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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 244 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (9 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (55 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (180 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (180 journals)            First | 1 2     

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (2 followers)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (3 followers)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (1 follower)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (2 followers)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access  
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access  
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (5 followers)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (20 followers)
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (2 followers)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (7 followers)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (5 followers)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (3 followers)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (2 followers)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance & Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (1 follower)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (5 followers)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (2 followers)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (1 follower)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (3 followers)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (3 followers)
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  

  First | 1 2     

Journal of Food Biochemistry    [5 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1594 journals]   [SJR: 0.406]   [H-I: 25]
  • Methods of Analysis of Food Components and Additives. Editor: Semih
           Ötleş. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Florida,
           2011. 512 pages.
    • Authors: Widiastuti Setyaningsih
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-01-19T20:33:51.493248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12061
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: i - i
      PubDate: 2014-01-17T04:47:00.286909-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12050
       
  • A Comparative Study on Antioxidant Potentials of Some Leafy Vegetables
           Consumed Widely in India
    • Authors: Aritra Simlai; Kashinath Chatterjee, Amit Roy
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The antioxidant activities with respect to the 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)‐radical scavenging activity and reducing activity were assessed and compared for seven edible leafy vegetables (Enhydra fluctuans, Glinus oppositifolius, Amaranthus sp.1, Amaranthus sp.2, Amaranthus spinosus, Ipomoea aquatica and Corchorus sp.) widely consumed in India, especially West Bengal state. Phytochemical analysis of these vegetables revealed the presence of phenolics (gallic acid equivalents 2.87–61.85 mg/g), flavonoids (quercetin equivalents 2.75–406.98 mg/g) and tannins (tannic acid equivalents 7.39–32.52 mg/g). Two of the samples, E. fluctuans and Corchorus sp. exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activities (>70%) with significant IC50 values of 65.04 and 128.95 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts of these two species were also found to possess significant Fe3+‐reducing activities. The constituents of the extracts were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the positions of the antioxidative active fractions were determined using TLC bioautography followed by spraying with DPPH solution. The study suggested E. fluctuans and Corchorus sp. to be potential sources of antioxidative compounds. Practical Applications Concerns regarding the use of synthetic antioxidants as preservatives in the food industry, because of their toxicity and harmful health hazards, have resulted in the limitation of their usage in the food industry. This has necessitated urgent search for novel antioxidative compounds of natural origin for use as food supplements as well as preservatives in the food industry. Many of the fruits and vegetables consumed daily possess significant antioxidant activities and are good sources of natural antioxidative compounds. The selected seven leafy vegetables, all of which are widely consumed in India, were studied with respect to their relative antioxidative potentials. Accordingly, E. fluctuans followed by Corchorus sp. were found to have the best potential as sources of natural antioxidative compounds for uses in nutraceutical and food industry.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T01:30:37.83008-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12062
       
  • Determination of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity in Butterhead
           Lettuce Related to Leaf Age and Position
    • Authors: Gabriela Elena Viacava; Gustavo Gonzalez‐Aguilar, Sara Inés Roura
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The effect of leaf position on phytochemical distribution in butterhead lettuce was assessed by rings (from ring 1: outer leaves, to ring 6: inner leaves) or by zones (external, middle, internal). Maximum ascorbic acid was found in middle rings while chlorophyll and carotenoids gradually decreased from external to internal rings. Outermost leaves accumulate more phenolics and present more antioxidant activity as determined by 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox‐equivalent antioxidant capacity methods. However, the presence of phenolics in this zone also contributes to the enzymatic browning. Quantitative but not qualitative differences were found in the phenolic profiles between inner and outer lettuce zones. The major phenolic compounds identified were the phenolic acids chicoric, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic. For all phenolic compounds, greater content was always found in the external zone except for caffeic acid. A high correlation between DPPH and total phenolics, chlorophyll and carotenes indicated that these compounds were major contributors of antioxidant activity in lettuce. Practical Application During lettuce development, each leaf had a different level of exposure to environmental conditions (light, humidity, nutrients absorption and temperature) and also inner leaves are younger than outer ones. These factors may affect the distribution of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity in the lettuce head. Knowledge of the bioactive content and antioxidant capacity profile in lettuce plants could be of interest to consumers and the food industry for selecting the more suitable leaves to make salads or other ready‐to‐eat mixed vegetable dishes with high nutritional value. Additionally this study reveals, from a nutritional point of view, the losses value of regular greengrocers' practices that include the removal of the external lettuce leaves as storage advances and signs of senescence are evident.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T01:30:34.940444-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12060
       
  • Thermal Stability of Chicken Keel Bone Collagen
    • Authors: J.N. Losso; M. Ogawa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Acid‐soluble and pepsin‐solubilized collagen were isolated from chicken keel bone and analyzed by electrophoresis and circular dichroism. The denaturation temperature of chicken keel bone was determined by circular dichroism and compared to denaturation temperature of black drum or alligator bone. Our results show that collagen from chicken keel bone is a mixture of type II and type I, has predominantly the amino acids glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, and its secondary structure is predominantly triple‐helix. The onset of the denaturation temperature is 37C; at 44C, 50% of the collagen is denatured and the denaturation is complete at 48.8C making it the highest of vertebrate collagen denaturation temperatures reported in the literature. The high heat stability of chicken keel bone collagen may be in part ascribed to its imino acid content. Because of the high heat stability and low methionine content, chicken keel bone collagen is a high value‐added product with several biochemical and biomedical applications. Practical Applications The denaturation temperature of chicken keel bone collagen is above body temperature and allows applications in cosmetics where other types of collagen may be denatured because of their low denaturation temperature. Chicken type II collagen is well tolerated by patients with rheumatoid arthritis and is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Methionine‐restricted diet inhibits the growth of solid tumor such as gastric cancer, glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma. Chicken type collagen may be a medical food for patients with solid tumors mentioned above.
      PubDate: 2013-12-09T05:41:50.162721-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12059
       
  • The Role of Ethylene and Calcium in Programmed Cell Death of
           Cold‐Stored Cucumber Fruit
    • Authors: JingXin Chen; YuYing Zhao, XiaoHong Chen, Yan Peng, Brandon M. Hurr, LinChun Mao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during plant development and in response to various stimuli, including biotic and abiotic stresses. Characteristics of PCD were detected in cucumber fruit after 9 days of cold storage at 2C, including chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. PCD development was accompanied by ethylene emission and cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) release. The role of ethylene production and [Ca2+]cyt in chill‐induced PCD were studied through the application of 1‐methylcyclopropene (1‐MCP; an ethylene perception inhibitor) and ethylene glycol bis (2‐aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA; a divalent cation chelator). Results indicated that hallmarks of PCD were identified in cucumber fruit suffering from chilling stress and diagnostic events of PCD were alleviated and/or delayed by 1‐MCP or EGTA applications. Therefore, ethylene and calcium could play significant roles in the initiation and execution progress of cold‐induced PCD. Practical Applications Cucumber fruit is chilling sensitive at temperatures below 10C. It has also been showed that exogenous ethylene could induce PCD features in cucumber fruits and [Ca2+]cyt plays a key role in regulating apoptosis. However, information about roles of endogenous ethylene and calcium in the PCD process of cucumber under cold stress has been rarely reported. The data in this study provided a theoretical basis for understanding the mechanism of chilling injury in cucumber fruit and benefited exploration of strategies to prevent it.
      PubDate: 2013-11-26T06:30:50.301417-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12058
       
  • Correlation of the Structure and Bioactivity of Recombinant Fungal
           Immunomodulatory Protein, Ling‐Zhi‐8 (LZ‐8) Following
           Exposure to Denaturing Conditions
    • Authors: Wei‐Ning Huang; Cheng‐Yao Yang, Dz‐Chi Chen, Lu‐Te Chuang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Ling‐Zhi‐8 (LZ‐8), a low‐molecular weight protein from Ganoderma lucidum, exerts immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure of LZ‐8 to denaturing conditions on its ability to suppress inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Ultraviolet, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy analyses showed that LZ‐8 was not denatured by exposure to pH extremes, but was irreversibly denatured by temperatures above 55C. LZ‐8 lowered the production of nitric oxide and interleukin‐6, but had no effect on the level of tumor necrosis factor‐α. Heat and acid/alkali‐treated preparations of LZ‐8 had comparable capacity to suppress proinflammatory mediator production. Since native and denatured LZ‐8 were both anti‐inflammatory, it appears that this particular biological property of LZ‐8 is not dependent on the native structure of the protein, but, possibly on a relatively small peptide domain of LZ‐8. Practical Applications Recent evidence suggests that LZ‐8, a small protein originally isolated from G. lucidum, has immunomodulatory and anti‐carcinogenic properties. In this study, LZ‐8 exerted an anti‐inflammatory effect on LPS‐stimulated macrophages, but this effect was not dependent on the native protein structure, suggesting that the entire protein might not be responsible for the bioactive properties of LZ‐8. Since the biological functions of LZ‐8 were resistant to heating and exposure to acid or alkali, LZ‐8 could have applications in food‐processing industries and the production of pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, peptides derived from LZ‐8 may be potential targets for development of novel anti‐carcinogenic and immunomodulatory agents.
      PubDate: 2013-10-15T10:25:09.264394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12057
       
  • Distribution and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Boiled Unripe
           Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Pulps
    • Authors: S.A. Shodehinde; G. Oboh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in boiled unripe plantain pulp and to characterize their antioxidant properties. The free phenolic of the boiled plantain was extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolic was extracted from the alkaline‐ and acid‐hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were subsequently determined, while the antioxidant properties as typified by their 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, 2,2‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonate) [ABTS]●, Fe(II)‐chelating ability, OH radical‐scavenging ability and reducing power were assessed. The results revealed that the free phenolic content of the boiled plantain was significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2013-10-15T10:20:20.99854-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12047
       
  • Purification of a Trypsin‐Like Enzyme and Cloning of Its Gene from
           Chinese Ground Beetle (Eupolyphaga sinensis)
    • Authors: Mingxing Huang; Yun Ye, Yali Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An insect trypsin‐like enzyme with similar biochemical properties to psychrophilic analogs was purified from Chinese ground beetle (Eupolyphaga sinensis) for the first time. The purified trypsin‐like enzyme was designated as E. sinensis trypsin‐like enzyme (ESTL) with molecular weight of 22.8 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The maximal activity of ESTL was observed at pH 9.5, and the temperature optimum of ESTL was observed at 45C by its amidolytic effect on the substrate benzoyl‐L‐Arg‐p‐nitroanilide. The analysis of inhibitors showed that specific inhibitor of serine proteases (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride) and trypsin inhibitors (tosyl–lysine chloromethyl ketone, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and benzamidine) inactivated ESTL almost completely. Over the range of tested temperature of 10–30C, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the ESTL was about five times than that of bovine trypsin. The N‐terminal sequencing of ESTL revealed the following sequence: I1VGGSTTTIQ10NFPYQVSL, and the complementary DNA (cDNA) of ESTL was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Practical Applications In recent years, increasing attention has been drawn to the psychrophilic (cold‐adapted) enzymes. Psychrophilic trypsins with high activity may be interesting for several industrial applications of enzymes, such as in certain food‐processing operations that require low‐processing temperatures. For example, cod trypsin is already used in food production and cosmetics. In this article, a trypsin‐like enzyme [Eupolyphaga sinensis trypsin‐like enzyme (ESTL) ] was purified from Chinese ground beetle by a relatively simple method, and the complementary DNA (cDNA) of this enzyme was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. This enzyme was characterized for molecular and enzymatic properties, as demonstrated that it had high activity at low and moderate temperature compared with the mammalian trypsins, and maintained good thermal stability compared with psychrophilic trypsins. ESTL has potential interest in food industry.
      PubDate: 2013-10-15T10:11:07.859891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12056
       
  • Antioxidant, Anti‐Inflammatory and Antiproliferative Activity of
           Angelica Dahurica Root Extracts
    • Authors: Mehnaz Pervin; MD Abul Hasnat, Trishna Debnath, Sa Ra Park, Da Hye Kim, Beong Ou Lim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Angelica dahurica (Umbelliferae) is widely used as a herbal ingredient in functional foods and folk medicine. This study was designed to examine the antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of water and ethanol extracts of A. dahurica (AD) root. Antioxidant properties of AD root extracts were studied using methods, including 2′‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonate) (ABTS) and hydroxide radical‐scavenging activity at a dose of 0.12–2.0 mg/mL. The IC50 values for DPPH and ABTS radical‐scavenging activity were 0.32 and 0.20 mg/mL, respectively, for water extract and 0.24 and 0.13 mg/mL, respectively, for ethanol extract. Lipid peroxidation was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The extracts also showed strong reducing power, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and DNA damage prevention. AD root extracts inhibited the production of nitric oxide in a dose‐dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide‐treated RAW264.7 cells. The water and ethanol extracts of AD root also showed significant antiproliferative activity against HT‐29 and CMT‐93 cell lines. Practical Applications In this study, the biological potentials of different extracts from Angelica dahurica roots (water and ethanol extracts) were evaluated. The roots could be useful as antioxidants and for treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies associated with overproduction of nitric oxide. The results suggest that A. dahurica contains excellent antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and antiproliferative properties that can provide opportunities for application of A. dahurica root extracts in areas such as food, pharmacy, alternative medicine and natural therapy.
      PubDate: 2013-08-28T23:11:06.270465-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12046
       
  • Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Pachymaran Derivatives
    • Authors: Xia Li; Wen‐Yuan Gao, Yu Cao, Jing‐Guo Cao, Li‐Ming Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, carboxymethyl, sulfated and carboxymethyl‐sulfated derivatives of pachymaran were prepared. According to the results of chemical analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrums, the modification was successful. The scanning electron microscopy suggested that the structure of native pachymaran was damaged when the samples were treated with different chemical reagents. The antioxidant activities of all the samples were investigated including ferric‐reducing power assay, superoxide scavenging assay, hydroxyl scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The result indicated that different derivatives exhibited different antioxidant activity on free radicals. The carboxymethylpachymaran showed stronger antioxidant activity on hydroxyl radical (EC50 = 2.3 mg/mL) than sulfated pachymaran but lower ability on superoxide anion (EC50 = 2.5 mg/mL). While, compared with carboxymethylpachymaran and sulfated pachymaran, carboxymethyl‐sulfated pachymaran showed the highest antioxidant abilities on ferric‐reducing power, hydroxyl radicals scavenging (79.4%), superoxide radicals scavenging (84.2%) and lipid peroxidation inhibition (63.2%) of the three derivatives. Practical Application Poria cocos, namely Fuling, has been widely accepted as a traditional health‐maintaining food in the Orient, e.g., in China, Japan and Korea, and has many culinary and medical uses such as anti‐inflammatory, antitumor, complement activating and immune stimulating activities. Fungi polysaccharides are now being considered to be a rich source of antioxidants, and the modified pachymaran can be widely used in the medicinal, functional food and other industries.
      PubDate: 2013-08-27T23:01:53.731349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12049
       
  • In Vitro Inhibitory Potential Against Key Enzymes Relevant for
           Hyperglycemia and Hypertension of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
           Including Pericarp, Placenta, and Stalk
    • Authors: Lei Chen; Young‐Hwa Kang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Extracts from the pericarp, placenta and stalk of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L) were investigated to determine their antioxidant and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. We examined the total phenolic and capsaicin content in red pepper extract. Anti‐hyperglycemia relevant in vitro α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity correlated strongly to the antioxidant activity measured by the 1, 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl method. The high phenolic and capsaicin content‐containing red pepper stalk was found to have strong α‐amylase and strong α‐glucosidase inhibitory effects. The pericarp and placenta had high angiotensin I‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and also had good α‐glucosidase inhibitory profiles. Inhibition of these enzymes provides a strong biochemical basis for the management of type 2 diabetes by controlling glucose absorption and reducing associated hypertension, respectively. Practical Applications The inhibitory effect on key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia (α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase) and hypertension (ACE) of the red pepper pericarp, placenta and stalk was investigated in this study. The in vitro inhibitory activities of α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and ACE provide a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies for type 2 diabetes through the control of glucose absorption and for the reduction of the associated hypertension. Furthermore, red pepper stalk, which has always been considered as an agricultural waste product, was an effective inhibitor of α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase. This study shows the potential of this agricultural waste product as a food additive and therapeutic agent for clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2013-08-19T00:53:13.621368-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12048
       
  • Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Activities of Tannin Fraction of
           the Extract from Black Raspberry Seeds Compared to Grape Seeds
    • Authors: Miyoung Park; Hyunnho Cho, Hana Jung, Heejae Lee, Keum Taek Hwang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Black raspberry seed extract and its tannin fraction were characterized and their antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities were compared to grape seed extract and its tannin fraction. Tannin fraction of black raspberry seed extract was mostly composed of ellagitannins including pedunculagin, sanguiin H6 and H10 isomers and galloyl‐bis‐HHDP glucose isomer, while that of grape seed extract was composed of proanthocyanidins including proanthocyanidin dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, their monogallates and hexamers. Antioxidant activities of the tannin fraction of black raspberry seed extract, measured by polyphenol content, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS assays, were significantly higher than those of grape seed extract. Anti‐inflammatory activity of the tannin fraction of black raspberry seed extract, measured by NO assay, was also significantly higher than that of grape seed extract. The results indicate that black raspberry seeds have potential benefits as a source of natural antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory agents comparable to grape seeds. Practical Applications Black raspberry and grape fruits are widely consumed in various ways including wine, juice or raw fruits. Many byproducts, including seeds and wine pomace, are an attractive source of functional compounds. Our results show that the tannins extracted from the seeds have potential antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Thus, these results may help increase utilization of byproducts to make dietary supplements. This may also reduce the waste products generated by the industry and provide additional profit to farmers and manufacturers.
      PubDate: 2013-08-05T05:09:06.006986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12044
       
  • Influence of Roasting Conditions on the Antioxidant Characteristics of
           Colombian Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Beans
    • Authors: Ah Reum Cho; Kye Won Park, Ki Myong Kim, So Yeon Kim, Jaejoon Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We evaluated the effects of the degree of roasting on the antioxidant properties of brewed coffee. Light‐roasted coffee beans showed the highest antioxidant activity, and an approximately 40–80% loss of antioxidant activity was observed after further roasting. In addition, light‐roasted beans had significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to unroasted beans, suggesting the formation of Maillard reaction products and the release of bound polyphenols from plant cells. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the predominant compound in coffee brews, and that it was degraded with increasing roasting time. Our study demonstrated that light‐roasted coffee beans have the most desirable qualities with respect to antioxidative values. Practical Applications Based on our experiments, the light roasting of coffee beans produces antioxidant activity, but further roasting to medium, dark and very dark degrees decreases the antioxidant properties of coffee beans. Therefore, we concluded that light‐roasted coffee has better nutritional properties. This study examined the differences in the antioxidant properties of coffee beans roasted for different times.
      PubDate: 2013-08-05T02:12:15.729538-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12045
       
  • Isolation of Major Phenolic Compounds from the Extracts of
           Prunella L. Species Grown in Turkey and Their Antioxidant and
           Cytotoxic Activities
    • Authors: Saliha Şahin; Ferda Ari, Cevdet Demir, Engin Ulukaya
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The major phenolics of Prunella L. species were isolated, and antioxidant activites were determined by 2,2‐azino‐di‐(3‐ethylbenzothialozine‐sulphonic acid). The isolated compounds were identified as rutin, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid by high performance liquid chromatography‐diode array detection. The results show that the phenolic compounds were isolated from Prunella L. species with high content ranged from 74% (Prunella grandiflora L.) to 99% (Prunella orientalis Bornm.), and the major compound of rosmarinic acid was isolated above 90% in all species. Antigrowth effects of Prunella L. species were tested against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF‐7 (estrogen receptor‐positive) and MDAMB‐231 (estrogen receptor‐negative) by the MTT (3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) viability assays. To determine the mode of cell death, M30‐antigen assay was performed in order to measure apoptosis. It was found that Prunella laciniata (L.) L., P. orientalis Bornm. and P. grandiflora L. species showed antigrowth effect on MCF‐7 and MDA‐MB‐231 breast cancer cells, but apoptosis was not observed. Practical Applications Four Prunella L. species (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) have been used in Western and Chinese herbal medicine that possesses antioxidant properties. Prunella L. species have a broad chemical composition, consisting of bioactive molecules as phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanidins. It was found that Prunella L. species showed a significant growth‐inhibiting effect on human breast cancer cells, but apoptosis was not involved in cell death. The results suggest that the isolated rutin and rosmarinic acid, as the principal components of Prunella L. extracts, could be utilized as both medicine and herbal tea.
      PubDate: 2013-07-22T22:09:15.087737-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12043
       
  • Characterization of Acid‐soluble Collagen from the Skin of
           Hammerhead Shark (Sphyrna lewini)
    • Authors: Chang‐Feng Chi; Bin Wang, Zhong‐Rui Li, Hong‐Yu Luo, Guo‐Fang Ding, Chang‐Wen Wu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The characteristics of the acid‐soluble collagen (ASC) from the skin of hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (ASC‐H) were investigated and compared with those of calf skin collagen (CSC). ASC‐H with a yield of 4.23 ± 0.54% (based on the wet weight of skins) contained Gly (227 residues/1,000 residues) as the major amino acid and had imino acids of 205 residues/1,000 residues. Amino acid composition, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), confirmed that ASC‐H was mainly composed of type I collagen. The peptide map of ASC‐H was different from that of CSC, suggesting the differences in amino acid sequences and conformation. Td of ASC‐H was 16.89C, which was similar to those of cold‐water fishes but significantly lower than those of tropical fish species and mammals. ASC‐H exhibited high solubility in pH (1‐4) and low NaCl concentrations (≤3%). In addition, the lyophilized collagen displayed loose, fibrous and porous ultrastructure. Practical Applications At present, large quantities of by‐products, accounting for 50–70% of the original raw material, are generated during the process of aquatic products processing industry. Therefore, optimal use of these by‐products is a promising way to protect the environment and produce value‐added products to increase the revenue of fish processors. Recently, many scientists have focused their interests on isolation and characterization of collagens extracted from skins of aquatic organisms. However, no information regarding acid‐soluble collagen (ASC) from skins of Hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) has been reported. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize ASC from skin of Hammerhead shark in comparison with type I collagen from calf skin (CSC). Therefore, the collagen extracted from the skin of hammerhead shark could bring considerably economic benefits as a substitute for mammalian collagen.
      PubDate: 2013-07-22T22:09:03.721953-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12042
       
  • Optimization of Conditions for Enzymatic Production of Collagen
           Hydrolysates from a Low‐Value Acaudina molpadioides and Their
           Activities
    • Authors: Ping Yu; Huihui Chen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Statistics‐based optimization of conditions for enzymatic production of collagen hydrolysates from a low‐value Acaudina molpadioides was carried out, and their activities were also evaluated. The highest hydrolysis degree of collagen was 17.01% when substrate concentration, temperature and pH were 34.3 g/g (dry sea cucumber powder weight/enzyme weight), 43.2C and 7.12, respectively. A second‐order polynomial model was established to depict the relationship of the hydrolysis degree of collagen and factors. The IC50 values of ·OH, ·O2− and 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl scavenged by the purified P1 component from collagen hydrolysates were 2.77, 5.08 and 3.59 mg/mL, respectively. Collagen hydrolysates could obviously increase the survival rate of injured SK‐N‐SH cells by 11.4% at 500 μg/mL. Practical Applications Collagen hydrolysates can be effectively prepared from A. molpadioides using papain under the optimal conditions obtained by the response surface methodology and are demonstrated to be extremely potential candidates for novel antioxidants and drugs for preventing the injury of nerve cells induced by hydrogen peroxide.
      PubDate: 2013-07-22T22:08:55.477514-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12041
       
  • Cyclodextrin‐Clathrated Limonin Suppresses Diet‐Induced
           Obesity in Mice
    • Authors: Debasish Halder; Nando Dulal Das, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Mi Ran Choi, Moo Sung Kim, Sang Rin Lee, Young Gyu Chai
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Limonin (Lim) is a white crystalline substance usually found in orange and lemon seeds. In this paper, we report the antiobesity effects of cyclodextrin (CD)‐treated Lim along with naringenin (Ng) and hesperetin (Hes). We demonstrated that Lim, Ng and Hes decreased cell viability in 3T3‐L1 preadipocyte cells. Lim, Ng and Hes inhibited the adipocyte differentiation in response to adipogenic inducers. The evidence for this inhibition included fewer Oil Red O positive droplets and a decreased expression of the adipocyte‐specific gene PPARγ2. In animal studies, Lim‐, Hes‐ and combination‐treated mice gained less body weight than control mice did. The plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced by Lim and the other substances. Furthermore, Lim increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism‐related genes, including Acox1, UCP2 and CPT1 in the liver. This study suggests that CD‐treated Lim prevents diet‐induced obesity in mice by inducing lipid metabolism‐related genes in the liver. Practical Applications Limonin (Lim) is a limonoid that has a bitter taste and is a water‐insoluble substance found in citrus fruits. It has several important biological properties. Citrus Lim does not dissolve in water, which makes it unsuitable for use in oral preparations. In the present study, we used a cyclodextrin‐treated Lim that is very easily dissolved in water. In this report, we demonstrated the anti‐adipogenic effects of citrus Lim in 3T3‐L1 preadipocyte cells. We also used cyclodextrin‐clathrated Lim, naringenin and hesperetin to examine the hypocholesterolemic activities in mice. The results from our study showed that Lim and these two flavonoid‐related compounds can be used to develop oral preparations that may have possible lipid‐lowering properties and may be able to reduce diet‐induced obesity.
      PubDate: 2013-07-22T22:08:45.898707-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12040
       
  • Immobilization of Bovine Trypsin onto Controlled Pore Glass
    • Authors: Dan Li; Nana Akyaa Ackaah‐Gyasi, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Bovine trypsin was immobilized onto controlled pore glass (CPG) beads by covalent binding using glutaraldehyde as a cross‐linking reagent. Increasing the concentration of the enzyme solution resulted in an increase in the amount of enzyme protein bound to the support material. The effects of pH and incubation time on immobilization were studied as well. For the pH range (pH 3.0 to pH 11.0), the stability of the immobilized enzyme was shifted to a relatively higher pH value (pH 9) compared with the free soluble form of the enzyme (pH 3 and 5). The immobilized enzyme was evaluated for its capacity to extract carotenoproteins from shrimp shell. After 11 reuses, the immobilized enzyme retained about 77% of its initial activity, and the total yield of the product from the same immobilized trypsin of 11 reuses was 4.3 times higher than a single use of the same amount of the free enzyme. Practical Applications Enzyme immobilization technology provides a means for recovering and reusing enzymes to reduce food processing cost for the food industry. Trypsins and other proteases have received a lot of attention by the food industry because they are used extensively in food processing. For example, approximately 50% of the enzymes used as processing aids in food industry are protein hydrolases. The study reported here is intended to serve as a model for use to study fish trypsin immobilization.
      PubDate: 2013-07-18T23:57:22.333197-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12037
       
  • Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Fruit
           Varieties of Algerian Ficus carica L
    • Authors: A. Debib; A. Tir‐Touil, R.A. Mothana, B. Meddah, P. Sonnet
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of four different extracts of two varieties (Azendjar and Taamriout) of dried figs (Ficus carica L.) by using the 2,2‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical and agar diffusion methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)‐determination. Moreover, the extracts were investigated for their polyphenolic, flavonoidal and tannin content by using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay, the aluminium trichloride method and precipitation with casein, respectively. The results showed that the highest antioxidant capacity was exhibited by the methanol extract of Azendjar variety with IC50 of 0.080 mg/mL. All extracts possessed more or less antimicrobial activity against the tested Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria. Candida albicans was the most susceptible microorganism to all extracts. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed by the methanolic extract of Taamriout variety (MIC values 32–128 μg/mL). Moreover, the results showed that the phenolic compounds and flavonoids were abundant in acetone and aqueous extracts. Practical Applications Dried Fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit is an important part of traditional Mediterranean Algerian diet since antiquity. Obtained results revealed great antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as high content of phenolic compounds of two varieties growing in Algeria namely Azendjar and Taamriout varieties. This study highlights the importance of Algerian dried figs as a source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents to be used in traditional medicine to treat or protect humans against infections as well as other chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and different inflammations. Therefore, the F. carica extracts have the potential to be developed into dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T22:14:35.384179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12039
       
  • Chemical Composition, Quality Parameters, Exopeptidase and Oxidoreductase
           Activity Changes During Temporal Development of Wheat Grain Infestation by
           Sitophilus granarius
    • Authors: I. Strelec; B. Šarkanj, V. Mrša, Ž. Ugarčić‐Hardi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Changes in chemical composition, grain quality parameters, oxidoreductase and exopeptidase activities of wheat grains infested by Sitophilus granarius were monitored during 1 year of storage. Significant increase in flour titratable acidity of infested grains occurred by day 90. Subsequently, infestation was followed by decrease of grain hectoliter weight on day 180, decrease of carboxypeptidase activity on day 240, polyphenol oxidase and catalase activities increased and total starch decreased on day 270, while significant changes of total protein content, extractable protein concentration, phenylalanyl‐aminopeptidase and Zeleny sedimentation occurred between 300 and 360 days of storage. The data indicate that S. granarius infestation influenced chemical composition, quality parameters, as well as oxidoreductase and exopeptidase activity in wheat grains, but the extent of these changes was mostly detectable at higher levels of grain infestation. Among the examined parameters, flour titratable acidity and carboxypeptidase activity showed potential to be used as early indicators of grain infestation. Practical Applications Granary weevil, S. granarius, is one of the major grain‐damaging insects. This primary infester feeds on grains as adult, or on grain endosperm as larvae causing significant economic losses, due to unsuitability of damaged grains for human food production. Although various methods of S. granarius detection in stored grains have been applied worldwide, there is still a need for cheap indicative methods for detecting insect infestation. This study investigating changes in chemical composition, quality parameters, oxidoreductase and exopeptidase activities during temporal development of infestation by S. granarius shows that flour titratable acidity and carboxypeptidase activity could be used as early indicators of wheat grain infestation.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T22:14:29.629564-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12036
       
  • Different Effect of Methanol Extracts and Bioaccessible Fraction of Smilax
           China on Triglyceride Accumulation in Adipocytes
    • Authors: Hee‐Sook Park; Gun‐Hee Kim, Soon‐Mi Shim
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Smilax china is known to provide various biological activities due to significant amount of phenolic acids such as resveratrol. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of methanol extract and digesta of S. china on triglyceride accumulation in adipocytes. Digesta of S. china was obtained from in vitro digestion simulating human digestive fluids. 3T3‐L1 cells were used for adipogenesis, and triglyceride content was measured with Oil red O staining. Methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root from S. china were effective on decreasing triglyceride accumulation in adipocytes in a dose‐dependent manner. Resveratrol, a major phenolic compound in S. china also induced significant decrease in triglyceride accumulation. Meanwhile, digesta from S. china increased triglyceride accumulation in all parts of the leaf, stem and root, indicating a different pattern with the results from the methanol extract of S. china. Practical Application This finding entails that components in digesta from Smilax china may act like agonists of PPAR‐γ, a key factor to treat insulin‐resistant type II diabetes. Our findings suggest that biological activity of various plants, including S. china, could be different depending on chemical and physiological approach.
      PubDate: 2013-01-30T06:40:40.478507-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12018
       
  • DNA Protection, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Potential of the Mushroom
           Russula Virescens
    • Authors: Md Abul Hasnat; Mehnaz Pervin, Trishna Debnath, Beong Ou Lim
      Pages: 6 - 17
      Abstract: Antioxidant properties and total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, β‐carotene and lycopene contents of ethanol and water extracts from the edible mushroom Russula virescens (RV) were examined in this study. Various experimental models including 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS), nitrite, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation, DNA protection and catalase activity were used to characterize the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The IC50 values for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 0.22 and 0.44 mg/mL, respectively, for water extract and 1.90 and 0.65 mg/mL, respectively, for ethanol extract. The levels of phenolic compounds were 8.74 and 2.21 mg gallic acid/100 g dry mass, and flavonoid compounds were 2.83 and 1.02 mg catechin/100 g dry mass for the water and ethanol extracts, respectively. In addition, high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of RV extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. R. virescens can therefore be considered to be a potential source of natural antioxidants. Practical Application Mushrooms accumulate a variety of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes and steroids. Also, flavoglaucin, a mushroom phenolic compound, has been found to be an excellent antioxidant and non‐mutagenic synergist. In this study, the antioxidative activities of an edible mushroom were investigated in relationship to their total phenolic and flavonoid contents.
      PubDate: 2013-01-30T05:50:29.097439-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12019
       
  • Selection of Phytase Producing Yeast Strains for Improved Mineral
           Mobilization and Dephytinization of Chickpea Flour
    • Authors: A. Pable; P. Gujar, J.M. Khire
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: Among 600 yeast isolates screened for phytase production, five (Zygosaccharomyces bisporus NCIM 3265 and 3296, Williopsis saturnus NCIM 3298, Zygosaccharomyces priorionus NCIM 3299 and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus NCIM 3297) were selected as potential phytase producers. Phytase activity was found to be cell wall associated with temperature and pH optima of 50C and 4.0, respectively. Highest phytase production was attained in cane juice medium as compared with other media used. Addition of phytase to chickpea flour significantly enhanced mineral mobilization by approximately 20–28%, 26–37% and 24–42% for Zn2+, Fe2+ and Ca2+, respectively, and decreased phytic acid content by about 75–88%. Practical Applications Chick pea is one of the most popular vegetarian foods in most developing countries. It is a rich source of protein and minerals like Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Mg2+; but these metal ions are bound to phytic acid, which acts as an anti‐nutrient. Treatment of chickpea flour with yeast phytase hydrolyzed the phytic acid and released the bound metal ions. The ability of yeast phytase to improve mineral mobilization and dephytinization of chickpea flour suggests its potential application in food processing and feed industry.
      PubDate: 2013-01-30T05:50:33.572038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12020
       
  • Effects of Dioscorea Polygonoides (Jamaican Bitter Yam) Supplementation in
           Normocholesterolemic and Genetically Modified Hypercholesterolemic Mice
           Species
    • Authors: Dewayne Stennett; Frederick Oladeinde, Andrew Wheatley, Joseph Bryant, Lowell Dilworth, Helen Asemota
      Pages: 28 - 37
      Abstract: The Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) contains various bioactive components that may increase oxidative stress in various tissues at relatively high concentrations. The present study therefore investigated the effects of bitter yam supplementation (5%) on the integrity of the liver and kidneys. Two mice strains (inbred C57BL/6 and transgenic C57BL/6‐Tg(APOA1)1Rub/J) were used in the study. Each strain was divided into two groups. One group was fed a basal diet without supplementation, and the second group was fed a basal diet supplemented with the Jamaican bitter yam. The results revealed that the transgenic mice fed diets with and without bitter yam supplementation experienced significant increases in weight, when compared with inbred mice fed similar diets. Hepatoprotective effects were observed in transgenic mice known to possess high serum high‐density lipoprotein (HDL). Oxidative stress was induced in mice fed diets supplemented with bitter yam at a concentration of 5%. Practical Application The Jamaican bitter yam possesses potent anti‐diabetic and hypocholesterolemic properties due to its high levels of sapogenin. Currently, the tuber is consumed in rural areas mostly during times of drought. No toxicology data, however, exist for consumption of this yam species. This study provides information on the possible toxicity from overconsumption and paves the way for future studies to establish an effective consumption dosage. With its potent cholesterol‐lowering capabilities, the Jamaican bitter yam can be exploited in the nutraceutical industry and for the development of other value‐added products for everyday consumption such as baked goods and granola bars, giving them a hypocholesterolemic twist.
      PubDate: 2013-01-30T06:43:10.743454-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12022
       
  • Comparative Study on the Total Phenolic Content and Radical Scavenging
           Activity of Common Edible Vegetable Oils
    • Authors: Chandran Janu; D.R. Soban Kumar, M.V. Reshma, P. Jayamurthy, A. Sundaresan, P. Nisha
      Pages: 38 - 49
      Abstract: The study investigates the antioxidant potential of commonly used vegetable oils viz., coconut (CNO), sunflower (SFO), rice bran (RBO), groundnut (GNO), sesame (SESO) and mustard oil (MO), where the oils were extracted with methanol; and these methanolic extracts were used for the antioxidant studies. Fatty acid composition by gas chromatography, physicochemical parameters such as specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, iodine value and peroxide value were also analysed. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of the oils (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays) were evaluated. Phenolic compounds were identified by high‐pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Percentage TPC was highest in groundnut oil with 3.09 mg/100 g oil followed by coconut oil, rice bran oil, mustard oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil with 1.8, 0.89, 0.56, 0.49 and 0.33 mg/100 g oil, respectively. The methanolic extracts of oils showed potential antioxidant activity in terms of super oxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Practical Applications The present study indicated that vegetable oils can contribute to the dietary intake of antioxidants, depending on the processing condition. This is the first study of its kind to investigate and compare the phenolic content by HPLC and also the radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and nitric oxide) of different oils. It was observed that the unrefined oils posses better antioxidant activity than the refined oils, which imply the importance of optimizing and/or modifying the existing steps in the vegetable oil processing to retain the polyphenolic content in vegetable oil without compromising other physicochemical parameters. The study has brought out the importance of polyphenolic compounds in vegetable oil as radical scavenging agents that could be beneficial in the management of many degenerative diseases. This may provide vegetable oils a new dimension in health management other than its traditional uses.
      PubDate: 2013-01-30T05:50:41.078148-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12023
       
  • Antilisterial Effect of Essential Oil and Extracts of Poncirus
           trifoliate Rafin. Seeds
    • Authors: Atiqur Rahman; Sharif M. Al‐Reza, Sun Chul Kang
      Pages: 50 - 55
      Abstract: The in vitro antilisterial potential of the essential oil and various organic extracts of Poncirus trifoliata Rafin. seed was evaluated. The oil and organic extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol revealed a remarkable antilisterial effect against all strains of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also, the oil had a strong detrimental effect on the viable count of the tested Listeria spp. Practical Applications Medicinal plants are natural resources, yielding valuable herbal products that are often used in the treatment of various ailments. Poncirus trifoliata Rafin. is a deciduous or semi‐deciduous shrub, native of China and Korea, and is also known as the Korean bitter orange. Traditionally, trifoliata oranges (P. trifoliata) have been widely used in folk medicine as a remedy for gastritis, dysentery, inflammation, digestive ulcers, etc. Our results showed that essential oil and various extracts derived from the seeds of P. trifoliata have potential activity against Listeria spp. Thus, it may conclude that the natural compounds derived from essential oil and extracts might be suitable for use as preservatives to control foodborne pathogens.
      PubDate: 2013-04-09T22:25:26.218573-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12024
       
  • Antioxidants in Italian Head Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var.
           capitata L.) Grown in Organic and Conventional Systems under
           Greenhouse Conditions
    • Authors: Alessandra Durazzo; Elena Azzini, Maria Claudia Lazzé, Anna Raguzzini, Roberto Pizzala, Gianluca Maiani, Lara Palomba, Giuseppe Maiani
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Lettuce belongs to the Asteraceae family and it is native of the Mediterranean region. In our research, the effect of cultivation practices (organic versus conventional) on antioxidants in Italian head lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L.) grown in greenhouse was investigated. Bioactive molecule levels, antioxidant properties and the cytotoxicity of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of head lettuce in Caco‐2 cells were determined. FRAP values are 5.33 ± 0.35 and 6.35 ± 0.08 mmol/kg in organic products and 4.83 ± 0.16 and 1.80 ± 0.04 mmol/kg in conventional products. FRAP values differ significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2013-04-08T02:39:44.110495-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12025
       
  • Phenolic Composition and Bioactive Properties of Cell Wall Preparations
           and Whole Grains of Selected Cereals and Legumes
    • Authors: Sule O. Salawu; Megan J. Bester, Kwaku G. Duodu
      Pages: 62 - 72
      Abstract: Phenolic compounds are associated with cell walls in cereals and legumes. Phenolic composition and bioactive properties of cell walls and whole grain of sorghum, teff and cowpea were determined. Whole grain extracts had higher total phenolic content (630–2,782 mg CE/g) and total flavonoid content (0.033–0.17 mg CE/g) than cell wall extracts (261–1,005 and 0.011–0.047 mg CE/g, respectively). Similar trends were observed for 2,2'‐azinobis (3‐ethyl‐benzothiazoline‐6 sulfonic acid) radical scavenging (whole grain: 30–87; cell wall: 22 μM TE/g), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (whole grain: 47–964; cell wall: 40–183 μM TE/g) and ferric reducing power (whole grain: 85–279; cell wall: 41–95 mg vitamin C equivalent/g). Whole grains contained both phenolic acids and flavonoids. Ferulic acid was a major component of cell walls. Whole grain and cell wall extracts inhibited low‐density lipoprotein oxidation and protected against oxidative DNA damage. Cereal and legume cell walls may be considered important potential contributors to human health because of their phenolic composition. Practical Applications Phenolic compounds in cereals and legumes are important components of dietary fiber in which they occur mainly in association with cell wall components. There is increasing research focus on phenolic compounds due to their bioactive properties and potential health benefits. Investigation of the cell wall‐bound phenolic compounds is necessary to establish their potential contribution to human health. In this study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of extracts from cell wall preparations and whole grain of selected cereals and legumes of importance in Africa, as well as their protective effect on oxidized DNA damage and copper catalyzed low‐density lipoprotein oxidation, were determined. This research provides insight into the potential health benefits offered by the grains studied, such as prevention of chronic diseases of lifestyle and the importance of the bioactive phenolic constituents of cell walls in this regard.
      PubDate: 2013-04-25T03:42:52.769143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12026
       
  • Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Anzer Bee Pollen
    • Authors: Esra Ulusoy; Sevgi Kolayli
      Pages: 73 - 82
      Abstract: Seventeen phenolic compounds related to the botanical origins of 13 Anzer pollens from Turkey have been analyzed by RP‐HPLC. LOD values of standards were found to be between 0.0192 and 0.1313 mg/L with good linearity (r > 0.9977). The mean content of identified total phenolics ranges from 0.5 mg/100 g pollen to 2.6 mg/100 g pollen. While a common profile of phenolic compounds comprising p‐OH benzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p‐coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin, trans‐cinnamic acid, and cis,trans‐abscisic acid was detected in all Anzer pollen, catechin was not determined in any of the pollen samples. Furthermore, antioxidant properties of pollens were determined using total phenolic content, FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH● (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) radical‐scavenging activity tests. The antioxidant activities showed a marked correlation with total phenolics. Practical Applications Bee‐collected pollen is one of the richest and the purest natural food supplements packed by honeybees into granules and subsequently harvested from hives by humans. Bee pollen is composed of nutritionally essential substances such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, mineral substances and trace elements. It also contains considerable amounts of polyphenolic substances, mainly flavonoids, which are regarded as potent antioxidants. Flavonoids can be used to evaluate botanical origin and to set up quality standards for the assessment of nutritional and physiological properties of bee pollen. This paper provides an applicable RP‐HPLC method for the determination of 17 phenolic compounds in Anzer pollens and for the investigation of their total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities.
      PubDate: 2013-04-17T03:27:20.043165-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12027
       
  • Phenolic Contents, Antioxidant and Anti‐inflammatory Activities of
           Asparagus cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Merrill
    • Authors: Nadira Binte Samad; Trishna Debnath, Md. Abul Hasnat, Mehnaz Pervin, Da Hye Kim, Jeong Eun Jo, Sa Ra Park, Beong Ou Lim
      Pages: 83 - 91
      Abstract: Asparagus cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Merrill. (AC) is used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammation and oxidative stress‐related diseases. In this study, aqueous extract of AC tuber was investigated to determine the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Free radical‐scavenging activities as well as total phenolics and flavonoid contents of the extracts were measured. As primary screening of anti‐inflammatory activity, cell viability and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production were determined using the lipopolysaccharide‐treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds from AC were found to be 459 ± 1 μg gallic acid equivalent/g (GAE/g) dry mass and 642 ± 4 μg catechin equivalent/g (CE/g) dry mass, respectively. AC showed 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, nitrite scavenging and hydroxyl radical‐scavenging activity in a dose‐dependent manner. Significant NO production and cell viability were also found in the extracts. Results suggest that AC can be a source of natural antioxidants and anti‐inflammatory substances. Practical Applications Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 2,000 years. Dried roots are being used for medicinal purposes. The roots contain asparagine, starch, mucilage and sugars. The dried root is antibacterial, anti‐inflammatory, antiseptic, antipyretic, diuretic, expectorant, stomachic, nervous stimulant and tonic. It is taken internally in the treatment of fever, sore throat, debility, coughs, etc. The plant has a folk history for the treatment of cancer. Modern research has detected antitumor activity. It is now being studied for the treatment of lung cancer. The findings of this study can demonstrate the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract from A. cochinchinensis dried roots. The effects would be useful to improve human health.
      PubDate: 2013-04-05T06:49:35.932807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12028
       
  • Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Extracts of Selected Red
           and Brown Seaweeds from the Mandapam Coast of Tamil Nadu
    • Authors: Kavitha Murugan; Vidhya V. Iyer
      Pages: 92 - 101
      Abstract: Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were examined for methanol (M), chloroform (C), ethyl acetate (E) and aqueous (A) extracts of Turbinaria ornata, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Acanthophora spicifera and Gracilaria corticata, using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta‐carotene bleaching inhibition, ferrous ion chelation, total reducing activity and resazurin‐based growth inhibition (in A549, HCT‐15, MG‐63 and PC‐3 cell lines) assays. Higher growth inhibition was observed in A549 and MG‐63 cells with higher values of total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging and total reducing activities, and in PC‐3 cells with higher beta‐carotene bleaching inhibition. Positive correlation (P 
      PubDate: 2013-04-14T23:04:27.776514-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12029
       
  • Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysates
           with Inhibitory Activity toward Angiotensin‐Converting Enzyme
    • Authors: Harriman A. Morais; Marialice P.C. Silvestre, Larissa L. Amorin, Viviane D.M. Silva, Mauro R. Silva, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Josianne N. Silveira
      Pages: 102 - 109
      Abstract: The effects of proteolytic enzyme type (including pancreatin and proteases from Bacillus licheniformis, Aspergillus oryzae and A. sojae) and enzyme : substrate ratio (E : S = 0.5:100, 1:100, 2:100, 3:100, 4:100 and 8:100) were evaluated in this work with the aim of obtaining whey protein concentrate hydrolysates with inhibitory activity toward angiotensin‐converting enzyme. Twenty‐four hydrolysates were prepared, and their inhibitory activities (IA) were evaluated in vitro, resulting in inhibition rates ranging from 2.02 to 96.66%. Eleven samples had IAs that were very high (>80%). The hydrolysates obtained using the B. licheniformis protease had the highest IA values at all tested E : S ratios. In some cases, lowering the E : S ratio produced a higher IA value. This was observed for the B. licheniformis protease when the ratio was lowered from 2:100 to 1:100, as well as for the A. oryzae protease when lowered from 3:100 to 2:100 and from 2:100 to 1:100. Practical Applications Whey is the most abundant protein subproduct of the dairy industry, representing about 80% of the volume of the milk. Thus, it is of great interest to create options to use whey or its isolated proteins. Among the possibilities that promote an exponential aggregated value to whey is the enzymatic hydrolysis of its proteins, since this treatment promotes the breakdown of the protein molecule into smaller units and has been outstanding in improving its nutritional, sensorial and functional properties. Also, the whey proteins have been identified as nutrients with functional activity, containing bioactive peptides able to modulate some physiological responses of either mammalian or rats. Such peptides are inactive as part of the intact proteins, but they become active when released during digestion or during in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis. In this way, whey protein hydrolysates could be introduced into the diet as an alternative and non‐pharmacological approach to prevent and treat arterial hypertension.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T22:14:11.63715-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12032
       
  • Effect of Acidic Condition on Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant
           Potential of Aqueous Extracts from Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Bran
    • Authors: Jeremiah S. Shelembe; Duncan Cromarty, Megan Bester, Amanda Minnaar, Kwaku G. Duodu
      Pages: 110 - 118
      Abstract: ABSTRACT The effect of extraction under acidic condition (pH 2) on phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts from condensed tannin sorghum bran was investigated. The protective effect of extracts prepared with water (WE) and acidified water (pH 2) (AWE) against free radical‐induced red blood cell hemolysis and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was determined. The % yield (grams of freeze‐dried aqueous extract/100 g of dry sample weight), total phenolic, flavonoid content and 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical‐scavenging activity were significantly higher in AWE than WE. AWE had 19% higher overall content of identified phenolic acids and flavonoids than WE. AWE showed a significantly higher degree of protection against erythrocyte membrane oxidation than WE. Both extracts showed protective effect against LDL oxidation. However, there were no significant differences in tannin content and oxygen radical absorbance capacity values between the extracts. Extracting sorghum bran under acidic conditions may release bound phenolic compounds thereby improving the health‐promoting benefits of extracts from sorghum bran. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The study shows that aqueous extracts with higher phenolic content, antioxidant activity and potential health benefits can be prepared from condensed tannin bran under acidic condition. Using water as a solvent may be preferred over organic solvents because it is cheaper, environmentally friendly and does not require special handling. The aqueous extracts from sorghum bran may be used exogenously as antioxidant functional food ingredients in the formulation of functional foods with potential health‐promoting properties. This could improve the economic value of sorghum grain.
      PubDate: 2012-06-15T07:44:56.786427-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2012.00650.x
       
  • Black Grape Juice Protects Spleen from Lipid Oxidation Induced by Gamma
           Radiation in Rats
    • Authors: Robson B. De Freitas; Paula R. Augusti, Edson R. De Andrade, Fagner C. Rother, Bruno T. Rovani, Andréia Quatrin, Nelson M. Alves, Tatiana Emanuelli, Liliane F. Bauermann
      Pages: 119 - 127
      Abstract: ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of black grape juice (BGJ) against gamma radiation‐induced damage in rats. Rats were exposed (PI) or not (PNI) to radiation and BGJ (2 mL/Kg of body weight) was administrated to irradiated animals (SI) and to nonirradiated animals (SNI). Blood was collected at different time points after irradiation for blood cells counts. The spleen of the animals was removed for weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant defenses estimation. Blood cell count decreased, whereas LPO and catalase activity increased in spleen along with a decrease in the organ weight after irradiation. Despite the lack of protective effect on hematological parameters and catalase activity, BGJ attenuated LPO induced by gamma radiation. This protective effect seems to be related to the phenolic compounds found in BGJ, such as resveratrol, quercetin and rutin. We demonstrated that BGJ plays a beneficial role in damage caused by gamma radiation by preventing spleen LPO. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Grape products, such as black grape juice (BGJ), and their polyphenol compounds have several properties that can be useful in prevention and treatment of many conditions. One of these properties is the antioxidant capacity, which makes of phenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, quercetin and rutin, good exogenous scavengers of free radicals. The present study demonstrates that BGJ exhibits a radiomodifier potential against gamma radiation by exerting antioxidant effects and, hence, it can be used as a valuable agent for managing radiation exposure.
      PubDate: 2012-06-15T07:45:15.865687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2012.00651.x
       
 
 
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