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Journal Cover Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  [SJR: 0.822]   [H-I: 100]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-5142 - ISSN (Online) 1097-0010
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
  • Characterization of autochthonous sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.)
           of Southern Italy for fruit quality, bioactive compounds and antioxidant
    • Authors: Antonio Di Matteo; Rosa Russo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Claudio Di Vaio
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCharacterizing germplasm collections of autochthonous cultivars for fruit quality traits could be a successful approach for selection, enhance the organoleptic quality and the level of antioxidants of crop produce, develop new market opportunity and coherent strategies of conservation and valorization. The aim of the study was the evaluation of fruit physico-chemical traits as well as the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in 25 sweet cherry autochthonous cultivars.RESULTSCultivars were source of statistically significant variation for all evaluated traits. Notably, the average fruit ascorbate levels ranged from 34.45 to 244.68 µg g FW−1, total flavonoids from 1396.40 to 4694.75 µg QE g FW−1, monomeric anthocyanins from 4.80 to 360.90 µg g FW−1, the total antioxidant capacity from 1.53 to 2.58 nmol trolox eq. mg FW−1. Fruit profiling of eight cultivars by high resolution mass spectrometry identified a total of eight different anthocyanins and twenty-five non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds, mostly coumaroylquinic acid and neochlorogenic acid.CONCLUSIONAmong better performing cultivars for fruit quality traits, Mulegnana Nera and Pagliarella shared high fruit level in phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. This is a forerunner work on the characterization of genetic resources which is critical for its use and conservation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T23:40:23.410921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8106
  • Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition
           and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage
    • Authors: Gema Flores; Gracia Patricia Blanch, María Luisa Ruiz del Castillo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage.RESULTSContents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (ie, from 50.8 to 64.5%, from 7.2 to 9.1% and from 1.5 to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg−1, chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg−1, vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg−1, caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg−1, p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg−1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg−1 were obtained.CONCLUSIONMethyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as a postharvest technique alternative to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:25:25.029282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8104
           CHELATES OF Glycine max
    • Authors: Clara Martín-Fernández; Sandra López-Rayo, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza, Juan J Lucena
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAn efficient use of Fe chelates is crucial to avoid environmental risks and reduce economic losses. The HBED/Fe3+ has been recently approved by the EU for soil fertilization, but studies delving into the best timing for its application are necessary. In this work, a batch incubation experiment and two biological experiments were developed to determine the optimal physiological stage for a sustainable application of HBED/Fe3+ in soil fertilization compared with EDDHA/Fe3+ fertilizers using 57Fe.RESULTSThe HBED/Fe3+ demonstrated a high durability in soils and soil materials, maintaining more than 80% of Fe chelated after 70 days, and its application at an early physiological stage resulted in a high Fe accumulation in soybean and soil after 36 days. In contrast, the stability of EDDHA/Fe3+ decreased because of the retention of its lowest stable isomers. The best timing for chelates application was confirmed in a 52 days experiment. The application of HBED/Fe3+ at the early stage increased the Fe translocation to fruits; while the o,oEDDHA/Fe3+ accumulated more Fe in fruits when added at the fructification stage.CONCLUSIONThe high HBED/Fe3+ stability in calcareous soil requires a differentiate application timing, and its addition at early physiological stages leads into the most efficient fertilization.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:25:22.868387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8105
  • Effects of 4 short-chain fatty acids or salts on dynamics of nitrogen
           transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage
    • Authors: XianJun Yuan; AiYou Wen, Seare T. Desta, ZhiHao Dong, Tao Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDShort-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of 4 chemical compounds with antimicrobial property on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage.RESULTSPotassium diformate and formic acid rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage. The free amino acid N contents in potassium diformate (PD) and formic acid (FA) treated silages were lower than other silages at all intervals of ensilage. The ammonia N concentrations in FA and PD silages were the lowest, followed by SD and CAP silages. As ensiling progressed, the aminopeptidase activity was completely lost by day 5 for FA and PD silages and inactive by day 7 for SD silage, while it remained active after day 7 for control and CAP silage. The carbxypeotidase activities in FA and PD silages were already reduced below 50% by day 1 of ensiling.CONCLUSIONThe potassium diformate was as effective as formic acid in depressing the proteolysis, while sodium diacetate and calcium propionate were inferior to formic acid in protecting alfalfa proteins from being hydrolyzed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T09:20:31.762728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8103
  • Effects of different depth of grain color on antioxidant capacity during
           water imbibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Oon Ha Shin; Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesized that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration.RESULTSThe results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat. Total phenol content was slightly increased in all groups compared to their initial state, but the levels of other phytochemicals varied among groups. It is revealed that anthocyanin was significantly degraded during the water imbibition stage. Also, the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in each grain color group did not correlated with germination speed. Overall antioxidant activity reduced as imbibition progressed in each group. Generally, darker grain groups showed higher total antioxidant activities than did lighter grain groups.CONCLUSIONThese findings suggested that the reduced activity of reactive oxygen species, as controlled by internal antioxidant enzymes and phytochemicals, related with germination speed during the water imbibition stage in grains with greater depth of purple coloring.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T03:30:39.392857-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8102
  • Growth of wheat and lettuce and enzyme activities of soils under garlic
           stalk decomposition for different durations
    • Authors: Xu Han; Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGarlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered to be a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilise this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development.RESULTSThe effect of decomposed garlic stalk for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) as test plants. Garlic stalk in early stages of decomposition inhibited the shoots and roots length of wheat and lettuce, but promoted the shoots and roots length in later stages; longer durations of garlic stalk decomposition significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weight of wheat and lettuce, whereas shorter decomposing durations significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh weight; and garlic stalk at different decomposition durations increased the activities of urease, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase of soil that wheat or lettuce was planted.CONCLUSIONGarlic stalk decomposed for 30 days or 40 days could promote the growth of wheat and lettuce plants as well as soil enzyme activities. These results may provide a scientific basis for the study and application of garlic stalk.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T22:10:33.621782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8099
  • Using an enzymatic galactose assay to detect lactose glycation extents of
           two proteins caseinate and soybean protein isolate via the Maillard
    • Authors: Xiao-Peng Wang; Xin-Huai Zhao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGlycation of food proteins via the Maillard reaction is widely studied in the recent years; however, saccharide amount connected into proteins is usually not determined. An enzymatic galactose assay was proposed firstly in this study to detect lactose glycation extents of caseinate and soybean protein isolate (SPI) during the Maillard reaction at two temperatures and different times.RESULTSThe separated glycated proteins were hydrolyzed to release galactose necessary for the enzymatic assay and glycation calculation. Caseinate and SPI both obtained the highest lactose glycation extents at 100 °C or 121 °C by a reaction time of 180 or 20 min. Short- and long-time reaction resulted in lower glycation extents. During the reaction, three chemical indices (absorbencies at 294/490 nm and fluorescence intensities) of reaction mixtures increased continually, but another index reactable –NH2 of glycated proteins showed opposite trend. In general, changing profiles of the four indices were inconsistent with those profiles of lactose glycation extents of glycated proteins, implying practical limitation of the four indices in studies.CONCLUSIONThis proposed enzymatic assay could directly detect lactose glycation of the two proteins, and thus was more useful than the four chemical indices to monitor glycation of the two proteins.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T05:07:24.588333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8084
  • Grape yield and quality responses to simulated year 2100 expected climatic
           conditions under different soil textures
    • Authors: Urtzi Leibar; Inmaculada Pascual, Fermín Morales, Ana Aizpurua, Olatz Unamunzaga
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGlobal warming influence on grape quality is a great concern among grapegrowers and enologists. The effects of simulated year 2100 expected CO2, T and RH conditions (FCC; 700 µmol CO2/mol air, 28/18 °C day/night and 33/53% RH, day/night) vs. the current condition situation (Curr; 390 µmol CO2/mol air, 24/14 °C and 45/65% RH); well-irrigated vs. expected future water deficits and three soils with different clay contents (41, 19 and 8%) on yield and berry quality of grapevine cv. Tempranillo were evaluated.RESULTSFCC shortened the time between fruit set and veraison and between fruit set and maturity up to 7 and 10 days, respectively. This faster maturity led to higher must pH and tonality and reduced malic and tartaric acid concentrations, total anthocyanin concentration and colour intensity. Water deficit delayed ripeness for up to 9 days and reduced vegetative growth and malic acid concentration of grapes. However, this malic acid reduction did not happen with the clayey soils. These soils induced the lowest root fresh weight and berries with lower total anthocyanin concentration.CONCLUSIONAmong the adaptation techniques to cope with the described effects on fruit composition, soil selection should be considered with attention in addition to irrigation practices.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T05:07:16.958358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8086
  • Effect of nursing or mentoring by adult cows on physical activity,
           performance and meat quality of fattening beef calves kept on alpine
    • Authors: Isabelle DM Gangnat; Pierre-Alain Dufey, Paolo Silacci, Jessika Messadene-Chelali, Michael Kreuzer, Joel Berard
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCompared to weaned calves, nursed calves benefit from access to milk as nutrient-dense feed and mentoring by their dams. Both may be decisive for growth under difficult conditions such as grazing on alpine pastures, where experience will play an essential role. These factors were investigated separately by comparing nursed calves with calves weaned at 3 months of age and grazing with or without mentor cow (n = 8 calves).RESULTSWeaned calves with mentor cows spent less time lying and walked more than nursed calves. Irrespective of whether they had a mentor cow or not the weaned calves grew slower than the nursed calves (357, 428 and 1324 g day−1, respectively). This also adversely affected slaughter weight, dressing percentage, conformation and fat cover at slaughter. In general mentoring had no effect. Meat quality did not differ whether weaned calves were mentored or not. Nursed calves were superior in intramuscular fat content, tenderness and water-holding capacity.CONCLUSIONThe availability of milk appeared to be much more important to the calves under demanding grazing conditions than mentoring. The differences in growth rate were accompanied with unexpectedly large differences in meat quality, showing that early weaning was not suitable for this system.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:52:33.19852-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8101
  • Strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap of household farms through
           precision fertigation under irrigated conditions using CERES-Maize model
    • Authors: Jiangang Liu; Guangyao Wang, Qingquan Chu, Fu Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe nitrogen significantly increases the maize yield; however, the unreasonable use of nitrogen is common in China. An analysis of crop yield gaps can reveal the limiting factors for yield improvement; however, there's a lack of practical strategies for narrowing the yield gaps of household farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the yield gap of summer maize using an integrative method and to develop strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap through precise nitrogen fertilization.RESULTSThe results indicated that there's a significant difference in the maize yield among fields, with a low level of variation. Additionally, significant differences in the N application rate were observed among fields, with high variability. Based on the long-term simulation results, the optimum nitrogen application rate was 193 kg ha−1 with a corresponding maximum attainable yield (AYmax) of 10318 kg ha−1. There was a considerable difference observed between the farmers’ yield and AYmax. There exhibited a low agronomic efficiency of applied N fertilizer (AEN) in farmers’ fields.CONCLUSIONThe integrative method lays a foundation for exploring the specific factors constraining crop yield gaps at the field scale and for developing strategies for rapid site-specific nitrogen management. Optimization strategies to narrow maize yield gap include increasing N application rates and adjusting the N application schedule.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:30:27.848802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8100
  • Improvement of skin condition by oral administration of collagen
           hydrolysates in chronologically aged mice
    • Authors: Zhenbin Wang; Qing Wang, Lin Wang, Weidong Xu, Yuanqing He, Yunliang Li, Song He, Haile Ma
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCollagen hydrolysates (CHs) has been demonstrated to have positive effect on skin photo-aging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there's little report about its influence on skin chronological aging so far.RESULTSNine-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing the CHs (2.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the survival rate, viscera indexes and the contents of moisture, fat and non-collagenous protein of skin didn't changed (p > 0.05). The color, luster and quantity of hair were obviously ameliorated. Moreover, the structure of epidermis and dermis, density and distribution of collagen fibers and ratio of type I to type III collagen were obviously improved in a dose-dependent manner showed by histochemical staining.CONCLUSIONThe oral ingestion of CHs increased the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes activities, and improved the appearance and structure of skin. These suggested its potential to be developed into nutraceuticals or functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:16:23.203666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8098
  • Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting
           bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris
    • Authors: Qunying Lin; Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control.RESULTSCS and CCP were suitable for the fruit body formation of C. militaris, with yields of 22 g bottle−1 and 20 g bottle−1 respectively. The fruit bodies grown on CCP showed the highest levels of cordycepin and adenosine up to 9.45 mg g−1 and 5.86 mg g−1, respectively. The content of D-mannitol in fruit body obtained on CS was 120 mg g−1 (80% of the control group), followed by that on CCP, 100 mg g−1. The fruit bodies cultivated on CCP displayed a high crude polysaccharide level of 26.9 mg g−1, which was the mostly close to the control group (34.5 mg g−1).CONCLUSIONCS and CCP are effective substrates for the production of fruit body and bioactive compounds by C. militaris. This study provides a new approach of decreasing the cost of C. militaris cultivation and dealing with these agricultural wastes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:11.614437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8097
  • The Interactive Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable
           Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and Hydrogen Sulfide Production during
           Cider Fermentation
    • Authors: Thomas F. Boudreau; Gregory M. Peck, Sean F. O'Keefe, Amanda C. Stewart
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation, but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. This study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S0), (known to result in increased H2S in wine), fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples).RESULTSOnly S0 led to increased H2S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L−1) resulted in decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed, whereby increasing YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics.CONCLUSIONSCidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L−1) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when YAN concentration is below 250 mg L−1. These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:56:22.482695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8096
  • High intensity ultrasound enhances the IgG and IgE binding of ovalbumin
    • Authors: Wen-hua Yang; Zong-cai Tu, Hui Wang, Xue Li, Ming Tian
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHen's egg is widely used in food industry due to its excellent nutritional and processing properties, and Ovalbumin (OVA) is the major allergen of hen's egg white. Ultrasound has been widely used in food processing industry, but effect of high intensity ultrasound on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding and conformational structure of OVA remains unclear.RESULTSUltrasound treatment at 600 - 800 W dramatically increased the IgG and IgE binding of OVA with the highest values observed at 600 W. The free sulphydryl content, surface hydrophobicity and UV absorption were gradually increased when the power was improved from 200 to 600 W, implying the occurrence of molecule unfolding. When the power was 800 W, the binding ability was slightly decreased associated with the aggregation of OVA molecule. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis implied that ultrasound treatment at 800 W could induce the aggregation of OVA molecule through disulfide bonds and/or hydrophobic interaction.CONCLUSIONHigh intensity ultrasound can increase the potential allergenicity of OVA. Therefore, high intensity ultrasound processing of some egg products alone may improve the risk of allergenic reaction of egg allergy patients to some extend.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:30:44.976005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8095
  • Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera
           L.). Effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile
    • Authors: Massimiliano Alessandrini; Federica Gaiotti, Nicola Belfiore, Fabiola Matarese, Claudio D'Onofrio, Diego Tomasi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnvironmental factors have been acknowledged as greatly influencing grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has been scarcely debated in literature, to date. In this study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy).RESULTSThe site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest one (200 m a.s.l.) and, even with differences in temperature in the range of 1.5 – 2°C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site evidenced slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all main classes of aroma compounds typical of Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance.CONCLUSIONAltitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in subsequent sparkling wines. Moreover, this study underscored the fact that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:12:01.353557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8093
  • Occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 in Baby Foods Marketed in Iran
    • Authors: Ehsan Mottaghianpour; Firouzeh Nazari, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as a toxic fungal metabolite, can be found in baby foods, which can lead to serious complications for children's health. In this study, 48 commercial baby foods available in the Iranian market were investigated for the presence of AFB1, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with post-column photochemical derivatization and a fluorescence detector.RESULTSIn this study, 33 out of 48 samples (68.7%) were contaminated with AFB1 at median, maximum and mean concentration levels of 0.11, 15.15, and 2.602 ± 4.065 µg kg −1, respectively. The AFB1 concentration in 39.6% of the samples was higher than the maximum level established in Iran for AFB1 within baby foods containing milk (0.5 µg kg −1). The AFB1 incidence in rice, wheat, and multigrain infant cereal samples was 90%, 25% and 100%, respectively, while the rice-based baby foods contained the highest levels of AFB1.CONCLUSIONIn this study, the findings of both high rates and high levels of AFB1 in cereal baby foods indicated the need to reduce AFB1 contamination in these products. Therefore, further monitoring and control of pre- and post-harvest, storage, and manufacturing processes are required.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:16:17.202248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8092
  • Correlation between three glycometabolic-related hormones and muscle
           glycolysis as well as meat quality in three pig breeds
    • Authors: J. Luo; L. Y. Shen, H. G. Lei, K.P. Zhu, Y. Z. Jiang, L. Bai, M. Z. Li, G. Q. Tang, X. W. Li, S. H. Zhang, L. Zhu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations among muscle concentration of three glycometabolic-related hormones (insulin, epinephrine and glucagon), muscle glycolysis and meat quality in representative muscles of either glycolytic or oxidative types. Moreover, the relative glycometabolic-related gene expression was measured. One Western crossbreed DLY (Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), one crossbreed with half-Chinese native-pig origin DL (Duroc × LiangShan) and one pure Chinese native pig TP (Tibetan pig) were used in this study.RESULTSAmong the three breeds, DLY had the greatest glucagon and epinephrine (P < 0.01). Compared with DLY, TP and DL had lower lactic acid concentration, showing lower glycolytic potentials (GP), greater ultimate pH values (P < 0.01), and lower relative expression levels of glycometabolic-related genes (GYS1, PRKAG3 and PKM2). Compared with the glycolytic muscle (m. longissimus dorsi), oxidative muscle PM (m. psoas major ) had lower glucagon and epinephrine contents, lower GP and better meat quality. Concentration of glycometabolic-related hormones in the muscle had significant correlations with muscle glycolysis, meat pH and lightness.CONCLUSIONThese results implied that glucagon and epinephrine levels could be used to indicate early glycolytic metabolism during postmortem. These findings may be helpful in identifying pork with undesirable quality traits.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15T00:20:46.452064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8094
  • Ceratonia siliqua L. (Immature carob bean) inhibits intestinal glucose
           absorption, improves glucose tolerance and protects against
           alloxan-induced diabetes in rat
    • Authors: Kaïs Rtibi; Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Khouloud Saidani, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Bruno Eto, Lamjed Marzouki
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis study was designed to investigate the effects of immature carob pods aqueous extract (ICPAE) on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro and in vivo using an oral glucose tolerance test as well as the potential anti-diabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried by administering of glucose (2g kg−1, p.o.) and after treatment with extract (50, 100 and 200mg kg−1, b.w.). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150mg kg−1). However, the extracts at various doses or glibenclamide (GLB, 10mg kg−1, b.w.) were given by oral administration for two weeks.RESULTSThe aqueous extract of carob pods (50 to 2000μg mL−1) exerted dose-dependent reduction of sodium-dependent glucose transport across isolated mice jejunum and the maximal inhibition exceeded 50%.The ICPAE treatment improved glucose tolerance. More importantly, ICPAE at various doses showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and biochemical profiles in diabetic rats.CONCLUSIONOur findings confirm that the degree of maturity of carob characterized by a different phytochemical composition may be responsible for these actions. Therefore, these compounds may be used as a food supplement in hyperglycemia and diabetes treatments.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T02:45:57.095281-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8091
  • Identification of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) heartwood as a rich source
           of bioactive stilbenes by qNMR
    • Authors: Kostas Ioannidis; Eleni Melliou, Paraskevi Alizoti, Prokopios Magiatis
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecently published studies have demonstrated the strong anti-inflammatory properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood extracts, related to its stilbene content. In order to find alternative sources of Pinus heartwood extracts rich in stilbenes, a large number of samples was investigated, using a new developed high throughput screening method based on qNMR.RESULTSThe new method enabled us to measure the levels of pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether and pinosylvin dimethylether in heartwood extracts in only 45 seconds per sample. The method was applied to 260 Pinus nigra trees originating from Peloponnese (southern Greece) from four different natural populations of the species. The results obtained showed that the total stilbenoids per dry heartwood weight varied greatly, ranging from 10.9 mg/gdrywood to 128.2 mg/gdrywood (average 59.92 ± 21.79 mg/gdrywood). The major stilbene in all cases was pinosylvin monomethylether (40.32 ± 15.55 mg/gdrywood), followed by pinosylvin (17.07 ± 6.76 mg/gdrywood) and pinosylvin dimethylether (2.54 ± 1.22 mg/gdrywood). The highest stilbene content of P. nigra samples was found 6.3 times higher than the highest reported for P. sylvestris L.CONCLUSIONP. nigra heartwood is the richest source of pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether identified up today and can be considered as the best natural resource for production of bioactive extracts.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T02:00:43.646094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8090
  • Multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds in organic
           juices with high antioxidant capacity
    • Authors: Dariusz Nowak; Michał Gośliński, Artur Szwengiel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate).RESULTSAll the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L−1). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (approx. 5000 mg of Trolox equivalents L−1). Other samples had lower TP and TAC. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds.CONCLUSIONChokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them for further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular diseases prophylaxis.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T01:46:28.693591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8089
  • Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the
           technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L.
    • Authors: Maja Turinek; Martina Bavec, Milan Repič, Matjaž Turinek, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Christian Moellers, Alba Tres, Franc Bavec
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOrganic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. ‘Siska’ seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed.RESULTSThe BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content.CONCLUSIONBecause quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, the production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation, presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T01:06:18.414616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8088
  • Increase of protein extraction yield from rapeseed meal through a
           pretreatment with phytase
    • Authors: Ivo M. Rodrigues; M. Graça V. S. Carvalho, Jorge M. S. Rocha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRapeseed meal is a good source of high-quality vegetal protein but contains antinutritional compounds which limit its use for human and animal feed. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to enhance alkaline protein extraction of rapeseed meal and to produce protein rich products with low levels of phytic acid. Different phytase dosages and operating conditions were used for rapeseed meal pretreatment followed by alkaline extraction at different temperatures, time, pH and solid/liquid ratios (S/L).RESULTSThe highest protein extraction yield attained was 72.1%, for 2 h at 55 °C with a phytase dosage of 0.8 U g−1 when the alkaline extraction was performed at 75 °C, pH 12.5, 60 min for S/L ratio of 10 g/100 mL water. The extraction yields were higher than those previously obtained without enzymatic pretreatment.CONCLUSIONPhytase pretreatment enhanced alkaline extraction yield of proteins from rapeseed meal. This procedure allowed also the production of rapeseed protein concentrates with very low levels of phytic acid, c.a. 1 g kg−1, improving their nutritional properties and commercial value. Moreover, after the pretreatment, the amount of phytic acid in the remaining rapeseed meal decreases about 25%.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T00:31:14.148872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8087
  • The higher the better? Differences in phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides
           in Sambucus nigra leaves, flowers and berries from different altitudes
    • Authors: Mateja Senica; Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDElderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) possesses high antioxidant activity and has been used to ail numerous medicinal disorders. In addition to their antioxidant properties, elderberry parts accumulate toxic cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). It has been proven that altitude influences the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. In the present study we investigated the change of phenolics and CGG in elder leaves, flowers, and berries induced by different altitudes and locations.RESULTSThe data indicate that the accumulation of CGG and phenolics is affected by the altitude of the growing site. An increase of anthocyanin content was recorded in elder berries collected at higher elevations in both locations. Fruit collected at the foothill of location 2 contained 3343 µg g−1 anthocyanins as opposed to fruit from the hilltop, which contained 7729 µg g−1. Elder berries contained lowest levels of harmful CGG compared to other analyzed plant parts. However, more cyanogenic glycosides were always present in plant parts collected at the hilltop. Accordingly, berries accumulated 0.11 µg g−1 CGG at the foothill and 0.59 µg g−1 CGG at the hilltop.CONCLUSIONElder berries and flowers collected at the foothill were characterized by lowest levels of both beneficial (phenolics) and harmful compounds (CGG) and are suitable for moderate consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T03:35:46.322386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8085
  • Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae
           reared on different organic waste substrates
    • Authors: Thomas Spranghers; Matteo Ottoboni, Cindy Klootwijk, Ann Ovyn, Stefaan Deboosere, Bruno De Meulenaer, Joris Michiels, Mia Eeckhout, Patrick De Clercq, Stefaan De Smet
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBlack soldier fly (BSF) larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed.RESULTSProtein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg−1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg−1 DM respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg−1 DM respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg−1 DM respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg−1 DM respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments.CONCLUSIONSince protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, BSF could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T02:51:02.921855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8081
    • Authors: Giuseppa Di Bella; Imen Haddaoui, Vincenzo Lo Turco, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Maria Rita Fede, Giacomo Dugo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDespite the importance of beans as food, few works are conducted to control their contamination by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), compounds of highly importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by beans consumption a monitoring program was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with Accelerated Solvents Extractor (ASE) in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode.RESULTSResults revealed concentrations of ƩPAHs ranged from 7.31 µg/kg to 686 µg/kg, ƩPCBs between 1.85 µg/kg and 43.1 µg/kg and ƩPOCs ranged from 1.37 µg/kg to 71.8 µg/kg.CONCLUSIONOur results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed at risk contamination by always investigated pollutants.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T02:07:52.193282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8083
  • Computer vision-based method for classification of the wheat grains using
           artificial neural network
    • Authors: Kadir Sabanci; Ahmet Kayabasi, Abdurrahim Toktas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDA simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying the wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread wheat grains and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high resolution camera and they are subjected to a pre-processing. The main visual features of 4 dimensions, 3 colours and 5 texture are acquired using image processing techniques (IPTs). A total number of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model. The data sets of visual features are considered as input parameters of the ANN model. The ANN with four different input data sub-sets is modelled to classify the wheat grains into bread or durum. The ANN model is trained via 180 grains and the accuracy of the models are tested through 20 grains of 200 bread and durum wheat.RESULTSThe numbers of 7 input parameters being the most effective on the classifying results are determined by using correlation-based CfsSubsetEval algorithm for simplifying the ANN model. The results of the ANN model are compared against each other in terms of accuracy rate. The best result is achieved with mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.8x10−6 by the simplified ANN model.CONCLUSIONIt shows that the proposed classifier based on computer vision can be successfully exploited to automatically classify a variety of grains.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T02:05:26.584534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8080
  • Production of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase from agro-industrial
           wastewater and its application in raw food cleaning
    • Authors: Qin He Xi-hui Xu; Fan Zhang, Yu-kai Tai, Yan-fei Luo, Jian He, Qing Hong, Jian-dong Jiang, Xin Yan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo reduce the fermentation cost for industrialization of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase (Chd), agro-industrial wastewater including molasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermentation wastewater were used to substitute the expensive carbon and nitrogen sources and fresh water for lab preparation.RESULTSThe results showed that molasses and CSL could replace 5% carbon source and 100% organic nitrogen source to maintain the same fermentation level. Refermentation from raffinate of ultra-filtered fermentation wastewater could achieve 61.03% of initial Chd activity and reach 96.39% activity when cultured in mixture of raffinate and 50% of original medium constituent. Typical raw foods were chosen to evaluate the chlorothalonil removal ability of Chd. After Chd treatment for 2 h at room temperature, 97.40% and 75.55% of the 30 mg kg−1 chlorothalonil on cherry tomato and strawberry were reduced respectively, and 60.29% of the 50 mg kg−1 chlorothalonil on Chinese cabbage was removed. Furthermore, the residual enzyme activity remained 78 ~ 82% after treatment, suggesting its potential for reuse.CONCLUSIONThis study proved the cost-feasibility of large-scale production of Chd from agro-industrial wastewater and demonstrated the potential of Chd in raw food cleaning.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T01:35:32.451131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8079
  • Long-term manure amendments and chemical fertilizers enhanced soil organic
           carbon sequestration in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.)
           rotation system
    • Authors: Shuiqing Zhang; Shaomin Huang, Jianwei Li, Doudou Guo, Shan Lin, Guoan Lu
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T01:15:27.555469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8078
  • Determination of norfloxacin in food by an enhanced spectrofluorimetric
    • Authors: Ruilin Duan; Junze Jiang, Shaopu Liu, Jidong Yang, Man Qiao, Ying Shi, Xiaoli Hu
      Abstract: In this work, based on norfloxacin (NFLX) - Nd3+ - CTAB system for detection of norfloxacin, a simple and sensitive method was developed by fluorescence enhancement. In pH 7.0 BR solution, NFLX reacted with Nd3+ and formed the complex which resulted in the fluorescence enhancement of NFLX and the maximum emission peak shifted from 415 nm for NFLX to 450 nm for NFLX - Nd3+. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity further increased when CTAB was added in NFLX - Nd3+ system since the effect of surfactant. Under the optimum conditions, the enhancement fluorescence intensity was linearly correlated with the concentration of norfloxacin in the range from 0.038-10.0 µmol L−1, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9997. The detection limit (3σ/k) was 0.021 µmol L−1, indicating that this method can be applied to detect trace norfloxacin. Besides, the method was used to detect the norfloxacin in fish, chicken samples with satisfying results. Additionally, the mechanism of fluorescence enhancement was also discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T00:36:16.014664-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8077
  • Production and characterization of cowpea protein hydrolysate with optimum
           nitrogen solubility by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin
    • Authors: Martin Alain Mune Mune; Samuel R. Minka
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore, it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the others functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters namely time, solid to liquid ratio and enzyme to substrate ratio, and to determine functional properties and molecular characterization of the hydrolysate.RESULTSA Box-Behnken experimental design was used for experiments, and a second-order polynomial to modelize effects of hydrolysis time, solid to liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme to substrate ratio (ESR) on degree of hydrolysis and nitrogen solubility index. At the optimum hydrolysis conditions, hydrolysis time was 208.61 min, SLR 1/15 (w/w) and ESR 2.25% (w/w) for the nitrogen solubility of 75.71%. Protein breakdown and peptide profile following enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography. Cowpea protein hydrolysate showed higher oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming ability compared to the concentrate.CONCLUSIONSolubility of cowpea protein hydrolysate was adequately optimized by response surface methodology, and the hydrolysate showed adequate functionality for use in food.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T00:26:13.109923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8076
  • Analysis of water and nitrogen use efficiency for maize (Zea mays L.)
           grown on soft rock and sand compound soil
    • Authors: Huanyuan Wang; Jichang Han, Wei Tong, Jie Cheng, Haiou Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMaize was grown on compound soils constituted from mixtures of soft rock and sand at different ratios, and water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) were quantified. This was used to assist designing strategies for optimizing water and nitrogen management practices for maize on the substrates used. Maize was sown in composite soil which was prepared in three ratios of soft rock and sand (1:1, 1:2 and 1:5) in Mu Us Sandy land, Yuyang district, Yulin city, China. The yields, amount of drainage, nitrogen (N) leaching, water use efficiency (WUE), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were calculated. Then, a Water and Nitrogen Management Model (WNMM) was calibrated and validated.RESULTSThe results showed that, no significant difference in evapotranspiration of maize was found among compound soils with soft rock: sand volume ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5, while water drainage increased significantly with the increase of soft rock: sand volume ratio. WUE increased to 1.30 kg m−3 in compound soils when soft rock: sand was 1:5. Nitrogen leaching and ammonia volatilization were the main reason for nitrogen loss, and N reduction mainly relied on crop uptake. NUE and FUE could reach to 33.13 and 24.93 kg kg−1 N−1 respectively. Water drainage and nitrogen leaching occurred mostly during heavy rainfall or irrigation. Through a scenario analysis of different rainfall types, water and fertilizer management systems were formulated each year.CONCLUSIONThis study shows that soft rock plays a key role in improving the WUE, NUE and FUE of maize.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T23:56:17.882205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8075
  • Effects of a diet containing dried grape pomace on blood metabolites and
           milk composition of dairy cows
    • Authors: Veronica Sanda Chedea; Rodica Stefania Pelmus, Cristina Lazar, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Loredana Georgeta Calin, Smaranda Mariana Toma, Catalin Dragomir, Ionelia Taranu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effect of a diet containing 15% grape pomace (GP) on the general health status and milk quality of dairy cows was assessed by plasma biochemistry and total polyphenols (TP) content, milk polyphenols, composition and protein fractions.RESULTSAmong the polyphenols, measured by LC-MS, in GP, in feed containing GP (GP+) or not (GP-), gallic acid and epicatechin were present in the highest concentration (67.58 µg/mL and 19.23 µg/mL, respectively). Higher amounts of TP were also detected in the blood plasma of GP+ cows (114.06 mg GAE/L and 83.93 mg GAE/L, respectively) but not in their milk (233.17 mg GAE/L and 245.75 mg GAE/L, respectively). Also a significant increase was found for lactose and β –lactoglobulin but there was no effect on α-lactalbumin, albumin, secretory components and caseins.CONCLUSION15% GP inclusion in the diets of dairy cows is beneficial for overall normal blood constituent metabolism and helps to maintain cow health. The milk of cows fed with a GP diet preserves the normal levels of fat, protein and caseins, whilst increasing levels of components that make this milk a versatile ingredient material for food industry (e.g. model whey powders, stability of lactose-rich powders).
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T10:01:47.805733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8068
  • Paper-based 1-MCP treatment suppresses cell wall metabolism and delays
           softening of Huanghua pears during storage
    • Authors: Yihui Chen; Junzheng Sun, Hetong Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Shen Zhang, Yifen Lin, Ting Lin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHuanghua pear will loss its firmness quickly during postharvest storage at ambient temperature, and hence with limited storage and marketing potential. In this study, Huanghua pears treated with paper containing 0 (control) or 0.9 μL L−1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 h, and then stored at (25 ± 1) °C for 30 days were investigated on the effect of a paper-based 1-MCP treatment on fruit firmness, cell wall composition and activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes.RESULTSHuanghua pears without 1-MCP treatment softened rapidly during room temperature storage and cell wall composition analyses shown an increase in water-soluble pectin (WSP) and decreases in cell wall materials (CWM) and cell wall components such as Na2CO3-soluble pectin (NSP), cellulose and hemicellulose. In contrast, the 1-MCP-treated fruits maintained higher firmness than the control and prevented the formation of WSP and reduced the degradation of CWM and cell wall components including NSP, cellulose and hemicellulose. The 1-MCP treatment also significantly lowered the activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes like pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG), β-galactosidase and cellulase during storage.CONCLUSION1-MCP treatment can slow down the softening of Huanghua pears through reducing cell wall-degrading enzymes activities and hence maintain the integrity of the cell wall structure.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T10:20:55.645064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8072
  • Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with
           iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study
    • Authors: Bahareh Nikooyeh; Tirang R. Neyestani
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBread, as the staple food of Iranians with average per capita consumption of 300 g/d, could be potentially a good vehicle for many fortificants including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in caco-2 cell model.RESULTSDespite having lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads were calculated 5.0% to 8.0%. Whole wheat bread (~8%), as compared with the fortified breads (~5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability.CONCLUSIONIron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron fortified breads.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T10:15:23.73414-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8071
  • Evaluation of browning ratio in an image analysis of apple slices at
           different stages of instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air
           drying (AD-DIC)
    • Authors: Kun Gao; Linyan Zhou, Jinfeng Bi, Jianyong Yi, Xinye Wu, Mo Zhou, Xueyuan Wang, Xuan Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDComputer vision-based image analysis system is widely used in food processing to evaluate the quality changes recently. It could objectively measure surface colour of various products since it provide some obvious advantages with its objectivity and quantitative capabilities. In this study, computer vision-based image analysis system was used to investigate the colour changes of apple slices dried by instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air drying (AD-DIC).RESULTSThe CIE L* value and PPO activity in apple slices decreased during entire drying process, while other color indexes including CIE a*, b*, △E, C* value increased. The browning ratio calculated by image analysis increased during drying process, and sharply increment was observed for DIC process. The change of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and Fluorescent compounds (FIC) showed the same trend with browning ratio due to Maillard reaction. Moreover, the concentration of 5-HMF and FIC both had a good quadratic correlation (R2>0.998) with the browning ratio.CONCLUSIONThus, browning ratio was a reliable indicator of 5-HMF and FIC changes in apple slices during drying. The image analysis system could be used to monitor color changes, 5-HMF and FIC in dehydrated apple slices during AD-DIC process.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T10:05:26.913488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8070
  • Effect of two doses of urea foliar application on leaves and grape
           nitrogen composition during two vintages
    • Authors: Eva P. Pérez-Álvarez; Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Enrique García-Escudero, José María Martínez-Vidaurre
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNitrogen affects the grapevine growth and also the yeast metabolism, which influence directly on the fermentation kinetic and on the formation of different volatile compounds. Throughout grapevine cycle, soil nitrogen availability and grape nitrogen composition can vary as a consequence of different factors. Nitrogen foliar applications can contribute to enhance the grapevine nitrogen status and to minimize the problem of leaching that the traditional N-soil applications can provoke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urea foliar applications on the grapevine nitrogen status and on the grape amino acid content. For this purpose, two different doses of urea were applied over the leaves of a “Tempranillo” vineyard.RESULTSThe highest urea doses affected nitrogen content on blade leaf tissues after veraison. Must amino acid profiles were modified by the urea applications and some of the compounds increased their concentrations. The effect of the year on the increase of must total amino acid concentrations was more important than the effect of the doses applied.CONCLUSIONUrea foliar applications can be an interesting tool to decrease grapevine nitrogen deficiencies. This N-inplementation in the vineyard could avoid sluggish fermentations problems during winemaking, enhance must nitrogen composition, and may contribute to improve wine quality.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T04:25:31.454128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8069
  • Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the polyphenols and antioxidant
           activity of plantain pulp (Musa paradisiaca AAB)
    • Authors: Miriam C. Jiménez-Martínez; Efigenia Montalvo-González, Sonia G. Sáyago-Ayerdi, Gil Mercado-Mercado, José A. Ramírez- León, Paz-Gamboa Ernestina, Maria A. Vivar-Vera
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe impact of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on the polyphenol (PP) content and antioxidant activity (AOX) of plantain pulp was evaluated. Pressures of 400, 500 and 600 MPa were applied to plantain pulp for 90 and 180 s at room temperature (25 °C). The polyphenoloxidase activity, extractable (EPP) and non-extractable PP (NEPP) contents, flavonoid content and AOX (FRAP, ABTS•+) were evaluated. In addition, PP identification was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).RESULTSThe polyphenoloxidase activity was inhibited after HPP under all the studied conditions. Increases of 110.80 and 137.40 % in the EPP contents at 500 MPa/180 s and 600/90 s were observed with a simultaneous improvement in the AOX which increments of up to 128.71 %. The 500 MPa/90 s treatment had the highest total PP content including the highest content of flavonoids (0.22 g EAE "kg− 1" DW) and proportion of NEPP which contained hydrolysable PPs (91.12 g GAE "kg− 1" DW) with high AOX. The identified PPs included catechin, quercetin, gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids.CONCLUSIONThe HPP performed at a room temperature can be used for improving the total content of PP compounds in plantain pulp under specific pressure and time conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:47:35.086813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8067
  • The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and
           public health
    • Authors: Barel S; Elad D, Cuneah O, Shimshoni J.A.
      Abstract: The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970's, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table.In February 2014 a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service (PPIS) to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health (VSAH). In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed hereby.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:46:44.77201-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8064
    • Authors: Leonardo Mariño-Repizo; Raquel Gargantini, Humberto Manzano, Julio Raba, Soledad Cerutti
      Abstract: BackgroundThe assessment of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine is relevant for food safety and its continuous control allows to reduce the risk of intake. Thus, a novel sensitive QuEChERS-SPE (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe – Solid Phase Extraction) pretreatment prior to liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of OTA in red wine samples from different grape-growing regions in Argentine.ResultsA sensitive methodology was achieved, thus limits of detection and quantification were 0.02 µg L−1 and 0.05 µg L−1, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 89.0 - 105.3%. The method was applied to 136 red wine samples (Argentina's flagship varieties: Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon) from 10 grape-growing regions, during vintages 2013–2015. Although all of the samples investigated were contaminated with OTA (concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.98 µg L−1), the detected levels were lower than the maximum allowable concentration limit of 2.0 µg L−1 established by international regulations.ConclusionsThe methodology proposed is suitable for the reliable OTA analysis in red wines. Likewise the values obtained from the samples analyzed were in accordance to the current regulations and, as a consequence, preventive actions to reduce this mycotoxin incidence can be undertaken.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:45:20.717497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8065
  • Optimization of polyphenols removal from kiwifruit juice using a
           macroporous resin
    • Authors: Zhenpeng Gao; Zhifang Yu, Tianli Yue, Siew Young Quek
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSeparation of polyphenols from kiwifruit juice is essential to enhance sensory properties and to prevent browning reaction in juice during processing and storage.RESULTSThis research studied the dynamic adsorption and desorption of polyphenols in kiwifruit juice using AB-8 resin. The model obtained could be successfully applied to predict the experimental results of dynamic adsorption capacity (DAC) and dynamic desorption quantity (DDQ). The results showed that dynamic adsorption of polyphenols could be optimised in juice concentration of 19 °Brix, feed flow-rate of 1.3 mL min−1 and feed volume of 7 bed volume (BV). The optimum conditions for dynamic desorption of polyphenols from the AB-8 resin were at ethanol concentration of 43 % (v/v), elute flow-rate of 2.2 mL min−1 and elute volume of 3 BV. The optimized DAC value was 3.16 g polyphenols per kg of resin while that for DDQ was 917.5 g kg−1, both values were consistent with the predicted values generated by the regression models. The major polyphenols in the dynamic desorption solution consisted of seven compositions.CONCLUSIONThe present study could be scaled-up using continuous column system for industrial application, thus contributing to the improved flavor and color of kiwifruit juice.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:45:14.175997-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8066
  • Response of saliva Na to K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows
           under tropical conditions
    • Authors: Wandee Thiangtum; J Thomas Schonewille, Martin WA Verstegen, Supot Arsawakulsudhi, Theera Rukkwamsuk, Wouter H Hendriks
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFactorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions was investigated using the salivary Na/K.RESULTSThe twelve lactating cows (salivary Na to K ratio 14.6) rapidly developed clinical signs of Na deficiency, including pica, polyuria and polydipsia, reduced body weight and reduced milk yield when fed a Na low ration (0.33 g kg−1 dry matter (DM)) during 3 weeks. Deficiency symptoms were associated with a rapid decrease in salivary Na to K ratio to  6.CONCLUSIONA daily Na intake of heat stressed lactating cows to a ration intake of 1.6 g Na kg−1 DM was insufficient to restore Na deficiency. One week was sufficient to deplete heat stressed lactating cows of Na allowing for rapid dose-response studies utilizing the salivary Na to K ratio as a parameter for Na status of cows under tropical conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:45:43.614837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8063
  • Grape by-products extracts against microbial proliferation and lipid
           oxidation: a review
    • Authors: Gabriela N. Mattos; Renata V. Tonon, Angela A.L. Furtado, Lourdes M.C. Cabral
      Abstract: The wine industry is responsible for the production of million tons of waste, such as grape skin, stalk, sludge and seeds, which can be considered inexpensive phenolic compounds sources, due to incomplete extraction during wine production. Phenolic compounds, also called as polyphenols, are the most abundant bioactive compounds in grape composition and are recognized by their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Because of their functional properties, extracts obtained from grape wastes, which are rich in phenolic compounds, can be employed in development of many products ranging from medical to food applications, decreasing the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and inhibiting lipid oxidation. These characteristics are motivating the research for alternative sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents, aiming at decreasing the use of artificial additives, which have been associated to some toxic effects. This article provides a review on the use of grape by-products extracts and their bioactive compounds as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food products.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:45:42.239832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8062
  • Nutrient profiles of the hybrid grape cultivar Isabel during berry
           maturation and ripening
    • Authors: Aynur Kurt; Hülya Torun, Nesrin Colak, Gerald Seiler, Sema Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Faik Ahmet Ayaz
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe hybrid grape cultivar Isabel (Vitis labrusca x V. vinifera) is widely grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey and constitutes an important part of the diet of its inhabitants. Phenological and ampelographical studies of the grape have previously been performed, but there are no data concerning nutrient composition. Its nutrient content needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic and nutritional uses in the region.RESULTSThe concentrations (range, g kg−1 fresh weight) of major soluble sugars (fructose; 2.08 – 79.70, glucose; 3.71 – 66.74) increased and those of organic acids (tartaric acid; 0.05 – 6.60, malic acid; 2.38 – 9.92) decreased in the skin and pulp during ripening. The major fatty acid was linoleic acid in the skin (50.13), pulp (18.11) and seed (704), while the main minerals (dry weight) were potassium (2.70 – 19.70), followed by phosphorus (0.53 – 3.40) and calcium (0.42 – 5.90) in the parts.CONCLUSIONBerry maturation and ripening significantly influenced the concentrations of sugars and organic acids the most in the skin and pulp, but did not significantly affect the concentrations of fatty acids and minerals in the ′Isabel′ grape. Our findings also suggest an optimal harvest time in terms of levels of the nutrients.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:40:23.696084-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8061
  • Impact of a novel synbiotic supplementation during gestation and lactation
           on immune responses in the Swiss albino mice offspring
    • Authors: Himaja N; Hemalatha R, K. Narendra Babu, Shujauddin Mohd
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPrebiotics from various regularly consumed cereals and novel substrates are currently being utilized as functional foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of synbiotic, formulated with prebiotic extracted from natural resources like green gram (Vigna radiata) along with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in modulating immune responses in the offspring when supplemented during gestation and lactation.RESULTSSynbiotic supplementation was effective in improving cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity among F0 dams. Among F1 pups (F1 Syn + and F1 Syn-), synbiotic supplementation showed significantly heightened (p 
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:35:53.260577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8059
  • Transglutaminase-catalyzed amination of pea protein peptides using the
           biogenic amines histidine and tyramine
    • Authors: Xinyao Lu; Yuliya Hrynets, Mirko Betti
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBiogenic amines (BAs) are produced by the enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids, and are well-known for their toxicity to humans. This study describes a new method using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to covalently link BAs such as histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) to the glutamine residues of alcalase-hydrolyzed pea protein (PPH).RESULTSThe incubation of PPH and HIS and TYR in the presence of MTGase at 37 °C led to the formation of conjugates, as determined by liquid chromatography, after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Seventy six percent of HIS and sixty five percent of TYR were covalently incorporated to PPH by MTGase. The incubation of PPH and TYR in the presence of MTGase exhibited a 52% DPPH radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/mL. Conjugation via MTGase improved the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation.CONCLUSIONThis study emphasizes that the application of MTGase can effectively reduce histidine and tyramine content while simultaneously enhancing antioxidative capacity of PPH.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:35:49.718056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8057
  • Proteomic analysis of peel browning of 'Nanguo' pears after low
           temperature storage
    • Authors: Jun-wei Wang; Xin Zhou, Qian Zhou, Zhi-yong Liu, Lei Sheng, Long Wang, Shun-chang Cheng, Shu-juan Ji
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPostharvest ripening of the 'Nanguo' pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim) can be impeded by low temperature storage. However, pears after long-term refrigeration are prone to peel browning (PB) when returned to room temperature conditions. This study investigated the browning mechanism of 'Nanguo' pear stored at a low temperature by analyzing the differentially expressed proteins between healthy and PB fruit.RESULTSThe results showed that 181 proteins underwent statistically significant changes. A categorization of the disparately accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'metabolic process,' 'cellular process,' 'catalytic activity,' and 'binding' proteins were the most affected after low temperature storage. Further analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins, which are related to PB, are primarily involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, linoleic acid pathways, fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, glutathione metabolism pathway, photosynthesis pathway, oxidative phosphorylation pathway, and glycolysis pathway.CONCLUSIONThis study reveals that there are variations in key proteins in 'Nanguo' pear after low temperature storage, and the identification of these proteins will be valuable in future functional genomics studies, as well as provide protein resources that can be used in the efforts to improve pear quality.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:35:46.334303-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8060
    • Authors: Ccori Martinez Tuppia; Vessela Atanasova-Penichon, Sylvain Chéreau, Nathalie Ferrer, Gisèle Marchegay, Jean-Michel Savoie, Florence Richard-Forget
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and a very common contaminant of maize-based food and feed throughout the world. The selection and use of FB1-degrading microorganisms appears as a promising alternative to cope with the problem of toxicity towards humans and livestock. High moisture maize grain silage which is based on natural maize fermentation could be an interesting reservoir of such microorganisms.RESULTSUsing an in vitro simulated silage model with FB1 naturally contaminated grains, we demonstrated a significant raw decrease in FB1 during ensiling process ascribed to biodegradation mechanisms. A panel of 98 bacteria and yeasts were isolated from this matrix and selected for their ability to use FB1 as the sole source of C and N. For nine of them, the ability to degrade FB1 in vitro was evidenced. Notably, two bacteria identified as Lactobacillus sp. were highlighted for their efficient FB1-degrading capacity and production of hydrolysed FB1 as intermediate degradation metabolite.CONCLUSIONFermentation of high moisture maize grain contaminated with FB1 leads to a significant reduction of the toxin and allows the isolation of FB1-degrading microorganisms that could further be used as FB1 decontaminating agents.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:35:42.532481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8058
  • Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array with Chemiluminescent Detection for
           Mycotoxins in Barley
    • Authors: Li Li; Liru Xia, Yongfu Zhao, Min Wang, Xizhi Jiang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMycotoxins are produced by fungi as secondary metabolites. They often multi-contaminate food and feed commodities posing a health risk to humans and animals. Fast and easy multiplex screening could be thought as a useful tool for detection of multi-contaminate food and feed commodities.RESULTSA highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic arrays for detecting mycotoxins zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1 were fabricated using UV induced copolymerization. The mycotoxins antibodies firstly reacted with functional monomer to form antibody/functional monomer bio-conjugates. Subsequently, the antibody/functional monomer bio-conjugates copolymerized with cross-linker to form mycotoxins immune-affinity arrays. With optimal fabrication conditions, all mycotoxins immune-affinity monolithic arrays exhibited a linear response spanning for three orders of magnitude. And the immune-affinity monolithic array has a low detection limit and has a good uniformity (intra-assay CV, and inter-assay CV both
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:21:11.494482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8056
  • Effect of Reciprocating Agitation Thermal Processing (RA-TP) on Quality of
           Canned Tomato Puree (Solanum lycopersicum)
    • Authors: Anubhav Pratap Singh; Anika Singh, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDReciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) is a recent innovation in the field of canning for obtaining high quality canned food. The objective of this study is to compare RA-TP processing with conventional non-agitated (still) processing with respect to the impact on quality (color, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, carotenoid and lycopene content) of canned tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) puree.RESULTSDue to 63-81% reduction in process times as compared to still process, tomato puree with a brighter red color (closer to fresh) was obtained during RA-TP. At 3 Hz reciprocation frequency, the loss in antioxidant, lycopene and carotenoid contents could be reduced to 34%, 8% and 8% respectively, as compared to 96%, 41% and 52%, respectively during still process. In fact, the phenolic content for RA-TP at 3 Hz was 5% higher than in fresh puree. Quality retention generally increased with an increase in frequency, although the differences were less significant at higher reciprocation frequencies (between 2 Hz and 3 Hz).CONCLUSIONSResearch findings indicate that RA-TP can be effective to obtain thermally processed foods with high quality attribute retention. It can also be concluded that a very high reciprocation frequency (>3Hz) is not necessarily needed and significant quality improvement can be obtained at lower frequencies (~2Hz).
      PubDate: 2016-09-27T06:22:42.389102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8054
  • Inhibitory effects of Japanese horseradish (Wasabia japonica) on the
           formation and genotoxicity of a potent carcinogen, acrylamide
    • Authors: Yuko Shimamura; Misako Iio, Tomoko Urahira, Shuichi Masuda
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe recent finding of acrylamide (AA), which is formed in cooked foods, has raised human health concerns. AA is metabolized by CYP2E1 to glycidamide (GA). GA forms DNA adducts. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of wasabi (Japanese horseradish, Wasabia japonica) roots and leaves as well as their active component, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), on the formation and genotoxicity of AA.RESULTSAA formation (51.8 ± 4.2 µg/kg) was inhibited with ≥2 mg/mL of AIT. Wasabi roots also inhibited AA formation (~90% reduction), but wasabi leaves were not effective at 2.0 mg/mL. Wasabi roots and leaves decreased the number of cells with micronucleus by approximately 33 and 24 %, respectively, when compared with the AA treatment group. Moreover, wasabi roots and leaves (100 mg/kg BW/day for each) decreased AA (100 mg/kg BW/day)-induced DNA damage. The AA-induced CYP2E1 activity was decreased by 39 and 26% in wasabi roots and leaves, respectively. Further, the activity of glutathione S-transferase, which catalyzes the detoxification of AA via glutathione conjugation increased by 54 and 33% in wasabi roots and leaves, respectively.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that wasabi roots and leaves are effective ingredients for inhibiting the formation and genotoxicity of AA.
      PubDate: 2016-09-27T02:55:55.837104-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8055
  • Characterization of peptides from common bean protein isolates and their
           potential to inhibit markers of type‐2 diabetes, hypertension and
           oxidative stress
    • Authors: Luis Mojica; Diego A. Luna‐Vital, Elvira González de Mejía
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDiabetes and hypertension are diseases affecting a high proportion of the world population; the use of food‐based products such as common bean peptides may contribute to reduce the risk of complications associated to chronic diseases. The aim was to produce and characterize peptides from common bean protein isolates and evaluate their potential to inhibit markers of type‐2 diabetes, hypertension and oxidative stress.RESULTSMexican black and Brazilian Carioca bean isolated proteins were characterized after pepsin/pancreatin digestion. Also, four synthesized pure peptides, originally found in these beans, were evaluated. Bean protein digests and pure peptides exerted dipeptidyl peptidase‐IV (DPP‐IV) inhibition, IC50= 0.03 to 0.87 mg dry weight, DW, mL−1. Lineweaver‐Burk plots and computational modeling showed competitive inhibition of DPP‐IV. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACE) ranged from IC50= 0.09 to 0.99 mg DW mL−1, and α‐glucosidase inhibition ranged from 36.3 to 50.1% mg−1 DW. Carioca Perola bean digested proteins presented the highest antioxidant capacity (269.3 mM Trolox equivalent, TE g−1 DW) as the peptide KTYGL (p > 0.05) with the most potent DPP‐IV and ACE inhibition.CONCLUSIONPeptides from common bean have antidiabetic and antihypertensive potential regardless of their antioxidant capacity.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:35:23.772643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8053
  • Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage
    • Authors: Dan Gao; Ning Qiu, Yaping Liu, Meihu Ma
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPhysical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and flattening of egg yolk occur during storage, implying the decline of the egg qualities. To reveal the deteriorative process related to the chicken egg internal qualities, comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations of egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20, and 40 days) under ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C.RESULTUsing two‐dimensional electrophoresis (2‐DE) followed by MALDI‐TOF MS/MS, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (p ˂ 0.05) alterations in abundance at different storage times. The proteins that showed significant changes in abundance included serum albumin, vitellogenin (VTG) fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α2‐macroglobulin‐like protein 1‐like, hemopexin, transthyretin (TTR), apolipoprotein A‐I (apo A‐I), and β2‐glycoprotein I precursor. The accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40).CONCLUSIONIt is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors during prolonged storage such as ovoinhibitor and α2‐macroglobulin‐like protein 1‐like lead to the imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will give an insight into the effects of storage on the egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:35:22.464485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8052
  • Development of pea protein‐based bioplastics with antimicrobial
    • Authors: Víctor Perez‐Puyana; Manuel Felix, Alberto Romero, Antonio Guerrero
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn the present work, bioplastics from renewable polymers were studied in order to reduce the huge generation of plastic wastes, causing an environmental problem that continues due to the increasing demand for plastic products.RESULTSBioplastics with much better antimicrobial properties, in particular against Gram positive bacteria, were obtained with the addition of nisin to the initial protein/plasticizer mixture. However, the addition of nisin produces more rigid but less deformable bioplastics (higher Young's Modulus but lower Strain at break).CONCLUSIONSThe results obtained are useful to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of pea protein‐based bioplastics by adding nisin and make them suitable as potential candidates to substitute conventional plastics in food packaging.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:30:22.573339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8051
  • Efficacy and Role of Inulin in Mitigation of Enteric
           Sulfur‐Containing Odor in Pigs
    • Authors: Yuan‐Fan Deng; Yuan‐Yuan Liu, Yi‐Tao Zhang, Yan Wang, Juan‐Boo Liang, Vincenzo Tufarelli, Vito Laudadio, Xin‐Di Liao
      Abstract: The efficacy and role of inulin on mitigation of enteric sulfur‐containing odor gases: hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) in pigs were examined in this study. Twelve Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire male finisher pigs (60.7 ± 1.9 kg), housed individually in open‐circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to 2 dietary groups, a basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with 1% inulin. At the end of 45‐day experiment, pigs were slaughtered and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, sulfate radical (SO42−) concentrations, population of sulfate‐reducing bacteria (SRB) and expression of methione gamma‐lyase (MGL) gene were determined in contents from the caecum, two segments of the colon, and rectum. Metabonomics analysis was used to compare differences of biochemical composition contents, and Illumina MiSeq procedure was used to investigate the difference of bacterial component, in different part of the large intestine between inulin supplemented and inulin free (control) groups. Results show that inulin decreased (P< 0.05) the average daily enteric H2S and CH3SH production by 12.4 and 12.1%, respectively. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the large intestinal content with inulin treatment were significantly increased (P < 0.05) whereas valerate concentrations and MGL mRNA expression decreased (P < 0.05). Our results show that inulin mitigates CH3SH generation via 3 methionine degradation metabolic pathways and H2S generation from 2 cysteine degradation metabolic pathways, thus resulted in incline in synthesis of the above two sulfur‐containing amino acids in large intestine in pig. The growth of Lactobacillus, Butyrivibrio, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium butyricum was stimulated while Desulfovibrio, the dominant sulfur reduction bacteria (SRB) was inhibited, and an accumulation of SO42− in the large intestinal content of inulin supplemented pigs, suggesting that inulin mitigates H2S generation from SO42− reduction pathway by reduce the growth of SRB.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:25:22.485264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8050
  • Pomegranate juice prevents development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
           (NAFLD) in rats by attenuating Oxidative stress and inflammation
    • Authors: Maryam Noori; Bahar Jafari, Azita Hekmatdoost
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on the risk factors of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) have been shown previously; however, its effects on NAFLD and its prevention has not yet been elucidated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PJ consumption on prevention of NAFLD/NASH development. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed either high‐fat, high sugar diet (model group), or high‐fat, high sugar diet plus PJ (model+PJ), or chow diet ad libitum for seven weeks. Serum levels of fasting glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, liver enzymes, insulin, and hepatic TNF‐α and TGF‐β gene expression were determined. Hepatic histology was examined by H&E stain.RESULTSModel+PJ group had significantly lower hepatic steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, and portal inflammation (p
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T08:35:23.134115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8042
  • The effects of animal age, feeding regime and a dietary beta‐agonist on
           tenderness of three beef muscles
    • Authors: Ennet Moholisa; Arno Hugo, Phillip E Strydom, Ina van Heerden
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAnimal age as determined by number of permanent incisors (p.i) is used in classification of beef carcasses to describe expected meat tenderness. However, animals differing in age are reared under different production systems (pasture or feedlot). In addition to age, other factors associated with particular production systems may also influence the palatability of meat. Therefore, the effects of age combined with feeding regime and the supplementation of a beta‐agonist (zilpaterol) on the tenderness of M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semitendinosus (ST) and M. biceps femoris (BF) muscles were investigated.RESULTSTenderness of LL cuts was least affected by age but zilpaterol significantly decreased tenderness and ageing potential. Tenderness of high collagen cuts (BF and ST) were negatively affected by age due to reduced collagen solubility. The effect of zilpaterol on these cuts was less significant and BF and ST cuts of the grain‐fed A‐age animals (0 p.i.) supplemented with zilpaterol (AZ) were more tender than the same cuts of grass‐fed animals with 1‐2 p.i (AB‐age) and grass‐fed animals with 1‐2 p.i (B‐age) according to Warner‐Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sensory analysis for tenderness.CONCLUSIONThis study indicates that beta‐agonists may influence variation in tenderness within an age class more than age or feeding regime.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T08:05:22.135191-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8049
  • Relation between ultrasonic properties, rheology and baking quality for
           bread doughs of widely differing formulation
    • Authors: Donatella Peressini; Dobrila Braunstein, John H. Page, Anatoliy Strybulevych, Corrado Lagazio, Martin G. Scanlon
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objective was to evaluate whether an ultrasonic reflectance technique has predictive capacity for breadmaking performance of doughs made from a wide range of formulation conditions. Two flours of contrasting dough strength augmented with different levels of ingredients (inulin, oil, emulsifier or salt) were used to produce different bread doughs with a wide range of properties. Breadmaking performance was evaluated by conventional large‐strain rheological tests on the dough and by assessment of loaf quality. The ultrasound tests were performed with a broadband reflectance technique in the frequency range of 0.3‐6 MHz.RESULTSPrincipal component analysis (PCA) showed that ultrasonic attenuation and phase velocity at frequencies between 0.3 and 3 MHz are good predictors for rheological and bread scoring characteristics.CONCLUSIONSUltrasonic parameters had predictive capacity for breadmaking performance for a wide range of dough formulations Lower frequency attenuation coefficients correlated well with conventional quality indices of both the dough and the bread.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:55:18.808388-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8048
    • Authors: Celia Carrillo; Ángela Barrio, María del Mar Cavia, Sara Alonso‐Torre
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe global antioxidant response (GAR) method uses an enzymatic digestion to release antioxidants from foods. Due to the importance of digestion for protein break down and subsequent release of bioactive compounds, the aim of the present study was to compare the GAR method for meat with the existing methodologies: the extraction‐based method, and QUENCHER. Seven fresh meats were analysed using ABTS and FRAP assays.RESULTSOur results indicated that the GAR of meat was higher than the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assessed with the traditional extraction‐based method. When evaluated with GAR, the thermal treatment led to an increase in the TAC of the soluble fraction, contrasting with a decreased TAC after cooking measured using the extraction‐based method. The effect of thermal treatment on the TAC assessed by the QUENCHER method seemed to be dependent on the assay applied since results from ABTS differed from FRAP.CONCLUSIONOur results allow us to hypothesize that the activation of latent bioactive peptides along the gastrointestinal tract should be taken into consideration when evaluating the TAC of meat. Therefore we conclude that the GAR method may be more appropriate for assessing the TAC of meat than the existing, most commonly‐used methods.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:50:19.959237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8047
  • Nutrient content and nutrient availability of sorghum wet distiller's
           grain in comparison to the parental grain for ruminants
    • Authors: A.I. Trujillo; M. Bruni, P. Chilibroste
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe objectives of this study were to compare wet sorghum distiller's grain (WSDG) with sorghum grain (SG) in terms of: 1) chemical composition; 2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF); 3) crude protein (CP) sub‐fractions; 4) in situ disappearance at 12 and 48 h and 5) energy values. The WSDG intestinal digestibility (ID) of undegradable crude protein (UCP) was compared to soybean meal (SBM).RESULTSWhen compared to SG, WSDG exhibited: 1) lower (P < 0.01) dry matter and non‐fiber carbohydrates contents, whereas the other chemical components were higher (P < 0.01); 2) higher (P < 0.01) degradation rates of OM and NDF and lower (P < 0.01) degradable fraction of OM and NDF; 3) lower (P < 0.05) contents of CP sub‐fractions A, B1 and B2, and higher (P < 0.05) of B3 and C; 4) lower (P < 0.05) protein disappearance at 12 and 48 h and higher UCP and 5) lower (P < 0.05) energy content. The ID of UCP for WSDG was lower (P < 0.05) when compared to SBM.CONCLUSIONSThe WSDG as a supplement provides a good source of energy. To be utilized as a protein supplement further studies should be performed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-21T11:00:27.845062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8046
  • Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with
           stevioside and crude stevia “green“ extract
    • Authors: Luisa Torri; Alessandra Frati, Paolino Ninfali, Stefano Mantegna, Giancarlo Cravotto, Gabriella Morini
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe demand for zero and reduced‐sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high‐quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave‐assisted water‐steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples have been analysed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability.RESULTSThe use of a crude stevia extract allowed to obtain low‐sugar high‐quality chocolates acceptable by consumers and with a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, the consumers’ segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract the same overall liking as those obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement).CONCLUSIONThe results provided information that can contribute to promote the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and reduced impact of the production process on the environment.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T10:05:23.096621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8045
  • The Effects of Licorice Flavonoid Oil on Increasing Muscle Mass: A
           Randomized, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Tetsu Kinoshita; Akio Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Yoshino, Shinya Furukawa
      Abstract: BackgroundThe current study evaluated the effects of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) on increasing the muscle mass of elderly populations using a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study. Fifty participants aged 54–90 (male 7, female 43), who underwent rehabilitation treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, were examined and assigned to either the LFO group (n = 26) or the placebo group (n = 24). The LFO group consumed 300 mg of LFO per day, while the placebo group consumed one placebo capsule per day for 16 weeks. We measured muscle mass, body fat percentage, and the score of the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter.ResultsIn the LFO group, muscle mass in the body trunk increased significantly after 16 weeks of LFO intake (+0.38 kg, P = 0.02). The trunk muscle mass weight of the LFO group increased significantly compared with that of the placebo group (p 
      PubDate: 2016-09-19T10:20:27.13565-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8044
  • Removal of six pesticide residues in cowpea with alkaline electrolysed
    • Authors: Yongtao Han; Le Song, Quanshun An, Canping Pan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDReduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AIEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison.RESULTSThe residue magnitudes were determined by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC‐MS/MS). Results showed that the removal effect of AIEW solution on the six pesticides was superior to tap water, 5% sodium chloride, 5% sodium carbonate and 5% acetic acid solution. AlEW with pH 12.2 had more potential to eliminate the six pesticides in cowpeas. Moreover, the reduction of pesticide residues gradually increased with the increase of washing time.CONCLUSIONThis study demonstrated that AIEW solution with pH of 12.2 could be used to reduce pesticide residues on fresh cowpea samples.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16T03:36:26.622772-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8043
  • The effect of hyaluronic acid addition on the properties of smoked
           homogenized sausages
    • Authors: Marzena Zając; Piotr Kulawik, Joanna Tkaczewska, Władysław Migdał, Magda Filipczak‐Fiutak, Grzegorz Fiutak
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe research studied the possibility of using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a food additive for meat emulsions to create a novel functional food with improved rheological and water binding properties. The sausages with 200 and 500g kg−1 water addition were supplemented with 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1g kg−1 of HA and stored for 14 days in vacuum. Rheology, texture, weight losses, proximate composition and microbiological analyses were performed together with the sensory evaluation of produced sausages. RESULTS: Surprisingly, the results show that the addition of 0.05 and 0.1g kg−1 HA reduced yield and the stability of meat emulsion by causing the water outflow from the product and decreased the sensory scores of the produced sausages. The sausage with 500g kg−1 water and 0.01g kg−1 HA addition was the only economically viable option for introducing the product on the market.CONCLUSIONHA has a potential of being a perfect functional food additive for meat industry, although further research regarding processing conditions should be performed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16T03:11:24.188602-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8041
  • Drying based on temperature‐detection‐assisted control in
           microwave‐assisted pulse‐spouted vacuum drying
    • Authors: Xiaohuang Cao; Min Zhang, He Qian, Arun S. Mujumdar
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOnline temperature‐detection‐assisted control system of microwave‐assisted pulse‐spouted vacuum drying was newly developed. Used this system, temperature control can be automatically and continuously adjusted based on detection of drying temperature and preset temperature. Various strategies of constant temperature controlled, linear temperature controlled and 3‐steps temperature controlled had been applied to dry carrot cubes. Drying kinetics and quality of various temperature controlled strategies online are evaluated for new drying technology as well as a suitable alternative.RESULTSDying time in 70 °C mode1 had the shortest drying time and lowest energy consumption in all modes. Suitable color, highest re‐hydration ratio and fracture‐hardness, longest drying time had an occurrence in 30‐40‐50 °C mode3. Number of hot spots was reduced in 40‐50‐60°Cmode3. Accepted carrot snack had been obtained in 50‐60‐70 °C mode3 and 70 °C mode2. All temperature curves showed that the actual temperatures followed the preset temperatures appropriately.CONCLUSIONSWith this system, Linear temperature controlled strategy and 3‐steps temperature controlled strategy can improve product quality and heating non‐uniformity compared to constant temperature controlled, but need more energy consumption and drying time. Temperature‐detection‐assisted control system was developed newly for providing various drying strategies for a suitable alternative in snack product.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T04:01:41.302245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8040
  • Significance of composition and particle size on the shear flow properties
           of wheat flour
    • Authors: Kaliramesh Siliveru; RP Kingsly Ambrose, Praveen V. Vadlani
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSize based fractionation of flour particles is an important process in wheat milling. Interparticle cohesion could affect the dynamic separation process and result in loss in throughput. This study quantifies the effect of particle properties that includes physical and chemical characteristics on the shear flow behavior of wheat flour.RESULTSThe cohesion and flow function values of wheat flour at three moisture contents (10%, 12%, and 14%), three particle sizes (75–106, 45–75, and
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T03:58:39.57207-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8038
  • Alkyl Pyrazine Synthesis via an Open Heated Bath with Variable Sugars,
           Ammonia, and Various Amino Acids
    • Authors: Katayoun Mahdavi Ara; L.T. Taylor, M. Ashraf‐Khorassani, W.M. Coleman
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSemi‐quantitative characteristics of head space volatile pyrazines which constituted around 1% by weight of the final product have been previously described. The influence of reactant concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time on both the yield of total alkyl pyrazines and the distribution pattern of specific identified pyrazines has not been reported.RESULTSThe optimum synthetic conditions were 5 M NH4OH, 2 M rhamnose, 0.5M leucine at 110 °C for 2 hours. The greatest total amount of pyrazines obtained was 17,280 µg of extracted product which translated into 31% 2, 6‐Dimethyl Pyrazine, 17% 2‐Methyl Pyrazine, 15% 2‐Ethyl‐6 Methyl Pyrazine, and 16% 2‐Isoamyl‐6‐Methyl Pyrazine.CONCLUSIONThe yield of synthesized pyrazines increased at higher temperatures. Quantitative total and specific pyrazine results as opposed to analysis of only head‐space volatiles are more representative of pyrazine synthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T03:58:38.351-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8039
  • Effects of seed priming, salinity and methyl jasmonate treatment on
           bioactive composition of Brassica Oleracea var.capitata (white and red
           varieties) sprouts
    • Authors: Ismahen Hassini; Nieves Baenas, Diego A. Moreno, Micaela Carvajal, Neziha Boughanmi, Maria Del Carmen Martinez‐Ballesta
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBrassica spp. sprouts are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially glucosinolates and phenolic acid derivatives, and the composition of these young germinating seeds can be altered by several external factors. In this study two cabbage varieties (Brassica oleracea var.capitata, red and white) were studied using seed priming (KCl 50 mM; NaCl 150 mM) and MeJA spraying (25μM) to elicit the phytochemical content of the edible sprouts.RESULTSThe red variety was richer in glucosinolates and phenolic compounds than the white one but not in mineral nutrients. Seed priming enhanced the potassium (K) content and the flavonols in both varieties, while the total content of glucosinolates were reduced after seed priming only in the red variety. The white variety responded better than the red one to KCl seed priming, increasing the flavonols (89%). Salinity did not induce any change in the phytochemical contents of these two varieties. The elicitation with sprayed MeJA was effective to significantly increase the content of indolic glucosinolates glucobrassicin (5.7‐fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.7‐fold) in the red cultivar. In the white variety, in addition to glucobrassicin (19.4‐fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.4‐fold), 4‐hydroxyglucobrassicin (2.3‐fold) was also enhanced. MeJA elicited also the amounts of anthocyanins (41%) and chlorogenic acid derivatives (329%) in the white variety.CONCLUSIONKCl seed priming and MeJA elicitation promoted the phytochemical composition of the cabbage varieties, especially in the white variety. The application of NaCl resulted in less efficient elicitation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T02:25:32.59968-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8037
  • The structural properties and antigenicity of soybean glycinin by
           glycation with xylose
    • Authors: Guanhao Bu; Tingwei Zhu, Fusheng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSoybean glycinin is considered as a major allergenic protein, and glycation is widely used to reduce allergenic potential of present allergens. Glycation of soybean glycinin with xylose at 55 °C for different lengths of time was investigated. The extent of Maillard reaction was reflected through the content changing of free amino groups, color analysis and SDS‐PAGE. Alteration in the structural properties of glycinin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), and the antigenicity was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA.RESULTSThe changes in the color of glycinin‐xylose samples and the reduction of free amino group content in proteins indicated the Maillard reaction occurred. The degree of glycation increased in glycated samples with the increase of reaction time. Glycation induced the changes in the secondary structure of glycinin and the ordered structure of proteins increased during the glycation reaction. The antigenicity of glycinin was reduced with the increase of reaction time. After glycation for 12 h, the antigenicity of glycinin declined about 18% compared with native glycinin.CONCLUSIONThe application of glycation may be an efficient method to reduce the antigenicity of soybean glycinin.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T02:55:34.686759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8036
  • FTIR spectroscopy as a tool to detect contamination of rocket (Eruca
           sativa and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) salad with common groundsel (Senecio
           vulgaris) leaves
    • Authors: Meta Kokalj; Marcel Prikeržnik, Samo Kreft
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRocket is a popular salad vegetable used all over the world and it has many health benefits. However, like with all plant material, there exists a danger of contamination with toxic substances. In the case of rocket, contamination with groundsel has occurred. Groundsel is a common weed in rocket crops, and it contains very toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. In our study infrared spectroscopy was investigated to distinguish the groundsel samples from rocket leaves. Infrared spectroscopy is a very simple analytical technique; however some specific conditions are more easily implemented in industrial environment than others. Some of these conditions and parameters of infrared spectroscopy were explored in detail.RESULTSWe tested for the influence of different parameters of attenuated total reflectance and transmission IR method. Our results show, that a 100 % correct classification can be obtained under conditions most suitable for industry: using fresh samples and parameters that enable fast spectra measurement.CONCLUSIONInfrared spectroscopy is a fast and easy to use method that has been shown to be able to differentiate between rocket and groundsel leaves. Therefore it could be further studied for implementation in the safety control of rocket salads.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T02:10:53.561203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8034
  • Decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal waste and
           poultry manure in the soil in a biofuel crops field
    • Authors: Cláudia Marques‐dos‐Santos Cordovil; Tiago Filipe Alves, Pedro Mendes, Amarilis de Varennes, Sílvio César Sampaio, Renata Machado dos Santos Pinto
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDbiofuel crops are gaining importance due to the need to replace non renewable sources. Also, due to the increasing amounts of wastes generated there is the need to recycle them to the soil, both to fertilize crops and to improve soil physical properties through OM increase and microbiological changes in the ryzosphere. So, we studied the influence of six biofuel crops (elephant‐grass, giant‐cane, sugarcane, blue‐gum, black‐cottonwood, willow) on the decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal solid waste and poultry manure. Organic amendments were incubated in the field (litterbag method), buried near each plant or bare soil. Biomass decrease and dehydrogenase, urease and acid phosphatase level in amendments was monitored over a 180 days‐period. Soil under the litterbags was analysed for the same enzymatic activity and organic matter fractions (last sampling). After 365 days, a fractionation of organic matter was carried out in both amendments and soil under the litterbags.RESULTSFor compost, willow and sugarcane generally led to the greatest enzymatic activity, at the end of the experiment. For manure, dehydrogenase activity decreased sharply with time, the smallest value near sugarcane, while phosphatase and urease generally presented the greatest values, at the beginning or after 90 days‐incubation. Clustering showed plant species could be grouped based on biomass and enzymes measured over time.CONCLUSIONSPlant species influenced the decomposition rate and enzymatic activities of the organic amendments. Overall, mineralization of both amendments was associated with a greater urease activity in soils. Dehydrogenase activity in manure was closely associated with urease activity.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T02:10:42.363651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8035
  • Soy Protein Isolate as a Nano Carrier for Enhanced Water Dispersibility,
           Stability and Bioaccessibility of β‐Carotene
    • Authors: Xi‐Xiang Deng; Ning Zhang, Chuan‐He Tang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe incorporation of β‐carotene, one of the most common pigments or bioactives, into food formulations has attracted increasing interest from food industry, due to its good nutrition and potential health effects. However, it is poorly soluble and unstable in water, which greatly limits its applications in foods. This work presented an effective approach to improve the water dispersibility, stability and even bioaccessibility of β‐carotene, using soy protein isolate (SPI) to perform as effective nanocarriers for this molecule.RESULTSThe complexation with SPI remarkably improved the water dispersibility and stability against heating and freeze‐drying of β‐carotene. However, the encapsulation efficiency and stability of β‐carotene in the nanocomplexes with SPI were closely dependent on the applied β‐carotene‐to‐protein ratio, at which the complexation occurred. Best improvement of stability was observed at appropriate β‐carotene‐to‐protein ratios, e.g. 10‐20 g kg−1. The complexation with β‐carotene mainly occurred on the surface of SPI nanoparticles, through hydrophobic interactions. The complexation resulted in inter‐particle aggregation, in a concentration‐dependent manner. Almost all of the β‐carotene molecules in the nanocomplexes could be progressively released into the aqueous phase.CONCLUSOINSPI exhibits a good potential to perform a nano carrier for enhanced water dispersibility, stability and bioaccessibility of β‐carotene.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T03:31:07.745932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8033
  • Antioxidant activity and physicochemical parameters for the
           differentiation of honey using a potentiometric electronic tongue
    • Authors: Marisol Juan‐Borrás; Juan Soto, Luis Gil‐Sánchez, Ana Pascual‐Maté, Isabel Escriche
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work evaluates the capacity of a potentiometric electronic tongue to differentiate between types of honey (orange blossom, rosemary, thyme, sunflower, winter savory and honeydew honey) according to their antioxidant level. The classical procedures used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of honey are inappropriate for in situ monitoring on reception of batches of raw honey in the packaging industry. They are also destructive, time‐consuming and very tedious, requiring highly expert analysts and specialized equipment.RESULTSThe electronic tongue system made with Ag, Ni, Co, Cu and Au was able to not only differentiate between types of honey but also to predict their total antioxidant capacity. The discrimination ability of the system was proved by means of a fuzzy ARTMAP type ANN, with 100% classification success. A prediction MLR model showed that the best correlation coefficient was for antioxidant activity (0.9666), then for electrical conductivity (0.8959) and to a lesser extent for aw, moisture and colour.CONCLUSIONThe proposed measurement system could be a quick, easy option for the honey packaging sector to provide continuous in line information about a characteristic as important as the antioxidant level.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T03:21:06.954384-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8031
    • Authors: Nemanja Bojanić; Aleksandar Fistes, Dušan Rakić, Aleksandar Takači, Tatjana Došenović
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBreakage matrix approach is a mathematical tool to relate input and output particle size distribution from a milling operation. Adjustment of the break release in the flour milling process is extremely important because it affects granulation and quality characteristics of the stock and hence the total results and balance of the mill. In this study the breakage matrix approach has been used for the purpose of controlling the release on the front passages of the break system in the flour milling process.RESULTSIt has been established that, for any particle size distribution of wheat, it is possible to predict break releases together with the distribution of the release size fractions by using the breakage matrices. Also, the reversibility of this approach is examined, that is the possibility to identify the wheat particle size distribution that would result in desired break releases and/or the desired yields of different sized intermediate stocks under the given set of milling conditions.CONCLUSIONIt is confirmed that the breakage matrix approach can be successfully used to predict the break releases. The reverse breakage matrix concept allows the determination of the wheat particle size distribution which would result in a targeted break release.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T02:55:21.707257-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8030
  • Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus
    • Authors: Valentina Usenik; Mojca Virscek Marn
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPlum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. The influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in susceptible plum cultivar (Prunus domestica L.).RESULTSPPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. Short‐time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripenned symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low content of sugars.CONCLUSIONThe infected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruit is not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10T09:35:20.770385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8023
  • Variability of lysozyme and lactoferrin bioactive protein concentrations
           in equine milk in relation to LYZ and LTF gene polymorphisms and
    • Authors: Jakub Cieslak; Lukasz Wodas, Alicja Borowska, Jan Sadoch, Piotr Pawlak, Kamila Puppel, Beata Kuczynska, Mariusz Mackowski
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEquine milk is considered to be an interesting product for human nutrition, mainly due to its low allergenicity and significant amounts of bioactive proteins, including lysozyme (LYZ) and lactoferrin (LTF). In the present study we assessed the effect of genetic factors on LYZ and LTF concentration variability in mare's milk.RESULTSSignificant effects of horse breed and lactation stage on milk LYZ and LTF contents were observed. The highest level of LTF and the lowest concentration of LYZ were recorded for the Polish Warmblood Horse breed. The highest amounts of both proteins were found for the earliest investigated time point of lactation (5th week). Altogether 13 (9 novel) polymorphisms were found in the 5’‐flanking regions of both genes, but they showed no significant relationship with milk LYZ and LTF contents. Several associations were found between selected SNPs and the LYZ gene relative transcript level.CONCLUSIONWhile the present study indicated the existence of an intra‐ and interbreed variability of LYZ and LTF contents in mare's milk, this variation is rather unrelated to the 5’‐flanking variants of genes encoding both proteins. Our study is a good introduction for broader investigations focused on the genetic background for variability of bioactive protein contents in mare's milk.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T02:02:49.40228-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8026
  • Combination of Cymbopogon citratus with Allium cepa essential oils
           increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables
    • Authors: Luis A. Ortega‐Ramirez; Brenda A. Silva‐Espinoza, Irasema Vargas‐Arispuro, Gustavo A. Gonzalez‐Aguilar, M. Reynaldo Cruz‐Valenzuela, Filomena Nazzaro, J. Fernando Ayala‐Zavala
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfured compounds, respectively; both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy.RESULTSMajor constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral; while, A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. C. citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (MIC=2.210 and 5.13 g L−1), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L−1), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L−1), and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L−1), respectively. EOs combination applied to spinach caused a greater reduction of E. coli (2.34 log CFU g−1), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g−1), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g−1), and S. aureus (1.37 log CFUg−1), compared to higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction of flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EOs combination and C. citratus EO.CONCLUSIONLeafy vegetables treated with the EOs combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared to individual EOs treatments.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T01:49:51.330166-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8025
  • Mannanase Man23 Mutants Library Construction Basing on a Novel Cell‐free
           Protein Expression System
    • Authors: Haiyan Zhou; Jie Yong, Han Gao, Tong Li, Hongshi Xiao, Yongyao Wu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMannanases are important enzymes which are widely used as a tool in agriculture and food industries. To improve the performance of mannanase Man23, a mutant library was created with the rational design and mutations were introduced on loops around catalytic region. Brevibacillus brevis B16 cell‐free system which was created in this experiment provided the ability to express the mutant library efficiently. The activities of mutants were measured with multi‐volume spectrophotometer.RESULTSThe mutant Man1606 gained from this system is a sextet which has mutations of N146G, S147H, S156P, T157Y, Q206S and T249H simultaneously on loop 6, 8 and 10. Man1606 showed higher activity and stability than those of Man23. The optimal temperature of Man1606 rose by 5 °C (from 55 °C to 60 °C) and the optimal pH increased slightly but its range became broader.CONCLUSIONThis experiment demonstrated B. brevis cell‐free system shortens the expression time and is an efficient tool for mannanase engineering.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T01:49:03.643584-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8029
  • Identification of lignin‐deficient Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv
           mutants induced by gamma radiation
    • Authors: Man Bo Lee; Jae Yoon Kim, Yong Weong Seo
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBrachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv (B. distachyon) is a monocotyledonous model plant that has been studied to understand a range of biological phenomena for lignocellulosic bioethanol feedstocks and other cereal crops. The lignin makes its cell walls recalcitrant to saccharification, constituting the main barrier to lignocellulosic bioethanol production. In this study, lignin‐deficient mutants of B. distachyon, induced by chronic radiation, were selected, and the effects of the mutants on fermentable glucose production were identified.RESULTSB. distachyon M2 mutants induced by chronically irradiated gamma radiation were screened by the Wiesner test. Lignin‐deficient M2 mutants were further confirmed in subsequent M3 and M4 generations by determining acetyl bromide soluble lignin. The lignin content was significantly reduced in mutant plants 135‐2 (by 7.99%), 142‐3 (by 13.8%), and 406‐1 (by 8.13%) than in the wild type. Moreover, fermentable glucose was significantly higher in 135‐2 (by 23.91%) and 142‐3 (by 36.72%) than in the wild type after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis.CONCLUSIONWe obtained 3 lignin‐deficient B. distachyon mutants induced by chronically irradiated gamma radiation. This study will provide fundamental understanding of the B. distachyon cell wall and could contribute to increases in bioethanol production using bioenergy crops.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08T03:40:22.328363-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8024
  • Effects of licury cake in young Nellore bull diets: salted sun‐dried
           meat is preferred rather than fresh meat by consumers despite similar
           physicochemical characteristics
    • Authors: Ana A L Gouvêa; Ronaldo L Oliveira, André G Leão, Leilson R Bezerra, Dallyson Y C Assis, Italo R R Albuquerque, Caius B Pellegrini, Tiago C Rocha
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSalted Sun‐dried meat is a traditional process of meat salting, which can improve the quality and overall acceptance. This research compared the physicochemical and sensory attributes of fresh and salted sun‐dried meat from Nellore Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) bulls (n = 32) and evaluated diets containing different levels (0, 7, 14 and 21%) of licury cake in diets to Nellore finished in feedlot.RESULTSSalted sun‐dried meat had decreased moisture (P
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T22:05:36.632384-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8022
  • Characterization of a thermostable glycoside hydrolase (CMbg0408) from the
           hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC‐167
    • Authors: Rebaone Letsididi; Hinawi A.M. Hassanin, Marwa Y.F. Koko, Jean B. Ndayishimiye, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHyperthermophilic archaea capable of functioning optimally at very high temperatures are a good source for unique and industrially important thermostable enzymes.RESULTSA glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 1 β‐galactosidase gene (BglB) from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC‐167 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (CMbg0408) displayed optimum activity at 110 °C and pH 5.0. It also retained 92% and 70% of its maximal activity at 115 and 120 °C, respectively. The enzyme was completely thermostable and active after 120 min incubation at 80 and 90 °C. It also showed broad substrate specificity with activities of 8,876 ± 185 U mg−1 for p‐nitrophenyl‐β‐D‐galactopyranoside, 4,464 ± 172 U mg−1 for p‐nitrophenyl‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside, 1,486 ± 68 U mg−1 for o‐nitrophenyl‐β‐D‐galactopyranoside, 2,250 ± 86 U mg−1 for o‐nitrophenyl‐β‐D‐xylopyranoside, and 175 ± 4 U mg−1 for lactose. A catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 3,059 ± 122 mM−1 s−1 and Km value of 8.1 ± 0.08 mM were displayed towards p‐nitrophenyl‐β‐D‐galactopyranoside.CONCLUSIONDue to its remarkable thermostability and high activity at high temperatures, this novel β‐galactosidase may be useful for food and pharmaceutical applications.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T02:26:32.18893-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8019
  • Effect of inhibition of μ‐calpain on the myofibril structure and
           myofibrillar proteins degradation in postmortem ovine muscle
    • Authors: Zheng Li; Xin Li, Xing Gao, Manting Du, Dequan Zhang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTenderness is considered to be one of the most important attributes of meat quality. Myofibrillar proteins degradation contributes to meat tenderization during postmortem ageing. In this process, calpain has been documented to be the primary enzyme catalyzing the proteolysis. To further understand the action of calpain in meat tenderization, a μ‐calpain inhibitor, MDL‐28170, was used and its effects on sarcomere structure and myofibrillar protein degradation were determined.RESULTSThe results showed that inhibition of μ‐calpain significantly reduced muscle myofibrillar fragmentation when compared to the group without μ‐calpain inhibitor. Meanwhile, the sarcomere structure of the μ‐calpain inhibited muscle was only slightly broken and largely remained integrate after 48 h postmortem. Myosin heavy chain, actin, desmin, troponin T and troponin I were identified to be substrates of μ‐calpain by LC‐MS/MS and western blot, and been detected with a higher degradation degree in control group compared with μ‐calpain inhibition group.CONCLUSIONComparatively, myosin heavy chain and actin were detected to be less sensitive to μ‐calpain compared with desmin, troponin T and troponin I. These findings provide a better understanding of the contribution of μ‐calpain to the myofibril structure and myofibrillar proteins degradation of ovine muscle.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T02:20:46.04411-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8018
  • Annurca (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca) apple as a functional food for the
           contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels: results of
           a randomised clinical trial
    • Authors: Gian Carlo Tenore; Domenico Caruso, Giuseppe Buonomo, Emanuela D'Urso, Maria D'Avino, Pietro Campiglia, Luciana Marinelli, Ettore Novellino
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks.RESULTSThis study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomised, parallel groups, placebo‐controlled, four month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects, 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple day−1 among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples day−1, since the weight of this cultivar is on average the half of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcomes, allowing a reduction of total and LDL cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase of HDL cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONOur data would reasonably indicate Annurca apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T04:15:47.2712-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8016
  • Effect of acid treatment on allergenicity of peanut and egg
    • Authors: Jeong‐Ok Lee; Dongeun Sung, Su Hwa Park, Jinyoung Lee, Jihyun Kim, Dong‐Hwa Shon, Kangmo Ahn, Youngshin Han
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMany food experts have studied various treatments or processing techniques in order to develop hypoallergenic foods. In a previous study, acid treatment dramatically mitigated the allergenicity of peanut, especially Ara h 2.RESULTSGel electrophoresis showed that most protein bands of acid treated peanut were not detected, but protein bands of egg white became weaker and broader by acid treatment. In immunolabeling using a rabbit antibody, the antigenicity against ovalbumin or ovomucoid in acid treated egg white was decreased but the antigenicity against Ara h 1 or Ara h 2 in peanut treated with pH 2 acetic acid was completely undetected. The allergenicity of ovalbumin and peanut fell significantly to 1/1022 and 1/5380, respectively, when measured as IC50 in the sample treated with pH 2.0 acetic acid.CONCLUSIONThis study showed that acid treatment was more effective in peanut and barely effective in ovomucoid. This may contribute to the development of hypoallergenic food and clinical management of food allergy.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T04:15:42.649299-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8017
  • Characteristics, Composition, and Antioxidant Activities in Vitro and in
           Vivo of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino Seed Oil
    • Authors: Lu Wang; Min Pang, Xiaobing Wang, Pan Wang, Yaping Xiao, Quanhong Liu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIn order to further develop and utilize the Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino seeds, a detailed analysis of the characteristics of G. pentaphyllum seed oil (GPSO) including its physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and unsaponifiable matter constituents had been investigated in this study. The antioxidant potential of GPSO were evaluated by radical‐scavenging activity and ferric‐reducing antioxidant power assay in vitro, and the antioxidant activity in vivo was examined by using an aged mice model.RESULTSThe main components of the seeds are lipids (485.54 g kg−1) and proteins (203.26 g kg−1). The GPSO obtained by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (92.85%), especially the conjugated linolenic acid (88.17%); and various useful compounds (squalene, tocopherol and phytosterols) were identified in the unsaponifiable matter. The overall antioxidant capacity of GPSO in vitro was shown to be comparable to that of Camellia seed oil as a positive control. GPSO could provided protection to the aged mice against oxidative stress and minimized the impact of aging.CONCLUSIONAll the results suggest that GPSO has direct and potent antioxidant activities; it could be utilized as a functional food to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils.
      PubDate: 2016-08-28T23:20:37.07863-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8013
  • Egg white powder‐stabilized multiple (water‐in‐olive
           oil‐in‐water) emulsions as beef fat replacers in model system meat
    • Authors: Burcu Öztürk; Müge Urgu, Meltem Serdaroğlu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDToday multiple emulsions are believed to have a considerable application potential in food industry. We aimed to investigate physical, chemical and textural quality characteristics of model system meat emulsions (MSME) in which beef fat (C) was totally replaced by 10% (E‐10), 20% (E‐20) or 30% (E‐30) multiple emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and egg white powder (EWP).RESULTSIncorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced fat (from 11.54% to 4.01%), increased protein content (from 13.66% to 14.74%), and modified fatty acid composition, significantly increasing mono‐ and polyunsaturated fatty acid content and decreasing saturated fatty acid content. E‐20 and E‐30 samples had lower jelly and fat separation (5.77 and 5.25%) compared to C and E‐10 (9.67 and 8.55%). W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had higher water‐holding capacity (93.96‐94.35%) than C samples (91.84%), also showed desired storage stability over time. Emulsion stability results showed that E‐20 and E‐30 samples had lower total expressible fluid (14.05 and 14.53%) and lower total expressible fat (5.06 and 5.33%) compared to C samples (19.13 and 6.09%). Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions lead alterations in colour and texture parameters. TBA values of samples were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment during 60 days of storage.CONCLUSIONSOur results indicated that multiple emulsions prepared with olive oil and EWP had promising impacts on reducing fat, modifying the lipid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable meat systems. These are the first findings concerning beef matrix fat replacement with multiple emulsions stabilized by EWP.
      PubDate: 2016-08-28T23:20:29.638797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8012
  • Molecular DNA‐based detection of ionizing radiation in meat
    • Authors: Ergün Şakalar
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIonizing radiation induces molecular alterations, such as formation of ions, free radicals, and new stable molecules, and cleavage of the chemical bonds of the molecules present in food. Irradiation‐treated meat should be labeled to control the process and to ensure free consumer choice. Therefore, sensitive analytical methods are required to detect the irradiation dose.RESULTSMeat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0, 0.272, 0.497, 1.063, 3.64, 8.82, and 17.42 kGy in an industrial 60Co gamma cell. Primers were designed to amplify 998, 498, and 250‐base pair (bp) regions of the 18S rRNA gene of nuclear DNA from the irradiated samples. A new DNA‐based method was developed to quantify the radiation exposed to the unstored meat and the meat stored at −20 °C for 3 and 6 months. The method was able to detect meat samples stored and unstored with dose limits of 1.063 and 3.64 kGy, respectively.CONCLUSIONThe level of irradiation can be detected using primer pairs that target particularly different‐sized sequences for DNA amplification by PCR. This method can be widely used for the analysis of not only meat samples, but also all biological materials containing DNA.
      PubDate: 2016-08-28T23:20:25.882909-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8015
  • Non‐destructive detection of dicyandiamide in infant formula powder
           using multispectral imaging coupled with chemometrics
    • Authors: Changhong Liu; Wei Liu, Jianbo Yang, Ying Chen, Lei Zheng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDicyandiamide (DCD) contamination of milk and milk products has become an urgent and broadly recognized topic as a result of several food safety scares. This study investigated the potential of using multispectral imaging (405‐970 nm) coupled with chemometrics for detection of DCD in infant formula powder. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares‐support vector machines (LS‐SVM), and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models.RESULTSCompared with PLS and LS‐SVM, BPNN considerably improved the prediction performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (R2p) = 0.935 and 0.873, residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 3.777 and 3.060 for brand 1 and brand 2 of infant formula powders, respectively. Besides, multispectral imaging was able to differentiate unadulterated infant formula powder from samples containing 0.01% DCD with no misclassification using BPNN model.CONCLUSIONThe study demonstrated that multispectral imaging combined with chemometrics enables rapid and non‐destructive detection of DCD in infant formula powder.
      PubDate: 2016-08-28T23:20:23.872154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8014
  • Effects of a treatment with Se‐rich rice flour high in resistant starch
           on enteric dysbiosis and chronic inflammation in diabetic ICR mice
    • Authors: Huaibo Yuan; Wenjuan Wang, Deyi Chen, Xiping Zhu, Lina Meng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEnteric dysbiosis is associated with chronic inflammation and interacts with obesity and insulin resistance. Obesity and diabetes are induced in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice fed a high‐fat diet and administereda streptozocin injection. These mice were treated with normal rice (NR), normal rice with a high resistant starch content (NRRS) or Se‐rich rice (selenium‐enriched rice) with a high resistant starch content (SRRS).RESULTSFecal cell counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus were significantly higher in SRRS‐treated mice than in diabetic controls, while Enterobacter cloacae were lower. Similar results were also found in NRRS‐treated mice. In contrast, no significant difference was found between NR‐treated and diabetic control groups. The treatments with SRRS and NRRS reduced the fecal pH values of the diabetic mice. Regarding the inflammatory factor levels, lower levels of serum C‐reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α), interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), nuclear factor‐k‐gene binding (NF‐kB) and leptin (LEP) and higher Adiponutrin (ADPN) levels were found in the SRRS and NRRS‐treated mice compared with the diabetic and NR‐treated mice. In addition, the CRP, IL‐6 and NF‐kB levels in the SRRS‐treated mice were significantly reduced compared with those observed in the NRRS‐treated mice. The reverse transcription‐PCR (RT‐PCR) results showed that the SRRS and NRRS‐treated mice presented higher expression levels of Orphan G protein‐coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) and Orphan G protein‐coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) proteins compared with diabetic mice and NR‐treated mice.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that treatments with rice high in RS exerts beneficial effects by improving enteric dysbiosis and chronic inflammation. In addition, selenium and RS may exert synergistic effects on chronic inflammation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-26T02:40:21.308339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8011
  • Grain quality characteristics and dough rheological properties in Langdon
           durum‐wild emmer wheat chromosome substitution lines under nitrogen and
           water deficits
    • Authors: Bolesław P. Salmanowicz; Monika Langner, Beata Mrugalska, Dominika Ratajczak, Andrzej G. Górny
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDWild emmer wheat could serve as a source of novel variation in grain quality and stress resistance for wheat breeding. A set of T. durum–T. dicoccoides chromosome substitution lines [LDN(DIC)] and the parental recipient cv. Langdon grown under contrasting water and nitrogen availability in the soil was examined in this study to identify differences in grain quality traits and dough rheological properties.RESULTSSignificant genotypic variation was found among the materials for studied traits. This variation was also considerably affected by soil treatments and G‐E interactions. The substitutions LDN(DIC‐1A) and LDN(DIC‐1B) showed separate differentiation in the composition of glutenin subunits. The results indicated that primarily chromosome DIC‐6B is stable source of an enhanced grain protein content and advantageous dough rheological properties. Similar features seem to be shown by the substitutions with the DIC‐1A, DIC‐2A and DIC‐6A, but not under nitrogen shortage, when generally a considerable decrease was noticed in the range of genotypic variation in grain quality.CONCLUSIONSThe substitution lines, particularly those with DIC‐6B and DIC‐6A and to a lesser extent DIC‐1A and DIC‐2A, were distinguished by advantageous grain quality traits, mixing properties and dough functionality and appear to be the most promising sources of innovative genes for wheat breeding.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:33.286923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8006
  • Discrimination of botanical origins for Chinese honey according to free
           amino acids content by HPLC‐FLD with Chemometric approaches
    • Authors: Hui Chen; Linghe Jin, Qiaoying Chang, Tao Peng, Xueyan Hu, Chunlin Fan, Guofang Pang, Meiling Lu, Wenwen Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe contents of 18 free amino acids in 87 Chinese honey samples from four botanical origins, linden, acacia, vitex and rape, were determined by developing an high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC‐FLD) method with an in loop automated pre‐column derivatization. The free amino acid profiles of these samples were used to construct a statistical model to distinguish honeys from various floral origins.RESULTSThe average contents of all free amino acids in linden honey were lower than in the other three types of honey. Phenylalanine was particularly useful in this study because its average content in vitex honey was far higher than in any other honey samples. There is no doubt that both phenylalanine and tyrosine can be considered as the marker free amino acid in Chinese vitex honey. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted based on 15 free amino acids and showed significant differences among the honey samples. The cumulative variance for the first two components was 80.62%, and the four principal components can explain 94.18% of the total variance. In the two first component scores, the honey samples can be separated according to their botanical origins. Cluster analysis (CA) of amino acid data also revealed that the botanical origins of honey samples correlated with their amino acid content. Back‐propagation artificial neural network (BP‐ANN) and naive bayes methods were employed to construct the classification models. The results revealed an excellent separation among honey samples according to their botanical origin with 100% accuracy in model training for both BP‐ANN and naïve bayes.CONCLUSIONSIt indicated that the free amino acid profile determined by HPLC‐FLD can provide sufficient information to discriminate honey samples according to their botanical origins.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:30.496412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8008
  • Silkworm pupae oil exerts hypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in
           high‐cholesterol diet‐fed rats
    • Authors: Yuxiao Zou; Tenggen Hu, Ying Shi, Sentai Liao, Jun Liu, Lixia Mu, C.‐Y. Oliver Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDSilkworm pupae are good resources of edible oil that is especially rich in unsaturated fatty acids and considered an excellent dietary supplement for hyperlipidemia.RESULTSGroups fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) with SPO supplementation (1, 2, or 4 mL•kg−1•d−1) orally had significantly lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) (P
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:23.520355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8009
  • Yeast derived from lignocellulosic biomass as a sustainable feed resource
           for use in aquaculture
    • Authors: Margareth Øverland; Anders Skrede
      Abstract: The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high‐quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low‐value and non‐food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein‐rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favorable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream prosessing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast‐derived cell wall fractions. This review summarizes current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:15:21.666575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8007
  • Non‐destructive prediction of pigment contents in lettuce based on
           Vis‐NIR spectroscopy
    • Authors: Antonio José Steidle Neto; Lorena de Oliveira Moura, Daniela de Carvalho Lopes, Lanamar de Almeida Carlos, Luma Moreira Martins, Leila de Castro Louback Ferraz
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important salad vegetables in the world, with a number of head shapes, leaf types and colors. The lettuce pigments play important physiological functions, such as photosynthetic processes and light stress defense. But they also benefit the human health due to their antioxidant action and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study three lettuce cultivars were grown under different farming systems and Partial Least‐Squares models were built to predict the leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents.RESULTSThe three proposed models resulted in high coefficients of determination and variable importance for the projection values, as well as low estimative errors for calibration and external validation datasets. These results confirmed that is possible to accurately predict chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents of green and red lettuces, grown in different farming systems, based on the spectral reflectance from 500 to 1000 nm.CONCLUSIONThe proposed models were adequate for estimating lettuce pigments in a quick and non‐destructive way, representing an alternative to the conventional measurement methods. The prediction accuracies were improved by using the detrending, smoothing and first derivative pretreatments to the original spectral signatures prior to estimating lettuce chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:34.275852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8002
  • Effects of ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated packaging film on pork meat quality
           during cold storage
    • Authors: Biao Suo; Huarong Li, Yuexia Wang, Zhen Li, Zhili Pan, Zhilu Ai
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere has been limited research on the use of ZnO nanoparticles‐coated film for the quality preservation of pork meat under low temperature. In present study, ZnO nanoparticles were mixed with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC‐Na) to form a nanocomposite film, to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles‐coated film on pork meat quality and the growth of bacteria during storage under low temperature.RESULTSWhen the ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated film was used as the packaging material of pork meat for 14 days of cold storage at 4°C, the results demonstrated a significant effect on restricting the increases of TVB‐N and pH levels, limiting the decreases of lightness (increased L* value) and redness (increased a* value), and maintaining the water holding capacity (WHC) compared to the control pork samples (P < 0.05). The present study also discovered that the ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated film restrained the increase of total plate counts (TPC). When Staphylococcus aureus was used as the representative strain, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO nanoparticles increased the occurrence of cell membrane ruptures in cold conditions.CONCLUSIONThe ZnO‐nanoparticle‐coated film helps retain the quality of pork meat during cold storage by increasing the occurrence of microorganisms injury.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:31.887245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8003
  • Agricultural anaerobic digestion power plants in Ireland and Germany:
           policy & practice
    • Authors: Agathe Auer; Nathan H Vande Burgt, Florence Abram, Gerald Barry, Owen Fenton, Bryan K Markey, Stephen Nolan, Karl Richards, Declan Bolton, Theo De Waal, Stephen V Gordon, Vincent O'Flaherty, Paul Whyte, Annetta Zintl
      Abstract: The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon‐neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large‐scale treatment facilities, which contribute significantly to national renewable energy quotas. However, these large AD plants are costly to run and demand intensive farming of energy crops for feedstock. Current policy in Germany has transitioned to support funding for smaller digesters, while also limiting the use of energy crops. AD within Ireland, as a new technology, is affected by ambiguous governmental policies concerning waste and energy. A clear governmental strategy supporting on‐site AD processing of agricultural waste will significantly reduce Ireland's carbon footprint, improve the safety and bioavailability of agricultural waste, and provide an indigenous renewable energy source.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:22.735723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8005
  • Assessment of Napier grass accessions in lowland and highland tropical
           environments of east Africa: water stress indices, water‐use and
           water‐use efficiency
    • Authors: Solomon W. Mwendia; Isa A.M. Yunusa, Brian M. Sindel, Ralph D. B. Whalley, Innocent W. Kariuki
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLow rainfall is a major limitation to expanding dairy industry in semi‐arid environments in East Africa. In such dry areas, plants need to keep their tissues hydrated and stomates opened for carbon exchange, and to grow. On this basis, we assessed productivity of 10 lines of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), which formed three yield clusters: low yielding (LYC), moderate yielding (MYC), and high yielding (HYC) in a wet highland (Muguga) and semi‐arid lowland (Katumani) of Kenya. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC) were monitored, and water‐use simulated, over four growth cycles in 2012. These were used with measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and plant dry weights to explore possible use of these physiological parameters for assessing productivity potential in Napier grass accessions.RESULTSThe plants were less stressed at Muguga, where gs was 700–1000 mmol m−2s−1, LWP −0.4 – ‐0.9 MPa, and RWC was 82–95%; these values at Katumani were 450–750 mmol m−2s−1, −0.7– ‐1.4 MPa and 74–93%, respectively. Total water‐use at Katumani was in the order HYC ≈ MYC (390 mm) > LYC (370 mm), and WUE (kg ha−1mm−1) followed the same order HYC (34.3) > MYC (32.6) > LYC (24.9). While at Muguga water‐use averaged 710 mm for HYC and MYC, larger than 676 mm for LYC, and WUE (kg ha−1mm−1) averaged 29.2 for HYC and MYC, and 19.4 for LYC.CONCLUSIONSThe three water‐stress indices were poor, whereas vigorous early canopy development, determined as LAI, was a more reliable, predictor of productivity potential of Napier grasses. In these dry environments, therefore, early rapid canopy development can be an effective indicator of yield potential and as a credible selection criterion.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T03:15:19.988295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8004
  • Role of phosphate groups on antiviral activity of casein phosphopeptide
           against feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus
    • Authors: Ntshepisa Lebetwa; Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Shigeru Katayama
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCurrent research on the gastro‐intestinal digestion of milk‐casein strongly suggests the existence of novel bioactive peptides having antiviral activities that are attributable to their immunostimulatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of casein peptides rich in phosphate groups, such as casein phosphopeptide (CPP‐III).RESULTSWe prepared two types of CPP with different phosphorylation levels to clarify the role of the phosphate group. Further phosphorylation of CPP‐III was conducted by dry heating with sodium pyrophosphate, while dephosphorylation was performed enzymatically using alkaline phosphatase and by alkaline treatment. Feline calicivirus (FCV) strain F9, a typical norovirus surrogate, and Crandell‐Rees feline kidney cells were used as the target virus and host cells, respectively. Antiviral activity was determined based on MTT assay and qPCR quantification of antiviral cytokine mRNA expression. Higher cell viability was observed in the host cells treated with phosphorylated CPP‐III, and a significant up‐regulation of type 1 interferon expression was induced, compared with that treated with native CPP‐III. However, dephosphorylation of CPP‐III resulted in a decrease in the anti‐FCV effect.CONCLUSIONCPP effect was enhanced by introduction of additional phosphates and conversely weakened by their elimination. Therefore, CPP‐III phosphorylation represents an emerging approach to the production of food‐grade antiviral agents.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T04:27:53.952858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7999
  • In vitro antioxidant activities of the novel pentapeptides
           Ser‐His‐Glu‐Cys‐Asn and Leu‐Pro‐Phe‐Ala‐Met and the
           relationship between activity and peptide secondary structure
    • Authors: Ruiwen Yang; Jia Wang, Songyi Lin, Haiqing Ye, Feng Chen
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUsing HPLC‐MS/MS, two novel antioxidant pentapeptides (Ser‐His‐Glu‐Cys‐Asn and Leu‐Pro‐Phe‐Ala‐Met) were identified from 1 – 3 kDa soybean protein hydrolysates (SPH). The MTT assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. The antioxidant activity was measured using in vitro assays, including the cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), the DPPH or ABTS inhibition, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Finally, the secondary structure was determined using circular dichroism (CD).RESULTSThe results revealed that two novel peptides were nontoxic and possessed antioxidant activity. SHECN had significantly higher antioxidant activity than LPFAM (P 
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T04:27:47.465251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8000
  • Ilex paraguariensis crude extract acts on protection and reversion from
           damage induced by t‐butyl hydroperoxide in human erythrocytes: a
           comparative study with isolated caffeic and/or chlorogenic acids
    • Authors: José Luiz Portela; Deividi Soares, Hemerson Rosa, Daniel Henrique Roos, Simone Pinton, Daiana Silva Ávila, Robson L. Puntel
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStudies comparing the effect of phytochemicals under different regimens of exposure are necessary to give a better indication about their mechanism(s) of protection. Hence, we propose to investigate here the preventive (pre‐incubation), protective (co‐incubation) and/or remediate (post‐incubation) activity of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids, in comparison to Ilex paraguariensis crude extract, against t‐butyl hydroperoxide (t‐BHP) induced damage to human erythrocytes.RESULTSWe found that both caffeic and chlorogenic acids were able to prevent and also to revert from the hemolysis associated to t‐BHP exposure. In contrast, isolated compounds (alone or in combination) presented no effect on basal and/or t‐BHP‐induced NPSH oxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. In turn, I. paraguariensis extract was effective to prevent, protect and also to revert from the hemolysis associated to t‐BHP exposure. Moreover, I. paraguariensis significantly protects and reverts from t‐BHP induced NPSH oxidation and TBARS production.CONCLUSIONSWe have found that I. paraguariensis extract acts better in protection and reversion of t‐BHP‐associated changes, whereas isolated compounds were more active in prevention and reversion from t‐BHP pro‐hemolytic action. Moreover, our data suggest that the pro‐hemolytic activity of t‐BHP may occur via mechanism(s) other(s) than lipid peroxidation and/or NPSH oxidation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T04:15:13.480334-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8001
  • Aflatoxin B1 can be Complexed with Oxidized Tea Polyphenols and the
           Absorption of the Complexed‐Aflatoxin B1 is Inhibited in Rats
    • Authors: Hao Lu; Feifei Liu, Qiangqiang Zhu, Mengmeng Zhang, Tong Li, Jiming Chen, Yewei Huang, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAfatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most prevalent and carcinogenic form of the aflatoxins. In this report, we explored the interaction between AFB1 and oxidized tea polyphenols (OTP). Then, the influence of OTP on the absorption and toxicity of AFB1 in rats was investigated.RESULTSWe found that AFB1 can be complexed with OTP, and a transmembrane bidirectional transport experiment verified the absorption of complexed AFB1 (C‐AFB1) was inhibited by OTP dramatically(p < 0.001). Animal experiments results showed that the AFB1 plus OTP group had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased AFB1‐albumin (AFB1‐alb) compared to the AFB1 group at 4 h after ingestion. OTP could significantly(p < 0.01) promote the elimination of AFB1 in feces. Moreover, the liver injury induced by AFB1 was inhibited by OTP significantly.CONCLUSIONOur results demonstrated AFB1 can be complexed with OTP and the absorption of the C‐AFB1 is inhibited in rats. Consequently, the liver injury induced by AFB1 can be inhibited by OTP. These results provide insight that consuming OTP containing products, like fermented Pu‐er tea, can protect damage from AFB1, and OTP may be used as a kind of food additive.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19T04:15:39.002627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7994
  • Exploring genotypic variations for improved oil content and healthy fatty
           acids composition in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
    • Authors: Muhammad Ishaq; Raziuddin Raziiddin, Sabaz Ali Khan
      Abstract: BackgroundDevelopment of new genotypes having high oil content and desirable level of fatty acid compositions is major objective of rapeseed breeding programs. In the current study combining ability was determined for oil, protein, glucosinolates and various fatty acids content using 8 × 8 full diallel in rapeseed (Brassica napus).ResultsHighly significant genotypic differences were observed for oil, protein, glucosinolates, oleic acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid content. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) for biochemical traits. Parental line AUP‐17 for high oil content and low glucosinolates, genotype AUP‐2 for high protein and oleic acids and AUP‐18 for low lenolenic and erucic acid were best general combiners. Based on desirable SCA effects, F1 hybrids AUP‐17 × AUP‐20; AUP‐2×AUP‐8; AUP‐7 × AUP‐14; AUP‐2 × AUP‐9; AUP‐7 × AUP‐14 and AUP‐2 × AUP‐9 were found superior involving at least one best general combiner.ConclusionF1 hybrids AUP‐17 × AUP‐20 (for oil content); AUP‐2 × AUP‐8 (for protein content); AUP‐7 × AUP‐14 (for glucosinolates); AUP‐2 × AUP‐9 (for oleic acid); AUP‐7 × AUP‐14 (for linolenic acid) and AUP‐2 × AUP‐9 (for erucic acid) were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. As reciprocal crosses of AUP‐14 with AUP‐7 and AUP‐8 were superior had low × low and low × high GCA effects for glucosinolates and oleic acid, respectively therefore, these could be exploited in future rapeseed breeding programs to develop new lines with good quality.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T23:20:26.18077-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7997
  • Thermal and single frequency countercurrent ultrasound pretreatments of
           sodium caseinate: Enzymolysis kinetics and thermodynamics, amino acids
           composition, molecular weight distribution and antioxidant peptides
    • Authors: Mohammed Adam Y. Abdualrahman; Haile Ma, Cunshan Zhou, Abu ElGasim A. Yagoub, Jiali Hu, Xue Yang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDue to the disadvantages of traditional enzymolysis, pretreatments are crucial to enhance protein enzymolysis. Enzymolysis kinetics and thermodynamics, amino acids composition, molecular weight distribution (MW), fluorescence spectroscopy and antioxidant activity of thermal (HT) and single frequency countercurrent ultrasound (SCFU) pretreated sodium caseinate (NaCas) were studied.RESULTSEnzymolysis of untreated NaCas (control) improved significantly (p ˂ 0.05) by SFCU and followed by HT. KM values of SFCU and HT were 0.0212 and 0.0250, respectively. HT and SFCU increased (p ˂ 0.05) the reaction rate constant (k) by 38.64 and 90.91%, respectively at 298 K. k values decreased with increasing temperature. The initial activation energy (46.39 KJ mol−1) reduced (p ˂ 0.05) by HT (39.66 KJ mol−1) and further by SFCU (33.42 KJ mol−1). SFCU pretreated NaCas hydrolysates had the highest contents of hydrophobic, aromatic, positively and negatively charged amino acids. Medium sized peptides (5000 ‐ 1000 Da) are higher in SFCU (78.11%) than HT and the control. SFCU induced molecular unfolding of NaCas proteins. Accordingly, SFCU pretreated NaCas hydrolysate exhibited highest scavenging activity on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power, and iron chelating ability.CONCLUSIONSFCU pretreatment would be a useful tool for production of bioactive peptides from NaCas hydrolysate.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T20:40:29.740574-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7996
  • Expression analysis of Metallothioneins and mineral contents in tomato
           (Lycopersicon esculentum) under heavy metal stress
    • Authors: Dursun Kısa; Lokman Öztürk, Serhat Doker, İsa Gökçe
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHeavy metals are considered to be the most important pollutants in the contamination of soils; they adversely affect plant growth and development and cause some physiological and molecular changes. The contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals has changed the mineral element content of vegetables. Plant MTs are thought to have the functional role in heavy metal homeostasis, and they are used as the biomarkers for evaluating environmental pollution. We aimed to evaluate the expression of MT isoforms (MT1, 2, 3 and 4) and some mineral element composition of tomato roots, leaves and fruits exposed to copper and lead.RESULTSHeavy metal applications increased MT1 and MT2 gene expressions compared to the control in the tissues of tomato. The highest level of MT1 and MT2 transcripts was found in roots and leaves, respectively. The expression of MT3 is induced in roots, leaves and fruits except for Pb treatment in roots. MT4 expression increased in fruits; however, other tissues did not show a clear change. Our results indicated that Cu content was higher than Pb in all tissues of tomato. The lower doses of Cu (10 ppm) increased the content of Mg, Fe, Ca and Mn in roots. Pb generally increased the level of minerals in leaves and fruits, but it decreased Mg, Mn and Fe contents in roots.CONCLUSIONBoth heavy metals not only moved to aerial parts but also caused alterations to mineral element levels. These results show that MT transcripts are regulated by Cu and Pb, and expression pattern changes to MT isoforms and tissue types.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T20:40:25.395994-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7995
  • Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on the
           fermentation quality of Napier grass silage at three high temperatures
    • Authors: A. Gulfam; G. Guo, S.T. Desta, L. Chen, Q.H. Liu, X.J. Yuan, Y.F. Bai, T. Shao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe poor fermentation quality of silage is an important issue for silage production during the high temperatures of summer. Pediococcus acidilactici GG13 (GG13) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG26 (GG26) isolated from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were characterized by morphological and physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and their effects, along with those of a commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant (CB), on the fermentation quality of facultative halophyte Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) ensiled at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C were studied, respectively.RESULTThe strain GG13 and GG26 grew well at 50 °C and pH 3.5, and were tolerant to 6.5% NaCl. After ensiling for 50 days, the strain GG13, GG26 and CB decreased (P < 0.001) the pH and acetic acid and ammonia‐N contents and increased (P < 0.001) the lactic acid contents at 30 °C, and decreased (P < 0.001) the ammonia‐N contents at 40 °C in Napier grass. CB did not affect the fermentation quality at 50 °C, whereas both isolated strains improved the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage as indicated by the lower (P < 0.001) pH, butyric acid and ammonia‐N contents and higher (P < 0.001) lactic acid contents. The strain GG13 is better than GG26 with regard to improvement in fermentation quality of Napier grass silage.CONCLUSIONSThe results of this study suggested that strain GG13 is a good LAB inoculant for producing well fermented silages during the high temperatures of summer times.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T20:35:26.325387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7998
  • Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper
           (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction
    • Authors: Ling‐Biao Gu; Hui‐Li Pang, Ke‐Ke Lu, Hua‐Min Liu, Xue‐De Wang, Guang‐Yong Qin
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRed pepper seeds account for 450–500 g kg−1 of the total pepper weight and often are ignored. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out in this study.RESULTSThe optimum conditions of the extraction were: extraction temperature 74.61 °C, time 38.65 min and liquid–solid ratio 30.24:1. The oil had refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, relative density of 0.900, acid value of 1.421 mg/g oil, iodine value of 127.035 g/100 g, saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable matter of 12.400 g kg−1, peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O2/kg, and viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed its desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes were identified from the oil.CONCLUSIONThe results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil.
      PubDate: 2016-08-16T03:30:25.830479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7992
  • Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by‐product as feed for
    • Authors: Cristina Guerra‐Rivas; Beatriz Gallardo, Ángel R. Mantecón, María del Álamo, Teresa Manso
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThis work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, rumen fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace.RESULTSSeeds and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs. 243 g kg−1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs.138 g kg−1DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs. 31.7 g kg−1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.6 vs. 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs. 32.1 g kg−1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability in seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs. 0.82; 0.30 vs. 0.45; 0.66 vs. 0.39). Ammonia‐N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower, and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace.CONCLUSIONThe nutritive value of grape pomace varies, depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by‐product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve the meat and milk quality.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T07:57:52.605018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7991
  • Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water
           relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidants activities and osmoregulation
    • Authors: Hafiz Nazar Faried; Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Amjad, Rashid Ahmed, Fahad Masoud Wattoo, Madiha Butt, Mohsin Bashir, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Muhammad Ahmed Waqas
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPotato is an important vegetable, however salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mM). Salicylic acid @ 0.5 mM was sprayed on potato plants after one week of salinity application.RESULTSSalt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N‐Y LARA, proved more responsive to SA application than 720–110 NARC which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents) which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, thereby, increased potassium availability and reduced sodium contents in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber's yield depicted positive correlation with potassium contents, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities.CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid stands authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced on N‐Y LARA reflecting tolerant than 720–110 NARC which confirmed as susceptible cultivar. Hence, salicylic acid @ 0.5 mM and cultivation of N‐Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T03:40:52.514806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7989
  • Reaction pathway mechanism of thermally induced isomerization of 9,12
           linoleic acid triacylglycerol
    • Authors: Qin Guo; Fan Jiang, Zhaoxuan Deng, Qingpeng Li, Jing Jin, Yiming Ha, Feng Wang
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo clarify the formation mechanism of trans linoleic acid isomers in edible oils during the heating process, trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, as representative oils, were placed in glass ampoules and sealed before heating at 180, 240, and 320 °C. The glass ampoules were removed at regular time intervals, and the contents were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The samples were then subjected to derivatization into their methyl esters for gas chromatography analysis.RESULTSAnalysis results show that 9c,12c and 9t,12t fatty acids from trilinolein and trilinoelaidin molecules undergo chemical bond rotation, migration, and degradation, leading to the formation of nonconjugated linoleic acids (NLAs), conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), and aldehydes. The formation rate of isomers from the 9c,12c fatty acid is higher than that of the 9t,12t fatty acid. The production of aldehydes increases with heating temperature and time. The isomerization pathways involved in the formation of NLAs and CLAs during heating are clearly presented.CONCLUSIONThese findings suggest possible pathways of NFAs and CFAs formation from heated trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, complement the mechanistic studies previously published in the literature, and provide a theoretical basis for future controlling the quality and safety of fats and oils.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T03:27:02.54876-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7988
    • Authors: Anne Luize Lupatini; Luciane Maria Colla, Cristiane Canan, Eliane Colla
      Abstract: The high protein level of various microalgae species is one of the main reasons to consider them an unconventional source of this compound. Spirulina platensis stands out for being one of the richest protein sources of microbial origin (460 to 630 g kg−1 of dry matter basis), having similar protein levels when compared to meat and soybeans. The use of S. platensis in food can bring benefits to human health due to its chemical composition, once it has high levels of vitamins, minerals, phenolics, essential fatty acids, amino acids, and pigments. Furthermore, the development of new protein sources to supply the shortage of this nutrient is an urgent need, and protein from S. platensis plays an important role in this scenario. In this sense, extraction processes that allow maximum protein yield and total utilization of biomass is an urgent need, and ultrasonic waves have proven to be an effective extraction technique. The number of scientific papers related to protein fraction from S. platensis is still limited, thus further studies on its functional and technological properties are needed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T03:17:00.924924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7987
  • Application of active edible coatings made from basil seed gum and thymol
           for quality maintenance of shrimp during cold storage
    • Authors: Naimeh Khazaei; Mohsen Esmaiili, Zahra Emam‐Djomeh
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDTo improve the quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), active coating solutions were prepared by dissolving 10 g L‐1 of basil seed gum (BSG) and adding various levels of thymol (6, 8, and 10 % w/w based on gum weight) and glycerol (3.5 g L‐1) as plasticizer. The effects of coating solutions (CS1‐4) on the quality changes of shrimps during refrigerated storage of 20 days were investigated.RESULTSTotal volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) value in shrimp coated with CS4 (containing 10%w/w thymol) was slightly higher than the upper threshold of 300 mg kg‐1 on the 18th day, while that of uncoated shrimp increased to or over the threshold value on the 7th day. Active coatings reduced significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T02:41:50.442708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7984
  • Zn‐biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration
           process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L
    • Authors: Y Barrameda‐Medina; Marco Lentini, Sergio Esposito, Juan M Ruiz, Begoña Blasco
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDExcessive rates of N fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO3−) in plants. Considering that many programmes of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of this work was to determine whether the NO3− accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was affected by the application of different dosages of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants.RESULTSZn‐doses in a range of 80‐100 μM produced an increase on Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO3− concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) activities, and the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase on reduced N, total N concentration (TNC) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE). Consequently, under 80 μM‐Zn the amino acid concentration increased significantly.CONCLUSIONAdequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially with 80 μM Zn, since it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO3− levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, all of them beneficial properties for the human diet.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T03:15:34.775518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7983
  • The occurrence of spoilage yeasts in cream‐filled bakery products
    • Authors: Andrea Osimani; Vesna Milanović, Manuela Taccari, Federica Cardinali, Marina Pasquini, Lucia Aquilanti, Francesca Clementi
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDFilling creams can provide an adequate substrate for spoilage yeasts because some yeasts can tolerate the high osmotic stress in these products. To discover the source of spoilage of a cream‐filled baked product, end products, raw materials, indoor air and work surfaces were subjected to microbiological and molecular analyses. The efficacy of disinfectants against spoilage yeasts was also assessed.RESULTSThe analyses on end products revealed the presence of the closest relatives to Zygosaccharomyces bailii with counts ranging from 1.40 to 4.72 log cfu g−1. No spoilage yeasts were found in the indoor air and work surfaces. PCR‐DGGE analysis, carried out directly on filling creams collected from unopened cans, showed the presence of bands ascribed to the closest relatives to Z. bailii sensu lato, although with counts 
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T03:11:49.640744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7982
  • Influence of gamma radiation on the physical and sensory properties of two
           Brazilian rice cultivars
    • Authors: Luís F Polesi; Dâmaris C Lima, Silene BS Sarmento, Solange G Canniatti‐Brazaca
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLittle has been reported about effect of gamma radiation on the physical and sensory characteristics of rice. Samples were irradiated with 60Co in doses 0, 1, 2 and 5 kGy, on a rate of 0.4 kGy/h.RESULTSThe evaluation of instrumental color showed that increasing doses promoted the yellowing (higher b* value) of the rice grains. Hardness was decreased and stickiness was increased in cooked rice with increasing doses. Sensory evaluation using quantitative descriptive analysis showed that increasing doses promoted higher occurrence of yellowish appearance, emergence of burnt aroma, an increase of bitter and burnt taste. The sensory acceptance test by 9‐point hedonic scale showed alteration of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy in all evaluated attributes (appearance, color, aroma, taste and texture). The lowest dose (1 kGy), however, had good acceptability by the panelists.CONCLUSIONRice may be subjected at 1 kGy dose of gamma radiation without changes or with small changes in physical properties and with good overall acceptability.
      PubDate: 2016-08-03T07:00:29.294774-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7979
  • Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white
           and red wine grape processing leftovers
    • Authors: Kajetan Trošt; Anja Klančnik, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Melita Sternad Lemut, Katja Jug, Peter Raspor, Sonja Smole Možina
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDuring winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterise the phenolic content of freeze‐dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti‐adhesive activities.RESULTSFDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white ‘Zelen’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram‐negative bacteria. ‘Pinot Noir’ FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces.CONCLUSIONFDSS extracts from winery by‐products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins, and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti‐adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol ‘Pinot Noir’ FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues.
      PubDate: 2016-08-03T06:59:57.336069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7981
  • Protein glycation and aggregation inhibitory potency of biomolecules from
           black gram milled by‐product
    • Authors: T.K. Girish; U.J.S. Prasada Rao
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPersistent hyperglycemia causes increased Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs), which contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Therefore, effect of black gram milled by‐product (BGBP) extract on inhibition of AGEs formation in bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system was investigated.RESULTSBGBP extract had total polyphenol content of 82 mg GAE g‐1 and flavonoid content of 46 mg CE g‐1. Ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, gentisic acid, isovitexin, vitexin and epicatechin were the major bioactives in the extract. BGBP extract exhibited an effective Fe2+ chelating activity. SE‐HPLC studies indicated that upon BSA‐AGE formation, the BSA monomer content was 38%, however, in the presence of BGBP extract at 50 and 100 µg levels, the monomer content increased and it was found to be 48 and 73%, respectively. BGBP extract at 50 and 100 µg levels decreased the protein carbonyl and fructosamine contents, and quenched the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA in a dose‐dependent manner. Further, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed the decrease in formation of AGEs by BGBP extract.CONCLUSIONAs BGBP extract inhibited the formation of AGEs, the extract can be used as a nutraceutical or it can be incorporated into food products to obtain functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-08-03T06:59:33.265905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7980
  • Microwave thawing and green tea extract efficiency for the formation of
           acrylamide throughout the production process of chicken burgers and
           chicken nuggets
    • Authors: Eda Demİrok Soncu; Nuray Kolsarici
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAs a first foresight, we measured the AA level of chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants. After the determination of AA presence in these products, we aimed to investigate whether green tea extract (GTE) usage into covering material and microwave thawing (MT) before frying mitigated the AA formation in CBs and CNs during the production process.RESULTSAccording to our survey study, AA concentrations of CBs and CNs were in the range of 13.43‐118.97 and 32.92‐134.90 (ng g−1), respectively. In our experiment, AA level varried between 19.61‐40.08 ng g−1 for CBs and 7.92‐49.60 ng g−1 for CNs. GTE reduced the AA formation in CBs and CNs at the par frying and steam oven cooking heat treatment steps (P < 0.05). However, MT did not affect AA level of CBs and CNs.CONCLUSIONWhen compared to AA level of commercial CBs and CNs with those of produced in the direction of our experimental design, GTE usage could be reported as a novel, easy and practical application for fast food producers to minimize AA level in the first two steps of the production without the changes in the sensory properties of the final products.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T03:30:23.239139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7976
  • Comparison of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck Feet and
           Bovine Gelatins
    • Authors: Yau‐Hoong Kuan; Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi, Nurul Huda, Fazilah Ariffin, Alias A. Karim
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPrevious studies indicated that duck feet are rich source of gelatin that could be extracted from avian sources. In this study, the physicochemical and functional properties of avian gelatin extracted from duck feet (DFG) with acetic acid were compared with commercial bovine gelatin (BG).RESULTSThe yield of DFG obtained in this study was 7.01 ± 0.31%. HPLC analysis indicated that the imino acid compositions were slightly lower for DFG compared with BG (P < 0.05). Differences in molecular size and amino acids between DFG and BG were also observed. The isoelectric points of DFG and BG were at pH 8 and pH 5, respectively, and the overall protein solubility of BG was higher than that of DFG. Gels prepared from BG exhibited higher bloom strength, viscosity, and clarity and were darker in color compared with DFG gels (P < 0.05). The gelling and melting points of BG were 21.8 °C and 29.47 °C, respectively, and those of DFG were 20.5 °C and 27.8 °C, respectively. BG exhibited slightly better emulsifying and foaming properties compared with DFG.CONCLUSIONAlthough the differences between DFG and BG were observed, the disparities were small, which indicates that DFG could be exploited commercially as an alternative source of gelatin.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T04:40:22.561522-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7970
  • Effects of Variety and Steeping Conditions on Some Barley Components
           Associated with Colonic Health
    • Authors: Cristina Teixeira; Margareta Nyman, Roger Andersson, Marie Alminger
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDButyric acid is produced by degradation of dietary fibre by microbiota and is crucial for maintaining a healthy colon. The physico‐chemical properties are important for butyric acid formation, and this study aimed to evaluate the use of malting to tailor the functional characteristics of barley dietary fibre. The effect of different steeping conditions was evaluated in laboratory scale malting experiments with three different barley varieties.RESULTSSteeping at 35 C and with 0.4 % (v/v) lactic acid resulted in a higher content of β‐glucan and soluble fibre in the malts than in malts steeped at lower temperature and lower lactic acid concentration. Resistant starch increased, while the content of soluble arabinoxylan was lower. Dietary fibre components in Tipple were more affected by steeping conditions than the other varieties. The total contents of iron, phytate and amylose were little influenced by steeping conditions.CONCLUSIONThe selection of steeping conditions during malting influence composition and the characteristics of dietary fibre in barley. However, also the choice of barley variety is important for tailoring of functional ingredients beneficial for colonic health.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T03:15:30.369553-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7923
    • Authors: Zafar Ul Haq Hashmi; Muhammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Akhtar, Tahir Sarwar, Mohammad Jamal Khan
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLow phosphorus (P) availability to wheat from commercial fertilizers is one of the reason of lower grain yield and hence justifies search for more efficient P source under alkaline calcareous soils.RESULTPhosphoric acid (PA) viz a viz di‐ammonium phosphate (DAP) applied through conventional and modified methods were assessed for P supply and wheat yield in a calcareous soil. Under lab conditions, pre‐incubated soil with 70 mg kg‐1 P as PA and DAP for four weeks was assessed for solution P (Cp). Phosphorus sorption data were fitted using Freundlich model for describing analyzed sorption in soil incubated with or without DAP and PA. The fitted model equations exhibited comparatively higher effluxes of P from solution system in Control treatment. Compared to DAP, lower quantity (19.6%) of P for PA treated soil were required for producing optimum P concentration in soil solution i.e. 0.2 mg P L‐1. Greenhouse study involved 32P tracer technique to quantify the proportion of applied P derived by wheat from fertilizer or soil. The results showed that P derived from fertilizer was highest (47.5%) in PA‐placement, while the lowest (31.5%) was in DAP‐broadcast treatment. The field study also showed similar trends to that of greenhouse study. The PA‐placement treatment resulted in highest (23.4%) phosphorus use efficiency while lowest one (17.1%) was recorded for DAP‐broadcast treatment.CONCLUSIONPhosphoric acid proved better P source than DAP for improving P content during and achieving higher yield and recovery of applied P by wheat grown in alkaline calcareous soils.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T08:10:21.778038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7921
  • Recent applications of NMR in food and dietary studies
    • Authors: Venkatesh Ramakrishnan; Devanand L. Luthria
      Abstract: Over the last decade, a wide variety of new foods have been introduced into the global market place, many with health benefits that exceed those of traditional foods. Simultaneously, a wide range of analytical technologies have evolved that allow greater capability for the determination of food composition. Thus, the world is being offered an unprecedented number of healthful foods and an unprecedented ability to characterize these foods. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), traditionally a research tool used for structural elucidation, is now being used frequently for metabolomics and chemical fingerprinting. Its stability and inherent ease of quantification have been exploited extensively to identify and quantify bioactive components in foods and dietary supplements. In addition, NMR fingerprints have been used to differentiate cultivars, evaluate sensory properties of food, and investigate the influence of growing conditions on food crops. Here we review the latest applications of NMR in food analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:55:28.58695-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7917
  • Anthocyanins in different Citrus species, an
           UHPLC‐PDA‐ESI/MSn‐assisted qualitative and quantitative
    • Authors: Simona Fabroni; Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Paolo Rapisarda
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAnthocyanins are water‐soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid family. They are typically present in the flesh and peel in the blood orange cultivars. Although blood orange young shoots and flowers are not anthocyanin‐colored, lemon, citron, rangpur lime, and Meyer lemon young shoots and flowers exhibit marked pigmentation due to anthocyanins, demonstrating that anthocyanin biosynthesis in the Citrus genus is tissue‐ and genotype‐dependent. This study aimed to examine the qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin profile of fruit and other tissues from different Citrus species.RESULTSThe presence of anthocyanin‐pigmented stigmas in the young flowers of a blood orange tree (cv. ‘Moro’) was herein characterized and reported for the first time. The dominant pigments in blood orange fruits were cyanidin‐3‐glucoside and cyanidin‐3‐(6″‐malonyl‐glucoside), whereas different patterns were observed in the young shoots, flowers and peel tissues of different Citrus species.CONCLUSIONThis is the first study to report differentially expressed anthocyanin pigmentation patterns in different organs from several species of the genus Citrus. The obtained results could also represent a starting point for further investigations to better understand which regulatory genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the fruits, shoots and floral tissues of different Citrus species.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T06:46:04.161182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7916
  • Synthesis of raffinose by transfructosylation using recombinant
           levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206
    • Authors: Wenjing Li; Shuhuai Yu, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRaffinose, a functional trisaccharide of α‐D‐galactopyranosyl‐(1 → 6)‐α‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐(1 → 2)‐β‐D‐fructofuranoside, is a prebiotic that shows promise for use as a food ingredient.RESULTSIn this study, the production of raffinose from melibiose and sucrose was studied using whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring the levansucrase from Clostridium arbusti SL206. The reaction conditions were optimized for raffinose synthesis. The optimal pH, temperature, and washed cell concentration were pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM), 55 °C, and 3% (w/v), respectively. High substrate concentrations, which led to low water activity and thus reduced levansucrase hydrolysis activity, strongly favored the production of raffinose through the fructosyl transfer reaction. Additionally, high concentrations of excess acceptor and donor glycosides favored raffinose production. When 30% (w/v) sucrose and 30% (w/v) melibiose were catalyzed using 3% (w/v) whole cells at pH 6.5 (sodium phosphate buffer, 50 mM) and 55 °C, the highest raffinose yield was 222 g L−1 after a 6 h reaction. The conversion ratio from each substrate to raffinose was 50%.CONCLUSIONRaffinose could be effectively produced with melibiose as an acceptor and with sucrose as a fructosyl donor by whole recombinant E. coli cells harboring C. arbusti levansucrase. The yield from E. coli was significantly higher than those of the previously reported Bacillus subtilis levansucrase and fungal α‐galactosidases.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T06:55:27.16657-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7903
  • Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste
           supported aluminum oxides
    • Authors: Chuanyi Peng; Junjun Xi, Guijie Chen, Zhihui Feng, Fei Ke, Jingming Ning, Daxiang Li, Chi‐Tang Ho, Huimei Cai, Xiaochun Wan
      Abstract: BackgroundBrick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health.Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness.ResultsIn the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste‐based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea‐Al) was successfully prepared. The Tea‐Al biosorbent was characterized by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The Tea‐Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), while a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine under the same condition. Fluoride adsorption by the Tea‐Al with different times obeyed the surface reaction and the adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions.ConclusionResults from this study demonstrated that Tea‐Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T08:45:21.529871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7893
  • Brief Aims and Scope
    • Pages: 4633 - 4633
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T03:03:13.76093-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7432
  • Issue Information - Info Page
    • Pages: 4634 - 4634
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T03:03:09.271587-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7433
  • Issue Information - Table of Contents
    • Pages: 4635 - 4636
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T03:03:15.810951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7434
  • The practicality of using ozone with fruit and vegetables
    • Authors: Marcin Glowacz; Deborah Rees
      Pages: 4637 - 4643
      Abstract: The fresh produce industry is constantly growing as a result of increasing consumer demand. Food quality and safety management are still major issues for the supply chain. The use of ozone has been identified as a feasible solution to reduce microorganisms present in food, in this way extending the shelf-life of fresh produce. A number of factors that may affect the efficiency of ozone treatment have been identified, e.g. microbial populations, ozone concentration and time of exposure, type of produce, temperature, relative humidity and packaging material, and they are briefly discussed. Furthermore, practical information derived from studies with ozone conducted by the authors and from their knowledge of the subject directs the reader's attention to the key aspects of ozone use under commercial conditions, i.e. from the practical point of view. Finally, one possible direction for future research with the postharvest use of ozone, i.e. the important role of fruit cuticle in response to this postharvest treatment, is indicated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T02:25:57.845688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7763
  • Novel technologies for monitoring the in-line quality of virgin olive oil
           during manufacturing and storage
    • Authors: Julio Beltrán Ortega; Diego M Martínez Gila, Daniel Aguilera Puerto, Javier Gámez García, Juan Gómez Ortega
      Pages: 4644 - 4662
      Abstract: The quality of virgin olive oil is related to the agronomic conditions of the olive fruits and the process variables of the production process. Nowadays, food markets demand better products in terms of safety, health and organoleptic properties with competitive prices. Innovative techniques for process control, inspection and classification have been developed in order to to achieve these requirements. This paper presents a review of the most significant sensing technologies which are increasingly used in the olive oil industry to supervise and control the virgin olive oil production process. Throughout the present work, the main research studies in the literature that employ non-invasive technologies such as infrared spectroscopy, computer vision, machine olfaction technology, electronic tongues and dielectric spectroscopy are analysed and their main results and conclusions are presented. These technologies are used on olive fruit, olive slurry and olive oil to determine parameters such as acidity, peroxide indexes, ripening indexes, organoleptic properties and minor components, among others. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-18T09:28:12.483765-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7733
  • Electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and the food industry: a review
    • Authors: Masumeh Noruzi
      Pages: 4663 - 4678
      Abstract: The interesting characteristics of electrospun nanofibres, such as high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporosity, and high safety, make them suitable candidates for use in a variety of applications. In the recent decade, electrospun nanofibres have been applied to different potential fields such as filtration, wound dressing, drug delivery, etc. and a significant number of review papers have been published in these fields. However, the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture is comparatively novel and is still in its infancy. In this paper, the specific applications of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science, including plant protection using pheromone-loaded nanofibres, plant protection using encapsulation of biocontrol agents, preparation of protective clothes for farm workers, encapsulation of agrochemical materials, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction in agricultural research studies, pre-concentration and measurement of pesticides in crops and environmental samples, preparation of nanobiosensors for pesticide detection, encapsulation of food materials, fabrication of food packaging materials, and filtration of beverage products are reviewed and discussed. This paper may help researchers develop the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science to address some serious problems such as the intensive use of pesticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:45:40.693094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7737
  • Health-promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit
           (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton and Rose) peels as affected by
           carbohydrate encapsulation
    • Authors: Evelyn B Rodriguez; Mark Louis P Vidallon, David Joram R Mendoza, Charisse T Reyes
      Pages: 4679 - 4689
      Abstract: BackgroundBetalains, which are red-purple and yellow pigments, are ideal alternatives to synthetic colorants as they possess strong coloring potential and excellent health-contributing properties. However, the instability of betalains toward normal storage and biological conditions, in addition to the limited number of betalain sources, impedes their food application and diminishes their bioactivities. This study aimed to evaluate the health-promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton and Rose) peels as affected by encapsulation in maltodextrin–gum Arabic and maltodextrin–pectin matrices.ResultsEncapsulation in maltodextrin–gum Arabic and maltodextrin–pectin matrices afforded dry betalain powders after lyophilization. Optical microscopy imaging showed that the betalain powders consisted of matrix-type and shard-like microparticles. ABTS antioxidant assay revealed that maltodextrin–gum Arabic–betalain (MGB) and maltodextrin–pectin–betalain (MPB) microparticles possessed higher antioxidant capacities (195.39 ± 8.63 and 201.76 ± 4.06 µmol Trolox g−1 microparticles respectively) than the non-encapsulated betalain extract (151.07 ± 2.57 µmol Trolox g−1 extract). Duck embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vascular irritation assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of encapsulated betalains was five- to six-fold higher than that of non-encapsulated betalains (P ≤ 0.05). Antiangiogenic activity, as evaluated by duck embryo CAM assay, was enhanced two- to four-fold by carbohydrate encapsulation. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-inducing activity of betalains was likewise improved four- to five-fold.ConclusionThe study showed that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic and GST-inducing activities of betalains from red dragon fruit peels were enhanced through carbohydrate encapsulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T03:02:21.73705-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7681
  • Increasing anti-Aβ-induced neurotoxicity ability of Antrodia
           camphorata-fermented product with deep ocean water supplementary
    • Authors: Yeuching Shi; Shuyuan Yang, David Yuewei Lee, Chunlin Lee
      Pages: 4690 - 4701
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAntrodia camphorata is proven to probably inhibit the neurotoxicity of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), known as a risk factor toward the development of Alzheimer's disease. Deep ocean water (DOW), drawn from an ocean depth of more than 200 m, has proven to stimulate the growth and metabolite biosynthesis of fungi owing to its rich minerals and trace elements. Based on these advantages of DOW, this study used statistical response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the effects of DOW on the growth and anti-Aβ-induced neurocytotoxicity ability of A. camphorata.RESULTSThe results showed that DOW was useful for increasing the biomass of A. camphorata and enhancing its neuroprotective capability. The anti-Aβ40-induced neurocytotoxicity ability of filtrate was increased via raising the mycelium-secreted components. Furthermore, the anti-Aβ40-induced neurocytotoxicity ability of mycelium was also increased by the DOW-stimulated intracellular antioxidants. Using 80% DOW concentration, initial pH 3.3 and 20% inoculum size as the optimal culture conditions of A. camphorata significantly stimulated the biomass and mycelium-mediated Aβ40-induced cell viability from 302 ± 14 mg per 100 mL and 49.2 ± 2.2% to 452 ± 33 mg per 100 mL and 65.0 ± 7.4% respectively.CONCLUSIONThis study indicated that DOW could be used as a promising supplementary for the production of A. camphorata secondary metabolites with strong antioxidant activity to protect neuron cells from damage based on Aβ stimulation cytotoxicity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:06:23.891313-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7687
  • Glucosinolate composition of Colombian accessions of mashua (Tropaeolum
           tuberosum Ruíz & Pavón), structural elucidation of the predominant
           glucosinolate and assessment of its antifungal activity
    • Authors: Jenny Carolina Martín; Blanca Ligia Higuera
      Pages: 4702 - 4712
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe content of individual and total glucosinolates in 65 mashua tuber accessions (Tropaeolum tuberosum) from the germplasm bank at Universidad Nacional de Colombia was determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography on enzymatically desulfated extracts. The predominant glucosinolate was identified and the possible structure of the glucosinolate present in lower proportion was postulated from evidence obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and bi-dimensional experiments. The biological action of the hydrolysis products generated from the glucosinolates in the accessions that showed a higher content of these compounds was assessed in the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora infestans.RESULTSThe total content of glucosinolates ranged between >3.00 × 10−1 and 25.8 µmol g−1 dry matter. p-Methoxybenzyl glucosinolate was identified as the predominant glucosinolate in Colombian mashua accessions; besides, the possible presence of p-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate was postulated. In vitro assays established an important fungal growth inhibition of the potato pathogen P. infestans.CONCLUSIONThe biological action from p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate and p-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate found in Colombian mashua accessions depends on their concentration, with the Tt30 accession, characterized for showing the highest content of glucosinolates, being the most promising to control the assessed pathogens. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T02:45:59.698884-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7689
  • Screening of the anthocyanin profile and in vitro pancreatic lipase
           inhibition by anthocyanin-containing extracts of fruits, vegetables,
           legumes and cereals
    • Authors: Simona Fabroni; Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Flora V Romeo, Paolo Rapisarda
      Pages: 4713 - 4723
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe phytotherapic treatment of overweight and/or moderate obesity is growing widely, thus there is a great interest towards the phenolic compounds of fruits and vegetables which may inhibit pancreatic lipase enzyme. In this study, we report the chemical composition and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of 13 freeze-dried anthocyanin-containing extracts of different Mediterranean plants: fruits (blood orange, pomegranate, blackberry, mulberry and sumac), citrus by-products (blood orange peel), citrus vegetative tissues (young lemon shoots); vegetables (red cabbage and violet cauliflower), legume seeds (black bean), cereals (black rice), and cereal processing by-products (black rice hull). Total phenols and anthocyanins were determined. Individual anthocyanins were identified by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn.RESULTSResults revealed a wide variation in the distribution of anthocyanin compounds. Blood orange and pomegranate juice extracts had the highest total anthocyanin content and exhibited the strongest inhibition of pancreatic lipase in vitro.CONCLUSIONInhibitory activity was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. In appropriate formulations, anthocyanin-containing extracts could find a use as anti-obesity agents. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T02:55:46.780817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7708
  • The impact of canopy managements on grape and wine composition of cv.
           ‘Istrian Malvasia’ (Vitis vinifera L.)
    • Authors: Jan Rescic; Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Denis Rusjan
      Pages: 4724 - 4735
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe interest in producing wines preferred by consumers increases the need for improving practices to modify grape and wine composition. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of three different canopy management measures, (1) early leaf removal in the cluster zone, (2) removal of young leaves above the second pair of wires and (3) Double Maturation Raisonnée, on the yield and chemical composition of ‘Istrian Malvasia’ grape and wine.RESULTSDouble Maturation Raisonnée had a significantly greater impact on phenolic compounds, while the highest soluble solids (24.3 and 23.5 °Brix) and titratable acidity (7.0 and 7.1 g L−1) were measured at early leaf removal. Leaf removal at véraison caused an unexpected augmentation of flavonols in the berry skin. Early leaf removal resulted in significantly lower extracts of wine. Nevertheless, they reached the highest mark (16.5 out of 20.0 points) in sensory evaluation compared with leaf removal at véraison and Double Maturation Raisonnée (15.0 points) and control (16.0 points).CONCLUSIONLeaf removal at véraison and Double Maturation Raisonnée improved the phenolic composition of wine, producing a full-bodied wine. On the other hand, early leaf removal significantly augmented the yield and titratable acidity, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols of wine, which might have led to a fresher but less-bodied wine. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:56.608861-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7778
  • Univariate and multi-variate comparisons of protein and carbohydrate
           molecular structural conformations and their associations with nutritive
           factors in typical by-products
    • Authors: Hangshu Xin; Yongli Qu, Haonan Wu, Peiqiang Yu, Yonggen Zhang
      Pages: 4736 - 4748
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDLittle attention has been paid on the inherent molecular structural effects among agricultural by-products. In this study, soybean meal (SM), wheat bran (WB), corn distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS), dry brewer's grain (DBG), wet brewer's grain (WBG), and apple pomace (AP), which are widely used in the animal industry were selected to explore protein and carbohydrate molecular structural conformations.RESULTSAll the protein peak heights (including α-helix and β-sheet) and areas were exhibited highest values in SM and lowest in AP. The SM had the highest peak area intensity of cellulosic compounds (CELC), while the remaining varieties showed the lowest absorbance level. The TSCHO (sum of structural carbohydrate (SCHO) and CELC area exhibited variations among the samples. Multivariate comparisons showed AP had no molecular structural association with other by-products within the protein amide region. Protein amides I, II and (I+II) areas, α-helix, β-sheet and area ratio of protein amide and (TSCHO + TCHO) had strong relationships with CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, SCP, starch, PC, CA, CC and TDN contents.CONCLUSIONInherent molecular structures varied among the selected by-product types and they might be used as potential predictors of nutritive factors, especially for protein structural information. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T06:40:31.527998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7791
  • Structural characterization and bioactivity of proanthocyanidins from
           indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum)
    • Authors: Gong-Min Lin; Huan-You Lin, Chia-Yun Hsu, Shang-Tzen Chang
      Pages: 4749 - 4759
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDBarks and twigs of common species of cinnamon with abundant proanthocyanidins are used as a spice, fold medicine or supplement. Cinnamomum osmophloeum is an endemic species in Taiwan and coumarin was not detected in the oil of the C. osmophloeum twig. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the bioactivities and proanthocyanidins of C. osmophloeum twig extracts (CoTE). The n-butanol soluble fraction from CoTE was divided into 10 subfractions (F1–F10) by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography. The antihyperglycemic activities were examined by α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory assays. Total antioxidant activities were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating assays.RESULTSThe results revealed that subfractions F6–F10, with high proanthocyanidin contents, showed excellent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Subfractions F6–F10 were analyzed further by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry and thiolysis-reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. The results showed that the mean degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins in subfractions F6–F10 ranged from 3.5 to 5.1, with the highest degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins reaching 8 in subfractions F8–F10. Two compounds in F6 were identified as cinnamtannin B1 and parameritannin A1. These proanthocyanidins contained at least one A-type and major B-type linkages.CONCLUSIONThese results demonstrate that proanthocyanidins are associated with their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in CoTE. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T03:00:30.431621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7802
  • Optimization of the process of aromatic and medicinal plant maceration in
           grape marc distillates to obtain herbal liqueurs and spirits
    • Authors: Raquel Rodríguez-Solana; Laura Vázquez-Araújo, José Manuel Salgado, José Manuel Domínguez, Sandra Cortés-Diéguez
      Pages: 4760 - 4771
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHerbal liqueurs are alcoholic beverages produced by the maceration or distillation of aromatic and medicinal plants in alcohol, and are also highly valued for their medicinal properties. The process conditions, as well as the number and quantity of the plants employed, will have a great influence on the quality of the liqueur obtained. The aim of this research was to optimize these important variables.RESULTSA Box–Benhken experimental design was used to evaluate the independent variables: alcohol content, amount of plant and time during the experimental maceration of plants in grape marc distillate. Four plants were assessed, with the main compound of each plant representing the dependent variable evaluated with respect to following the evolution of the maceration process. Bisabolol oxide A in Matricaria recutita L., linalool in Coriander sativum L. and eucalyptol in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. were quantified using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra L was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Other dependent variables were also evaluated: total phenolic content, color parameters and consumer preference (i.e. appearance).CONCLUSIONThe experimental designs allowed the selection of the optimal maceration conditions for each parameter, including the preference score of consumers: 70% (v/v) of ethanol, 40 g L−1 plant concentration and a maceration process of 3 weeks. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T01:40:37.87298-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7822
  • The kinetic of key phytochemical compounds of non-heading and heading
           leafy Brassica oleracea landraces as affected by traditional cooking
    • Authors: Elisa Giambanelli; Ruud Verkerk, L Filippo D'Antuono, Teresa Oliviero
      Pages: 4772 - 4784
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDKales are often a key ingredient of traditional foods, containing high amounts of indolic glucosinolates (precursors of indole-3-carbinol and ascorbigen), carotenoids and phenolics. The present trend to associate traditional foods crops with health-promoting properties suggested to investigate the degradation kinetic of three Brassica oleracea landraces' phytochemicals subjected to boiling, steaming and stir-frying.RESULTSBoiling led to substantial losses due to leaching. Glucosinolates followed a second-order degradation kinetic (20% of their initial values after 10 min in Nero di Toscana). Phenolic content in leaves + cooking water remained unchanged, whereas their antioxidant capacity was reduced. Carotenoid content increased during the first minutes of boiling. Steaming showed the highest retention of phytochemicals, with often zero-order degradation kinetic, having however a strong effect on colour. Stir-frying produced high losses for all measured compounds; also, β-carotene reduced its content to 10–23% independently of variety. Conversion values for indole-derived compounds ranged from non-detectable to 23.5%.CONCLUSIONVariety strongly affected observed degradation rates because of a different glucosinolate composition and leaf structure. With this research, more information has been gained on the degradation kinetic of B. oleracea landraces' phytochemical compounds upon cooking, highlighting the possibility of improving bioactive component retention. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T02:10:33.281841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7844
  • Optimal pretreatment determination of kiwifruit drying via online
    • Authors: Mohammad Hossein Nadian; Mohammad Hossein Abbaspour-Fard, Hassan Sadrnia, Mahmood Reza Golzarian, Mohammad Tabasizadeh
      Pages: 4785 - 4796
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPre-treating is a crucial stage of drying process. The best pretreatment for hot air drying of kiwifruit was investigated using a computer vision system (CVS), for online monitoring of drying attributes including drying time, colour changes and shrinkage, as decision criteria and using clustering method. Slices were dried at 70 °C with hot water blanching (HWB), steam blanching (SB), infrared blanching (IR) and acid ascorbic 1% w/w (AA) as pretreatments each with three durations of 5, 10 and 15 min.RESULTSThe results showed that the cells in HWB-pretreated samples stretched without any cell wall rupture, while the highest damage was observed in AA-pretreated kiwifruit microstructure. Increasing duration of AA and HWB significantly lengthened the drying time while SB showed opposite results. The drying rate had a profound effect on the progression of the shrinkage. The total colour change of pretreated samples was higher than those with no pretreatment except for AA and HWB. The AA could well prevent colour change during the initial stage of drying. Among all pretreatments, SB and IR had the highest colour changes.CONCLUSIONHWB with a duration of 5 min is the optimum pretreatment method for kiwifruit drying. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T04:46:22.127036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7856
  • Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the
           physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet
    • Authors: Karen Thang; Kimberlee Au, Cyril Rakovski, Anuradha Prakash
      Pages: 4828 - 4828
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T03:03:16.806445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8020
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