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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (204 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance
           shelf life during storage
    • Abstract: Backround Eggs have long been recognized as a source of high‐quality proteins. There are many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment. Ozone treatment is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces to food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2,4,and 6ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 minutes 6 weeks at 24°C. Effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs were also reported. Results Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh Unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity(RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 minutes can be applied to fresh eggs that extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24°C storage period. Conclusion Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg's quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at the 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results to maintain internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) resulted a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone‐treatments 2, especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T22:11:39.475386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7440
  • In ovo trace element supplementation enhances expression of growth genes
           in embryo and immune genes in post‐hatch broiler chickens
    • Authors: Akshat Goel; Subrat K. Bhanja, Manish Mehra, Asitbaran Mandal, Veena Pande
      Abstract: Background Differential expression of growth‐ and immunity‐ related genes and post‐hatch performances were evaluated in in ovo zinc (Zn), iodine (I) or selenium (Se) supplemented chicken embryos. Result There was about 9‐18% reduction in hatchability of Zn, I or Se supplemented eggs. In ovo trace element supplementation did not improve post‐hatch growth. Two‐way analysis of data revealed significant effect (P>0.01) of period, trace elements and their interactions. Expression of hepatic somatotropin, IGF‐II and mucin gene was highest at 20th embryonic day but decreased during post‐hatch periods. In ovo Zn or I supplemented embryos had higher expression of growth related genes compared to Se or un‐injected control group. Expression of IL‐6 was higher (P
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T06:21:25.644032-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7438
  • Effect of drought stress on the development of endosperm starch granules
           and the composition and physicochemical properties of starches from soft
           and hard wheat
    • Authors: Xurun Yu; Bo Li, Leilei Wang, Xinyu Chen, Wenjun Wang, Yunjie Gu, Zhong Wang, Fei Xiong
      Abstract: Background The objectives of this study were: (i) to observe effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (ii) to investigate effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; (iii) to compared the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. Results DS resulted in large A‐type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B‐type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000‐grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose‐to‐amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B‐type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A‐type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α‐amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starches. Conclusion Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products.
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T06:20:32.677957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7439
  • Physicochemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile
           of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits
    • Abstract: Background Jujube fruit is eaten mostly fresh, but may be dried (Chinese dates and tea) or processed into confectionary recipes in bread, cakes, compotes, and candy. Given that the quality of jujube available on the market differs on account of various factors such as geographical environment, cultivar, processing conditions, and storage conditions and that for consumers, flavour and nutrition properties of jujube represent the major parameters in determining the quality of jujube, the main goal of this study were to determine the main physicochemical properties of jujube fruits, sugars and organic acids profiles, protein, mineral constituents, volatile composition and sensory profile of jujube fruits. This would allow breeders to select cultivars with higher levels of nutrients and also enable increasing dietary intake by consumers. Results Investigations showed that jujube fruit weight ranged from 4.8 to 29.3 g/fruit. Four sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and 4 organic acids (citric, malic, ascorbic, and succinic acids) were identified and quantified by high‐performance liquid chromatography in jujube fruits. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. Fifteen volatiles compounds were found in the aroma profile of jujube fruits (9 were aldehydes, 3 terpenes, 1 ester, 1 ketone and 1 linear hydrocarbon). Conclusion The results showed that Spanish jujube cultivars studied are a good source of vitamin C, besides they have low content in Na. The jujube cultivar with the most appreciated quality by consumers was “GAL”; the “GAL” fruits were sweet, crunchy, and had high intensities of jujube ID and apple flavor a long aftertaste. Therefore, jujube grown in Spain has a great potential to be exploited for functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:25:40.928808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7386
  • Characterization of Cu/Zn‐SOD enzyme activities and gene expression
           in soybean under low nitrogen stress
    • Authors: Xiaobo Wang; Haowei Zhang, Yali Gao, Wenming Zhang
      Abstract: Background Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays important roles in the antioxidant defense in nearly all cells, is speculated to be closely related to plant resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, salt, heavy metal and pathogen attack. However, little is known about the effects of SOD activity and its isoenzymes on low nitrogen stress tolerance and its effects on adaptability of plant to nitrogen limitation. Results Ten SOD isoenzymes were identified in soybean root, stem, leaf and mature seed, and were classified into three families (α.1, β.1‐4 and γ.1‐5). The SOD activity was significantly elevated in soybean leaf and root. Whereas, under low nitrogen conditions, only β.2 isoenzyme activity, belonged to Cu/Zn‐SOD family, in the root of soybean cultivar cv. WS01‐15 was induced obviously. Moreover, the expression of three Cu/Zn‐SOD genes were analysis under low nitrogen stress. GmCZ‐SOD1 gene was induced significantly in soybean root under low nitrogen stress. Interestingly, evolutionary analysis showed that this gene has undergone a strong artificial selection during soybean domestication, which implies Cu/Zn‐SOD gene would play an essential role in the adaptive evolution of soybean nitrogen limitation resistance. Conclusions GmCZ‐SOD is important for adaptability of soybean to nitrogen limitation and these results provides useful information to unravel their biological roles in plant low nitrogen resistance.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:25:14.938963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7387
  • Morpho‐Physiological Evaluation of Tomato Genotypes under High
           Temperature Stress Condition
    • Authors: Muhammad R. Shaheen; Choudhary M. Ayyub, Muhammad Amjad, Ejaz A. Waraich
      Abstract: Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important but heat sensitive vegetable crop. The losses in tomato production associated with heat stress are aggravating further under global warming scenario. The present study was designed to investigate the comparative performance of tomato genotypes under high temperature stress. Tomato genotypes (191) were exposed to the controlled conditions of high temperature (40/32 °C day/night temperature). Different morphological (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root dry weight and number of leaves), physiological (photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance to water, sub‐stomatal CO2 and leaf temperature) and SPAD value (chlorophyll contents) were recorded to check the diversity among the genotypes against heat stress. Results All the genotypes showed significantly variable response in almost all the attributes under high temperature conditions. Correlation among the variables gave clear understanding of the phenomena involved. Based on all the attributes studies, the genotypes L00090 and L00091 were found most heat tolerant as compared to other genotypes while CLN1462A and CLN 1466E were found comparatively sensitive. Conclusion It was concluded from the study that the studied attributes were genotype dependent and significant diverse performance was noted. The findings of this study pave the way towards the selection of tolerant genotypes, not only for use under high temperature conditions, but also to employ them in breeding programs to produce heat tolerant hybrids.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:15:00.4573-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7388
  • Load dissipation by corn residue on tilled soil in laboratory and
           field‐wheeling conditions
    • Abstract: Crop residues may partially dissipate applied loads and reduce soil compaction. We evaluated the effect of corn residue on energy‐applied dissipation during wheeling. The experiment consisted in a preliminary laboratory test and a confirmatory field test on a Paleaudalf. In laboratory, an adapted Proctor test was performed with three energy levels, with and without corn residue. Field treatments consisted of three 5.1‐Mg tractor wheeling intensities (0, 2, and 6), with and without 12 Mg ha−1 corn residue on soil surface. Corn residue on soil surface reduced soil bulk density in the adapted Proctor test. By applying energy of 52.6 kN m m−3, soil dissipated 2.98% of applied energy, whereas with 175.4 kN m m−3 a dissipation of 8.60% was obtained. This result confirms the hypothesis that surface mulch absorbs part of the compaction effort. Residue effects on soil compaction observed in the adapted Proctor test did not replicate in subsoiled soil field conditions, because of differences in applied pressure and soil conditions (structure, moisture, and volume confinement). Nevertheless, this negative result does not mean straw has no effect in the field. Such effects should be measured via stress transmission and compared to soil load bearing capacity, rather than on bulk deformations. Wheeling by heavy tractor on subsoiled soil increased compaction, independently of surface residue. Two wheelings produced a significantly increase, but six wheelings did not further increase compaction. Reduced traffic intensity on recently tilled soil is necessary to minimize soil compaction, since traffic intensity show a greater effect than surface mulch on soil protection from excessive compaction.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:13:12.373761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7389
  • Influence of phosphorus management on melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit
    • Authors: Martuscelli M; Di Mattia C, Speca S, Mastrocola D, Stagnari F, Pisante M.
      Abstract: Background At harvest time, melon quality is related to internal and external parameters, which are very important for consumer attractiveness and marketable yield too. Several agronomic factors can affect the quality of melon fruits and among them mineral availability may play a significant role. Therefore the aim of the work is to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertigation on melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) qualitative characteristics, as fruit size and yield, pulp color and firmness, aroma and taste, as well as the accumulation of bioactive antioxidant compounds, namely phenols and carotenoids, and their antiradical properties. Results Results allowed to extrapolate the optimal P doses to be used for melon fertigation, to achieve high yield and fruit quality characteristics. From modelling the optimal P dose which allowed to maximize yield resulted around 257 kg P2O5 ha−1, even if the quality indices related to the carotenoids content, texture and color of the flesh melon were not significantly different between samples fertigated with the two highest levels tested. Conclusion It can be assumed that the level of 200 kg P2O5 ha−1 would be a good compromise between optimization of the agronomic performance and the melon fruit quality.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:12:45.724972-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7390
  • Anti‐adhesion activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract, thyme
           post‐distillation waste, and olive (Olea europea L.) leaf extract
           against Campylobacter jejuni on polystyrene and intestine epithelial cells
    • Abstract: Background In order to survive in food processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. Results Phytochemical analysis of thyme ethanolic extract (TE), thyme post‐hydrodistillation residue (TE‐R), and olive leaf extract (OE) using HPLC‐PDA indicates that the major compounds in TE and TE‐R are flavone glucuronides and rosmarinic acid derivatives, and in OE verbascoside, luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside and oleuroside. TE and TE‐R reduced Campylobacter jejuni adhesion to abiotic surfaces by up to 30% at 0.2 µg mL−1 to 12.5 µg mL−1, with TE‐R showing a greater effect. OE from 3.125 µg mL−1 to 200 µg mL−1 reduced C. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene by 10% to 23%. On the other hand, C. jejuni adhesion to PSI cl1 cells was inhibited by almost 30% over a large concentration range of these extracts. Conclusion Our findings suggest that TE, the agro‐food waste material TE‐R, and the by‐product OE represent sources of bioactive phytochemicals that are effective at low concentrations and can be used as therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial adhesion.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:12:19.940249-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7391
  • Looseness in bovine leather: microstructural characterization
    • Authors: H.C. Wells; G. Holmes, R.G. Haverkamp
      Abstract: Background A substantial proportion of bovine leather production may be of poor quality, with the leather suffering from a characteristic known as looseness. This defect results in a poor visual appearance and greatly reduced value. The structural mechanism of looseness is not well understood. Results Samples of loose and tight bovine leather are characterized using small angle X‐ray scattering, ultrasonic imaging, and electron microscopy. The density of fibre packing and the orientation of the fibrils are analysed. Tensile strength is also measured. Loose leather is characterized by more highly aligned collagen fibrils. This results in a weaker connection between the layers. There is a looser packing of the fibres in loose leather than in tight leather, with more gaps between fibre bundles, particularly in a region in the lower grain. This region is visible with in‐situ ultrasonic imaging. Loose leather has a higher tensile strength than tight leather. Conclusion While a high degree of collagen fibril alignment is normally associated with strong leather, it has been shown that too much alignment results in loose leather. Understanding the physical basis of looseness is the first step in identifying looseness in hides and learning how to prevent looseness from developing during leather manufacture.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:10:46.985256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7392
  • Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the underutilized
           Prunus mahaleb L. fruit
    • Authors: Federica Blando; Clara Albano, Yazheng Liu, Isabella Nicoletti, Danilo Corradini, Noemi Tommasi, Carmela Gerardi, Giovanni Mita, David D. Kitts
      Abstract: Background The identification of novel plant‐based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). Results We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg−1 fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so‐called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol TE kg−1 FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:15:51.085859-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7381
  • Contributions of long‐term tillage systems on crop production and
           soil properties in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China
    • Authors: Yining Niu; Renzhi Zhang, Zhuzhu Luo, Lingling Li, Liqun Cai, Guang Li, Junhong Xie
      Abstract: Background This study determined the long‐term effect of tillage systems on soil properties and crop yields in a semiarid environment. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were alternately grown in six tillage systems at Dingxi (35°28′N, 104°44′E), northwest China starting in 2001. Results After the first 6 years of experiments, conventional tillage with stubble incorporating (TS) and no‐till with stubble cover (NTS) increased soil organic matter by 9.9% and 13.0%, respectively, compared to the conventional tillage with stubble removed (T); both TS and NTS also increased soil microbial counts, available K and P, and total N. No‐till with stubble removed (NT), NTS, and NTP (no‐till with plastic mulching) had 20.7%, 62.6% and 43.7% greater alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the T treatment. Soil catalase, urease and invertase activities were all greater in the no‐till treatments than in the T treatment. Averaged across 6 years, both wheat and pea achieved highest grain yields under NTS treatment. Conclusion No‐till with stubble retention is the most promising system for improving soil physical, biological and chemical properties, and increasing crop yields, and thus, this system can be adopted in areas with conditions similar to the semiarid northwest China.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:14:08.315259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7382
  • Preparation and evaluation of a sustained‐release buckwheat noodle
    • Abstract: Background Different carbohydrates elicit various effects on the digestibility and the glucose release rate, so it is of interest to develop a sustained‐release noodle based on the combination of different carbohydrates and reveal the sustained‐release mechanism. Results The obtained data suggest that xanthan and konjac gum exhibited excellent and synergistic sustained‐release properties, whereas cornstarch showed the lowest average digestion rate. The sustained release was particularly evident when the noodle consisted of the following components: 50 g of 25 g kg−1 hydrophilic colloid mixture solution composed of a 1:1 mass ratio of xanthan:konjac gum and 100 g of reconstructed flour consisting of 200 g kg−1 buckwheat flour, 400 g kg−1 cornstarch, and 400 g kg−1 plain flour. The morphological structure of noodles revealed that the composite hydrophilic colloids strengthened the interaction between the gluten network and starch granules. This buried starch within the three‐dimensional structure thereby releasing glucose in a slow and sustained way. The most suitable model to describe glucose release from noodles was the Ritger‐Peppas equation, which revealed that matrix erosion contributed to the release mechanism. Conclusion These findings indicate that the controlled use of hydrophilic colloids and starches in manufacturing noodles could modulate the glucose sustained‐release.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:13:00.429226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7383
  • Decontamination of poultry feed from ochratoxin A by UV and sunlight
    • Authors: G. A. Sumbal; Z.H. Shar, S. T. H. Sherazi, Siraj Uddin, S. M. Nizamani, S. A. Mahesar
      Abstract: Background Mycotoxin contaminated feed is very dangerous for the growth and even life of poultry. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet irradiation for decontamination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in spiked and naturally contaminated poultry feed samples. Spiked and naturally contaminated feed samples were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV) at distance of 25 cm over the feed samples. In vitro, the effect of UV intensity (0.1mW cm−2 at 254nm UV‐C) on different types of poultry feeds contaminating with OTA was evaluated. Same samples were also irradiated with sunlight and analyzed for OTA by Indirect Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Results Poultry feed samples containing 500 µg kg−1 were 100 % decontaminated in 180 minutes with UV radiation while ochratoxin A was decreased to 70–95 µg kg−1 using same poultry feed samples after 8 hours sunlight irradiation. Therefore, UV light was found to be more effective. Only one hour UV irradiation was found to be sufficient to bring OTA level to maximum regulatory limit (MRL) suggested for poultry feeds (100 µg kg−1), while eight hours were needed to obtain this level using sunlight radiations. Conclusion Proposed approach is a viable option to reduce level OTA from contaminated poultry feeds.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:10:37.662285-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7384
  • Evaluation of alginate‐whey protein microcapsules for intestinal
           delivery of lipophilic compounds in pigs
    • Authors: Yonggang Zhang; Qi C. Wang, Hai Yu, Julia Zhu, C.F.M. de Lange, Yulong Yin, Qi Wang, Joshua Gong
      Abstract: Background In animal care and management, there is an increasing demand for convenient methods of oral delivery of bioactive compounds to specific segments of animal's gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The objective of this study was to test the suitability of microcapsules made with alginate and whey proteins of two different sizes (250 and 800 µm; containing 71 g kg−1 of carvacrol) for intestinal delivery of carvacrol in pigs. Results Encapsulated carvacrol was completely released from the microcapsules after 5 h incubation in simulated intestinal fluids or 6 h in (ex vivo) ileal digesta, whereas release in simulated gastric fluid was minimal. Tests with growing pigs showed over 95% of unencapsulated carvacrol was absorbed or metabolized in the stomach and the duodenum. Encapsulation effectively minimised carvacrol absorption in the stomach (p
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T03:09:22.173781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7385
  • Ingenane‐type diterpene compounds from Euphorbia kansui modulate
           IFN‐γ production through NF‐kB activation
    • Abstract: Background Euphorbia kansui (E. kansui), a traditional medical herb, has been shown to have anti‐tumor and anti‐viral activities. Previously, we have reported that E. kansui increases interferon‐gamma (IFN‐γ) production in natural killer (NK) cells. However, it is not clear how E. kansui regulates IFN‐γ secretion by NK cells. Results In this study, E. kansui was separated into six individual compounds from the same chloroform fraction so that the activity of each compound could be compared. E. kansui compounds induced IFN‐γ secretion through the phosphorylation of PKD and IKK pathways. Furthermore, E. kansui compounds activated the translocation of p65, a subunit of nuclear factor kappa‐light‐chain‐enhancer of activated B cells (NF‐κB), to the nucleus and induced NF‐κB at the transcriptional level. Conclusion These findings suggest that E. kansui enhances IFN‐γ secretion through the NF‐κB pathway in NK cells.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T04:07:35.093283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7380
  • Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and antihypertensive
           effects of walnut protein and its hydrolysates
    • Authors: Xiuming Wang; Haixia Chen, Shuqin Li, Jiangchao Zhou, Jiangtao Xu
      Abstract: Background Some food proteins hydrolysates are found to possess multiple healthy effects. In this study, walnut protein (WP) was enzymatic hydrolyzed by alcalase and trypsin under optimal conditions. The physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and ACE inhibitory activities of walnut protein (WP), alcalase‐generated walnut protein hydrolysates (AWPH) and trypsin‐generated walnut protein hydrolysates (TWPH) were comparatively studied. Stabilities properties of the walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) and the antihypertensive activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were also investigated. Results The walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) showed higher physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, ACE inhibitory activity and stability against thermal treatment and gastrointestinal digestion than walnut protein (WP). The results of antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) showed that the most potent decrease of AWPH and TWPH in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) occurred at 4 h (−26 mmHg) and 6 h (−30 mmHg) after administration. The study indicated that the walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) could significantly decrease the systolic blood pressure (p 
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T02:56:49.393328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7379
  • Natural antimicrobials and high pressure treatments on the inactivation of
           Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cold‐smoked
    • Abstract: Background High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) combined with reuterin and lactoperoxidase system (LPS) has exerted antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes in cold‐smoked salmon at chilled temperatures. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of HHP combined with reuterin, LPS and lactoferrin (LF) on the survival of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cold‐smoked salmon stored at 4 °C and 10 °C. Results S. Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7 were reduced more than 3 log CFU g−1 by the pressure treatment (450 MPa/5 min). LPS slightly diminished pathogen levels throughout storage, whereas no effect was recorded when reuterin or LF was added. Salmonella population was below the detection limit (
      PubDate: 2015-08-13T02:39:28.8873-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7378
  • Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main
           health‐promoting compounds and antioxidant and
           anti‐inflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
    • Abstract: Background This paper presents the study on changes in the main phytochemical levels and antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity of lettuce caused by different doses and times of application of yeast extracts. Results Elicitation with yeast extract caused an increase in the total phenolic compounds and chlorophylls content, which varied according to the dose and time of spraying, but it did not have a positive impact on the vitamin C, flavonoids and carotenoids content in lettuce. The best effect was achieved by double spraying with 1% yeast extract and by single spraying with 0.1% yeast extract. The increase of phytochemical contents was positively correlated with the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity of the studied lettuce leaves. Chicoric acid seems to be the major contributor to these antioxidant activities. Conclusion Therefore, yeast extract may be used as a natural, environmentally friendly and safe elicitor for improving the health‐promoting qualities of lettuce.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T01:44:15.442555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7377
  • Formation and elimination of pyrraline in the Maillard reaction in a
           saccharide‐lysine model system
    • Authors: Zhili Liang; Lin Li, Quanyi Fu, Xia Zhang, Zhenbo Xu, Bing Li
      Abstract: Background pyrraline, a causative factor for various kinds of diseases, is also used as a food contaminant to evaluate the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diet foods. In this study, model systems consisting of lysine and different saccharides were heated at different times, temperatures and initial molar ratios of saccharide to lysine under microwave heating conditions in order to investigate the formation of pyrraline. Results increasing in initial molar ratios of saccharide to lysine could significantly promote the formation of pyrraline. Specifically, the pyrraline formation rate was influenced by the structure of saccharides involved in the reaction, the formation rate decreased in the following order: lactose > fructose > glucose > sucrose, the highest pyrraline was generated in lactose‐lysine models. The maximum pyrraline was formed at 140 °C. Moreover, saccharides and lysine had different effects on the stability of pyrraline. Among the reactants, lysine was the major factor for the unstability of pyrraline, a dipyrraline and a crosslink by pyrraline reacting with lysine could be formed. Conclusion the pyrraline formation by saccharide‐lysine model system was a dynamic reaction, it consisted of not only the pyrraline formation, but also the pyrraline elimination with some crosslinks formed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-11T00:46:20.335504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7376
  • Relationship between pulp structure breakdown and nutritional value of
           papaya (Carica papaya) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) nectars using
           alternative thermal and non‐thermal processing techniques
    • Authors: Jeffrey G. Swada; Christopher J. Keeley, Mohammad A. Ghane, Nicki J. Engeseth
      Abstract: Background Papaya and strawberry contain a wide array of nutrients that contribute to human health; however, availability of these fruits is limited due to their short shelf lives and seasonal nature. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques including ultra high termperature (UHT, 20‐135 °C, 1–3 s) and irradiation (0–10 kGy) on carotenoid concentration, antioxidant capacity and changes to pulp structure using TEM were determined for papaya and strawberry nectars. Results UHT had moderate effects on antioxidant capacity, but the greatest overall release of carotenoids from the pulp matrix (34.2%, 6.26%, 8.31%; β‐cryptoxanthin, β‐carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Irradiation resulted in the greatest increase in antioxidant capacity (1.92 to 2.43 µmol TE/g (papaya), 19.05 to 28.77 µmol TE/g (strawberry)), with moderate effects on carotenoid concentration. Conclusion This research demonstrates that decreases in nutrient value and antioxidant capacity can result from processing, but that regeneration of these losses can be seen corresponding to the apparent breakdown of pulp structure.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:06:58.738474-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7372
  • Effects of different strains Penicillium nalgiovense in the Nalžovy
           cheese during ripening
    • Abstract: Background The present study examined influence of eight selected strains of Penicillium nalgiovense as secondary culture on the ripening of soft mould cheese. Ion‐exchange chromatography, SDS‐PAGE and sensory analysis were used for comparison of P. nalgiovense with common secondary mould culture (Penicillium camemberti). Results Proteolytic activity was more intensive in the case of the strains of P. nalgiovense in comparison with the control strains of P. camemberti. Some differences in the proportion and amount of free amino acids were observed between the strains of P. nalgiovense during ripening. Lower proteolytic activity of P. nalgiovense was more desirable for sensory properties of cheese, especially in case sample N2. Conclusion This study provides information on usability of selected strains of Penicillium nalgiovense that could support the development of sensory properties of mould‐ripened soft cheese. The cheese with the culture N2 had the best flavour after 35th day of storage. Moreover, this strain showed the lowest bitterness in comparison with the other used P. nalgiovense cultures. The intensity of bitterness of sample N2 was comparable to that of the control sample with P. camemberti.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:06:35.878518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7375
  • Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high
           levels of damaged starch in starch‐gluten systems
    • Abstract: During wheat milling, the starch granules can experience mechanical‐damage, producing damaged‐starch. High levels of damaged‐starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat‐flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the α‐amylase, maltogenic‐amylase and amyloglucosidase on the dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged‐starch. The dough with high level of damaged‐starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged‐starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged‐starch. The rheological behavior of dough with higher damaged‐starch content were related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged‐starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged‐starch content changed positively as a result of enzymatic action, particularly α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. A little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α‐amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged‐starch on product's quality, particularly more research need to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:06:12.889736-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7374
  • In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main
           Lebanese olive germplasm
    • Authors: Ali Chehade; Ahmad El Bittar, Aline Kadri, Elia Choueiri, Rania Nabbout, Hiyam Youssef, Maha Smeha, Ali Awada, Ziad Al Chami, Eustachio Dubla, Antonio Trani, Donato Mondelli, Franco Famiani
      Abstract: Background Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010–2011). Results All of the genotypes had medium‐high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard (IOC‐TS) for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of ∆‐7‐stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. Conclusion The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07T00:05:48.664694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7373
  • Nitrogen losses, uptake and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in soil under
           mineral and organo‐mineral fertilization regimes
    • Authors: Alessandro Florio; Barbara Felici, Melania Migliore, Maria Teresa Dell'Abate, Anna Benedetti
      Abstract: Background A laboratory incubation experiment and greenhouse studies investigated the impact of organo‐mineral fertilizer (OM) as an alternative practice to conventional mineral fertilization (M) on nitrogen (N) uptake and losses in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) as well as on soil microbial biomass and ammonia oxidizers. Results While no significant difference in plant productivity and ammonia emissions between treatments could be detected, an increase in soil total N content and an average 17.9% decrease in N losses from nitrates leached was observed in OM fertilization when compared to M. Microbial community responded differentially to treatments, suggesting that the organic matter fraction of the OM fertilizer might have influenced N immobilization in microbial biomass in the short‐medium period. Furthermore, nitrates content in fertilized soils were significantly related to bacterial but not archaeal amoA gene copies, whereas in non‐fertilized soils a significant relationship between soil nitrates and archaeal but not bacterial amoA copies was found. Conclusion The application of OM fertilizer to soil maintained sufficient productivity, and in turn increased N use efficiency and noticeably reduced N losses. Furthermore, in our experiment ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria drove nitrification when a N source was added to the soil, whereas ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria were responsible for ammonia oxidation in non‐fertilized soil.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:23:52.269138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7364
  • Consumer Peach Preferences and Purchasing Behavior: a mixed methods study
    • Authors: Kathy Kelley; Rachel Primrose, Robert Crassweller, John E Hayes, Richard Marini
      Abstract: Background Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the U.S., are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value‐added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid‐Atlantic consumers’ fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory‐based sensory testing used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid‐Atlantic region. Results Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value‐added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Conclusion Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:23:27.72776-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7365
  • Comparison of bioactivities and phenolic composition of Choerospondias
           axillaris peels and fleshes
    • Authors: Qian Li; Jun Chen, Ti Li, Chengmei Liu, Wei Liu, Jiyan Liu
      Abstract: Background Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects. While the comprehensive information on chemical composition and bioactivity of fruits is still lacking. Therefore, this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris. Results The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than that of flesh. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and Ultra performance liquid chromatography‐electrospray ionization/quadrupole time‐of‐flight‐mass spectrometer (UPLC‐ESI‐QTOF‐MS2) analysis revealed that (+)‐catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging ability on DPPH•. PP exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco‐2 cells in a dose and time‐dependent manners, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49 µg mL−1 to HepG2 cells, 101.90 and 102.61 µg mL−1 to Caco‐2 cells, respectively. Conclusion This is the first detailed report on chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:21:32.703179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7366
  • Effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene,
           ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange‐fleshed sweet
           potato for production of amala in Nigeria
    • Authors: Abbas Bazata Yusuf; Richard Fuchs, Linda Nicolaides
      Abstract: The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β‐carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange‐fleshed sweet potato amala. In fact, the most common sweetpotato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange fleshed sweetpotato to improve provitamin A intake.Orange‐fleshed sweet potato slices were traditional processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold water fermentation and a decrease following the hot water fermentation compared to raw orange‐fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange‐fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:49:43.414185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7367
  • Films based on protein isolated from croaker (Micropogonias Furnieri) and
           palm oil
    • Abstract: Background The microstructure and the physical, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties of films based on different concentrations of protein isolated from croaker waste (CPI) and palm oil (PO) were analyzed. Films were elaborated by a casting technique using 2, 3 and 4 g CPI/100 g of a filmogenic solution and 0, 10 and 20 g of PO/100 g CPI. Result The microstructures of the films' surfaces of the CPI with PO showed no presence of lipid droplets dispersed in the filmogenic matrix, although a rough surface was present. Films with 3% and 4% CPI and 20% PO had the lowest rates of water vapor permeability. When there was an addition of PO to the reduced tensile strength of the films, regardless of the concentration of CPI, this addition reduced the elongation of the films with 3% and 4% CPI; however, it did not influence the films with 2% CPI, which did not differ from the control film (0% OP). Thermal analysis revealed that films with the highest PO percentage had a lower initial weight loss when compared with other films, due to higher hydrophobicity. Conclusion The use of protein isolate obtained from fish residues of low commercial value and palm oil is viable for the production of biodegradable films because the latter constitute good barrier properties and thermal stability.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:46:01.954489-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7368
  • The effects of muffins enriched with sour cherry pomace on acceptability,
           glycemic response, satiety and energy intake: A randomized crossover trial
    • Abstract: Background Sour cherry pomace (CP), a by‐product obtained during fruit processing, was used to replace the wheat flour in a muffin formula. The influence of the most sensory acceptable muffins on glycemic response, appetite sensation, and energy intake during subsequent meal in a randomized crossover trial was studied. Results It is acceptable to incorporate up to 30% CP into muffin formulas. With the CP‐treatment muffins, glucose responses were significantly lower at 30, 45, and 60 min intervals, and the incremental peak glucose was 0.40 mmol L−1 and 0.60 mmol L−1 lower than for the PM. The CP‐enriched muffins showed the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) values lower than that of the PM. 20% CP and 30% CP resulted in improved satiety and induced a lower energy intake at a test meal ingested 3 h later (−13.7%; −15.1%) as compared to PM, respectively. Conclusion CP may be a good functional ingredient for bakery products that assists in managing glucose levels, satiety, and subsequent energy intake in healthy individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:44:46.24435-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7369
  • Anthocyanin‐rich extracts from blackberry, wild blueberry,
           strawberry, and chokeberry: Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on
           oleic acid‐induced hepatic steatosis in vitro
    • Authors: Yong Wang; Liang Zhao, Dan Wang, Yazhen Huo, Baoping Ji
      Abstract: Background Limited information is available regarding the relationship between the chemical structures and inhibitory effects of anthocyanin (ACN) on triglyceride (TG) overaccumulation. Thus, this study investigated the antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of blackberry, wild blueberry, strawberry, and chokeberry ACN‐rich extracts, with different structural characteristics, on oleic acid‐induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Four major ACNs from these berries, with different aglycones, namely, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside (Cy‐3‐glu), delphinidin‐3‐glucoside, pelargonidin‐3‐glucoside, and malvidin‐3‐glucoside, were also investigated. Results The blackberry ACN‐rich extract exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on TG clearance (30.5% ± 3.4%) and reactive oxygen species generation. TG clearance was significantly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.991, p 
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:42:57.62283-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7370
  • Emulsion stability and properties of fish gelatin‐based films as
           affected by palm oil and surfactants
    • Authors: Krisana Nilsuwan; Soottawat Benjakul, Thummanoon Prodpran
      Abstract: Background Gelatin films exhibit the poor water vapour barrier property. The use of palm oil, which is abundant and available in Thailand, can be a means to lower water vapour migration. To disperse oil in film‐forming dispersion (FFD), the surfactant along with appropriate homogenisation is required. The study aimed to investigate the influences of palm oil levels and surfactants in the absence or presence of glycerol on characteristics of FFD and resulting gelatin films. Results Similar oil droplet sizes, both d32 and d43 values, of FFD containing soy lecithin were observed, regardless of palm oil levels used (P > 0.05). FFD having Tween‐20 had larger droplet size as the levels of oil increased (P < 0.05). After 12 h of storage, the slight increases in d32 and d43 were noticeable in all FFD samples. When the films were determined, lower water vapour permeability (WVP) and tensile strength (TS) but higher elongation at break (EAB) were obtained as palm oil levels increased (P < 0.05), regardless of glycerol and surfactant used. Films without glycerol had lower WVP and EAB with higher TS than those containing 300 g kg‐1 glycerol (P < 0.05). No differences in WVP and mechanical properties were found between films containing both surfactants (P > 0.05). Conclusions The incorporation of 500 or 750 g kg−1 palm oil using soy lecithin in the presence of 300 g kg−1 glycerol could enhance homogeneity and stability of oil droplets in FFD and effectively improved water vapour barrier property of gelatin films.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T10:41:00.719167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7371
  • Authenticity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Geographical Origin based on
           Analysis of C, N, O, and S Stable Isotope Ratios: A preliminary case
           report in Korea, China, and Philippine
    • Abstract: Background Although rice (Oryza Sativa L.) is the third largest food crop, relatively fewer studies have been reported to the rice geographical origin based on light element isotope ratios in comparison with other foods like wine, beef, juice, oil, or milk. Therefore, this study tries to discriminate the geographical origin of same rice cultivars grown at different Asian countries using the analysis of C, N, O, and S stable isotope ratios and chemometrics. Results The δ15NAIR, δ18OVSMOW, and δ34SVCDT values of brown rice were more markedly influenced by geographical origin than was the δ13CVPDB value. In particular, the combination of δ18OVSMOW and δ34SVCDT more efficiently discriminated rice geographical origin than did the remaining combinations. Principal component analysis revealed a clear discrimination between different rice geographical origins but not between rice genotypes. In particular, the first components of PCA discriminated rice cultivated in the Philippines from rice cultivated in China and Korea. Conclusion Our findings suggest that analysis of the light element isotope composition combined with chemometrics can be potentially applicable to discriminate rice geographical origin and also may provide a valuable insight into the control of improper or fraudulent labeling regarding the geographical origin of rice worldwide.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T02:32:52.248201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7363
  • Carbon monoxide as stunning/killing method on farmed Atlantic salmon
           (Salmo salar): effects on lipid and cholesterol oxidation
    • Authors: Giulia Secci; Andrea Serra, Anna Concollato, Giuseppe Conte, Marcello Mele, Rolf E Olsen, Giuliana Parisi
      Abstract: Background Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recently utilized as a new stunning/killing procedure for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Its effect on lipid and cholesterol oxidation of farmed A. salmon fillets were evaluated at two times of refrigerated (2.5°C) storage, T0 (64h after death) and T14 (14 days from T0). The use of CO was compared with the commonly utilized percussive method (P). Results Fatty acid profile, primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary oxidation products (TBARS), cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and carotenoids were unaffected by killing method. Despite the low oxidative status of lipid (0.66 and 0.60 mg malondialdehyde kg−1 muscle in P and CO, respectively), cholesterol was found highly oxidized (0.17 and 0.13 mg COPs kg−1). Storage significantly affected oxidative stability of fish muscle by increasing oxidation products. Interestingly, TBARS content doubled while the increase for COPs was not homogeneous: α‐ and β‐epoxycholesterol increased by 25%, whereas triol and 7‐ketocholesterol increased by 48 and 62%, respectively. Conclusion The quality of salmon fillets just after slaughtering and after 14 days of refrigerated storage at 2.5°C did not change, irrespective to the killing method adopted, suggesting that CO method may be applied without any detrimental effect on the quality of fish fillets.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T02:28:53.48558-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7362
  • Pre‐deamidation of soy protein isolate exerts impacts on
           transglutaminase‐induced glucosamine glycation and crosslinking as
           well as properties of the products
    • Abstract: Background Transglutaminase (TGase) induces protein glycation and crosslinking, but results in lower solubility and digestibility due to excessive crosslinking. Deamidation of soy protein isolate (SPI) by HCl converts glutamine residues, and provides less opportunity for the two reactions. Two deamidated SPI products (DSPI1 and DSPI2) were thus glucosamine‐glycated and crosslinked, to clarify the effects of pre‐deamidation on the two reactions and properties of the products. Results DSPI1 and DSPI2 had respective degrees of deamidation of 12.2% and 27.4%. They and SPI were used to generate three glycated and crosslinked products (GC‐DSPI1, GC‐DSPI2 and GC‐SPI) containing glucosamine of 12.0, 4.4, and 19.7 g kg−1 protein, respectively, which were reflected in their infrared spectra at two regions. They three (especially GC‐SPI) had higher water‐binding than SPI (8.2‐12.6 versus 6.2 g g−1 protein). GC‐DSPI1 and GC‐DSPI2 showed better enzymatic digestion than GC‐SPI. Thermogravimetric and circular dichroism analyses verified that GC‐DSPI1 and GC‐DSPI2 had maximum degradation rates at temperatures 12−14 °C lower than GC‐SPI, and possessed more open secondary structure. Conclusion SPI deamidation decreases forthcoming glycation and crosslinking, and give the products higher digestibility, less increased hydration, lower thermal stability, and more open secondary structure. Pre‐deamidation is applicable to control the properties of GC‐proteins.
      PubDate: 2015-08-03T05:02:03.51685-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7361
  • Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review
    • Authors: Adina C. Bosch; Bernadette O'Neill, Gunnar O. Sigge, Sven E. Kerwath, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Abstract: The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmfuleffects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers.
      PubDate: 2015-08-03T05:01:41.292763-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7360
  • An overview of available crop growth and yield models for studies and
           assessments in agriculture
    • Authors: Arianna Di Paola; Riccardo Valentini, Monia Santini
      Abstract: The scientific community offers numerous crop models with different sophistication levels. In such a wide range of crop models, a user should have the possibility to choose the most suitable, in terms of detail, scale and representativeness, to his objectives. However, even when an appropriate choice is made, model limitations should be clarified such that modelling studies are put in the proper perspective and robust applications are achieved. This work is an overview of available models to simulate crop growth and yield. A summary matrix with more than 70 crop models is provided, storing the main model characteristics that can help users to choose the proper tool according to their purposes. Overall, we found that two main aspects of models, despite their importance, are not always clear from the published references, i.e. the versatility of the models, in terms of reliable transferability to different conditions, and the degree of complexity. Hence, models’ developers should be encouraged to pay more attention to clarifying the model limitations and limits of applicability, and users should make an effort in proper model selection, to save time often devoted to iteration of tuning steps to force an inappropriate model to be adapted to their own purpose.
      PubDate: 2015-07-31T01:46:48.244157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7359
  • An Overview On The Current Plant Biostimulant Legislations In Different
           European Member States
    • Authors: Anna La Torre; Valerio Battaglia, Federica Caradonia
      Abstract: Plant biostimulants are borderline substances that play an intermediate role between plant protection products and fertilizers. At present, such substances are regulated by national laws and have different names in the various European member states. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the activity of these substances and on the national laws that regulate them, as they vary considerably from one member state to another. The greatest difficulty in terms of the correct regulatory framework for these substances is related to their heterogeneity. This situation creates uncertainties for operators, control authorities and bodies that certify and control the organic production, and strongly limits the growth of these substances. This problem will be overcome with the amendment of Regulation EC No 2003/2003 which will shortly extend its scope to the category of plant biostimulants included within the fertilising additives.
      PubDate: 2015-07-31T01:25:35.774888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7358
  • Configuration of watermelon fruit quality in response to
           rootstock‐mediated harvest maturity and postharvest storage
    • Authors: Marios C. Kyriacou; Georgios A. Soteriou, Youssef Rouphael, Anastasios S. Siomos, Dimitrios Gerasopoulos
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The configuration of watermelon fruit quality was analysed in a multi‐factorial approach accounting for the effects of grafting, harvest maturity and postharvest storage. Diploid, seeded, hybrid cv. Pegasus, cultivated as scion on interspecific hybrid squash rootstock TZ148 and as non‐grafted control, was stored at 25 °C following sequential harvests from the onset of ripening to over‐maturity. RESULTS Delayed rootstock‐mediated climax in pulp lycopene and chroma was observed, while both were heightened by postharvest storage when harvest preceded full maturity. Pulp firmness was increased by 46.5% on TZ148, while postharvest decrease in firmness was non‐significant. Non‐grafted fruit attained their peak in pulp carbohydrate content earlier during ripening. Monosaccharide content declined and sucrose content increased both preharvest and postharvest; overall sugar content declined by 4.3% during storage. Pulp acidity decreased steadily with ripening but was moderately increased by grafting. Citrulline content increased by 12.5% on TZ148; moreover it climaxed with ripening and declined with storage only in grafted fruit. CONCLUSIONS Grafting enhances pulp texture and bioactive composition. Potential suppression of sugar content as a result of grafting is minimized at full commercial maturity. Brief postharvest ambient storage enhances pulp lycopene and chroma, especially in early‐picked fruit, notwithstanding the depletion of monosaccharides and citrulline and a limited deterioration of texture.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T01:24:53.003526-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7356
  • Characterization of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells
           immobilized in a loofa sponge matrix, and application of this biopolymer
           in the development of functional yogurt
    • Authors: Camila O. Martinez; Suelen P. Ruiz, Vanderson C. Fenelon, Gutierrez R. Morais, Mauro L. Baesso, Graciette Matioli
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells were immobilized on a loofa sponge and used to produce curdlan over five successive cycles. The interaction between microbial cells and the loofa sponge as well as the produced curdlan were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared‐Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR‐ATR) spectrometry. The purity of the curdlan was also evaluated. The storage stability of the immobilized cells was assessed. And the produced curdlan was used in a functional yogurt formulation. RESULTS The average curdlan production by immobilized cells was 17.84 g/L. The presence of the microorganism in the sponge was confirmed and did not cause alterations in the matrix, and the chemical structure of the curdlan was the same of the commercial curdlan structure. The purity of both was similar. The immobilized cells remained active after 300 days of storage at −18 °C. The use of produced curdlan in a functional yogurt resulted in a product with lower syneresis. CONCLUSION A large number of cells physically adhered to the surface of loofa sponge fibers, and its use as an immobilization matrix to produce curdlan was effective. The use of the produced curdlan in yogurt allowed the development of a more stable product.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T01:24:03.174604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7357
  • Monitoring the sensorial quality of the canned white asparagus through
           cluster analysis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND White asparagus is one of the 30 vegetables most consumed in the world. This paper unifies the stages of their sensory quality control. The aims of this work were to describe the sensorial properties of canned white asparagus and their quality control, and to evaluate the applicability of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for classifying and monitoring the sensory quality of manufacturers. RESULTS Sixteen sensory descriptors and their evaluation technique were defined. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was high flavor characteristic, little acidity and bitterness, medium firmness and very light fibrosity, among other characteristics. The dendrogram established groups of manufacturers that had similar scores in the same set of descriptors and each cluster grouped the manufacturers that had a similar quality profile. CONCLUSIONS The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was clearly defined through the intensity evaluation of 16 descriptors and the sensory quality report provided to the manufacturers is in detail and of easy interpretation. The agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) grouped the manufacturers according to the highest quality scores in certain descriptors and is a useful tool because it is very visual.
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T02:03:07.204787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7355
  • Proximate Composition and Nutritional Quality of Deep Sea Growth Sea
           Cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from Different Origins
    • Authors: Yue Gao; Zhibo Li, Yanxia Qi, Zhenyu Guo, Yantong Lin, Wei Li, Yucai Hu, Qiancheng Zhao
      Abstract: Background Deep sea growth sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas) (DSG‐SC) has been considered as the most nutritious and luxurious seafood for Asians. This study investigated comparatively the proximate composition and nutritional quality of collagen, polysaccharides, amino acids (AA) and fatty acids (FA) in sea cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from different origins. Results The contents of protein, ash, carbohydrate, fat, collagen, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) , total amino acid (TAA), essential amino acids (EAA), fucose and uronic acid were different among the origins. Sea cucumber of Dalian origin had lower contents of ash, fat, uronic acid, TAA and EAA, but it showed higher contents of protein, collagen, PUFA, EPA, DHA and fucose compared with the other origins. The DSG‐SC had higher proportion of PUFA and richer polysaccharides than other seafood, and it demonstrated that Glutamate and Glycine were the dominant AA, and Leucine and Threonine were the abundant EAA. Conclusion DSG‐SC were a good source of collagen, polysaccharides (especially, fucose), EAA (especially, Leucine and Threonine) and PUFA (especially, EPA and DHA). Dalian seems to be a promising origin to produce high value sea cucumber with high PUFA, fucose, collagen and protein.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:38:16.922555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7353
  • Preharvest temperature affects chilling injury in dessert bananas during
    • Abstract: Background The effect of temperature on chilling injury during fruit growth was studied in a new banana hybrid CIRAD925 in which seasonal variability in chilling susceptibility was observed when fruits were stored at 13 °C. Results The relationship between the response to chilling (presence/absence) and the temperature during banana fruit growth was examined with a logistic regression model. An explanatory variable XN,P was defined as the mean temperature during a period, expressed in weeks, which began N week(s) after flowering and lasted P week(s). The model was calibrated with 143 bunches with a green life of 30 ± 5 days and validated with 156 bunches grown in six plots under different growing conditions. Chilling injury was best predicted by the mean temperature during the period beginning one week after flowering and lasting five weeks (X1,5). Above a mean temperature of 24.1 °C in the period concerned, banana fruits had a 95% probability of chilling injury at 13 °C. Below a temperature of 23.4 °C, banana fruits only had a 5% probability of chilling injury. Conclusion Our results provide a tool to predict chilling susceptibility in banana fruit whatever the thermal conditions in tropical regions.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:37:52.638993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7354
  • Assessment of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and pesticide residues in domestic
           and imported Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fish in India
    • Authors: Niladri Sekhar Chatterjee; Kaushik Banerjee, Sagar Utture, Narayan Kamble, B. Madhusudana Rao, Satyen Kumar Panda, Suseela Mathew
      Abstract: Background The Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a ubiquitous item of seafood in global markets. However, pesticide residues in aquaculture fish, arising from agricultural runoff and/or direct application during pond preparation, pest control and harvest is a potential food safety concern. This study assessed the level of chemical hazard in domestic and imported pangasius fish in India. Results A total of 119 contaminants including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines (OCs) and other groups of pesticides were screened in 148 samples during 2014–2015 as the first endeavour of its kind in Indian context, employing a validated GC‐MS/MS method. Apart from the low level incidence of OCs, pesticides like quinalphos, malathion, methyl parathion, etc. were detected in 38% of the samples. In comparison to the Indian pangasius, less number of contaminants at low residue level was detected in pangasius fillets imported from Vietnam. Conclusion The human dietary exposures of the residue concentrations detected were less than the maximum permissible intakes and hence appeared safe. However, detection of commonly used pesticides indicated their direct application in aquaculture and contamination from agricultural runoff. This emphasizes the need of continual residue monitoring in aquaculture fish.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25T01:37:28.409663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7352
  • Aroma volatiles obtained at harvest by HS‐SPME/GC‐MS and
           INDEX/MS‐E‐nose fingerprint discriminate climacteric behavior
           in melon fruit
    • Abstract: Background Melon aroma volatiles were extracted at harvest from juice of a climacteric near‐isogenic line (NIL) SC3‐5‐1 with two QTLs introgressed which produced climacteric behavior and its non‐climacteric parental (PS) using two methodologies of analysis: static headspace solid phase micro‐extraction (HS‐SPME) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and inside needle dynamic extraction (INDEX) by MS‐based electronic nose (MS‐E‐nose). Results Of the 137 volatiles compounds identified most of them found at significantly higher concentrations in SC3‐5‐1 than in PS in both seasons. These volatiles were mostly esters, alcohols, sulfur‐derived esters and even some aldehydes and others. The number of variables with high correlation values was reduced by using correlation network analysis. Partial least squares‐discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) achieved the correct classification of PS and SC3‐5‐1. The ions m/z 74, 91, 104, 105, 106 and 108, mainly volatile derivatives precursor phenylalanine, were the most discriminant in SC3‐5‐1 and PS. As many as 104 QTLs were mapped in season 1 and at least 78 QTLs in each season with an effect above the PS mean. Conclusion GC‐MS gave better discrimination than E‐nose. Most of the QTLs that mapped in both seasons enhanced aroma volatiles associated with climacteric behavior.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T03:02:02.922097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7350
  • Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic
    • Authors: Xinyan Zhang; Ningyang Li, Xiaoming Lu, Pengli Liu, Xuguang Qiao
      Abstract: Background Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristic of quality formation of black garlic during processing of varied temperatures. Results In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5‐Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavor of black garlic was various at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. Sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) than those with other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavor of black garlic during processing. Conclusion Temperatures had remarkable impacts on the quality and flavor of black garlic.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T03:01:02.961206-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7351
  • Effect of spinach aqueous extract on wound healing in experimental model
           diabetic rats with streptozotocin
    • Authors: Sara Rahati; Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Abdolali Ebrahimi, Hamideh Pishva
      Abstract: Background Chronic ulcer is still a serious issue for diabetic patients. Diabetes is a prevalent cause of ulcer regeneration delay and (or) disruption. Since Spinacia oleracea extract contains compounds with anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory effects, this may be effective in accelerating the healing process of ulcers; especially, diabetic ulcers. Hence, this study examined the effect of Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract on ulcer regeneration in an experimental‐animal model. Results Macroscopic examination of the wounds of the control group and spinach aqueous extract group between 7 to 21 days compared with diabetic group, significant changes were observed (P˂0.05). On microscopic examination, the epithelial tissue formation, formation of granulation tissue and new blood vessels in the spinach aqueous extract group and non diabetic group than in the diabetic group showed significant improvements (P˂0.05). Also, VEGF were observed significant differences between groups on the Third and seventh day(P˂0.05). Conclusion the Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract can be effective in regenerating diabetic ulcers. It affects the speed and structure of the ulcer.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23T01:27:25.796735-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7349
  • The effect of raw materials on thermo‐oxidative stability and
           glycidyl esters content of palm oil during frying
    • Abstract: Background The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the water content of food incorporated into the frying oil on oil degradation and the content of glycidyl esters. Potato chips, French fries and snacks were fried intermittently in palm oil, which was heated at 180 °C for 8 h per day over five consecutive days. Thermo‐oxidative and physical alterations, changes in fatty acid composition, total polar components, polar fraction composition, and water contentwere analysed. The content of glycidyl esters was measured by liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Results More polar compounds were formed in the oil used for frying chips (252 g kg−1) than for French fries (229 g kg−1) or snacks (196 g kg−1). Reductions in glycidyl esters were found in oils used for frying – greater for frying snacks and French fries (95% and 93%) than for potato chips (87%). The rate of decrease of glycidyl esters was correlated with frying parameters, most strongly with the concentrations of diacylglycerols (r = 0.98) and total polar components (r = −0.98). Conclusion The raw material had a greater influence on polymerisation conversion and glycidyl esters content than on hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the frying oil.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:09:30.268923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7345
  • Azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract stimulates the phosphorylation of
           AMP‐activated protein kinase in HepG2 cells and diabetic rat liver
    • Authors: Shin Sato; Yuuka Mukai, Saori Kataoka, Masaaki Kurasaki
      Abstract: Background The activation of AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a beneficial effect on hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to examine whether an azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract (ABE) stimulates the AMPK or insulin signalling pathways in a liver cell line in response to hyperglycaemia, as well as in a diabetic rat liver. Results HepG2 cells were incubated with 5 or 20 mmol L−1 glucose and then treated with ABE. Streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats received 0, 10, or 40 mg kg−1 of ABE orally. Blood chemistry and phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in the livers were examined. There was a significant increase in the levels of AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in ABE‐treated HepG2 cells. AMPK phosphorylation increased significantly in glucose‐stimulated HepG2 cells that were treated with ABE. In the 40 mg kg−1 ABE‐treated diabetic rats, the glucose levels were lower than in the control. The phosphorylation of AMPK in the ABE‐untreated diabetic rat livers decreased significantly. Conversely, ABE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in the diabetic rat liver. Conclusion ABE treatment upregulated AMPK phosphorylation in HepG2 cells, and upregulated AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in the diabetic rat liver. These data suggest that ABE can potentially improve glucose intolerance.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:06:58.659301-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7346
  • The effect of spray drying on sucrose‐glycine caramel powder
    • Abstract: Background aramel is used as food colorant in many parts of the world. However, there have been no studies investigating the effects of spray drying on sucrose and glycine solutions. In this study, model sucrose and glycine solutions at different pH levels (pH 4, 3, 2 and 1) were treated with different inlet air temperatures (160, 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C) for durations of 50 s in the spray drying process. Results With increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH, the morphology of the caramel agglomerates tended to be more scattered; however, the solubility of the caramel decreased. With increasing inlet temperature, the glycine and sucrose contents decreased but the fructose and glucose contents increased. Conclusion The content of the intermediate products, the browning intensity and the amount of 5‐hydroxymethyl‐2‐furaldehyde (HMF) increased with increasing inlet temperatures and decreasing pH. Therefore, the amount of sucrose degradation and the change in pH can be used to evaluate caramel properties in the spray drying process.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:06:36.146128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7347
  • Casein/natamycin edible films efficiency for controlling mould growth and
           on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties during the ripening of
           Kashar cheese
    • Abstract: Background The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the dipping coating application of coated materials as casein (Cas), casein/natamycin (Cas/N) and natamycin (N) solutions of the chemical (e.g. the rates of pH, dry matter, fat, acidity, salt, protein, water soluble nitrogen, ripening index, 12% trichloroacetic acid‐soluble nitrogen and pH 4.6 soluble‐nitrogen), microbial (e.g. total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria in MRS, lactic acid bacteria in M17, coliform and mould) and organoleptic properties of samples during ripening time (3rd, 30th, 60th and 90th days). Results The difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples were found to be significant (P
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T00:04:40.529761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7348
  • The influence of post mortem conditioning on the tenderness of Egyptian
           goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) breast meat (M. pectoralis major)
    • Authors: Greta Geldenhuys; Nina Muller, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Abstract: Background Egyptian goose breast meat has been found to be very tough compared to the meat of other well‐known fowl species. In attempting to clarify the toughness of the meat, the physical and biochemical changes during post mortem conditioning (14 days) was investigated. Results Although there was an increased cathepsin (B, B & L and H) activity together with a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the myofibrillar fragmentation lengths (32–25 µm) with conditioning, no change (decline) in the shear force values was observed. The higher (P ≤ 0.05) shear force of the male breast portions may be linked to the higher (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations of total and insoluble collagen. Conclusions No significant change (decline) in the shear force values was observed. The conditioning of Egyptian goose meat as a means of improving the overall toughness, can, therefore, not be proposed. The higher shear force and lower sensory tenderness of the male breast portions as previously observed may be linked to higher concentrations of total and insoluble collagen.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17T02:03:09.166233-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7344
  • Conidia survival of Aspergillus section Nigri, Flavi and Circumdati under
    • Abstract: Background Bio‐geographical differences in fungal infection distribution have been observed around the world, confirming that the climatic conditions are decisive in colonization. This research is focused on the impact of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on Aspergillus species, based on the consideration that an increase in UV‐B radiation may have large ecological effects. Methods and Resuts Conidia of six mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species isolated from vineyards located in the Northeast and South of Spain were incubated for 15 days under light/dark cycles and temperatures between 20 to 30 °C per day. Additionally, six hours of exposure to UV‐A or UV‐B radiation per day were included in the light exposure. UV irradiance used were 1.7 ± 0.2 mW·cm−2 of UV‐A (peak 365 nm) and 0.10 ± 0.2 mW·cm−2 of UV‐B (peak 312 nm). The intrinsic decrease of viability of conidia along time was accentuated when they were UV irradiated. UV‐B radiation was more harmful. Conclusions Conidial sensitivity to UV light was marked in A. section Circumdati. Conidia pigmentation could be related to UV sensitivity. Different resistance was observed within species belonging to sections Flavi and Nigri. Impact of Study An increase in UV radiation could lead to a reduction in the Aspergillus spp. inoculum present in field (vineyards, nuts, cereal crops). In addition, it could unbalance the spore species present in field leading to a higher predominance of dark pigmented conidia.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16T01:52:36.774821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7343
  • Effect of supplementation of cows diet with linseed and fish oil and
           different variants of ß–lactoglobulin on fatty acid composition
           and antioxidant capacity of milk
    • Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to determine the influence of polymorphic variants of ß–lactoglobulin in cows supplemented with linseed and fish oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk. From the herd of 320 Polish Holstein Friesian cows three groups of cows were selected according to the variants of β–LG (β–LGAA, β–LGBB, β–LGAB). During the first 7 days (the initial period) all the cows were fed the same TMR diet. From day 8 to 28,150 g fish oil and 250 g linseed (FOL) was added to the TMR diet of each cow. Results The results showed that the diet supplemented with FOL was effective in reducing atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Introducing supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity: higher concentration of C18:2cis‐9trans‐11, C20:5 n‐3, C22:6n‐3, bioactive whey proteins and vitamin soluble in fat has been recorded. The results showed that ß–LGAA was associated with lower levels of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and higher concentration of C22:5n‐6, phospholipids and β‐carotene. ß–LGBB favours a higher content of C18:1trans‐11, C18:2cis‐9trans‐11 and lactoferrin. ß–LGAB was associated with higher concentrations of C20:5n‐3, Lysozyme, α–retinol, α–tocopherol and total antioxidant status. Conclusion Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of milk. The effect of β‐LG phenotype on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk is variable, which could partly be the result of a β‐LG phenotype × diet interaction.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T00:21:27.007224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7341
  • Canopy management in rainfed vineyards (cv. Tempranillo) for optimizing
           water use and enhancing wine quality
    • Abstract: Background Rainfed viticulture, mainly in semiarid environments, is limited by environmental variability, particularly precipitation and its seasonal distribution, and soil water availability, thus ultimately determining the final quality of grape and wine. Studies on the feasibility of practices such as canopy management to adapt plant growth and yield to soil water availability open up possibilities to preserve wine quality and reinforce the characteristics of the terroir. Results Principal components analysis was used to identify the relationships between a large set of variables, including soil, plant, canopy management, and wine characteristics. Canopy management was found to have a predominant influence on plant response to soil water by modifying plant water status, changing the amino acid profile in berries and, concomitantly, altering the sensorial attributes of the wine obtained. Conclusions Grapevine canopy management strategies, such as reiterate shoot trimming to restrict growth during early phases, are effective in adapting plant response to soil water availability. Such strategies affect berry and wine quality, mainly the amino acid profile and sensorial attributes of the wine, without changing yield or grape harvest quality control parameters. Also, in such conditions, nitrogen does not make a significant contribution to grapevine growth or yield or to grape quality.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T00:21:05.807097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7342
  • Effect of Feed Moisture, Extrusion Temperature and Screw Speed on
           Properties of Soy White Flakes Based Aquafeed: A Response Surface Analysis
    • Authors: Sushil K. Singh; Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan
      Abstract: Background Soy white flakes (SWF) is an intermediate product during soy bean processing. It is untoasted inexpensive product and contains around 51% of crude protein. It can be a potential source of protein to replace fish meal for developing aquafeed. Extrusion process is versatile and is used for the development of aquafeed. Our objective was to study the effects of inclusion of SWF (up to 50%) and other extrusion processing parameters such as barrel temperature and screw speed on the properties of aquafeed extrudates using a single‐screw extruder. Results Extrudate properties including pellet durability index, bulk density, water absorption and solubility indices and mass flow rate, were significantly (P
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:56:27.682288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7339
  • Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T‐cannulas to compare short‐term‐effects of 8 different wheat or barley genotypes and period‐to‐period effects on 7 bacterial groups in ileal digesta and feces by qPCR. RESULTS Within genotypes of wheat and barley, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in contents of analyzed NSP, yet cereal types differed (P < 0.001) except for soluble arabinoxylans. Genotypes showed no effect on bacterial gene copy numbers. In ileal digesta of barley‐ compared to wheat‐fed pigs, log10 copy numbers were lower (P < 0.05) for total eubacteria (9.6 to 9.8), Bacteroides‐Prevotella‐Porphyromonas (6.5 to 6.8), Clostridium cluster IV (6.7 to 6.9), and Roseburia spp. (6.6 to 7.2), while higher copy numbers were found for Lactobacillus spp. (9.4 to 8.8). Enterobacteriaceae (7.0 to 7.8) and Bifidobacterium spp. (7.0 to 7.7) were lower (P < 0.001) in feces of barley‐ compared to wheat‐fed pigs. Ileal eubacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and Roseburia spp. linearly increased from period 1 to 8 for both cereals (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Wheat and barley differently influence microbial composition particularly in the small intestine, with barley increasing Lactobacillus spp.:Enterobacteriaceae. ratio, underlining its potential to beneficially manipulate the intestinal microbial ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:56:25.967811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7340
  • Exposure to a novel feedstuff by goat dams during pregnancy and lactation
           versus pregnancy alone does not further improve post weaning acceptance of
           this feedstuff by their kids
    • Authors: Vu Hai Phan; J Thomas Schonewille, Tien Van Dam, Henk Everts, Wouter H Hendriks
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous experiments demonstrated the existence of in utero learning in goats. However, in contrast to other animal species, in goats there is no information about the potential of flavor transmission from maternal feed to goat kids during lactation. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of postnatal exposure of Chromonaela odorata leaf meal (COLM) in relation to the preferences to this feedstuff by goat kids after weaning. It was hypothesized that exposure of COLM to the dams during both pregnancy and lactation versus pregnancy alone, additionally affects post weaning intake of COLM by their offspring. RESULTS Consumption of COLM by the goat kids was similar during the first week post weaning for all treatments. However, after 4 weeks the intake of COLM was at least 1.8 times greater when kids were exposed to COLM during pregnancy whereas it remained virtually unchanged when kids were exposed to COLM during lactation only. The increase in COLM consumption was in line with the observations on latency to eat and meal size. CONCLUSION Transmission of feeding behavior from goat dams to offspring does not occur during lactation. However, the concept of in utero learning in goats was confirmed.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:56:24.222934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7338
  • Use of descriptive analysis and preference mapping for early‐stage
           assessment of new and established apples
    • Authors: Margaret A. Cliff; Kareen Stanich, Ran Lu, Cheryl R. Hampson
      Abstract: Background This research compared four new apple selections with sixteen established apples using descriptive analysis (DA), instrumental analyses and preference mapping, in order to identify suitable selections for commercialization and further research. Results DA revealed that the new apple selections (PARC1, PARC2, PARC3, PARC4) were very similar in texture/mouthfeel (T) but differed in their flavor (F) and appearance (A) characteristics. Preference mapping revealed that consumers’ T preferences were driven primarily by crispness, juiciness and lack of skin toughness, while F preferences were driven by sweetness, lack of tartness and presence of fruity flavor. Consumers’ A preferences were driven by a high percentage of red color and degree of striping. The majority of consumers had similar T (82‐85%) and F (88‐92%) preferences for the early‐ and mid/late‐harvest apples. In contrast, consumers’ A preferences were differentiated into three subgroups (60%, 24%, 16%) for the early‐harvest apples, but not for the mid/late‐harvest apples. The new apple selections were among those most liked for T, F and A. Conclusion This early‐stage consumer research confirmed that the new apples were comparable, if not superior, to the established apples. As such, it provided the necessary feedback to industry to proceed with commercialization and optimization of cultural and storage practices.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:55:28.715175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7334
  • An integrated molecular docking and rescoring method for predicting the
           sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to organophosphorus
    • Abstract: Background The enzymatic chemistry method is currently the most widely used method for the rapid detection of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but the used enzymes such as cholinesterases lack sufficient sensitivity to detect low concentration of OP pesticides present in given samples. Serine hydrolase is considered as an ideal enzyme source to seek high‐sensitivity enzymes used for OP pesticide detection. However, it is difficult to systematically evaluate sensitivities of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides by in vitro experiments. This study aimed to establish an in silico method to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides. Results A serine hydrolase database containing 219 representative serine hydrolases was constructed. Based on this database, an integrated molecular docking and rescoring method was established, in which AutoDock Vina program was used to produce the binding poses of OP pesticides to various serine hydrolases and the ID‐Score method developed recently by us was adopted as a rescoring method to predict their binding affinities. In the retrospective case studies, this method showed a good performance on predicting the sensitivities of known serine hydrolases to the two OP pesticides: paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The sensitivity spectrum of the 219 collected serine hydrolases to 37 commonly used OP pesticides was finally obtained by using this method. Conclusion Overall, this study presented a promising in silico tool and use it to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides, which will help seek high‐sensitivity serine hydrolases for OP pesticide detection.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:55:26.728024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7335
  • Characteristics and gel properties of gelatin from goat skin as affected
           by pretreatments using sodium sulfate and hydrogen peroxide
    • Abstract: Background Goat skin can be used as an alternative raw material for gelatin production, in which pretreatment conditions can determine the characteristics or properties of resulting gelatin. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment using sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on properties of goat skin gelatin. Results Pretreatment of skin using Na2SO4 (0–1 mol L−1) increased the yield of gelatin in a concentration dependent manner. When skins with prior Na2SO4 treatment were bleached using H2O2 (0–2 mol L−1), the resulting gelatin showed the higher yield and gel strength than those without prior Na2SO4 treatment. All gelatins had α‐chain as major components, followed by β‐chain. The degradation induced by H2O2 was lower in gelatin with prior Na2SO4 treatment. L*‐values increased with increasing H2O2 concentrations (p < 0.05) due to the bleaching effect of H2O2. With Na2SO4 and H2O2 pretreatments, gelatin had finer and more ordered microstructure. Gelatin had the imino acid content of 217 residues/1000 residues with gelling and melting temperature of 22.49 and 32.28 °C, respectively. Conclusion The optimal pretreatment condition for gelatin extraction from goat skin included soaking the skin in 0.75 mol L−1 NaOH, followed by treatment using 0.75 mol L−1 Na2SO4 and subsequent bleaching with 2 mol L−1 H2O2. This resulted in gelatin with superior quality to untreated counterpart.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:55:24.767465-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7336
  • Utilization of magnetically responsive cereal by‐product for organic
           dyes removal
    • Authors: Eva Baldikova; Dorothea Politi, Zdenka Maderova, Kristyna Pospiskova, Dimitris Sidiras, Mirka Safarikova, Ivo Safarik
      Abstract: Background Barley straw, an agricultural by‐product, can also serve as a low‐cost and relatively efficient adsorbent of various harmful compounds. In this case, adsorption of four water‐soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes (specifically Bismarck brown Y‐ representing azo group; methylene blue (quinone‐imine group); safranin O (safranin group); and crystal violet from triphenylmethane group) on native and citric acid‐NaOH modified barley straw, both in magnetic and nonmagnetic versions, was studied. Results The adsorption was characterized using three adsorption models, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips ones. To compare the maximum adsorption capacities (qmax), the Langmuir model was employed. The qmax values reached 86.5 ‐ 124.3 mg of dye per g of native nonmagnetic straw and 410.8 – 520.3 mg of dye per g of magnetic chemically modified straw. Performed characterization studies suggested that the substantial increase in qmax values after chemical modification could be caused by rougher surface of adsorbent (SEM) and by presence of higher amount of carboxyl groups (FTIR). The adsorption processes followed the pseudo‐second‐order kinetic model and the thermodynamic studies indicated spontaneous and endothermic adsorption. Conclusion The chemical modification of barley straw led to the significant increase in maximum adsorption capacities for all tested dyes, while magnetic modification substantially facilitated the manipulation with adsorbent.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:54:52.157379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7337
  • Is there willingness to buy and pay a surcharge for agro‐ecological
           products? ‐ Case study of the production of vegetables in
           Xochimilco, Mexico
    • Abstract: Background Around the world there are approximately 2.5 trillion of small‐scale farmers, most of them subsistence farmers. In the decade of the 70s the green revolution unfolded, which brought benefits to some producers; but it also brought costs, especially for small producers. Agro‐ecology is presented as an alternative, but it is necessary to examine whether if it is accepted in the markets, especially in developing countries. Results This study proves that there is a potential market, in this case in Mexico, but that it will depend on some socio‐economic variables such as age, income, gender, product information, among others. Similarly, it is evident that buyers are willing to make an additional payment as compensation. Conclusion Agro‐ecology should not be considered as subsistence farming incompatible with the markets. It offers good prospects for increasing production and improving the sustainability of agriculture in marginal areas with few economic resources.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T07:59:57.353369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7333
  • Factors affecting the content of the ursolic and oleanolic acid in apple
           peel: influence of cultivars, sun‐exposure, storage conditions,
           bruising and Penicillium expansum infection
    • Authors: Yanrong Lv; Ibrahim I. Tahir, Marie E. Olsson
      Abstract: Background As health‐promoting and a part of natural plant protection, the content of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) might be interesting to increase by biofortification in breeding programmes, though the extent of genetic and environmental factors’ influence on the content need to be clarified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cultivar, sun‐exposure, storage, bruising and fungal infection on the OA and UA content in apple peel. Results Three apple cultivars with different ripening times: ‘Discovery’ (early), ‘Aroma’ (middle), and ‘Gloster’ (late) were investigated. The content of OA and UA was mainly influenced by cultivar and sun‐exposed side, and to a minor extent by storage and seasonal year. ‘Gloster’ had highest OA and UA content of the investigated cultivars. OA and UA content in the shaded side were higher than that in the sun‐exposed side in all three cultivars. Inoculation with Penicillium expansum did not have any consistent effect on OA or UA, except in a few cases where the levels decreased. Conclusions OA and UA content can be increased by choice of cultivars in breeding processes and to some extent by cultural practice.
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T05:49:23.000852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7332
  • Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei 01 fermented milk beverage on
           protection of intestinal epithelial cell in vitro
    • Abstract: Background Intestinal protection is an important function of probiotic. However, there is no evidence shown that potential probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei 01 is able to improve intestinal functions. In the present study, the protective effect and the underlying mechanisms of L. paracasei 01 on intestinal epithelial cell in vitro was investigated. Results The fermented milk beverage containing L. paracasei 01 at 3x108 CFU mL−1 was made from skim milk powder, glucose, sucrose, isomalto‐oligosaccharide. Results indicated that L. paracasei 01 fermented milk beverage could reduce macromolecule permeability caused by dextran sodium sulfate induced damage. Besides, 50 mL L−1 fermented milk beverage with live L. paracasei 01 in cell medium could increase intestinal epithelial cell Caco‐2 growth, decrease lipopolysaccharide / tumor necrosis factor‐α / interferon‐γ induced Caco‐2 cell death and chemokine CCL‐20 production. The protecting mechanisms involve promoting intestinal epithelial cell growth and intestinal epithelial integrity to strengthen the intestinal barrier against chemical and inflammation stimuli induced damage. Inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine such as IFN‐γ, TNF‐α and CCL‐20 also contributes to the beneficial effects of this product on epithelial function. Conclusions The L. paracasei 01 fermented milk beverage may be a new functional food with intestinal protecting effects in vitro.
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T05:48:35.154772-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7331
  • Effects of poplar buds as an alternative to propolis on postharvest
           diseases control of strawberry fruits
    • Authors: Shuzhen Yang; Yefeng Zhou, Junli Ye, Gang Fan, Litao Peng, Siyi Pan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, two main postharvest pathogens, cause great loss of strawberry fruits. Here, the effects of poplar buds extracts, a main plant source for Chinese propolis, on disease control were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS HPLC profile of poplar buds ethanol extract(PBEE) was almost identical to that of propolis ethanol extract(PEE), with the active flavonoids identified as pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. PBEE exhibited similar inhibitory activities on spore germination of both pathogens compared with PEE, and PBEE also strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. In vivo, PBEE could effectively reduce decay of strawberry fruits stored at 13 °C. Although the weight loss was slightly increased, the contents of total soluble solid, titritable acid,vitamin C and total anthocynins were significantly higher in PBEE treated fruits than those of the control. CONCLUSION PBEE had the similar antifungal activity with propolis and had great potential as propolis alternative to control strawberry fruits diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T05:05:12.938007-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7329
  • The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a
           cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in
           marine food model systems
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in hemoglobin fortified washed cod mince and iron containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. Progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and TBA‐reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as redness loss and protein carbonyls in the cod system. RESULTS The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and high ORAC‐value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. CONCLUSION The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro‐oxidants present.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T00:38:48.888112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7328
  • Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC‐DAD, HPLC‐DAD‐MS/MSn and NMR analysis. RESULTS TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC‐DAD‐MS/MSn achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic‐rich and triterpene‐rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic‐rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene‐rich propolis were weakly active. CONCLUSION High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T00:36:50.408887-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7330
  • Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of natural phenolic extract from
           defatted soybean flour byproduct for stone fruit postharvest application
    • Abstract: Background Fresh fruit is highly perishable during storage and transport, so there has been growing interest in finding safe and natural antimicrobial compounds as control tool. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites naturally present in vegetable material and have been associated with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and potential antimicrobial effect of phenolic extract obtained from defatted soybean flour against selected pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms responsible of fruit decay. Results Analysis of phenolic composition by HPLC‐MS showed the presence of a wide range of compounds, with isoflavones and phenolic acids the main polyphenols identified. Furthermore, the phenolic extract had important antioxidant activity by two different assays. Related to antimicrobial activity, in vitro experiments demonstrated that phenolic extract displayed a high activity against the main foodborne pathogens. While, a moderate inhibition was found against five yeast spoilage and Monilia laxa and scarce effect for Penicillium glabrum, Cladosporium uredinicola and Botrytis cinerea. Interestingly these compounds considerably inhibited the mycelial growth of Monilia laxa, in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed that defatted soybean flour is an important source of phenolic compounds with remarkable antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, suggesting the possibility of using them as natural additives in postharvest treatments to extend the shelf life of fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T02:28:18.892284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7327
  • Preservation of Different Fig Cultivars (Ficus carica L.) under Modified
           Atmosphere Packaging during Cold Storage
    • Abstract: Background The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the stability of ‘Cuello Dama Blanco’ (CDB), ‘Cuello Dama Negro’ (CDN) and ‘San Antonio’ (SA) figs during postharvest cold storage was evaluated by using three different films with a diverse number of microperforations (ø = 100 µm): M10 (16 holes), M30 (five holes) and M50 (three holes). A macroperforated film was used as control (five holes, ø = 9 mm). Gas composition, weight loss, percentage disorder, microbial counts and physicochemical parameters were monitored during cold storage for 21 days. Furthermore, sensory quality was also evaluated. Results MAP has allowed the extension of cold storage and distribution time for the three different cultivars of figs, minimising weight loss and delaying pathological disorders related to endosepsis, smut, and souring. Of the three cultivars, the M50 batch (one hole per 50 mm) showed the best efficiency in terms of physicochemical quality and delay of postharvest decay, although the M30 batch was also found to be suitable for delaying the postharvest decay, especially for the CDB cultivar. Conclusion MAP is a useful tool to extend the storability with optimal quality properties for CDN and SA during 21 days of cold storage and 14–17 days of cold storage for CDB.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T04:02:16.17941-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7326
  • Espresso coffee residues as a nitrogen amendment for small scale vegetable
    • Abstract: Background Espresso coffee grounds IS a residue which is produced daily in considerable amounts, and is often pointed out as potentially interesting for plant nutrition. Two experiments (incubations and field experiments) were carried out to evaluate the potential nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) supply for carrot (Daucus carota L.), spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) nutrition. Results Immobilization of nitrogen and phosphorus was detected in all the incubations and, in the field experiments, germination and yield growth were decreased by the presence of espresso coffee grounds, in general for all the species studied. Conclusion The study showed an inhibition of N and P mineralization and a reduction of plant germination and growth. Further research is required to determine whether this is related to the immobilizing capacity of the residue or possibly due to the presence of caffeine.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T04:01:53.951211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7325
  • Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and anticancer activities of
           chestnut inner shell extracts prepared with various solvents
    • Abstract: Background The chestnut inner shell (CIS) has long been used as a medicinal herb for strengthening the antioxidant in cosmetic industry. However, little is known about the antioxidant and anticancer effects of the CIS. Results The antioxidant and anticancer effects of CIS extracts (CISEs) were investigated by the use of various methods and cancer cell lines, respectively. The total polyphenol content of CISEs using ethanol, methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate and water were 53.30, 43.98, 32.16, 26.79 and 11.53 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1, respectively. The CISEs using ethanol and methanol exhibited high antioxidant activities in the 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, β‐carotene bleaching and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays; the effects were equivalent to them of butylated hydroxyltoluene. All CISEs at 2.5 mg mL−1 were shown to have a cytotoxic effect over 50%, and the CISE using ethyl acetate at 0.6 mg mL−1 was proved to have 90% cytotoxic effect against the tested cancer cells. Conclusion The ethanol and methanol CISEs had potent antioxidant effects, and the ethyl acetate CISE had the highest cytotoxicity. These results suggest that CISEs could be used as functional ingredients for antioxidant and anticancer effects in foods as extraction solvents.
      PubDate: 2015-06-27T03:47:27.511567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7324
  • Accumulation of γ‐aminobutyric acid in soybean by hypoxia
           germination and freeze–thawing incubation
    • Authors: Runqiang Yang; Li Feng, Shufang Wang, Nanjing Yu, Zhenxin Gu
      Abstract: Background Γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) can be synthesized by GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway in plant under hypoxia stress and lower temperature. The hypoxia germination–freeze thawing–incubation was used as a new technique for accumulating more GABA in soybean. Results Results showed that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content increased during germination within 24 h under hypoxia. However, the contents of dry matters and protein decreased. When the hypoxia‐treated sprouts were frozen at −18 °C for 12 h and thawed at 25 °C for 6 h, GABA content increased drastically to 7.21‐fold of the non‐frozen sprouts. Subsequently, the freeze thawing sprouts were ground into homogenates and incubated. GABA content was 14.20 ‐fold of the only‐soaked seeds when homogenates was incubated at 45 °C for 80 min within 400 µmol L−1 pyridoxine (VB6) (pH 6.5). Conclusion The hypoxia germination–freeze thawing–incubation was an effective method for accumulating GABA in soybean. During incubation, DAO was more important for GABA formation in homogenate of germinated soybean compared with GAD.
      PubDate: 2015-06-27T03:47:06.482418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7323
  • Monitoring the freshness of fish: development of a qPCR method applied to
           MAP chilled whiting
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Monitoring of early stages of freshness decay is a major issue for the fishery industry to guarantee the best quality for this highly perishable food matrix. Numerous techniques have been developed, but most of them have the disadvantage of being reliable only either in the last stages of fish freshness or for the analysis of whole fish. This study describes the development of a qPCR method targeting the torA gene harboured by fish spoilage microorganisms. torA encodes an enzyme that leads to the production of trimethylamine responsible for the characteristic spoiled‐fish odour. RESULTS A degenerate primer pair was designed. It amplified torA gene of both Vibrio and Photobacterium with good efficiencies on 7‐log DNA dilutions. The primer pair was used during a shelf‐life monitoring study achieved on modified atmosphere packed, chilled, whiting (Merlangius merlangus) fillets. The qPCR approach allows detecting an increase of torA copies throughout the storage of fillets in correlation with the evolution of both total volatile basic nitrogen (−0.86) and trimethylamine concentrations (−0.81), known as spoilage markers. CONCLUSION This study described a very promising, sensitive, reliable, time‐effective, technique in the field of freshness characterisation of processed fish.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26T01:23:56.263062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7322
  • Effect of egg freshness on texture and
           baking characteristics of batter systems
           formulated using egg, flour and sugar
    • Authors: Liting Xing; Fuge Niu, Yujie Su, Yanjun Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of egg freshness to baking properties and final qualities in batter systems. Batters were made with different freshness of eggs, and the properties of batter systems were studied through rheological analysis, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), batter density and expansion rate during baking and cooling process. Moreover, the qualities of final baked systems were investigated, including specific volume and texture profile analysis (TPA). RESULTS The flow behaviour of batters showed that the consistency index (K) decreased as HU decreased, while the flow index (n) increased. Both of the storage modulus (G′) and the loss modulus (G″) determined by mechanical spectra at 20 °C decreased with decreasing HU. RVA and DSC determinations found that lower HU samples had a lower viscosity in baking process and a shorter time for starch gelatinisation and egg protein denaturation. Observation of the batter density revealed an increase change, which was reflected by the decrease of specific volumes of final model. TPA showed significant differences in hardness and chewiness, but no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness were found. CONCLUSIONS The egg freshness affected the properties of batter systems.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:48:40.320679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7316
  • Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties,
           bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders
    • Authors: Xu Si; Qinqin Chen, Jinfeng Bi, Xinye Wu, Jianyong Yi, Linyan Zhou, Zhaolu Li
      Abstract: Background Dehydration has been considered as one of the traditional but most effective techniques for perishable fruits. Raspberry powders obtained after dehydration can be added as ingredients into food formulations, like bakery and dairy products. Raspberry powders obtained by hot air drying (HAD), infrared radiation drying (IRD), hot air and explosion puffing drying (HA‐EPD), infrared radiation and microwave vacuum drying (IR‐MVD) and freeze drying (FD) were compared from physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Results Drying techniques affected the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders greatly. Freeze dried raspberry powders showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values in terms of water solubility (45.26%), soluble solid (63.46%), hygroscopicity (18.06%), color parameters and anthocyanin retention (60.70%) than other drying methods. However, thermal drying techniques, especially combined drying methods were superior to FD in the final total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The combined drying methods, especially IR‐MVD showed the highest total polyphenol content (123.22 g GAE kg−1 dw) and total flavonoid content (0.30 g CAE kg−1 dw). Additionally, IR‐MVD performed better in antioxidant activity retention. Conclusion Overall, combined drying methods, especially IR‐MVD was noted to present better quality in raspberry powders among the thermal drying techniques. IR‐MVD techniques could be recommended in drying industry in terms of its advantages in the features of timesaving and nutrient retention.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:48:14.296416-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7317
  • Intracellular synthesis of glutamic acid in Bacillus methylotrophicus
           SK19.001, a glutamate‐independent poly (γ‐glutamic
           acid)‐producing strain
    • Authors: Yingyun Peng; Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu, Ming Miao, Bo Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001 is a glutamate‐independent strain that produces poly (γ‐glutamic acid) (γ‐PGA; a polymer of D‐ and L‐glutamic acids that possesses applications in food, the environment, agriculture, etc.). This study was undertaken to explore the synthetic pathway of intracellular L‐ and D‐glutamic acid in SK19.001 by investigation of the effects of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and different amino acids as metabolic precursors on the production of γ‐PGA and analysing the activities of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of L‐ and D‐glutamate. RESULTS Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could participate in the synthesis of γ‐PGA via independent pathways in SK19.001. L‐aspartate aminotransferase, L‐glutaminase and L‐glutamate synthase were the enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate. Glutamate racemase was responsible for the formation of D‐glutamate for the synthesis of γ‐PGA, and the synthetase had stereoselectivity for glutamate substrate. CONCLUSIONS The enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate were investigated for the first time in the glutamate‐independent γ‐PGA‐producing strain, and multiple enzymatic sources of L‐glutamate were verified in SK19.001, which will benefit efforts to improve production of γ‐PGA with metabolic engineering strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:47:51.771558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7318
  • Potential use of microwave treatment on fresh‐cut carrots: physical,
           chemical and microbiological aspects
    • Abstract: Background The effect of microwave treatments (900 W and 750 W for 45 s and 60 s) on the microbial, physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh‐cut carrot slices and the contents of several bioactive compounds was studied. Carrot samples were stored for 7 days at 5 °C. Results The microwaving of fresh‐cut carrots reduced the initial respiration rate (8.6 CO2 mL kg−1 h−1) by 55‐74% compared to untreated samples, although the rates then increased during storage. The initial pH (6.7), titratable acidity (0.036%), soluble solids content (8.2 °Brix) and shelf‐life of the samples did not differ greatly from those of the untreated samples. Microwaving prevented the incipient whitening and surface dryness during the storage. In general, no significant changes in the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity (5.5 µmol t‐cinnamic acid kg−1 h−1), total phenolics content (TP, 81.3 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg−1 fw) or total antioxidant capacity (TAC, 74.2 Trolox equivalent kg−1 fw) were observed on the processing day or over storage. However, the mildest treatment (750 W for 45 s) caused TP and TAC enhancements of 118 % and 394 %, respectively, after 7 days of shelf‐life. Microwave treatments reduced the initial microbial loads of the samples by up to 1.8‐log units, although their microbial growth was greater than that of the untreated samples throughout storage. Conclusion Mild microwave treatments, such as 750 W/45 s and 750 W/60 s, are a good sustainable alternative to the use of NaOCl; however, combining this other sanitising techniques is needed to control microbial growth throughout the shelf‐life of fresh‐cut carrot slices.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:47:18.80267-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7319
  • Phospholipids in Foods: Prooxidants or Antioxidants?
    • Authors: Leqi Cui; Eric A. Decker
      Abstract: Lipid oxidation is one of the major causes of quality deterioration in natural and processed foods and thus a large economic concern in the food industry. Phospholipids, especially lecithins, are already widely used as a natural emulsifier and have been gaining increasing interest as natural antioxidant to control lipid oxidation. This review summarizes the fatty acid composition and content of phospholipids naturally occurring in several foods. The role of phospholipids as a substrate for lipid oxidation is discussed with a focus on meats and dairy products. Prooxidant and antioxidant mechanisms of phospholipids are also discussed to get a better understanding of the possible opportunities for using phospholipids as food antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:46:57.384833-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7320
  • Reactivity change of IgE to buckwheat protein treated with high pressure
           treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis
    • Authors: Chaeyoon Lee; Sooyeon In, Youngshin Han, Sangsuk Oh
      Abstract: Background Buckwheat is a popular food material for eastern Asian countries that can cause allergenic response. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrolysis with papain and high pressure (HP) treatment of buckwheat protein (BWP) on reactivity of IgE and its secondary structure. Results Reactivity of IgE was examined using ELISA with serum samples from sixteen patients allergic to buckwheat. Reactivity of IgE to hydrolysate of BWP with papain showed a maximum decrease of 79.8%. After HP treatment at 600 MPa for 1 min, reactivity of IgE to BWP decreased up to 55.1%. When extracted, BWP was hydrolyzed with papain overnight following HP treatment at 600 MPa. Reactivity of IgE decreased significantly, up to 87.1%. Significant changes in secondary structure of BWP were observed in circular dichroism (CD) analysis after hydrolysis with papain following HP treatment. Conclusion Reduction of the reactivity of IgE showed a correlation with changes in the secondary structure of BWP, which may cause changes in conformational epitopes. This suggests the possibility of decreasing reactivity of IgE to BWP using combined physical and enzymatic treatments.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T02:46:35.84748-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7321
  • Effect of the mechanical harvest of drupes on the quality characteristics
           of green fermented table olives
    • Authors: Alessandra Martorana; Antonio Alfonzo, Luca Settanni, Onofrio Corona, Francesco La Croce, Tiziano Caruso, Giancarlo Moschetti, Nicola Francesca
      Abstract: Background Due to the damages caused by mechanical harvest, the drupes for table olive production are traditionally hand harvested. So far, no data are available on the microbiological and chemical features during the fermentation of drupes mechanically harvested. Results The drupes mechanically harvested and inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 were characterized by the lowest concentrations of potential spoilage microorganisms. On the other hand, the drupes mechanically harvested and subjected to the spontaneous fermentation showed the highest concentration of Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads during tranformation. The lowest decrease of pH (4.20) was registered for the trials inoculated with the starter culture. Differences in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were estimated among trials. The multivariate analysis showed that the olives processed from the drupes mechanically harvested and inoculated with starter were closely related to the control productions (drupes manually harvested) in terms of microbiological and pH values. The sensory analysis evidenced come negative evaluations only for the uninoculated trials. Conclusion The drupes mechanically harvested and subjected to a driven fermentation with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 determined the production of table olives with appreciable organoleptic features. Thus, the mechanical harvest performed by a trunk shaker equipped with an inversa umbrella and the addition of starter lactic acid bacteria represent a valuable alternative to the manual harvest for table olive production at industrial level.
      PubDate: 2015-06-18T04:25:04.370246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7311
  • Different actions of salt and pyrophosphate on protein extraction from
           myofibrils reveal the mechanism controlling myosin dissociation
    • Authors: Qingwu W. Shen; Darl R. Swartz, Zhenyu Wang, Yue Liu, Yuan Gao, Dequan Zhang
      Abstract: Background Myosin is the major functional protein in muscle foods for water retention, protein binding/gelation and fat holding/emulsification. To maximize its functionality, myosin needs to be released from thick filaments. Understanding of the mechanism controlling myosin extraction will help improve quality traits of meat products. Results The data obtained show that actomyosin binding is the rate‐limiting constraint for myosin release in rigor condition. MgPPi increased myosin extraction by weakening actomyosin interaction and maximized myosin extraction at 0.4 M NaCl, which was not attained at 1.0 M NaCl in the absence of PPi. Interaction between myosin rod domains is another critical constraint for myosin extraction, which is, rather than PPi, salt dependent. Further, our data suggest that MyBP‐C (myosin binding protein C) and M‐line might not be of significance in the process of NaCl induced myosin extraction though further study was needed. Conclusion Our study provides new insight into the mechanism that control myosin extraction from intact sarcomere, which could be applied to maximize myosin function and to improve meat quality in practice.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:59:23.014388-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7314
  • Effects of processing on the polyphenol and phenolic acid content and
           antioxidant capacity of semi‐dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon
           esculentum M.)
    • Authors: Valeria Rizzo; Mike N. Clifford, Jonathan E. Brown, Laura Siracusa, Giuseppe Muratore
      Abstract: Background This study was performed to test the effects of pre‐treating cherry tomatoes with a solution containing citric acid: NaCl: CaCl2(10:10:24 g/L), followed by one of three different drying regimes (40, 60, 80 °C) on the antioxidant capacity of their aqueous extracts and the extent of phenolic compound degradation. Results Chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and naringenin were all detected in the aqueous extracts. In fresh cherry tomatoes the predominant phenolic compound was rutin, followed by naringenin, which corresponded to 79 % and 8 % of the total phenolic compounds present, respectively. Pre‐treatment was protective towards naringenin and had a modest protective effect on rutin and ferulic acid (0.1 > p > 0.05). Total phenolic content was similar in all samples, but there was a trend for the level of free polyphenols to be lower in treated tomatoes. The destruction of naringenin was confirmed by LC‐MS data. Conclusions A significant effect of temperature on the antioxidant capacity was observed. After this treatment the industry might introduce some advances in the processing of tomatoes, preserving the main nutritive characteristics and saving the products as semi‐dried.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:59:01.128435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7315
  • Quality and PR gene expression of table grapes treated with ozone and
           sulfur dioxide to control fungal decay
    • Abstract: Background Gaseous fumigants are commonly employed to control fungal decay of cold‐stored grapes. So far it is not clear if these fumigants, beside the direct interaction against fungal structures, induce transcriptional responses of defensive markers. In order to contribute to understand the mechanisms by which these fumigants exert their effect, it was studied the influence of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on the decay caused by Botrytis cinerea, and the quality and expression of the defense related genes chitinase, β‐1,3‐glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase (PAL) in the table grape cultivars ‘Redglobe’ and ‘Sugraone’. Results The application of SO2 or O3 delayed both table grape cultivars decay caused by B. cinerea compared with the inoculated control. O3 treatments altered weight loss, firmness and shatter in both cultivars. Significant up‐regulation of chitinase and β‐1,3‐glucanase were observed in SO2‐treated ‘Redglobe’ berries stored at 2 °C. O3 treatment transiently increased the expression of chitinase and PAL in ‘Redglobe’ and ‘Sugraone’ berries, respectively. Conclusion Ozone and sulfur dioxide treatments can influence the expression patterns of PAL, chitinase and β‐1,3‐glucanase to different extents in different grape cultivars and under different exposure conditions. The upregulation of these genes may be involved in the mechanism by which these fumigants inhibit the decay caused by pathogenic fungi.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:45:21.664412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7312
  • Effect of the use of anti‐hail nets on codling moth (Cydia
           pomonella) and organoleptic quality of apple (cv. Braeburn) grown in Alto
           Adige Region (Northern Italy)
    • Authors: Irene Baiamonte; Antonio Raffo, Nicoletta Nardo, Elisabetta Moneta, Marina Peparaio, Antonio D'Aloise, Markus Kelderer, Claudio Casera, Flavio Paoletti
      Abstract: Background The anti‐hail nets are widely used to protect apple fruit against hailstorms and hail damage. They can have also beneficial effects against pests in apple orchard, in particular codling moth (Cydia pomonella). However, covering the trees with the anti‐hail nets can modify the orchard microclimate and reduce the interception of light, thus potentially causing negative consequences on the organoleptic quality of apple fruits. Results A consistent reduction of the percentage of the apple fruits infested by codling moth was registered due to the use of the anti‐hail nets during two consecutive harvest years. Their use did not affect fruit maturity, but reduced the skin color, sugar content, pulp total phenol content, volatile compound composition and sensory characteristics. However, the results were inconsistent over the years apart for: total phenols, formation of two volatile compounds (butyl and hexenyl acetate, the first one being one of the main odorants in most apple cultivars), sensory attributes of flavor of lemon and juiciness. For these parameters, the fruits from the plot where the trees were not covered showed higher values than those from the plots where the anti‐hail nets were used. Conclusions The use of anti‐hail nets resulted effective in preventing the attack of codling moth to apple fruits, suggesting their use in organic management where the conventional insecticides are prohibited. In the conditions tested, the anti‐hail nets showed a negative effect on some of the quality characteristics measured on apple fruits, that could influence the consumers acceptability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T23:43:56.877145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7313
  • Effects of nitric oxide on mitochondrial oxidative defence in postharvest
           peach fruits
    • Authors: Guangqin Jing; Jie Zhou, Shuhua Zhu
      Abstract: Background It has been confirmed that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fruit can cause oxidative damage and nitric oxide (NO) can regulate the accumulation of ROS and the antioxidative defence of fruit. However, little is known about the roles of NO on the antioxidant system in mitochondria of fruit. In this study, Feicheng peach fruits were dipped with 2‐(4‐carboxyphenyl)‐4,4,5,5‐tetramethylimidazoline‐1‐oxyl‐3‐oxide (c‐PTIO) and NO solutions to explore the effects of NO on the membrane permeability transition and antioxidant system in mitochondria of peach fruit. Results Treatment with 15 µmol L−1 NO solution could delay the decrease of mitochondrial permeability transition and decrease the content of ROS in mitochondria. Besides, when the endogenous NO was scavenged by c‐PTIO, the ROS in mitochondria increased greatly and the SOD activity decreased, while the contents and activities of POD and CAT changed slightly. Conclusion By delaying the decrease of mitochondrial permeability transition, 15 µmol L−1 NO treatment could promote a more stable internal medium in mitochondria of Feicheng peach fruit. The increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria caused by the remove of endogenous NO suggested that NO also plays an important role in the mitochondrial antioxidant system of Feicheng peach fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:51:38.192629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7310
  • Impact of pre‐harvest light spectral properties on health‐ and
           sensory related compounds in broccoli florets
    • Abstract: Background Plants grown at different latitudes experience differences in light spectral composition. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants were grown in climate‐controlled chambers under supplemental wavelengths (red, far‐red, red + far‐red or blue) from light emitting diodes (LEDs). The light treatments were combined with two cold climate temperatures (12 and 15 °C) during the broccoli head formation to investigate the effects on morphology and contents of the health‐ and sensory related compounds; glucosinolates, flavonols, ascorbic acid, and soluble sugars. Results Supplemental far‐red and red + far‐red light led to elongated plants and the lowest total glucosinolate content in broccoli florets. The content of quercetin was highest with supplemental red light. Vitamin C was not significantly affected by the light treatments, but 12 °C gave a higher content than 15 °C. Conclusion The effects of supplemental red and far‐red light suggest an involvement of phytochromes in the regulation of glucosinolates and flavonols. A shift in red:far‐red ratio could cause changes in their content besides altering the morphology. The sugar and vitamin C contents, appear to be unaffected by these light conditions. Supplemental blue light had little effect on plant morphology and contents of the health‐ and sensory related compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:49.43609-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7307
  • Bioactive compounds of juices from two brazilian grape cultivars
    • Abstract: Background Grape juice consumption may prevent several chronic diseases due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which have an important role in the reduction of oxidative stress. This study investigated the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of grape juices from two cultivars: BRS‐Cora and Isabella. Total polyphenol content (TPC), anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH), and phenolic profile (HPLC‐DAD‐FLD) were determined. Results BRS‐Cora grape juice showed higher concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant potential than those of Isabella grape juice. A significant positive correlation was found in TPC or anthocyanin contents when correlated with the remaining antioxidant assays. In addition, the HPLC‐DAD‐FLD showed higher total phenolic content in BRS‐Cora grape juice compared to Isabella. Conclusion The present results show BRS‐Cora as a promising cultivar for grape juice production with an improved functional potential.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:14.820121-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7309
  • Differential expression of genes in purple‐shoot tea tender leaves
           and mature leaves during leaf growth
    • Authors: Qiongqiong Zhou; Weijiang Sun, Zhongxiong Lai
      Abstract: Background Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), contains high level of secondary metabolic products with both commercial and medicinal value. At present, most cultivated tea plant have green leaves, although tea plant with purple leaves exist, their supply is inadequate. During leaf growth and maturation, the contents of secondary metabolic compounds decrease, resulting in higher content in tender‐purple leaves (TPL), and lower content in mature‐green leaves (MGL). The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of genes in these two tissues, with cDNA‐AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) approach and biochemical analysis. Results Compared to MGL samples, TPL samples had higher content of anthocyanin, total polyphenols, total catechins, a higher carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, and lower content of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose). TPL samples showed a lower photosynthetic ability demonstrated by a lower CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate accumulation rate. Using cDNA‐AFLP with 256 primer combinations, differential transcript profiling generated 148 matched transcript‐derived fragments (TDFs). Among these TDFs, 77 genes were up‐regulated and 71 were down‐regulated. These were grouped into 11 functional categories which are important for final tea quality parameters. Conclusions Our data presented the first effort to elucidate the molecular basis of differential accumulation of key metabolites during tea leaf maturation. Our findings also provided a theoretical molecular explanation for the color change during leaf growth.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T22:40:03.2592-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7308
  • Physiological responses to low temperature in spring and winter wheat
    • Authors: Bin Zhang; Dong Jia, Zhiqiang Gao, Qi Dong, Liheng He
      Abstract: Background Northward expansion of winter wheat is an efficient means to improve crop yield and quality in many countries. However, inadequate cold hardiness restricts the northward expansion of winter wheat. This study aimed to investigate cold adaption of different wheat varieties and underlying physiological mechanism. Results In the field experiment, soluble sugar and proline content, relative electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were higher in wheat varieties in the over‐wintering period than those in the pre‐wintering period. SOD activity was lower in the over‐wintering period than those in the pre‐wintering period and spring growth period. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was reduced dramatically in the winter variety (Suyin 10), weak winter variety (Lumai 22) and spring (Jinchun 9) variety after low temperature treatment. Cold treatment inhibited stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr). Influences of high temperature treatment and cold acclimation after vernalization were further analyzed in greenhouse in wheat variety Jinghe 1. High temperature treatment after vernalization significantly inhibited SOD and POD activities in the vernalized plants, while cold acclimation after vernalization enhanced POD activity. Conclusion Cold tolerance of wheat varieties may be associated with effective osmoregulation ability, photosynthetic capacity, Gs and Tr, as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T01:26:19.876968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7306
  • Decomposition and Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid
    • Authors: Visenuo Aiko; Edamana Prasad, Alka Mehta
      Abstract: Background Degradation study of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was carried out using a combination of physical and chemical methods. AFB1 was heated at 80 °C in the presence of acetic, citric and lactic acids for various time periods. The cytotoxicity of the degraded AFB1 and its products were determined by MTT assay. Result The result showed that among the three organic acids, lactic acid was most efficient in degrading AFB1. Although complete degradation was not observed, up to 85% degradation of AFB1 was obtained when heated for 120 min. Degradation of AFB1 was confirmed by the reduced toxicity on HeLa cells using MTT assay. Treatment with lactic acid resulted in the conversion of AFB1 into two degradation products. These products were observed at lower retention factors of 0.63 and 0.38 which were identified as AFB2 and AFB2a, respectively. The cytotoxicity of AFB2a exhibited much reduced toxicity on HeLa cells compared to that of AFB1. Conclusion The results have shown the efficiency of lactic acid in degrading AFB1. This study suggest that lactic acid may be considered for use in food and feed industry since it is present naturally in food and is considered safe.
      PubDate: 2015-06-10T10:28:32.554196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7304
  • Forage legumes rich in condensed tannins may increase n–3 fatty acid
           levels and sensory quality of lamb meat
    • Abstract: Background Tannins intensively interact with rumen microbes which is expected to have consequences for meat quality. Results Silages prepared from birdsfoot trefoil (BT), sainfoin (SF), alfalfa (AF) or red clover (RC), were fed alone to 48 lambs. The SF contained 5‐times more condensed tannins than BT, the other tanniferous plant. Growth and carcass performance, but not general meat quality, was reduced with BT and SF compared to AF and RC. Lambs fed SF had half the skatole levels in the perirenal fat than AF‐lambs. The Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of the SF‐lambs, compared to RC and BT, had a lower intensity for ‘livery’ and ‘sheepy’ flavors but a stronger ‘grassy’ flavor. The intramuscular fat of BT‐ and SF‐lambs contained less saturated and more polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 20:4n–6, 20:3n–6, 20:5n–3 and 22:5n–3 with SF being more efficient than BT. Conclusion The SF was most promising to increase beneficial fatty acids and to reduce skatole content in lamb meat.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T05:35:31.789582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7298
  • pH and heat‐dependent behaviour of glucose oxidase down to single
           molecule level by combined fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND In food industry, glucose oxidase is used for the improvement of shelf life of food materials. The pH and heat induced conformational changes of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger were quantified by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. RESULTS Phase diagram showed an all‐or none transition process, indicating that pH and temperature largely influence the conformational state of GOX. Shifts in maximum wavelength of Trp, Tyr were registered as the protein encounters a lower pH (pH 4.0), suggesting significant changes of the polarity around the chromophore molecule. Quenching experiments using KI showed higher quenching constants of Trp and FAD upon heating or by changing pH value, and were mainly correlated to the conformational changes upon protein matrix. Finally, valuable insights into the thermal behavior of GOX were obtained from molecular modeling results. CONCLUSIONS The conformation and structure of GOX protein is dependent upon the pH and heat treatment applied. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated significant changes in the substrate binding region at temperatures over 60 °C that might affect enzyme activity. Moreover important alteration of the small pocket hosting the positively charged His516 residue responsible for oxygen activation appears evident at high temperatures.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:59:20.608794-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7296
  • Phytochemicals determination and classification in purple and red fleshed
           potato tubers by analytical methods and near‐infrared spectroscopy
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Over the last two decades, the attractive colours and shapes of pigmented tubers and the increasing concern about the relationship between nutrition and health are contributing to the expansion of their consumption and specialty market. Thus, we have quantified the concentration of health promoting compounds such as soluble phenolics, monomeric anthocyanins, carotenoids, vitamin C, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, in a collection of 18 purple and red fleshed potato accessions. RESULTS Cultivars and breeding lines high in vitamin C, such as Blue Congo, Morada and Kasta, have been identified. Deep purple cultivars Violet Queen, Purple Peruvian and Vitelotte showed high levels of soluble phenolics, monomeric anthocyanins, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, whereas relatively high carotenoid concentrations were found in partially yellow coloured tubers, such as Morada, Highland Burgundy Red, and Violet Queen. CONCLUSION The present characterization of cultivars and breeding lines with high concentrations of phytochemicals is an important step both to support the consideration of specialty potatoes as a source of healthy compounds, and to obtain new cultivars with positive nutritional characteristics. Moreover, by using near‐infrared spectroscopy a non‐destructively identification and classification of samples with different levels of phytochemicals is achieved, offering an unquestionable contribution to potato industry for future automatic discrimination of varieties.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T01:43:28.088242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7294
  • Rapid and Non‐destructive Determination of Rancidity Levels in
           Butter Cookies by Multispectral Imaging
    • Authors: Qing Xia; Changhong Liu, inxia Liu, Wenjuan Pan, Xuzhong Lu, Jianbo Yang, Wei Chen, Lei Zheng
      Abstract: Background Rancidity is an important attribute for quality assessment of butter cookies, while traditional methods for rancidity measurement are usually laborious, destructive and prone to operational error. In the present paper, the potential of applying multispectral imaging (MSI) technology with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405–970 nm to evaluate the rancidity in butter cookies was investigated. Results Moisture contents, acid value and peroxide value were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back‐propagation artificial neural network (BP‐ANN). The optimal models for predicting moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were obtained by PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained by PLSR models revealed that MSI had a perfect ability to predict moisture content (r = 0.909), acid value (r = 0.944) and peroxide value (r = 0.971). Conclusion The paper demonstrated that the rancidity level of butter cookies can be continuously monitored and evaluated in real‐time by the Multispectral imaging, which is of great significance for developing online food safety monitoring solution.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:11:53.671145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7292
  • Sequential culture with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae and management of fermentation temperature to improve cherry
           wine quality
    • Authors: Shu Yang Sun; Han Sheng Gong, Yu Ping Zhao, Wen Li Liu, Cheng Wu Jin
      Abstract: Background There has been limited research on the use of non‐Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of cherry wines. This work used an autochthonous T. delbrueckii strain 49 (TD49) in association with a commercial S. cerevisiae RC212 yeast, to investigate the effect of multistarter culture (sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation) and fermentation temperature on the quality of cherry wines. Results Both TD49 and RC212 proliferated during AF under sequential inoculation conditions, whereas in the case of simultaneous inoculation, TD49 increased slowly at first and then declined sharply near the fermentation end. The analytical profile showed that both mixed fermentations produced lower levels of volatile acidy and higher levels of aromatic compounds than those from RC212 mono‐culture. During sensory analysis, wines from sequential fermentation obtained the highest score, mainly due to the higher intensity in ‘fruity’ and ‘floral’ characters. As for the influence of temperature, a low temperature (20 °C) enhanced TD49 persistence during AF, but the sensory quality decreased anyway; 30 °C resulted in decreases in most measured descriptors. Therefore, 25 °C was selected as the best culture temperature. Conclusion TD49/RC212 sequential inoculation and fermentation at 25 °C significantly enhanced the cherry wine quality.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:11:31.482864-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7293
  • Deficit irrigation strategies enhance health‐promoting compounds
           through the intensification of specific enzymes in early peaches
    • Abstract: Background Biochemical and enzymatic responses to long‐term regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) at harvest, during cold storage and after retail sale period of ‘Flordastar’ early peaches were evaluated. Irrigation strategies were Control, and two RDI applied during postharvest period (RDI1: severe; RDI2: moderate), based on different thresholds of maximum of daily shrinkage signal intensity (RDI1: 1.4 to dry; RDI2: 1.3 to 1.6). Results Both RDI provoked stress in the plant. This meant higher antioxidant concentration (averaging 1.30 ± 0.27 g AAE kg−1 f.w. for control and 1.77 ± 0.35 and 1.50 ± 0.30 g AAE kg−1 f.w. for RDI1 and RDI2, respectively). Antioxidant levels decreased with storage by polyphenoloxydase action, which increased (from 0.04 ± 0.01 U mg−1 protein to 0.32 ± 0.08 U mg−1 protein). Vitamin C was initially higher in RDI samples (44.22 ± 0.05 g total vitamin C kg−1 f.w. for control vs. 46.77 ± 0.02 and 46.27 ± 0.03 g total vitamin C kg−1 f.w. for RDI1 and RDI2, respectively). Conclusion The way RDI was applied affected bioactive fruit composition, being catalase and dehydroascorbic acid good water stress indicators. RDI strategies can be used as field practice, allowing water savings while enhanced healthy compound content in early peaches.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:09:19.876694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7290
  • Effects of technological processes on enniatins levels in pasta
    • Abstract: Background Potential human health risks posed by enniatins (ENs) require its control primarily from cereal products, creating a demand for harvesting, food processing and storage techniques capable to prevent, reduce and/or eliminate the contamination. In this study, different methodologies to pasta processing simulating traditional and industrial processes were developed in order to known the fate of the mycotoxins ENs. The levels of ENs were studied at different steps of pasta processing. The effect of the temperature during processing were evaluated in two types of pasta (white and whole‐grain pasta). Mycotoxin analysis was performed by LC‐MS/MS. Results High reductions up to 50% and 80% were achieved during drying pasta at 45‐55 °C and 70‐90 °C, respectively. The treatments at low temperature (25 °C) did not change ENs levels. The effect of pasta composition did not evidenced a significant effect on the stability of ENs. The effect of the temperature allowed a marked mycotoxin reduction during pasta processing. Generally, ENA1 and ENB showed higher thermal stability than ENA and ENB1. Conclusions The findings from the present study suggested that pasta processing at medium‐high temperatures is a potential tool to remove an important fraction of ENs from the initial durum wheat semolina.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T05:11:21.426364-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7282
  • Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by anti‐microbial
           photodynamic technology using methylene blue
    • Authors: Xi Deng; Shuze Tang, Qian Wu, Juan Tian, William W. Riley, Zhenqiang Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causative pathogen of gastroenteritis often related to contaminated seafood. Photodynamic inactivation has been recently proposed as a strategy for killing cells and virus. The objective of this study was to verify the bactericidal effects caused by photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using methylene blue (MB) over V. parahaemolyticus via flow cytometry (FCM), agarose gel electrophoresis and SDS‐PAGE. V. parahaemolyticus counts were determined by using the most probable number (MPN) method. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to intuitively analyze internal and external cell structure. RESULTS Combination of MB and laser treatment significantly inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. The inactivation rate of V. parahaemolyticus was >99.99%, and its counts were reduced by 5‐log10 in the presence of 0.05 mg/mL MB when illuminated with visible light (power density 200 mW/cm2) for 25 min. All inactivated cells showed morphological changes, leakage of cytoplasm and degradation of protein and DNA. CONCLUSION Results from this study indicated that photodynamic technology using methylene blue produced significantly inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus mainly brought about by the degradation of protein and DNA.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:47:53.189514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7261
  • Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia,
           dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose‐induced metabolic
           syndrome rats
    • Authors: Ajiboye T. O; Raji H. O, Adeleye A. O, Adigun N. S, Giwa O. B, Ojewuyi O. B, Oladiji A. T.
      Abstract: Background The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract was evaluated in high‐fructose induced metabolic syndrome rats. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout were induced in rats using high‐fructose diet. High‐fructose diet‐fed rats were administered 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract for 3 weeks, starting from the seventh week of high‐fructose diet treatment. Results High fructose diet significantly (p
      PubDate: 2015-05-12T07:23:42.267523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7254
  • Melatonin in Mediterranean diet, a new perspective
    • Authors: Marcello Iriti; Elena Maria Varoni
      Pages: 2355 - 2359
      Abstract: The health‐promoting properties of the Mediterranean diet have been attributed, at least in part, to the chemical diversity of plant foods. Among phytochemicals, polyphenols represent the paradigm of the relationship between healthy foods and reduced risk of chronic‐degenerative diseases, although, in the past few years, a new element has enriched this scenario. Melatonin, and possibly other indoleamines recently discovered in some relevant Mediterranean foods, may represent a new factor contributing to the elucidation of the protective effects of diets rich in plant products. Therefore, in synergy with polyphenols and other bioactive phytochemicals (e.g. carotenoids and glucosinolates), melatonin may contribute to maximizing the benefits of healthy dietary styles. This brief survey deals with the occurrence of melatonin in the Mediterranean diet, with an emphasis on grape products, and focuses on the biological significance of dietary melatonin, an emerging and exciting topic in the field of nutritional sciences. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-01-26T06:00:10.497203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7051
  • Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranate
    • Pages: 2360 - 2379
      Abstract: Pomegranate is a subtropical and tropical fruit of great importance from a health point of view. Despite increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of pomegranate, consumption of the fruit is still limited owing to poor postharvest handling, storage recommendations, short shelf life and quality deterioration during transportation, storage and marketing. The occurrence of physiological disorders such as husk scald, splitting and chilling injury is another challenge reducing marketability and consumer acceptance. Recently, notable work on postharvest biology and technology has been done. Pomegranate is highly sensitive to low‐oxygen (
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:24:52.64837-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7069
  • Nutritional aspects of gluten‐free products
    • Authors: Nicoletta Pellegrini; Carlo Agostoni
      Pages: 2380 - 2385
      Abstract: In recent years, gluten‐free (GF) goods have become popular, fuelling a growing market, as they not only cater to individuals with medical needs but also to consumers who seek a GF diet. In their development, it is pivotal to pay attention to nutritional quality. This review aims to provide some insights on the nutritional quality of GF products, focusing on major concerns and the strategies to overcome them. In order to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten, a large number of flours and starches and other ingredients have been used. Therefore the different mixtures of these ingredients bring a wide difference in the nutritional composition of GF foods with respect to gluten‐containing counterparts. Several GF foodstuffs contain more fat, including saturated, and salt but fewer minerals and vitamins than their equivalents with gluten. The increased fibre content and improved technological processes have positively affected the glycaemic responses from these goods. However, in order to improve their nutritional quality, wholemeal GF cereals and pseudocereals with high nutritive value should replace the low‐nutritional GF flours and consequently the technological processes would be optimized. The improvement of the nutritional quality of GF products, and in turn that of the GF diet, should also be aimed at lowering the risk of later chronic degenerative disorders, especially for infants and young children. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-02-19T05:42:42.409207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7101
  • Integration of life cycle assessment and regional emission information in
           agricultural systems
    • Authors: Junbeum Kim; Albina Yalaltdinova, Natalia Sirina, Natalia Baranovskaya
      Pages: 2544 - 2553
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a compilation and evaluation of the input energy and materials, output emissions and the potential environmental impacts of a product, service or system throughout its life cycle. While methodological issues of LCA are still being developed, much research is being conducted worldwide in order to improve them. One of the important advances in LCA is a regionalised LCA, i.e. the development of regionalised databases, inventories, and impact assessment methods and models. RESULTS Regional emission information (REI) was developed and integrated with the characterisation results in LCA of an agricultural product in the study area. Comparison of outcomes obtained with LCA characterisation results that did not include REI shows that the characterisation results taking REI into account are much higher as regards human toxicity, from 0.02% to 0.18%, freshwater ecotoxicity from 89% to 99% and terrestrial ecotoxicity from 8.006% to 26.177%. CONCLUSION Results of current LCA studies on agricultural products and systems that do not include REI are under‐estimating the life cycle environmental impact. For the LCA of agricultural products and systems, the REI as well as regionalised life cycle inventory data should be developed and integrated into the current LCA approach. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-03-31T09:19:25.620735-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7149
  • Structural characteristics of pineapple pulp polysaccharides and their
           antitumor cell proliferation activities
    • Pages: 2554 - 2561
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pineapple has a delicious taste and good health benefits. Bioactive polysaccharides are important components of pineapple that might contribute to its health benefits. Since little structural information on these polysaccharides is currently available, the aim of this study was to investigate their structural characteristics and bioactivities. RESULTS The polysaccharides of pineapple pulp were fractionated into three fractions (PAPs 1–3) by anion exchange chromatography. Their structural characteristics were first identified, including molecular weights and glycosidic linkages. The monosaccharide compositions were revealed as PAP 1 (Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal), PAP 2 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal) and PAP 3 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man and Gal). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested that PAP 2 had a backbone of → 4)‐α‐d‐Manp‐(1 → 2,4)‐α‐d‐Manp‐(1 → with branches attached to O‐4 of Manp. The NMR data of α‐l‐Araf‐(1→, →3)‐α‐l‐Araf‐(1→, →4)‐β‐d‐Galp‐(1 → and → 4)‐α‐d‐GalpAMe‐(1 → were assigned. PAPs 1 and 2 showed significant antitumor cell proliferation activities against breast carcinoma cell line and strong antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION The above findings indicated that PAPs 1–3 contributed much to the health benefits of pineapple. They could be used as health‐beneficial food additives in functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T07:27:07.039651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7185
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