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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 88]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Effects of a treatment with Se‐rich rice flour high in resistant starch
           on enteric dysbiosis and chronic inflammation in diabetic ICR mice
    • Authors: Huaibo Yuan; Wenjuan Wang, Deyi Chen, Xiping Zhu, Lina Meng
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Enteric dysbiosis is associated with chronic inflammation and interacts with obesity and insulin resistance. Obesity and diabetes are induced in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice fed a high‐fat diet and administereda streptozocin injection. These mice were treated with normal rice (NR), normal rice with a high resistant starch content (NRRS) or Se‐rich rice (selenium‐enriched rice) with a high resistant starch content (SRRS). RESULTS Fecal cell counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus were significantly higher in SRRS‐treated mice than in diabetic controls, while Enterobacter cloacae were lower. Similar results were also found in NRRS‐treated mice. In contrast, no significant difference was found between NR‐treated and diabetic control groups. The treatments with SRRS and NRRS reduced the fecal pH values of the diabetic mice. Regarding the inflammatory factor levels, lower levels of serum C‐reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α), interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), nuclear factor‐k‐gene binding (NF‐kB) and leptin (LEP) and higher Adiponutrin (ADPN) levels were found in the SRRS and NRRS‐treated mice compared with the diabetic and NR‐treated mice. In addition, the CRP, IL‐6 and NF‐kB levels in the SRRS‐treated mice were significantly reduced compared with those observed in the NRRS‐treated mice. The reverse transcription‐PCR (RT‐PCR) results showed that the SRRS and NRRS‐treated mice presented higher expression levels of Orphan G protein‐coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) and Orphan G protein‐coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) proteins compared with diabetic mice and NR‐treated mice. CONCLUSION These results indicate that treatments with rice high in RS exerts beneficial effects by improving enteric dysbiosis and chronic inflammation. In addition, selenium and RS may exert synergistic effects on chronic inflammation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-26T02:40:21.308339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8011
  • Grain quality characteristics and dough rheological properties in Langdon
           durum‐wild emmer wheat chromosome substitution lines under nitrogen and
           water deficits
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Wild emmer wheat could serve as a source of novel variation in grain quality and stress resistance for wheat breeding. A set of T. durum–T. dicoccoides chromosome substitution lines [LDN(DIC)] and the parental recipient cv. Langdon grown under contrasting water and nitrogen availability in the soil was examined in this study to identify differences in grain quality traits and dough rheological properties. RESULTS Significant genotypic variation was found among the materials for studied traits. This variation was also considerably affected by soil treatments and G‐E interactions. The substitutions LDN(DIC‐1A) and LDN(DIC‐1B) showed separate differentiation in the composition of glutenin subunits. The results indicated that primarily chromosome DIC‐6B is stable source of an enhanced grain protein content and advantageous dough rheological properties. Similar features seem to be shown by the substitutions with the DIC‐1A, DIC‐2A and DIC‐6A, but not under nitrogen shortage, when generally a considerable decrease was noticed in the range of genotypic variation in grain quality. CONCLUSIONS The substitution lines, particularly those with DIC‐6B and DIC‐6A and to a lesser extent DIC‐1A and DIC‐2A, were distinguished by advantageous grain quality traits, mixing properties and dough functionality and appear to be the most promising sources of innovative genes for wheat breeding.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:33.286923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8006
  • Discrimination of botanical origins for Chinese honey according to free
           amino acids content by HPLC‐FLD with Chemometric approaches
    • Authors: Hui Chen; Linghe Jin, Qiaoying Chang, Tao Peng, Xueyan Hu, Chunlin Fan, Guofang Pang, Meiling Lu, Wenwen Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The contents of 18 free amino acids in 87 Chinese honey samples from four botanical origins, linden, acacia, vitex and rape, were determined by developing an high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC‐FLD) method with an in loop automated pre‐column derivatization. The free amino acid profiles of these samples were used to construct a statistical model to distinguish honeys from various floral origins. RESULTS The average contents of all free amino acids in linden honey were lower than in the other three types of honey. Phenylalanine was particularly useful in this study because its average content in vitex honey was far higher than in any other honey samples. There is no doubt that both phenylalanine and tyrosine can be considered as the marker free amino acid in Chinese vitex honey. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted based on 15 free amino acids and showed significant differences among the honey samples. The cumulative variance for the first two components was 80.62%, and the four principal components can explain 94.18% of the total variance. In the two first component scores, the honey samples can be separated according to their botanical origins. Cluster analysis (CA) of amino acid data also revealed that the botanical origins of honey samples correlated with their amino acid content. Back‐propagation artificial neural network (BP‐ANN) and naive bayes methods were employed to construct the classification models. The results revealed an excellent separation among honey samples according to their botanical origin with 100% accuracy in model training for both BP‐ANN and naïve bayes. CONCLUSIONS It indicated that the free amino acid profile determined by HPLC‐FLD can provide sufficient information to discriminate honey samples according to their botanical origins.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:30.496412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8008
  • Silkworm pupae oil exerts hypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in
           high‐cholesterol diet‐fed rats
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Silkworm pupae are good resources of edible oil that is especially rich in unsaturated fatty acids and considered an excellent dietary supplement for hyperlipidemia. RESULTS Groups fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) with SPO supplementation (1, 2, or 4 mL•kg−1•d−1) orally had significantly lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) (P
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:23.520355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8009
  • Yeast derived from lignocellulosic biomass as a sustainable feed resource
           for use in aquaculture
    • Abstract: The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high‐quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low‐value and non‐food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein‐rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favorable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream prosessing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast‐derived cell wall fractions. This review summarizes current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:21.666575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8007
  • Non‐destructive prediction of pigment contents in lettuce based on
           Vis‐NIR spectroscopy
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important salad vegetables in the world, with a number of head shapes, leaf types and colors. The lettuce pigments play important physiological functions, such as photosynthetic processes and light stress defense. But they also benefit the human health due to their antioxidant action and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study three lettuce cultivars were grown under different farming systems and Partial Least‐Squares models were built to predict the leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. RESULTS The three proposed models resulted in high coefficients of determination and variable importance for the projection values, as well as low estimative errors for calibration and external validation datasets. These results confirmed that is possible to accurately predict chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents of green and red lettuces, grown in different farming systems, based on the spectral reflectance from 500 to 1000 nm. CONCLUSION The proposed models were adequate for estimating lettuce pigments in a quick and non‐destructive way, representing an alternative to the conventional measurement methods. The prediction accuracies were improved by using the detrending, smoothing and first derivative pretreatments to the original spectral signatures prior to estimating lettuce chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:34.275852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8002
  • Effects of ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated packaging film on pork meat quality
           during cold storage
    • Authors: Biao Suo; Huarong Li, Yuexia Wang, Zhen Li, Zhili Pan, Zhilu Ai
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There has been limited research on the use of ZnO nanoparticles‐coated film for the quality preservation of pork meat under low temperature. In present study, ZnO nanoparticles were mixed with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC‐Na) to form a nanocomposite film, to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles‐coated film on pork meat quality and the growth of bacteria during storage under low temperature. RESULTS When the ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated film was used as the packaging material of pork meat for 14 days of cold storage at 4°C, the results demonstrated a significant effect on restricting the increases of TVB‐N and pH levels, limiting the decreases of lightness (increased L* value) and redness (increased a* value), and maintaining the water holding capacity (WHC) compared to the control pork samples (P < 0.05). The present study also discovered that the ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated film restrained the increase of total plate counts (TPC). When Staphylococcus aureus was used as the representative strain, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO nanoparticles increased the occurrence of cell membrane ruptures in cold conditions. CONCLUSION The ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated film helps retain the quality of pork meat during cold storage by increasing the occurrence of microorganisms injury.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:31.887245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8003
  • Agricultural anaerobic digestion power plants in Ireland and Germany:
           policy & practice
    • Authors: Agathe Auer; Nathan H Vande Burgt, Florence Abram, Gerald Barry, Owen Fenton, Bryan K Markey, Stephen Nolan, Karl Richards, Declan Bolton, Theo De Waal, Stephen V Gordon, Vincent O'Flaherty, Paul Whyte, Annetta Zintl
      Abstract: The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon‐neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large‐scale treatment facilities, which contribute significantly to national renewable energy quotas. However, these large AD plants are costly to run and demand intensive farming of energy crops for feedstock. Current policy in Germany has transitioned to support funding for smaller digesters, while also limiting the use of energy crops. AD within Ireland, as a new technology, is affected by ambiguous governmental policies concerning waste and energy. A clear governmental strategy supporting on‐site AD processing of agricultural waste will significantly reduce Ireland's carbon footprint, improve the safety and bioavailability of agricultural waste, and provide an indigenous renewable energy source.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:22.735723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8005
  • Assessment of Napier grass accessions in lowland and highland tropical
           environments of east Africa: water stress indices, water‐use and
           water‐use efficiency
    • Authors: Solomon W. Mwendia; Isa A.M. Yunusa, Brian M. Sindel, Ralph D. B. Whalley, Innocent W. Kariuki
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Low rainfall is a major limitation to expanding dairy industry in semi‐arid environments in East Africa. In such dry areas, plants need to keep their tissues hydrated and stomates opened for carbon exchange, and to grow. On this basis, we assessed productivity of 10 lines of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), which formed three yield clusters: low yielding (LYC), moderate yielding (MYC), and high yielding (HYC) in a wet highland (Muguga) and semi‐arid lowland (Katumani) of Kenya. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC) were monitored, and water‐use simulated, over four growth cycles in 2012. These were used with measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and plant dry weights to explore possible use of these physiological parameters for assessing productivity potential in Napier grass accessions. RESULTS The plants were less stressed at Muguga, where gs was 700–1000 mmol m−2s−1, LWP −0.4 – ‐0.9 MPa, and RWC was 82–95%; these values at Katumani were 450–750 mmol m−2s−1, −0.7– ‐1.4 MPa and 74–93%, respectively. Total water‐use at Katumani was in the order HYC ≈ MYC (390 mm) > LYC (370 mm), and WUE (kg ha−1mm−1) followed the same order HYC (34.3) > MYC (32.6) > LYC (24.9). While at Muguga water‐use averaged 710 mm for HYC and MYC, larger than 676 mm for LYC, and WUE (kg ha−1mm−1) averaged 29.2 for HYC and MYC, and 19.4 for LYC. CONCLUSIONS The three water‐stress indices were poor, whereas vigorous early canopy development, determined as LAI, was a more reliable, predictor of productivity potential of Napier grasses. In these dry environments, therefore, early rapid canopy development can be an effective indicator of yield potential and as a credible selection criterion.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:19.988295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8004
  • Role of phosphate groups on antiviral activity of casein phosphopeptide
           against feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus
    • Authors: Ntshepisa Lebetwa; Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Shigeru Katayama
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Current research on the gastro‐intestinal digestion of milk‐casein strongly suggests the existence of novel bioactive peptides having antiviral activities that are attributable to their immunostimulatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of casein peptides rich in phosphate groups, such as casein phosphopeptide (CPP‐III). RESULTS We prepared two types of CPP with different phosphorylation levels to clarify the role of the phosphate group. Further phosphorylation of CPP‐III was conducted by dry heating with sodium pyrophosphate, while dephosphorylation was performed enzymatically using alkaline phosphatase and by alkaline treatment. Feline calicivirus (FCV) strain F9, a typical norovirus surrogate, and Crandell‐Rees feline kidney cells were used as the target virus and host cells, respectively. Antiviral activity was determined based on MTT assay and qPCR quantification of antiviral cytokine mRNA expression. Higher cell viability was observed in the host cells treated with phosphorylated CPP‐III, and a significant up‐regulation of type 1 interferon expression was induced, compared with that treated with native CPP‐III. However, dephosphorylation of CPP‐III resulted in a decrease in the anti‐FCV effect. CONCLUSION CPP effect was enhanced by introduction of additional phosphates and conversely weakened by their elimination. Therefore, CPP‐III phosphorylation represents an emerging approach to the production of food‐grade antiviral agents.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T04:27:53.952858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7999
  • In vitro antioxidant activities of the novel pentapeptides
           Ser‐His‐Glu‐Cys‐Asn and Leu‐Pro‐Phe‐Ala‐Met and the
           relationship between activity and peptide secondary structure
    • Authors: Ruiwen Yang; Jia Wang, Songyi Lin, Haiqing Ye, Feng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Using HPLC‐MS/MS, two novel antioxidant pentapeptides (Ser‐His‐Glu‐Cys‐Asn and Leu‐Pro‐Phe‐Ala‐Met) were identified from 1 – 3 kDa soybean protein hydrolysates (SPH). The MTT assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. The antioxidant activity was measured using in vitro assays, including the cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), the DPPH or ABTS inhibition, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Finally, the secondary structure was determined using circular dichroism (CD). RESULTS The results revealed that two novel peptides were nontoxic and possessed antioxidant activity. SHECN had significantly higher antioxidant activity than LPFAM (P 
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T04:27:47.465251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8000
  • Ilex paraguariensis crude extract acts on protection and reversion from
           damage induced by t‐butyl hydroperoxide in human erythrocytes: a
           comparative study with isolated caffeic and/or chlorogenic acids
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies comparing the effect of phytochemicals under different regimens of exposure are necessary to give a better indication about their mechanism(s) of protection. Hence, we propose to investigate here the preventive (pre‐incubation), protective (co‐incubation) and/or remediate (post‐incubation) activity of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids, in comparison to Ilex paraguariensis crude extract, against t‐butyl hydroperoxide (t‐BHP) induced damage to human erythrocytes. RESULTS We found that both caffeic and chlorogenic acids were able to prevent and also to revert from the hemolysis associated to t‐BHP exposure. In contrast, isolated compounds (alone or in combination) presented no effect on basal and/or t‐BHP‐induced NPSH oxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. In turn, I. paraguariensis extract was effective to prevent, protect and also to revert from the hemolysis associated to t‐BHP exposure. Moreover, I. paraguariensis significantly protects and reverts from t‐BHP induced NPSH oxidation and TBARS production. CONCLUSIONS We have found that I. paraguariensis extract acts better in protection and reversion of t‐BHP‐associated changes, whereas isolated compounds were more active in prevention and reversion from t‐BHP pro‐hemolytic action. Moreover, our data suggest that the pro‐hemolytic activity of t‐BHP may occur via mechanism(s) other(s) than lipid peroxidation and/or NPSH oxidation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T04:15:13.480334-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8001
  • Aflatoxin B1 can be Complexed with Oxidized Tea Polyphenols and the
           Absorption of the Complexed‐Aflatoxin B1 is Inhibited in Rats
    • Authors: Hao Lu; Feifei Liu, Qiangqiang Zhu, Mengmeng Zhang, Tong Li, Jiming Chen, Yewei Huang, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most prevalent and carcinogenic form of the aflatoxins. In this report, we explored the interaction between AFB1 and oxidized tea polyphenols (OTP). Then, the influence of OTP on the absorption and toxicity of AFB1 in rats was investigated. RESULTS We found that AFB1 can be complexed with OTP, and a transmembrane bidirectional transport experiment verified the absorption of complexed AFB1 (C‐AFB1) was inhibited by OTP dramatically(p < 0.001). Animal experiments results showed that the AFB1 plus OTP group had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased AFB1‐albumin (AFB1‐alb) compared to the AFB1 group at 4 h after ingestion. OTP could significantly(p < 0.01) promote the elimination of AFB1 in feces. Moreover, the liver injury induced by AFB1 was inhibited by OTP significantly. CONCLUSION Our results demonstrated AFB1 can be complexed with OTP and the absorption of the C‐AFB1 is inhibited in rats. Consequently, the liver injury induced by AFB1 can be inhibited by OTP. These results provide insight that consuming OTP containing products, like fermented Pu‐er tea, can protect damage from AFB1, and OTP may be used as a kind of food additive.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19T04:15:39.002627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7994
  • Exploring genotypic variations for improved oil content and healthy fatty
           acids composition in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
    • Authors: Muhammad Ishaq; Raziuddin Raziiddin, Sabaz Ali Khan
      Abstract: Background Development of new genotypes having high oil content and desirable level of fatty acid compositions is major objective of rapeseed breeding programs. In the current study combining ability was determined for oil, protein, glucosinolates and various fatty acids content using 8 × 8 full diallel in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Results Highly significant genotypic differences were observed for oil, protein, glucosinolates, oleic acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid content. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) for biochemical traits. Parental line AUP‐17 for high oil content and low glucosinolates, genotype AUP‐2 for high protein and oleic acids and AUP‐18 for low lenolenic and erucic acid were best general combiners. Based on desirable SCA effects, F1 hybrids AUP‐17 × AUP‐20; AUP‐2×AUP‐8; AUP‐7 × AUP‐14; AUP‐2 × AUP‐9; AUP‐7 × AUP‐14 and AUP‐2 × AUP‐9 were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. Conclusion F1 hybrids AUP‐17 × AUP‐20 (for oil content); AUP‐2 × AUP‐8 (for protein content); AUP‐7 × AUP‐14 (for glucosinolates); AUP‐2 × AUP‐9 (for oleic acid); AUP‐7 × AUP‐14 (for linolenic acid) and AUP‐2 × AUP‐9 (for erucic acid) were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. As reciprocal crosses of AUP‐14 with AUP‐7 and AUP‐8 were superior had low × low and low × high GCA effects for glucosinolates and oleic acid, respectively therefore, these could be exploited in future rapeseed breeding programs to develop new lines with good quality.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T23:20:26.18077-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7997
  • Thermal and single frequency countercurrent ultrasound pretreatments of
           sodium caseinate: Enzymolysis kinetics and thermodynamics, amino acids
           composition, molecular weight distribution and antioxidant peptides
    • Authors: Mohammed Adam Y. Abdualrahman; Haile Ma, Cunshan Zhou, Abu ElGasim A. Yagoub, Jiali Hu, Xue Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to the disadvantages of traditional enzymolysis, pretreatments are crucial to enhance protein enzymolysis. Enzymolysis kinetics and thermodynamics, amino acids composition, molecular weight distribution (MW), fluorescence spectroscopy and antioxidant activity of thermal (HT) and single frequency countercurrent ultrasound (SCFU) pretreated sodium caseinate (NaCas) were studied. RESULTS Enzymolysis of untreated NaCas (control) improved significantly (p ˂ 0.05) by SFCU and followed by HT. KM values of SFCU and HT were 0.0212 and 0.0250, respectively. HT and SFCU increased (p ˂ 0.05) the reaction rate constant (k) by 38.64 and 90.91%, respectively at 298 K. k values decreased with increasing temperature. The initial activation energy (46.39 KJ mol−1) reduced (p ˂ 0.05) by HT (39.66 KJ mol−1) and further by SFCU (33.42 KJ mol−1). SFCU pretreated NaCas hydrolysates had the highest contents of hydrophobic, aromatic, positively and negatively charged amino acids. Medium sized peptides (5000 ‐ 1000 Da) are higher in SFCU (78.11%) than HT and the control. SFCU induced molecular unfolding of NaCas proteins. Accordingly, SFCU pretreated NaCas hydrolysate exhibited highest scavenging activity on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power, and iron chelating ability. CONCLUSION SFCU pretreatment would be a useful tool for production of bioactive peptides from NaCas hydrolysate.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T20:40:29.740574-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7996
  • Expression analysis of Metallothioneins and mineral contents in tomato
           (Lycopersicon esculentum) under heavy metal stress
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Heavy metals are considered to be the most important pollutants in the contamination of soils; they adversely affect plant growth and development and cause some physiological and molecular changes. The contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals has changed the mineral element content of vegetables. Plant MTs are thought to have the functional role in heavy metal homeostasis, and they are used as the biomarkers for evaluating environmental pollution. We aimed to evaluate the expression of MT isoforms (MT1, 2, 3 and 4) and some mineral element composition of tomato roots, leaves and fruits exposed to copper and lead. RESULTS Heavy metal applications increased MT1 and MT2 gene expressions compared to the control in the tissues of tomato. The highest level of MT1 and MT2 transcripts was found in roots and leaves, respectively. The expression of MT3 is induced in roots, leaves and fruits except for Pb treatment in roots. MT4 expression increased in fruits; however, other tissues did not show a clear change. Our results indicated that Cu content was higher than Pb in all tissues of tomato. The lower doses of Cu (10 ppm) increased the content of Mg, Fe, Ca and Mn in roots. Pb generally increased the level of minerals in leaves and fruits, but it decreased Mg, Mn and Fe contents in roots. CONCLUSION Both heavy metals not only moved to aerial parts but also caused alterations to mineral element levels. These results show that MT transcripts are regulated by Cu and Pb, and expression pattern changes to MT isoforms and tissue types.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T20:40:25.395994-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7995
  • Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on the
           fermentation quality of Napier grass silage at three high temperatures
    • Authors: A. Gulfam; G. Guo, S.T. Desta, L. Chen, Q.H. Liu, X.J. Yuan, Y.F. Bai, T. Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The poor fermentation quality of silage is an important issue for silage production during the high temperatures of summer. Pediococcus acidilactici GG13 (GG13) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG26 (GG26) isolated from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were characterized by morphological and physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and their effects, along with those of a commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant (CB), on the fermentation quality of facultative halophyte Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) ensiled at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C were studied, respectively. RESULT The strain GG13 and GG26 grew well at 50 °C and pH 3.5, and were tolerant to 6.5% NaCl. After ensiling for 50 days, the strain GG13, GG26 and CB decreased (P < 0.001) the pH and acetic acid and ammonia‐N contents and increased (P < 0.001) the lactic acid contents at 30 °C, and decreased (P < 0.001) the ammonia‐N contents at 40 °C in Napier grass. CB did not affect the fermentation quality at 50 °C, whereas both isolated strains improved the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage as indicated by the lower (P < 0.001) pH, butyric acid and ammonia‐N contents and higher (P < 0.001) lactic acid contents. The strain GG13 is better than GG26 with regard to improvement in fermentation quality of Napier grass silage. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggested that strain GG13 is a good LAB inoculant for producing well fermented silages during the high temperatures of summer times.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T20:35:26.325387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7998
  • Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper
           (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Red pepper seeds account for 450–500 g kg−1 of the total pepper weight and often are ignored. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out in this study. RESULTS The optimum conditions of the extraction were: extraction temperature 74.61 °C, time 38.65 min and liquid–solid ratio 30.24:1. The oil had refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, relative density of 0.900, acid value of 1.421 mg/g oil, iodine value of 127.035 g/100 g, saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable matter of 12.400 g kg−1, peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O2/kg, and viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed its desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes were identified from the oil. CONCLUSION The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil.
      PubDate: 2016-08-16T03:30:25.830479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7992
  • Deficit irrigation and maturation stage influence quality and flavonoid
           composition of 'Valencia' orange fruit
    • Authors: Filipa S. Grilo; Vita Di Stefano, Riccardo Lo Bianco
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Effects of continuous deficit irrigation (DI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) treatments (50% ETc) in comparison with full irrigation (CI, 100% ETc) were investigated during 'Valencia' orange fruit maturation. Ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography, high‐resolution mass spectrometry was used to quantify hesperidin, narirutin, tangeritin, nobiletin, didymin and neoeriocitrin in the fruit juice and peel. RESULTS No significant effect of irrigation was found on yield, juice soluble solids or acidity. Juice color was not influenced by irrigation or harvest date, whereas peel color increased during maturation and was more pronounced in CI and PRD fruit. Juice acidity reached a peak in May, while soluble solids increased linearly throughout maturation. Hesperidin was the major flavanone detected during maturation, with concentrations 200‐fold higher in the fruit peel than in the juice. In peel, narirutin, didymin, and neoeriocitrin contents decreased with maturation, while hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeritin increased. Narirutin synthesis in the orange fruit was insensitive to irrigation strategy. In fruit peels, PRD and DI induced the decline of hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeritin only in June, whereas in the juice, deficit irrigation treatments induced an increase of hesperidin and didymin. CONCLUSION These results suggest that deficit irrigation, and in particular the conditions imposed with PRD, may cause a significant accumulation shift of total flavonoids from the fruit peel into the juice, with a positive impact on juice quality and nutritional value. Fruit compositional changes during maturation also suggest that late harvest can improve fruit palatability and nutritional quality under the cultural and environmental conditions of this study.
      PubDate: 2016-08-16T03:25:21.56643-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7993
  • Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by‐product as feed for
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, rumen fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. RESULTS Seeds and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs. 243 g kg−1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs.138 g kg−1DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs. 31.7 g kg−1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.6 vs. 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs. 32.1 g kg−1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability in seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs. 0.82; 0.30 vs. 0.45; 0.66 vs. 0.39). Ammonia‐N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower, and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. CONCLUSION The nutritive value of grape pomace varies, depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by‐product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve the meat and milk quality.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T07:57:52.605018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7991
  • Differential expression of desaturase genes and changes in fatty acid
           composition of Mortierella sp. AGED in response to environmental factors
    • Authors: Li Tan; Rui Zhuo, Shue Li, Fuying Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Some oleaginous fungi can produce large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids which serve many physiological functions. Numerous desaturases are critical for the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of lipid production and desaturase gene expression in Mortierella sp. AGED in response to different environmental factors, and the relationships between lipid production and desaturase gene expression. RESULTS The fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of desaturase genes were significantly changed under low temperatures. With the exception of △5‐desaturase, the transcript levels of all desaturase genes increased at a temperature of 20 °C. Changes in content of lipid and PUFAs responding to low temperature were consistent with desaturase genes expression. Time course studies on gene expression showed that mRNA levels of four desaturase genes rapidly increased after transferring the cells to low temperature. Ethanol (1.5% v/v) increased the transcript levels of Δ9‐, Δ6‐, and Δ5‐desaturase genes significantly, and of Δ12‐desaturase gene slightly. Different metal ions, such as Ca2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+, could stimulate PUFA synthesis and up‐regulate desaturase gene transcription, while Cu2+ inhibited desaturase gene expression and lipid accumulation. CONCLUSION This study should enable us to understand the regulatory mechanism of desaturase gene expression and lipid synthesis. It is helpful to improve PUFA productivity in Mortierella sp. AGED.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T07:57:28.130694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7990
  • Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water
           relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidants activities and osmoregulation
    • Authors: Hafiz Nazar Faried; Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Amjad, Rashid Ahmed, Fahad Masoud Wattoo, Madiha Butt, Mohsin Bashir, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Muhammad Ahmed Waqas
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Potato is an important vegetable, however salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mM). Salicylic acid @ 0.5 mM was sprayed on potato plants after one week of salinity application. RESULTS Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N‐Y LARA, proved more responsive to SA application than 720–110 NARC which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents) which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, thereby, increased potassium availability and reduced sodium contents in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber's yield depicted positive correlation with potassium contents, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. CONCLUSION In conclusion, salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid stands authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced on N‐Y LARA reflecting tolerant than 720–110 NARC which confirmed as susceptible cultivar. Hence, salicylic acid @ 0.5 mM and cultivation of N‐Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T03:40:52.514806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7989
  • Reaction pathway mechanism of thermally induced isomerization of 9,12
           linoleic acid triacylglycerol
    • Authors: Qin Guo; Fan Jiang, Zhaoxuan Deng, Qingpeng Li, Jing Jin, Yiming Ha, Feng Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To clarify the formation mechanism of trans linoleic acid isomers in edible oils during the heating process, trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, as representative oils, were placed in glass ampoules and sealed before heating at 180, 240, and 320 °C. The glass ampoules were removed at regular time intervals, and the contents were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The samples were then subjected to derivatization into their methyl esters for gas chromatography analysis. RESULTS Analysis results show that 9c,12c and 9t,12t fatty acids from trilinolein and trilinoelaidin molecules undergo chemical bond rotation, migration, and degradation, leading to the formation of nonconjugated linoleic acids (NLAs), conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), and aldehydes. The formation rate of isomers from the 9c,12c fatty acid is higher than that of the 9t,12t fatty acid. The production of aldehydes increases with heating temperature and time. The isomerization pathways involved in the formation of NLAs and CLAs during heating are clearly presented. CONCLUSION These findings suggest possible pathways of NFAs and CFAs formation from heated trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, complement the mechanistic studies previously published in the literature, and provide a theoretical basis for future controlling the quality and safety of fats and oils.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T03:27:02.54876-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7988
    • Authors: Anne Luize Lupatini; Luciane Maria Colla, Cristiane Canan, Eliane Colla
      Abstract: The high protein level of various microalgae species is one of the main reasons to consider them an unconventional source of this compound. Spirulina platensis stands out for being one of the richest protein sources of microbial origin (460 to 630 g kg−1 of dry matter basis), having similar protein levels when compared to meat and soybeans. The use of S. platensis in food can bring benefits to human health due to its chemical composition, once it has high levels of vitamins, minerals, phenolics, essential fatty acids, amino acids, and pigments. Furthermore, the development of new protein sources to supply the shortage of this nutrient is an urgent need, and protein from S. platensis plays an important role in this scenario. In this sense, extraction processes that allow maximum protein yield and total utilization of biomass is an urgent need, and ultrasonic waves have proven to be an effective extraction technique. The number of scientific papers related to protein fraction from S. platensis is still limited, thus further studies on its functional and technological properties are needed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T03:17:00.924924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7987
  • Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai “tom
           yam” seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and
           gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Pattarin Leelaphiwat; Janice B. Harte, Rafael A. Auras, Peter K.C. Ong, Vanee Chonhenchob
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai “tom yam” seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, and poly(lactic acid), PLA) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. RESULTS The descriptive words for Thai “tom yam” seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai “tom yam” seasoning powder, quantified by GC‐MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β‐bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2‐ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. CONCLUSION Aroma stability of Thai “tom yam” powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evalution and GC‐MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai “tom yam”. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai “tom yam”.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T03:07:58.473661-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7986
  • Application of active edible coatings made from basil seed gum and thymol
           for quality maintenance of shrimp during cold storage
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND To improve the quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), active coating solutions were prepared by dissolving 10 g L‐1 of basil seed gum (BSG) and adding various levels of thymol (6, 8, and 10 % w/w based on gum weight) and glycerol (3.5 g L‐1) as plasticizer. The effects of coating solutions (CS1‐4) on the quality changes of shrimps during refrigerated storage of 20 days were investigated. RESULTS Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) value in shrimp coated with CS4 (containing 10%w/w thymol) was slightly higher than the upper threshold of 300 mg kg‐1 on the 18th day, while that of uncoated shrimp increased to or over the threshold value on the 7th day. Active coatings reduced significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T02:41:50.442708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7984
  • An assessment of lactobiopolymer‐Montmorillonite (MMT) composites for
           dip coating applications on fresh strawberries
    • Abstract: BACKGROUNDS The use of biopolymer coatings appears as a good alternative to preserve highly perishable fruits and the environment as well. Proteins generally produce films with good mechanical properties, but their highly hydrophilic nature limits the use in many applications. Nanoparticles, such as nano‐clays, can play a critical role in improving barrier properties. This study evaluated the effect of the addition of MMT‐nanoparticles to a lacto‐biopolymer coating, focusing on: (1) the morphological, thermal and barrier properties of the material and (2) the shelf life of coated fresh strawberries. RESULTS The addition of MMT improved the water vapor barrier property. Morphological and thermal analysis indicated a good interaction between the milk protein and the nanoclay, which was intercalated within the milk protein base (MPB) matrix, offering a more tortuous path to diffusing migrants. The MMT‐MPB coating helped to significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduce the weight loss, the oxygen uptake and release of carbon dioxide, to improve the fruit firmness and reduce mould and yeast load compared to the uncoated fruits. Addition of MMT gave statistical difference (P ≤ 0.05) in terms of weight loss, subjective global appearance and purchase intention of coated fresh strawberries. CONCLUSION The addition of nanofillers, such as MMT, into protein‐based coating could improve its water vapour barrier and could affect, positively, some parameters of the shelf life of coated strawberries.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T02:41:48.25755-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7985
  • Zn‐biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration
           process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Excessive rates of N fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO3−) in plants. Considering that many programmes of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of this work was to determine whether the NO3− accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was affected by the application of different dosages of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants. RESULTS Zn‐doses in a range of 80‐100 μM produced an increase on Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO3− concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) activities, and the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase on reduced N, total N concentration (TNC) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE). Consequently, under 80 μM‐Zn the amino acid concentration increased significantly. CONCLUSION Adequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially with 80 μM Zn, since it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO3− levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, all of them beneficial properties for the human diet.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T03:15:34.775518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7983
  • The occurrence of spoilage yeasts in cream‐filled bakery products
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Filling creams can provide an adequate substrate for spoilage yeasts because some yeasts can tolerate the high osmotic stress in these products. To discover the source of spoilage of a cream‐filled baked product, end products, raw materials, indoor air and work surfaces were subjected to microbiological and molecular analyses. The efficacy of disinfectants against spoilage yeasts was also assessed. RESULTS The analyses on end products revealed the presence of the closest relatives to Zygosaccharomyces bailii with counts ranging from 1.40 to 4.72 log cfu g−1. No spoilage yeasts were found in the indoor air and work surfaces. PCR‐DGGE analysis, carried out directly on filling creams collected from unopened cans, showed the presence of bands ascribed to the closest relatives to Z. bailii sensu lato, although with counts 
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T03:11:49.640744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7982
  • Influence of gamma radiation on the physical and sensory properties of two
           Brazilian rice cultivars
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Little has been reported about effect of gamma radiation on the physical and sensory characteristics of rice. Samples were irradiated with 60Co in doses 0, 1, 2 and 5 kGy, on a rate of 0.4 kGy/h. RESULTS The evaluation of instrumental color showed that increasing doses promoted the yellowing (higher b* value) of the rice grains. Hardness was decreased and stickiness was increased in cooked rice with increasing doses. Sensory evaluation using quantitative descriptive analysis showed that increasing doses promoted higher occurrence of yellowish appearance, emergence of burnt aroma, an increase of bitter and burnt taste. The sensory acceptance test by 9‐point hedonic scale showed alteration of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy in all evaluated attributes (appearance, color, aroma, taste and texture). The lowest dose (1 kGy), however, had good acceptability by the panelists. CONCLUSION Rice may be subjected at 1 kGy dose of gamma radiation without changes or with small changes in physical properties and with good overall acceptability.
      PubDate: 2016-08-03T07:00:29.294774-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7979
  • Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white
           and red wine grape processing leftovers
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterise the phenolic content of freeze‐dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti‐adhesive activities. RESULTS FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white ‘Zelen’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram‐negative bacteria. ‘Pinot Noir’ FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. CONCLUSION FDSS extracts from winery by‐products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins, and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti‐adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol ‘Pinot Noir’ FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues.
      PubDate: 2016-08-03T06:59:57.336069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7981
  • Protein glycation and aggregation inhibitory potency of biomolecules from
           black gram milled by‐product
    • Authors: T.K. Girish; U.J.S. Prasada Rao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Persistent hyperglycemia causes increased Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs), which contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Therefore, effect of black gram milled by‐product (BGBP) extract on inhibition of AGEs formation in bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system was investigated. RESULTS BGBP extract had total polyphenol content of 82 mg GAE g‐1 and flavonoid content of 46 mg CE g‐1. Ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, gentisic acid, isovitexin, vitexin and epicatechin were the major bioactives in the extract. BGBP extract exhibited an effective Fe2+ chelating activity. SE‐HPLC studies indicated that upon BSA‐AGE formation, the BSA monomer content was 38%, however, in the presence of BGBP extract at 50 and 100 µg levels, the monomer content increased and it was found to be 48 and 73%, respectively. BGBP extract at 50 and 100 µg levels decreased the protein carbonyl and fructosamine contents, and quenched the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA in a dose‐dependent manner. Further, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed the decrease in formation of AGEs by BGBP extract. CONCLUSION As BGBP extract inhibited the formation of AGEs, the extract can be used as a nutraceutical or it can be incorporated into food products to obtain functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-08-03T06:59:33.265905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7980
  • Simultaneous determination of six mycotoxins in peanut by
           High‐performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detector
    • Authors: Fangfang Chen; Chuanlei Luan, Lin Wang, Shue Wang, Lihua Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Mycotoxins, which may contaminate peanut and peanut products, are responsible for many diseases to human beings. AflatoxinB1(AFB1), aflatoxinG1(AFG1), aflatoxinB2(AFB2), aflatoxinG2(AFG2), ochratoxin A(OTA) and zearalenone(ZEN) are considered the most relevant groups of mycotoxins found in food. This work aimed to develop a high‐performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector(HPLC‐FLD) combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction(DLLME) method for the simultaneous determination of the six mycotoxins in peanuts. The six mycotoxins were simultaneously determined under their best wavelength by means of changing wavelength. RESULTS Under the optimum conditions, the linear ranges were 1 ~ 100 ng mL^‐1 for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA, 0.3 ~ 30 ng mL^‐1 for AFB2 and AFG2, 5 ~ 1000 ng mL^‐1 for ZEN, with the correlation coefficient(R2) of 0.9969 ~ 0.9997. Limits of detection(LODs) were 0.10, 0.10, 0.30, 0.03, 0.03 and 1.0 µg kg^‐1, respectively, and the mean recoveries were in the range of 83.1% to 99.3% with RSD
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T03:35:21.98631-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7978
  • Microwave thawing and green tea extract efficiency for the formation of
           acrylamide throughout the production process of chicken burgers and
           chicken nuggets
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND As a first foresight, we measured the AA level of chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants. After the determination of AA presence in these products, we aimed to investigate whether green tea extract (GTE) usage into covering material and microwave thawing (MT) before frying mitigated the AA formation in CBs and CNs during the production process. RESULTS According to our survey study, AA concentrations of CBs and CNs were in the range of 13.43‐118.97 and 32.92‐134.90 (ng g−1), respectively. In our experiment, AA level varried between 19.61‐40.08 ng g−1 for CBs and 7.92‐49.60 ng g−1 for CNs. GTE reduced the AA formation in CBs and CNs at the par frying and steam oven cooking heat treatment steps (P < 0.05). However, MT did not affect AA level of CBs and CNs. CONCLUSION When compared to AA level of commercial CBs and CNs with those of produced in the direction of our experimental design, GTE usage could be reported as a novel, easy and practical application for fast food producers to minimize AA level in the first two steps of the production without the changes in the sensory properties of the final products.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T03:30:23.239139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7976
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Pomegranate juice is rich source of polyphenols and thus promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health‐promoting effects. This includes beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the polyphenols' effects on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 6‐week long pomegranate juice consumption could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty three women, aged 40–60, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: intervention group‐ consuming 300 ml of juice per day for 6 weeks‐ and the control one. RESULTS Statistically significant decrease in relative amount of arachidonic acid (p 
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T03:30:20.726975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7977
  • A Combined Microwave Pretreatment/Solvent Extraction Process for the
           Production of Oil from Palm Fruit: Optimisation, Oil Quality and Effect of
           Prolonged Exposure
    • Authors: Tan J. C. X; Chuah C. H, Cheng S. F.
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Conventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in large quantity of wastewater. RESULTS A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T05:25:22.851015-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7975
  • Nitrite formation from vegetable sources and its usage as a preservative
           in cooked sausage
    • Authors: Young Mi Ko; Jin Hwa Park, Ki Sun Yoon
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Due to the potential health risk associated with nitrites, nitrite alternatives from natural sources in meat products have been investigated. We compared the nitrate contents of young radish, lettuce and commercial vegetable powder (cabbage and Chinese cabbage), as well as investigated the effect of incubation time and salt addition on vegetable nitrite formation from vegetable sources. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of vegetable nitrite in cooked sausage were also compared with sodium nitrite. RESULTS Young radish produced the greatest amount of nitrite after 24 h of incubation at 38 °C. On average, an approximately 32% reduction of nitrite was observed in sausage during 4 weeks of storage. Lipid oxidation in sausage was significantly prevented by vegetable nitrite produced from vegetable powder or young radish. The color of the sausage prepared with young radish was most similar to that of the sausage with sodium nitrite. The addition of young radish to sausage significantly prevented the growth of L. monocytogenes at 4 °C and S. aureus at 8 °C. CONCLUSION Young radish was more effective as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent as compared to commercial vegetable powder, which is currently used to make natural meat products, indicating that young radish has a high potential as a natural preservative.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T05:20:28.940281-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7974
  • Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and
           sensory properties of puffed wheat snack
    • Abstract: BACKROUND In this study, research on development of puffed wheat snack by using instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process was carried out. Snack products were produced by expanding of moistened wheat by using various DIC processing conditions in order to obtain adequate puffing; then drying them in a hot air dryer. The effect of the operational variables such as wheat moisture content (11‐23%, wet basis), processing pressure (3‐5 × 102 kPa) and processing time (3‐11 min) on the physical (i.e., density, color and textural characteristics) and sensory properties were investigated. RESULT Physical properties of wheat snack were most affected by changes in processing pressure followed by processing time and wheat moisture content. Increasing processing pressure and time often improved expansion and textural properties but caused darkening of the raw wheat color. The most acceptable snack in terms of physical properties was obtained at lowest wheat moisture content. Sensory analysis suggested that consumer acceptability was optimal for wheat snacks produced at higher pressure level, medium processing time and lower moisture content. CONCLUSION The most desirable conditions for production of puffed wheat snack using DIC process were achieved at 11% of wheat moisture content, 5 × 102 kPa processing pressure and 7 min of processing time.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T05:05:37.828262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7973
  • Changes in Microbial Composition and the Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens
           in Crab Marinated in Soy Sauce Produced by Six Manufacturing Plants
    • Authors: S.A. Kim; E.S. Choi, N.H. Kim, H.W. Kim, N.Y. Lee, T.J. Cho, J.I. Jo, S.H. Kim, S.H. Lee, S.D. Ha, M.S. Rhee
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study examined the changes in microbiological composition during the production process of crab marinated in soy sauce, potential microbial hazards, potential contamination routes, and effective critical control points. Crab and soy sauce samples were obtained from six different manufacturing plants at different stages and the microbiological content was comprehensively assessed in quantitative and qualitative analyses. RESULTS The results revealed the following: 1) the final products contained 4.0 log CFU g‐1 aerobic plate counts (APCs) and 1.1 log CFU g‐1 coliforms, which may have been introduced from the raw materials (the level of APCs in raw crab and soy sauce mixed with other ingredients was 3.8 log CFU/g and 4.0 log CFU/ml, respectively); 2) marination of crab in soy sauce may allow cross‐contamination by coliforms; 3) only B. cereus and S. aureus were qualitatively detected in samples at different stages of manufacture (detection rates, 28% and 5.6%, respectively), and these bacteria may impact the microbiological quality and safety of crab marinated in soy sauce; and 4) bacterial counts were either maintained or increased during the manufacturing process (suggesting that no particular step can be targeted to reduce bacterial counts). CONCLUSION Proper management of raw materials and the marination process are effective critical control points and alternative interventions may be needed to control bacterial quantity. Our results provide important basic information about the production of crab marinated in soy sauce and may facilitate effective implementation of sanitary management practices in related industries and research fields.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T05:05:19.912503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7972
  • Assessing gelling properties of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour through
           rheological characterisation
    • Authors: S Ramos; P Fradinho, P Mata, A Raymundo
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) are considered a promising ingredient for the development of functional products, due to its high nutritional value: 343 g Kg‐1 of lipids, 251 g Kg‐1 proteins and 226 g Kg‐1 fibre. Considering chia's technological capacities, mainly the ability to swell when absorbing water and gel forming properties, its addition to a food matrix can affect texture and rheological behaviour, acting as texturing and stabilizing agent. The present work intends to assess the gelling properties of chia flour through the rheological characterisation of 100, 130 and 150 g Kg‐1 chia flour gels. RESULTS According to the mechanical spectra, all gels presented weak gel like structures, as G’ is always less than a decade higher than G”, but higher chia flour concentrations showed a considerable increase in the viscoelastic moduli. The gels have relatively low maturation times – almost instantaneously for lower concentrations, but the cooling rate affects the dynamic of formation of the gel structure. CONCLUSION Based on texture and rheological properties, gels with 130 g Kg‐1 of chia flour, processed at 90 °C during 30 min showed the most suitable characteristics to be used in the development of new food applications.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T04:50:42.551418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7971
  • Comparison of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck Feet and
           Bovine Gelatins
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous studies indicated that duck feet are rich source of gelatin that could be extracted from avian sources. In this study, the physicochemical and functional properties of avian gelatin extracted from duck feet (DFG) with acetic acid were compared with commercial bovine gelatin (BG). RESULTS The yield of DFG obtained in this study was 7.01 ± 0.31%. HPLC analysis indicated that the imino acid compositions were slightly lower for DFG compared with BG (P < 0.05). Differences in molecular size and amino acids between DFG and BG were also observed. The isoelectric points of DFG and BG were at pH 8 and pH 5, respectively, and the overall protein solubility of BG was higher than that of DFG. Gels prepared from BG exhibited higher bloom strength, viscosity, and clarity and were darker in color compared with DFG gels (P < 0.05). The gelling and melting points of BG were 21.8 °C and 29.47 °C, respectively, and those of DFG were 20.5 °C and 27.8 °C, respectively. BG exhibited slightly better emulsifying and foaming properties compared with DFG. CONCLUSION Although the differences between DFG and BG were observed, the disparities were small, which indicates that DFG could be exploited commercially as an alternative source of gelatin.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T04:40:22.561522-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7970
  • Protein‐peptide nutritional material prepared from surimi wash‐water
           using immobilized chymotrypsin‐trypsin
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND In the production process of surimi, large quantities of wastewater were produced. Thus, it is interesting to develop an efficient protocol for the recovery of protein from hairtail surimi wash‐water. RESULTS A method involving the use of immobilized chymotrypsin‐trypsin (I‐CT) is developed, providing a practical method for the preparation of protein‐peptide nutritional material (PPNM). Under optimized reaction conditions, the recovery rate of nitrogen of surimi rinse water was measured to be 98.3 ± 2.9%. The nutritional evaluation of protein‐peptide fraction demonstrated that it contains all the essential amino acids (EAA) for the human, accounting for 44.1% of total amino acids (TAA) which was determined to be 78.2 g/100 g dry matter. The values of the essential amino acid indices (EAAI) and biological value (BV) were 101.7 (>95) and 76.7, respectively. A wide range of volatile flavor compounds (>50), including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, were identified in PPNM by GC‐MS analysis. CONCLUSION An efficient and practical protocol for the recovery of protein from hairtail surimi wash‐water has been developed. The PPNM prepared in this work could be used as a nutriceutical and as an ingredient of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T04:30:27.067349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7969
  • Effects of Variety and Steeping Conditions on Some Barley Components
           Associated with Colonic Health
    • Authors: Cristina Teixeira; Margareta Nyman, Roger Andersson, Marie Alminger
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Butyric acid is produced by degradation of dietary fibre by microbiota and is crucial for maintaining a healthy colon. The physico‐chemical properties are important for butyric acid formation, and this study aimed to evaluate the use of malting to tailor the functional characteristics of barley dietary fibre. The effect of different steeping conditions was evaluated in laboratory scale malting experiments with three different barley varieties. RESULTS Steeping at 35 C and with 0.4 % (v/v) lactic acid resulted in a higher content of β‐glucan and soluble fibre in the malts than in malts steeped at lower temperature and lower lactic acid concentration. Resistant starch increased, while the content of soluble arabinoxylan was lower. Dietary fibre components in Tipple were more affected by steeping conditions than the other varieties. The total contents of iron, phytate and amylose were little influenced by steeping conditions. CONCLUSION The selection of steeping conditions during malting influence composition and the characteristics of dietary fibre in barley. However, also the choice of barley variety is important for tailoring of functional ingredients beneficial for colonic health.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T03:15:30.369553-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7923
  • Meat Quality of Buffaloes Finished in Traditional or Silvopastoral System
           in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study aimed to assess the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of meat from buffaloes finished in a Traditional System (TS) or Silvopastoral System (TSPS) with dietary supplementation. Crossbred Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes were raised from weaning to slaughter in the TS (n = 15) or were raised in the traditional system and finished in the TSPS (n = 15). After finishing, animals were slaughtered and their carcasses refrigerated for 24 h. The right side of each half‐carcass was cut between the 12th and 13th ribs and the Longissimus thoracis muscle was removed. The cranial part underwent analyses of pH, color, weight loss due to cooking, water holding capacity, texture, and sensory characteristics, while the rest of the muscle underwent microbiological analyses and determination of the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and mineral content. RESULTS No major difference between finishing systems was found (P > 0.05) in the physical analyses and chemical composition of meat. The percentage of myristic acid (C14:0) and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between treatments. The TS meat had the best "characteristic meat aroma." CONCLUSION Considering the quality of meat produced in the TS or TSPS, it is concluded that finishing buffaloes in the pasture is still the best alternative.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T08:41:11.893902-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7922
    • Authors: Zafar Ul Haq Hashmi; Muhammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Akhtar, Tahir Sarwar, Mohammad Jamal Khan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Low phosphorus (P) availability to wheat from commercial fertilizers is one of the reason of lower grain yield and hence justifies search for more efficient P source under alkaline calcareous soils. RESULT Phosphoric acid (PA) viz a viz di‐ammonium phosphate (DAP) applied through conventional and modified methods were assessed for P supply and wheat yield in a calcareous soil. Under lab conditions, pre‐incubated soil with 70 mg kg‐1 P as PA and DAP for four weeks was assessed for solution P (Cp). Phosphorus sorption data were fitted using Freundlich model for describing analyzed sorption in soil incubated with or without DAP and PA. The fitted model equations exhibited comparatively higher effluxes of P from solution system in Control treatment. Compared to DAP, lower quantity (19.6%) of P for PA treated soil were required for producing optimum P concentration in soil solution i.e. 0.2 mg P L‐1. Greenhouse study involved 32P tracer technique to quantify the proportion of applied P derived by wheat from fertilizer or soil. The results showed that P derived from fertilizer was highest (47.5%) in PA‐placement, while the lowest (31.5%) was in DAP‐broadcast treatment. The field study also showed similar trends to that of greenhouse study. The PA‐placement treatment resulted in highest (23.4%) phosphorus use efficiency while lowest one (17.1%) was recorded for DAP‐broadcast treatment. CONCLUSION Phosphoric acid proved better P source than DAP for improving P content during and achieving higher yield and recovery of applied P by wheat grown in alkaline calcareous soils.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T08:10:21.778038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7921
  • Quantification of bioactive compounds in Picual and Arbequina olive leaves
           and fruit
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Olive leaves and fruit possess bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds and triterpenic acids that can be obtained from olive by‐products generated during olive oil extraction. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of them in Picual and Arbequina cultivars from different locations and for two seasons in both olive leaves and fruit. RESULTS The major phenolic compound identified in the leaves was oleuropein, and the total content of phenolic compounds in this material reached 70 g kg‐1 fresh weight. The leaves were also rich in triterpenic acids (20 g kg‐1 fresh weight), with oleanolic being the most concentrated in them. With regard to olives, oleuropein and demethyloleuropein were the main phenolic compounds in the pulp of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, and the total concentration of these phenolic compounds reached 3.5% fresh weight. Olives can also be an important source of triterpenic acids although mainly the skin part, where maslinic and oleanolic acids are concentrated. CONCLUSIONS Olive leaves can contain up to 70 g kg‐1 phenolic compounds and 20 g kg‐1 triterpenic acids, and olive fruit up to 35 g kg‐1 of the former and 3 g kg‐1 of the latter. It must also be noted that this level was constant between seasons and orchard locations.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T07:56:09.709801-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7920
  • A non‐toxic enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay for aflatoxin B1 using
           anti‐idiotypic antibodies as substitutes
    • Authors: Li Hu; Aiping Liu, Weifeng Chen, Hongxiu Yang, Xiaohong Wang, Fusheng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Immunoassays are widely employed techniques to detect aflatoxins since they are rapid, selective and sensitive. One common disadvantage of them is using aflatoxins as standard substances, which may trigger exposure risks to operators and environment contamination without proper handling. Anti‐idiotypic antibodies (anti‐Ids or Ab2s), also named as internal‐image anti‐Ids, are able to mimic and function as antigen, so a non‐toxic enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is developed and validated using anti‐Ids as substitutes. RESULTS Mouse monoclonal anti‐idiotypic antibody (McAb2) to AFB1 was generated by hybridoma technique using Fab fragments of rabbit anti‐AFB1 idiotype antibody (Ab1) as immunogen. And as indicated by indirect competitive ELISA, McAb2, represented an internal‐image of antigen AFB1, was able to bind Fab with competition to AFB1. Then, analysis of AFB1 in spiked samples by non‐toxic ELISA using anti‐Ids as substitutes was developed, and it showed no significant differences with comparison to AFB1 as competitive antigens. CONCLUSION Our work demonstrated that anti‐Ids could be used as an internal‐image mimicry of AFB1, and it had the potential applications in immunoassays for antigen substitution to reduce operational risk for operators and environment contamination.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T23:10:26.859681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7914
  • Protective effect of green tea against neuro‐functional alterations in
           rats treated with MnO2 nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Background Inhalation of manganese‐containing metal fumes at workplaces can cause central nervous damage including a Parkinson‐like syndrome. Oxidative stress is likely to be involved in the pathomechanism, due to the presence of nano‐sized metal oxide particles with high biological and chemical activity. Oxidative damage of the nervous system could be prevented or ameliorated by properly applied antioxidants; preferably natural ones such as green tea, a popular drink. The aim of this work was to see if orally applied green tea brew can diminish the functional neurotoxicity of manganese dioxide nanoparticles give into the airways of rats. Results Young adult male Wistar rats were treated intratracheally for 6 weeks with a suspension of synthetic MnO2 nanoparticles (4 mg/kg b.w.), and received green tea brew (1 g leaves for 200 mL water) as drinking fluid. Reduced body weight gain, indicating general toxicity of the nanoparticles, was not influenced by green tea. However, in rats receiving green tea the nervous system effects – changes in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity, and peripheral nerve action potential – were diminished. Conclusion The use of green tea as a neuroprotective functional drink seems to be a viable approach.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T07:10:21.421946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7919
  • Effects of four different drying methods on the carotenoid composition and
           antioxidant capacity of dried Gac peel
    • Authors: Hoang V. Chuyen; Paul D. Roach, John B. Golding, Sophie E. Parks, Minh H. Nguyen
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) is a rich source of carotenoids for the manufacture of powder, oil and capsules for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Currently, only the aril of the Gac fruit is processed and the peel, like the other components, is discarded although it contains high level of carotenoids, which could be extracted for commercial use. In the present study, four different drying methods (hot‐air, vacuum, heat pump and freeze drying), different temperatures and drying times were investigated for producing dried Gac peel suitable for carotenoid extraction. RESULTS The drying methods and drying temperatures significantly affected the drying time, carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of the dried Gac peel. Among the investigated drying methods, hot‐air drying at 80 °C and vacuum drying at 50 °C produced dried Gac peel that exhibited the highest retention of carotenoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSION The hot‐air drying at 80 °C and the vacuum drying at 50 °C are recommended for the drying of Gac peel.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T07:10:19.273088-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7918
  • Recent applications of NMR in food and dietary studies
    • Authors: Venkatesh Ramakrishnan; Devanand L. Luthria
      Abstract: Over the last decade, a wide variety of new foods have been introduced into the global market place, many with health benefits that exceed those of traditional foods. Simultaneously, a wide range of analytical technologies have evolved that allow greater capability for the determination of food composition. Thus, the world is being offered an unprecedented number of healthful foods and an unprecedented ability to characterize these foods. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), traditionally a research tool used for structural elucidation, is now being used frequently for metabolomics and chemical fingerprinting. Its stability and inherent ease of quantification have been exploited extensively to identify and quantify bioactive components in foods and dietary supplements. In addition, NMR fingerprints have been used to differentiate cultivars, evaluate sensory properties of food, and investigate the influence of growing conditions on food crops. Here we review the latest applications of NMR in food analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:55:28.58695-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7917
  • Anthocyanins in different Citrus species, an
           UHPLC‐PDA‐ESI/MSn‐assisted qualitative and quantitative
    • Authors: Simona Fabroni; Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Paolo Rapisarda
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanins are water‐soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid family. They are typically present in the flesh and peel in the blood orange cultivars. Although blood orange young shoots and flowers are not anthocyanin‐colored, lemon, citron, rangpur lime, and Meyer lemon young shoots and flowers exhibit marked pigmentation due to anthocyanins, demonstrating that anthocyanin biosynthesis in the Citrus genus is tissue‐ and genotype‐dependent. This study aimed to examine the qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin profile of fruit and other tissues from different Citrus species. RESULTS The presence of anthocyanin‐pigmented stigmas in the young flowers of a blood orange tree (cv. ‘Moro’) was herein characterized and reported for the first time. The dominant pigments in blood orange fruits were cyanidin‐3‐glucoside and cyanidin‐3‐(6″‐malonyl‐glucoside), whereas different patterns were observed in the young shoots, flowers and peel tissues of different Citrus species. CONCLUSION This is the first study to report differentially expressed anthocyanin pigmentation patterns in different organs from several species of the genus Citrus. The obtained results could also represent a starting point for further investigations to better understand which regulatory genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the fruits, shoots and floral tissues of different Citrus species.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:46:04.161182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7916
  • Fruit quality assessment of watermelons grafted onto citron melon
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The grafting of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) is a common technique that increases yields under stressful soil conditions. The most common rootstocks for watermelons are Cucurbita hybrids. However, they often have a negative impact on fruit quality. Exploiting novel Citrullus germplasm, such as citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides), is an alternative to avoid these quality problems. RESULTS Citron melon has been validated as watermelon rootstock, comparing its effects on watermelon quality to those of Cucurbita hybrids. Larger fruits with thicker rinds were observed in fruits from plants grafted onto both citron and Cucurbita rootstocks. The citron melon had no significant effect on flesh sugars or acid profiles compared to non‐grafted watermelons, except for an increase in glucose and malic acid content, which also occurred in the Cucurbita rootstocks. The aroma profile of fruits produced onto citron melon was similar to that of the non‐grafted and self‐grafted controls. The citron rootstock didn't display the increased levels of (Z)‐6‐nonen‐1‐ol (a compound associated with pumpkin‐like odors) found in fruits produced with Cucurbita hybrids. CONCLUSION The low impact of citron melon rootstock on fruit quality along with the enhanced resistance against nematodes, make the citron a promising alternative to Cucurbita rootstocks.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:40:45.348276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7915
  • Successful detection of foreign insert in transgenic rice TT51–1 (BT63)
           by RNA‐sequencing combined with PCR
    • Authors: Yunjing Li; Jun Li, Yuhua Wu, Yinglong Cao, Jun Li, Li Zhu, Xiaofei Li, Shunmou Huang, Gang Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND As event‐specific sequence information for most unauthorized GMOs is currently still unavailable, detecting unauthorized GMOs remains challenging. Here, we used insect‐resistant rice TT51‐1 as an example to develop a novel approach via detecting GMOs by RNA‐seq (sequencing) and PCR. RNA‐seq of TT51‐1generated 4.8 million (M) 21‐nt cDNA tags. Alignment to the Oryza sativa ssp. japonica reference genome revealed 24,098 unmapped tags. Foreign tags from the nopaline synthetic enzyme gene (NOS) terminator and insect‐resistant genes were then identified by searching against the NCBI VecScreen and NT databases. RESULTS To further isolate foreign DNA sequences, putative NOS terminator and insect‐resistant gene tags were combined and used directly as primer pairs for long‐range PCR, producing a 5016‐bp fragment. The inserted DNA sequence of TT51‐1 has been submitted to a database, and thus, similarity analysis using the database could identify a test sample. CONCLUSION The novel approach has a great potential for application to detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs in food and feed products.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T22:35:26.427732-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7913
  • Effect of postharvest ethylene treatment on sugar content, glycosidase
           activity and its gene expression in mango fruit
    • Authors: Hemangi G. Chidley; Ashish B. Deshpande, Pranjali S. Oak, Keshav H. Pujari, Ashok P. Giri, Vidya S. Gupta
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ripening associated softening is one of the important attributes that largely decides the shelf‐life of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) fruits. To reveal the effect of pre‐climacteric ethylene treatment on ripening related softening of Alphonso mango, ethylene treatment was given to mature‐ raw Alphonso fruits. Changes in the pool of reducing and non‐reducing sugars, enzymatic activity of three glycosidases: β‐D‐galactosidase, α‐D‐mannosidase and β‐D‐glucosidase and their relative transcript abundance were analysed for control and ethylene treated fruits during ripening. RESULTS Early activity of all the three glycosidases and accelerated accumulation of reducing and non‐reducing sugars on ethylene treatment was evident. β‐D‐galactosidase showed the highest activity among three glycosidases in control fruits and marked increase in activity upon ethylene treatment. This was confirmed by the histochemical assay of its activity in control and ethylene treated ripe fruits. Relative transcript abundance revealed high transcript levels of β‐D‐galactosidase in control fruits. Ethylene treated fruits showed early and remarkable increase in the β‐D‐galactosidase transcripts while α‐D‐mannosidase transcript variants displayed early accumulation. CONCLUSION The findings suggests reduction in the shelf‐life of Alphonso mango upon pre‐climacteric ethylene treatment, significant role of β‐D‐galactosidase and α‐D‐mannosidase in the ripening related softening of Alphonso fruits and transcriptional regulation of their expression by ethylene.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:15:24.974086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7912
    • Authors: Claudio Pattara; Carlo Russo, Vittoria Antrodicchia, Angelo Cichelli
      Abstract: The quantification of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions represents a critical issue for the future development of agro‐food produces. Consumer's behavior could play an important role in the requiring of the environmental performance as an essential element for food quality. Nowadays, the Carbon Footprint (CFP) is a tool worldwide used by agro‐food industries to communicating environmental information. This paper aims to investigate the role that CFP could have in consumer's choices in three significant agro‐food sectors in the Mediterranean area: wine, olive oil and cereals. A critical review about the use of CFP was carried out along the supply chain of these three sector, in order to identify opportunities for enhancing food quality and environmental sustainability and highlighting how the environmental information could influence the consumer's preferences. The analysis of the state of the art shows a great variability of the results about GHG emissions referred to agricultural and industrial processes. In many cases, the main environmental criticisms are linked to the agricultural phase, but also the other phases of the supply chain could contribute to rise up the CFP. However, despite the wide use of CFP by companies as communication tool to help consumer's choices in agro‐food product, some improvement are needed in order to provide clearer and more understandable information.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:15:23.575894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7911
  • Carotenoids in fresh and processed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits
           protect cells from oxidative stress injury
    • Authors: Rita Del Giudice; Ganna Petruk, Assunta Raiola, Amalia Barone, Daria Maria Monti, Maria Manuela Rigano
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Lipophilic antioxidants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits exert important functions in reducing the risk of human diseases. Here, the effect of thermal processing on the antioxidant activity of lipophilic extracts from the commercial tomato hybrid “Zebrino” was analysed. Carotenoids content and lipophilic antioxidant activity were determined and the ability of tomato extracts in rescuing cells from oxidative stress was assessed RESULTS The lipophilic antioxidant activity was completely retained after heat treatment and extracts were able to mitigate the detrimental effect induced by oxidative stress on different cell lines. Lycopene alone was able to rescue cells from oxidative stress, even if to a lower extent compared to tomato extracts. These results were probably due the synergistic effect of tomato compounds in protecting cells from oxidative stress injury. CONCLUSION The current study provides valuable insights into the health effect of the dietary carotenoids present in fresh and processed tomato fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:05:50.417605-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7910
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high‐fat high‐sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological–and structural– properties involved in fiber‐enriched biscuit dough. High‐amylose‐corn starch (RSII), chemically‐modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) on dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied using dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was evaluated by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. RESULTS Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. Oat fiber reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked inulin biscuits as much as the control. CONCLUSION The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T07:20:29.208263-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7909
  • Purification, characterization, and immunoregulatory activity of a
           polysaccharide isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L
    • Authors: Daheng Zheng; Ye Zou, Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Wei Wang, Qian Li, Yao Chen, Weiwei Feng, Yanmin Zou, Ting Zhao, Min Zhang, Liuqing Yang, Xiangyang Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is not only used traditionally as a component of herbal drinks, beverages, and flavoring agents, but also as herbal medicine in the drug industry. Bioactive polysaccharides are important constituents of H. sabdariffa that may contribute to the plant's beneficial effects. This study was designed to investigate the structural characteristics of a water‐soluble polysaccharide from H. sabdariffa (HSP41), and its immunoregulatory activity on RAW264.7 cells. RESULTS HSP41 was mainly composed of arabinose, xylose, and mannose at a molar ratio of 1:1.34:15.6, with an average molecular weight of 3.3 × 105 Da. Fourier transform infrared (FT‐IR) spectra exhibited absorption peaks characteristic of HSP41. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the amorphous form and the aggregation conformation of HSP41, respectively. HSP41 significantly induced interleukin ‐ (IL) 1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW264.7 cells in vitro, promoting an increase of nuclear factor‐кB p65 (NF‐кB p65) levels in the nucleus. CONCLUSION Our results indicated that HSP41 upregulated the immune response by stimulating RAW264.7 cells activity. HSP41, a promising immunoregulator, possibly contributed to the health benefits of H. sabdariffa, and might have potential applications in health food or medicine.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T07:06:43.403296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7908
  • Pleurotus ostreatus decreases cornstalk lignin content, potentially
           improving its suitability for animal feed
    • Authors: Ying Chen; Huan Fan, Fanrui Meng
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The capacity of Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) to degrade lignin was investigated in the fermentation of cornstalk. Cornstalk was incubated with P. ostreatus for 30 days, and acid soluble and insoluble lignins were assessed. The microscopic structure of cornstalk samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectroscopic characteristics were measured by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR), and solid‐state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C‐NMR). RESULTS During fermentation of cornstalk, the proportion of acid soluble lignin did not vary significantly (p > 0.05), but that of acid insoluble lignin gradually decreased from 17.8% to 7.6% on day 30 (p 
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T07:06:40.1302-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7907
  • Carrot juice ingestion attenuates high fructose‐induced circulatory
           pro‐inflammatory mediators in weanling Wistar rats
    • Authors: Malleswarapu Mahesh; Bharathi Munugala, Mooli Raja Gopal Reddy, Pranati Pappu, Uday Kumar Putcha, Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari, Shanmugam M Jeyakumar
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Adipose tissue, the endocrine organ plays vital role, not only in energy homeostasis, but also in the development and/or progression of various metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), through several factors and mechanisms, including inflammation. Here, we tested carrot juice administration whether affects the adipose tissue development and its inflammatory status or not using high fructose diet‐induced rat model. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into four groups, fed either control or high fructose diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice ingestion for 8 weeks period. RESULTS: Administration of carrot juice did not affect the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT), which was corroborated with unaltered expression of genes involved in adipogenic and lipogenic pathways. However, it significantly reduced high fructose diet‐induced elevation of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) (p ≤ 0.05), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p ≤ 0.01) and high sensitive C‐reactive protein (hsCRP) (p ≤ 0.05) levels. CONCLUSION In conclusion, carrot juice administration attenuated the high fructose diet‐induced elevation of circulatory FFA and pro‐inflammatory mediators; MCP1 and hsCRP levels, without affecting adiposity and cell size of the visceral fat depot; RPWAT.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:56:13.71971-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7906
  • Contribution of yeast and base wine supplementation on sparkling wine
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The differential characteristic of sparkling wine is the formation of foam, which is dependent, among other factors, on yeast autolysis, aging and oenological practices. In this study, we analyzed the effects of yeast strain, nutrient supplementation to the base wine and aging process on the sparkling wine composition and its foamability. RESULTS We determined that the addition of inorganic nitrogen promoted nitrogen liberation to the extracellular medium, while the addition of inactive dry yeast to the base wine caused an increase in the polysaccharide concentration and foaming properties of the sparkling wine. The use of synthetic and natural base wines allowed us to discriminate that the differences in High Molecular Weight Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides could be attributed to the yeast cells and that the higher nitrogen content in the natural wine, could be due to external proteolysis. CONCLUSION The practices of nitrogen addition and supplementation of Inactive Dry Yeast could modulate the main characteristics of the sparkling wine and be a critical element for the design of this kind of wines.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:55:51.094505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7905
  • Effect of chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution as a
           function of pH
    • Authors: Zhengtao Zhao; Qiao Xiao
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chitosan was reported to interact with proteins through electrostatic interactions. Their interaction was influenced by pH, which was not fully characterized. Further research about the interactions between protein and chitosan at different pH and their influence on the thermal denaturation of proteins are necessary. RESULTS In this research, the effect of the chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution at pH 4.0‐6.0 was studied. At pH 4.0, small amount chitosan was able to prevent the heat‐induced denaturation and aggregation of whey protein molecules. At higher pH values (5.5 and 6.0), whey proteins complexed with chitosan through electrostatic attraction. The formation of chitosan/whey proteins complexes at pH 5.5 improved the heat stability of dispersions and no precipitation could be detected up to 20 days. The dispersion with medium amount of chitosan (Chitosan/whey protein 1:5) produced the most stable particles, which had an average radius 135 ‐ 14 nm and a zeta potential value 36 ‐ 1 mV. In contrast, at pH 6.0, only the dispersion with high amount of chitosan (Chitosan /whey protein 1:2) showed good shelf stability up to 20 days. CONCLUSIONS It was possible to produce heat‐stable whey protein beverages by regulating the interaction between chitosan and whey protein molecules.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:55:37.585412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7904
  • Synthesis of raffinose by transfructosylation using recombinant
           levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206
    • Authors: Wenjing Li; Shuhuai Yu, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Raffinose, a functional trisaccharide of α‐D‐galactopyranosyl‐(1 → 6)‐α‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐(1 → 2)‐β‐D‐fructofuranoside, is a prebiotic that shows promise for use as a food ingredient. RESULTS In this study, the production of raffinose from melibiose and sucrose was studied using whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring the levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206. The reaction conditions were optimized for raffinose synthesis. The optimal pH, temperature, and washed cell concentration were pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM), 55 °C, and 3% (w/v), respectively. High substrate concentrations, which led to low water activity and thus reduced levansucrase hydrolysis activity, strongly favored the production of raffinose through the fructosyl transfer reaction. Additionally, high concentrations of excess acceptor and donor glycosides favored raffinose production. When 30% (w/v) sucrose and 30% (w/v) melibiose were catalyzed using 3% (w/v) whole cells at pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM) and 55 °C, the highest raffinose yield was 222 g L−1 after a 6 h reaction. The conversion ratio from each substrate to raffinose was 50%. CONCLUSION Raffinose could be effectively produced with melibiose as an acceptor and with sucrose as a fructosyl donor by whole recombinant E. coli cells harboring C. arbusti levansucrase. The yield from E. coli was significantly higher than those of the previously reported Bacillus subtilis levansucrase and fungal α‐galactosidases.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:55:27.16657-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7903
  • Feed and fuel: The dual‐purpose advantage of an industrial
    • Authors: Wendy A. Mussoline; Ann C. Wilkie
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Sustainable agricultural systems must support nutritional requirements, meet energy demands of a growing population, preserve environmental resources, and mitigate climate change. The sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a high‐yielding crop that requires minimal fertilization and irrigation, and the CX‐1 industrial cultivar offers superior potential for feed and fuel. RESULTS CX‐1 had the highest agronomic fresh vine yield (51.5 t ha−1) averaged over two cropping seasons compared with Hernandez (33.7) and Beauregard (21.8) varieties. CX‐1 vines were more nutritional than the table varieties, specifically in regards to relative feed value (205), water‐soluble carbohydrates (171 g kg−1 DM), total digestible nutrients (643 g kg−1 DM), metabolizable energy (10.2 MJ kg−1 DM), and organic matter digestibility. Their lower fiber and lignin concentrations contributed to their freshness and digestibility throughout maturity. Significantly higher iron concentrations make the CX‐1 vines a valuable, low‐fat iron supplement for animal feed. The CX‐1 roots also showed the highest bioethanol potential (82.3 g ethanol kg−1 fresh root) compared to Hernandez (64.5) and Beauregard (48.1). CONCLUSION The CX‐1 industrial sweetpotato is an ideal dual‐purpose crop for tropical/subtropical climates that can be utilized as a non‐grain‐based feedstock for bioethanol production while contributing a valuable, high‐yielding nutritional supplement for animal feed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T04:05:23.936399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7902
  • Influence of Chitosan‐sodium Alginate Pretreated by Ultrasound on the
           Enzyme Activity, Viscosity and Structure of Papain
    • Authors: Liping Feng; Yanping Cao, Duoxia Xu, Dandan Zhang, Zhenghua Huang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Ultrasound treatment has been proved as an effective technique in improving the activity of immobilized enzyme. However, its mechanism is unclear. RESULTS The effect of ultrasonic pretreated chitosan‐sodium alginate (CHI‐ALG) on the enzymatic activity of papain was investigated through the single factor (temperature, time, frequency, power) experiment. The maximum relative enzyme activity of papain was observed when it mixed with ultrasound pretreated CHI‐ALG at 135 kHz, 0.25 W cm−2, 50 °C for 20 min, under which the relative activity increased by 72.14% compared with the untreated CHI‐ALG. Viscosity analysis of papain mixed with CHI‐ALG pretreated and untreated by ultrasound revealed that the stronger association interactions between the polymers were formed than untreated sample. Fluorescence and Circular dichroism spectra reflected that the ultrasonic pretreatment of CHI‐ALG increased the number of tryptophan on papain surface and increased the content of α‐helix by 6.97% and decreased the content of β‐sheet by 3.45% compared with the untreated solution. CONCLUSION Results indicated that papain combined with CHI‐ALG pretreated by appropriate ultrasound could be effective in improving the activity of immobilized enzyme because of changes of its structure and intermolecular interactions. It is important to extend the application of CHI‐ALG gel in the immobilized enzyme industry.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T04:00:21.090022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7901
  • Effects of salt stress imposed during two growth phases on cauliflower
           production and quality
    • Authors: Francesco Giuffrida; Carla Cassaniti, Angelo Malvuccio, Cherubino Leonardi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cultivation of cauliflower is diffused in Mediterranean areas where water salinity produces a need to look for alternative irrigation sources or management strategy. The aim of this study was to understand, through the use of saline water at two growth phases (from transplanting to visible appearance of inflorescence or from appearance of inflorescence to head harvest) the growth period more suitable for irrigation with low quality water in relation to cauliflower production and quality. RESULTS Salinity affected cauliflower growth mainly when imposed at the first growth phase. The growth reduction depended mainly on ion‐specific effects, although slight nutrient imbalances due to Na+ and Cl− antagonisms were observed. The use of non‐saline water in the first or second growth period reduced both osmotic and toxic effects of salinity. When salinity was applied during the inflorescence growth, yield was reduced because of a restriction of water accumulation in the head. CONCLUSION The results showed the possibility to produce marketable cauliflower heads under salinity conditions by timing the application of the best quality water during the first growth phase to improve fruit quality and at the second phase to reduce the negative effects of salinity on yield.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:50:23.197411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7900
  • A small angle X‐ray scattering study of the structure and development of
           looseness in bovine hides and leather
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Some bovine hides produce poor quality leather, called loose leather. The structural characteristics of hides and intermediate processed stages that lead to loose leather are not well understood. Here, synchrotron‐based small angle X‐ray scattering (SAXS) is used to investigate the collagen fibril orientation at different stages of processing, from hide through to leather, that result in both tight and loose leathers. RESULTS Tight leather of a relatively isotropic texture has a lower orientation index (OI) than loose leather of a more pronounced stratified texture; conversely, tight pickled hide and wet blue have a higher OI than loose pickled hide and wet blue. There is a greater increase in OI on processing from pickled hide to dry crust (leather) for loose material. This is largely due to a greater increase in hide thickness prior to pickling for loose hide than tight, followed by a greater decrease at the dry crust stage. The collagen fibrils in loose leather and wet blue more readily orient under stress than do those in tight. Loose leather has a more pronounced layered structure than tight leather but this difference is not apparent from SAXS measurements of hide prior to the dry crust stage; it develops during processing. CONCLUSION The greater swelling of the loose hide during processing disrupts the structure and leads to a more layered collagen arrangement on shrinking at the final dry crust stage.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:40:32.433222-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7899
  • The combined effect of water status and crop level on Tempranillo wine
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The effect of water status and crop level on volatile composition of Tempranillo wine was investigated over two growing seasons (2010–2011) in Extremadura (Spain). Three water status treatments (T0‐Rainfed control, T1‐Early regulated deficit irrigation and T2‐Late regulated deficit irrigation) were combined with two crop levels treatments (TH‐cluster thinning and C‐control). RESULTS Crop level treatment had a higher effect on individual volatiles analyzed in Tempranillo wine than water status. The combinations of water status and crop level treatments showed effects on all families of compounds with exception of acetates and volatile fatty acids. Alcohols, C6 compounds and phenol volatiles producing the highest concentrations at the lower level of available water and when cluster thinning was applied (T0‐TH). However, ethyl ester and lactones showed higher concentrations in regulated deficit irrigation (T1 and T2), and when cluster thinning was not applied. CONCLUSION The combined effect of rainfed and cluster thinning treatments (T0‐TH) increased the majority of individual aromatic compounds quantified in Tempranillo wines and also showed the highest total odor activity value.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:25:21.097575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7898
  • The identification and evaluation of two different color variations of tea
    • Authors: Yuchen Li; Changsong Chen, Yusheng Li, Zhaotang Ding, Jiazhi Shen, Yu Wang, Lei Zhao, Meng Xu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz, is a perennial woody plant widely cultivated for the production of a popular non‐alcoholic beverage. To rapidly identify and evaluate two different color tea varieties (yellowish and purplish), the main phenotypic traits and quality components were tested in this study. Then the metabolic profiles of tea shoots and leaves were analyzed using LC‐MS/MS. RESULTS The yellowish variation had higher active level in catechins metabolism, and contents of luteolin and kaempferol 3‐α‐D‐glucoside were much higher than others. But the purplish variation had low content of theanine and high content of caffeine. The contents of quercetin and kaempferol 3‐α‐D‐galactoside were the highest in purplish leaves. Moreover, the yellowish variation had the highest total quality scores of green teas and black teas, while the purplish variation had the highest scores of oolong teas. CONCLUSION Both the yellowish variation and the purplish variation were excellent breeding materials and worthwhile to breed new tea cultivars. The yellowish variation is more suitable to make high grade green teas or black teas, while the purplish variation is suitable to produce fine quality oolong teas.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T03:20:46.512572-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7897
  • A rat model for determining the postprandial response to foods
    • Authors: Damien P. Belobrajdic; Jiangqin Wei, Anthony R. Bird
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The use of small animal models for studying postprandial changes in circulating nutrients, hormones and metabolic biomarkers is hampered by the limited quantity of blood that can be withdrawn for analysis. Here we describe the development of an unrestrained, meal‐fed rat model, having a permanent or temporary vascular cannula that permits repeated blood sampling. The applicability and performance of the model was evaluated in a series of experiments on acute glycemic and insulinemic responses to carbohydrate‐based test meals. RESULTS A test food containing 0.4 g carbohydrate raised blood glucose by 1.5 mM. Postprandial blood glucose levels peaked at 15 min and returned to baseline at 180 min whereas they remained elevated for longer when the test meal contained 1.25 g carbohydrate. The glycemic response tended (P = 0.063) to be higher when the meal tolerance test was conducted at the start rather than the end of the dark period but the insulinemic response was unaffected. The magnitude of the glycemic response was less for blood collected from the caudal vein compared to that from the jugular vein. Both cannulation strategies were equally effective in enabling return of red blood cells, thus preserving blood volume. CONCLUSION This improved small animal model affords new opportunities to screen foods for nutrient bioavailability and explore metabolic mechanisms mediating responses to food consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T09:11:15.64206-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7896
  • Deficit Irrigation Reduces Postharvest Rib Pinking in Wholehead Iceberg
           Lettuce, but at the Expense of Head Fresh Weight
    • Authors: James M Monaghan; Laura H Vickers, Ivan G Grove, Andrew M Beacham
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Postharvest pinking is a serious issue affecting lettuce quality. Previous studies suggested the possibility of using deficit irrigation to control discolouration, however, this approach may also affect yield. This study investigated the effect of varying irrigation deficits on iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to determine the relationship between irrigation deficit, pinking and fresh weight. RESULTS The deficit imposed and head fresh weight obtained depended on both the duration and timing of withholding irrigation. Withholding irrigation for a period of two or three weeks in the middle or end of the growth period significantly reduced rib pinking compared to well‐watered controls. Withholding irrigation for two weeks at the start of the growth period or one week at the end did not significantly reduce pinking. Withholding irrigation also reduced head fresh weight such that minimising pinking would be predicted to incur a loss of 40% relative to well‐watered controls. However, smaller benefits to pinking reduction were achieved with less effect on head fresh weight. CONCLUSION Deficit irrigation could therefore be used to provide smaller but higher quality heads which are less likely to be rejected. The balance of these factors will determine the degree of adoption of this approach to growers.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T09:06:24.082988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7895
  • Maghemite nanoparticles‐decorated hollow fiber‐electromembrane
           extraction combined with dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction for
           determination of thymol from Carum copticum
    • Abstract: Background In this study, a novel technique using maghemite nanoparticles‐decorated hollow fiber to assist electromembrane extraction is proposed. The electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction (EME‐DLLME) was applied for the extraction of thymol from Carum copticum followed by gas chromatography‐flame ionization detection (GC‐FID). Results The use of maghemite nanoparticles‐decorated hollow fibers was found to improve the extraction efficiency of thymol significantly. Important operational parameters including pH of acceptor phase, extraction time, voltage, and temperature were investigated and optimized. At the optimum conditions, the linearity in the range of 4–1800 µg L−1 with the determination coefficient of 0.9996 was obtained. The limit of detection was 0.11 µg L−1 (S/N = 3) and the pre‐concentration factor was 200. The intra and inter day precisions (%) were 5.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The intra and inter days accuracy was higher than 93.6%. Conclusion Therefore, the results indicated that EME‐DLLME‐GC‐FID is a useful technique for extraction and determination of thymol in Carum copticum.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T08:45:30.559048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7894
  • Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste
           supported aluminum oxides
    • Abstract: Background Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. Results In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste‐based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea‐Al) was successfully prepared. The Tea‐Al biosorbent was characterized by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The Tea‐Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), while a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine under the same condition. Fluoride adsorption by the Tea‐Al with different times obeyed the surface reaction and the adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrated that Tea‐Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T08:45:21.529871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7893
  • Effect of composted sewage sludge on morpho‐physiological growth
           parameters, grain yield and selected functional compounds of barley
    • Authors: Antonella Pasqualone; Carmine Summo, Isabella Centomani, Giovanni Lacolla, Gianraffaele Caranfa, Giovanna Cucci
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Several studies had evaluated the effects of composted sewage sludge on barley, and found a positive influence on crop productivity. No studies investigated the effects of composted sewage sludge on functional compounds of the caryopsis, such as phenolics and β‐glucans. The former play a role in plant defence mechanism and both could be influenced by variations of kernel size related to fertilization intensity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses (3–12 Mg ha−1) of composted sewage sludge applied alone or in combination with mineral fertilization on morpho‐physiological and yield, qualitative parameters, especially phenolics and β‐glucans contents of the grains, in barley. RESULTS Increasing fertilization rates, irrespective of fertilizer type, improved morpho‐physiological and yield parameters, whereas the phenolic compounds and the related antioxidant activity significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The β‐glucans and the main color indices did not show significant differences. The combined application of 6 Mg ha−1 sewage sludge and nitrogen was not significantly different from mineral fertilization. Morpho‐physiological and qualitative parameters, and bioactive compounds, were all significantly correlated with nutrient levels, with higher r values for N. CONCLUSION Composted sewage sludge had a similar effect compared to mineral fertilization.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T08:41:15.900395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7892
  • Irrigation Dose and Plant Density Affect the Volatile Composition and
           Sensory Quality of Dill (Anethum graveolens L.)
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Two independent field experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of (i) 3 irrigation treatments (ID0 =1585 m3 ha−1, considered as a control; ID1 = 1015 m3 ha−1; and, ID2 = 2180 m3 ha−1), or (ii) 3 plant density treatments (PD0 = 5.56 plants m−2, considered as a control; PD1= 4.44 plants m−2; and, PD2 = 7.41 plants m−2) on the production, volatile composition of essential oil, and sensory quality of dill. RESULTS The results showed that the highest plant yield was obtained with intermediate conditions of both irrigation dose (ID0) and plant density (PD0). The main compounds of the essential oil were α‐phellandrene, dill ether, and β‐phellandrene. The highest irrigation dose (ID2) produced the highest concentrations of most of the main compounds: α‐phellandrene (49.5 mg 100 g−1), β‐phellandrene (6.89 mg 100 g−1) and limonene (2.49 mg 100 g−1); a similar pattern was found for the highest plant density (PD2), α‐phellandrene (71.0 mg 100 g−1), dill ether (16.7 mg 100 g−1) and β‐phellandrene (9.70 mg 100 g−1). The use of descriptive sensory analysis helped in reaching a final decision and the dill plants with the highest sensory quality were those of the ID2 and PD0 treatments. CONCLUSION The final recommendation is to use the irrigation dose of ID2 and the plant density of PD2 if the objective is to produce dill samples with the highest aromatic and sensory quality; however, if the only objective is to produce high amounts of dill, the best options are ID0 and PD0.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:45:26.068808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7890
  • Comparison of the effects of three kinds of aminobutyric acids on control
           of Penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit
    • Authors: Da Fu Yu Sun; Chen Yu, Xiaodong Zheng, Ting Yu, Huangping Lu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aminobutyric acids were reported to have inhibitory effect on postharvest fungal diseases. The effects of α‐aminobutyric acid (AABA), β‐aminobutyric acid (BABA) and γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) on control of Penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit were compared in this study. RESULTS BABA and GABA reduced disease incidence of the P. expansum infection in pear fruit at an appropriate concentration and treatment time and the efficacy of GABA was superior to BABA, but AABA had no inhibition effect. Three kinds of aminobutyric acids almost had no direct antifungal activity against P. expansum in vitro and in vivo, but BABA and GABA inhibited spore germination of P. expansum in vivo at 100 mg L−1 when P. expansum was inoculated 24 h after treatments. Moreover, BABA and GABA enhanced catalase activity and all three aminobutyric acids enhanced peroxidase activity in pear fruit after challenged by P. expansum, but BABA and GABA were more forceful than AABA. CONCLUSION The position of amino group in aminobutyric acids may be associated with the effects of aminobutyric acids on control of postharvest fungal diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:45:21.009288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7891
  • Degradation rates of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas L. oil and pressed
           seeds under different storage conditions
    • Authors: Naphatsarnan Phasukarratchai; Seelawut Damrongsiri, Chantra Tongcumpou
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Phorbol esters (PEs), found in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and J. curcas pressed seeds (JPS), are known as bioactive compounds in agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The degradation rates of PEs in JCO and JPSs under various conditions is important for the Pes utilization. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the PE degradation rates in JCO and JPSs under different storage conditions. RESULTS PE degradation rates were found to be first order reactions. The slowest degradation rate was at 0.9 × 10−3 d−1 for both JCO and JPSs unexposed to light at 4 °C. Light intensity (1097 lx and 4690 lx, representing diffused sunlight and fluorescent lighting, respectively) and temperature (25 to 35 °C) were the significant degradation factors. Light exposure led to 280 to 380% higher degradation rates in JCO than in JPSs due to light penetration through the transparent oil. Dried and sterilized JPSs showed an 80 to 90% lower PE degradation rate than untreated JPSs under all storage conditions since biodegradation was assembly limited. CONCLUSION The PEs were unstable under the studied conditions, especially when exposed to light and room temperature. To protect against PE degradation, a material should be stored in a light‐protected container and below 4 °C.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:41:11.676796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7888
  • Effect of technological factors on the activity and losses of cathepsins
           B, D and L during the marinating of Atlantic and Baltic herrings
    • Authors: Mariusz Szymczak
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study analyzes the effect of salt and acetic acid concentration, time, temperature and fish freezing on the activity and losses of cathepsins during the marinating of Atlantic and Baltic herrings. RESULTS The highest contribution in meat GPA was found for cathepsin D‐like. This contribution decreased during the marinating process as a result of, among other things, cathepsins losses to brine. The methods of marinating had a significant impact on cathepsin activity losses. The average ratio of the activity of cathepsin D‐like to L and B in the brine accounted for 15 : 3.5 : 1.5, respectively. Depending on the method of calculation, cathepsins activity in the brine was similar (per gram‐tissue/ml brine) or multiply higher (per gram‐protein in tissue/brine) than in the marinated herring meat. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the extent and structure of cathepsin losses were significantly correlated with the quantitative and qualitative composition of protein hydrolysis products in marinades. CONCLUSION The presented results depict new phenomena of cathepsins losses and explain their impact on the process of fish marinating. Results allow better optimization of the process of meat ripening. The high activity of aspartyl and cysteine cathepsins in brine indicates the real feasibility of their application in the food industry for novel food designing.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08T08:41:06.39641-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7889
  • Sonodegradation of Cyanidin‐3‐glucosylrutinoside: degradation kinetic
           analysis and its impact on antioxidant capacity in vitro
    • Authors: Jianxia Sun; Xinghua Li, Xinyu Lin, Zhouxiong Mei, Yitao Li, Lijun Ding, Weibin Bai
      Abstract: Background As an alternative preservation method for thermal treatment, ultrasound is a novel non‐thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, recently literature indicated that anthocyanin degradation occurred when ultrasound was applied in juice at high amplitude parameters. This work mainly studied the effect of ultrasound on stability, antioxidant capacity of Cyanidin‐3‐glucosylrutinoside (Cy‐3‐glc‐rut) and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and ·OH generation in simulated system. Results The spectral intensities of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut at 518 nm and 282 nm decreased with increasing ultrasound power and treatment time. The degradation of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut were consistent with first‐order reaction kinetics (R2>0.9000), and there was a good linear correlation between anthocyanins degradation and hydroxyl radical formation induced by ultrasound (R2=0.9258). Moreover, the decrease of antioxidant activity of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut after ultrasound evaluated by DPPH and FRAP methods was observed. Conclusion Overall, the results showed that ultrasound will accelerate the degradation of Cy‐3‐glc‐rut with the growth of power and the increment of time.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T06:45:23.378272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7887
  • Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of açaí (Euterpe
           oleracea): genotypes and commercial pulps
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Açaí has been reported to contain many bioactive compounds including phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins. This study aims to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of six pulps of three different açaí genotypes belonging to the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Eastern Amazon and three commercial pulps, from Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. RESULTS Anthocyanin 3‐rutinoside was the major anthocyanin present in freeze‐dried açaí pulp samples. The commercial sample C showed the greatest amounts of cyanidin 3‐glucoside and cyanidin 3‐rutinoside (18,942 µg g‐1 and 34,397 µg g‐1, respectively). The content of phenolic compounds varied significantly among the commercial and genotypes samples, and the vanillic acid was found in the highest concentration in the samples studied. All açaí samples showed high DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values, confirming the exceptionally high radical scavenging capacity of the açaí pulp, as previously reported by other researchers. CONCLUSION The commercial samples showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher levels of anthocyanin and non‐anthocyanin compounds than those of the genotypes. Among the genotypes studied, L4P16 stood out for its higher contents of fiber and bioactive compounds and higher antioxidant capacity, indicating that this genotype has a great potential for use in plant breeding programs that should be further explored.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T05:15:20.471128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7886
  • Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry
    • Authors: Qixing Nie; Lei Feng, Jielun Hu, Sunan Wang, Haihong Chen, Xiaojun Huang, Shaoping Nie, Tao Xiong, Mingyong Xie
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Blueberry products have variously healthy benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on the total anthocyanins content, composition and some quality attributes of the blueberry puree. Blueberry puree used here was fermented 40 hours at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. Ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids, and viscosity were measured. RESULTS A total of 21 anthocyanins and 5 anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanins content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanin compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanins content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized‐fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influenced viscosity. CONCLUSIONS The loss of total anthocyanins content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T05:10:20.712342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7885
  • Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and
           sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil
    • Authors: Lucia Morrone; Sabrina Pupillo, Luisa Neri, Giampaolo Bertazza, Massimiliano Magli, Annalisa Rotondi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two‐way ANOVA. RESULTS Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. CONCLUSION The knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow the olive oil producer to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumers. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of EVOO polyphenols, don't have a great sensory appeal for most of the consumers, however there's niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customize the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:20:24.772524-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7883
  • Enzymatic extraction and characterisation of a thermostable collagen from
           swim bladder of rohu (Labeo rohita)
    • Authors: Gaurav Kumar Pal; Nidheesh T, Govindaraju K, Jyoti, P.V. Suresh
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The fish swim bladder is considered as a potential source of realistic collagen. Currently, the Indian major carp rohu (Labeo rohita) processing generates an enormous quantity of non‐edible by‐products including swim bladders, which are discarded as waste with no commercial value. In this investigation, collagen was prepared from rohu swim bladder and its physicochemical, and fibril forming capacity have been assessed. RESULTS The collagen isolated from rohu swim bladder was characterised as type I, containing α1 and α2 chains with triple helical structure by SDS‐PAGE, FTIR, and amino acid analysis. Extracted collagen denaturation temperature was found 42.16 oC by DSC analysis and also exhibited a high solubility in the presence of low NaCl concentrations (0‐0.6 mol L‐1). The extracted collagen exhibited the higher fibril‐formation capacity at 1.5 mol L‐1 NaCl concentration. SEM microstructure of collagen showed a porous, sheet‐like film, and multi‐layered structure. The fibril formation capacity of collagen confirmed using SEM analysis. CONCLUSION The rohu swim bladder type I collagen was successfully extracted using the enzymatic method with a yield of 465.2 g kg‐1 (dwb) and characterised with a well maintained triple helical structure. The extracted collagen has exhibited higher fibril‐forming ability. The result of the study proved that utilisation of rohu swim bladder will open up a new avenue for better disposal of by‐products and also help to minimise environmental pollution issues.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:20:22.587024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7884
  • Fermented goat milk improves antioxidant status and protects from
           oxidative damage to biomolecules during anemia recovery
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Fe deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and it is accepted that ROS production is altered during IDA. The aim of the current study is to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their roles protecting main from the oxidative damage during anemia recovery. RESULTS After feeding the fermented milks, a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes were found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS) and a decrease in 8‐hydroxy‐2'‐deoxyguanosine (8‐OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk‐based diet. In contrast, DNA strand breaks, hydroperoxides, 15‐Ft isoprostanes and protein carbonyl groups were lower in some tissues in animals fed fermented goat milk‐based diet, revealing an improvement of both systemic and cellular antioxidant activity of plasma and tissues due to fermented goat milk consumption. CONCLUSIONS Fermented goat milk consumption induces a protective increase in TAS together with lower oxidative damage biomarkers, revealing that milk protects the main cell bioconstituents (lipids, protein, DNA, prostaglandins) from evoked oxidative damage during anemia recovery.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:15:23.947112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7882
  • Rapid Biodegradation of Aflatoxin B1 by Metabolites of Fusarium sp.
           WCQ3361 with Broad Working Temperature and Excellent Thermostability
    • Authors: Cuiqiong Wang; Zhongyuan Li, Hui Wang, Haiyan Qiu, Minghui Zhang, Shuang Li, Xuegang Luo, Yajian Song, Hao Zhou, Wenjian Ma, Tongcun Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has posed serious economic and health problem worldwide, developing biological methods for AFB1 degradation is highly required. RESULTS Among three AFB1 degrading microorganisms isolated from moldy peanut, Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 could remove AFB1 extremely effective with a degradation ratio of 70.20% after 1 min and 95.38% after 24 h. Its degradation ratio was not much affected by temperature change (0‐90 °C), and it also displayed excellent thermostability, maintained 99.40% residual activity after boiling for 10 min. Since protease K could reduce the AFB1 degradation ratio by 55.15 %, we proposed that the effective component for AFB1 degradation is a protein. The AFB1 degradation ability of Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 was further verified by feed stock detoxication and MTT test with HepG2 cells. In addition, no degradation products were detected by preliminary liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, suggesting AFB1 might be metabolized to products with different chemical characteristics from AFB1. CONCLUSION Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 was the first reported AFB1 degradation fungus belonging to genus Fusarium with broad reaction temperature range, excellent thermostability and high activity, which provides a potential highly useful solution to dealing with AFB1 contamination in human diet and animal feed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T07:15:22.6747-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7872
  • Quality comparison of elephant apple juices after high‐pressure
           processing and thermal treatment
    • Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak; Kalpana Rayaguru, Kesavan Radha krishnan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the present work, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the quality parameters (pH, Brix, total acidity, viscosity, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, total falvonoids, microbial flora, and sensory analysis) of elephant apple (Dillenia indica) juice was investigated. The juice samples were analysed periodically (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) during 60 days of storage period and results were compared with thermally processed as well as with untreated (fresh juice) samples. RESULTS Slight variations had been observed in the quality parameters like pH, °Brix and total acidity. Other parameters like colour values, antioxidant activity, total phenols and total flavonoids were varied significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T03:30:31.414112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7878
  • Green tea extract as an anti‐browning agent for cloudy apple juice
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L‐1, 2 g L‐1 and 3 g L‐1 on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and color stability of juice during short‐time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice color during storage was expressed as the total color differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A420). RESULTS All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration‐dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L‐1, 2 g L‐1 and 3 g L‐1 tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L‐1, 2 g L‐1 and 3 g L‐1 inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. CONCLUSION Green tea extract may be an effective anti‐browning agent for short‐time stored cloudy apple juices.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T03:30:29.296469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7880
  • Purification and Characterization of a salt‐stable protease from
           halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum
    • Authors: Ruichang Gao; Tong Shi, Xiangdong Liu, Mengqin Zhao, Henglin Cui, Li Yuan
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Because proteases play an important role in the fermentation of fish sauce, the purification and characterization of an extracellular protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum was investigated. RESULTS The molecular mass of the protease was estimated to be approximately 47 kDa based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS‐PAGE) and native‐PAGE analysis. The optimum conditions for catalytic activity were pH 8.0 and 50 °C. The protease showed alkaline stability (pH 7.0 ‐ 10.0). The protease also exhibited novel catalytic ability over a broad range of salinity (NaCl 0‐3 mol L‐1). Calcium ion enhanced the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The Km and Vmax values of the purified protease for casein were calculated to be 4.89 mg mL‐1 and 1111.11 U mL‐1, respectively. The protease was strongly inhibited by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Meanwhile, the protease was stable in the presence of Trition X‐100, isopropanol, ethanol or dithio‐bis‐nitrobenzoic (DTNB), but was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or methanol. MALDI ‐TOF/TOF MS analysis revealed that the protease shared some functional traits with protease produced by Halogranum salarium. Furthermore, it exhibited high hydrolytic activity on silver carp myosin protein. CONCLUSION The protease is an alkaline and salt‐tolerant enzyme that hydrolyzes silver carp myosin with high efficiency. These excellent characteristics make this protease an attractive candidate for industrial use in low salt fish sauce fermentation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T03:30:22.75029-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7879
  • In vitro antioxidant activity of rice protein affected by alkaline degree
           and gastrointestinal protease digestion
    • Authors: Ye Liu; Zhengxuan Wang, Hui Li, Mingcai Liang, Lin Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND To elucidate whether and how alkali treatment, which is a common process for rice protein (RP) extraction, affects antioxidant activity of RP, the different degree of alkali (from 0.1% to 0.4% of NaOH) was used to extract RP (RP‐1, RP‐2, RP‐3, RP‐4). RESULTS The antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (2,2′‐azinobis (3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, ABTS; 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, DPPH), chelating metals (iron, copper) and reducing power investigated in the hydrolysates of RPs (RP‐1, RP‐2, RP‐3, RP‐4) during in vitro pepsin‐pancreatin digestion were effectively affected by alkali treatment. The present study demonstrated that the weakest antioxidant responses to ABTS radical‐scavenging activity, DPPH radical‐scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, copper chelating activity and reducing power were produced by RP‐4 extracted by the highest alkali proportion (0.4% NaOH). CONCULSION The present study indicates that antioxidant capacity of RP could be more readily depressed by strict alkali degree and affected by gastrointestinal proteases. Results suggest that alkali extraction is a vital processing to regulate the antioxidant activity of RP through modifying the compositions of amino acids, which are dependent on alkali magnitude.
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T11:35:36.481076-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7877
  • Products derived from olive leaves and fruits can alter in vitro ruminal
           fermentation and methane production
    • Authors: P. Shakeri; Z. Durmic, J. Vadhanabhuti, P. E. Vercoe
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The industrial processing of olive generates a high quantity of by‐products. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of products derived from olive trees, i.e. leaves, fruits or kernels as a sole substrate (part A), and crude extract from leaves combined with a substrate (part B) on rumen microbial fermentation in an in vitro batch fermentation system. In this study, total gas production, methane production, and concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia in ruminal fluid were measured. RESULTS In the part A, in vitro fermentation of leaves or fruits yielded a gas and total VFA production that were comparable with control substrate, while most of them produced significantly less methane (up to 55.6 %) when compared to control substrate. In the part B, amongst leaf extracts, only addition of chloroform extract reduced methane production, which was also associated with a decrease (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T11:35:29.233613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7876
  • 33 Years of 2‐Acetyl‐1‐Pyrroline, a Principle Basmati Aroma Compound
           in Scented Rice (Oryza sativa L.): A Status Review
    • Authors: Kantilal Wakte; Rahul Zanan, Vidya Hinge, Kiran Khandagale, Altafhusain Nadaf, Robert Henry
      Abstract: Rice is the staple food of around 3 billion people, most of them in Asia which accounts for 90 percent of global rice consumption. Aromatic rices have been preferred over non‐aromatic rice for hundreds of years. They have a premium value in national as well as international market owing to their unique aroma and quality. Many researchers were involved in identifying the compound responsible for the pleasant aroma in aromatic rice in 20th century. However due to its unstable nature, 2‐acetyl‐1‐pyrroline (2AP) was discovered very late, in 1982. Buttery and co‐workers found 2AP to be the principle compound imparting the pleasant aroma to basmati and other scented rice varieties. Since then, 2AP has been identified in all fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties and a wide range of plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and various food products. The present article reviews in detail biochemical and genetic aspects of 2AP in living systems. The site of synthesis, site of storage and stability in plant systems in vivo is of interest. This compound requires more research on stability to facilitate use as a food additive.
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T11:30:46.376292-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7875
  • Protective effects of allicin on streptozotocin‑induced diabetic
           nephropathy in rats
    • Authors: Hong Huang; Ying Jiang, Genxiang Mao, Fang Yuan, Hexin Zheng, Yuan Ruan, Tianfeng Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies in animal models have showed that allicin, a major biologically active component of garlic, can play a role in the prevention of tissue fibrosis in liver, lung and heart, mainly related to the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, fibrogenic cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix synthesis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of allicin, on the damage of renal in streptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic rats. STZ‐induced diabetic rats were administered allicin (15, 30 , 45 mg · kg−1 · d−1, respectively) via daily intra‐gastric gavage for 12weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (sCr), lipid and 24‐hour urine albumin excretion (UAE) were measured at the end of the 4, 8, 12th week.The renal histopathology and the expression levels of collagen I, Transforming growth factor‐β1 (TGF‐β1) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal‐regulated kinase 1/2 (p‐ERK1/2) were measured using immunohistochemisty, and (or) Western blot. RESULTS In 12‐week‐STZ‐induced diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and albuminuria were markedly developed. Treatment with allicin for 12 weeks ameliorated diabetes‐induced morphological alterations of the kidney, decreased FBG, BUN, sCr, triglyceride (TG) and 24h UAE in diabetic rats. The expression of collagen I, TGF‐β1 and p‐ERK1/2 protein were significantly decreased by allicin treatment. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that allicin may play a protective role in diabetic nephropathy via at least through TGF‐β1 / ERK pathway in diabetic rats.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:25:39.817551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7874
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study combines morphological and anatomical studies, cell wall chemical composition, as well as the assessment of the nutritional value of Guadua chacoensis foliage leaves. RESULTS Foliage leaves of G. chacoensis are a promising source of forage because: (a) as a native woody bamboo it is adapted and it helps to maintain environmental conditions in America, (b) leaf anatomical studies exhibit discontinuous sclerenchyma, scarcely developed; pilose indumentum, silica cells, prickles, and hooks are also scarce, (c) it has a high protein content, similar to that of Medicago sativa, while other nutritional parameters are similar to those of common forages, and (d) glucuronoarabinoxylan, the major extracted polysaccharide, has 1/3 of the 4‐linked β‐d‐xylopyranosyl units of the backbone substituted mainly with α‐l‐arabinofuranose as single stubs or non reducing end of short chains, but also 5‐linked α‐l‐arabinofuranose units, terminal β‐d‐xylopyranose and d‐galactopyranose units, and α‐d‐glucuronic acid residues, and small amounts of its 4‐O‐methylated derivative. CONCLUSION These results constitute the first report for this species and as culms are utilized in constructions and crafts, the remaining leaves, when used as forage, constitute a byproduct that allows an additional income opportunity.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T07:25:35.136963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7873
  • Effects of probiotics supplementation in different nutrient density diets
           on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal
           microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Probiotics can serve as alternatives to increasing performance in weaning pigs and the intake of probiotics affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. RESULTS From d 22 to 42, both high‐nutrient‐density and probiotics complex supplementation diets increased (P
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:15:20.55505-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7871
  • Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas
           made from different botanical materials by comprehensive two‐dimensional
           gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on the technology of
           ultra‐fast gas chromatography
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Vodka is a spirit‐based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin were costly, time‐consuming and insufficient to distinguish between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests. RESULTS In the present work, we employed the comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and electronic nose based on the technology of ultra‐fast gas chromatography with chemometric methods such as PLSDA, DFA and SIMCA. CONCLUSION Both techniques allowed to distinguish between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose, however e‐nose allowed to significantly faster analysis of vodkas.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:10:25.945194-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7868
  • Influence of lactose hydrolysis on galacto‐oligosaccharides, lactose,
           volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Different types of reduced‐lactose yogurt, obtained by lactose hydrolysis using β‐galactosidase enzyme, are commercially available. The breakdown of lactose modifies the carbohydrate profile, including the production of prebiotic galacto‐oligosaccharides (GOS), which could affect the survival and activity of starter and probiotic cultures and the parameters of yogurt quality. The extension of these changes is dependent on the yogurt matrix composition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lactose hydrolysis on GOS, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties during storage. RESULTS The presence of β‐galactosidase enzyme did not affect neither the global composition nor the survival of cultures. Overall, the hydrolyzed products had lower acidity than traditional ones. GOS were found at similar levels in fresh hydrolyzed yogurts, whereas in traditional yogurts were not detected. The proportion of ketones, acids and aldehydes seems to be more dependent on yogurt variety than the addition of the enzyme. Likewise, the storage period affected the volatile fraction in different degree; the increase in acid compounds was more pronounced in hydrolyzed than traditional yogurts. CONCLUSION This work shows that it is possible to obtain different varieties of reduced‐lactose yogurt, some of them with additional benefits to health such as reduced‐fat, reduced‐calories, added with probiotic/inulin and enriched in GOS, with similar characteristics to traditional products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:10:20.68794-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7870
  • Traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activities of
           Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr
    • Authors: Valeria Romanucci; Giovanni Di Fabio, Daniele D'Alonzo, Annalisa Guaragna, Giovanni Scapagnini, Armando Zarrelli
      Abstract: Sideritis species have been used in folk medicine for their antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, digestive and anti‐inflammatory properties. Over the years, the phytochemistry of the genus Sideritis has been studied, and various terpenoids, sterols, coumarins, and especially flavonoid aglycones and glycosides, have been identified. In particular, species from the Balkan Peninsula have been studied and found to be rich in flavonoids, with valuable antioxidant activity. In the folk medicine of the Balkan countries, Sideritis raeseri is used as an herbal tea in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, and coughs and as a tonic, while extracts are used as a component of dietary supplements for anaemia. Its dried inflorescences are used to prepare a beverage called Mountain tea. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry, pharmacological properties and commercial value of Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., we have undertaken this review in an effort to summarise the available literature on these plants. The review will detail the chemical composition of the essential oil, its mineral and polyphenol content, the naming of these plants and their physicochemical characterisation, and NMR spectral data and biological properties associated with the plant extracts, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:23.052975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7867
  • Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on growth
           performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial and noxious gas
           emission in weaning pigs
    • Authors: Ruixia Lan; Jinmo Koo, Inho Kim
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibiotics used as growth promoters in livestock have been banned in European Union since 2006. Antibiotics alternatives have focused on probiotics, such as L. acidophilus. The concentration of L. acidophilus is considered crucial to obtain the desired effects. However, limited studies have conducted to test the dose dependent effects of L. acidophilus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the dose dependent effects of L. acidophilus on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial flora, and fecal noxious gas emission in weaning pig. RESULTS L. acidophilus supplementation increased (P
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T04:05:21.116539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7866
  • In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation,
           levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen
    • Authors: Shengyong Mao; Wenjie Huo, Junhua Liu, Ruiyang Zhang, Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Diets containing high levels of carbohydrates provoke a fast decrease of rumen pH and high levels of biogenic amines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which severely impair the health and performance of ruminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (BC) buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota using in vitro rumen cultures. RESULTS Sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the final pH levels and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and LPS, as well as the proportions of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate, and it decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of butyrate and the levels of lactic acid, methylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16 s rRNA gene showed that BC inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the bacterial diversity index compared with the control. Adding BC also decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Butyrivibrio and increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio, and Prevotella. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate supplementation has beneficial effects in the reduction of bioamine levels and the increase in ruminal pH, and in modifying the microbial ecology of the rumen; however, it results in an accumulation of LPS under high‐grain diet conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:00:22.177993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7861
  • Sodium alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose films containing pyrogallic
           acid:Physical and antibacterial properties
    • Authors: Yingying Han; Lijuan Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Antibacterial films were prepared by using sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a matrix, glycerin as plasticizer, and CaCl2 as a cross‐linking agent, and by incorporating the natural antibacterial agent pyrogallic acid (PA). The present study describes the microstructure and the physical, barrier, mechanical, optical, and antibacterial properties of blended films prepared by incorporating different concentrations of PA into the SA/CMC matrix. RESULTS The microstructure of the films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that PA interacts with the SA/CMC matrix through hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the incorporation of PA increased the moisture content, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability of SA/CMC films. Films containing 40 g kg‐1 of PA had the highest elongation at break result, at 39.60%. Compared with pure SA/CMC films, the incorporation of PA improved the barrier properties against UV light; however, it decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the films. Furthermore, films with PA, especially at higher concentrations, were more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION Antibacterial SA/CMC films incorporated with PA are promising and have good potential to enhance the safety of foods and food products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:21:20.881361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7863
  • Optimum Condition of Producing Crisp Osmotic Banana Using Superheated
           Steam Puffing
    • Authors: Surapit Tabtiang; Somkiat Prachayawarakon, Somchart Soponronnarit
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Puffing can improve textural property of snacks. Nevertheless, high temperature puffing accelerates non‐enzymatic browning reactions. The osmotic treatment using sucrose solution potentially retards the browning, but the high amount of sucrose gain causes hard texture. The objective of this work was therefore to study the effects of osmotic time, puffing time and puffing temperature on banana qualities such as colour, shrinkage and textural property. RESULTS The experimental results showed that puffing temperature, puffing time and osmotic time significantly affected colour, shrinkage and textual properties. CONCLUSION The optimization using response surface methodology was used for a trade‐off between colour and textural properties. To obtain a good quality product, the puffed osmotic banana should be operated at the osmotic time of 43 min and puffing temperature of 220 °C and puffing time of 2 min.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T09:46:12.62292-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7857
  • Preharvest Salicylic Acid and Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatments Preserve
           Quality and Enhance Antioxidant Systems during Postharvest Storage of
           Sweet Cherry Cultivars
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND Sweet cherries are very appreciated by consumers due to its organoleptic quality attributes and antioxidant properties, although they deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Different preharvest strategies have been carried out to increase their quality at time of harvest. We present data for the first time regarding the effect of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) treatments on sweet cherry quality during postharvest storage. RESULTS At harvest and during postharvest storage sweet cherry fruits (‘Sweet Heart’, ‘Sweet Late’ and ‘Lapins’) from SA (0.5 mM) and ASA (1 mM) treated trees had higher colour (lower chroma index), firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolics, total anthocyanins and hydrophilic total antioxidant activity (H‐TAA). In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase was also enhanced in SA‐ and ASA‐treated cherries. CONCLUSION Both SA and ASA preharvest treatments could be promising tools for improving sweet cherry quality at harvest and after storage, with an additional effect on delaying the postharvest ripening process throughout increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:50:31.974123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7853
  • Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout
           bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
    • Authors: Li Wang; Chuanyue Chen, Wanjing Liu, Hu Xia, Jian Li, Xuezhen Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of organic biomass with cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. Ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia cause grave hazards to fish. The present study tried to assess the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). RESULTS Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impacts on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, but significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness, gumminess and increased fillet ultimate pH (pHu) as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH (pHi), thaw loss and protein carbonyl content while ammonia exposure didn't. CONCLUSION These results indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T05:45:50.158043-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7850
  • Sustainable Intensification: A multifaceted, systemic approach to
           international development
    • Authors: Jennifer Himmelstein; Adrian Ares, Emily van Houweling
      Abstract: Sustainable intensification (SI) is a term increasingly used for a type of approach applied to international agricultural projects. Despite its widespread use, many still do not understand or know about the various facets of this composite paradigm. A review of the literature has led to the formalization of three principles, which convey the current characterization of SI‐a whole system, participatory, agroecological approach. Specific examples of potential bottlenecks to the SI approach are cited, as are various technologies and techniques that can be applied to overcome these obstacles. Models of similar, succcessful approaches to agricultural development are examined, along with higher level processes. Additionally, this article explores the desired end points of SI and argues for the inclusion of gender and nutrition, throughout the process. In order to properly apply the SI approach, its various aspects need to be understood and adapted to differential cultural and geographic situations. New modeling systems and examples of effective execution of SI strategies can assist with successful application of the SI paradigm within complex developing communities.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:30:49.248877-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7831
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 4297 - 4297
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T02:43:53.022922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7429
  • Issue Information ‐ Info Page
    • Pages: 4298 - 4298
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T02:43:54.548571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7430
  • Issue Information ‐ Table of Contents
    • Pages: 4299 - 4301
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T02:43:53.956666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7431
  • Biological and therapeutic properties of bee pollen: a review
    • Pages: 4303 - 4309
      Abstract: Natural products, including bee products, are particularly appreciated by consumers and are used for therapeutic purposes as alternative drugs. However, it is not known whether treatments with bee products are safe and how to minimise the health risks of such products. Among others, bee pollen is a natural honeybee product promoted as a valuable source of nourishing substances and energy. The health‐enhancing value of bee pollen is expected due to the wide range of secondary plant metabolites (tocopherol, niacin, thiamine, biotin and folic acid, polyphenols, carotenoid pigments, phytosterols), besides enzymes and co‐enzymes, contained in bee pollen. The promising reports on the antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anticariogenic antibacterial, antifungicidal, hepatoprotective, anti‐atherosclerotic, immune enhancing potential require long‐term and large cohort clinical studies. The main difficulty in the application of bee pollen in modern phytomedicine is related to the wide species‐specific variation in its composition. Therefore, the variations may differently contribute to bee‐pollen properties and biological activity and thus in therapeutic effects. In principle, we can unequivocally recommend bee pollen as a valuable dietary supplement. Although the bee‐pollen components have potential bioactive and therapeutic properties, extensive research is required before bee pollen can be used in therapy. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T03:05:57.726623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7729
  • Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in
           agriculture and food industry
    • Pages: 4310 - 4320
      Abstract: Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T06:40:25.778867-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7759
  • Metabolic profiles of cow's blood; a review
    • Pages: 4321 - 4328
      Abstract: The term ‘metabolic profile’ refers to the analysis of blood biochemical parameters that are useful to assess and prevent metabolic and nutritional disorders in dairy herds. In the higher standards of milk production, the priority in modern breeding is keeping dairy cows in high lactation and healthy. The proper analysis, as well as control. of their feeding and metabolic status is immensely important for the health condition of the herd. The disproportion between the genetically determined ability for milk production and the limitations in improving the energy value of the ration may be the cause of metabolic disorders. Negative energy balance has a major impact on the body's hormonal balance and organ functions and mostly appears during transition periods: from 3 to 2 weeks prepartum until 2–3 weeks postpartum. The term ‘transition’ is used to underscore the important physiological, metabolic and nutritional changes occurring in this time. The manner in which these changes occur and how they are diagnosed and detected are extremely important, as they are closely related to clinical and subclinical postpartum diseases, lactation and reproductive performance – factors that significantly shape the profitability of production. Therefore the priority for intensive milk production is prevention of metabolic diseases and other disorders. It is the intent of this review to synthesize and summarize the information currently available on metabolic status and physiological changes in the cow's body that occur during lactation, as well as to discuss the interpretation of the results, which will be a useful diagnostic tool in nutritional evaluations of the dairy herd. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-31T09:20:50.033712-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7779
  • Cloning of genes related to aliphatic glucosinolate metabolism and the
           mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation in broccoli sprouts under jasmonic
           acid treatment
    • Authors: Liping Guo; Runqiang Yang, Zhenxin Gu
      Pages: 4329 - 4336
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Cytochrome P450 79F1 (CYP79F1), cytochrome P450 83A1 (CYP83A1), UDP‐glucosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74B1), sulfotransferase 18 (ST5b) and flavin‐containing monooxygenase GS‐OX1 (FMOGS‐OX1) are important enzymes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, their full‐length cDNA in broccoli was firstly cloned, then the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was investigated. RESULTS The full‐length cDNA of CYP79F1, CYP83A1, UGT74B1, ST5b and FMOGS‐OX1 comprised 1980, 1652, 1592, 1378 and 1623 bp respectively. The increase in aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation in broccoli sprouts treated with JA was associated with elevated expression of genes in the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. Application of 100 µmol L−1 JA increased myrosinase (MYR) activity but did not affect epithiospecifier protein (ESP) activity in broccoli sprouts, which was supported by the expression of MYR and ESP. Sulforaphane formation in 7‐day‐old sprouts treated with 100 µmol L−1 JA was 3.36 and 1.30 times that in the control and 300 µmol L−1 JA treatment respectively. CONCLUSION JA enhanced the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts via up‐regulation of related gene expression. Broccoli sprouts treated with 100 µmol L−1 JA showed higher sulforphane formation than those treated with 300 µmol L−1 JA owing to the higher glucoraphanin content and myrosinase activity under 100 µmol L−1 JA treatment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T03:47:13.981712-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7629
  • Proteomic and peptidomic profiling of Brazilian artisanal
           ‘Coalho’ cheese
    • Pages: 4337 - 4344
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Artisanal ‘Coalho’ cheese is a product typically popular in the Brazilian north‐eastern region. Production of this cheese represents about 9.2% of the internal crude product of Pernambuco State. Several peptides are generated from hydrolysis of αS1‐, αS2‐, β‐, and κ‐caseins during manufacture of this cheese. The commercial importance of Brazilian artisanal ‘Coalho’ cheese justifies the examination of both the protein and peptide profiles of cheeses from six cities of the semi‐arid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil. RESULTS SDS‐PAGE of the aqueous extracts of ‘Coalho’ cheeses (WSP) showed bands of lactoferrin, β‐lactoglobulin, β‐lactoglobulin (dimer), α‐lactoalbumin, bovine serum albumin, α‐casein, β‐casein, κ‐casein and para‐κ‐casein. A total of 57 to 72 peptides were confirmed by mass spectra in the different samples of ‘Coalho’ cheese which 32 known peptides (11 from αS1‐casein, three from αS2‐casein, 15 from β‐casein and three from κ‐casein), comprising seven caseinphosphopeptides. Among the unidentified peptides, three showed high intensity peaks in all ‘Coalho’ cheeses studied (with molecular weights of 1597, 1725/1726, 2778/2779 Da). CONCLUSION The proteomic studies revealed peptides that may represent molecular markers or fingerprints for investigating the quality control and regional characterisation of these ‘Coalho’ cheeses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T04:15:45.58523-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7640
  • Chromatographic fractionation and molecular mass characterization of
           Cercidium praecox (Brea) gum
    • Pages: 4345 - 4350
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Brea gum (BG) is an exudate from the Cercidium praecox tree that grows in semi‐arid regions of Argentina. Some previous studies on BG have shown physicochemical characteristics and functional features similar to those of gum arabic. However, there is a need to elucidate the molecular structure of BG to understand the functionality. In this sense, BG was fractionated using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and the obtained fractions were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. RESULTS Analysis of the fractions showed that the bulk of the gum (approx. 84% of the polysaccharides) was a polysaccharide of 2.79 × 103 kDa. The second major fraction (approx. 16% of the polysaccharides) was a polysaccharide–protein complex with a molecular mass of 1.92 × 105 kDa. A third fraction consisted of protein species with a wide range of molecular weights. The molecular weight distribution of the protein fraction was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. Comparison of the elution profiles of the exudates in native and reducing conditions revealed that some of the proteins were forming aggregates through disulfide bridges in native conditions. Further analysis of the protein fraction by SDS‐PAGE showed proteins with molecular weight ranging from 6.5 to 66 kDa. CONCLUSIONS The findings showed that BG consists of several fractions with heterogeneous chemical composition and polydisperse molecular weight distributions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T03:16:39.228224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7642
  • Role of nano‐range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of
           soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings
    • Authors: Totan Adak; Jitendra Kumar, Najam A Shakil, Sushil Pandey
      Pages: 4351 - 4357
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Nano‐size and wide‐range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. RESULTS Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5–354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di‐acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer‐coated seeds showed 89.44–95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index‐1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer‐coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho® 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12–9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. CONCLUSION Nano‐range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T03:58:17.246538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7643
  • Effect of acidification on the protection of alginate‐encapsulated
           probiotic based on emulsification/internal gelation
    • Authors: Fangning Qu; Meng Zhao, Yapeng Fang, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Glyn O Phillips, Zhengjun Wu, Chen Chen
      Pages: 4358 - 4366
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The method of emulsification/internal gelation is commonly used to prepare alginate microspheres for lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This paper focused on the influence of acidification parameters, i.e. acid/Ca molar ratio and acidification time, on the physical properties and cell protection efficiency of microspheres and their correlations. RESULTS With increasing acid/Ca molar ratio and acidification time, the average diameter of microspheres decreased and their mechanical strength increased. Interestingly, wet alginate microspheres shrank in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) while they swelled in bile salts solution (BS). The shrinkage or swelling ratio decreased with increasing mechanical strength. Correlation analysis showed that the encapsulated cell survivals in both SGJ and BS were positively correlated with the mechanical strength of microspheres but negatively with the shrinkage or swelling ratio. BacLight LIVE/DEAD assay suggested that the viability of encapsulated cells in fresh, SGJ‐treated and BS‐treated microspheres was closely related to cell membrane integrity. CONCLUSION Acidification is a key step during microsphere preparation, which strongly affected the physical properties of alginate microspheres, resulting in different cell protection efficiency. The resulting well‐protected LAB can be applied in probiotics foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-18T03:26:11.511609-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7645
  • Temperature effect on triacylglycerol species in seed oil from high
           stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds
    • Pages: 4367 - 4376
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study characterized the influence of temperature during grain filling on the saturated fatty acid distribution in triacylglycerol molecules from high stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds. Two growth chamber experiments were conducted with day/night temperatures of 16/16, 26/16, 26/26 and 32/26 °C. RESULTS In all genotypes, independently of the genetic background, higher temperatures increased palmitic and oleic acid and reduced linoleic acid concentrations. Increasing night temperature produced an increase in saturated‐unsaturated‐saturated species, indicating a more symmetrical distribution of saturated fatty acids. The solid fat index was more affected by temperature during grain filling in lines with high linoleic than high oleic background. Higher variations in symmetry among night temperatures were observed in lines with high oleic background, which are more stable in fatty acid composition. CONCLUSION The effect of temperature on triacylglycerol composition is not completely explained by its effect on fatty acid composition. Thus night temperature affects oil properties via its effects on fatty acid synthesis and on the distribution of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol molecules. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T04:19:30.19521-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7646
  • The effect of pomegranate juice on clinical signs, matrix
           metalloproteinases and antioxidant status in patients with knee
    • Authors: Nasrin Ghoochani; Majid Karandish, Karim Mowla, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Taha Jalali
      Pages: 4377 - 4381
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the commonest forms of musculoskeletal disorders that leads to joint degeneration and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. Experimental and in vitro studies have suggested the protective roles of pomegranate juice (PJ) as a rich antioxidant source for mitigating cartilage inflammation. In this interventional study, 38 patients with knee OA were randomly divided into two groups: PJ or control for 6 weeks to evaluate the effect of this intervention on clinical signs, inflammation and antioxidant status. RESULTS Significant decreases in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) total score (P = 0.01), stiffness score (P = 0.00) and physical function score (P = 0.01) were observed in PJ group after the intervention. The means of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‐13 was significantly decreased (P = 0.02) and glutathione peroxidase was increased in the intervention group compared with the control group after the study period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS According to the findings of this clinical trial, PJ consumption can improve physical function and stiffness, decrease breakdown cartilage enzymes and increase antioxidant status in patients with knee OA. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-22T05:27:28.963018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7647
  • Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the
           physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet
    • Authors: Karen Thang; Kimberlee Au, Cyril Rakovski, Anuradha Prakash
      Pages: 4382 - 4389
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. ‘Bluecrop’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and ‘Sweetheart’ cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. RESULTS Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11–14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf‐life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g−1 reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. CONCLUSION This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T03:15:44.788643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7648
  • Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and
           switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production
    • Pages: 4390 - 4397
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio‐oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production. RESULTS The results show that coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds contain known triglycerides which are 983 and 1000 g kg−1 respectively of the fatty acids found in edible vegetable oils such as sunflower, corn and soybean oils. In addition, the triglyceride yields of 53–67 g kg−1 of the seed samples are in the range of commercial oil‐producing seeds such as corn (42 g kg−1). CONCLUSION The results also indicate that the two non‐edible oils could be used as substitutes for edible oil for biodiesel production. In addition, the use of seeds of switchgrass for non‐edible oil production (as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel) further increases the total biofuel yield when switchgrass is cultivated for use as energy feedstock for pyrolysis oil and biodiesel production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-01T03:44:15.010827-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7649
  • Harvest date effects on aroma compounds in aged Riesling icewines
    • Authors: Ramsey Khairallah; Andrew G Reynolds, Amy J Bowen
      Pages: 4398 - 4409
      Abstract: Background Riesling icewine is an important product of the Ontario wine industry. The objective of this study was to characterize concentrations in aroma compounds in aged icewines associated with three harvest dates (H1, H2, H3) using stir bar sorptive extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and to make inferences, where appropriate, with respect to their roles in potential wine quality. Results Delaying harvest decreased concentrations of many odorants, but increased many critical odor‐active compounds; e.g. 1‐octen‐3‐ol, ethyl benzoate, ethyl octanoate, cis‐rose oxide, and β‐ionone. H1 wines had higher concentrations of four aldehydes, three alcohols, nine esters, seven terpenes, γ‐nonalactone, p‐vinylguaiacol, β‐damascenone, and 2‐furanmethanol. However, many of these compounds, with some exceptions, have relatively high odor thresholds. Fourteen compounds were above their odor thresholds, including decanal, 1‐octen‐3‐ol, phenylethyl alcohol, four ethyl esters, cis‐rose oxide, linalool, γ‐nonalactone, p‐vinylguaiacol, ethyl cinnamate, β‐damascenone, and 1,1,6‐trimethyl‐1,2‐dihydronaphthalene. H3 wines contained higher concentrations of highly odor‐active compounds, e.g. 1‐octen‐3‐ol, cis‐rose oxide, and β‐ionone. Only phenylethyl alcohol [H3 odor activity value (OAV) = 0.33 (honey, spice, rose)] and linalool [H3 OAV = 0.92 (floral, lavender)] had H3 OAVs < 1. Conclusions Early harvest increased many esters and aliphatic compounds, but delayed harvest appeared to substantially increase concentrations of several highly odor‐active compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T03:45:34.42637-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7650
  • In vivo assessment of iron bioavailability from fortified pearl millet
           based weaning food
    • Authors: Manvesh Kumar Sihag; Vivek Sharma, Ankit Goyal, Sumit Arora, Rajeev Kapila
      Pages: 4410 - 4415
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Iron is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development of the body. Infants are more vulnerable to develop iron‐deficiency anaemia due to inadequate iron supply in early stages. The objective of the study was in vivo assessment of iron bioavailability from pearl millet based weaning food fortified with iron and vitamin A, and to investigate the role of vitamin A in iron absorption in animal models. RESULTS Results revealed that anaemic group showed significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T03:20:46.975372-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7651
  • Optimization of fertilization characteristics of urine by addition of
           Nitrosomonas europaea bio‐seed
    • Authors: Shervin Hashemi; Mooyoung Han, Tschungil Kim
      Pages: 4416 - 4422
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Because of the high concentration of nutrients in human urine, its utilization as an organic fertilizer has been notable throughout history. However, the nitrogen compounds in urine are not stable. Therefore, to convert urine into a suitable fertilizer, it is important to stabilize and adjust unstable nitrogen compounds such as ammonia. Because nitrification can influence the nitrogen profile, the use of nitrifying microorganisms can be useful for stabilizing the nitrogen profile of urine. This study investigated the changes in nitrogen compounds in pure urine and examined the effect of adding Nitrosomonas europaea bio‐seed solution on these changes. RESULTS It was found that the addition of bio‐seed could reduce nitrogen loss as well as the time required to stabilize the nitrogen profile. Furthermore, the optimum concentration of bio‐seed (6 × 105 N. europaea cells L−1) that not only leads to the least nutrient loss but also results in an adequate nitrate/ammonium ratio and regulates the amount of nitrate produced, thereby preventing over‐fertilization, was determined. CONCLUSION At this concentration, no dilution or dewatering is required, thus minimizing water and energy consumption. Usage of the optimum of concentration of bio‐seed will also eliminate the need for inorganic chemical additives. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T04:47:01.173971-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7652
  • Changes in physical and gelling properties of freeze‐dried egg white as
           a result of temperature and relative humidity
    • Authors: Wattinee Katekhong; Sanguansri Charoenrein
      Pages: 4423 - 4431
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The quality of dried egg white with respect to functional properties can be affected by storage conditions. The effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on changes in colour and gelling properties in freeze‐dried egg white (FDEW) during storage was investigated. RESULTS The glass transition temperature (Tg) of FDEW decreased with increasing % RH. The colour of FDEW stored at 60 °C was darker yellow than those at 40 and 25 °C, particularly at high % RH. RH had no effect on hardness and water‐holding capacity (WHC) of gels made from FDEW stored at 25 °C for 1 week. However, hardness and WHC of gels from FDEW stored at higher temperatures; 40 °C, 48% RH and 60 °C, 11% RH dramatically increased. These results related to the differential scanning calorimeter thermograms which showed a broadening peak with lower enthalpy of protein denaturation. Moreover, the protein's SDS‐PAGE pattern in the samples stored at high temperatures or RH levels showed protein aggregation. CONCLUSION Storage of FDEW at high temperature and RH levels induced protein conformation changes. These have contributed to protein aggregation which affected the gelling properties of FDEW. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-14T07:43:52.109611-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7653
  • Oil quality parameters and quantitative measurement of major secoiridoid
           derivatives in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins using qNMR
    • Authors: Amir Ben Mansour; Boutheina Gargouri, Eleni Melliou, Prokopios Magiatis, Mohamed Bouaziz
      Pages: 4432 - 4439
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Olive oil contains compounds with interesting biological activities which are influenced by the cultivar, the geographic origin and other factors. The aims of this work were to (1) investigate these factors in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins; (2) determine the influence of geographic conditions on phenolic composition of Neb Jmel olive oil and consequently on the antioxidant compounds; and (3) verify whether oils could be discriminated based on geographical origin. RESULTS The characterisation of extra‐virgin Neb Jmel olive oil produced in its original location has been conducted. Owing to the effect of the genotype and environmental, agronomic and technological factors on the chemical composition of olive oil and its quality, all studied olives were collected at the same season, and their oil obtained under the same processing technique. Many analyses were carried out to characterise the different olive oils: free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Rancimat assay, pigments content and phenolic compounds by 1H NMR. A recently developed method for the direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative 1H NMR was applied. The method was applied to the study of four Neb Jmel olive oils samples, and a broad variation of concentrations of all four secoiridoids was recorded. The concentration of each ranged from 55 to 529 mg kg−1 and the sum of the four major secoiridoids (known as D3) ranged from 436 to 1063 mg kg−1. CONCLUSION The quantification of major phenolic compounds of olive oil by NMR indicated that environmental conditions influence the production of qualitative phenolic fractions. All these compounds can be used as base ‘markers’ to characterise and differentiate these olive oil on geographic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-22T04:50:46.073804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7654
  • Characterisation of potato crisp effective porosity using micro‐CT
    • Authors: Ryan C Renshaw; John P Robinson, Georgios A Dimitrakis, John R Bows, Samuel W Kingman
      Pages: 4440 - 4448
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effective porosity is an important quantitative parameter for food products that has a significant effect on taste and quality. It is challenging to quantify the apparent porosity of fried potato crisps as they have a thin irregularly shaped cross section containing oil and water. This study uses a novel micro‐CT technique to determine the solid volume fraction and hence the effective porosity of three types of potato crisps: standard continuously fried crisps, microwaved crisps, and continuously fried ‘kettle’ crisps. RESULTS It was found that continuously fried kettle crisps had the lowest effective porosity at 0.54, providing the desired crunchy taste and lower oil contents. Crisps produced using a microwave process designed to mimic the dehydration process of standard continuous fried crisps had an effective porosity of 0.65, which was very similar to the effective porosity of 0.63 for standard continuously fried crisps. The results were supported by the findings of a forced preference consumer test. CONCLUSION The effective porosity affects the product taste and is therefore a critical parameter. This study shows that micro‐CT analysis can be used to characterise the change in effective porosity of a thin irregularly shaped food product, caused by a change of cooking procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T07:37:58.731379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7655
  • Effect of interfacial composition and crumbliness on aroma release in soy
           protein/sugar beet pectin mixed emulsion gels
    • Pages: 4449 - 4456
      Abstract: Background In this study, soy protein isolate/sugar beet pectin (SPI/SBP) emulsion gels were prepared through an enzymatic gelation process. The effects of emulsifier (SBP, SPI or SPI/SBP complex) and emulsification process on the microstructure, texture, breakdown properties and aroma release behavior of resulting emulsion gels were investigated. Results Oil emulsification by SBP/SPI complex resulted in a higher amount of emulsifier absorbing on the oil–water interface than by SBP and SPI alone, indicating that a more compact interfacial network was formed. Flocculation of oil droplets was observed and corresponding emulsion gels exhibited lower fracture force and strain when the oil was emulsified by SPI and SBP/SPI complex. Moreover, emulsion gels with small droplets produced a greater quantity of small fragments after mastication. However, microstructure did not have a significant effect on breakdown properties of emulsion gels. Headspace gas chromatography analysis showed that the release rate of ethyl butyrate before and after mastication was significantly lower in emulsion gel with more compact network, but the release of aroma compounds with higher hydrophobicity did not show a significant influence of the microstructure and texture of emulsion gel. Conclusion This finding provides a useful application for designing semi‐solid foods with desirable flavor perception. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T09:38:19.960427-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7656
  • Influence of temperature and fish thickness on the mass transfer kinetics
           during the cod (Gadus morhua) desalting process
    • Pages: 4457 - 4464
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of desalting temperature, fish thickness and desalting time on the mass transfer kinetics during the cod desalting process by physico‐chemical analyses. RESULTS Both water uptake and salt loss increased with increasing temperature (15 °C > 10 °C > 5 °C) up to 24 h in ‘thicker’ pieces. The equilibrium achievement was faster in ‘thinner’ pieces and also with increasing temperature. Longer desalting times at 10 °C can be a good practice to be used during cod desalting at an industrial scale in order to obtain commercial products with higher yields. The faster mass transfer during desalting of ‘thinner’ pieces appears to follow three periods as a result of diffusion of the components (water, NaCl, and soluble proteins) because of the concentration differences, and pressure gradients due to expansion/shrinkage of the protein matrix, which is dependent on the NaCl content. The refractive index can be used by industry as an indirect measurement to determine the moment at which the ‘thicker’ samples are near the ZNaCl = YNaCl equilibrium. CONCLUSION Optimum combinations between the process variables analysed are essential in order to speed up the mass transfer kinetics during cod desalting at an industrial scale. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:45:19.828042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7657
  • Vulnerability of maize production under future climate change: possible
           adaptation strategies
    • Authors: Mohammad Bannayan; Parisa Paymard, Batool Ashraf
      Pages: 4465 - 4474
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Climate change can affect the productivity and geographic distribution of crops. Therefore, evaluation of adaptive management options is crucial in dealing with negative impacts of climate change. The objectives of this study were to simulate the impacts of climate change on maize production in the north‐east of Iran. Moreover, vulnerability index which indicated that how much of the crop yield loss is related to the drought was computed for each location to identify where adaptation and mitigation strategies are effective. Different sowing dates were also applied as an adaptation approach to decrease the negative impacts of climate change in study area. RESULTS The results showed that the maize yield would decline during the 21st century from −2.6% to −82% at all study locations in comparison with the baseline. The result of vulnerability index also indicated that using the adaptation strategies could be effective in all of the study areas. Using different sowing dates as an adaptation approach showed that delaying the sowing date will be advantageous in order to obtain higher yield in all study locations in future. CONCLUSION This study provided insight regarding the climate change impacts on maize production and the efficacy of adaptation strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:47:14.670719-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7659
  • Characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides for discrimination of
    • Pages: 4475 - 4483
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Macamides with a benzylalkylamide nucleus are characteristic and major bioactive compounds in the functional food maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp). The aim of this study was to explore variations in macamide content among maca from China and Peru. Twenty‐seven batches of maca hypocotyls with different phenotypes, sampled from different geographical origins, were extracted and profiled by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection/tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐UV/MS/MS). RESULTS Twelve macamides were identified by MS operated in multiple scanning modes. Similarity analysis showed that maca samples differed significantly in their macamide fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) was used to differentiate samples according to their geographical origin and to identify the most relevant variables in the classification model. The prediction accuracy for raw maca was 91% and five macamides were selected and considered as chemical markers for sample classification. CONCLUSION When combined with a PLS‐DA model, characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides could be recommended for labelling for the authentication of maca from different geographical origins. The results provided potential evidence for the relationships between environmental or other factors and distribution of macamides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-10T05:06:07.332999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7660
  • Optimization of cellulase‐assisted extraction process and antioxidant
           activities of polysaccharides from Tricholoma mongolicum Imai
    • Pages: 4484 - 4491
      Abstract: Background Tricholoma mongolicum Imai is a well‐known edible and medicinal mushroom which in recent years has attracted increasing attention because of its bioactivities. In this study, water‐soluble polysaccharides were extracted from T. mongolicum Imai by cellulase‐assisted extraction and their antioxidant activities were investigated. Results In order to improve the yield of polysaccharides, four variables, cellulase amount (X1), pH (X2), temperature (X3) and extraction time (X4), were investigated with a Box–Behnken design. The optimal conditions were predicted to be cellulase amount of 20 g kg−1, pH of 4.0, temperature of 50 °C and extraction time of 127 min, with a predicted polysaccharide yield of 190.1 g kg−1. The actual yield of polysaccharides under these conditions was 189.6 g kg−1, which matched the predicted value well. The crude polysaccharides were purified to obtain four fractions, and characterization of each was carried out. In addition, antioxidant properties of four polysaccharides assessed by 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryldydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical‐scavenging assays indicated that polysaccharides from T. mongolicum Imai (TMIPs) possessed antioxidant activity in a dose‐dependent manner. Conclusion TMIPs show moderate antioxidant activities in vitro. Therefore it is suggested that TMIPs are potential natural antioxidants for use in functional foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T09:47:43.854919-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7662
  • Study of aroma formation and transformation during the manufacturing
           process of Biluochun green tea in Yunnan Province by HS‐SPME and GC‐MS
    • Authors: Chen Wang; Shidong Lv, Yuanshuang Wu, Ming Lian, Xuemei Gao, Qingxiong Meng
      Pages: 4492 - 4498
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Biluochun is a typical non‐fermented tea and is also famous for its unique aroma in China. Few studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of the manufacturing process on the formation and content of its aroma. RESULTS The volatile components were extracted at different manufacturing process steps of Biluochun green tea using fully automated headspace solid‐phase microextraction (HS‐SPME) and further characterised by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). Among 67 volatile components collected, the fractions of linalool oxides, β‐ionone, phenylacetaldehyde, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrogen compounds were increased while alcohols and hydrocarbons declined during the manufacturing process. The aroma compounds decreased the most during the drying steps. CONCLUSION We identified a number of significantly changed components that can be used as markers and quality control during the producing process of Biluochun. The drying step played a major role in the aroma formation of green tea products and should be the most important step for quality control. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T11:01:54.47479-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7663
  • Enhancement of umami taste of hydrolyzed protein from wheat gluten by
    • Authors: Lihua Wang; Baocai Xu, Linlin Li, Mengke Zhang, Tao Feng, Jinpeng Wang, Zhengyu Jin
      Pages: 4499 - 4504
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wheat gluten was hydrolyzed by Flavourzyme and Neutrase at pH 7.0 and 50 °C for 8 h with β‐cyclodextrin (β‐CD) employed in the reaction. The hydrolysates were enzyme deactivated, cooled and centrifuged at 1500 × g for 15 min. RESULTS Sensory and chemical characterization of wheat gluten hydrolysates WGH‐1 (reaction conducted without β‐CD), WGH‐2 (reaction conducted with β‐CD) and WGH‐3 (β‐CD added to WGH‐1) was performed. WGH‐2 revealed enhanced umami taste and higher hydrolyzing degree, total free amino acid amount, protein yield and umami taste amino acid (Glu + Asp) amount. High‐performance liquid chromatography showed that the proportion of molecular weight 180–500 Da in WGH‐2 was 11.5% higher than that in WGH‐1. Further research indicated that β‐CD had multiple effects on the hydrolysis. It could not only increase the solubility of wheat gluten but also form inclusion complexes with resultants. This can both promote the hydrolysis and protect oligopeptides from degradation. CONCLUSION β‐CD was found to have the ability to increase the umami taste of enzyme‐hydrolyzed vegetable protein from wheat gluten. The reasons analyzed were that β‐CD could take part in the hydrolysis process by improving the solubility of wheat gluten and form inclusion complexes with resultants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T04:26:15.798675-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7665
  • Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of
           biopolymer–oregano essential oil coatings
    • Pages: 4505 - 4513
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film‐forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro‐Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre‐harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. RESULTS The application of the FFDs at ‘3 Leaves’ stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer–EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the ‘Fruit’ stage the pre‐harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer–EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non‐treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. CONCLUSION The application of biopolymer–oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T04:16:43.832699-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7666
  • Quantification and identification of microorganisms found on shell and
           kernel of fresh edible chestnuts in Michigan
    • Pages: 4514 - 4522
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chestnut is a relatively new cultivated crop for Michigan, and postharvest loss due to decay has been problematic as production has increased each year. In 2007, more than 25% of chestnuts were lost to postharvest decay, equivalent to approximately 5300 kg of fresh product. To determine the organisms responsible for decay, a microbiological survey was performed in 2006 and 2007 to identify microorganisms involved in postharvest shell (external surface) mold and internal kernel (edible portion) decay of chestnuts. RESULTS Filamentous fungi including Penicillium expansum, Penicillium griseofulvum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Coniophora puteana, Acrospeira mirabilis, Botryosphaeria ribis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botryotinia fuckeliana (anamorph Botrytis cinerea) and Gibberella sp. (anamorph Fusarium sp.) were the predominant microorganisms that negatively impacted fresh chestnuts. Populations of microorganisms varied between farms, harvesting methods and chestnut parts. CONCLUSION Chestnuts harvested from the orchard floor were significantly (P < 0.05) more contaminated than chestnuts harvested directly from the tree, by more than 2 log colony‐forming units (CFU) g−1. In addition, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the microbial population was seen between chestnuts submitted by different growers, with average count ranges of fungi, mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and yeasts equal to 4.75, 4.59 and 4.75 log CFU g−1 respectively. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-17T04:05:46.823578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7667
  • Supra‐nutritional levels of α‐tocopherol maintain the oxidative
           stability of n‐3 long‐chain fatty acid enriched subcutaneous fat and
           frozen loin, but not of dry fermented sausage
    • Authors: Els Vossen; Erik Claeys, Katleen Raes, Danny van Mullem, Stefaan De Smet
      Pages: 4523 - 4530
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Meat products enriched with n‐3 fatty acids are more prone to oxidation. The aim was to investigate whether supra‐nutritional levels of α‐tocopherol can enhance the colour and lipid oxidative stability of n‐3 fatty acids enriched dry fermented sausages, frozen loins and subcutaneous fat. Pigs were fed a diet supplemented with 18 g kg−1 fish oil and 50, 150 or 300 mg kg−1 α‐tocopheryl acetate. The control group received 12 g kg−1 soy oil and 150 mg kg−1 α‐tocopheryl acetate. RESULTS α‐Tocopherol levels of the frozen loin, dry fermented sausage and subcutaneous fat were elevated as a result of the dietary α‐tocopherol supplementation. Lipid oxidation occurred to the same extend in the n‐3 fatty acid enriched frozen loins when compared to the control group. In the subcutaneous fat enriched with n‐3 fatty acids reduced lipid oxidation was found when comparing 50 mg kg−1 versus 150 and 300 mg kg−1. However, in the dry fermented sausages no such effect was observed and higher TBARS values were found in the n‐3 fatty acid enriched sausages compared to the control group. Colour parameters of the loin and subcutaneous fat were not affected, whereas some significant differences in the dry fermented sausages were found. The colour stability of the frozen loins was not affected by the dietary treatments. CONCLUSION Supra‐nutritional levels of α‐tocopherol maintain the oxidative stability of n‐3 fatty acid enriched frozen loins and subcutaneous fat, but not of dry fermented sausages. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T04:25:43.300482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7668
  • The antimicrobial action of resveratrol against Listeria monocytogenes in
           food‐based models and its antibiofilm properties
    • Authors: Susana Ferreira; Fernanda Domingues
      Pages: 4531 - 4535
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Resveratrol (3,5,4′‐trihydroxy‐trans‐stilbene) is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants in response to stress. This compound has several beneficial documented properties, namely anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and antimicrobial activities. In this study the antimicrobial activity of resveratrol against Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua was investigated. RESULTS Resveratrol had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg mL−1 for the tested strains, with time‐kill curves demonstrating bacteriostatic activity. Inhibition of biofilm formation was also assessed, with resveratrol strongly inhibiting biofilm formation by both species even at subinhibitory concentrations. Overall, resveratrol showed antimicrobial properties on planktonic cells and on biofilm formation ability. Considering the potential use of resveratrol as a food preservative, the antimicrobial efficacy of resveratrol in food was studied in milk, lettuce leaf model and chicken juice. Resveratrol retained greater efficacy in both lettuce leaf model and chicken juice, but milk had a negative impact on its antilisterial activity, indicating a possible reduction of resveratrol availability in milk. CONCLUSION This study reinforces resveratrol as an antimicrobial agent, pointing out its antibiofilm activity and its potential use as preservative in some food matrices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-17T11:10:44.742464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7669
  • Effect of preceding crop on Fusarium species and mycotoxin contamination
           of wheat grains
    • Authors: Jianbo Qiu; Fei Dong, Mingzheng Yu, Jianhong Xu, Jianrong Shi
      Pages: 4536 - 4541
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The Fusarium graminearum species complex infects several cereals and causes the reduction of grain yield and quality. Many factors influence the extent of Fusarium infection and mycotoxin levels. Such factors include crop rotation. In the present study, we explored the effect of rice or maize as former crops on mycotoxin accumulation in wheat grains. RESULTS More than 97% of samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON). DON concentrations in wheat grains from rice and maize rotation fields were 884.37 and 235.78 µg kg−1. Zearalenone (ZEN) was detected in 45% of samples which were mainly collected from maize–wheat rotation systems. Fusarium strains were isolated and more F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) isolates were cultured from wheat samples obtained from maize rotation fields. DON levels produced by Fusarium isolates from rice rotation fields were higher than those of samples from maize rotation fields. CONCLUSIONS Rice–wheat rotation favours DON accumulation, while more ZEN contamination may occur in maize–wheat rotation models. Appropriate crop rotation may help to reduce toxin levels in wheat grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T09:40:41.987477-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7670
  • Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of kernel anthocyanins from
           southwestern United States blue corn
    • Authors: Amol N Nankar; Barry Dungan, Neil Paz, Nilusha Sudasinghe, Tanner Schaub, F Omar Holguin, Richard C Pratt
      Pages: 4542 - 4552
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Anthocyanin‐rich blue corn is an emerging specialty crop in the USA. The antioxidant properties of blue corn offer health benefits in the human diet. The objectives of this study were to identify, characterize and quantify the anthocyanins from blue corn. Hypotheses tested were that total anthocyanin content was similar among southwestern US accessions and that it would vary across locations. It was also examined whether different anthocyanin components were unique to certain genotypes. RESULTS Across all locations and accessions, an average of 0.43 g kg−1 total anthocyanin content (TAC) was observed. Accessions Santa Clara Blue and Ohio Blue displayed the highest TAC. The TAC of accession Flor del Rio was lower by nearly a factor of six. A total of five anthocyanin components were identified. Cyanidin 3‐glucoside was the most abundant, followed by pelargonidin and peonidin 3‐glucoside. Succinyl and disuccinyl glycosidic forms of cyanidin were also identified. Cyanidin 3‐disuccinylglucoside was newly identified as a novel form of anthocyanin. CONCLUSION Quantitative and qualitative anthocyanin expression was determined to be relatively stable across multiple southwestern environments. Increased expression of red and purple pigmentation in accession Flor del Rio appeared to be associated more with reduced TAC and cyanidin 3‐glucoside than with elevated pelargonidin per se. A previously unreported anthocyanin component in blue corn, cyanidin 3‐disuccinylglucoside, is present in southwestern landraces. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-24T02:56:11.116819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7671
  • Influence of berry ripeness on accumulation, composition and
           extractability of skin and seed flavonoids in cv. Sangiovese (Vitis
           vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Gianluca Allegro; Chiara Pastore, Gabriele Valentini, Enrico Muzzi, Ilaria Filippetti
      Pages: 4553 - 4559
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The anthocyanin and tannin concentration and composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese berries were investigated from post‐veraison to harvest. Exhaustive extraction with methanol and acetone was performed to determine the total flavonoid concentration, while a model hydroalcoholic solution was used to prepare extracts representing the winemaking process. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge of the phenolic maturity of Sangiovese grape. RESULTS The total anthocyanin concentration increased during ripening, but the quantity of extractable anthocyanins increased more rapidly than the total. The total skin tannin concentration declined from post‐veraison to harvest, whereas the extractable portion increased, with little difference in the composition of the fractions. Both the total and extractable seed tannin concentration diminished rapidly just after veraison, and only small fluctuations were detected until harvest. CONCLUSION These results indicate that the extractability of anthocyanins and skin tannins increases during ripening, whereas there is no clear trend for seed tannins during the same period. This is the first survey to study the behavior of phenolic compounds during different steps of ripening of Sangiovese grape. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-22T03:15:53.541555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7672
  • Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato
    • Authors: Shelley Jansky; Diego Fajardo
      Pages: 4560 - 4564
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing ‘baby’ potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. RESULTS We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from −0.17 in 2012 to −0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). CONCLUSIONS This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T02:16:36.856843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7673
  • Modulatory effects of condensed tannin fractions of different molecular
           weights from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid on the bovine rumen bacterial
           community in vitro
    • Authors: Mookiah Saminathan; Chin Chin Sieo, Han Ming Gan, Sharanya Ravi, Karthikkumar Venkatachalam, Norhani Abdullah, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Yin Wan Ho
      Pages: 4565 - 4574
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Condensed tannin (CT) fractions of different molecular weights (MWs) may affect rumen microbial metabolism by altering bacterial diversity. In this study the effects of unfractionated CTs (F0) and five CT fractions (F1–F5) of different MWs (F1, 1265.8 Da; F2, 1028.6 Da; F3, 652.2 Da; F4, 562.2 Da; F5, 469.6 Da) from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid‐Rendang (LLR) on the structure and diversity of the rumen bacterial community were investigated in vitro. RESULTS Real‐time polymerase chain reaction assay showed that the total bacterial population was not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the dietary treatments. Inclusion of higher‐MW CT fractions F1 and F2 significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T04:35:43.755484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7674
  • Application of 2D and 3D image technologies to characterise morphological
           attributes of grapevine clusters
    • Pages: 4575 - 4583
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Grapevine cluster morphology influences the quality and commercial value of wine and table grapes. It is routinely evaluated by subjective and inaccurate methods that do not meet the requirements set by the food industry. Novel two‐dimensional (2D) and three‐dimensional (3D) machine vision technologies emerge as promising tools for its automatic and fast evaluation. RESULTS The automatic evaluation of cluster length, width and elongation was successfully achieved by the analysis of 2D images, significant and strong correlations with the manual methods being found (r = 0.959, 0.861 and 0.852, respectively). The classification of clusters according to their shape can be achieved by evaluating their conicity in different sections of the cluster. The geometric reconstruction of the morphological volume of the cluster from 2D features worked better than the direct 3D laser scanning system, showing a high correlation (r = 0.956) with the manual approach (water displacement method). In addition, we constructed and validated a simple linear regression model for cluster compactness estimation. It showed a high predictive capacity for both the training and validation subsets of clusters (R2 = 84.5 and 71.1%, respectively). CONCLUSION The methodologies proposed in this work provide continuous and accurate data for the fast and objective characterisation of cluster morphology. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T07:59:36.793086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7675
  • Assessing the production and economic benefits from preventing cows
           grazing on wet soils in New Zealand
    • Authors: Seth Laurenson; David J Houlbrooke, Pierre C Beukes
      Pages: 4584 - 4593
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Intensive grazing by cattle on wet pasture can have a negative effect on soil physical quality and future pasture production. On a North Otago dairy farm in New Zealand, experimental plots were monitored for four years to assess whether preventing cow grazing of wet pastures during the milking season would improve soil structure and pasture production compared with unrestricted access to pastures. The DairyNZ Whole Farm Model was used to scale up results to a farm system level and ascertain the cost benefit of deferred grazing management. RESULTS Soils under deferred grazing management had significantly higher total porosity, yet no significant improvement in macroporosity (values ranging between 0.112 and 0.146 m3 m−3). Annual pasture production did not differ between the control and deferred grazing treatments, averaging 17.0 ± 3.8 and 17.9 ± 4.1 t DM ha−1 year−1 respectively (P > 0.05). Furthermore, whole farm modelling indicated that farm operating profit was reduced by NZ$1683 ha−1 year−1 (four‐year average) under deferred grazing management. CONCLUSION Deferring dairy cow grazing from wet Pallic soils in North Otago was effective in improving soil structure (measured as total soil porosity), yet did not lead to a significant increase in pasture production. Whole farm modelling indicated no economic benefit of removing cows from wet soils during the milking season. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T03:25:45.897561-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7676
  • Prediction of oxidation parameters of purified Kilka fish oil including
           gallic acid and methyl gallate by adaptive neuro‐fuzzy inference system
           (ANFIS) and artificial neural network
    • Authors: Maryam Asnaashari; Reza Farhoosh, Reza Farahmandfar
      Pages: 4594 - 4602
      Abstract: BACKGROUND As a result of concerns regarding possible health hazards of synthetic antioxidants, gallic acid and methyl gallate may be introduced as natural antioxidants to improve oxidative stability of marine oil. Since conventional modelling could not predict the oxidative parameters precisely, artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro‐fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modelling with three inputs, including type of antioxidant (gallic acid and methyl gallate), temperature (35, 45 and 55 °C) and concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg L−1) and four outputs containing induction period (IP), slope of initial stage of oxidation curve (k1) and slope of propagation stage of oxidation curve (k2) and peroxide value at the IP (PVIP) were performed to predict the oxidation parameters of Kilka oil triacylglycerols and were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR). RESULTS The results showed ANFIS was the best model with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.99, 0.99, 0.92 and 0.77 for IP, k1, k2 and PVIP, respectively). So, the RMSE and MAE values for IP were 7.49 and 4.92 in ANFIS model. However, they were to be 15.95 and 10.88 and 34.14 and 3.60 for the best MLP structure and MLR, respectively. So, MLR showed the minimum accuracy among the constructed models. CONCLUSION Sensitivity analysis based on the ANFIS model suggested a high sensitivity of oxidation parameters, particularly the induction period on concentrations of gallic acid and methyl gallate due to their high antioxidant activity to retard oil oxidation and enhanced Kilka oil shelf life. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-22T03:23:08.689495-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7677
  • Optimisation of pre‐drying and deep‐fat‐frying conditions for
           production of low‐fat fried carrot slices
    • Pages: 4603 - 4612
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The main objective of the current study was to reduce the fat content of fried carrot slices with a hot air pre‐drying step before frying. In this regard the effects of hot air drying and deep‐fat‐frying conditions on moisture and oil contents, breaking force and colour parameters of pre‐dried and fried carrot slices were investigated. RESULTS Statistical analysis with response surface methodology showed that there was a significant correlation between investigated responses and process variables (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the optimal conditions (63.4 °C for drying temperature, 16% for weight loss, 152 °C for frying temperature, and 207 s for frying time) produced by the optimisation of process conditions, more than 50% reduction in fat content of fried carrot slices was achieved by hot air pre‐drying before frying. CONCLUSION The results presented indicated that the proposed cooking method is useful to control final oil content of fried carrot slices, so indirectly limiting the daily calorie intake by consumers without spectacular losses in quality attributes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T03:33:22.393566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7678
  • Optimization of microwave‐assisted extraction (MAE) of coriander
           phenolic antioxidants – response surface methodology approach
    • Pages: 4613 - 4622
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Microwave‐assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenols from coriander seeds was optimized by simultaneous maximization of total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) yields, as well as maximized antioxidant activity determined by 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assays. Box–Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of MAE. Extraction time (X1, 15–35 min), ethanol concentration (X2, 50–90% w/w) and irradiation power (X3, 400–800 W) were investigated as independent variables. Experimentally obtained values of investigated responses were fitted to a second‐order polynomial model, and multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine fitness of the model and optimal conditions. RESULTS The optimal MAE conditions for simultaneous maximization of polyphenol yield and increased antioxidant activity were an extraction time of 19 min, an ethanol concentration of 63% and an irradiation power of 570 W, while predicted values of TP, TF, IC50 and EC50 at optimal MAE conditions were 311.23 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g dry weight (DW), 213.66 mg catechin equivalent per 100 g DW, 0.0315 mg mL−1 and 0.1311 mg mL−1 respectively. CONCLUSION RSM was successfully used for multi‐response optimization of coriander seed polyphenols. Comparison of optimized MAE with conventional extraction techniques confirmed that MAE provides significantly higher polyphenol yields and extracts with increased antioxidant activity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T04:05:51.974798-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7679
  • Encapsulation of (−)‐epigallocatechin gallate into liposomes and into
           alginate or chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes
    • Pages: 4623 - 4632
      Abstract: BACKGROUND (−)‐Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was encapsulated into liposomes that were further incorporated into alginate and chitosan microparticles. The stability of free and encapsulated EGCG in all three systems was evaluated at different pH values and in fruit nectar. Furthermore, the interactions between EGCG and the compounds of the microparticles were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). RESULTS All three encapsulation systems showed high encapsulation efficiency (>97%) and sustained release; in 14 days, no more than 15% of EGCG was released. The encapsulation systems successfully protected EGCG against degradation at alkaline pH. For non‐encapsulated EGCG, >70% was degraded after 14 days, while there was no significant degradation of encapsulated EGCG in these three systems. In fruit nectar, >30% of non‐encapsulated EGCG was degraded in 14 days, while only 6% of EGCG encapsulated into liposomes or chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes was degraded at that time. The DSC and FTIR analyses showed that the main interactions occurred between the liposomes and the EGCG. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that liposomes as well as alginate and chitosan microparticles reinforced with liposomes have the potential to enhance EGCG stability in food products during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T13:06:57.089205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7691
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