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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 262 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (9 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (59 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (194 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (194 journals)            First | 1 2     

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Journal Cover   Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.781]   [H-I: 80]   [23 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1606 journals]
  • Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Origanum
           majorana and investigation of antiproliferative and antioxidant activities
           
    • Authors: Ramazan Erenler; Ozkan Sen, Huseyin Aksit, Ibrahim Demirtas, Ayse Sahin Yaglioglu, Mahfuz Elmastas, İsa Telci
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The Origanum majorana L. belonging to the Lamiaceae family has a great potential and used as folk medicine against asthma, indigestion, headache, and rheumatism; in addition, the essential oils of this plant have been used widely in food industries. The plant materials have been harvested from the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Field of Gaziosmanpasa University. Air‐dried plant materials were boiled in water, filtered then solvent part was extracted subsequently with hexane and ethyl acetate. The chromatographic method was applied for ethyl acetate extract to isolate bioactive secondary metabolites of which the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, basically 1D‐NMR, 2D‐NMR and LC‐QTOF. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities were carried out of isolated secondary metabolites. Results 5,6,3'‐trihydroxy‐7,8,4'‐trimethoxyflavone, hesperetin, hydroquinone, arbutin and rosmarinic acid were isolated from the water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts of Origanum majorana. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds and water‐soluble ethyl acetate extract were investigated using the assays of DPPH•, ABTS·+, reducing power and total phenolic contents. The antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds and plant extracts were investigated against C6 and HeLa cell lines using BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA and xCELLigence assays, respectively. Both hesperetin and hydroquinone were determined to have stronger antiproliferative activities against C6 and HeLa cells than the other isolated compounds and 5‐FU. Conclusion The results showed that the extract and isolated compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Hence, this plant has a potential to be a natural antioxidant in food industries and an anticancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T01:01:21.615588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7155
       
  • Bioactive quinone derivatives from marine brown algae Sargassum thunbergii
           induce anti‐adipogenic and pro‐osteoblastogenic activities
    • Authors: Jung‐Ae Kim; Fatih Karadeniz, Byul‐Nim Ahn, Myeong Sook Kwon, Ok‐Ju Mun, Min Joo Bae, Youngwan Seo, Mihyang Kim, Sang‐Hyeon Lee, Yuck Yong Kim, Chang‐Suk Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Lack of bone formation‐related health problems is a major problem for aging population in modern world. As a part of ongoing trend to develop natural substances that attenuate osteoporotic bone loss conditions, the effect of edible brown algae, Sargassum thunbergii and its active contents on adipogenic differentiation in 3T3‐L1 fibroblasts and osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3‐E1 pre‐osteoblasts were evaluated. Sargassum thunbergii treatment significantly reduced the lipid accumulation and the expression of adipogenic differentiation markers such as peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c. In addition, S. thunbergii successfully enhanced the osteoblast differentiation as indicated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity along raised levels of osteoblastogenesis indicators, namely bone morphogenetic protein‐2, osteocalcin and collagen type I. Two compounds, sargaquinoic and sargahydroquinoic acid, were isolated from active extract and shown to be active by means of osteogenesis inducement. In conclusion, S. thunbergii could be a source for functional food ingredients for improved osteoporosis and obesity.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T21:46:05.480274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7148
       
  • Comparative study on acid‐soluble and pepsin‐soluble collagens
           from skin and swim bladder of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: Xiaosa Wu; Luyun Cai, Ailing Cao, Yanbo Wang, Tingting Li, Jianrong Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Collagen has a wide range of applications in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical products. Results The collagens in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin and swim bladder were extracted using acetic acid and pepsin, respectively. Higher yield (178 g kg−1) was obtained for pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from fish skin than that PSC from swim bladder (114 g kg−1). Not surprisingly, yields of PSC from fish skin and swim bladder were also higher than that of acid soluble collagen (ASC) from the same organs (89 and 51 g kg−1). The SDS‐PAGE profile showed that ASC and PSC belonged to type I collagen, and PSC contained higher α‐components than ASC. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that those collagens were almost similar in their protein secondary structures. The micrographs showed collagens had a spongy structure, and more pores were obtained in swim bladder than skin. Collagens showed high solubilities in acidic pH ranges. However, the solubilities decreased in the presence of NaCl at concentrations over 20 g kg−1. Conclusion Collagens were successfully extracted from the skin and swim bladder of grass carp. These byproducts could serve as an alternative source of collagens for a wide variety of applications in food and nutraceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T03:42:34.350419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7154
       
  • Metabolomic changes in grains of well‐watered and
           drought‐stressed transgenic rice
    • Authors: Kyong‐Hee Nam; Hee Jae Shin, In‐Soon Pack, Jung‐Ho Park, Ho Bang Kim, Chang‐Gi Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Drought induces a number of physiological and biochemical responses in cereals. This study was designed to examine the metabolite changes in grains of drought‐tolerant transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) that over‐expresses AtCYP78A7 encoding cytochrome P450 protein using 1H‐NMR and GC‐MS. Results Principal component analysis showed that 1H‐NMR‐based profile was definitely separated by soil‐water status of well‐watered and water‐deficit. A discrimination of metabolites between transgenic and non‐transgenic grains appeared under both watering regimes. Variations in the levels of amino acids and sugars led to the discrimination of metabolites among genotypes. In particular, drought significantly enhanced the levels of γ–aminobutyric acid (244.6%), fructose (155.7%), glucose (211.0%), glycerol (57.2%), glycine (65.8%), and aminoethanol (192.4%) in the transgenic grains compared with the non‐transgenic control grains. Conclusion These changes in amounts of metabolites may assist in improving drought tolerance in transgenic rice by playing crucial roles in stress‐responsive pathways including GABA biosynthesis, sucrose metabolism, and antioxidant defenses.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:57.238389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7152
       
  • Influence of pig's genetic type on sensory properties and consumer's
           acceptance of Parma, San Daniele and Toscano dry‐cured hams
    • Authors: Ella Pagliarini; Monica Laureati, Caterina Dinnella, Erminio Monteleone, Cristina Proserpio, Edi Piasentier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study investigated sensory properties and acceptability of different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) dry‐cured hams. For each PDO, two genotypes were selected: ILxLW cross (reference hybrid) and Goland cross (commercial hybrid). Results According to descriptive analysis genetic variance affected few attributes describing Toscano and San Daniele hams sensory quality. The commercial hybrid Parma ham was distinct from the traditional one. Goland genotype was significantly higher in red color, saltiness, dryness and hardness and showed a lower intensity of pork‐meat odor/flavor and sweetness than the ILxLW. Consumer's acceptance was mainly influenced by the PDO technology. Genotype effect on acceptance was only observed in Toscano ham. PCR analysis revealed that Toscano ham was the preferred sample. Considering that the consumers involved were from Tuscany, it's likely that Toscano ham was the preferred product according to a higher familiarity with this product. Conclusion Sensory properties of ham samples were better discriminated according to their PDO than genotype. Likewise, consumer liking was more affected by the specific PDO technology than genetic type. Toscano ham resulted the most preferred and the most familiar product among the Tuscan consumers, indicating that familiarity with product was the best driver of dry‐cured ham preference.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:40.508223-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7151
       
  • Hepatoprotective effects of soluble rice protein in primary hepatocytes
           and in mice
    • Authors: Bok Kyung Han; Yooheon Park, Hyeon‐Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The production of rice‐derived by‐products has increased due to the growing use of processed rice products. The objective of this study was to isolate highly‐purified proteins from a rice by‐product—rice syrup meal—and to examine their hepatoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Result Soluble rice protein (SRP70) was obtained via enzymatic processing of rice syrup meal using Termamyl SC and Alcalase. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that SRP70 contained low molecular‐weight (
      PubDate: 2015-02-26T02:10:25.812918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7153
       
  • Fermented sorghum/millet based beverage, Obiolor, extenuates high fat
           diet‐induced dyslipidemia and redox imbalance in the liver of rats
    • Authors: Ajiboye T.O; Iliasu G. A, Adeleye A. O, Ojewuyi O. B, Kolawole F. L, Bello S. A, Mohammed A. O.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Obiolor, a nonalcoholic beverage produced from fermented sorghum and millet malts, is widely consumed on the daily basis by the Igala tribe in Nigeria and highly associated with good health. This effect of Obiolor on dyslipidemia, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in the liver of high fat diet fed rats was investigated. Results High fat diet mediated alterations in liver and serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, low‐density cholesterol, very low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, were significantly (P
      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:17:51.847849-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7150
       
  • Agronomic and environmental consequences of using liquid mineral
           concentrates on arable farms
    • Authors: René LM Schils; Romke Postma, Debby van Rotterdam, Kor B Zwart
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In regions with intensive livestock systems, the processing of manure into liquid mineral concentrates is seen as an option to increase the nutrient use efficiency of manures. The agricultural sector anticipates that these products may in future be regarded as regular mineral fertilizers. We assessed the agronomic suitability and impact on GHG and ammonia emissions of using liquid mineral concentrates on arable farms. RESULTS The phosphate requirements on arable farms were largely met by raw pig slurry, given its large regional availability. After the initial nutrient input by means of pig slurry, the nitrogen/phosphate ratio of the remaining nutrient crop requirements determined the additional amount of liquid mineral concentrates that can be used. For sandy soils, liquid mineral concentrates could supply 50% of the nitrogen requirement, whereas for clay soils the concentrates did not meet the required nitrogen/phosphate ratio. The total GHG emissions per kg of plant available nitrogen ranged from −65 to 33 kg CO2‐equivalents. It increased in the order digestates 
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:33.321923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7146
       
  • Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Regional Emission Information in
           Agricultural Systems
    • Authors: Junbeum Kim; Albina Yalaltdinova, Natalia Sirina, Natalia Baranovskaya
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a compilation and evaluation of the input energy and materials, output emissions and the potential environmental impacts of a product, service or system throughout its life cycle. While methodological issues of LCA are still being developed and much research is being conducted worldwide in order to improve them. One of the important advances in LCA is a regionalized LCA, meaning the development of regionalized databases, inventories, and impact assessment methods and models. RESULTS Regional emission information (REI) was developed and integrated with the characterization results in LCA of an agricultural product in the study area. Comparison of obtained outcomes with LCA characterization results that did not include REI shows that the characterization results taking REI into account are much higher as regards human toxicity, from 0.02% to 0.18%, freshwater ecotoxicity from 89% to 99% and terrestrial ecotoxicity from 8.006 % to 26.177%. CONCLUSION Results of current LCA studies on agricultural products and systems that do not include REI are underestimating the life cycle environmental impact. For the LCA of agricultural products and systems, the REI as well as regionalized life cycle inventory (LCI) data should be developed and integrated into the current LCA approach.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:38:18.519573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7149
       
  • Evaluation of the in vitro alpha‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of
           green tea polyphenols and different tea types
    • Authors: Xiaoping Yang; Fanbin Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea, and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α‐glucosidase and whether they can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS Green tea polyphenols (TP) strongly inhibited α‐glucosidase activity by non‐competitive inhibition with the IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL−1 and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea also had dose‐dependent inhibitory potential with the IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25, and 1.38 µg mL−1 (µg polyphenol mL−1), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TP changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TP during enzymatic hydrolysis. CONCLUSION Green TP, green tea, black tea, and oolong tea are excellent α‐glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TP. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea, and oolong tea can be potentially used to the control of postprandial hyperglycemia.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:37:45.290842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7147
       
  • Incorporation Of Liposomes Containing Squid Tunic Ace‐Inhibitory
           Peptides To Fish Gelatin
    • Authors: Mauricio Mosquera; Begoña Giménez, Pilar Montero, M. Carmen Gómez‐Guillén
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background hydrolysates from collagen of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas tunics have shown excellent angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, however, peptides directly included in food systems may suffer a decrease in activity, which could be minimized by loading them into nanoliposomes. Results a fraction of peptides with molecular weights
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T01:47:14.170154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7145
       
  • Impact of casein and egg white proteins on the structure of wheat
           gluten‐based protein‐rich food
    • Authors: Arno G.B. Wouters; Ine Rombouts, Bert Lagrain, Jan A. Delcour
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND There is a growing interest in texturally and nutritionally satisfying vegetable alternatives for meat. Wheat gluten proteins have unique functional properties but a poor nutritional value in comparison to animal proteins. This study investigated the potential of egg white and bovine milk casein with well‐balanced amino acid composition to increase the quality of wheat gluten‐based protein‐rich foods. RESULTS Heating a wheat gluten (51.4 g) ‐ water (100.0 ml) blend for 120 minutes at 100 °C increased its firmness less than heating a wheat gluten (33.0 g) ‐ freeze dried egg white (16.8 g) ‐ water (100.0 ml) blend. In contrast, the addition of casein to the gluten‐water blend negatively impacted firmness after heating. Firmness was correlated to loss of protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium during heating, which was higher with egg white than with casein. Even more, heat‐induced polymerization of the gluten‐water blend with egg white but not with casein was larger than expected from the losses in extractability of gluten and egg white on their own. CONCLUSION Structure formation was favored by mixing gluten with egg white but not with casein. These observations were linked to the intrinsic polymerization behavior of egg white and casein, but also to their interaction with gluten. Thus, not all nutritionally suitable proteins can be used for enrichment of gluten‐based protein‐rich foods.
      PubDate: 2015-02-19T02:04:05.191418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7143
       
  • Anti‐hyperglycemic and anti‐hyperlipidemic effects of
           Vaccinium myrtillus fruit in experimentally‐induced diabetes
           (antidiabetic effect of Vaccinium myrtillus fruit)
    • Authors: Sedigheh Asgary; Mahmood RafieianKopaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Fatemeh shamsi, Najmeh Goli‐malekabadi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) is a useful plant with anti‐diabetic properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bilberry against DM. Diabetes was induced using intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight (bw)). Bilberry powder (2g/day) and glibenclamide (positive control; 0.6 mg/kgbw) were administered for 4 weeks following alloxan injection. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C), very low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL‐C), triglycerides (TG) and C‐reactive protein (CRP) were determined at baseline and at 2nd and 4th week of the study. Results Bilberry supplementation resulted in a significant reduction of glucose compared with the diabetic control as well as glibenclamide treatment. Bilberry elevated insulin, reduced TC, LDL‐C, VLDL‐C and TG levels, and prevented HDL‐C decline. Serum insulin, TC and LDL‐C levels were not affected by glibenclamide, and CRP did not significantly change with either bilberry or glibenclamide. Histological examinations revealed a significant elevation of islet size in the bilberry and glibenclamide‐treated. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with bilberry fruits may protect against impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in DM.
      PubDate: 2015-02-19T02:03:47.618078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7144
       
  • Tea Waste: an Effective and Economic Substrate for Oyster Mushroom
           Cultivation
    • Authors: Doudou Yang; Jin Liang, Yunsheng Wang, Feng Sun, Hong Tao, Qiang Xu, Liang Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Chi‐Tang Ho, Xiaochun Wan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tea waste was left after tea leaves were extracted by hot water to obtain water‐soluble components. But it still contains reusable energy substrate and nutrients which may pollute environment if it is dealt in inappropriate ways. Other agricultural wastes have been widely studied in cultivating of mushroom on various agricultural wastes. In the present study, we cultivated oyster mushroom using tea waste as substrate. To study the feasibility of reusing it, tea waste was added in substrate at different ratios in different experiment groups. Three mushroom strains (39, 71 and YOU) were compared and evaluated. Mycelia growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and growth duration were measured. RESULTS Substrate with different tea waste ratios showed different growth and yield performance. Substrate containing 40%‐60% of tea waste obtained the highest yield. CONCLUSION Tea waste could be used as an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. This study also provided an available way dealing with massive tea waste.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T02:40:27.80245-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7140
       
  • Evaluation of Different Drying Temperatures on Physico‐chemical and
           Antioxidant Properties of Water Soluble Tomato Powders and on Their Use in
           Pork Patties
    • Authors: Hyeong Sang Kim; Koo Bok Chin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tomato and tomato products provide various antioxidant activities, which could be changed by the processing method. This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of water soluble tomato powder (WSTP) as affected by different oven temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C), and to evaluate the physicochemical property and antioxidative activity of pork patties containing these powders. RESULTS The contents of total phenolic compounds of WSTP ranged from 22.2 to 69.6g kg−1 dry matter. The antioxidant activities increased significantly with increasing drying temperatures (p < 0.05). The physicochemical properties of pork patties containing tomato powders were also evaluated. WSTP at 100 °C showed the highest redness value compared to those dried at 60 and 80 °C. Lipid oxidation of pork patties was retarded by 7 days with the addition of WSTP. Especially, pork patties containing WSTP showed antimicrobial activity at 14 days of refrigerated storage, regardless of drying temperatures. CONCLUSION WSTP, especially prepared at 100 °C, could be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in meat products.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17T01:38:03.177606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7141
       
  • Silicon biofortification of leafy vegetables and its bioaccessibility in
           the edible parts
    • Authors: Massimiliano D'Imperio; Massimiliano Renna, Angela Cardinali, Donato Buttaro, Pietro Santamaria, Francesco Serio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The mineral silicon (Si) is an essential element for humans and a general component of the diet found mainly in plant‐based foods. The aim of this study was to obtain Si biofortificated leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, basil, swiss chard, and chicory) to use for the IV gamma products (ready to use). For the biofortified plants production, a floating system with 0, 50, and 100 mg L−1 of Si in nutrient solution, was used. In addition, the assessment of bioaccessibility of biofortified plants, by in vitro gastro‐digestion process, was performed. Results The added silicon in nutrient solution did not influence yield and colour of vegetables but a species‐related accumulation of Si was found: from 18 to 69 mg kg−1 fresh weight (FW) in tatsoi, from 19 to 106 mg kg−1 FW in mizuna, from 15 to 93 mg kg−1 FW in purslane, from 41 to 294 mg kg−1 FW in basil, from 17 to 76 mg kg−1 FW in Swiss chard, and from 23 to 76 mg kg−1 FW in chicory. The Si resulted bioaccessible in all species considered in a range from 23% (basil) to 64% (chicory). Conclusion The application of Si to the nutrient solution in the range 50–100 mg L−1 allows to obtain biofortified leafy vegetables. In addition, the biofortificated vegetables have showed, on average, much bioaccessible Si, respect to unbiofortified.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17T01:36:52.335629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7142
       
  • Identification and molecular characterization of 48 kDa calcium binding
           protein as calreticulin from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) using
           peptide mass fingerprinting and transcript profiling
    • Authors: Manoj Singh; Mamta Metwal, Vandana A. Kumar, Anil Kumar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Attempts were made to identify and characterize the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in grain filling stages of finger millet using different omics approaches. Results A distinctly observed blue color band of 48 kDa stained by Stains‐all was eluted and analyzed as calreticulin (CRT) using Nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Nano LC–MS). Based on the top hits of peptide mass fingerprinting results, conserved primers were designed for isolation of the CRT gene from finger millet using calreticulin sequences of different cereals. The deduced nucleotide sequence analysis of 600 bp amplicon showed upto 91% similarity with CRT gene(s) of rice and other plant species and designated as EcCRT1. Transcript profiling of EcCRT1 showed different level of relative expression at different stages of developing spikes. The higher expression of EcCRT1 transcripts and protein were observed in later stages of developing spikes which might be due to greater translational synthesis of EcCRT1 protein during seed maturation in finger millet. Conclusions Preferentially higher synthesis of this CaBP during later stages of grain filling may be responsible for the sequestration of calcium in endoplasmic reticulum of finger millet grains.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T04:38:09.372053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7139
       
  • Berry ripening, pre‐processing and thermal treatments affect the
           phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.)
           juice
    • Authors: Giuseppe Genova; Roberta Tosetti, Pietro Tonutti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Grape juice is an important dietary source of health‐promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre‐processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Results Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red‐skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1,000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 minutes) juices were produced using a water‐bath. 3‐Way ANOVA showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre‐processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan‐3‐ol contents in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. Conclusion These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T04:29:31.827921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7138
       
  • Grape skin extracts from winemaking by‐products as a source of
           trapping agents for reactive carbonyl species
    • Authors: P.S.C. Sri Harsha; M. Mesias, V. Lavelli, F. J. Morales
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Clinical evidences support the relationship between carbonyl stress and type II diabetes and its related pathologies. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is the major dicarbonyl compound involved in carbonyl stress. Therefore, efforts are being made to find dietary compounds from natural sources that could exert a MGO trapping response. Results The in vitro MGO trapping capacity of six red and seven white grape skin extracts (GSE) obtained from winemaking by‐products was investigated. Methanolic GSE exhibited a promising MGO trapping capacity that was higher in red GSE (IC50 2.8 mg mL−1) when compared with white GSE (IC50 3.2 mg mL−1). The trapping ability for red GSE correlated significantly with total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. However, no correlations were observed for white GSE, which suggests that other compounds were involved in the trapping activity. Conclusion GSE may be considered a natural source of carbonyl stress inhibitors, thus opening up its possible utilization as a nutraceutical ingredient. Further investigations are required to understand the mechanism involved in the carbonyl trapping ability of red and white grape skin samples and their relationship with glycation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:47:33.319852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7137
       
  • Microbial release of ferulic and p‐coumaric acids from forages and
           their digestibilities in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with
           different forage combinations
    • Authors: Bin‐Bin Cao; Xin Jin, Hong‐Jian Yang, Sheng‐Li Li, Lin‐Shu Jiang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ferulic acid (FA) and p‐coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell wall. This study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester‐linked FA (FAest) and ester‐linked PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cow. Results Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acids profile, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with ether‐linked FA content and original PCA : FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72‐h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA : FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in whatever rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than PCAest. Conclusion Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification indicated by the original dietary PCA : FA ratio.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13T03:43:06.095297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7136
       
  • Optimization of a cheap and residential small‐scale production of
           edible crickets with local by‐products as an alternative
           protein‐rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
    • Authors: Rudy Caparros Megido; Taofic Alabi, Clément Nieus, Christophe Blecker, Sabine Danthine, Jan Bogaert, Éric Haubruge, Frédéric Francis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew‐based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:34:21.779734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7133
       
  • Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial
           sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to
           physicochemical characteristics
    • Authors: Brittany Graf; Leonel E. Rojo, Jose Delatorre‐Herrera, Alexander Poulev, Camila Calfio, Ilya Raskin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100‐seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4‐fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 µg/g to 570 ± 124 µg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 µg/g to 804 ±#x2009;91 µg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 µg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 µg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t‐test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:29:31.554269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7134
       
  • Hypolipidemic effects of oat flakes and β‐glucans derived from
           four Chinese naked oat (Avena nuda) cultivars in Wistar‐Lewis rats
    • Authors: Xianrong Zhou; Weijing Lin, Litao Tong, Xingxun Liu, Kui Zhong, Liya Liu, Lili Wang, Sumei Zhou
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND β‐Glucan has been widely considered to be the major ingredient which is responsible for the hypolipidemic effects of oat. Content determination of β‐glucan in naked oat cultivars in China has been largely performed for breeding and food processing. Since oat was generally consumed as oat flake in China, bioactivity evaluation of oat flake might be more direct and comprehensive than the inside β‐glucan. However, hypolipidemic activity of oat flake processed from Chinese oat cultivars was rarely reported. RESULTS The nutritional components of four naked oat cultivars were analyzed before they were processed to oat flakes. Hypolipidemic effects of oat flakes and the extracted β‐glucans were testified on rats fed a high‐fat diet for 30 days. Oat flakes and β‐glucans of different origin showed different preventing effects on hyperlipidemia. Among the four cultivars, β‐gucan of “Bayou‐1” showed the highest hypolipidemic effect. However, oat flake processed from “Dingyou‐7” showed the best bioactivity to mediate the increase of serum lipid. CONCLUSION The hypolipidemic effect of oat might not only depend on β‐glucan, but also be related to other components. “Dingyou‐7” might be suitable for oat flake processing for its superior bioactivity.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T02:28:36.728137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7135
       
  • Shelf life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa
           protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film
    • Authors: Abugoch L; Tapia C, Plasencia D, Pastor A, Castro‐Mandujano O, López L, Escalona V.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating to extend the shelf‐life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75 % RH, this condition was used to simulate the storage condition of supermarkets and have adverse conditions to test the effect of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by the changes of weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. RESULTS The tensile strength and elongation at break of edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa, and 117.2 ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3•10−12 ± 4.0•10−13 g s−1 m−1 Pa−1. In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher TA (0.3‐0.5 g citric acid 100 g−1) and lower pH (3.4 to 3.6) than control during storage, however it showed reduced firmness (until 38 %). CONCLUSION The use of Q/CH/SO as coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 d of storage, instead, the control showed an increasing between 1.8 to 3.1 log cycles (between 20–35 d).
      PubDate: 2015-02-11T06:25:52.202028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7132
       
  • Rapid detection of ochratoxin A on membrane by dot‐immunogold
           filtration assay
    • Authors: Weifeng Chen; Yucui Jin, Aiping Liu, Xiaohong Wang, Fusheng Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ochratoxin A (OTA), a widely distributed mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus and Penicillium, is a nephrotoxic toxin that has been identified as a carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic, nephrotoxic and immunotoxic toxin. To reduce risk of its contamination, a rapid, inexpensive, suitable and on‐site assay for the detection of OTA is required. RESULTS: In this study, dot‐immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) of OTA on high‐flow nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) was developed. Firstly, the colloidal gold was synthesized and colloidal gold‐PcAb conjugates against OTA were prepared at the optimum colloidal gold‐labeled pH value and package amount. Then the colloidal gold polyclonal antibody (gold‐PcAb) conjugates were used to develop OTA DIGFA and the results demonstrated a visual detection limit of approximately 10 ng mL−1 of OTA. In addition, this method had no cross‐reaction with zearalenone (ZEN), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and citrinin (CIT). CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the developed DIGFA assay could be applied for the actual detection of samples without complicated steps.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T00:57:31.091854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7130
       
  • The effect of astaxanthin on the aging rat brain: gender‐related
           differences in modulating inflammation
    • Authors: Marta Balietti; Stefano R. Giannubilo, Belinda Giorgetti, Moreno Solazzi, Angelo Turi, Tiziana Casoli, Andrea Ciavattini, Patrizia Fattorettia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Astaxanthin (Ax) is a ketocarotenoid belonging to the xanthophylls family with activity in antioxidation, integrity of cell membranes preservation and redox state and functional mitochondria integrity preservation. The aim was to investigate potential gender‐related differences in astaxanthin (Ax) effects aged rats brain. Results In females, IL1 beta was significantly lower in treated rats in both cerebral areas, and in cerebellum, treated animals had also a significantly higher concentration of IL10; in males, no differences were envisaged in cerebellum, but in hippocampus, IL1 beta and IL10 were significantly higher in treated rats. Conclusion These are the first results that showed gender‐related differences in the Ax effect on the aging brain, strengthening the necessity to carefully analyze female and male peculiarities when the anti‐aging potentialities of this ketocarotenoid are evaluated. Our observation leads to the hypothesis that Ax exerted different anti‐inflammatory effects in female and in male brain.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T00:57:12.404674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7131
       
  • Posidonia oceanica banquettes as a substitute for straw in dairy goat
           rations: metabolic and productive effects
    • Authors: Cristina Castillo; Angel R. Mantecón, Juan Sotillo, Cándido Gutiérrez, Angel Abuelo, Joaquín Hernández
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The marine plant Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile can be a source of fibre to increase the efficiency of product costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the productive (milk production and performance) and metabolic (blood metabolites) effects of P. oceanica into the ration of dairy goats as a substitute for straw. P. oceanica was used at 225 and 450 g goat−1 day−1 in lieu of barley straw. Result Supplementation with P. oceanica had no detrimental effects on the body weight, milk production and the metabolic status of goats. Goats fed with P. oceanica produced more milk‐fat and had a lower somatic cell count in milk, and showed a decreased risk of oxidative stress. Conclusion Goat can fed with P oceanic up to 450 g/ day without detrimental effects on milk production and health, therefore, P. oceanica can be a substitute for barley straw in the nutrition of goats.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10T00:57:01.62554-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7129
       
  • Characterization of general proteolytic, milk clotting and antifungal
           activity of Ficus carica latex during fruit ripening
    • Authors: Brankica Raskovic; Jelena Lazic, Natalija Polovic
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fig latex's physiological role is protection from pathogens. Latex is a rich source of proteases, predominantly ficin. Fig latex contains collagenolytic protease and chitinolytic enzymes, too. Our aim was to investigate changes in protein composition, enzyme and antifungal activities of fig latex during fruit ripening. Results Comparison of latex samples in different time periods showed uniform increase of protein concentration in chronological order. The content of collagenolytic protease did not differ significantly in the latex samples, while the content of ficin decreased. Ficin specific activity towards casein was the highest in the beginning of fruit development (about 80 U mg−1). Specific milk clotting activity increased as well as the abundance of casein band in the clots. Specific chitinolytic activity at the beginning of flowering was 6.5 times higher than the activity in the period when fruits are ripe. Antifungal activity is the most extensive in spring. Conclusion Ficin forms with different casein specificities are present in different proportions during fruit ripening which is of importance for applications in dairy industry. Protection mechanism against insects and fungi which relies on chitinolytic activity is the most important in the early phases of flowering and is replaced with other strategies during time.
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T05:37:39.746954-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7126
       
  • Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of
           Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical
           origin, cultivar and ripening stage
    • Authors: Nalda Romero; Jorge Saavedra, Francisco Tapia, Betsabet Sepúlveda, Ramón Aparicio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Results Varieties of Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T02:40:14.904408-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7127
       
  • Assessment of probiotic, antifungal, cholesterol lowering properties of
           Pediococcus pentosaceus ‐KCC‐23 isolated from Italian ryegrass
           
    • Authors: Soundarrajan Ilavenil; Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar, Da Hye Kim, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Hyung Su Park, Sivanesan Ravikumar, Ki Choon Choi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important for processing of various food products. The genetically modified organisms have been contributed to improve the various food products. However, it has some limitation. Thus, discovery of wild strains from natural sources must be considered as the most suitable approach for identifying the new LAB. Therefore, we plan to isolate and characterize the LAB from Italian rye‐grass forage and evaluate their biological potentials. Results Totally 28 strains were isolated and screened their anti‐fungal and probiotic properties. Single strain was selected due to its antifungal and probiotic efficiency. The strain was identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus KCC‐23. The KCC‐23 showed effective inhibition against A. fumigatus, P.chrysogenum, P. roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica and F. oxysporum. Further, it survives against low pH, bile salts and gastric juice. It exhibited a significant aggregation and hydrophobicity property. The KCC‐23 effectively assimilated the cholesterol and it had ability to utilize the pre‐biotic such as raffinose and inulin. Finally, KCC‐23 exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity. Conclusion The P. pentosaceus‐KCC‐23 showed effective anti‐fungal, probiotic and anti‐oxidant properties would be promising isolate for exploitation in the formulation of food for ruminant and human.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T02:30:23.993266-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7128
       
  • The kinetics for the inhibition of acrylamide by glycine in potato model
           systems
    • Authors: Yuchen Zhu; Pengpu Wang, Fei Wang, Mengyao Zhao, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Acrylamide (AA) is a potential carcinogen widely existed in heat‐processed foods. Addition of glycine (Gly) has been shown to reduce the formation of AA. The objective of this work was to investigate the kinetics for the inhibition of AA by Gly in both asparagine (Asn)/glucose (Glc) and Asn/Glc/Gly potato model systems during heating at 160 °C, 180 °C, and 200 °C. Results The simplified two consecutive first‐order kinetic model fitted well to the changes of AA in both systems. No significant difference in rate constant (kF) and apparent activation energy (EaF) was observed for AA formation between the two systems (p > 0.05). Whereas EaE and only kE (200 °C) for AA elimination in Asn/Glc/Gly system was significantly higher than Asn/Glc system (p < 0.05). The elimination reaction between Gly and AA was confirmed by the identification of their major reaction product 2‐((3‐amino‐3‐oxopropyl)amino)acetic acid in Asn/Glc/15N‐Gly system. Conclusion The reduction of AA by Gly predominantly attributed to the elimination reaction between Gly and AA.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T06:32:55.163988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7122
       
  • Expression of recombinant Arabian Camel lactoferricin‐related
           peptide in pichia pastoris and its antimicrobial identification
    • Authors: Mahmood Chahardooli; Ali Niazi, Farzaneh Aram, Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi Sohrabi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Lactoferricin (LFcin) is a strong cationic peptide released from the N‐terminus of Lactoferrin by gastric pepsin digestion. LFcin has some important properties including high antimicrobial activity. To date lactoferricins have been isolated and characterized from various animal species, but not from camel.The aim of this study was to characterize and express recombinant camel lactoferricin (LFcinC) in pichia pastoris and investigate its antimicrobial activity. Results After methanol induction, LFcinC were expressed and secreted into a culture brothmedium and the results determined byconcentrated supernatant culture mediumshowed high antimicrobial activity against the following microbes ;Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739), Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112(ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 (ATCC 9027),Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 (ATCC 6633) ,Candida albicans PTCC 5027 (ATCC 10231).Thermal‐stability was clarified with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coliPTCC 1330(ATCC 8739). Conclusion Results confirmed that camel lactoferricin had suitable antimicrobial activity and its production by Pichia pastoris can be used for recombinant production.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T05:17:34.668605-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7125
       
  • Spatial Pattern Characteristics of Water Footprint for Maize Production in
           Northeast China
    • Authors: Peili Duan; Lijie Qin, Yeqiao Wang, Hongshi He
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Water footprint (WF) methodology is essential for quantifying total water consumption of crop production and making efficient water management policies. This study calculated the green, blue, grey and total WFs of maize production in Northeast China from 1998 to 2012 and compared the values of the provinces. This study also analyzed the spatial variation and structure characteristics of the WFs on the prefecture level. Results The annual average WF of maize production was 1029 m3 ton−1, which was 51% green, 21% blue and 28% grey. The WF of maize production was highest in Liaoning Province, moderate in Heilongjiang Province and lowest in Jilin Province. The spatial differences of the WFs calculated for the 36 major maize production prefectures were significant in Northeast China. There was a moderate positive spatial autocorrelation among prefectures that had similar WFs. The Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation Index (LISA) analysis identified prefectures with higher WFs in the southeast region of Liaoning Province and southwest region of Heilongjiang Province and prefectures with lower WFs in the middle of Jilin Province. Conclusion Spatial differences in the WF of maize production were caused mainly by variations of climate conditions, soil quality, irrigation facilities and maize yield. The spatial distribution of the WFs can help provide a scientific basis for optimizing maize production distribution and then formulate strategies to reduce the WF of maize production.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T02:25:39.647607-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7124
       
  • Mapping B‐cell epitopes of major and minor peanut allergens and
           identifying residues contributing to IgE binding
    • Authors: Ankita Mishra; Anuja Jain, Naveen Arora
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Epitope identification provides valuable information essential for understanding antigen components involved in food allergic reactions. In the present study, an in‐silico approach is employed to map IgE binding epitopes of major and minor peanut allergens. RESULTS B cell epitopes were identified for peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens namely Ara h 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. A total of 10 web‐servers were used in the study and twenty six linear and eighteen conformational epitopes were predicted by a combination of methods. Majority of the predicted B cell residues were present in the coil regions and the highest percentage of hydrophilic residues were observed for Ara h 6 (70.49%). The absolute solvent accessibility for all the B cell epitopes was > 70% indicating antibody recognition. Property distance index assessed for the predicted epitopes using SDAP showed that six linear epitopes shared similarity with soybean, hazel nut, tomato, maize, apple, banana allergens. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that the identified regions may share cross reactivity with some of the known food allergens or may act as novel antigenic determinants. Further, B‐cell epitopes of Ara h 1, 2 & 3 identified by in silico methods correlated well with the experimentally identified regions.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T09:10:50.125837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7121
       
  • Modified QuEChERS Method for Rapid Determination of Diazepam and Its Major
           Metabolites in Fish Samples by High Performance Liquid
           Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization–Tandem Mass
           Spectrometry
    • Authors: Jincheng Li; Jing Zhang, Huan Liu, Lidong Wu, Yi Song
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A simple and fast modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was presented for determination of diazepam and its three major metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam (benzodiazepines) in fish samples by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC‐ESI‐MS/MS) . RESULTS Muscle tissues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned with primary secondary amino (PSA). The chromatography separation was achieved within 5.0 min on a C18 column. The limit of detection (LODs) was 0.5 µg kg−1 and the limit of quantification (LOQs) was 2.5 µg kg−1. Average recoveries of diazepam and its main metabolites were in the range of 88.5%‐110.1%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 10.0%. CONCLUSION The proposed method for fish samples give good recoveries, linearity, precision and accuracy.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T08:58:48.104525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7123
       
  • Changes in the polyphenol compound and barley laccase expression during
           malting process
    • Authors: Lenka Tomková‐Drábková; Vratislav Psota, Lenka Sachambula, Leona Leišová‐Svobodová, Alexandr Mikyška, Ladislav Kučera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Polyphenols and phenolic acid are able to slow down or prevent oxidation processes and are therefore thought to have important effects in malting and brewing. Laccase catalyses the oxidation of a wide variety of substrates, including polyphenols. The aim of this paper was to determine the changes in polyphenol compounds and the relative expression of the HvLac1 gene during malting. Results The dominant phenolic acid were ferulic acid. The amount of ferulic acid increased, while the amount of vanillic acid decreased during malting. The highest levels of expression of the HvLac1 gene were observed during the third air rest period in varieties with the “Haruna Nijo” (HN) allele, as recommended for the production of beer with the protected geographical indication (PGI) “Česke pivo” (Czech Beer), whereas the highest expression was observed in the first day of germination in varieties with the “Morex” (M) allele. However, the profiles of HvLac1 gene expression in varieties with alternative alleles during malting were similar, and the level of polyphenol compounds throughout malting was different. Conclusion The polyphenol contents in barley increased several‐fold during malting, and the degree of increase differed with variety. The expression of HvLac1 transcript was similar in every barley variety.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:51.610185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7116
       
  • Exogenous nitric oxide induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus
           fruit to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    • Authors: Yahan Zhou; Shunmin Li, Kaifang Zeng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. Results The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol · L−1 sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate‐glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity contents, and delay the increase in the total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. Conclusions The results suggested that the use of exogenous NO was a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:34.539231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7117
       
  • Determination of alpha‐tocopherol by reversed phase HPLC in feed and
           animal‐derived foods without saponification
    • Authors: Erik Claeys; Els Vossen, Stefaan De Smet
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The analysis of α‐tocopherol in feed and animal‐derived foods usually involves a saponification step. However, since saponification often leads to losses of α‐tocopherol, a method for the determination of α‐tocopherol in feed and in animal‐derived foods was developed without a saponification step. Results In this method, α‐tocopherol is extracted with hot ethanol and the co‐extracted fat is removed by centrifugation. Removal of the fat fraction is made possible by the addition of water, to achieve an ethanol:water ratio of 40:7, followed by cooling on ice before centrifugation. This procedure allows removing the fat fraction, while α‐tocopherol is retained. Matrices differing in gross composition and α‐tocopherol content were analyzed: fresh pork, cooked ham, subcutaneous fat, liver, egg yolk, milk and a compound pig feed. Higher α‐tocopherol concentrations were found for this novel method compared to a conventional method with saponification, particularly for subcutaneous fat (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:19.875571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7119
       
  • Comparative analysis of RGAs encoding NBS‐LRR domains in cotton
    • Authors: Abdul Manan Khan; Asif Ali Khan, Muhammad Tehseen Azhar, Luqman Amrao, Hafiza Masooma Naseer Cheema
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Plant production is severely affected by diseases. On other hand, R‐genes exhibited resistance against range of diseases and pathogens in plants. BACKGROUND: The nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat (NBS‐LRR) class of R‐genes is the most comprehensively studied in terms of sequence evolution and genome distribution and makes it a super‐family of R genes. The differential response for resistance against biotic and abiotic stress has been observed in cultivated and wild relatives of genus Gossypium. RESULTS: The efforts have been made to address the recent evolution of NBS‐LRR sequences within the Gossypium hrisutum and RGAs sequences derived from G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Percent identity and phylogenetic analysis of NBS‐LRR encoded RGAs from tetraploid new world cotton and its diploid ancestors, G. raimondii and G. arboreum suggest that the evolution of NBS‐LRR encoding sequences in G. hirsutum occurred by gradual accumulation of mutants that led to positive selection and slow rate of divergence within distinct R‐gene families. CONCLUSION: The allotetraploid genome of cotton after separating from its diploid parents experienced polyploidization, natural and artificial selection, hybrid necrosis, duplication and recombination which became the reason to shed off and evolve new genes for its survival. These driving forces influence the development of genomic architecture that makes it susceptible to diseases and pathogens as compared to donor parents.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:19:00.725139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7120
       
  • Sensory Characterizarion During Repeated Ingestion Of Small Molecular
           Weight Phenolic Acids
    • Authors: Lisa M Duizer; Allison Langfried
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Characterization of the sensory properties of small molecular weight phenolic acids such as ferulic and vanillic acids has been limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sensory perceptions of these acids and the effects of their repeated consumption on sourness, bitterness and astringency. This knowledge will further understanding of their impact on the sensory characteristics of foods in which they are typically consumed. Results Two time‐intensity sensory evaluation experiments were conducted with nine trained panelists: a single sip study and a sequential sip study. Concentrations of phenolic acids typically found in whole grain bread were tested. For both experiments, vanillic acid was perceived to be significantly more sour than ferulic acid, and ferulic acid was perceived to be significantly more bitter than vanillic acid. Maximum sourness, bitterness and astringency intensities significantly increased with increasing molarity for both acids. During sequential sipping, astringency and bitterness intensity increased with each sip. Sourness, however, increased to sip 3 but did not significantly increase after that point. Conclusion This research demonstrates that even small quantities of phenolic acids can be perceived as increasingly bitter and astringent with repeated exposures.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T04:18:45.231969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7118
       
  • The physicochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of fermented
           milks prepared with Anemarrhena asphodeloides water extracts
    • Authors: Rong Zhang; Liu Yang, Jing Ji, Bei‐bei Li, Lan Li, Ming Ye
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this research, Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA) rhizomes water extract solutions were added to reconstituted milk at 5%, 10% and 15% (v/v) to prepare AA fermented milk (AAFM5, AAFM10 and AAFM15). The AAFM10 was selected for investigation of hypoglycemic activity. Results Compared with the control fermented milk (CFM), titratable acidity (TA) values and water‐holding capacities (WHC) of AA fermented milk were increased at different extents, but syneresis values were reduced. The viable counts of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were significantly increased, respectively. It was found that blood sugar level of streptozotocin diabetic mice intaking AAFM10 was reduced by 14.4%, and the food intake was decreased. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C) were reduced by different degrees, and insulin (INS) and total superoxide dismutase (T‐SOD) were significantly increased. Conclusion AAFM10 had significantly hypoglycemic effect and improvement in the complications (such as kidney disease and hyperlipemia).
      PubDate: 2015-02-02T03:06:33.457256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7115
       
  • The Differentiation of Tuna (Family: Scombridae) Products through the
           
    • Authors: Asadatun Abdullah; Hartmut Rehbein
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In spite of the many studies performed over the years, there are still problems in the authentication of closely related tuna species, not only for canned fish but also for raw products. With the aim of providing screening methods to identify different tuna species and related scombrids, segments of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and nuclear parvalbumin genes were amplified and sequenced or subjected to single‐strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. Results The nucleotide diagnostic sites in the cyt b gene of 5 tuna species from Indonesia were determined in this study and used to construct a phylogenetic tree. In addition, the suitability of the nuclear gene that encodes parvalbumin for the differentiation of tuna species was determined by SSCP and RFLP analyses of an intron segment. The RFLP differentiated Thunnus albacares and from T. obesus, and fish species in the Thunnus genus could be distinguished from bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) by SSCP. Conclusions The parvalbumin‐based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems could serve as an additional tool in the detection and identification of tuna and other Scombridae fish species for routine seafood control. This reaction can be performed in addition to the cyt b analysis as previously described.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T03:54:01.059742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7111
       
  • New assessment based on the use of principal factor analysis to
           investigate corn silage quality from nutritional traits, fermentation end
           products and mycotoxins
    • Authors: Antonio Gallo; Terenzio Bertuzzi, Gianluca Giuberti, Maurizio Moschini, Sara Bruschi, Carla Cerioli, Francesco Masoero
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A survey on sixty‐eight dairy farms was carried out to evaluate the ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silage. Samples from core, lateral and apical zones of feed‐out face of silos were analysed. A principal factor analysis (PFA) was carried out on the entire database (196 silage sample and 36 variables) and 11 principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Results Ensiling procedures influenced area exposed to risk of air penetration. Cores had higher DM, starch and lactic acid contents or lower pH, fibre, propionate and butyrate concentrations than peripheral samples (P 
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T03:53:46.621311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7109
       
  • Impairment of rumen biohydrogenation and bacteria of the Butyrivibrio
           group in the rumen of goats through a 20:5 n‐3 (EPA) rich supplement
           
    • Authors: Xuejiao Lv; Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Marine products can inhibit biohydrogenation in the rumen, but the mechanism is not clear. This study investigated a 20:5 n‐3 rich supplement effects on rumen biohydrogenation, microbial change and fermentation characteristics in goats. Results The supplementation decreased 18:0 proportions in rumen fatty acids (P < 0.001), while increased cis‐9, trans‐11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (P < 0.001) and trans‐10, cis‐12 CLA proportions (P < 0.001). The supplement reduced the number of Butyrivibrio spp and B. proteoclasticus (P < 0.01). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis redundancy analysis indicated that some species, mainly from the rumen of goats receiving the 2.5 and 5.0 g d−1 supplement, were positively correlated with cis‐9, trans‐11 CLA proportions; some species, mainly from the rumen of control goats, were positively correlated with 18:0 proportions. The supplement reduced the NH3‐N concentrations and acetate molar proportions in the rumen (P < 0.05), but increased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01), and had no effect on total volatile fatty acid concentration. Conclusion The 20:5 n‐3 rich supplement reduced the biohydrogenation of 18‐carbon unsaturated fatty acids with significant reduction of 18:0 proportion and this was coupled with the suppression of the abundance of biohydrogenating bacteria and unknown bacteria.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:49:18.996943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7113
       
  • Effects of processing conditions and formulation on spray drying of sour
           cherry juice concentrate
    • Authors: Asli Can Karaca; Onder Guzel, M. Mehmet Ak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sour cherries are rich in phenolic compounds possessing several health‐promoting effects. Processing of sour cherry juice into powder form offers additional advantages such as increased utilization, reduced volume, easier handling and transportation. However, spray drying of fruit juices is difficult due to their low glass transition temperature (Tg). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inlet temperature (130–150 °C), feed flow rate in terms of pump setting (30–50%), sour cherry content (25–50% of total dry matter) and carrier type (maltodextrin DE6, maltodextrin DE12, gum arabic) on yield, Tg and total phenolic content (TPC) of spray‐dried sour cherry powder. Results Feed flow rate, sour cherry content and carrier type significantly affected yield and Tg; whereas TPC was affected by sour cherry content and carrier type. Effect of sour cherry content on yield depended on the carrier type. Although gum arabic provided better protection of phenolic content than maltodextrins, it resulted in lower average yield. Conclusion Spray‐dried sour cherry powder with high yield (>85%) and high Tg (60 °C) was obtained using the following conditions: 150 °C inlet temperature, 30% pump setting, 25% sour cherry content and maltodextrin DE 12 as carrier.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:48:59.7052-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7110
       
  • QTL mapping based on the embryo and maternal genetic systems for
           non‐essential amino acids in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal
    • Authors: Juan Wen; Jian‐Feng Xu, Yan Long, Jian‐Guo Wu, Hai‐Ming Xu, Jin‐Ling Meng, Chun‐Hai Shi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Non‐essential amino acids are a good source of nitrogen and also very important contributors to the metabolic process. Analysis of quantitative trait locus (QTL) simultaneously located on the amphidiploid embryo and maternal plant nuclear genomes for non‐essential amino acid contents in rapeseed meal across different environments was conducive to further clarify the genetic mechanism of seed quality traits. Results 28 QTLs associated with arginine (5 QTLs), histidine (4 QTLs), glutamic acid (3 QTLs), glycine (3 QTLs), proline (3 QTLs), alanine (4 QTLs) and aspartic acid (6 QTLs) contents were identified in present study. All of these QTLs had significant additive main effects from embryo and maternal plant nuclear genomes with 8 of them showing significant embryo dominance main effects and 12 showing notable QTL × environment interaction effects. Among them, 12 QTLs were major QTLs which could explain 13.27 ~ 35.71% of the phenotypic variation. Specially; and five QTL clusters associated with several QTLs related to multiple traits were distributed on chromosomes A1, A4, A5, A7 and C2. Conclusion Non‐essential amino acids in rapeseed meal could be simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects from the QTLs which were located on the chromosomes both in the embryo and maternal plant genetic systems.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:48:44.111603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7112
       
  • The effect of oat β‐glucan on in vitro glucose diffusion and
           glucose transport in rat small intestine
    • Authors: Yu Zhang; Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, Xiguang Qi, Xiangli Ding, Bo Hu, Jiajia Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Many previous studies have reported the role of oat β‐glucan (OBG) in the reduction of postprandial glucose, and hypothesised that OBG may form a protective layer along the intestinal wall, acting as a viscous barrier to decrease glucose transportation. This study examined whether the molecular weight (MW) and concentration of OBG affected the diffusion of glucose in vitro. The effect of OBG on glucose transportation in vitro and sodium‐potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+‐ATPase) activity in the everted small intestines of normal rats was also examined. Results In vitro, higher MWs and concentrations of OBG, increased the inhibitory effects on glucose diffusion and glucose adsorption. The transport of glucose by glucose transporters and Na+/K+‐ATPase activity in the small intestinal mucosa of rats were significantly lower following the addition of OBG than those in the absence of OBG at the same time‐points throughout glucose transportation (P < 0.05). In the OBG‐treated group, the Na+/K+‐ATPase activity decreased with increasing OBG MW. However, as the concentration of OBG in the solution increased, the Na+/K+‐ATPase activity in the small intestine increased due to stronger gastrointestinal motility. We also found that higher MWs of OBG had a greater inhibitory effect on intestinal disaccharidase activities in vitro. Conclusion Oat β‐glucan is able to adsorb glucose molecules, inhibit glucose transport, decrease the concentration of available glucose and suppress disaccharidase activities in the small intestine.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31T02:48:27.897161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7114
       
  • Food Safety Issues in China: A Case Study of Dairy Sector
    • Authors: Xiaoxia Dong; Zhemin Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents occured frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained attention of Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers’ response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Till 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from the influence. Using the radom effect model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consujmption. Overall, the results show that consumers in low income group are more sensitive to safety risk than high income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents’ dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption which was affected by the crime culprit of melamine incident was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for high income group even increased.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29T01:36:51.061431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7107
       
  • Nitrate content in a collection of higher mushrooms
    • Authors: Renáta Bóbics; Dániel Krüzselyi, János Vetter
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Data of mushroom nitrate content from scientific studies is limited. There have been two such recent investigations (mainly regarding certain cultivated species). To obtain comparable analytical data, we analyzed 134 samples of 54 taxa gathered and prepared by our Department. Results The mushroom species were evaluated according to their nutritional types: saprotrophic, mycorrhizal and wood‐decaying groups. Low and relative invariable contents were found in the mycorrhizal (216.5 mg kg−1 dry matter [D.M.] and wood‐decaying groups (228.6 mg kg−1 D.M.), but in the saprotrophic group we observed wide variability (151.4 – 12715 mg kg−1 D.M.). Conclusion Considerable nitrate contents were found in samples of seven “accumulator” species (Clitocybe nebularis, C. odora, Lepista nuda, L. personata, L. irina, Macrolepiota rachodes and M. procera). Toxicological relevance of daily uptake of acceptable nitrate content via mushrooms only is not presumable, but the “accumulator” saprotrophic species can be “contributors” of our nitrate intake by foods.
      PubDate: 2015-01-28T02:52:59.220163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7108
       
  • Health‐promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var
           Italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future
           climatic change environments
    • Authors: Chokri Zaghdoud; Micaela Carvajal, Diego A Moreno, Ali Ferchichi, María del Carmen Martínez‐Ballesta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased‐N fertilisation regimes (NO3−/NH4+ ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100, respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2], under non‐saline (0 mM NaCl) and saline conditions (80 mM NaCl). Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. Results In NH4+‐fed broccoli plants a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4+ toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] ‐ ameliorating adverse effects of salinity – was only observed when N was supplied as NO3−. Under reduced N‐fertilisation the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3−/NH4+ ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Conclusion Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S‐metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3−/NH4+ (50:50 ratio) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4+ toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolates content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N‐fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T01:49:09.816147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7102
       
  • Graphene Quantum dots as Enhanced Plant Growth Regulators: Effects on
           Coriander and Garlic plant
    • Authors: Disha Chakravarty; Manisha B. Erande, Dattatray, J. Late
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We report investigations on the use of graphene quantum dots for growth enhancement in Coriander (Coriandrum sativam L.) and Garlic plant (Allium Sativum) plants. The as received seeds of coriander and garlic were treated with 0.2 mg/ml of graphene quantum dots for 3 hrs before planting. It has been observed that the graphene quantum dots enhance the growth rate in these plants including leaves, roots, shoots, flowers, fruits with the seeds treated with graphene quantum dots. Our investigations open up the opportunity to use graphene quantum dots as plant growth regulator which can be used in a variety of other food plants for high yield.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T01:47:02.083373-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7106
       
  • Development of delayed bitterness and effect of harvest date in stored
           juice from two complex citrus hybrids
    • Authors: Smita Raithore; Sharon Dea, Greg McCollum, John A. Manthey, Jinhe Bai, Clotilde Leclair, Faraj Hijaz, Jan A Narciso, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Anne Plotto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mandarins and mandarin hybrids have excellent flavor and color attributes making them good candidates for consumption as fresh fruit. When processed into juice, however, they are less palatable as they develop delayed bitterness when stored for a period of time. In this study, kinetics of delayed bitterness in two citrus mandarin hybrid siblings: ‘Ambersweet’ and USDA 1‐105‐106 were explored by sensory and instrumental analyses. In addition to the bitter limonoids, other quality factors (i.e., sugars, acids, pH, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and the ratio SSC/TA) were also measured. Results The two citrus hybrid siblings had different chemical profiles, which were perceived by taste panels. USDA 1‐105‐106 developed delayed bitterness when the juice was stored for more than 4 hours, similar to juice from ‘Navel’ oranges but ‘Ambersweet’ did not. Bitterness in ‘Ambersweet’ was more affected by harvest maturity as juice from earlier harvest had lower SSC but higher TA and bitter limonoids. Conclusion Since juice of USDA 1‐105‐106 shows delayed bitterness when stored for more than 4 hours, this cultivar is not suitable for juice processing. Our finding that siblings can differ in chemical and sensory properties emphasize the importance of post‐processing storage studies before releasing cultivars for juice.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:32:45.933565-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7105
       
  • Impact of polyphenolic components from mulberry on apoptosis of vascular
           smooth muscle cells
    • Authors: Kuei‐Chuan Chan; Hsieh‐Hsun Ho, Ming‐Cheng Lin, Chien‐Ning Huang, Hui‐Pei Huang, Chau‐Jong Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Previous studies have shown that mulberry polyphenolic compounds have an anti‐atherosclerotic effect in rabbits. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the key determinant of the number of VSMCs in remodeling. To examine the effect of mulberry polyphenols (MPEs) on the apoptosis of VSMCs and thus the prevention of atherosclerosis, we investigated the ability of MPEs to induce apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. Results In this in vitro study, we found that mulberry polyphenol extracts initially activated JNK/p38 and p53, which in turn activated both Fas‐ligand and mitochondria pathways thereby causing mitochondria translocation of Bax and the reduction of Bcl‐2. This then triggered the cleavage of procaspases, finally resulting in apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Conclusion This study shows mulberry polyphenols may suppress atherosclerosis through stimulating apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells via activating JNK/p38 and p53 signaling.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:32:29.540571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7100
       
  • Nutritional aspects of gluten‐free products
    • Authors: Nicoletta Pellegrini; Carlo Agostoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In recent years, gluten free (GF) goods have become popular, fuelling a growing market as they do not only cater to individuals with medical needs, but also to consumers who seek a GF diet. In their development, it is pivotal to pay attention to nutritional quality. This review aims to provide some insights on the nutritional quality of GF products, focusing on major concerns and the strategies to overcome them. In order to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten, a large number of flours and starches and other ingredients have been used. Therefore, the different mixtures of these ingredients bring a wide difference in the nutritional composition of GF foods with respect to gluten‐containing counterparts. Several GF foodstuffs contain more fat, including saturated, and salt, but less minerals and vitamins than their equivalent with gluten. The increased fibre content and the improved technological processes have positively affected the glycemic responses from these goods. However, in order to improve their nutritional quality wholemeal GF cereals and pseudocereals with high nutritive value should replace the low nutritional GF flours and consequently the technological processes would be optimized. The improvement of the nutritional quality of GF products, and in turn that of the GF diet, should also be aimed at improving the risk of later chronic degenerative disorders, especially for infants and young children.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:30:57.42984-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7101
       
  • Classification of potato cultivars to establish their processing aptitude
    • Authors: Yali Yang; Isabel Achaerandio, Montserrat Pujolà
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The commercial potato cultivars are diverse, not only in their physical characteristics but also in their nutritional compositions and their content of functional compounds (resistant starch (RS), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA)), but there is little information about these differences. The aim of this study was to characterise the nutritional value (focusing in carbohydrates and functional compounds) and instrumental parameters of eight potato cultivars consumed in Spain and to determine whether these parameters are useful for classifying the cultivars. Results Significant Pearson's correlations were found due to the common and complex interactions between the constituents of potatoes and their properties (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:56.15102-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7104
       
  • Novel assay procedures for the measurement of α‐amylase in
           weather damaged wheat
    • Authors: Claudio Cornaggia; Ruth Ivory, David Mangan, Barry V. McCleary
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The measurement of α‐amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) in sprout‐damaged grains is a crucial analysis yet a problematic one due to the typically low α‐amylase levels in these samples. A number of standardized methods such as the Falling Number Method and Ceralpha Method exist which are routinely used for the assay of α‐amylase. These methods, however, are either highly‐substrate dependent or lack the required sensitivity to assess sprout damage. Results Novel colorimetric and fluorometric reagents have been prepared (Amylase HR, Amylase SD, BzCNPG7 reagent and BzMUG7 reagent) for the direct and specific assay of α‐amylase activity in sprout‐damaged wheat. Assays employing these reagents have been developed and optimized to include a decolorisation step using activated charcoal. When used in a convenient assay format, Amylase SD ‐ containing EtNPG7, (II) as the colorimetric substrate and α‐glucosidase as the ancillary enzyme ‐ was found to be an excellent reagent for the assessment of sprout damage in wheat with incubations as short as 5 min. Conclusion The assay using Amylase SD is completely specific for α‐amylase. The use of the Amylase SD assay represents a sensitive and valid alternative to the traditionally used Falling Number values for the assessment of sprout‐damage in wheat samples.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:38.87846-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7103
       
  • Evaluation of Muscodor suthepensis strain CMU‐Cib462 as a
           postharvest biofumigant for tangerine fruit rot caused by Penicillium
           digitatum
    • Authors: Nakarin Suwannarach; Boonsom Bussaban, Wipornpan Nuangmek, Wasna Pithakpol, Bantoon Jirawattanakul, Kenji Matsui, Saisamorn Lumyong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study investigated both in vitro and in vivo biofumigant ability of the endophytic fungus, Muscodor suthepensis CMU‐Cib462 to control Penicillium digitatum, the main cause of tangerine fruit rot. Results Volatile compounds from Muscodor suthepensis inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. The most abundant compound was 2‐Methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3‐Methylbutan‐1‐ol. They showed median effective doses (ED50) on P. digitatum growth of 74.91±0.73 and 250.29±0.29 μL L−1 of airspace, respectively. Rye grain was a suitable solid medium for M. suthepensis inocula production. The result indicated that mycofumigation with 30 g rye grain culture of M. suthepensis for 12 h controlled tangerine fruit rot. The percent weight loss and soluble solids concentrations in fumigated tangerines were similar to the non‐infected and non‐fumigated treatment. Conclusion Muscodor suthepensis has potential as a biofumigant for controlling postharvest disease of tangerine fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T02:29:23.318023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7099
       
  • Effect of oxidant stressors and phenolic antioxidants on the
           ochratoxigenic fungus Aspergillus carbonarius
    • Authors: Ana Crespo‐Sempere; Cristina Selma‐Lázaro, Jeffrey D. Palumbo, Luis González‐Candelas, Pedro V. Martínez‐Culebras
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background There are few studies dealing with the relationship between oxidative stress and ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. In this work, we analyzed the effect of the oxidant stressor menadione and the antioxidants 3,5‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐hydroxytoluene (BHT), catechin, resveratrol and a polyphenolic extract on growth, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), OTA production and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes of Aspergillus carbonarius. Results Exposure to menadione concentrations higher than 20 μM led to increases in ROS and OTA levels and a decrease in growth rate. Exposure to 2.5‐10 mM BHT also led to higher ROS and OTA levels, although growth rate was only affected above 5 mM. Naturally occurring concentrations of catechin, resveratrol and polyphenolic extract barely affected growth rate, but they produced widely different effects on OTA production level depending on the antioxidant concentration used. In general, gene expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), was down regulated after exposure to oxidant and antioxidant concentrations that enhanced OTA production level. Conclusion A. carbonarius responds to oxidative stress increasing OTA production. Nevertheless, the use of naturally occurring concentrations of antioxidant phenolic compounds to reduce oxidative stress is not a valid approach by itself for OTA contamination control in grapes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T02:04:25.802422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7077
       
  • Prevention of retinoic‐acid‐induced osteoporosis in mice by
           isoflavone‐enriched soy protein
    • Authors: Juan Yang; Nana Wu, Jie Peng, Xiaoquan Yang, Jian Guo, Shouwei Yin, Jinmei Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A novel soy protein aggregate enriched with isoflavones (SPA‐IS), the mixture of soy protein and isoflavones (Mix), the isoflavones (IS), and the soy protein were obtained to investigate the preventive effects on osteoporosis (OP) induced by retinoic acid (RA) in Kunming (KM) mice. Results The serum osteocalcin (s‐BGP) levels in the Mix and SPA‐IS groups decreased compared with the model group (the RA‐induced OP mice) (p < 0.05). The trabecular analysis results prove the increased preventive effect of the SPA‐IS group over the Mix group, the IS group, and the soy protein group. The results of both left tibial maximum load and the 4th lumbar structural strength differ between the IS and the SPA‐IS groups. Conclusion The SPA‐IS exhibited obvious estrogenic activities on RA‐induced OP in KM mice compared to Mix, IS, and soy protein. The results suggest that it is potential for use of SPA‐IS in treatment of OP induced by intake of RA. The improvement of bone indicators might be attributed to the formation of aggregate particles and the improvement of IS solubility.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:31:24.413932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7098
       
  • Salinity thresholds and genotypic variability of cabbage (Brassica
           oleracea L.) grown under saline stress
    • Authors: Rabab Sanoubar; Antonio Cellini, Anna Maria Veroni, Francesco Spinelli, Andrea Masia, Livia Vittori Antisari, Francesco Orsini, Giorgio Gianquinto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Two botanical varieties of cabbage, namely Savoy (Brassica oleracea var. Sabauda L.) and White (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L.) were used in order to understand the morphological, physiological and biochemical elements of functional salt stress response. Thirteen salt concentrations (range 0 to 300 mM NaCl) were considered in Exp. 1# and out of them three (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) were used in Exp. 2#. Results Exp. 1# enabled to define two salinity thresholds (100 and 200 mM NaCl), associated with morphological and physiological adaptations. In Exp. 2#, moderate salinity (100 mM NaCl) had lower effects on Savoy than in White cabbage yield (respectively – 16% and −62% from control). Concurrently, 100 mM NaCl resulted in a significant increase of antioxidant enzymes from control conditions, that was greater in Savoy (+289, +423 and +88% respectively) as compared to White (+114, +356 and +28% respectively) cabbage. Ions accumulation resulted to be a key determinant in tissue osmotic adjustment (mainly in Savoy) whereas the contribution of organic osmolites was negligible. Conclusions Higher antioxidative enzymatic activities in Savoy vs White cabbage upon 100 mM NaCl were associated with improved water relations, thus suggesting a possible physiological pathway for alleviating perceived salt stress.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:29:43.351283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7097
       
  • Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in
           virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approach
    • Authors: Giuseppe Procida; Angelo Cichelli, Corrado Lagazio, Lanfranco S. Conte
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterized by low molecular weight compounds that vaporize at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, volatile compounds composition was determined by applying dynamic headspace, performed at room temperature, with cryogenic trap directly connected to gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer. Samples were also evaluated according to UE and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analyzed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Results Forty‐two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analyzed samples, classified as extra virgin by Panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odor properties (“green‐fruity” and “sweet”) and olfactory perception. Conclusion Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and Panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups as sweet or green types. As regards, sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odor properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms prove to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-19T05:57:59.918012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7096
       
  • Biogenic amines in Zamorano cheese: factors involved in their accumulation
    • Authors: Combarros‐Fuertes P; Fernández D, Arenas R, Diezhandino I, Tornadijo M.E, Fresno J.M.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ripened cheese is among fermented food the most often associated with food‐poisoning from biogenic amines. The influence of ripening time, heat treatment of milk and the effect of using milk from a different ewe breed on the biogenic amines (BA) content of Zamorano cheese was studied by HPLC. Physicochemical, proteolytic and microbiological parameters were also studied. Results BA content increased significantly during ripening and their final values were around 400 mg Kg−1. Cheeses elaborated with raw milk duplicated the concentration of BA relative to those elaborated with pasteurized milk (72 °C for 20 seconds). The average levels of putrescine, spermine and tyramine were higher in cheeses made with a greater proportion of milk from Churra breed. Significant differences in microbial counts and nitrogen soluble in 5% phosphotungstic acid (PTA5%‐SN) were observed between the different batches. Conclusion Ripening time and heat treatment applied to milk were the factors that exercised the greatest influence upon the concentration of BA in Zamorano cheese.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:51.31951-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7093
       
  • Effects of Amaranth Addition on the Pro‐vitamin A Content, and
           Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Pro‐Vitamin
           A‐Biofortified Maize Snacks
    • Authors: Daniso Beswa; Nomusa R. Dlamini, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, John Derera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health‐promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding Amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro‐vitamin A content of extruded pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize varieties that were composited with Amaranth leaf powder at 0, 1 and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. Results At higher Amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, whilst their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may thus need improvement. As Amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro‐vitamin A content. Conclusion Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize with added Amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro‐vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in Southern Africa‐ thus the current study serves as a baseline.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:36.008689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7092
       
  • Application of self‐organising maps towards segmentation of soybean
           samples by determination of inorganic compounds content
    • Authors: Hágata Cremasco; Dionísio Borsato, Karina Gomes Angilelli, Olívio Fernandes Galão, Evandro Bona, Marcos Eduardo Valle
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In this study, 20 samples of soybean, both transgenic and conventional cultivars, which were planted in two different regions, Londrina and Ponta Grossa, both located at Paraná, Brazil, were analysed. In order to verify whether the inorganic compound levels in soybeans varied with the region of planting, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and B contents were analysed by an Artificial Neural network Self‐Organising Map. Results It was observed that with a topology 10 x 10, 8000 epochs, initial learning rate of 0.1 and initial neighbourhood ratio of 4.5, the network was able to differentiate samples according to region of origin. Among all of the variables analysed by the artificial neural network, the elements Zn, Ca and Mn were those which most contributed to the classification of the samples. Conclusion This means that samples planted in these two regions differ in their mineral content; however, conventional and transgenic samples grown in the same region show no difference in mineral contents in the grain.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16T02:01:17.75635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7094
       
  • Enzymatic cell wall degradation of high pressure homogenized tomato puree
           and its effect on lycopene bioaccessibility
    • Authors: Paola Palmero; Ines Colle, Lien Lemmens, Tuyen Thi My Nguyen, Marc Hendrickx, Ann Van Loey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background High pressure homogenization disrupts cell structures assisting carotenoid release from the matrix and subsequent micellarization. However, lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato puree upon high pressure homogenization is limited by the formation of a process‐induced barrier. In this context, cell wall degrading enzymes were applied to hydrolyze the formed barrier and enhance lycopene bioaccessibility. Results The effectiveness of the enzymes in degrading their corresponding substrates was evaluated (consistency, amount of reducing sugars, molar mass distribution and immunolabeling). An in vitro digestion procedure was applied to evaluate the effect of the enzyme treatments on lycopene bioaccessibility. Enzyme treatments with pectinases and cellulase were proved to effectively degrade their corresponding cell wall polymers, however, no further significant increase of lycopene bioaccessibility was obtained. Conclusion A process‐induced barrier consisting of cell wall material is not the only factor governing lycopene bioaccessibility upon high pressure homogenization.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:42:20.79766-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7088
       
  • Lipid degradation and sensory characteristics of ripened sausages packed
           in modified atmosphere at different carbon dioxide concentrations
    • Authors: Carmine Summo; Antonella Pasqualone, Vito M. Paradiso, Isabella Centomani, Gerardo Centoducati, Francesco Caponio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Controversial results about the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) rich in CO2 on the quality of different kinds of meat products are present in literature. In this investigation the degree of lipid degradation and the sensory characteristics of ripened sausages packed in modified atmosphere at 3 different carbon dioxide concentrations have been evaluated during 5 months of storage. Results The degree of hydrolytic degradation of the lipid fraction was found to decrease at increasing CO2 concentrations. Similarly, the oxidative phenomena occurred at lower rate when CO2 concentration increased. The variations in CO2 concentration influenced the perception of rancid flavor in the examined sausages. Conclusion The increase of CO2 in MAP allowed to slow down the evolution of the lipid oxidation, due to the minor extent of the hydrolytic degradation, whose products have pro‐oxidant activity. This effect was more evident in the first two months of storage.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:42:06.013137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7089
       
  • Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen
           aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): Factors which may affect the
           tenderness
    • Authors: Greta Geldenhuys; Nina Muller, Lorinda Frylinck, Louwrens C. Hoffman
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Baseline research investigating the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. To achieve this, the study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min – 4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca2+ dependant protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. Results No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = ‐0.806; ultimate pH = ~5.86) compared to other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20°C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the μ/m‐calpain activity remains constant during the rigor period while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepspin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. Conclusions Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during ageing is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:41:36.72472-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7090
       
  • Pre‐Cooking Protein Paste Gelation Conditions and Post‐Cooking
           Gel Storage Conditions on Gel Texture
    • Authors: Ilgin Paker; Kristen E. Matak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Gelation conditions affect setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore, the impact of widely applied pre‐cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post‐cooking period on texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre‐cooking gelation strategies (no‐setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C, or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were either analyzed directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. Results No‐set gels were harder, gummier, and chewier (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:41:20.735096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7091
       
  • Application of Serratia marcescens RZ‐21 significantly enhances
           peanut yield and remediates the continuously cropped peanut soil
    • Authors: Hai‐Yan Ma; Bo Yang, Hong‐Wei Wang, Qi‐Yin Yang, Chuan‐Chao Dai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backround The continuous cropping obstacles cause severe decline of peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on the continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment under natural conditions was conducted to detect the peanut agronomic indexes, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzymes activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to the red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ‐21), a sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) or distilled water (CK). Results S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1), and apparently reduced these two pathogens population in rhizosphere soil. The RZ‐21 treatment significantly increased the peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3%, 33%, 72% and 61.4%, respectively, followed by the M treatment. And P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ‐21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at some different stages. In addition, RZ‐21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except M in the case of fungal population of Flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. Conclusion This is the first report of S. marcescens applied to continuously cropped peanut soil, suggesting that S. marcescens RZ‐21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products, and develop sustainable management practices.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:37:47.011622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7087
       
  • Antioxidant activity and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds during in
           vitro callus culture of Plantago ovata Forsk and effect of exogenous
           additives on accumulation of phenolic compounds
    • Authors: Pratik Talukder; Shonima Talapatra, Nirmalya Ghoshal, Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Plantago ovata, commonly called psyllium, is known to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds. The present study was aimed at determining polyphenol content and studying their antioxidant activities in P. ovata during in vitro callus culture. An attempt was also made to enhance polyphenol content using external additives. The role of PAL gene in polyphenol accumulation was also studied. Result The study indicated the presence of significant amount of polyphenols including flavonoids in P. ovata callus. A gradual increase in polyphenol and flavonoid content was observed up to 3rd passage (63 days) of callus culture which declined at the next passage. The 3rd passage callus showed highest antioxidant activity. HPLC results indicated the presence of high amount of gallic acid and rutin in P. ovata calli; however, other polyphenols were also present but to a lesser extent. Additive supplementation was effective to enhance polyphenol production and in increasing antioxidant activity in P. ovata callus. Conclusion The present research reported accumulation of polyphenols in callus culture of P. ovata which could be applied for isolation of polyphenols for various beneficial purposes. It also indicated enhancement in the production of several polyphenols and also an increase in antioxidant activity in the additive treated callus.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T05:37:30.91367-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7086
       
  • Fast pyrolysis biochar from sawdust improves quality of desert soils and
           enhances plant growth
    • Authors: Mahmood Laghari; Zhiquan Hu, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat, Bo Xiao, Ahmed Ali Tagar, Mian Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Biochar has been mostly used in conventional arable soils for improving soil fertility. This study investigated the effect of biochars of different temperatures on plant growth and desert soil properties. Biochars of different temperatures (i.e., 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) were mixed in the soil with 5% by mass, and the treatments were designated as T‐400, T‐500, T‐600, T‐700, and T‐800, respectively. Sorghum was used as a test crop, and the effect of biochar on plant height, yield, and soil properties was evaluated. Results Sorghum yield increased by 19% and 32% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively, above the control. Biochar reduced depth‐wise moisture depletion in soil columns and hence improved soil water‐holding capacity by 14% and 57% under T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Soil hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 15% and 42%, and moisture‐retention capacity was improved by 16% and 59%. Hence, sorghum net water‐use efficiency increased by 52% and 74% in T‐400 and T‐700, respectively. Biochar also improved soil total carbon, cation exchange capacity and plant nutrient content. Conclusion The addition of fast pyrolysis biochar made from pine sawdust improved the quality of Kubuqi Desert soil and enhanced plant growth. Hence, it can be used for desert modification.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:56:50.207796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7082
       
  • Processing barley grain with lactic and tannic acid ameliorates rumen
           microbial fermentation and degradation of dietary fibre in vitro
    • Authors: Kathrin Deckardt; Barbara U. Metzler‐Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cereal grains are important ingredients of ruminant diets, but their rapid degradation seriously impairs rumen fermentation and host's health. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether processing of barley grain with 1 or 5% lactic acid (LA) and 1 or 5% tannic acid (TA), without or with an additional heat treatment (1% LAH or 1% TAH), may affect microbial ruminal abundance, fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation in vitro. Results Processing with LA lowered (P < 0.05) the concentration of short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA), proportions of branched‐chain SCFA, and acetate to propionate ratio. Treatment with 1% TAH and 1% LAH lowered (P < 0.05) gene copy numbers of total protozoa, rumen lipopolyssacharide, and degradation of crude protein, and tended (P = 0.08) to lower the proportion of the genus Prevotella. Treatment of barley grain with 1% LA or 1% LAH stimulated Clostridium cluster XIV. Degradation of fibre was enhanced (P < 0.05) by all LA and TA treatments. Conclusion Chemical and heat treatment of barley grain modulated ruminal fermentation profile and enhanced fibre degradation; however, processing of grain with LA seems to hold superiority because this effect was not associated with concomitant depression in ruminal degradation of organic matter.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:56:31.719376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7085
       
  • Artificial neural networks to model the production of blood protein
           hydrolysates for plant fertilization
    • Authors: Raúl Pérez Gálvez; F. Javier Espejo Carpio, Emilia M. Guadix, Antonio Guadix
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Amino acid‐based fertilisers increase the bioavailability of nitrogen in plants and help withstand stress conditions. Besides, porcine blood protein hydrolysates are able to supply iron, which is involved in chlorophyll synthesis and improves the availability of nutrients in soil. A high degree of hydrolysis (DH) is desirable when producing a protein hydrolysate intended for fertilization, since it assures a high supply of free amino acids. Given the complexity of enzyme reactions, empirical approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANN) are preferred for modelization. Results Porcine blood meal was hydrolysed for 3 hours with subtilisin. The time evolution of the degree of hydrolysis was successfully modelled by means of a feedforward ANN comprising 10 neurons in the hidden layer and trained by the Levenberg‐Marquardt algorithm. The ANN model described adequately the influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and reaction time upon DH, and was employed to estimate the optimal operation conditions (pH 6.67, 56.9 °C, enzyme to substrate ratio of 10 g kg−1 and 3 h of reaction) leading to the maximum DH (35.12%). Conclusions ANN modeling was a useful tool to model enzymatic reactions and was successfully employed to optimise the degree of hydrolysis.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:56:16.041674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7083
       
  • Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium
           caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance,
           digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler
           chickens
    • Authors: Hong Mei Shang; Hui Song, Ya Li Xing, Shu Li Niu, Guo Dong Ding, Yun Yao Jiang, Feng Liang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput‐medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with 6 pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg−1 flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg−1 HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. Results The results revealed that the average daily gain (linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01) of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (d 1–21), finisher (d 22–42), and the overall experiment period (d 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts and inhibited Escherichia coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:47:39.55541-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7084
       
  • Petroselinum crispum has antioxidant properties, protects against DNA
           damage and inhibits proliferation and migration of cancer cells
    • Authors: Esther Lai‐Har Tang; Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, ShinYee Fung, M S Kanthimathi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Petroselinum crispum (English parsley) is a common herb of the Apiaceae family that is cultivated throughout the world and is widely used as a seasoning condiment. Studies have shown its potential as a medicinal herb. In this study, P. crispum leaf and stem extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage in normal 3T3‐L1 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation and migration of the MCF‐7 cells. Results The dichloromethane extract of P. crispum exhibited the highest phenolic content (42.31 ± 0.50 mg GAE g−1) and ferric reducing ability (0.360 ± 0.009 mmol g−1) of the various extractions performed. The extract showed DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 3310.0 ± 80.5 µg mL−1. Mouse fibroblasts, 3T3‐L1, pre‐treated with 400 µg mL−1 of the extract showed 50.9% protection against H2O2‐induced DNA damage, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention. The extract (300 µg mL−1) inhibited H2O2‐induced MCF‐7 cell migration by 41 ± 4%. As cell migration is necessary for metastasis of cancer cells, inhibition of migration is an indication of protection against metastasis. Conclusion P. crispum has health promoting properties with the potential to prevent oxidative stress‐related diseases and can be developed into functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:52:23.016853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7078
       
  • In vitro anti‐inflammatory properties of fermented pepino (Solanum
           muricatum) milk by γ‐aminobutyric Acid‐producing
           Lactobacillus brevis and an in vivo animal model for evaluating its
           effects on hypertension
    • Authors: Vincent Hung‐Shu Chang; Tsai‐Hsin Chiu, Szu‐Chieh Fu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objectives of this study were to determine the in vitro anti‐inflammatory and in vivo antihypertensive effects of fermented pepino (Solanum muricatum) milk by Lactobacillus brevis with the goal of developing functional healthy products. The inflammatory factors of fermented pepino milk with L. brevis were assessed in RAW 264.7 macrophages, including nitric oxide (NO) production. Inflammatory factor genes of cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and −2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α were also assayed by a reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). Results Results showed that fermented PE inhibited NO production in LPS‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with 150 mg/ml fermented PE completely blocking LPS‐induced NO production. The mRNA expressions of COX‐1, COX‐2, and iNOS were attenuated by treatment with higher concentrations of fermented PE (150 mg/ml). Cells treated with fermented PE (100 ng/ml) exhibited strikingly decreased LPS‐induced expression of TNF‐α mRNA. During the feeding trial, rats treated with 10% fermented pepino milk (100 µg/2.5 ml) and 100% fermented pepino milk (1000 µg/2.5 ml) exhibited significant decreases in the systolic blood pressure. Conclusion Our results showed that fermented pepino milk has wide potential applications for development as a health food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:52:08.566861-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7081
       
  • Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin‐rich natural extracts from
           Grape seed and Cupuassu on gastrointestinal mucosa
    • Authors: Montserrat Pinent; Anna Castell‐Auví, M. Inés Genovese, Joan Serrano, Angela Casanova, Mayte Blay, Anna Ardévol
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is constantly exposed to reactive species released by the GI tract itself, and those present in food and beverages. Phenolic compounds may help in protecting the GI tract against damage produced by the reactive species. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in two different intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco‐2, and the enter oendocrine cell line STC‐1. RESULTS: We show that GSPE prevents t‐BOOH‐induced oxidative stress in both cell lines, and that the effects are dose and time dependent. We have also analyzed whether GSPE has any in vivo effect, and found that 25 mg/kg bw cannot counteract the increase in intestinal ROS induced by the cafeteria diet. However, an acute (1 h) treatment of 1 g GSPE/kg bw reduces ROS in fasted animals and also decreases ROS induction by food. These effects were found only after a short‐term treatment. Furthermore, we have compared the in vitro GSPE effects with those of another proanthocyanidin‐rich extract from cupuassu seeds, though it has compounds with different structures. Cupuassu extract (CE) also shows antioxidant effects in both cell types, which suggests different mechanisms than those of GSPE. CONCLUSION: Natural proanthocyanidin‐rich extracts have an antioxidant effect in the gastrointestinal tract, acting on absorptive cells and enterohormone‐secreting cells, although the effects depend on the dose and period of treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:51:52.56644-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7079
       
  • Thyme and basil essential oils included in edible coatings as a natural
           preserving method of oilseed kernels
    • Authors: Cecilia G Riveros; Valeria Nepote, Nelson R Grosso
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Sunflower seeds are susceptible to developing rancidity and off‐flavours through lipid oxidation. Edible coatings and essential oils have proven antioxidant properties in different food products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of using an edible coating and thyme and basil essential oils to preserve the chemical and sensory quality parameters of roasted sunflower seeds during storage. RESULTS: 50% DPPH inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.278 and 0.0997 µg/mL were observed for thyme and basil, respectively. On storage day 40, peroxide values were 80.68, 70.28, 68.43, 49.31 and 33.87 mEqO2Kg−1 in roasted sunflower seeds (RS), roasted sunflower seeds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (RS‐CMC), roasted sunflower seeds coated with CMC added with basil (RS‐CMC‐A), thyme (RS‐CMC‐T), and BHT (RS‐CMC‐BHT), respectively. RS‐CMC‐T and RS‐CMC‐BHT presented the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes, and p‐anisidine values during storage. RS‐CMC‐BHT, RS‐CMC‐T, and RS‐CMC‐A showed the lowest oxidized and cardboard flavour intensity ratings. On storage day 40, roasted sunflower flavour intensity ratings were higher in RS‐CMC‐T and RS‐CMC‐A. CONCLUSIONS: Thyme and basil essential oils added into the CMC coating improved the sensory stability of this product during storage, but only thyme essential oil increased their chemical stability.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:50:08.024756-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7080
       
  • Leaf Removal and Wine Composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Nero d'Avola.
           The volatile aroma constituents
    • Authors: Antonella Verzera; Gianluca Tripodi, Giovanna Dima, Concetta Condurso, Antonio Scacco, Fabrizio Cincotta, Dina Maria Letizia Giglio, Antonio Sparacio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Defoliation is a cultural practice for crop management in grapevines and the benefits effects have been demonstrated. Here, the influence of “early” leaf removal on the quality of Nero d'Avola wines was evaluated. Particular attention has been given to the volatile constituents responsible for the wine aroma but also to the total amount of polyphenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonoids. Results “Early” defoliation was manually applied and compared with non‐defoliated controls. The grapes were harvested in two different ripening times following their technological and phenolic maturity. Statistical quantitative differences resulted among the samples from the four theses. Both the time of harvest and the vine leaf removal determined variation in the wine composition. A large number of volatile constituents were identified and quantified; the OAV were calculated. Basal leaf removal reduced pH and increased titratable acidity, total amount of anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyphenols and color intensity in the wines from the 1st harvest. Interesting resulted the increase for fermentation and varietal aromas in the defoliated wines from the 1st harvest. Limited differences resulted between the wines from defoliated and control vines relative to the 2nd harvest. PCA which was applied to the compounds with an OAVs ≥ 0.5 allowed to distinguish the different theses. Conclusion “Early” leaf removal can lead to a positive effect on the quality of Nero d'Avola under the environmental conditions in which the present study was realized but particular attention has to be given to the time of grape harvest. The results also demonstrate that “early” defoliation can be applied to improve the wine quality also in Mediterranean area with a concentration of rainfall during winter, nearly aridity and high temperature in summer season.
      PubDate: 2015-01-10T03:31:30.116606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7075
       
  • Composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red
           deer, sheep, pig and cattle
    • Authors: Clara S. F. Bah; Alaa El‐Din A. Bekhit, Alan Carne, Michelle A. McConnell
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Animal blood is a large volume by‐product of the meat industry. Besides blood meal fertilizer, blood is marketed for human consumption as a supplement. Minimal comparative work on slaughterhouse animal blood fractions has been carried out. In this study, slaughterhouse deer, sheep, pig and cattle blood parameters were compared. Some blood constituents were determined. Fractionated blood was assessed for antioxidant activity (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, oxygen radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antimicrobial activity were also assessed. Results Serum iron ranged from 35.3 ± 0.6 µmol L −1 in cattle to 16.3 ± 3.1 µmol L−1 in deer. Cattle had the highest total plasma proteins (81.7 ± 1.5 g L−1). While the plasma fractions contained considerable antioxidant activity, the red blood cell fractions of all four animal species contained higher antioxidant activity (p
      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:42:30.651693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7062
       
  • In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate
           proportion. Relative effects of inocula and substrates
    • Authors: Amélie Serment; Sylvie Giger‐Reverdin, Philippe Schmidely, Ophélie Dhumez, Laurent P Broudiscou, Daniel Sauvant
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterize rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate (low (L): 350 g kg−1 vs. high (H): 700 g kg−1) incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acid (VFA), soluble carbohydrates (SC) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. Results In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SC and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate‐to‐propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. Conclusion The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T23:51:54.585905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7076
       
  • Thermal‐aided Phosvitin Extraction from Egg Yolk
    • Authors: Jiandong Ren; Jianping Wu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backgound Phosvitin is the principal phosphoprotein in egg yolk with great potential for uses as functional food ingredients in improving bone health. This study reported a thermal‐aided extraction method without using organic solvents or non‐food compatible chemicals. Results Egg yolk was two times diluted by water, and then extracted by 10% NaCl at 90 °C. Effects of pHs and heating temperatures on the extracts were examined. The phosvitin purity was increased from 75.7% at pH 8.0 to 80.1% at pH 5.0 and then started to decrease, but the yield decreased at decreasing pHs. The phosvitin purity increased at increasing temperature up to 90 °C, and then started to decrease at 95 °C, while the yield increased from 70 °C to 80 °C, and then started to decline at 85 °C. Conclusion A purity of 88.0% and a yield of 23.5 g/kg yolk dry matter were obtained at 90 °C. The purity and yield were comparable or higher than previous methods. The developed method in the study is simple, including mainly two steps: water dilution of egg yolk and NaCl extraction with heating, and can be scaled up for industrial production.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T03:49:09.68181-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7073
       
  • Descriptive and hedonic analyses of low‐Phe food formulations
           containing corn (Zea mays) seedling roots: toward development of a dietary
           supplement for individuals with phenylketonuria
    • Authors: Margaret A Cliff; Jessica R Law, Joost Lücker, Christine H Scaman, Allison R Kermode
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Seedling roots of anthocyanin‐rich corn (Zea mays) cultivars contain high levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The development of a natural dietary supplement comprised of corn roots could provide the means to improve the restrictive diet of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients by increasing their tolerance to dietary phenylalanine (Phe). Therefore, this research was undertaken to explore the sensory characteristics of roots of four corn cultivars, as well as develop and evaluate food products (cereal bar, beverage, jam‐like spread) to which roots had been added. RESULTS Sensory profiles of corn roots were investigated using 10 trained judges. Roots of Japanese striped corn seedlings were more bitter, pungent and astringent than white or yellow cultivars, while roots from the Blue Jade cultivar had a more pronounced earthy/mushroom aroma. Consumer research using 24 untrained panelists provided hedonic (degree‐of‐liking) assessments, for products with and without roots (controls). The former had lower mean scores than the controls; however, the cereal bar had scores above 5 on the 9‐point scale for all hedonic assessments compared to the other treated products. CONCLUSION By evaluating low‐Phe food products containing corn roots, this research ascertained that the root‐containing low‐Phe cereal bar was an acceptable ‘natural’ dietary supplement for PKU‐affected individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T03:48:53.867158-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7074
       
  • Metabolomic applications in nutritional research: A perspective
    • Authors: A. O'Gorman; L. Brennan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Metabolomics focuses on the global study of metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. Analytical technologies such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hyphenated mass spectrometry (MS) combined with advanced multivariate statistical methods allow us to study perturbations in metabolism. The close link between metabolism and nutrition has seen the application of metabolomics in nutritional research increase in recent times. Such applications can be divided into three main categories (1) the area of dietary biomarker identification, (2) diet‐related diseases and (3) nutritional interventions. The present perspective will give an overview of these applications and an outlook to the future.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:59:32.616218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7070
       
  • Improving the catalytic behaviour of inulin fructotransferase under high
           hydrostatic pressure
    • Authors: Yungao Li; Ming Miao, Xiangyin Chen, Bo Jiang, Miao Liu, Biao Feng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The demand for difructose anhydride III (DFA III), a novel functional sweetener, is growing continuously. It is produced from inulin by inulin fructotransferase (IFTase). In this study, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), as a clean technology, was first applied to further improve the catalytic efficiency of IFTase in the process. Results The maximum activity of IFTase was obtained under 200 MPa and at 60 °C. Meanwhile, HHP lowered the energy barrier necessary for the enzymatic reaction, and decreased the volume between the reactants and the transition‐state. On this condition, the optimum of pH for the enzymatic reaction shifted from 5.5 to 6.0. The activity was further enhanced by 65.2 % in the presence of 1.5 mol L−1 NaCl. Conclusion The catalytic reaction of IFTase was performed under HHP for the first time. HHP, as a promising green technology for bioconversion, significantly accelerated the enzymatic reaction on the appropriate operational conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:59:17.244057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7071
       
  • Effect of harvest time on table grape quality during on‐vine storage
    • Authors: Piazzolla F, Pati S, Amodio M.L; Colelli G.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Postponing the harvest of grapes is a common practice in Southern Italy, in order to delay harvest up to Christmas and make higher incomes from the sales. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of harvest time (over almost 3 months) on quality of table grapes (cv. Italia). The experiment was repeated for two years (2010 and 2011). In 2010 grapes were harvested starting from October 8 and after 11, 27, and 48 days. In 2011 5 harvest times were compared over a period of 56 days. Respiration rate, firmness, colour, sensorial attributes, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), phenols and antioxidant activity were measured. In addition, in second year, volatile compounds were evaluated. Results For both years harvest time influenced most of the parameters which indicated that metabolic changes took place on the plant. In 2010, harvest time influenced the respiration rate, cluster and berry appearance score, colour attributes, crunchiness, pH, TA, total phenol content and antioxidant activity. In 2011, harvest time influenced the respiration rate, colour attributes, most of sensorial attributes, TSS andTA. Generally, late harvested grapes showed higher firmness, berry appearance score, sweetness, fruity taste score, overall sensorial evaluation scores and TSS. Regarding the volatile compounds, terpene content decreased during ripeness while C6 compounds showed a non‐linear trend. Conclusion Results showed that table grape sensorial quality could increase with delaying harvest up to a certain time of the season, while excessive delay could reduce final grape quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:58:49.658739-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7072
       
  • Influence of temperature during grain filling on gluten viscoelastic
           properties and gluten protein composition
    • Authors: Shiori Koga; Ulrike Böcker, Anette Moldestad, Paola Tosi, Peter R. Shewry, Ellen F. Mosleth, Anne Kjersti Uhlen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low to moderate temperatures on gluten functionality and gluten protein composition. Four spring wheat cultivars were therefore grown in climate chambers with three temperature regimes (day/night temperatures of 13/10, 18/15 and 23/20 °C) during grain filling. Results Temperatures strongly influenced grain weight and protein content. Gluten quality measured by resistance to extension (Rmax) was the highest in three cultivars grown at 13 °C. Rmax was positively correlated with the proportion of SDS‐unextractable polymeric proteins (%UPP). The proportions of ω‐gliadins and D‐type LMW‐GS were increased and the proportions of α‐ and γ‐gliadins, and B‐type LMW‐GS were decreased as temperature increased, while the proportion of HMW‐GS was constant between temperatures. The cultivar Berserk had strong and constant Rmax between the different temperatures. Conclusion Constant low temperatures, even as low as 13 °C, had no negative effects on gluten quality. The observed variation in the Rmax related to temperature could be explained more by %UPP than by changes in the proportions of HMW‐GS or other gluten proteins. The four cultivars responded differently to temperature as gluten from Berserk was stronger and more stable over a wide range of temperatures.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:55:10.470065-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7068
       
  • Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranate
    • Authors: Sunil Pareek; Daniel Valero, María Serrano
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pomegranate is a subtropical and tropical fruit with great importance from the health point of view. Despite the increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of pomegranate, consumption of the fruit is still limited due to poor postharvest handling, storage recommendations, short shelf life, and quality deterioration during transportation, storage and marketing. Occurrence of physiological disorders such as husk scald, splitting, and chilling injury are another challenges which reduces marketability and consumers acceptance. Recently, remarkable work on postharvest biology and technology has been done. Pomegranate is highly sensitive to low‐oxygen atmospheres (
      PubDate: 2015-01-07T02:54:53.151914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7069
       
  • Nutrient composition, antioxidant properties, and anti‐proliferative
           activity of Lignosus rhinocerus Cooke sclerotium
    • Authors: Yeannie HY Yap; NgetHong Tan, ShinYee Fung, Azlina A Aziz, ChonSeng Tan, SzuTing Ng
      Pages: 860 - 860
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T11:20:16.153788-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7095
       
  • Hypoglycemic effects of functional tripeptides from silk in differentiated
           adipocytes and streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice
    • Authors: Bok Kyung Han; Hyun Jung Lee, Hyun‐Sun Lee, Hyung Joo Suh, Yooheon Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Bacground In this study, the tri‐peptides Gly‐Glu‐Tyr (GEY) and Gly‐Tyr‐Gly (GYG), identified previously as active compounds from the silk peptide E5K6, significantly stimulated basal and insulin‐mediated glucose uptake by 3T3‐L1 fibroblasts in a dose‐dependent manner. RESULTS Synthetic GEY and GYG peptides at a concentration of 500 μM significantly increased glucose transporter type 4 expression by 157% and 239%, respectively. Differentiation of 3T3‐L1 cells into adipocytes leads to accumulation of intracellular fat droplets, and GEY and GYG at a concentration of 250 μM suppressed this effect by 72% and 75%, respectively. GYG improved glucose tolerance in steptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic mice in a dose‐dependent manner. CONCLUSION These results suggest that GYG isolated from E5K6 has anti‐diabetic potential and silk waste products containing bioactive peptides could be used to develop treatments to lower blood glucose.
      PubDate: 2014-12-31T05:24:10.324922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7067
       
  • Inhibitory effect of double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma on
           spores and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus niger contaminating date
           palm fruits
    • Authors: Salama A. Ouf; Abdulrahman H. Basher, Abdel‐Aleam H. Mohamed
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Aspergillus niger has been reported as potentially dangerous pathogen of date‐palm fruits in Saudi Arabia due to the production of fumonisin B2 (FB2) and ochratoxin A (OTA). In a trail to disinfect this product, a double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma (DAPACP) jet system was set up and evaluated against spore germination and mycotoxins production of the pathogen. Results The plasma jets were characterized photographically, electrically and spectroscopically. DAPACP jet length increases with the increase of argon flow rate, with optimum rate at 3.5 Lmin−1. The viability of A. niger spores, inoculated onto sterilized date palm fruit discs, progressively decreases with extension of the exposure time of DAPACP due to the more quantitative amount of OH and O radicals interacting with the examined samples. There was a progressive reduction of the amount of FB2 and OTA detected in date palm discs on extension of the exposure time of the plasma‐treated inoculums at flow rate of 3.5 Lmin−1. FB2 was not detected in the discs inoculated with 6‐ min plasma treated A. niger, while OTA was completely absent when the fungus was treated for 7.5‐ min. Conclusion DAPACP showed promising results in dry fruit decontamination and in inhibition of mycotoxins release by A. niger contaminating the fruits. The progress in the commercial application of cold plasma needs further investigation concerning the ideal width of the plasma output to enable it to cover wider surface of the sample and consequently inducing more plasma performance
      PubDate: 2014-12-30T02:27:20.126237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7060
       
  • Effects of preharvest ultraviolet‐C irradiation on fruit
           phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity in three strawberry
           (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars
    • Authors: Zhichun Xie; Marie Thérèse Charles, Jinshuan Fan, Denis Charlebois, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel, Martine Deschenes, Claudine Dube
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Ultraviolet‐C (UV‐C) has proven effective in extending shelf‐life, reducing disease incidence and increasing the levels of health‐promoting compounds in several crops. While most studies were conducted at the postharvest stage, our study examined the effect of preharvest UV‐C application in three strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. ‘Albion’, ‘Charlotte’ and ‘Seascape’). UV‐C treatment was applied from the onset of flowering until the fruits reached commercial maturity on plants grown for two consecutive seasons under greenhouse conditions. The phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of the fruits were assessed at harvest. Results The ellagic acid and kaempferol‐3‐glucuronide contents were significantly increased only in fruits of the cultivar ‘Albion’ collected from UV‐C treated plants in Season 1. UV‐C did not consistently affect the other phenolic compounds that were measured. Based on the results of the FRAP (ferric‐reducing antioxidant power), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and TPC (total phenolic content) assays, the antioxidant capacity of the three strawberry cultivars was not affected by UV‐C. Season and cultivar had a decisive impact on these parameters. Conclusion The effect of preharvest UV‐C on the levels of bioactive compounds in strawberry fruits appears to be cultivar‐dependent, with season or growing conditions having a significant impact.
      PubDate: 2014-12-29T02:04:04.338619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7064
       
  • Huanglongbing modifies quality components and flavonoid content of
           'Valencia' oranges
    • Authors: Roberto Massenti; Riccardo Lo Bianco, Amandeep K. Sandhu, Gu Liwei, Charles Sims
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In order to evaluate the effect of HLB on quality components and flavonoid contents of ‘Valencia’ oranges, fruit from non‐infected trees (control), from infected trees but symptom‐less (asymptomatic) and from infected trees and showing clear HLB symptoms (symptomatic) were harvested in March and in May, 2013. Fruit peel, pulp and juice were separated, main quality components were determined, and hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were quantified using liquid chromatography. Results Peel color, TSS and citric acid were similar in control and asymptomatic fruits. Symptomatic fruits were smaller, yielded less juice, had higher acidity and lower sugar and peel color than control fruits. In the peel, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. Peel flavonoids decreased with fruit maturation. Also in pulp and juice, flavonoid content was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. Conclusions These results show that asymptomatic fruits are similar to control fruits more than to symptomatic fruits, suggesting that secondary metabolism and physical properties of fruits are only affected at a later and more advanced stage of HLB infection. Despite the significant loss of quality, fruit with clear HLB symptoms accumulate high quantities of flavonoids in peel and pulp.
      PubDate: 2014-12-29T02:03:32.523463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7061
       
  • Identification of antioxidant peptides of Jinhua ham generated in the
           products and through the simulated gastro‐intestinal digestion
           system
    • Authors: Chao‐Zhi Zhu; Wan‐Gang Zhang, Guang‐Hong Zhou, Xing‐Lian Xu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to purify and identify antioxidant peptides present in the extract of Chinese dry‐cured Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham extracts were separated into five fractions (A‐E) by size‐exclusion chromatography. Each fraction was subjected to a simulated gastro‐intestinal (GI) digestion system and fractions showing strong antioxidant activities were collected and subjected to liquid chromatography combined with mass/mass‐spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for further purification and identification. Results Using MS/MS analysis, 33 peptides were identified in these fractions. Several key peptides were selected for synthesis and determined their antioxidant activity. The peptide showing strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was GKFNV which showed 92.7% antioxidant activity at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the peptide LPGGGHGDL showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and LPGGGT and HA showed strong inhibition activity against erythrocyte haemolysis (about 45%) before digestion. On the other hand, KEER may contribute to Fe2+‐chelating ability in fraction C after GI digestion. Conclusion In conclusion, Jinhua dry‐cured ham seems to be a potential source of antioxidant peptides generated in the products and GI digestion.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T05:06:58.304896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7065
       
  • Engineering of a thermostable β‐1,3‐1,4‐glucanase
           from Bacillus altitudinis YC‐9 to improve its catalytic efficiency
    • Authors: Shurui Mao; Peng Gao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu, Chong Zhang, Haizhen Zhao, Xiaomei Bie
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Error‐Prone PCR is frequently used in directed revolution of enzymes to modify their quality. In this study, Error‐Prone PCR was used to improve the catalytic efficiency of β‐1,3‐1,4‐glucanase from Bacillus altitudinis YC‐9. Resultes By screening, the mutant Glu‐3060 with higher activity was selected among 5000 transformants. After induced with IPTG, the activity of the mutant Glu‐3060 reached 474.6U ml−1, resulting in 48.6% increment of the parent enzyme activity. Research on the characterization of the mutated enzyme showed the optimal pH of the mutated enzyme is 5.0, which is lower than the parent enzyme, but thermal stability are almost the same between them. The sequence analysis of the mutated enzyme revealed that there were 3 amino acids changed compared with the parent enzyme, including K142N, Q203L and N214D. Conclusion The three dimensional structure predicted by SWISS‐MODLE of the mutated enzyme Glu‐3060 showed that the three amino acids substitution made effect on the catalytic activity, the stability and the optimal pH of the enzyme, through changing the charge properties or the electron density, the forming of the secondary keys, the acidity of the amino acids and the side chain group. The sum effects of all the factors made the mutated enzyme activity increased, the optimal pH decreased and the thermostability maintain the same, all of which are more suitable for industrial use.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T02:07:28.08228-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7066
       
  • Wild Morchella conica Pers. from different origins: A comparative study of
           nutritional and bioactive properties
    • Authors: Vanessa Vieira; Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Jasmina Glamočlija, Ana Ćirić, Dejan Stojković, Anabela Martins, Marina Soković, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Morchella conica Pers. is a species of fungus that belongs to the Morchellaceae family and was studied in order to obtain more information about this species, by comparing Portuguese and Serbian wild samples. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques. M. conica methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The absence of hepatoxicity was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells. Results The nutrition value varied between the two samples and the Serbian one gave the highest energy contribution and content in sugars, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds, while the Portuguese sample was richer in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and organic acids. In general, the Portuguese sample revealed the highest antioxidant potential (unless lipid peroxidation inhibition), while the Serbian one displayed higher antimicrobial activity. None of the samples revealed toxicity towards liver cells. Conclusion The present study provides new data concerning chemical characterization and bioactivity of Morchella conica Pers.
      PubDate: 2014-12-27T01:32:41.739377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7063
       
  • Diosgenin reorganizes hyperglycaemia and distorted tissue lipid profile in
           high fat diet‐streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
    • Authors: Parim BrahmaNaidu; Ponnusamy Ponmurugan, Mustapha Sabana Begum, Karthick Mohan, Balaji Meriga, Ramavat RavindarNaik, Ganapathy Saravanan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Diabesity is often connected with significant morbidity, mortality and also have a pivotal role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Diet intervention, particularly naturaceutical antioxidants have antidiabetic potential and avert oxidative damage linked with diabetic pathogenesis. The present study investigated the effects of diosgenin, a saponin from fenugreek, on the changes in lipid profile in plasma, liver, heart and brain in high fat diet ‐ streptozotocin (HFD‐STZ) ‐induced diabetic rats. Diosgenin was administered to HFD‐STZ induced diabetic rats by orally at 60 mg k.g‐1 b.w‐1 for a period of 30 days to assess its effects on body weight gain, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance and cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma, liver, heart and brain. Results The levels of body weight, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, VLDL‐C and LDL‐C were increased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T01:56:46.627062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7057
       
  • Effect of sustainability information on consumers’ liking of
           freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
    • Authors: Julia Siqueira Simoes; Eliane Teixeira Mársico, Adiano Gomes da Cruz, Mônica Queiroz de Freitas, Laís Higino Doro, Carlos Adam Conte‐Junior
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This research aimed to investigate whether consumer acceptance is affected by information on sustainable practices on the product label. Hedonic evaluations of freshwater prawns were performed by 80 consumers under three aspects. The blind condition: consumers taste samples without information; Expected: without tasting samples, consumers evaluated the message “Freshwater prawns were grown using sustainable practices, reducing environmental impacts caused by traditional breeding”; Informed where prawns were tasted and the card evaluated. Results For the entire consumer group, it was observed that the message about sustainability on packaging increased freshwater prawns acceptability (8.25, expected condition ‐ E versus 6.75, blind condition ‐ B). High scores were observed in all three‐test conditions, ranging from 6 (like slightly) to 9 (like extremely), on a 9 point scale. Conclusion It can be concluded that the use of sustainable information can influence consumers’ perception and increase their preference toward freshwater prawn, and even increase the sensory attributes of the product.
      PubDate: 2014-12-19T02:23:32.01863-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7055
       
  • Fenugreek (Trigonella foencem graecum) Seed Protein Isolate: Extraction
           Optimization, Amino acid Composition, Thermo and Functional Properties
    • Authors: Samira Feyzi; Mehdi Varidi, Fatemeh Zare, Mohammad Javad Varidi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background With increasing the demand of new protein sources, research on plant protein extraction and evaluation the functional properties of the protein isolates is necessary. In this study pH and NaCl concentration, as two parameters effecting on protein extraction of fenugreek seed was investigated and the condition of fenugreek protein isolate (FPI) extraction was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results FPI had significantly (p< 0.05) higher protein and essential amino acids content (891.00 g kg−1 and 387.41 g kg−1, respectively) compared with soy protein isolate (SPI). FPI was rich in Asp and Glu, confirming the presence of bands in acidic region (30–39 kDa) of its electrophoretic pattern. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermograph for both FPI and SPI showed two peaks with high denaturation temperature, confirming the presence of high protein content and hydrophobic amino acids, as well. Protein solubility, foaming capacity, foam stability, and emulsion stability of FPI were higher than SPI, moreover both FPI and SPI showed pH‐dependent protein functionalities. Conclusion Fenugreek seed protein extraction was optimized by control of pH and NaCl concentration. FPI could be used as a protein source with remarkable functional properties.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T15:36:31.163155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7056
       
  • Characterization and effect of year at harvest on the nutritional
           properties of three varieties of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.)
    • Authors: Serena Calabrò; Monica I Cutrignelli, Vittorio Lo Presti, Raffaella Tudisco, Vincenzo Chiofalo, Micaela Grossi, Federico Infascelli, Biagina Chiofalo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Three cultivars of Lupinus albus L. (Lutteur, Lublanc, Multitalia) were assessed for proximate analysis, fatty acids, alkaloids and in vitro fermentation characteristics over three harvest years. RESULTS: The chemical composition fairly varied during the harvest years (g kg−1 Dry Matter): Crude Protein content ranged from 353 to 456, Neutral Detergent Fiber from 209 to 321 and lignin from 3.0 to 63.9. The Lublanc showed the highest Crude Protein (417 g kg−1 Dry Matter) and lignin (35 g kg−1 Dry Matter) content. High levels of lipids (89.9 g kg−1 Dry Matter ) and starch (93.3 g kg−1Dry Matter) were found in all samples. Alkaloid content ranged from 3.63 to 165 mg 100 g−1. The Lutteur and Lublanc showed more favorable n‐3/n‐6 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid ratios (from 0.44 to 0.73), and lower values of the anti‐quality factor “erucic acid” (from 5.8 to 20.9 g kg−1 ) than the Multitalia. The Lutteur showed higher degradability (897 g kg−1), gas (330 ml g−1 Organic Matter) and Volatile Fatty Acids (117 mmol g−1 Organic Matter) production compared with the other varieties. CONCLUSION: Data suggest the Lutteur to be a promising crop as food thanks to its high nutritive traits and most constant yield overtime.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:32:35.769502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7049
       
  • Instrumental and Sensory Analyses of Quality Attributes of Grafted
           Specialty Melons
    • Authors: Wenjing Guan; Xin Zhao, Donald J. Huber, Charles A. Sims
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. Results Galia melon ‘Arava’ (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon ‘Honey Yellow’ (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root‐knot nematode resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of ‘Arava’ fruit. By contrast with grafted ‘Arava’, grafted ‘Honey Yellow’ did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and the rootstock selection. Conclusion The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scions used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on fruit quality need to be considered in selection and use of disease resistant rootstocks.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T02:32:02.807343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7050
       
  • Melatonin in Mediterranean diet, a new perspective
    • Authors: Marcello Iriti; Elena Maria Varoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Health‐promoting properties of Mediterranean diet have been attributed, at least in part, to the chemical diversity of plant foods. Among phytochemicals, polyphenols represent the paradigm of the relationship between healthy foods and reduced risk of chronic‐degenerative diseases, even if, in the past few years, a new element enriched this scenario. Melatonin, and possibly other indoleamines recently discovered in some relevant Mediterranean foods, may represent a new factor contributing to the elucidation of the protective effects of diets rich in plant products. Therefore, in synergy with polyphenols and other bioactive phytochemicals (e.g., carotenoids, glucosinolates), melatonin may contribute to maximizing the benefits of healthy dietary styles. This brief survey deals with the occurrence of melatonin in the Mediterranean diet, with an emphasis on grape products, and focuses on the biological significance of dietary melatonin, an emerging and exciting topic in the field of nutritional sciences.
      PubDate: 2014-12-15T01:57:01.079333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7051
       
  • The relationship of antioxidant components and antioxidant activity of
           Sesame seed oil
    • Authors: Yin Wan; Huixiao Li, Guiming Fu, Xueyang Chen, Feng Chen, Mingyong Xie
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Though sesame seed oil contains high contents of unsaturated fatty acids and even a small amount of free fatty acids in its unrefined flavored oil, it shows remarkable stability than other dietary vegetable oils. The good stability of sesame seed oil against auto‐oxidation was ascribed not only to the inherent lignans and tocopherols, but also to the generated browning reaction products when sesame seeds were roasted. Also, there is an excellent synergistic effect among these three kinds of components. The lignans in sesame seed oil could be categorized into two types: the inherent lignans (sesamin, sesamolin) and the lignans (e.g. sesamol, sesamolinol, etc) that were mainly formed during oil production process. The highest level of tocopherols in sesame seed oil is γ‐tocopherol. This paper reviewed the antioxidant activities of lignans and tocopherols, as well as the browning reaction and its products in the sesame seed and/or its oil. It was indicated that the composition, structure of browning reaction products and their impacts on sesame ingredients need to be further studied to better explain the remaining mysteries of the sesame oil.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:21:38.192226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7035
       
  • Compositional and biochemical changes in Genestoso cheese, a Spanish raw
           cow's milk variety, during ripening
    • Authors: Ricardo Arenas; Leticia González, Noelia Sacristán, María E. Tornadijo, José M. Fresno
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Physico‐chemical characteristics, proteolysis and lipolysis were studied throughout the ripening of eight batches of a traditional Spanish variety made from raw cow's milk, in order to establish basis for its industrial production. Results The main compositional characteristics of this cheese after 60 days of ripening were its high proportion of Total Solids (752 g Kg−1 of cheese), an average content of protein (452.8 g Kg−1 TS) and fat (475.1 g Kg−1 TS), and presence of residual lactose (12.5 g Kg−1 TS). Its pH value (4.04) was extremely low. Phosphorus (5.13 g Kg−1 TS) and sodium (8.29 g Kg−1 TS) were the most abundant mineral elements in cheese, whereas calcium levels (1.92 g Kg−1 TS) were very low. Proteolysis extension and depth were very low, which resulted in almost zero degradation of αs1‐ and β‐casein. Fat acidity increased during ripening, reaching final values of 50.1 mg KOH Kg−1 of fat. The main free fatty acid was C16:0, followed by C18:1 and C14:0. Conclusion These results suggest that this variety undergoes a limited proteolysis and moderate lipolysis during ripening. The low pH, the low calcium content and the limited proteolysis led to a crumbly texture in this cheese variety.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20T04:27:23.993171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7011
       
  • Recent trends in the use of food additives in the United Kingdom
    • Authors: Mike Saltmarsh
      Pages: 649 - 652
      Abstract: The E number system for food additives was introduced in the 1960s and the E was intended to reassure consumers that permitted additives were safe. In the 1980s full ingredient declarations had to be provided on food products for the first time and manufacturers were permitted to use either the name or the number of the additive on the ingredient list. This paper outlines some of the trends in the sourcing, use and labelling of additives since the introduction of full ingredient listing. Generally, sourcing has become more global with a large number of suppliers being based in China. From an initial use of E numbers in ingredient lists, manufacturers are increasingly using the names of additives. This trend is being extended to avoid the use of anything the consumer might consider an additive, particularly in connection with colours and preservatives. Specifically, the colours used in the Southampton study on the impact of food colours on hyperactivity in children have largely been replaced by colouring foodstuffs, and the preservative used in the study, sodium benzoate, has been replaced by potassium sorbate in the majority of soft drinks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T09:05:32.653352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6715
       
  • Understanding gluten‐free dough for reaching breads with physical
           quality and nutritional balance
    • Authors: María E Matos; Cristina M Rosell
      Pages: 653 - 661
      Abstract: In the last decade the development of gluten‐free foodstuffs has attracted great attention as a result of better diagnoses of coeliac disease and a greater knowledge of the relationship between gluten‐free products and health. The increasing interest has prompted extensive research into the development of gluten‐free foodstuffs that resemble gluten‐containing foods. This review aims to provide some insights on dough functionality and process conditions regarding bread quality and to point out recent research dealing with the nutritional composition of those products. Gluten‐free dough results from the combination of different ingredients, additives, and the processing aids required for building up network structures responsible for bread quality. Some relationships between dough rheology and bread characteristics were established to identify possible predictor parameters. Regarding bread‐making processes, the impact of mixing, dough treatment and baking is stated. Nutritional quality is an important asset when developing gluten‐free breads, and different strategies for improving it are reviewed. Gluten‐free bread quality is dependent on ingredients and additives combination, but also processing can provide a way to improve bread quality. Nutritive value of the gluten‐free breads must be always in mind when setting up recipes, for obtaining nutritionally balanced bread with adequate glycaemic index. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T09:03:29.020361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6732
       
  • The use of ozone to extend the shelf‐life and maintain quality
           of fresh produce
    • Authors: Marcin Glowacz; Richard Colgan, Deborah Rees
      Pages: 662 - 671
      Abstract: Fresh produce has been recognised as a healthy food, thus there is increasing consumer demand for fresh fruit and vegetables. The shelf‐life of fresh produce, however, is relatively short and is limited by microbial contamination or visual, textural and nutritional quality loss. There are many methods to reduce/eliminate microorganisms present in food and ozone treatment is one of them. The use of ozone by the fresh produce industry is a good alternative to chemical treatments, e.g. the use of chlorine. The effectiveness of ozone as an antimicrobial agent has previously been reviewed and has been updated here, with the latest findings. The main focus of this review is on the effects of ozone on the fresh produce quality, defined by maintenance of texture, visual quality, taste and aroma, and nutritional content. Furthermore, ozone has been found to be efficient in reducing pesticide residues from the produce. The treatments that have the ability to reduce microbial contamination of the product without having an adverse effect on its visual, textural and nutritional quality can be recommended and subsequently incorporated into the supply chain. A good understanding of all the benefits and limitations related to the use of ozone is needed, and relevant information has been reviewed in this paper. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-27T07:30:47.586874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6776
       
  • Tocopherol and tocotrienol contents of different varieties of rice in
           Malaysia
    • Authors: Balakrishnan Shammugasamy; Yogeshini Ramakrishnan, Hasanah M Ghazali, Kharidah Muhammad
      Pages: 672 - 678
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The present study examined the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols and their distribution in 58 different varieties of whole rice cultivated in Malaysia. The analytical method used was saponification of samples followed by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and reverse phase high‐performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS The total vitamin E contents of different varieties of whole rice ranged between 19.36 and 63.29 mg kg−1. Contents of vitamin E isomers varied among rice varieties both within and between grain color groups. Black‐pigmented rice showed significantly higher mean contents of α‐tocopherol, β‐tocopherol and α‐tocotrienol than non‐pigmented rice and red‐pigmented rice. Red‐pigmented rice had significantly lower mean contents of γ‐tocotrienol and total vitamin E than non‐pigmented rice. The mean contents of δ‐tocotrienol and total vitamin E in non‐pigmented rice, however, were similar to those in black‐pigmented rice. γ‐Tocotrienol was the predominant form of vitamin E isomer in all analyzed varieties. The Pearson correlations among vitamin E isomers and total vitamin E content of whole rice were also studied. CONCLUSION This study provides information on vitamin E content of different rice varieties that would be beneficial for decision making in genetic breeding of bioactive compound‐rich rice varieties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T08:49:54.56856-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6742
       
  • Development of crayfish bio‐based plastic materials processed by
           small‐scale injection moulding
    • Authors: Manuel Felix; Alberto Romero, Felipe Cordobes, Antonio Guerrero
      Pages: 679 - 687
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Protein has been investigated as a source for biodegradable polymeric materials. This work evaluates the development of plastic materials based on crayfish and glycerol blends, processed by injection moulding, as a fully biodegradable alternative to conventional polymer‐based plastics. The effect of different additives, namely sodium sulfite or bisulfite as reducing agents, urea as denaturing agent and l‐cysteine as cross‐linking agent, is also analysed. RESULTS The incorporation of any additive always yields an increase in energy efficiency at the mixing stage, but its effect on the mechanical properties of the bioplastics is not so clear, and even dampened. The additive developing a greater effect is l‐cysteine, showing higher Young's modulus values and exhibiting a remnant thermosetting potential. Thus, processing at higher temperature yields a remarkable increase in extensibility. CONCLUSION This work illustrates the feasibility of crayfish‐based green biodegradable plastics, thereby contributing to the search for potential value‐added applications for this by‐product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-25T08:51:38.454501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6747
       
  • Influence of viticulture practices on grape aroma precursors and their
           relation with wine aroma
    • Authors: Purificacion Hernandez‐Orte; Belen Concejero, Jesus Astrain, Blanca Lacau, Juan Cacho, Vicente Ferreira
      Pages: 688 - 701
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of two different operations in the vineyard (basal leaf plucking and head trimming) on the synthesis of aromatic precursors in the grape and their impact on wine aroma have been studied and compared with a control sample. The study was carried out over two consecutive years with four different varieties. Glycosidic precursors were analysed in grapes and volatile compounds were studied in the wines. ANOVA studies were performed to study the effect of the vintage, variety and treatment for each of the compounds released from their precursors. RESULTS Regarding treatment, the highest values in the concentration of free aroma compounds were achieved in the leaf plucking grapes, except for Chardonnay. Significant and positive correlations between aromatic precursors of terpenes present in grapes and their released form in wines were found for all varieties. For norisoprenoids, significant and positive correlations were exclusively found for Chardonnay and for phenols and vanillins in the year 2010 the correlations were high in three of the four varieties studied. CONCLUSION In the assays of the 2 years, more precursors were synthesised in Merlot, Gewurztraminer and Tempranillo grapes if the vineyards were plucked. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:45:08.049379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6748
       
  • A double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, randomised, clinical study
           on the effectiveness of collagen peptide on osteoarthritis
    • Authors: Suresh Kumar; Fumihito Sugihara, Keiji Suzuki, Naoki Inoue, Sriraam Venkateswarathirukumara
      Pages: 702 - 707
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Recent studies show that enzymatically hydrolysed collagen, the collagen peptide, is absorbed and distributed to joint tissues and has analgesic and anti‐inflammatory properties. A double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, randomised trial with collagen peptides isolated from pork skin (PCP) and bovine bone (BCP) sources was carried out to study the effectiveness of orally supplemented collagen peptide to control the progression of osteoarthritis in patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. Improvement in treatment was assessed with reduction in Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC), visual analogue scale (VAS) and quality of life (QOL) scores from baseline to 13 weeks (Visit 7). Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. RESULTS There was significant reduction from baseline to Visit 7 in the primary end points of WOMAC and VAS scores and in the secondary end point of QOL score in subjects with PCP and BCP groups, while in subjects with placebo group the end point indices remained unaltered. Furthermore, all the score levels of WOMAC, VAS and QOL decreased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T00:57:12.003383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6752
       
  • Effects of dry brining, liquid smoking and high‐pressure treatment
           on the physical properties of aquacultured King salmon (Oncorhynchus
           tshawytscha) during refrigerated storage
    • Authors: Kelvin Jia Wey Kong; Zayde Alçiçek, Murat O Balaban
      Pages: 708 - 714
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Aquacultured King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) pieces were dry brined with a salt/brown sugar mix, dipped in liquid smoke for 3 min, vacuum packed, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treated at 600 or 200 MPa for 5 min and stored at 4 °C for up to 40 days. RESULTS The surface redness (average a*) of the samples increased after dry brining, then decreased after liquid smoke treatment. HHP did not change the outside color of liquid‐smoked samples. However, the inside color changed depending on pressure. HHP‐treated control samples without dry brining and liquid smoking changed to a pale pink color. HHP at 600 MPa resulted in a significant increase in hardness. Compared with fresh samples, dry‐brined samples had reduced water activity, while samples dipped in liquid smoke had lower pH values. CONCLUSION Dry brining and liquid smoking protect the outside color of salmon against changes caused by HHP. The increase in hardness may counteract the softening of the smoked salmon tissue over time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-19T09:57:46.438377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6754
       
  • Properties of poly(lactide)–whey protein isolate laminated films
    • Authors: Thunyaluck Phupoksakul; Manusawee Leuangsukrerk, Pidsawat Numpiboonmarn, Anongnat Somwangthanaroj, Theeranun Janjarasskul
      Pages: 715 - 721
      Abstract: BACKGROUND This study aims to examine the feasibility of a novel multi‐layer barrier film made entirely from biopolymers, which can be disposed after use in an economically and ecologically acceptable way, by employing mechanical strength and moisture barrier of poly(lactide) (PLA) films and oxygen barrier enhancement of whey protein isolate (WPI) films. The effect of glycerol was also determined. The three‐layer films, PLA/WPI/PLA, were compared with those made of linear low‐density polyethylene films (LLDPE/WPI/LLDPE). Composite structures of three‐layer films obtained by a simple casting method using denatured WPI solution plasticised with glycerol (GLY) at three different ratios of GLY:WPI (1:4, 1:2.5 and 1:1.5). The WPI solution was applied between two base layers of corona‐treated PLA or LLDPE films. RESULT The multi‐layer films showed good appearance with no noticeably visible change and good adhesion of layers. PLA enhanced tensile strength of the composite structure. Oxygen permeability of the multi‐layer films was significantly lower than the base films. The water vapour permeability of the structure relied mainly on the base films. The plasticiser content did not significantly affect the properties of the multi‐layer structures. CONCLUSION Results suggested that WPI could work successfully as an alternative oxygen barrier layer of multi‐layer structures. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T06:04:11.74936-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6775
       
  • Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
           using liquid solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction
    • Authors: Laura Jaime; Erika Vázquez, Tiziana Fornari, María del Carmen López‐Hazas, Mónica R García‐Risco, Susana Santoyo, Guillermo Reglero
      Pages: 722 - 729
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid–liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. RESULTS The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO2 extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti‐inflammatory activity. CONCLUSION PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti‐inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti‐inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-07-21T04:48:40.509397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6788
       
  • Effect of the addition of soy flour on sensory quality of extrusion and
           conventionally cooked cassava complementary porridges
    • Authors: Penina N Muoki; Marise Kinnear, Mohammad Naushad Emmambux, Henriëtte L de Kock
      Pages: 730 - 738
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The sensory properties of the usual conventionally cooked cassava porridge consumed in some regions of Africa and porridges consisting of composited cassava and either defatted or full fat soy flour, with or without extrusion cooking, were evaluated to better understand consumers' acceptance. The composited and extruded porridges have superior nutritional quality and added convenience value in the case of extrusion cooked products. RESULTS Extrusion cooking allowed preparation of porridges with 25% solids content (compared with 10% for conventional cooking) with a viscosity suitable for consumption by infants. Compositing and extrusion cooking reduced the apparent negative sensory attributes of high viscosity, stickiness, translucency, jelly‐like appearance and bland flavour that characterise conventionally cooked cassava porridge while increasing slimy appearance of the porridge. The caramel aroma and overall flavour of all extrusion cooked porridges was more intense, with more toasted nutty flavour and aftertaste compared to the corresponding conventionally cooked porridges. Slightly more consumers preferred the conventionally cooked cassava–soy flour porridges. CONCLUSIONS Compositing cassava flour with full‐fat or defatted soy flour and extrusion cooking change the appearance and flavour of porridges while improving the textural properties for better mastication and swallowing by infants. Hedonic adjustment to the changed sensory properties of the porridges in comparison to what mothers and caregivers are used to (conventionally cooked cassava only porridges) is required to ensure acceptance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T04:02:52.176006-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6820
       
  • Effects of combined therapy with glipizide and Aralia root bark extract on
           glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes
           mellitus
    • Authors: Xiao‐Hong Liu; Xing‐Min Li, Cheng‐Cheng Han, Xiang‐Feng Fang, Le Ma
      Pages: 739 - 744
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The root bark of Aralia is a rich source of bioactive components that may improve glycemic control and lipid status. In this study, 148 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were assigned randomly to receive either glipizide alone or glipizide plus Aralia root bark extract (ARBE) for 8 weeks to test the effects of ARBE plus glipizide therapy on glycemic control and lipid profiles in these patients. RESULTS Levels of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (2‐h PPG) in both groups significantly decreased from baseline. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased marginally significantly in participants taking glipizide plus ARBE compared with the glipizide group (P = 0.06). Participants in the combination group had significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC) and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), and the between‐group difference achieved statistical significance for LDL‐C (P = 0.04). Reduction in HbA1c in the combination group was significantly associated with changes in TC (r = 0.32; P = 0.006) and LDL‐C (r = 0.34; P = 0.005), and the change in FPG was inversely correlated with LDL‐C reduction (r = 0.34; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS In patients with T2DM, combination therapy with glipizide and ARBE resulted in moderately lowering HbA1c and LDL‐C levels compared with glipizide alone. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-22T03:44:24.018309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6829
       
  • Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with
           non‐aqueous capillary electrophoresis for the determination of
           imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole in apples, cherry tomatoes and
           grape juice
    • Authors: Lina Xu; Feng Luan, Huitao Liu, Yuan Gao
      Pages: 745 - 751
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fruit and vegetables are frequently treated with fungicides to reduce possible spoilage. As a result, fungicide residues may be accumulated in derived products. This important group of chemical compounds has been heavily regulated because of their potential toxicity. Therefore, a simple and rapid method to determine fungicides is desired. RESULTS A simple non‐aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for the determination of imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole fungicides in fruits and juice samples. Separation buffer consisted of a methanol–acetonitrile mixture (35:65, v/v) containing 30 mmol L−1 ammonium chloride and 0.5% phosphoric acid. The optimum DLLME conditions were 80 µL trichloromethane as extraction solvent, 0.5 mL tetrahydrofuran as disperser solvent, sample solution pH at 6.0, 5% (w/v) NaCl and 10 s extraction time. Recoveries obtained for various samples ranged from 72% to 102%, with relative standard deviation lower than 6.4%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.47 to 0.72 µg kg−1. CONCLUSION The proposed method takes the advantages of DLLME and NACE. It is rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible for the determination of imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole in fruit samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T05:02:36.411039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6834
       
  • Crop load and harvest maturity effects on consumer preferences for
           apricots
    • Authors: Jill Stanley; Jinquan Feng, Shane Olsson
      Pages: 752 - 763
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Improving apricot fruit quality delivered to consumers is key to ensuring a successful apricot industry. Previous studies have focused on effects of either soluble solids content (SSC) or fruit firmness on consumer preferences, and results have been equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of crop load and harvest maturity how they affected on fruit SSC and firmness, and on subsequent consumer preferences. RESULTS SSC of apricots was an important factor only when fruit were firmer than 15 N and not immature. When fruit were softer than 15 N, SSC had little influence on consumer liking. In general, consumers preferred fruit that were grown on trees thinned to approximately 10–20% less than typical commercial crop loads and were harvested in a more mature condition. Consumers also preferred fruit that had a higher sugar/acid ratio or BrimA value, which is the °Brix − k × titratable acidity, where k is a constant that varies between species and cultivars depending on the specific acids and sugars present. High apricot flavour and juiciness were associated with greater sweetness. CONCLUSION Management practices that increase fruit SSC and sugar/acid ratio, such as reducing crop load, will improve consumer satisfaction as long as fruit are harvested at an adequate maturity stage and are maintained in storage so that they do not soften too quickly. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-08-28T07:07:00.699734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6850
       
  • Release of bisphenols from can coatings into canned beer in China market
    • Authors: Yunfei Xie; Yang Bao, Heya Wang, Yuliang Cheng, He Qian, Weirong Yao
      Pages: 764 - 770
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The aim of this research was to understand the migration of bisphenols from can coatings into foods in the Chinese market. RESULTS The migration of bisphenols was studied in commercial cans from the Chinese market filled with four types of food simulant (FS), which were heated at 121 °C for 30 min and stored at 40 °C for 30 days. Only bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) were found in the can coatings, and SimC (10% (v/v) ethanol/water) was the most suitable FS for their release. The levels of these bisphenols in 24 kinds of canned beer from Chinese markets were also investigated. The average concentrations of BPA and BADGE were 2.85 ± 0.79 and 0.38 ± 0.19 µg · L−1 respectively, which were both lower than the EU limits, and their respective daily intakes were estimated at 0.015 and 0.0020 µg · kg−1 body weight · day−1. Besides, increasing storage temperature and time accelerated the release of bisphenols into FSs. CONCLUSION The present results provide some guidance to reduce the migration of bisphenols during the transport and storage of canned foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-11T09:08:29.454454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6862
       
  • Endogenous functional compounds in Korean native chicken meat are
           dependent on sex, thermal processing and meat cut
    • Authors: Dinesh D Jayasena; Samooel Jung, Sun Hyo Kim, Hyun Joo Kim, Amali U Alahakoon, Jun Heon Lee, Cheorun Jo
      Pages: 771 - 775
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In this study the effects of sex, meat cut and thermal processing on the carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine and carnitine contents of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat were determined. Forty 1‐day‐old chicks (20 chicks of each sex) from a commercial KNC strain (Woorimatdag™) were reared under similar standard commercial conditions with similar diets, and ten birds of each sex were randomly selected and slaughtered at 14 weeks of age. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared from both breast and leg meats and analyzed for the aforementioned functional compounds. RESULTS Female KNCs had significantly higher betaine and creatine contents. The breast meat showed significantly higher carnosine and anserine contents, whereas the leg meat had a higher betaine and carnitine content. The content of all functional compounds was significantly depleted by thermal processing. CONCLUSION This study confirms that KNC meat is a good source of the above‐mentioned functional compounds, which can be considered attractive nutritional quality factors. However, their concentrations were significantly affected by thermal processing conditions, meat cut and sex. Further experiments are needed to select the best thermal processing method to preserve these functional compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T10:51:57.014441-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6882
       
  • A comparison of fruit quality parameters of wild bilberry (Vaccinium
           myrtillus L.) growing at different locations
    • Authors: Maja Mikulic‐Petkovsek; Valentina Schmitzer, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic
      Pages: 776 - 785
      Abstract: BACKGROUND As a part of the ongoing interest in nutritional and nutraceutical properties of locally produced fruits, the aim of the article was to determine sugars, organic acids, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of wild bilberries grown in Slovenia. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of bilberry fruit was compared among six phyto‐climatic conditions, differing in photosynthetic active radiation and light intensity. RESULTS Three sugars were quantified in bilberry fruit, the predominant being fructose and glucose, along with five organic acids. Bilberry fruit contained high levels of anthocyanins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, petunidin and peonidin glycosides), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and low levels of flavonol glycosides (mainly quercetin and myricetin glycosides), flavan‐3‐ols, proanthocyanidins and iridoids. The results of the study indicate that bilberries growing in sites with high photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) contained higher levels of total sugars, anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids and lower levels of organic acids compared with bilberry fruit from low‐light locations. Consequently, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of the fruit from high‐PAR locations were significantly increased. CONCLUSION Bilberries from different natural habitats differ significantly in the quantity of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds. Our results contribute to a fuller understanding of the relationships between environmental factors and accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites in bilberry fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T07:52:14.695931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6897
       
  • Phytochemical screening, anticancer and antioxidant activities of Origanum
           vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek, a plant of traditional usage
    • Authors: Serkan Koldaş; Ibrahim Demirtas, Tevfik Ozen, Mehmet Ali Demirci, Lütfi Behçet
      Pages: 786 - 798
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). RESULTS Differences between the essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were shown. The main component of the essential oil was caryophyllene oxide, while the main volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol as determined by HS‐GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF‐MS. Ten phenolic compounds were found in the extracts from O. vulgare and Origanum acutidens: rosmarinic acid (in highest abundance), chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p‐coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin‐7‐glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4‐hydroxybenzaldehyde. CONCLUSION This study provides first results on the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of O. vulgare ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-16T07:56:50.381074-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6903
       
  • Protective effects of Cholestin on ethanol induced oxidative stress in
           rats
    • Authors: You‐Liang Hsieh; Yen‐Hung Yeh, Ya‐Ting Lee, Chih‐Yang Huang
      Pages: 799 - 808
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups as follows: group A, basal diet; group B, basal diet with Cholestin at 0.1667 g kg−1 body weight (BW); groups C–F, oral feeding of ethanol at 7.9 g kg−1 BW; groups D–F, Cholestin in diet at 0.1667, 0.3333 and 0.5 g kg−1 BW respectively; group G, silymarin in diet at 200 mg kg−1 BW. RESULTS The results showed that treatment with Cholestin for 8 weeks reduced the impact of ethanol toxicity on serum markers of liver damage: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The antioxidant system was significantly enhanced: plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substance (TBARS) levels were lowered while hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px), ethanol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities and non‐enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) were elevated. CONCLUSION Cholestin shows a protective effect against hepatotoxicity indices in ethanol‐fed rats comparable to that of silymarin, as supported by the evaluation of liver histopathology. The data suggest that Cholestin exerts its hepatoprotective effect by decreasing lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidants status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant in ethanol‐induced oxidative damage in rats. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-14T08:01:34.401785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6904
       
  • Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: does
           viscosity have an impact?
    • Authors: Cai VS Brandenstein; Mechthild Busch‐Stockfisch, Markus Fischer
      Pages: 809 - 818
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPa s). The ranges of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. RESULTS An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess and perceived viscosity (P‐values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. CONCLUSION The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T05:57:23.945557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6907
       
  • A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds
           and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars
    • Authors: Yu Young Lee; Hyang Mi Park, Tae Young Hwang, Sun Lim Kim, Mi Jung Kim, Seuk Ki Lee, Min Jung Seo, Kee Jong Kim, Young‐Up Kwon, Sang Chul Lee, Yul Ho Kim
      Pages: 819 - 827
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Tocopherols are crucial lipid‐soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients. There is increasing interest in the biofortification of crops with vitamin E for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. However, relatively little is known about the development of soybean cultivars with high levels of tocopherol through combined breeding. RESULT Tocopherol contents of seeds and germinating seeds of 28 Korean soybean cultivars were analyzed and evaluated for health‐promoting activities. Total tocopherol concentrations ranged from 203.9 to 503.1 µg g−1 in seeds and from 20.1 to 230.1 µg g−1 in germinating seeds. The traditional landraces of HaNagari (HN, 503.1 µg g−1), Orialtae (OL, 486.6 µg g−1), SuMoktae (SM, 476.5 µg g−1) and SoRitae (SR, 475.5 µg g−1) showed high levels of tocopherol content. The contents of the four isomers of tocopherol in seeds and germinating seeds were correlated with lipid peroxidation. The γ‐ and δ‐tocopherol contents in seeds were related to 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (0.434; P < 0.01 and 0.373; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Total tocopherol content was higher in soybean landraces as compared with modern cultivars developed by cross‐breeding. These results suggest that soybean breeding is necessary to increase tocopherol levels. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T08:07:27.272442-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6963
       
  • Carnosic acid attenuates obesity‐induced glucose intolerance and
           hepatic fat accumulation by modulating genes of lipid metabolism in
           C57BL/6J‐ob/ob mice
    • Authors: Mi‐Young Park; Mi‐Kyung Sung
      Pages: 828 - 835
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Carnosic acid (CA), a major bioactive component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves, is known to possess antioxidant and anti‐adipogenic activities. In this study it was hypothesized that CA would ameliorate obesity‐induced glucose intolerence and hepatic fat accumulation, and possible mechanisms are suggested. RESULTS It was observed that a 0.02% (w/w) CA diet effectively decreased body weight, liver weight and blood triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol levels (P < 0.05) compared with the control diet. CA at 0.02% significantly improved glucose tolerance, and hepatic TG accumulation was reduced in a dose‐dependent manner. Hepatic lipogenic‐related gene (L‐FABP, SCD1 and FAS) expression decreased whereas lipolysis‐related gene (CPT1) expression increased in animals fed the 0.02% CA diet (P < 0.05). Long‐chain fatty acid content and the ratio of C18:1/C18:0 fatty acids were decreased in adipose tissue of animals fed the 0.02% CA diet (P < 0.05). Serum inflammatory mediators were also decreased significantly in animals fed the 0.02% CA diet compared with those of the obese control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION These results suggest that CA is an effective anti‐obesity agent that regulates fatty acid metabolism in C57BL/6J‐ob/ob mice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-11-24T10:36:59.51835-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6973
       
  • Comparison of starches from five plants of Sect. Stenophora Uline and
           Sect. Lasiophyton Uline of Dioscorea grown in China
    • Authors: Qian‐Qian Jiang; Wen‐Yuan Gao, Yan‐Peng Shi, Xia Li, Hai‐Yang Wang
      Pages: 836 - 842
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Dioscorea resources with vital medicinal and functional values are abundant in south‐west regions of China, especially in Sichuan Province. However, the resource in this region has received less attention compared with that of the north. D. zingiberensis, D. collettii, D. kamoonensis cv. Emei and Jinfo, and D. melanophyma from Sichuan Province and Chongqing City were studied with regard to the most abundant carbohydrate (starch) to search for new medicinal and food resources. RESULTS The starches were small round granules or small oval granules and large elongated granules, except D. zingiberensis starch granules, which were disc‐like in shape. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher values in total starch content, water‐binding capacity and infrared ratio of absorbance bands at 1047/1035 and 1047/1022 cm−1. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis demonstrated a higher gelatinisation temperature required more energy during the gelatinisation process. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher resistant starch content of 724.0 and 693.2 g kg−1, respectively, with lower hydrolysis index and estimation of glycaemic index. All the starches exhibited an A‐type pattern except D. melanophyma starch, which showed a C‐type pattern evaluated by X‐ray diffraction. CONCLUSION These results showed that the starches with their low hydrolysis index values possessed potential values as healthy food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-11-25T08:19:16.764923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6975
       
  • A synergistic effect of pretreatment on cell wall structural changes in
           barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) for efficient bioethanol production
    • Authors: Md Mominul Islam Sheikh; Chul‐Hwan Kim, Hyeong‐Hun Park, Hye‐Gyeong Nam, Gyeong Sun Lee, Hu Seung Jo, Ji‐Young Lee, Jae Won Kim
      Pages: 843 - 850
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an attractive lignocellulosic material and one of the most abundant renewable resources for fuel ethanol production. Although it has high cellulose and hemicellulose contents, there are several challenges and limitations in the process of converting it to fuel ethanol. High ash, silica and lignin contents in barley straw make it an inferior feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore pretreatment of barley straw could play an important role in inducing structural and compositional changes that increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and make the whole process economically viable. RESULTS Saccharification was enhanced using various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% v/v) of a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and various reaction times (15, 30 and 45 min) during pretreatment at 121 °C. The highest yield of glucose (447 mg g−1) was achieved by pretreatment with 2.0% NaClO+H2O2 solution for 30 min, representing an increase of 65.99% compared with untreated barley straw (152 mg g−1). During fermentation, the highest amount of ethanol (207 mg g−1) was obtained under anaerobic plus 0.4 mmol L−1 benzoic acid conditions, representing an increase of 57.49, 38.16 and 10.14% compared with untreated sample (88 mg g−1), aerobic (128 mg g−1) and anaerobic (186 mg g−1) conditions respectively. CONCLUSION The results suggest that pretreatment with 2.0% NaClO+H2O2 solution disrupted the recalcitrant structure of barley straw and enhanced the glucose yield and subsequent bioethanol production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T04:40:57.868529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7004
       
 
 
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