONNear infrared transmittance spectroscopy can be considered as a reliable method for predicting the main groups of FA in processed meat products, whereas predictions of individual FA are less reliable. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T07:35:23.169283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8438
  • Dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate in sows
           during gestation affects the muscle fibre characteristics but not the
           performance of their progeny
    • Authors: Zhan Shi; Wentao Song, Yuecheng Sun, Liansheng Wang, Baoming Shi, Anshan Shan, Zhongpeng Bi
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate (CrP) in sows during gestation on muscle fibre characteristics, performance and carcass characteristics of their progeny. Sixty healthy sows were randomly divided into four groups as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment design: one group received the control diet, another received the control diet + 10 g kg−1 l-arginine, the third group received the control diet + 400 ppb CrP, and the fourth group received the control diet + 10 g kg−1 l-arginine and 400 ppb CrP.RESULTSThe results showed that sows fed the diet supplemented with CrP produced progeny with higher muscle fibre numbers at birth, weaning and slaughter compared to sows fed the control diet. For mean fibre areas, the same result was found at weaning. For progeny of sows fed diets supplemented with l-arginine, only higher muscle fibre numbers at slaughter was observed. Almost no differences were observed regarding average daily gains, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratios, carcass and meat traits.CONCLUSIONThe results of the present study indicate that dietary supplementation of l-arginine and particularly CrP in sows during gestation alters muscle fibre numbers in their offspring, although not their performance or carcass characteristics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T07:40:19.472455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8439
  • Fingerprints of resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 from vegetables and
           environmental samples
    • Authors: Grace Onyukwo Abakpa; Veronica J Umoh, Sijam Kamaruzaman, Mark Ibekwe
      Pages: 80 - 86
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSome routes of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to fresh produce include contaminated irrigation water and manure polluted soils. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from some produce growing region in Nigeria using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) DNA fingerprinting analysis. A total of 440 samples comprising leafy greens, irrigation water, manure and soil were obtained from vegetable producing regions in Kano and Plateau States, Nigeria. Genes coding for the quinolone resistance-determinant (gyrA) and plasmid (pCT) coding for multidrug resistance (MDR) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 16 isolates that showed MDR.RESULTSCluster analysis of the ERIC-PCR profiles based on band sizes revealed six main clusters from the sixteen isolates analysed. The largest cluster (cluster 3) grouped isolates from vegetables and manure at a similarity coefficient of 0.72.CONCLUSIONThe present study provides data that support the potential transmission of resistant strains of E. coli O157:H7 from vegetables and environmental sources to humans with potential public health implications, especially in developing countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T02:26:21.157895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8441
  • Genetic diversity, virulotyping and antimicrobial resistance
           susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and porcine
           products in Malaysia
    • Authors: Kwai Lin Thong; Lai Kuan Tan, Peck Toung Ooi
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objectives of the present study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia.RESULTSThirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index < 0.2 and the majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains.CONCLUSIONThe occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T08:55:24.702428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8442
  • Evaluation of bioactive compounds in black table olives fermented with
           selected microbial starters
    • Authors: Miriana Durante; Maria Tufariello, Luca Tommasi, Marcello Salvatore Lenucci, Gianluca Bleve, Giovanni Mita
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTable olives have been a component of the Mediterranean diet for centuries, with the trend for their consumption currently increasing worldwide. They are rich in bioactive molecules with nutritional, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or hormone-like properties. In the present study, the concentrations of phenolics, triterpenic acids, carotenoids and vitamins, as well as fatty acid profiles and antioxidant activity, were analyzed in the edible portion of black table olives (Olea europea L.) from Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars fermented with selected autochthonous starters and in the corresponding monovarietal olive oils.RESULTSOn a fresh weight basis, Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives showed the highest total phenolic content. No significant differences were found with respect to the levels of total triterpenic (maslinic and oleanolic) acids and vitamin E among cultivars. All table olives were characterized by high amounts of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Oils were richer in lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocochromanols) than table olives, which, instead, showed a higher content of polyphenols and triterpenic acids than oils.CONCLUSIONThe present study demonstrates that fermented table olives are an excellent natural source of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as being nutritionally important health-promoting bioactive compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T06:55:23.339098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8443
  • Changes in monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids during Cabernet
           Sauvignon wine ageing based on a simultaneous analysis using gas
           chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Xin-Ke Zhang; Yi-Bin Lan, Bao-Qing Zhu, Xiao-Feng Xiang, Chang-Qing Duan, Ying Shi
      Pages: 104 - 112
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMonosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids are the important flavour-related components in wines. The aim of this article is to develop and validate a method that could simultaneously analyse these compounds in wine based on silylation derivatisation and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and apply this method to the investigation of the changes of these compounds and speculate upon their related influences on Cabernet Sauvignon wine flavour during wine ageing. This work presented a new approach for wine analysis and provided more information concerning red wine ageing.RESULTSThis method could simultaneously quantitatively analyse 2 monosaccharides, 8 organic acids and 13 amino acids in wine. A validation experiment showed good linearity, sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Multiple derivatives of five amino acids have been found but their effects on quantitative analysis were negligible, except for methionine. The evolution pattern of each category was different, and we speculated that the corresponding mechanisms involving microorganism activities, physical interactions and chemical reactions had a great correlation with red wine flavours during ageing.CONCLUSIONSimultaneously quantitative analysis of monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids in wine was feasible and reliable and this method has extensive application prospects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T04:20:23.049462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8444
  • Biochemical characterisation and dominance of different hydrolases in
           different types of Daqu – a Chinese industrial fermentation starter
    • Authors: Jingjing Liu; Jingyu Chen, Yi Fan, Xiaoning Huang, Beizhong Han
      Pages: 113 - 121
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDaqu is a fermentative saccharification agent that is used to initiate fermentation in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar. This study investigated the differences of amylase, protease and esterase in dominance of different types of Daqu, which can be useful for quality control and flavor improvement of Daqu production by enzyme technology.RESULTSHydrolase activities in different Daqu samples were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). Based on protein electrophoresis and 1H NMR spectroscopy, the protein patterns and metabolites in Daqu were further analysed. The results indicated that the highest amylase activities and diversities were found in low/medium-temperature of Daqu which had light-flavour and strong-flavour. Proteases play a significant role in determining the quality of high-temperature Daqu samples which had a sauce-flavour. Furthermore, the contributions of esterase to both strong and sauce flavour development in high-temperature Daqu are similar.CONCLUSIONResults from the present work showed that differences in amylase, protease and esterase play a leading role in different types of Daqu, which can be useful for quality control and technology development of Daqu. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T04:31:23.816806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8445
  • Changes in mineral elements and starch quality of grains during the
           improvement of japonica rice cultivars
    • Authors: Hao Zhang; Chao Yu, Danping Hou, Hailang Liu, Huiting Zhang, Rongrong Tao, Han Cai, Junfei Gu, Lijun Liu, Zujian Zhang, Zhiqin Wang, Jianchang Yang
      Pages: 122 - 133
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe improvement of rice cultivars plays an important role in yield increase. However, little is known about the changes in starch quality and mineral elements during the improvement of rice cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the changes in starch quality and mineral elements in japonica rice cultivars.RESULTSTwelve typical rice cultivars, applied in the production in Jiangsu province during the last 60 years, were grown in the paddy fields. These cultivars were classified into six types according to their application times, plant types and genotypes. The nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and, and potassium (K) were mainly distributed in endosperm, bran and bran, respectively. Secondary and micromineral nutrients were distributed throughout grains. With the improvement of cultivars, total N contents gradually decreased, while total P, K and magnesium contents increased in grains. Total copper and zinc contents in type 80'S in grains were highest. The improvement of cultivars enhanced palatability (better gelatinisation enthalpy and amylose content), taste (better protein content) and protein quality (better protein components and essential amino acids). Correlation analysis indicated the close relationship between mineral elements and starch quality.CONCLUSIONThe mineral elements and starch quality of grains during the improvement of japonica rice cultivars are improved. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T08:16:04.240072-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8446
  • Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability
           and sensory profile
    • Authors: Vania Silva Carvalho; Ana Carolina Conti-Silva
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability.RESULTSRegions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor.CONCLUSIONThe use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:30:24.815372-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8447
  • Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of arabinoxylan hydrolysates
           from defatted rice bran
    • Authors: Prachit Yuwang; Irina Sulaeva, Johannes Hell, Ute Henniges, Stefan Böhmdorfer, Thomas Rosenau, Benjamart Chitsomboon, Sunanta Tongta
      Pages: 140 - 146
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe water unextractable arabinoxylans (WUAX) contain beneficial phenolic compounds that can be used for food rather than for animal feed. The antioxidant activities of defatted rice bran obtained by xylanase-aided extraction is reported herein. The chemical and molecular characteristics of extracted fractions were investigated.RESULTSThe WUAX hydrolysate precipitated by 0–60% ethanol (F60), 60–90% ethanol (F6090), and more than 90% ethanol (F90) had decreased molar masses with increasing ethanol concentration. The fractions of interest, F60 and F6090, contained 75% arabinoxylans with ferulic acid as the major bound phenolic acid, followed by p-coumaric acid. According to chemical-based antioxidant assays F60 and F6090 exhibited higher diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric iron reducing ability than F90 which contained minor contents of small sugars and free phenolic acids. In cell-based antioxidant assays, using the fluorescent 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, all three fractions were potent intracellular scavengers.CONCLUSIONThe high molar mass of WUAX hydrolysates with high amount of bound phenolics contributes to the chemical-based antioxidant activity. All fractions of WUAX hydrolysates showed high potent intracellular scavenging activity regardless of molar mass, content and the component of bound phenolics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:36:17.038935-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8448
  • Acidic electrolysed water delays browning by destroying conformation of
    • Authors: Jiangping Sun; Meng Wang, Haiquan Liu, Jing Xie, Yingjie Pan, Changhua Xu, Yong Zhao
      Pages: 147 - 153
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBrowning frequently occurs at fruits, vegetables and aquatic products during storage, and it drastically reduces the consumer's acceptability, with considerable financial loss. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of acidic electrolysed water (AEW) technology on polyphenoloxidase (PPO), which is an essential enzyme for browning.RESULTSAEW ice exhibited a good ability in delaying browning in shrimp. Kinetic study revealed that AEW exhibited the mixed type inhibition of PPO with a Ki value of 1.96 mmol L−1. Moreover, both the circular dichroism spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses revealed that the α-helix in PPO decreased whereas random coil increased which indicates that PPO conformation was destroyed.CONCLUSIONThus, this paper may provide a deeper understanding of the application of AEW technology for preventing browning in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T06:45:38.882529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8449
  • Effects of maltose and lysine treatment on coffee aroma by flash gas
    • Authors: Yuqin He; Haide Zhang, Nana Wen, Rongsuo Hu, Guiping Wu, Ying Zeng, Xiong Li, Xiaodan Miao
      Pages: 154 - 165
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDArabica coffee is a sub-tropical agricultural product in China. Coffee undergoes a series of thermal reactions to form abundant volatile profiles after roasting, so it loses a lot of reducing sugars and amino acids. Adding carbonyl compounds with amino acids before roasting could ensure the nutrition and flavour of coffee. The technology is versatile for the development of coffee roasting process. This investigation evaluates the effects of combining maltose and lysine (Lys) to modify coffee aroma and the possibly related mechanisms. Arabica coffee was pretreated with a series of solvent ratios of maltose and Lys with an identical concentration (0.25 mol L−1) before microwave heating.RESULTSIt was found that the combination of maltose and Lys significantly (P ≤ 0.05) influenced quality indices of coffee (pH and browning degree). Ninety-six aromatic volatiles have been isolated and identified. Twelve volatile profiles revealed the relationship between fragrance difference and compound content in coffee. Moreover, coffee aroma was modified by a large number of volatiles with different chemical classes and character.CONCLUSIONThus, our results suggest that the combination of reagents changed overall aroma quality through a series of complex thermal reactions, especially the ratio of Lys/maltose over 2:1. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T02:00:46.301762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8450
  • Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of
           passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour
    • Authors: Emanuela M Coelho; Luciana C de Azevêdo, Arão C Viana, Ingrid G Ramos, Raquel G Gomes, Marcos dos S Lima, Marcelo A Umsza-Guez
      Pages: 166 - 173
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry.RESULTSWe obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg−1 and 246.7 kg−1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T02:42:04.079382-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8451
  • Acceptability of beehive products as ingredients in quinoa bars
    • Authors: Francisco Rios; Manuel Lobo, Norma Samman
      Pages: 174 - 182
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this work was to develop a puffed quinoa bar with beehive products of high content of phenolic compounds, based on acceptability and perception of consumers. A rotational central composite design of three variables (honey, pollen and propolis) was used for food product formulation. The responses to optimize were sensorial acceptability and polyphenol content. Next to acceptability a check-all-that-apply (CATA) test was performed with 115 consumers. Preference maps were used to relate acceptability and sensorial attributes of bars that cause rejection or acceptance.RESULTSThe experimental design determined that pollen and propolis significantly increased phenolic content but decreased acceptability of formulations. Preference maps established that attributes like astringency, bitter flavor, pungency and intense yellow color were associated with the low acceptability while attributes of sweetness and weak astringency were related to high acceptance of products. Range of polyphenol content determined in the widely accepted formulations was 2.15–2.91 g kg−1, significantly higher than commercial products.CONCLUSIONThe incorporation of beehive products, in quinoa bars, increased the total polyphenol content and the functional properties, but at the same time reduced the consumer acceptability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T08:20:35.165411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8452
  • A comparison of the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of different
           Cichorium spinosum L. ecotypes
    • Authors: Spyridon A Petropoulos; Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Isabel CFR Ferreira
      Pages: 183 - 189
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWild greens are considered a rich source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants and an essential part of the so-called Mediterranean diet. In the present study, Cichorium spinosum L. ecotypes, cultivated or collected in situ from wild plants from the eastern Mediterranean, were evaluated regarding their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity.RESULTSSignificant differences were observed among the various studied ecotypes regarding their phenolic compound content and profile, especially between wild and cultivated ecotypes, as well as the phenolic acid content between commercial products and cultivated plants. The antioxidant activity also varied among the various studied ecotypes and growing conditions, with commercial products having the highest antioxidant activity, whereas wild ecotypes showed lower antioxidant activity.CONCLUSIONCichorium spinosum leaves are a rich source of chicoric and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, while significant differences in total phenolic acids, flavonoids and phenolic compound content and in antioxidant activity were observed among the studied ecotypes, as well as between the tested growing conditions. According to the results of the present study, further valorization of C. spinosum species has great potential, since it could be used as a new alternative species in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T04:25:21.336462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8453
  • Evaluation of the extent of initial Maillard reaction during cooking some
           vegetables by direct measurement of the Amadori compounds
    • Authors: Jiahao Yu; Shuqin Zhang, Lianfu Zhang
      Pages: 190 - 197
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDuring vegetable cooking, one of the most notable and common chemical reactions is the Maillard reaction, which occurs as a result of thermal treatment and dehydration. Amadori compound determination provides a very sensitive indicator for early detection of quality changes caused by the Maillard reaction, as well as to retrospectively assess the heat treatment or storage conditions to which the product has been subjected. In this paper, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of eight Amadori compounds, and the initial steps of the Maillard reaction during cooking (steaming, frying and baking) bell pepper, red pepper, yellow onion, purple onion, tomato and carrot were also assessed by quantitative determination of these Amadori compounds.RESULTSThese culinary treatments reduced moisture and increased the total content of Amadori compounds, which was not dependent on the type of vegetable or cooking method. Moreover, the effect of steaming on Amadori compound content and water loss was less than that by baking and frying vegetables. Further studies showed that the combination of high temperature and short time may lead to lower formation of Amadori compounds when baking vegetables.CONCLUSIONCulinary methods differently affected the extent of initial Maillard reaction when vegetables were made into home-cooked products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:25:29.148434-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8455
  • Traceability of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller by ICP-MS multi-element
           profile and chemometric approach
    • Authors: Antonio Francesco Mottese; Clara Naccari, Rossella Vadalà, Giuseppe Daniel Bua, Giovanni Bartolomeo, Rossana Rando, Nicola Cicero, Giacomo Dugo
      Pages: 198 - 204
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOpuntia ficus-indica L. Miller fruits, particularly ‘Ficodindia dell'Etna’ of Biancavilla (POD), ‘Fico d'india tradizionale di Roccapalumba’ with protected brand and samples from an experimental field in Pezzolo (Sicily) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in order to determine the multi-element profile. A multivariate chemometric approach, specifically principal component analysis (PCA), was applied to individuate how mineral elements may represent a marker of geographic origin, which would be useful for traceability.RESULTSPCA has allowed us to verify that the geographical origin of prickly pear fruits is significantly influenced by trace element content, and the results found in Biancavilla PDO samples were linked to the geological composition of this volcanic areas. It was observed that two principal components accounted for 72.03% of the total variance in the data and, in more detail, PC1 explains 45.51% and PC2 26.52%, respectively.CONCLUSIONThis study demonstrated that PCA is an integrated tool for the traceability of food products and, at the same time, a useful method of authentication of typical local fruits such as prickly pear. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T02:35:31.594208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8456
  • Metabolomic analyses to evaluate the effect of drought stress on selected
           African Eggplant accessions
    • Authors: Elias K Mibei; Willis O Owino, Jane Ambuko, James J Giovannoni, Arnold N Onyango
      Pages: 205 - 216
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDrought stress is one of the main abiotic stresses that affect crops. It leads to biochemical changes that can have adverse effects on plant growth, development and productivity. African eggplants are important vegetable and fruit crops reported to adapt and thrive well under drought stress. The diversified metabolites arising due to stress have not been well defined. A gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric metabolomic approach was applied to characterize the effect of drought stress on metabolites at different stages of growth. Nineteen accessions were selected for analysis and drought was imposed by withholding water until soil moisture reached 60% field capacity. Fresh leaf tissues were sampled before stress, 2 and 4 weeks after stress and metabolite profiling done.RESULTSSignificant changes in metabolite content were observed, and potentially important metabolites with respect to stress responses were characterized. Proline, glutamate, sucrose, fructose and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites were shown to be positively correlated with stress. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination between the different accessions, growth stages and stress/control conditions.CONCLUSIONThe results illustrate that drought stress has a significant impact on the concentrations of some metabolites, such as amino acids, sugars and organic acids, which may contribute to drought stress effects and tolerance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:36:09.932389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8458
  • Brazilian Capsicum peppers: capsaicinoid content and antioxidant activity
    • Authors: Stanislau Bogusz; Silvia H Libardi, Fernanda FG Dias, Janclei P Coutinho, Vivian C Bochi, Daniele Rodrigues, Arlete MT Melo, Helena T Godoy
      Pages: 217 - 224
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCapsicum peppers are known as a source of capsaicinoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidants. Brazilian Capsicum peppers are important spices used in foods worldwide. However, little information is available on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of these peppers.RESULTSCapsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in extracts of three Brazilian peppers: Capsicum frutescens, C. chinense and C. baccatum var. pendulum, in two different harvest years and at two ripening stages. The bioactive compound content was dependent on harvest year, and changes in the concentration profiles were found for capsaicin. Mature fruits of C. chinense harvested in the first year had the highest capsaicin concentration (2.04 mg g−1 fresh pepper), and mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the same first year had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (0.95 mg g−1 fresh pepper). Mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the first year showed the major total phenolic compound content (2.46 mg g−1 fresh pepper). The total phenolic compound content was directly related to antioxidant activity.CONCLUSIONOur results suggest that phenolic compounds significantly contribute to the antioxidant activity of the investigated peppers. Also, these data add valued novel information that enhances current knowledge of Brazilian pepper fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T07:46:01.678501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8459
  • New by-products rich in bioactive substances from the olive oil mill
    • Authors: Concepción Romero; Eduardo Medina, Maria Antonia Mateo, Manuel Brenes
      Pages: 225 - 230
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOlive oil extraction generates a large amount of residue consisting mainly of the pomace and leaves when using a two-phase centrifugation system. The aim of this study was to assess the content of phenolic and triterpene compounds in the by-products produced in Spanish olive oil mills.RESULTSOlive pomace had concentrations of phenolic and triterpene substances lower than 2 and 3 g kg−1, respectively. The leaves contained a high concentration of these substances, although those collected from ground-picked olives had lost most of their phenolic compounds. Moreover, the sediment from the bottom of the olive oil storage tanks did not have a significant amount of these substances. By contrast, a new by-product called olive pomace skin has been revealed as a very rich source of triterpenic acids, the content of which can reach up to 120 g kg−1 in this waste product, maslinic acid comprising around 70% of total triterpenics.CONCLUSIONAmong the by-products generated during extraction of olive oil, olive pomace skin has been discovered to be a very rich source of triterpenic acids, which can reach up to 120 g kg−1 of the waste. These results will contribute to the valorization of olive oil by-products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T01:50:30.704765-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8460
  • High hydrostatic pressure processing affects the phenolic profile,
           preserves sensory attributes and ensures microbial quality of jabuticaba
           (Myrciaria jaboticaba) juice
    • Authors: Kim OP Inada; Alexandre G Torres, Daniel Perrone, Mariana Monteiro
      Pages: 231 - 239
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDJabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) is a Brazilian fruit rich in phenolic compounds and much appreciated for its sweet and slightly tangy taste. However, the high perishability of this fruit impairs its economic exploitation, creating an opportunity for the development of innovative products, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processed juices. We investigated the effect of HHP (200, 350 and 500 MPa for 5, 7.5 and 10 min) on phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and microbiological quality of jabuticaba juice and the effect of the most effective HHP condition on its sensory acceptance.RESULTSPressurization increased total phenolic compound content (up to 38%) and antioxidant activity by FRAP assay (up to 46%), probably by increasing phenolic compound extractability due to tissue damage. Pressurization progressively decreased microbial counts, and colony growth was undetectable at pressures of 350 MPa or 500 MPa. With the exception of aroma, which was 10% lower in pressurized juice at 350 MPa for 7.5 min in relation to unprocessed juice, HHP did not affect sensory acceptance scores.CONCLUSIONOur results show that HHP was effective in ensuring microbiological quality, increasing bioactive potential and maintaining overall acceptance of jabuticaba juice, reinforcing the potential application of this processing technology in bioactive-rich foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T03:21:53.424124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8461
  • Comparison of partial least squares and random forests for evaluating
           relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of Neptunia oleracea
    • Authors: Soo Yee Lee; Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani Maulidiani, Alfi Khatib, Intan Safinar Ismail, Norhasnida Zawawi, Faridah Abas
      Pages: 240 - 252
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNeptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.RESULTSComparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.CONCLUSIONBoth PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T03:26:08.006782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
  • Arabinoxylan activates lipid catabolism and alleviates liver damage in
           rats induced by high-fat diet
    • Authors: Hong Chen; Yuanfang Fu, Xiujuan Jiang, Dongmei Li, Wen qin, Qing Zhang, Derong Lin, Yaowen Liu, Cui Tan, Zhiqing Huang, Yuntao Liu, Daiwen Chen
      Pages: 253 - 260
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDArabinoxylan was thought to have the potential to change lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis in human and animal. However, the effect of arabinoxylan on the liver damage induced by high-fat diet needs further exploiting.RESULTSSix-weeks-old 30 male Sprague–Dawley Rats were assigned randomly to three groups (n = 10 per group), i.e. a control diet (CON) group, a high-fat diet (HF) group and a high-fat diet supplemented with arabinoxylan (6% AX, HF-AX) group. Results showed that final body weight and liver weight were similar in CON group and HF-AX group, but higher in the HF group. In serum, the HF-AX group showed lower triglyceride concentrations than did the HF group. In liver, higher lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, total lipase, and acyl-CoA oxidase activities and lower triglyceride and cholesterol level were observed in the HF-AX group than in the HF group. For the redox homeostasis, arabinoxylan supplemented in HF increased T-SOD activity and GSH-PX activity and reduced MDA + 4-HNE level in liver and/or compared with those in the HF group. Lipid droplets and liver cell damage were observed in the HF group compared with the CON and HF-AX groups.CONCLUSIONArabinoxylan could improve lipid metabolic disorder and alleviate liver damage in rats induced by high-fat diet via activating lipid catabolism and suppressing lipid peroxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T09:16:04.352753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8463
  • Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared
           according to the Turkish tradition
    • Authors: Jakub Toman; Frantisek Malir, Vladimir Ostry, Mehmet Akif Kilic, Tomas Roubal, Yann Grosse, Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
      Pages: 261 - 265
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOchratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion.RESULTSThe aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g−1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g−1 up to 56.7 ng g−1. An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g−1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%.CONCLUSIONThese data are important for the realisation of a ‘Total Diet study’ (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared ‘as consumed’ (tea infusions) and not ‘as purchased’ (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T09:00:21.440089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8464
  • Effect of linseed supplementation and slaughter age on meat quality of
           grazing cross-bred Galician x Burguete foals
    • Authors: Rubén Domínguez; Mirian Pateiro, Santiago Crecente, Marta Ruiz, María V Sarriés, José M Lorenzo
      Pages: 266 - 273
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to assess the effect of finishing diet (control concentrate vs. linseed concentrate) and slaughter age (13 vs. 26 months) on meat and nutritional quality of foal meat. For this study, 46 foals from crossing Galicia Mountain x Burguete breeds were used.RESULTSThe obtained results showed that slaughter age had an influence on chemical composition and colour parameters. Foals slaughtered at the age of 13 months had lower content of intramuscular fat and higher cholesterol contents than those slaughtered at 26 months of age. Regarding colour parameters, older foals showed the highest values of redness and lowest myoglobin contents. Finishing diet had a low effect on the majority of parameters evaluated. Foals fed with linseed presented lower shear force values than those fed with control concentrate. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were hardly influenced by finishing diet, whereas slaughter age effect had a high impact on fatty acid profile. Older animals showed lowest SFA values and n-6/n-3 ratio.CONCLUSIONOlder animals presented the best meat quality. Diet had low effect in meat quality and could be related to the short time during finishing diet was administered and the low amount of linseed in the experimental diet. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T23:35:37.355845-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8466
  • Characterization of phenolic composition in Carignan noir grapes (Vitis
           vinifera L.) from six wine-growing sites in Maule Valley, Chile
    • Authors: Ana M Martínez-Gil; Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Eva P Pérez-Álvarez, Yerko Moreno-Simunovic
      Pages: 274 - 282
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAmong Chilean varieties, Carignan noir has had a major resurgence due to its rediscovered wine quality potential. For this, the aim of this study was to characterize phenolic composition of grapes grown in six sites from the Maule Valley.RESULTSThe data showed that myricetin-3-glc and catechin were the most important flavonol and flavanol, respectively. Anthocyanin and flavonol composition was correlated with biologically effective degree days, exhibiting a relationship with grape maturity. Flavanol and hydroxycinnamic acid composition was inversely correlated to the average maximum temperature of the warmest month, showing that their synthesis is favored by cooler temperatures during the warmest month.CONCLUSIONThese results have enological and viticultural interest for grape growers as vineyard site selection for this cultivar can confer differentiable attributes in terms of grape composition and quality. On the other hand, understanding the effects of climate on the synthesis of phenolic compounds may be useful for managing the vineyards with the aim of improving grape quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:00:25.287198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8468
  • Prediction of canned black bean texture (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from
           intact dry seeds using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and
           hyperspectral imaging data
    • Authors: Fernando A Mendoza; Karen A Cichy, Christy Sprague, Amanda Goffnett, Renfu Lu, James D Kelly
      Pages: 283 - 290
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTexture is a major quality parameter for the acceptability of canned whole beans. Prior knowledge of this quality trait before processing would be useful to guide variety development by bean breeders and optimize handling protocols by processors. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the predictive power of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (visible/NIRS, 400–2498 nm) and hyperspectral imaging (HYPERS, 400–1000 nm) techniques for predicting texture of canned black beans from intact dry seeds. Black beans were grown in Michigan (USA) over three field seasons. The samples exhibited phenotypic variability for canned bean texture due to genetic variability and processing practice. Spectral preprocessing methods (i.e. smoothing, first and second derivatives, continuous wavelet transform, and two-band ratios), coupled with a feature selection method, were tested for optimizing the prediction accuracy in both techniques based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) models.RESULTSVisible/NIRS and HYPERS were effective in predicting texture of canned beans using intact dry seeds, as indicated by their correlation coefficients for prediction (Rpred) and standard errors of prediction (SEP). Visible/NIRS was superior (Rpred = 0.546–0.923, SEP = 7.5–1.9 kg 100 g−1) to HYPERS (Rpred = 0.401–0.883, SEP = 7.6–2.4 kg 100 g−1), which is likely due to the wider wavelength range collected in visible/NIRS. However, a significant improvement was reached in both techniques when the two-band ratios preprocessing method was applied to the data, reducing SEP by at least 10.4% and 16.2% for visible/NIRS and HYPERS, respectively. Moreover, results from using the combination of the three-season data sets based on the two-band ratios showed that visible/NIRS (Rpred = 0.886, SEP = 4.0 kg 100 g−1) and HYPERS (Rpred = 0.844, SEP = 4.6 kg 100 g−1) models were consistently successful in predicting texture over a wide range of measurements.CONCLUSIONVisible/NIRS and HYPERS have great potential for predicting the texture of canned beans; the robustness of the models is impacted by genotypic diversity, planting year and phenotypic variability for canned bean texture used for model building, and hence, robust models can be built based on data sets with high phenotypic diversity in textural properties, and periodically maintained and updated with new data. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:39.021292-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8469
  • Polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and nitrogenous compounds change during
           the ageing of Tempranillo and Verdejo sparkling wines
    • Authors: Leticia Martínez-Lapuente; Rafael Apolinar-Valiente, Zenaida Guadalupe, Belén Ayestarán, Silvia Pérez-Magariño, Pascale Williams, Thierry Doco
      Pages: 291 - 303
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDVerdejo and Tempranillo are traditional varieties for producing still wines; however, they could provide an alternative for the manufacturing of sparkling wines. Sparkling wines were elaborated by the traditional method, followed by ageing on lees for 9 months. A study on the changes that take place in polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and nitrogenous compounds during the ageing on lees of Tempranillo and Verdejo sparkling wines has been undertaken.RESULTSMannoproteins and the glucose residue of oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages. Yeast polysaccharides and glucan-like structures of the oligosaccharides increased after 3 months of ageing. The evolution of yeast polysaccharides and the composition of PRAG-like structure were different among grape varieties. A decrease in amino acids and biogenic amines was observed during the ageing. The contents of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and nitrogenous compound were significantly higher in Tempranillo than in Verdejo sparkling wines at the end of the ageing period.CONCLUSIONPolysaccharides and oligosaccharides from yeast were more significant autolysis markers of sparkling wines than the nitrogenous compounds. Our data suggest a potential cultivar effect on the evolution of yeast polysaccharides and on the composition of PRAG, which may influence the physico-chemical and sensory properties of sparkling wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T01:21:08.797684-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8470
  • Yield, quality and biochemical properties of various strawberry cultivars
           under water stress
    • Authors: Nafiye Adak; Hamide Gubbuk, Nedim Tetik
      Pages: 304 - 311
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlthough strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) species are sensitive to abiotic stress conditions, some cultivars are known to be tolerant to different environmental conditions. We examined the response of different strawberry cultivars to water stress conditions in terms of yield, quality and biochemical features. The trial was conducted under two different irrigation regimes: in grow bags containing cocopeat (control, 30%; water stress, 15% drainage) with four different cultivars (Camarosa, Albion, Amiga and Rubygem).RESULTSFruit weight declined by 59.72% and the yield per unit area by 63.62% under water stress conditions as compared to control. Albion and Rubygem were found to be more tolerant and Amiga the most sensitive in terms of yield under stress conditions. Water stress increased all biochemical features in fruits such as total phenol, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity and sugar contents. Among the cultivars, glucose and fructose was higher in Albion.CONCLUSIONConsidering the rise in global warming, identification of resistant and tolerant cultivars to stress conditions are crucial for future breeding programmes. Our results showed that some of the fruit's physical features were affected negatively by stress conditions whereas many of the biochemical features such as total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were positively modulated. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T06:45:19.794784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8471
  • Pilot-scale radiofrequency blanching of potato cuboids: heating uniformity
    • Authors: Zhenna Zhang; Chaofan Guo, Tong Gao, Hongfei Fu, Qin Chen, Yunyang Wang
      Pages: 312 - 320
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTraditional hot water blanching has a slow heat transfer rate, whereas radiofrequency (RF) heating has the advantages of a much faster heating rate and a higher penetration depth. In the present study, RF heating was applied to improve heating uniformity for subsequent blanching experiments involving potato cuboids. Potato cuboids were treated in a pilot-scale, RF heating system (27.12 MHz, 6 kW) under different operating conditions.RESULTSThe dielectric constant increased first and then decreased with temperature, whereas the loss factor increased as the temperature increased. The results of the present study reveal that the electrode gap, sample height and NaCl solution had significant effects (P < 0.05) on the temperature distribution and heating uniformity of the sample after RF heating. The optimum RF heating uniformity was obtained at an electrode gap of 120 mm, a sample height of 60 mm and when immersed in NaCl solution of 0.5 s m–1. The central heating pattern was presented in a sample. Cold spots were located at the edge of the top surface of the sample.CONCLUSIONThe present study shows the great potential of RF heating for the blanching of vegetables. Future studies should aim to determine changes in the texture and nutrient contents of vegetables during RF heating. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:21:05.748656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8473
  • Chemical composition and antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and
           acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of cassumunar-ginger
    • Authors: Ram S Verma; Neeta Joshi, Rajendra C Padalia, Ved R Singh, Prakash Goswami, Sajendra K Verma, Hina Iqbal, Debabrata Chanda, Rajesh K Verma, Mahendra P Darokar, Amit Chauhan, Manish K Kandwal
      Pages: 321 - 327
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDZingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as cassumunar-ginger, is a folk remedy for the treatment of inflammations, sprains, rheumatism and asthma. The aim of the present study was to assess the chemical composition, and antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the essential oil of Z. montanum originating from India.RESULTSThe hydrodistilled essential oil of Z. montanum rhizome was analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. A total of 49 constituents, forming 98.7–99.9% of the total oil compositions, was identified. The essential oil was characterized by higher amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons (32.6–43.5%), phenylbutanoids (27.5–41.2%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (11.4–34.1%). Major constituents of the oil were sabinene (13.5–38.0%), (E)-1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene (DMPBD) (20.6–35.3%), terpinen-4-ol (9.0–31.3%), γ-terpinene (1.1–4.8%) and β-phellandrene (1.0–4.4%). The oil was evaluated against eight pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains. It exhibited low to good antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration: 125–500 µg mL–1) and moderate antifungal activity (250 µg mL–1) against the tested strains. The oil reduced germination (69.8%) and inhibited the root and shoot growth of lettuce significantly (LD50: 3.58 µL plate–1). However, it did not demonstrate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity up to a concentration of 10 mg mL–1.CONCLUSIONSThe essential oil of Z. montanum can be used as a potential source of DMPBD, terpinen-4-ol and sabinene for pharmaceutical products. The results of the present study add significant information to the pharmacological activity of Z. montanum native to India. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:31:13.31174-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8474
  • Effects of four short-chain fatty acids or salts on fermentation
           characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
    • Authors: Xian J Yuan; Ai Y Wen, Jian Wang, Seare T Desta, Zhi H Dong, Tao Shao
      Pages: 328 - 335
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four chemicals on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Wilted alfalfa was ensiled without additive (control), or with formic acid (FA), potassium diformate (KDF), sodium diacetate (SDA) or calcium propionate (CAP).RESULTSAfter 60 days of ensiling, the pH values in FA, KDF and SDA silages were lower (P < 0.05) compared to that of control and CAP silages, and chemicals (P < 0.05) decreased butyric acid and ammonia N concentrations and populations of aerobic bacteria and yeasts compared to the control. The SDA and CAP silages had a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria content compared to the FA and KDF silages. The SDA and CAP silages had higher (P < 0.05) acetic and propionic acid contents compared to the other silages, respectively. The ammonia N concentrations in the FA and KDF silages were lower compared to the other silages during the first 5 days of aerobic exposure, and then increased sharply to 105 and 100 g kg–1 total N, respectively, which was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the SDA and CAP silages on day 9 of aerobic exposure. Yeasts and aerobic bacteria counts in SDA silage slowly increased and remained at lower levels compared to the other silages after 7 days of aerobic exposure.CONCLUSIONAdditives prolonged the aerobic stability duration compared to the control, and the SDA and CAP silages remained stable for more than 216 h, followed by the KDF and FA silages (202 and 196 h, respectively). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T08:05:25.896692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8475
  • Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating
    • Authors: Jie Liu; Xiaojie Liu, Yong Man, Yawei Liu
      Pages: 336 - 345
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking.RESULTSCorn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4–82.9%; P < 0.01)in both the outer and inner crust. A lower temperature (difference of 10–20 °C) in combination with a higher moisture content (maximum difference of 8%) of bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4–8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate.CONCLUSIONThe present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:05:37.150707-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8476
  • Aroma-volatile profile of black morel (Morchella importuna) grown in
    • Authors: Zipora Tietel; Segula Masaphy
      Pages: 346 - 353
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA headspace solid-phase microextraction method with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to profile the aroma volatiles of mature fruiting bodies of Morchella importuna grown in Israel.RESULTSWe tentatively identified 40 aroma compounds and seven unknown volatiles. The M. importuna aroma profile consisted of 14 aldehydes, six alcohols, 10 methyl esters, four heterocyclic/sulfur compounds, 10 carbohydrates and three other compounds (i.e. one acid, one ketone and one butyl ester). The most abundant volatiles were carbohydrates, with a total relative peak area of 29.3%, followed by alcohols (27.7%), aldehydes (21.6%), methyl esters (10.8%), heterocyclic/sulfur compounds (3.1%) and other compounds (5.8%). The 8-carbon (C8) compounds imparting typical mushroom-like aroma were very abundant in M. importuna, accounting for 27.9% of the total peak area and including, amongst others, 1-octen-3-ol (80% of total C8), octanal and 2-octenal (Z- and E-).CONCLUSIONThe aroma volatile profile of morels has much in common with that of other mushrooms, with a few unique characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the aroma profile of M. importuna. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T04:00:38.103497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8477
  • Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in
           chipping potatoes
    • Authors: Amy E Wiberley-Bradford; Paul C Bethke
      Pages: 354 - 360
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPotato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose, and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifests as a blush of color near the center of the fried chip, becomes more severe with time, and limits the storage period. Vacuolar invertase (VInv) converts sucrose to glucose and fructose and is hypothesized to play a role in senescent sweetening. To test this hypothesis, senescent sweetening was quantified in multiple lines of potato with reduced VInv expression.RESULTSChip darkening from senescent sweetening was delayed by about 4 weeks for tubers with reduced VInv expression. A strong positive correlation between frequency of dark chips and tuber hexose content was observed. Tubers with reduced VInv expression had lower hexose to sucrose ratios than controls.CONCLUSIONVInv activity contributes to reducing sugar accumulation during senescent sweetening. Sucrose breakdown during frying may contribute to chip darkening. Suppressing VInv expression increases the storage period of the chipping potato crop, which is an important consideration, as potatoes with reduced VInv expression are entering commercial production in the USA. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T01:15:29.634367-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8478
  • Extraction methods and food uses of a natural red colorant from dye
    • Authors: Folachodé UG Akogou; AP Polycarpe Kayodé, Heidy MW den Besten, Anita R Linnemann
      Pages: 361 - 368
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe interest in stable natural colorants for food applications continues to grow. A red pigment extracted from the leaf sheaths of a sorghum variety (Sorghum bicolor) with a high content of apigeninidin is widely used as a biocolorant in processed foods in West Africa. This study compared the colour and anthocyanin composition from traditional extraction methods to determine options for improvement and use of the red biocolorant from dye sorghum in the food sector.RESULTSSorghum biocolorant was commonly applied in fermented and heated foods. Traditional extraction methods predominantly differed in two aspects, namely the use of an alkaline rock salt (locally known as kanwu) and the temperature of the extraction water. Cool extraction using the alkaline ingredient was more efficient than hot alkaline and hot aqueous extractions in extracting anthocyanins. The apigeninidin content was three times higher in the cool and hot alkaline extracts than in the aqueous extract.CONCLUSIONCool and hot alkaline extractions at pH 8–9 were the most efficient methods for extracting apigeninidin from dye sorghum leaf sheaths. Broader use of the sorghum biocolorant in foods requires further research on its effects on nutrient bioavailability and antioxidant activity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T01:55:50.984356-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8479
  • Control of abusive water addition to Octopus vulgaris with non-destructive
    • Authors: Rogério Mendes; Ove Schimmer, Helena Vieira, João Pereira, Bárbara Teixeira
      Pages: 369 - 376
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAbusive water addition to octopus has evidenced the need for quick non-destructive methods for product qualification in the industry and control of fresh commercial products in markets. Electric conductivity (EC)/pH and dielectric property measurements were selected to detect water uptake in octopus.RESULTSA significant EC decrease was determined after soaking octopus in freshwater for 4 h. EC reflected the water uptake of octopus and the correspondent concentration decrease of available ions in the interstitial fluid. Significant correlations were determined between octopus water uptake, EC (R = −0.940) and moisture/protein (M/P) ratio (R = 0.923) changes. Seasonal and spatial variation in proximate composition did not introduce any uncertainty in EC discrimination of freshwater tampering. Immersion in 5 g L−1 sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased EC to a value similar to control octopus. EC false negatives resulting from the use of additives (STPP and citric acid) were eliminated with the additional determination of pH. Octopus soaked in freshwater, STPP and citric acid can also be clearly discriminated from untreated samples (control) and also from frozen (thawed) ones using the dielectric properties. No significant differences in the dielectric property scores were found between octopus sizes or geographical locations.CONCLUSIONSimultaneous EC/pH or dielectric property measurements can be used in a handheld device for non-destructive water addition detection in octopus. M/P ratio can be used as a reference destructive method. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T04:16:42.884521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8480
  • Vaccinium meridionale Swartz extracts and their addition in beef burgers
           as antioxidant ingredient
    • Authors: Alexis López-Padilla; Diana Martín, David Villanueva Bermejo, Laura Jaime, Alejandro Ruiz-Rodriguez, Claudia Estela Restrepo Flórez, Diana Marsela Rivero Barrios, Tiziana Fornari
      Pages: 377 - 383
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDVaccinium meridionale Swartz (mortiño) constitutes a source of bioactive phytochemicals, but reports related to its efficient and green production are scarce. In this study, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction of mortiño were compared. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+) were determined. Beef burgers with 20 g kg−1 of mortiño (MM) or its PLE extract (ME) were manufactured. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) and instrumental color changes were measured after refrigerated storage.RESULTSHigh TPC (up to 72 g gallic acid equivalent kg−1 extract) was determined in mortiño extracts, which was positively correlated with antioxidant activity. TBARS values of beef burgers containing either MM or ME did not change after refrigerated storage, whereas lipid oxidation of control burgers increased significantly. The color of burgers with added MM or ME was different (lower b* and a* values) from that of control burgers. However, the evolution of color after storage was similar between control and ME samples.CONCLUSIONMortiño extracts with high TPC can be obtained by PLE. Both mortiño and its PLE extract are able to control lipid oxidation of beef burgers, but the extract is preferred from the color quality point of view. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:31:44.900165-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8483
  • Lignin composition is more important than content for maize stem cell wall
    • Authors: Yuan He; Thibaut MB Mouthier, Mirjam A Kabel, Jan Dijkstra, Wouter H Hendriks, Paul C Struik, John W Cone
      Pages: 384 - 390
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe relationship between the chemical and molecular properties – in particular the (acid detergent) lignin (ADL) content and composition expressed as the ratio between syringyl and guaiacyl compounds (S:G ratio) – of maize stems and in vitro gas production was studied in order to determine which is more important in the degradability of maize stem cell walls in the rumen of ruminants. Different internodes from two contrasting maize cultivars (Ambrosini and Aastar) were harvested during the growing season.RESULTSThe ADL content decreased with greater internode number within the stem, whereas the ADL content fluctuated during the season for both cultivars. The S:G ratio was lower in younger tissue (greater internode number or earlier harvest date) in both cultivars. For the gas produced between 3 and 20 h, representing the fermentation of cell walls in rumen fluid, a stronger correlation (R2 = 0.80) was found with the S:G ratio than with the ADL content (R2 = 0.68). The relationship between ADL content or S:G ratio and 72-h gas production, representing total organic matter degradation, was weaker than that with gas produced between 3 and 20 h.CONCLUSIONThe S:G ratio plays a more dominant role than ADL content in maize stem cell wall degradation. © 2017 The
      Authors . Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T04:25:22.87319-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8630
  • Extrusion modifies some physicochemical properties of milk protein
           concentrate for improved performance in high-protein nutrition bars
    • Authors: Justin C Banach; Stephanie Clark, Buddhi P Lamsal
      Pages: 391 - 399
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDExtruded and ground milk protein concentrate powders, specifically those with 800 g kg–1 protein (i.e. MPC80), imparted softness, cohesion and textural stability to high-protein nutrition (HPN) bars. The present study evaluated some physicochemical properties of extruded and conventionally produced (i.e. spray-dried) MPC80 to explain these improvements. Protein chemical changes and aggregations within MPC80-formulated HPN bars during storage were characterized.RESULTSExtruded MPC80 powders had broader particle size distribution (P < 0.05) and smaller volume-weighted mean diameter (P < 0.05) than the spray-dried control. Loose, tapped and particle densities increased (P < 0.05) and correspondingly occluded and interstitial air volumes decreased (P < 0.05) after extruding and milling MPC80. Extrusion decreased water holding capacity (P < 0.05) and solubility (P < 0.05), yet improved the wettability (P < 0.05) of MPC80. MPC80 free sulfhydryl (P < 0.05) and free amine (P < 0.05) concentrations decreased after extrusion. Sulfhydryl and amine concentrations changed (P < 0.05) and disulfide-linked and, more prominently, Maillard-induced aggregates developed during HPN bar storage.CONCLUSIONExtrusion and milling together changed the physicochemical properties of MPC80. Chemical changes and protein aggregations occurred in HPN bars prepared with either type of MPC80. Thus, the physicochemical properties of the formulating powder require consideration for desired HPN bar texture and stability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T05:15:52.149254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8632
  • A comparative study of quality and safety of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
           fillets during cold storage, as affected by different thawing methods of
           pre-rigor frozen headed and gutted fish
    • Authors: Irja Sunde Roiha; Ásbjörn Jónsson, Christoph Josef Backi, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Magnea G Karlsdóttir
      Pages: 400 - 409
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe catch of marine whitefish is typically seasonal, whereas the land-based processing industry has a need for all-year stable supply of raw materials. This challenge can be met by applying fish frozen at sea. When using frozen fish, the methods employed for thawing may influence the safety and quality of the final product. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of novel thawing strategies in order to provide an all-year supply of high-quality and safe cod products.RESULTSComparative investigations of quality and safety factors after thawing in water, with and without air circulation, and contact thawing were performed. The parameters included water-holding capacity, thawing loss, drip loss, cooking yield, sensory evaluation and microbiological analyses (including total volatile bases nitrogen). Water thawing with air circulation provided faster thawing than water thawing without air circulation and contact thawing. For all three methods, the quality of the thawed fish was acceptable and the shelf life of the fillets during chilled storage was between 10 and 14 days post-filleting.CONCLUSIONThe results show that controlled freezing of cod, followed by appropriate thawing, may provide the processing industry with an all-year delivery of raw materials, without compromising quality and safety of the final product. © 2017 The
      Authors . Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T09:50:39.742774-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8649
  • Digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) and protein
           digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in oat protein
           concentrate measured in 20- to 30-kilogram pigs
    • Authors: Jerubella J Abelilla; Yanhong Liu, Hans H Stein
      Pages: 410 - 414
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOat protein concentrate is often used in human food, but the quality of this protein has not been characterized. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in oat protein concentrate and to determine differences in protein quality estimates between the protein digestibility-corrected AA score (PDCAAS) and the digestible indispensable AA score (DIAAS) when using growing pigs for both measurements.RESULTSFor infants, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was the aromatic AA (Phe + Tyr), for which the DIAAS value was 41 and the PDCAAS was 43. For children (6 months to 3 years) and children older than 3 years, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was Lys, for which the DIAAS was 56 and 67 and the PDCAAS was 58 and 69, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe DIAAS value for oat protein concentrate was close to the calculated value for PDCAAS, but below the recommended intake for protein. Therefore, to satisfy the daily human AA requirement, oat protein needs to be complemented by other proteins of higher quality and specifically with greater lysine concentrations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T08:50:20.950101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8457
  • Effects of a daily three-meal pattern with different dietary protein
           contents on pig growth performance, carcass and muscle quality traits
    • Authors: Xin Wu; Chunyan Xie, Cimin Long, Jun Li, Xihong Zhou, Zhiyong Fan, Francois Blachier, Yulong Yin
      Pages: 415 - 421
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecent research related to phase-feeding programmes for pig nutrition do not always account for the variation among individuals, and feeds are usually formulated to optimise the performance of the whole pig population. This study aimed at measuring the effects of a daily three-meal pattern with different dietary protein contents on pig growth performance, carcass and muscle quality traits.RESULTSThe results showed that compared with the 3C treatment, average daily gain (ADG) of pigs in the HCL treatment increased by 14.75% (P < 0.05) during period 1. The carcass weight (P = 0.006) and slaughter weight (P = 0.021) in the HCL group increased when compared with those in the 3C and LCH treatments. Moreover, the LCH feeding sequences contributed to reduce the drip loss in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle (P < 0.05) when compared with the 3C treatment. The HCL or LCH feeding sequence contributed to increase the meat quality when compared with those receiving the 3C treatment.CONCLUSIONCollectively, our results indicate that feeding high protein meal in the morning and a gradual reduction of the protein content in meals over the day may improve muscle quality characteristics, maximise performance, and reduce the pig feed cost. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T09:06:57.174141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8467
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