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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 248 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (181 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (181 journals)            First | 1 2     

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access  
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance & Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability Agri Food Environmental Research     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry
   [5 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1602 journals]   [SJR: 0.406]   [H-I: 25]
  • The Effect of Different Manures and Synthetic Fertilizer on Biochemical
           and Antimicrobial Properties of Mentha piperita L
    • Authors: Tugba Bayrak Ozbucak; Omer Erturk, Oktay Yildiz, Ali Bayrak, Meryem Kara, Huseyin Sahin, Mustafa Kiralan
      Abstract: The study was designed to examine the effects of different manures (fish, pigeon and cow) and synthetic fertilizer (nitrogen) on some biochemical activities of Mentha piperita L. (mint, peppermint). Seventeen different phenolic constituents and 19 essential oils were determined in M. piperita samples. While caffeic, gallic, ferulic, protocatechuic, syringic, o‐coumaric acids and rutin were detected as common phenolics; carvone, limonene and 1.8‐cineol were identified as major essential oil components in all mints. Total phenolic compounds, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cupric (III) reducing capacity (CUPRAC) tests were used to evaluate antioxidant capacities of the mints. The highest total phenolic compound (4.8 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g) and antioxidant capacity (971 mM Fe(II)/mg; 823 mM Trolox /100 g) were observed in mints fertilized with pigeon manure. Mint samples also had different antimicrobial activities against the studied microorganisms (eight bacteria and two fungi), especially Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Practical Applications M. piperita L. has been widely used since early times and its botanical extracts were being employed to treat diseases. These extracts need to be investigated to understand how their properties are effected by different manures and fertilizers. So the findings of this research will enable M. piperita L. breeders to cultivate this plant with high biological activity.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T03:04:54.525074-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12069
  • Phytochemical Constituents and Antiarthritic Activity of Ehretia laevis
    • Authors: Sivasankari Velappan; Parimelazhagan Thangaraj
      Abstract: Present experimental analysis showed that the stem bark, leaves and fruits of Ehretia laevis were potent sources of amino acids, proteins, lipids and minerals like Ca, Na, NH3, Mg, Fe, Mn, K, P, Zn, Cu and Si. Total phenolics (97.21 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) content in leaves, tannins (64.12 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/g) in stem bark, flavonoids (57.23 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g) and vitamin C (56.09 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g) in fruits were found as the highest quantities trapped in the solvent methanol. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of the methanol extract of the stem bark, leaves and fruits showed the presence of acontanes, decanoic acids, phthalic acid, phytol, α and β amyrin, piperazine, phenylephrine, etc. The methanolic extract of the leaves was found to be an effective antiarthritic agent. In mice, E. laevis leaf methanol extract (500 mg/kg) inhibited the rise in paw volume by 56%, paw edema to 60%, and also helped maintain the body weight and regulated the altered hematological parameters. Practical Applications There are a few reports on the uses of different parts of Ehretia laevis as food, fodder and as herbal remedy for some health problems such as anthelmintic, astringent, diuretic, demulcent, expectorant, skin diseases and inflammations. The present study would scientifically validate the medicinal value of this potent plant. The phenolics and other phytochemicals present in this plant could prove it to be a potent diet. Chromatographic analysis of the phytochemicals and the antiarthritic study of the different parts of E. laevis will help to reveal their medicinal properties. It has been reported that the bark, leaves and fruits of this plant are edible, and this study will increase its value as a dietary supplement for humans as well as cattle, and could help in producing beneficial herbal products in the years to come.
      PubDate: 2014-06-10T05:08:09.167185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12071
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2014-06-04T04:01:12.404864-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12052
  • Paramyosin from the Disc Abalone Haliotis Discus Discus
    • Authors: Midori Suzuki; Keiko Shimizu, Yukihiro Kobayashi, Shoichiro Ishizaki, Kazuo Shiomi
      Abstract: Besides tropomyosin that represents a major allergen in mollusks as well as in crustaceans, a 100‐kDa allergen was recently found in the disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and identified as paramyosin, an invertebrate‐specific myofibrillar protein. In this study, the amino acid sequence (860 residues) of disc abalone paramyosin was elucidated by cDNA cloning. As high as 70% amino acid sequence homology was recognized between disc abalone and Mediterranean mussel paramyosins, supporting the previously suggested immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross‐reactivity between both paramyosins. Disc abalone paramyosin was expressed in Escherichia coli as a HisGln (HQ)‐tagged protein. As analyzed by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant preparation was judged to have almost the same IgE‐binding ability as its natural counterpart. Practical Applications This study showed that sufficient amounts of the recombinant disc abalone paramyosin can be obtained in a relatively short time whenever needed. The recombinant disc abalone paramyosin is comparable in IgE‐binding ability to the natural counterpart and hence could be used as an alternative antigen of the natural counterpart for molecular studies and diagnosis of mollusk allergy.
      PubDate: 2014-06-03T23:05:43.097577-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12072
  • Health‐Promoting Components and Related Enzyme Activities of
           Muskmelon Fruit During its Development and Ripening
    • Authors: Soumya V. Menon; T.V. Ramana Rao
      Abstract: The present investigation aimed to determine the sugars (reducing, nonreducing) and antioxidants, such as phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids and total antioxidant activity, as well as activities of various enzymes related to these biochemical components in muskmelon at its different developmental stages. The quantity of phenolic compounds (total phenols, total polyphenols) and lycopene was accumulated significantly in ripened stage of muskmelon fruit. The highest levels of activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and sucrose synthase were recorded in the fruit thereby indicating positive correlation with the sucrose accumulation as fruit approaches ripening. β‐galactosidase, polygalacturonase and cellulase exhibited their positive relation with the softening process. Hence, the present study confirms the muskmelon fruit as a nutritionally balanced source of sugars and antioxidants. Practical Application The present study has importance from its practical perspective as the comprehensive assessment of sugars, antioxidants and their related enzymes of muskmelon revealed this fruit as a nutritionally potential one. Antioxidants present in the muskmelon fruit scavenge free radicals and thereby protect its consumers. In the present study, the accumulation of phenols and polyphenols confirms their health‐promoting role in muskmelon beyond basic nutrition. Therefore, orange‐fleshed muskmelon fruit extracts have the potential to be developed into nutraceuticals and dietary supplements. Furthermore, identification of health‐promoting properties of muskmelon fruit may encourage its increased production and consumption.
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T22:22:32.790641-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12068
  • Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for GM Rice and GM Rice‐Derived
           Food Products In China
    • Authors: Wei Zhang; Fuguo Xing, Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj, Yang Liu
      Abstract: Three cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) methods, an alkaline lysis method and two commercial kits from Tiangen and Tiandz were used to extract DNA from GM rice with Cry1Ab. DNA yield, purity and amplifiability from the six methods were compared. The results revealed that the DNA extraction methods affected DNA quality and quantity. The alkaline lysis method gave the highest DNA yield, while the CTAB‐III method and the two kits produced DNA of high purity, integrity and amplifiability. These results suggested that the CTAB‐III method and the two kits were suitable for extraction of rice DNA for polymerase chain reaction. The CTAB‐III method and the two kits were used to extract DNA from rice crackers. The results revealed that the Tiandz kit gave the highest DNA quality and quantity from rice crackers with lower cost and lesser time in DNA extraction and analysis. Therefore, the Tiandz kit is suitable for the extraction of DNA from GM rice and GM rice‐derived food products. Practical Applications The research yielded information about the effect of six different DNA extraction methods. The objectives of the present study were to obtain a suitable DNA extraction method for extraction of rice or rice‐derived DNA for PCR. The result showed that the Tiandz kit was suitable for the extraction of DNA from GM rice and GM rice‐derived food products.
      PubDate: 2014-03-31T03:46:17.097976-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12065
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Activity of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin through
           Heme Oxygenase‐1 Induction in Raw264.7 Macrophages
    • Authors: Younghwa Kim; Junsoo Lee
      Abstract: Capsaicin (CAP) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) are major pungent components of hot peppers with various biological activities such as anticancer, anti‐obesity and anti‐inflammatory properties. We focused on the involvement of heme oxygenase‐1 (HO‐1) in the anti‐inflammatory activity of CAP and DHC in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)‐stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that both CAP and DHC inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase protein and mRNA expression in LPS‐stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, both CAP and DHC increased HO‐1 protein expression. The inhibition of NO production by treatment with CAP and DHC was attenuated by blocking HO‐1 activity. This study provide evidence to support the important role of HO‐1 in the anti‐inflammatory activity of CAP and DHC. Practical Applications CAP and DHC are major pungent components of hot peppers. They have been subjected to extensive experimental and clinical investigations because of their various pharmacological and toxicological properties. In this study, the anti‐inflammatory mechanism of CAP and DHC was evaluated in RAW264.7 macrophages. Our results revealed that CAP and DHC exert anti‐inflammatory activities by activating HO‐1. Also, these data provides further insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities and pharmacological use of CAP and DHC.
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T05:00:23.375187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12064
  • Changes in Plasma Phenolic Metabolites of Rats Administered Different
           Molecular‐Weight Polyphenol Fractions from Chinese Quince Fruit
    • Authors: Yasunori Hamauzu; Kazutoshi Nakamura
      Abstract: Chinese quince is a medicinal fruit rich in polyphenols. We investigated the effects of oral administration of Chinese quince polyphenols extracted with boiling water on plasma phenolic metabolites in rats. Plasma vanillic acid concentration increased for 6 h after administration of both low molecular‐weight polyphenolic fraction (LMW‐F) and high molecular‐weight polyphenolic fraction (HMW‐F). The increase in plasma vanillic acid in the HMW‐F group was 2.1 times greater than that in the LMW‐F group. (–)‐Epicatechin and 3‐hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were detected only in the plasma of the LMW‐F group. Plasma concentrations of protocatechuic and 3‐hydroxyphenylacetic acids increased 2 h after administration of LMW‐F, whereas only a slight increase after 6 h was observed in the HMW‐F group. These results suggest that LMW‐F could potentially increase various plasma metabolites, including (–)‐epicatechin, and that HMW‐F, which mainly consists of procyanidin polymers, could increase plasma vanillic acid after ingestion. Practical Applications Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis) fruit has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicinal foods. According to the results of our animal experiments, Chinese quince polyphenols extracted with boiling water can increase plasma vanillic acid concentration after ingestion. Vanillic acid has various potential health benefits including anti‐inflammatory properties. Hence Chinese quince could be a source of vanillic acid, a pharmacological factor in vivo.
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T22:02:48.976495-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12067
  • Characterization of Antioxidants and Hypoglycemic Potential of Pomegranate
           Grown in India: A Preliminary Investigation
    • Authors: Charanjit Kaur; R. K. Pal, Abhijit Kar, Chirag Gadi, Sangita Sen, Praveen Kumar, Ram Chandra, Sarika Jaiswal, Islam Khan
      Abstract: Six pomegranate varieties (Mridula, Bhagwa, Ganesh, Jyoti, G‐137, Kandhari) grown in semiarid regions of India were studied for biochemical parameters including total antioxidant content and antioxidant activities. Total antioxidant activities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (5.54–7.67 μmol TE/g), cupric reducing antioxidant power (7.87–16.24 μmol TE/g) and 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (8.98–15.47 μmol TE/g) assays. Hypoglycemic potential was evaluated using α‐glucosidase inhibitory assay and color attributes using L*, a*, b*, hue angle and chroma values. Total phenolics, flavonoid and anthocyanin content range of 87.62–153.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, 8.54–23.99 mg QE/100g and 6.45–457.99 mg/kg, respectively. Total soluble solid, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid content varied between 15.72 and 18.18 Brix, 0.24 and 0.28%, 2.83 and 3.20, and 3.68 and 13.65 mg/100 g, respectively. However both “Mridula” and “Bhagwa” had the highest content of total phenolics, flavonoids, total anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic potential. Overall, antioxidant composition of pomegranate, especially total phenolics and total anthocyanin content, could provide an attractive strategy to manage postprandial hyperglycemia. Practical Applications Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type II diabetes mellitus and complications associated with the disease. The enzyme α‐glucosidase is a key enzyme responsible for the increase in blood glucose level. α‐Glucosidase inhibitors from natural food sources are an attractive strategy for managing postprandial hyperglycemia. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of total antioxidant content and activity in terms of free radical scavenging and reducing capacities of six different pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties grown in semiarid regions of India. Total anthocyanin and total phenolics content of pomegranate varieties reported in this study make them potential candidates for managing postprandial hyperglycemia related to type II diabetes.
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T22:02:47.074252-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12066
  • Methods of Analysis of Food Components and Additives. Editor: Semih
           Ötleş. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Florida,
           2011. 512 pages.
    • Authors: Widiastuti Setyaningsih
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-01-19T20:33:51.493248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12061
  • In Vitro Calcium‐Chelating and Platelet Anti‐Aggregation
           Activities of Soy Protein Hydrolysate Modified by the
           Alcalase‐Catalyzed Plastein Reaction
    • Authors: Mei-Ling Zhang; Xin-Huai Zhao
      First page: 374
      Abstract: Soy protein hydrolysate (SPH) (1 mg/mL), generated by alcalase, had a calcium‐chelating activity of 41 mg/g peptide. The alcalase‐catalyzed plastein reaction of SPH was carried out in different media: ethanol–water, methanol–water and water. The effects of SPH and of resulting modified hydrolysates on calcium‐chelating activities and inhibition of calcium precipitation and platelet aggregation were assessed in vitro. The optimum ethanol concentration, alcalase level and reaction temperature for the plastein reaction was 56.8% v/v, 5.26 kU/g peptide and 33.1C, respectively. The modified hydrolysates had better calcium‐chelating activities and stronger inhibition of calcium precipitation and platelet aggregation than SPH. The modified hydrolysate with the highest calcium‐chelating activity showed the strongest inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and calcium precipitation. The plastein reaction enhances the in vitro calcium‐chelating and platelet anti‐aggregation activities of SPH. Practical Applications In this study, an alcalase‐catalyzed plastein reaction carried out in three media (ethanol–water, methanol–water and water) was used to modify the in vitro calcium‐chelating and platelet anti‐aggregation activities of an alcalase‐generated soy protein hydrolysate. The results revealed that the modified hydrolysates of higher calcium‐chelating activity had stronger inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and calcium precipitation. The results of this study provide further insight on the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive peptides of higher activity using the plastein reaction.
      PubDate: 2014-02-15T06:53:11.851113-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12063
  • A Comparative Study on Antioxidant Potentials of Some Leafy Vegetables
           Consumed Widely in India
    • Authors: Aritra Simlai; Kashinath Chatterjee, Amit Roy
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The antioxidant activities with respect to the 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)‐radical scavenging activity and reducing activity were assessed and compared for seven edible leafy vegetables (Enhydra fluctuans, Glinus oppositifolius, Amaranthus sp.1, Amaranthus sp.2, Amaranthus spinosus, Ipomoea aquatica and Corchorus sp.) widely consumed in India, especially West Bengal state. Phytochemical analysis of these vegetables revealed the presence of phenolics (gallic acid equivalents 2.87–61.85 mg/g), flavonoids (quercetin equivalents 2.75–406.98 mg/g) and tannins (tannic acid equivalents 7.39–32.52 mg/g). Two of the samples, E. fluctuans and Corchorus sp. exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activities (>70%) with significant IC50 values of 65.04 and 128.95 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts of these two species were also found to possess significant Fe3+‐reducing activities. The constituents of the extracts were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the positions of the antioxidative active fractions were determined using TLC bioautography followed by spraying with DPPH solution. The study suggested E. fluctuans and Corchorus sp. to be potential sources of antioxidative compounds. Practical Applications Concerns regarding the use of synthetic antioxidants as preservatives in the food industry, because of their toxicity and harmful health hazards, have resulted in the limitation of their usage in the food industry. This has necessitated urgent search for novel antioxidative compounds of natural origin for use as food supplements as well as preservatives in the food industry. Many of the fruits and vegetables consumed daily possess significant antioxidant activities and are good sources of natural antioxidative compounds. The selected seven leafy vegetables, all of which are widely consumed in India, were studied with respect to their relative antioxidative potentials. Accordingly, E. fluctuans followed by Corchorus sp. were found to have the best potential as sources of natural antioxidative compounds for uses in nutraceutical and food industry.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T01:30:37.83008-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12062
  • Determination of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity in Butterhead
           Lettuce Related to Leaf Age and Position
    • Authors: Gabriela Elena Viacava; Gustavo Gonzalez‐Aguilar, Sara Inés Roura
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The effect of leaf position on phytochemical distribution in butterhead lettuce was assessed by rings (from ring 1: outer leaves, to ring 6: inner leaves) or by zones (external, middle, internal). Maximum ascorbic acid was found in middle rings while chlorophyll and carotenoids gradually decreased from external to internal rings. Outermost leaves accumulate more phenolics and present more antioxidant activity as determined by 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox‐equivalent antioxidant capacity methods. However, the presence of phenolics in this zone also contributes to the enzymatic browning. Quantitative but not qualitative differences were found in the phenolic profiles between inner and outer lettuce zones. The major phenolic compounds identified were the phenolic acids chicoric, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic. For all phenolic compounds, greater content was always found in the external zone except for caffeic acid. A high correlation between DPPH and total phenolics, chlorophyll and carotenes indicated that these compounds were major contributors of antioxidant activity in lettuce. Practical Application During lettuce development, each leaf had a different level of exposure to environmental conditions (light, humidity, nutrients absorption and temperature) and also inner leaves are younger than outer ones. These factors may affect the distribution of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity in the lettuce head. Knowledge of the bioactive content and antioxidant capacity profile in lettuce plants could be of interest to consumers and the food industry for selecting the more suitable leaves to make salads or other ready‐to‐eat mixed vegetable dishes with high nutritional value. Additionally this study reveals, from a nutritional point of view, the losses value of regular greengrocers' practices that include the removal of the external lettuce leaves as storage advances and signs of senescence are evident.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T01:30:34.940444-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12060
  • Thermal Stability of Chicken Keel Bone Collagen
    • Authors: J.N. Losso; M. Ogawa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Acid‐soluble and pepsin‐solubilized collagen were isolated from chicken keel bone and analyzed by electrophoresis and circular dichroism. The denaturation temperature of chicken keel bone was determined by circular dichroism and compared to denaturation temperature of black drum or alligator bone. Our results show that collagen from chicken keel bone is a mixture of type II and type I, has predominantly the amino acids glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, and its secondary structure is predominantly triple‐helix. The onset of the denaturation temperature is 37C; at 44C, 50% of the collagen is denatured and the denaturation is complete at 48.8C making it the highest of vertebrate collagen denaturation temperatures reported in the literature. The high heat stability of chicken keel bone collagen may be in part ascribed to its imino acid content. Because of the high heat stability and low methionine content, chicken keel bone collagen is a high value‐added product with several biochemical and biomedical applications. Practical Applications The denaturation temperature of chicken keel bone collagen is above body temperature and allows applications in cosmetics where other types of collagen may be denatured because of their low denaturation temperature. Chicken type II collagen is well tolerated by patients with rheumatoid arthritis and is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Methionine‐restricted diet inhibits the growth of solid tumor such as gastric cancer, glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma. Chicken type collagen may be a medical food for patients with solid tumors mentioned above.
      PubDate: 2013-12-09T05:41:50.162721-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12059
  • The Role of Ethylene and Calcium in Programmed Cell Death of
           Cold‐Stored Cucumber Fruit
    • Authors: JingXin Chen; YuYing Zhao, XiaoHong Chen, Yan Peng, Brandon M. Hurr, LinChun Mao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during plant development and in response to various stimuli, including biotic and abiotic stresses. Characteristics of PCD were detected in cucumber fruit after 9 days of cold storage at 2C, including chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. PCD development was accompanied by ethylene emission and cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) release. The role of ethylene production and [Ca2+]cyt in chill‐induced PCD were studied through the application of 1‐methylcyclopropene (1‐MCP; an ethylene perception inhibitor) and ethylene glycol bis (2‐aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA; a divalent cation chelator). Results indicated that hallmarks of PCD were identified in cucumber fruit suffering from chilling stress and diagnostic events of PCD were alleviated and/or delayed by 1‐MCP or EGTA applications. Therefore, ethylene and calcium could play significant roles in the initiation and execution progress of cold‐induced PCD. Practical Applications Cucumber fruit is chilling sensitive at temperatures below 10C. It has also been showed that exogenous ethylene could induce PCD features in cucumber fruits and [Ca2+]cyt plays a key role in regulating apoptosis. However, information about roles of endogenous ethylene and calcium in the PCD process of cucumber under cold stress has been rarely reported. The data in this study provided a theoretical basis for understanding the mechanism of chilling injury in cucumber fruit and benefited exploration of strategies to prevent it.
      PubDate: 2013-11-26T06:30:50.301417-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12058
  • Correlation of the Structure and Bioactivity of Recombinant Fungal
           Immunomodulatory Protein, Ling‐Zhi‐8 (LZ‐8) Following
           Exposure to Denaturing Conditions
    • Authors: Wei‐Ning Huang; Cheng‐Yao Yang, Dz‐Chi Chen, Lu‐Te Chuang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Ling‐Zhi‐8 (LZ‐8), a low‐molecular weight protein from Ganoderma lucidum, exerts immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure of LZ‐8 to denaturing conditions on its ability to suppress inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Ultraviolet, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy analyses showed that LZ‐8 was not denatured by exposure to pH extremes, but was irreversibly denatured by temperatures above 55C. LZ‐8 lowered the production of nitric oxide and interleukin‐6, but had no effect on the level of tumor necrosis factor‐α. Heat and acid/alkali‐treated preparations of LZ‐8 had comparable capacity to suppress proinflammatory mediator production. Since native and denatured LZ‐8 were both anti‐inflammatory, it appears that this particular biological property of LZ‐8 is not dependent on the native structure of the protein, but, possibly on a relatively small peptide domain of LZ‐8. Practical Applications Recent evidence suggests that LZ‐8, a small protein originally isolated from G. lucidum, has immunomodulatory and anti‐carcinogenic properties. In this study, LZ‐8 exerted an anti‐inflammatory effect on LPS‐stimulated macrophages, but this effect was not dependent on the native protein structure, suggesting that the entire protein might not be responsible for the bioactive properties of LZ‐8. Since the biological functions of LZ‐8 were resistant to heating and exposure to acid or alkali, LZ‐8 could have applications in food‐processing industries and the production of pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, peptides derived from LZ‐8 may be potential targets for development of novel anti‐carcinogenic and immunomodulatory agents.
      PubDate: 2013-10-15T10:25:09.264394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12057
  • Distribution and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Boiled Unripe
           Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Pulps
    • Authors: S.A. Shodehinde; G. Oboh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in boiled unripe plantain pulp and to characterize their antioxidant properties. The free phenolic of the boiled plantain was extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolic was extracted from the alkaline‐ and acid‐hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were subsequently determined, while the antioxidant properties as typified by their 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, 2,2‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonate) [ABTS]●, Fe(II)‐chelating ability, OH radical‐scavenging ability and reducing power were assessed. The results revealed that the free phenolic content of the boiled plantain was significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2013-10-15T10:20:20.99854-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12047
  • Purification of a Trypsin‐Like Enzyme and Cloning of Its Gene from
           Chinese Ground Beetle (Eupolyphaga sinensis)
    • Authors: Mingxing Huang; Yun Ye, Yali Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An insect trypsin‐like enzyme with similar biochemical properties to psychrophilic analogs was purified from Chinese ground beetle (Eupolyphaga sinensis) for the first time. The purified trypsin‐like enzyme was designated as E. sinensis trypsin‐like enzyme (ESTL) with molecular weight of 22.8 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The maximal activity of ESTL was observed at pH 9.5, and the temperature optimum of ESTL was observed at 45C by its amidolytic effect on the substrate benzoyl‐L‐Arg‐p‐nitroanilide. The analysis of inhibitors showed that specific inhibitor of serine proteases (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride) and trypsin inhibitors (tosyl–lysine chloromethyl ketone, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and benzamidine) inactivated ESTL almost completely. Over the range of tested temperature of 10–30C, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the ESTL was about five times than that of bovine trypsin. The N‐terminal sequencing of ESTL revealed the following sequence: I1VGGSTTTIQ10NFPYQVSL, and the complementary DNA (cDNA) of ESTL was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Practical Applications In recent years, increasing attention has been drawn to the psychrophilic (cold‐adapted) enzymes. Psychrophilic trypsins with high activity may be interesting for several industrial applications of enzymes, such as in certain food‐processing operations that require low‐processing temperatures. For example, cod trypsin is already used in food production and cosmetics. In this article, a trypsin‐like enzyme [Eupolyphaga sinensis trypsin‐like enzyme (ESTL) ] was purified from Chinese ground beetle by a relatively simple method, and the complementary DNA (cDNA) of this enzyme was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. This enzyme was characterized for molecular and enzymatic properties, as demonstrated that it had high activity at low and moderate temperature compared with the mammalian trypsins, and maintained good thermal stability compared with psychrophilic trypsins. ESTL has potential interest in food industry.
      PubDate: 2013-10-15T10:11:07.859891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12056
  • Antioxidant, Anti‐Inflammatory and Antiproliferative Activity of
           Angelica Dahurica Root Extracts
    • Authors: Mehnaz Pervin; MD Abul Hasnat, Trishna Debnath, Sa Ra Park, Da Hye Kim, Beong Ou Lim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Angelica dahurica (Umbelliferae) is widely used as a herbal ingredient in functional foods and folk medicine. This study was designed to examine the antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of water and ethanol extracts of A. dahurica (AD) root. Antioxidant properties of AD root extracts were studied using methods, including 2′‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonate) (ABTS) and hydroxide radical‐scavenging activity at a dose of 0.12–2.0 mg/mL. The IC50 values for DPPH and ABTS radical‐scavenging activity were 0.32 and 0.20 mg/mL, respectively, for water extract and 0.24 and 0.13 mg/mL, respectively, for ethanol extract. Lipid peroxidation was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The extracts also showed strong reducing power, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and DNA damage prevention. AD root extracts inhibited the production of nitric oxide in a dose‐dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide‐treated RAW264.7 cells. The water and ethanol extracts of AD root also showed significant antiproliferative activity against HT‐29 and CMT‐93 cell lines. Practical Applications In this study, the biological potentials of different extracts from Angelica dahurica roots (water and ethanol extracts) were evaluated. The roots could be useful as antioxidants and for treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies associated with overproduction of nitric oxide. The results suggest that A. dahurica contains excellent antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and antiproliferative properties that can provide opportunities for application of A. dahurica root extracts in areas such as food, pharmacy, alternative medicine and natural therapy.
      PubDate: 2013-08-28T23:11:06.270465-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12046
  • Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Pachymaran Derivatives
    • Authors: Xia Li; Wen‐Yuan Gao, Yu Cao, Jing‐Guo Cao, Li‐Ming Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, carboxymethyl, sulfated and carboxymethyl‐sulfated derivatives of pachymaran were prepared. According to the results of chemical analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrums, the modification was successful. The scanning electron microscopy suggested that the structure of native pachymaran was damaged when the samples were treated with different chemical reagents. The antioxidant activities of all the samples were investigated including ferric‐reducing power assay, superoxide scavenging assay, hydroxyl scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The result indicated that different derivatives exhibited different antioxidant activity on free radicals. The carboxymethylpachymaran showed stronger antioxidant activity on hydroxyl radical (EC50 = 2.3 mg/mL) than sulfated pachymaran but lower ability on superoxide anion (EC50 = 2.5 mg/mL). While, compared with carboxymethylpachymaran and sulfated pachymaran, carboxymethyl‐sulfated pachymaran showed the highest antioxidant abilities on ferric‐reducing power, hydroxyl radicals scavenging (79.4%), superoxide radicals scavenging (84.2%) and lipid peroxidation inhibition (63.2%) of the three derivatives. Practical Application Poria cocos, namely Fuling, has been widely accepted as a traditional health‐maintaining food in the Orient, e.g., in China, Japan and Korea, and has many culinary and medical uses such as anti‐inflammatory, antitumor, complement activating and immune stimulating activities. Fungi polysaccharides are now being considered to be a rich source of antioxidants, and the modified pachymaran can be widely used in the medicinal, functional food and other industries.
      PubDate: 2013-08-27T23:01:53.731349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12049
  • In Vitro Inhibitory Potential Against Key Enzymes Relevant for
           Hyperglycemia and Hypertension of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
           Including Pericarp, Placenta, and Stalk
    • Authors: Lei Chen; Young‐Hwa Kang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Extracts from the pericarp, placenta and stalk of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L) were investigated to determine their antioxidant and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. We examined the total phenolic and capsaicin content in red pepper extract. Anti‐hyperglycemia relevant in vitro α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity correlated strongly to the antioxidant activity measured by the 1, 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl method. The high phenolic and capsaicin content‐containing red pepper stalk was found to have strong α‐amylase and strong α‐glucosidase inhibitory effects. The pericarp and placenta had high angiotensin I‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and also had good α‐glucosidase inhibitory profiles. Inhibition of these enzymes provides a strong biochemical basis for the management of type 2 diabetes by controlling glucose absorption and reducing associated hypertension, respectively. Practical Applications The inhibitory effect on key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia (α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase) and hypertension (ACE) of the red pepper pericarp, placenta and stalk was investigated in this study. The in vitro inhibitory activities of α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and ACE provide a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies for type 2 diabetes through the control of glucose absorption and for the reduction of the associated hypertension. Furthermore, red pepper stalk, which has always been considered as an agricultural waste product, was an effective inhibitor of α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase. This study shows the potential of this agricultural waste product as a food additive and therapeutic agent for clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2013-08-19T00:53:13.621368-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12048
  • Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Activities of Tannin Fraction of
           the Extract from Black Raspberry Seeds Compared to Grape Seeds
    • Authors: Miyoung Park; Hyunnho Cho, Hana Jung, Heejae Lee, Keum Taek Hwang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Black raspberry seed extract and its tannin fraction were characterized and their antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities were compared to grape seed extract and its tannin fraction. Tannin fraction of black raspberry seed extract was mostly composed of ellagitannins including pedunculagin, sanguiin H6 and H10 isomers and galloyl‐bis‐HHDP glucose isomer, while that of grape seed extract was composed of proanthocyanidins including proanthocyanidin dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, their monogallates and hexamers. Antioxidant activities of the tannin fraction of black raspberry seed extract, measured by polyphenol content, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS assays, were significantly higher than those of grape seed extract. Anti‐inflammatory activity of the tannin fraction of black raspberry seed extract, measured by NO assay, was also significantly higher than that of grape seed extract. The results indicate that black raspberry seeds have potential benefits as a source of natural antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory agents comparable to grape seeds. Practical Applications Black raspberry and grape fruits are widely consumed in various ways including wine, juice or raw fruits. Many byproducts, including seeds and wine pomace, are an attractive source of functional compounds. Our results show that the tannins extracted from the seeds have potential antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Thus, these results may help increase utilization of byproducts to make dietary supplements. This may also reduce the waste products generated by the industry and provide additional profit to farmers and manufacturers.
      PubDate: 2013-08-05T05:09:06.006986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12044
  • Influence of Roasting Conditions on the Antioxidant Characteristics of
           Colombian Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Beans
    • Authors: Ah Reum Cho; Kye Won Park, Ki Myong Kim, So Yeon Kim, Jaejoon Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We evaluated the effects of the degree of roasting on the antioxidant properties of brewed coffee. Light‐roasted coffee beans showed the highest antioxidant activity, and an approximately 40–80% loss of antioxidant activity was observed after further roasting. In addition, light‐roasted beans had significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to unroasted beans, suggesting the formation of Maillard reaction products and the release of bound polyphenols from plant cells. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the predominant compound in coffee brews, and that it was degraded with increasing roasting time. Our study demonstrated that light‐roasted coffee beans have the most desirable qualities with respect to antioxidative values. Practical Applications Based on our experiments, the light roasting of coffee beans produces antioxidant activity, but further roasting to medium, dark and very dark degrees decreases the antioxidant properties of coffee beans. Therefore, we concluded that light‐roasted coffee has better nutritional properties. This study examined the differences in the antioxidant properties of coffee beans roasted for different times.
      PubDate: 2013-08-05T02:12:15.729538-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12045
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