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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 260 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (192 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (192 journals)            First | 1 2     

International Journal of Food Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Food Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability Agri Food Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry     [SJR: 0.406]   [H-I: 25]
   [5 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Improvement of Laccase Production and its Characterization by Mutagenesis
    • Authors: W. Du; C. Sun, J. Liang, Y. Han, J. Yu, Z. Liang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, laccase production was enhanced using mutant Shiraia sp. The Shiraia sp. GZS1 strain was mutated using ultraviolet irradiation, followed by screening of strains that were resistant to certain stressors. The mutant GZ11K2 was selected and used for further studies. 2,2′‐Azino‐bis(3‐ethylben‐zothiazoline‐6‐sulfonate) was used as substrate for both wild and mutant laccases at optimal pH (4.0). The mutant laccase exhibited a broader active pH range. The mutant laccase also showed a higher optimal catalytic temperature, more active under alkaline conditions, and higher temperature range than the wild one. The mutant strains produced higher yield of laccase than the wild strain even at high salinity of 3 g/L NaCl. Both laccases were mildly inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.5 mM), ethanol (50%) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 mM), and almost completely inhibited by NaN3 (20 μM) and DTT (1 mM), stable in the presence of metal ions except Ag+ and Hg2+. Practical Applications Laccase is extensively used in various applications, such as pulp delignification, decoloration, biopolymer modification, biotransformation and food dechlorination. A newly isolated laccase‐producing strain Shiraia sp. GZS1 and a genetically stable mutant GZ11K2 were established with 1.82 times laccase activity compared with that of the wild strain. The mutant Shiraia sp. GZ11K2 laccase was active over a wider pH and temperature ranges and more stable than the wild strain under neutral and alkaline conditions. The laccase from the mutant GZ11K2 with higher laccase productivity and enhanced enzyme properties can be used in biotechnological and industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T03:10:21.019708-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12111
  • Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Jipicao Yam
    • Authors: Rui Li; Ning Li, Zhaosheng Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Wenzhi Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from Jipicao yam grown in China, and its characteristic was studied. Among the various substrates employed, the Vmax/Km ratio indicated that PPO had the best affinity to catechol and the worst affinity to p‐hydroxyphenylalanine. The optimum pH for this enzyme was 6.8, and the optimum temperature was 30C. When the temperature was lower than 60C, PPO was relatively stable. Fe3+ and Mg2+ improved the activity, while Ca2+, K+, Ba2+ and Mn2+ ions could significantly inhibit the activity. NaHSO3, Vc, L‐cysteine, phytic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid‐2Na had different inhibiting effects on the activity of PPO, and the former three were strong inhibitors of PPO activities. Practical Applications Our paper studied the properties of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from Jipicao yam, including optimum temperature, optimum pH, thermal stability, substrate specificity and the effect of metal ions and inhibitors so as to select a reasonable method to restrain the activity of PPO, then providing a theoretical basis for inhibiting enzymatic browning that occurred during the process of manufacturing and storage to improve the nutritional value and exterior quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T20:37:46.876309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12117
  • Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential of Blueberry Extracts
           Against Key Enzymes Relevant for Hyperglycemia
    • Authors: Araya Pranprawit; Julian A. Heyes, Abdul L. Molan, Marlena C. Kruger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Aqueous extracts of Highbush blueberries grown in New Zealand were investigated for their total phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and potential to contribute to the dietary management of type II diabetes. There were significant differences (P 
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T20:19:22.661789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12094
  • Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Gelatinolytic Protease
           from Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens H11
    • Authors: Samart Sai‐Ut; Soottawat Benjakul, Punnanee Sumpavapol, Hideki Kishimura
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Extracellular gelatinolytic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H11 was purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S‐200 and ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl‐cellulose with 35% yield and 14‐fold increase in purity. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 21 kDa. The optimum gelatinolytic activities of purified enzyme toward porcine gelatin were 50C and pH 8.0. The inhibitor study revealed that the purified enzyme was a metallo‐serine protease and activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+ but resistant to Triton X‐100 and methanol at a concentration of 10% (v/v). Among all gelatins, that from unicorn leatherjacket fish skin was the most preferred for hydrolysis by the purified enzyme, in comparison with porcine and tilapia counterparts. Thus, the enzyme from B. amyloliquefaciens H11 could be used as a potential protease for production of gelatin hydrolysate. Practical Applications Extracellular protease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H11 plays a specific catalytic role in the hydrolysis of gelatin and can be used for production of gelatin hydrolysate with bioactivities. It can also be a potential alternative for commercial protease in conversion of marine processing by‐products to generate high value‐added products.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T19:51:57.442834-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12114
  • Effect of pH and Temperature on Antioxidant Levels of Tomato Wine
    • Authors: John Owusu; Haile Ma, Zhenbin Wang, Newlove Akowuah Afoakwah, Cunshan Zhou, Agnes Amissah
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Tomato wine antioxidant properties were studied. The wine was produced using tomato musts of different pH levels, which was fermented at 15 and 20C using Saccharomyces bayanus, 818. The wines produced with musts of pH levels 4.11, 3.40 and 3.20 were designated as C (Control), A and B, respectively. The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of the tomato wines was higher (P 
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T01:40:23.160643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12113
  • Antioxidant and Free Radical‐Scavenging Potential of Essential Oil
           from Enteromorpha linza L. Prepared by Microwave‐Assisted
    • Authors: Jayanta Kumar Patra; Sung Hong Kim, Kwang‐Hyun Baek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The seaweed Enteromorpha linza has long been used as a food source rich in natural bioactive compounds in various regions of the world. In the present study, the essential oil from E. linza, extracted by microwave‐assisted hydrodistillation, was analyzed for its chemical composition and was evaluated for its free radical‐scavenging and antioxidant potential. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed the presence of 24 compounds in the seaweed essential oil (SEO), among which hexadecanoic acid (47.32%), nonadecadiene (18.19%) and azetidine (2.84%) are of medicinal importance. SEO exhibited strong hydroxyl radical‐scavenging and superoxide scavenging activity of 91.37 and 53.50%, respectively, at 500 μg/mL. SEO also exhibited strong reducing power (0.90) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70.53% at 500 μg/mL. Based on the high antioxidant activities of compounds in SEO, it can be used as a food additive, preservative and dietary supplement to control the deleterious effects of oxidative stress with increased nutritional values. Practical Applications Extensive investigations of free radicals and reactive oxygen species have revealed that these components have adverse effect on biomolecules that cause damage to macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates, as well as various food products. Seaweeds are a favorable food source that serves as an effective resource for essential oil, which could be an alternative source of natural antioxidants, used as food additives or in food preservation. In this study, SEO from E. linza extracted by microwave‐assisted hydrodistillation exhibited significantly high antioxidant and radical‐scavenging potential, as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings confirm that SEO from E. linza can be used by food industries as an additive, preservative or dietary supplement and as a nutraceutical to control the harmful effects of oxidative stress on food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T01:40:10.13346-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12110
  • Production of a Milk‐Clotting Enzyme by Glutinous Rice Fermentation
           and Partial Characterization of the Enzyme
    • Authors: Xiao Zhao; Ji Wang, Zhe Zheng, Aimei Zhao, Zhennai Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fermentation parameters affecting a milk‐clotting enzyme (MCE) production by glutinous rice fermentation were evaluated using selected rice starters called Jiuqu. The MCE was produced under the following conditions: rice inoculation starter at 3%, fermentation time of 5 days, temperature at 30C, initial rice medium pH of 5.0, rice concentration of 70% and rotation speed of 120 rpm. The enzyme preparation obtained by 70% ethanol precipitation of the culture supernatant had milk‐clotting activity (MCA) of 6,160 Su/g and a C/P ratio (the ratio between MCA and proteolytic activity) of 10.81 at a recovery rate of 44.82%. The molecular mass of the MCE was 39.7 kDa. MCE production was optimal at 35C and a pH of 5.4. The presence of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Al3+ stimulated enzyme activity. The Km and Vmax values were 22.90 g/L and 21.11 mL/s, respectively, with skim milk as the substrate. Practical Applications In the last two decades, different sources of milk‐clotting enzymes (MCEs) have been explored to meet the increasing demand for cheese production worldwide. This study describes a MCE isolated by ethanol fractionation from glutinous rice wine fermented by Jiuqu. The MCE, with a relatively high C/P ratio, is potentially applicable as a coagulant in cheese making. The property of thermal instability of the enzyme is advantageous as it would be inactivated during curd scalding (at about 50C), thus formation of bitter‐taste peptides caused by residual proteolytic activity of the enzyme during cheese ripening could be prevented. In addition, the optimal temperature (35C) of the MCE is within the range of temperature (30–35C) generally used during milk coagulation processes. Therefore, the results suggest that a MCE that could have potential application in cheese production may be obtained by glutinous rice fermentation under the conditions of this study.
      PubDate: 2015-01-15T03:16:51.973019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12108
  • Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Distribution and Antioxidant Capacity in Skin,
           Pulp and Fruit Extracts of Plum Cultivars
    • Authors: S. Cosmulescu; I. Trandafir, V. Nour, M. Botu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Total phenolic, total flavonoid distribution and antioxidant activity in skin, pulp and fruit extracts of 12 plum cultivars were investigated. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. The total phenolic content in skin was 4.5 times higher than that in pulp and 3.2 times higher than that in the whole fruit. The total flavonoid content in skin was 18.7 times higher than that in pulp and 9.6 times higher than that in the whole fruit. As the trend observed for antioxidant activity, a positive relationship (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.83–0.92) was presented between total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. The results confirm that plum is a good source of natural phenolic antioxidants. Practical Applications The present study indicated that plum can contribute to the dietary intake of antioxidants, depending on cultivars and fruit parts. It is among the few studies investigating the distribution of total phenolic, total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity in the skin, pulp and fruit of plum cultivars. It was observed that the highest values of total phenolic and flavonoid content were obtained from skin extracts. The study highlighted that phenolics and flavonoids in plums may play an important role as radical‐scavenging agents that could be used for a healthy human life. This fact may open new perspectives for plum – besides its traditional uses – to be used in assuring a wholesome diet and a healthy life.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:15:00.91825-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12112
  • Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanolic Extract of BAU Kul
           (Ziziphus mauritiana), an Improved Variety of Fruit from Bangladesh
    • Authors: E. M. Tanvir; Rizwana Afroz, Nurul Karim, Md. Abdul Mottalib, Md. Ibrahim Hossain, Md. Asiful Islam, Siew Hua Gan, Md. Ibrahim Khalil
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BAU Kul (Ziziphus mauritiana) is a new and improved variety of plum fruit from Bangladesh. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant potency and antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of BAU Kul using Soxhlet extraction followed by complete evaporation of residual methanol. BAU Kul is a very good source of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and tannins. The reducing sugar and protein content of BAU Kul were 1.68 and 0.81% by weight, respectively. BAU Kul was very active in 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐ picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (527.28 ± 9.2 [μM Fe (II)]/100 g), thus confirming its high antioxidant potential. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well‐diffusion method. BAU Kul was most toxic to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed (in order) by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli and Chromobacterium violaceum. In conclusion, BAU Kul is a nutritious fruit that provides good antioxidant and antibacterial activities (in particular toward P. aeruginosa) and a cheap source of vitamins. Practical Applications BAU Kul is a new and sweet seasonal fruit which is very popular to the consumers of Bangladesh. This fruit can be a good source of nutrients as well as the antioxidants applicable in different types of diseases caused by oxidative stresses. BAU Kul can also be used as traditional medicine for different types for infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:14:47.746701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12109
  • Vasorelaxant and Anti‐Inflammatory Activities of the Methylene
           Chloride Fraction of Foeniculum vulgare Fruit Extract
    • Authors: C.O. Tettey; I. Yang, A. Ocloo, H.M. Shin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study investigated the vasorelaxant and anti‐inflammatory activities of the methylene chloride fraction of crude methanolic Foeniculum vulgare fruit extract (FV). The vasorelaxant activity was examined on isolated rat aortic ring preparations precontracted with phenylephrine where as the anti‐inflammatory activity was examined in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. FV attenuated the vasoconstriction of precontracted aortic strips in a dose‐dependent manner. This effect was found to be endothelium‐dependent and through the nitric oxide (NO)‐3′,5′‐cyclic monophosphate pathway. In the anti‐inflammatory assays, FV reduced NO release by inhibiting inducible NO synthase protein and mRNA and also suppressed cyclooxygenase‐2 expression. It decreased the lipopolysaccharide‐induced secretions of tumor necrosis factor‐α, interleukin (IL)‐1β and IL‐6 and significantly reduced the phosphorylation of c‐Jun amino‐terminal kinases (JNK1) and extracellular signal‐regulated kinase‐1 (ERK1/2). Our results demonstrate that the methylene chloride fraction of the crude methanolic FV possesses potent vasorelaxant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Practical Applications Foeniculum vulgare mill is used traditionally for treatment of a good number of diseases. This study revealed that the methylene chloride fraction of the extract possesses significant vasorelaxant activity and also showed significant anti‐inflammatory activity. Therefore, it stands as a promising candidate for further studies in the synthesis of vasorelaxant and anti‐inflammatory drugs after identification of biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06T05:24:30.692735-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12105
  • The Ethanol Precipitate of Ulva rigida Protects HeLa Cells from Hydrogen
           Peroxide‐Induced Apoptosis
    • Authors: Sana Mezghani; Prudence N'Guessan, Alice Carrier, Mohamed Amri
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Ulva rigida exhibits antioxidant activity that protects against oxidative stress. In the present investigation, we conducted experiments in HeLa cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and found that the U. rigida ethanolic precipitate inhibited H2O2 apoptosis. This precipitate prevented the H2O2 stress‐induced decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). P21 Bax expression was decreased in H2O2‐treated cells compared with untreated cells. Conversely, p21 Bax was consistently detected in cells that were co‐treated with H2O2 and the U. rigida ethanolic precipitate. Bcl‐xL expression increased in cells co‐treated with H2O2 and the U. rigida ethanolic precipitate compared with H2O2‐treated cells. Based on the obtained results, H2O2‐induced apoptosis was inhibited by the U. rigida ethanol precipitate early in the apoptotic process through the upregulation of Bcl‐xL, the prevention of full‐length Bax cleavage molecule and the subsequent inhibition of MMP loss, which is a crucial step in the apoptotic cascade. Practical Applications Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies has suggested that oxidative stress plays a major role in aging and pathogenesis. Currently, the search for safe and efficacious medicinal plants that possess antioxidant activity has attracted particular interest. In this context, this is the first report on the antioxidant activity of Ulva rigida in a cell line: U. rigida protected the cells from oxidative stress‐induced apoptosis. The U. rigida ethanol precipitate inhibited apoptosis via the upregulation of Bcl‐xL, the prevention of full‐length Bax cleavage to its short and potent form, and the subsequent inhibition of the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Herein, we report the mechanism by which U. rigida protects against oxidative stress‐induced apoptosis. This may provide knowledge to enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies using U. rigida compounds to treat diseases that are attributed to oxidative disorders.
      PubDate: 2014-12-30T04:17:37.581066-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12106
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: i - ii
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T22:15:05.397851-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12055
  • Evaluation of Antiobesity Effect of Mangiferin in
           Adipogenesis‐Induced Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Assessing
           Adipogenic Genes
    • Authors: P. Subash‐Babu; Ali A. Alshatwi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We aimed to examine the anti‐adipogenic effects of mangiferin (xanthone glucoside) and its related mechanism. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium, after 60% confluence adipocyte differentiation was induced. Differentiation‐induced hMSCs were cultured in the presence and absence of 10, 20 and 40 μmol of mangiferin from day 0 to day 10. Adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation were significantly decreased in 40 μmol mangiferin‐treated groups when compared with the reference drugs (quercetin‐ and orlistat‐treated groups). Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we studied the mRNA expression levels of resistin, adipocyte fatty acid‐binding protein 2 (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR‐γ) and tumor necrosis factor‐α, in hMSCs undergoing adipocyte differentiation; treatment with mangiferin attenuated the expression of those adipogenic genes and decreased adipocyte differentiation. Mangiferin significantly inhibited hMSCs to preadipocyte differentiation within the first 2 days of treatment, indicating that the anti‐adipogenic effects of mangiferin are achieved through the inhibition of differentiation and maturation. Practical Applications It is well known that various plant derived compounds presents antiobesity effect. However still there is lack of drugs for the arrest or inhibition of adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal stem cell precursors. hMSCs treated with adipocyte differentiation medium along with mangiferin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and maturation, via suppressing lipid accumulation. Mangiferin treatment resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in GPDH and triglyceride levels as well as an increase in LDH activity and attenuated lipid accumulation compared with untreated differentiating preadipocytes. This effect was demonstrated by the observed down‐regulation of adipogenesis related genes after hMSCs underwent induced adipocyte differentiation.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:42:15.328258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12101
  • Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activity of Pleurotus eryngii Extract
    • Authors: Zhaohui Xue; Lijuan Zhai, Wancong Yu, Hua Wang, Xiaohong Kou, Lvyang Peng, Dongmei Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii), also known as the king oyster mushroom, contains many bioactive substances, including polysaccharides, lipids, peptides, sterols and triterpenoids. The aim of this study was to explore the antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of P. eryngii extract. The fresh P. eryngii material was extracted with MeOH (methanol) and then partitioned with EtOAc (ethyl acetate). The study showed that the P. eryngii EtOAc extract (EAe) not only has antitumor effects by in vitro and in vivo methods but also significantly increases some immune activities. In addition, histopathological observations showed that EAe‐treated mice exhibited much lower cancerization throughout the liver and lung. EAe can also promote antioxidant activity, which may regulate the body's antioxidant capacity and activate the antitumor mechanism. Practical Applications Our study revealed the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of Pleurotus eryngii extract, and identified the key components of the P. eryngii extract with HPLC‐MS. These findings explain the antitumor activity of P. eryngii, which is very useful for developing the potential antitumor drugs for clinical application.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:41:25.33621-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12096
  • Evaluation of Alliin, Saccharide Contents and Antioxidant Activities of
           Black Garlic during Thermal Processing
    • Authors: Zesheng Zhang; Mengmeng Lei, Rui Liu, Yunfeng Gao, Mengying Xu, Min Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the alliin, saccharides, antioxidant and some other physicochemical changes of black garlic during the thermal processing steps. The contents of alliin and polysaccharides decreased significantly after 10 days of heat treatment, whereas the content of reducing sugars increased correspondingly. The 57.14% of fructose, 6.78% of glucose and 7.62% of sucrose were mainly saccharides in black garlic to answer for its sweet taste. The color value of black garlic increased over time, whereas the pH decreased continually from 6.25 to 4.25 after heating at 70–80C for 10 days, which contributed a characteristic black appearance and a sour taste mouthfeel. The antioxidant activities, including 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrilhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power activities, increased gradually during thermal processing. Practical Applications Black garlic has been used as foods and herbal remedies mainly in Japan, Korea and China, which has a wide range of health benefits, significantly antioxidant properties. Various physicochemical changes have been found to take place during thermal processing of garlic, including alliin, allicin, saccharides, pH, color and antioxidant activities. This is the first study to investigate the changes in the molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides and the monosaccharide composition of black garlic. These changes in saccharide contents and composition could be utilized as quality factors for the production of black garlic. Therefore, the results may have some useful practical implications at both the food technology and nutritional level.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:37:00.923845-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12102
  • Betaine Supplementation Improves Beneficial Effects of Boxthorn (Lycium
           chinense Mill.) Leaf on Body Weight/Body Fat Increase and
           Plasma/Liver Triglycerides Accumulation in High‐Fat Diet‐Fed
           C57BL/6 Mice
    • Authors: Moo Rim Kang; Chang Woo Lee, Ig Jun Cho, Myeong Youl Lee, Jung Hyu Shin, Soo Jin Oh, Jieun Yun, Won Kee Yoon, Sang‐Bae Han, Eun Eai Kim, Song‐Hae Bok, Jong Soon Kang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the combinatorial effects of betaine supplementation and boxthorn (Lycium chinense Mill.) leaf on high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced body weight/body fat increase, plasma lipid profile and liver damage. Suboptimal dosage of hot water extract of boxthorn leaf (Lycium chinense water extract, LWE) exerted partial inhibitory effect on body weight/body fat increase in HFD‐fed mice. Betaine supplementation potentiated the effect of LWE showing a significant inhibition against HFD‐induced increase in body weight/body fat. However, both LWE alone and LWE plus betaine had no effect on plasma cholesterols, including total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol and high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol in HFD‐fed mice. In contrast, HFD‐induced increases in plasma and liver triglycerides were partially suppressed by LWE treatment and this was potentiated by betaine supplementation. In addition, both LWE alone and LWE plus betaine significantly suppressed HFD‐induced glutamic‐oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic‐pyruvic transaminase. Collectively, our results suggest that the combination of boxthorn leaf and betaine might be beneficial for the management of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Practical Applications For a long time, a combination of various substances was used to treat diseases effectively in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we demonstrated that the supplementation of betaine synergizes with boxthorn leaf for improvement of high‐fat diet‐induced body weight/body fat increase and plasma/liver triglycerides accumulation. The results presented in this report suggest that the combination of boxthorn leaf and betaine might be beneficial for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T04:45:25.16677-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12099
  • Purification and Mode of Action of Antilisterial Bacteriocins Produced by
           Lactobacillus pentosus SJ65 Isolated from Uttapam Batter
    • Authors: Appukuttan Saraniya; Kadirvelu Jeevaratnam
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Humans and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have allied relationships for thousands of years, where LAB has been involved in food preservations as well as in preserving human health against several pathogens. This study aims at partial purification of bacteriocins from Lactobacillus pentosus SJ65 isolated from fermented Uttapam batter, a South Indian fermented food source, their characterization and mode of action. The bacteriocin was purified using various strategies such as acetone precipitation, gel permeation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The bacteriocin was stable at acidic and neutral pH and up to 100C and exhibited a wide spectrum of activity against clinically relevant gram‐positive and gram‐negative pathogens. However, Tris‐tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and its gel half activity assay against Listeria monocytogenes showed that the purified bacteriocin is composed of two independent peptides with molecular weight of 3.9 and 1.6 kDa. Practical Applications Bacteriocins, proteinaceous antimicrobial compounds from lactic acid bacteria, are receiving attention for their contribution in food preservation. In addition, interests are created for their use against human bacterial, fungal infections and cancer treatment. To date, only nisin and pediocin have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in food industries as preservatives and marketed worldwide. Other bacteriocins such as lactacins, plantaricins, pentocins, etc., are in their own lines of progress for several applications. Bacteriocins are advantageous being less toxic, having broad spectrum of activity and exhibiting antimicrobial activity at nanomolar concentrations. Thus, bacteriocins can be a potential drug candidate for replacing antibiotics to treat drug‐resistant pathogens in the future.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T04:45:10.810767-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12098
  • Evaluation of Antioxidant, Radical‐Scavenging and
           Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Various Culinary Herbs
           Cultivated in Southern Turkey
    • Authors: Özkan Danış; Basak Yuce‐Dursun, Talin Çimen, Serap Demir, Ümit Salan, Güler Yalçın, Ayşe Ogan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant, radical‐scavenging, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capabilities of water and methanol extracts of Rhus coriaria L., Ocimum basilicum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Thymbra spicata L., which are grown in the Hatay province of Turkey. Total antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (22–782.6 μg/mL EC50),·OH scavenging (3.93–33.43 μg/mL EC50), ferric (0.143–3.083 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/g), and cupric‐reducing antioxidant power (0.143–3.083 mmol TE/g) assays. The phenolic composition of the methanolic extract of R. coriaria leaves was also investigated, and the active compound was identified as 4‐O‐methylgallic acid. The highest IC50 value of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (1.17 ± 0.04 mg/mL) was observed in R. coriaria leaves. Principal component analysis showed that R. coriaria leaves possessed greater antioxidant and anti‐acetylcholinesterase potential as compared with the other evaluated plants. Practical Applications Antioxidants are widely used in the food industry to prevent the formation of toxic oxidation products and prolong shelf life. Because of increasing concern among consumers about the use of synthetic antioxidants, there has been a great interest in the identification and use of natural antioxidants. The present study reveals that Rhus coriaria leaves, which are not commonly used in Mediterranean cuisine, are a promising source of natural antioxidants and could be considered as a potential source of anti‐acetylcholinesterase agents and food preservatives. Both the antioxidant and anti‐acetylcholinesterase effects of R. coriaria leaves may be beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T04:44:56.212718-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12095
  • Edible Brown Alga Ecklonia cava Derived Phlorotannin‐Induced
           Anti‐Adipogenic Activity in Vitro
    • Authors: Chang‐Suk Kong; Haejin Kim, Youngwan Seo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The present study performed the bioactivity‐monitored isolation of anti‐adipogenic phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava as a part of the ongoing research to develop antiobesity nutraceuticals from natural origin. Extracts were partitioned into n‐hexane, 85% aqueous MeOH, n‐BuOH and water fractions. Their adipogenic activities were examined by measuring glycerol release level and adipogenic‐related gene expression in differentiating 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes. Among them, n‐BuOH fractions significantly increased glycerol secretion and reduced the regulation of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α (C/EBPα), as well as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Further separation from n‐BuOH fraction led to the isolation of phlorotannins, triphlorethol‐A, eckol and dieckol. Phlorotannins increased the glycerol secretion and reduced the glucose consumption levels of 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the phlorotannins reduced the expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and differentiation‐dependent factor 1/sterol regulatory element‐binding protein 1c, as well as downstream genes such as fatty acid binding protein‐4, fatty acid transport protein‐1, fatty acid synthase, Leptin and acyl‐CoA synthetase 1. In addition, phlorotannins increased the mRNA expression of hormone‐sensitive lipase while suppressing perilipin and TNFα expressions. Practical Applications Brown alga, Ecklonia cava, is one of the most common edible algae in East Asian countries and widely consumed throughout Korea and Japan because of its nutritional importance along with its medicinal value. Constituents of E. cava, especially phenolic compounds, are considered to possess several bioactivities against various complications and diseases. In this regard, this study provides valuable insights concerning the antiobesity potential of E. cava and effective ingredients. Results indicate that the isolated phlorotannins act as antiobesity agents and suggest possible mechanisms of action. Following this study, a better utilization of E. cava via proper extraction of antiobesity constituents will pave the way for future nutraceuticals with antiobesity value.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T04:44:44.956434-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12093
  • Ester Synthesis in Aqueous Media by Lipase: Alcoholysis, Esterification
           and Substrate Hydrophobicity
    • Authors: Jingcan Sun; Shao‐Quan Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Lipases are versatile biocatalysts commonly used for flavor ester synthesis in media with low‐water activity. This research studied the mechanism of ester synthesis by lipase Palatase in coconut cream and phosphate buffer with alcohols and fatty acids. When ethanol was added as the alcohol substrate, hydrolysis of triglycerides dominated over synthesis of esters. When fusel alcohols (fusel oil) were used as the alcohol substrate, ester synthesis dominated over lipid hydrolysis. However, there was no visible pattern of fatty acid production and then reutilization in relation to ester synthesis in either case. Higher consumption of octanoic acid was obtained than that of butyric acid in both coconut cream and buffer systems spiked with the same alcohol. This indicated the preferential utilization of more hydrophobic substrates for esterification by lipase in aqueous media. These results suggest that the lipase Palatase‐catalyzed ester synthesis in aqueous media was mainly hydrophobicity‐dependent esterification. Practical Applications Esters are important flavor compounds that are applied in food products. The effects of substrate hydrophobicity and reaction environment on the catalytic behavior of a lipase during ester synthesis in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil were investigated. Useful information was obtained on the in situ generation of esters in food materials. This study has implications for lipase‐catalyzed synthesis of flavor esters in other aqueous food matrices.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T02:15:53.888236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12104
  • Antioxidant Activities of Ferrous‐Chelating Peptides Isolated From
           Five Types of Low‐Value Fish Protein Hydrolysates
    • Authors: Hui‐Min Lin; Shang‐Gui Deng, Sai‐Bo Huang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Five types of low‐value fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) and ferrous‐chelating peptides [Fe(II)–FPH] were prepared from Pacific mackerel, Spanish mackerel, hairtail, Japanese anchovy and horse mackerel. The hydrolysis degrees of FPH and ferrous chelation percentages of all types Fe(II)–FPH were calculated. The antioxidant activities were measured using 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picryl‐hydrazyl (DPPH)‐scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical‐scavenging activity. All FPH samples demonstrated low antioxidant activity. After ferrous chelation, the DPPH‐scavenging activities of Spanish mackerel‐Fe(II)–FPH and hairtail‐Fe(II)–FPH were significantly higher (P 
      PubDate: 2014-11-18T02:08:52.496073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12103
  • Potential Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of a Popular Jujube
           Fruit: Apple Kul (Zizyphus mauritiana)
    • Authors: Rizwana Afroz; E. M. Tanvir, Md. Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Siew Hua Gan, Md. Ibrahim Khalil
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of a methanolic extract of Apple kul (Zizyphus mauritiana) as it has not been studied extensively. Apple kul was found to be a rich source of polyphenols (52.19 ± 2.38 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g), flavonoids (13.19 ± 1.31 mg catechin equivalents/100 g), ascorbic acid (48.17 ± 2.04 mg ascorbate equivalent/100 g) and tannins (50.20 ± 3.61 mg tannic acid equivalents/100 g). The estimated protein and reducing sugar contents in Apple kul were 1.21 ± 0.04 g/100 g and 1.96 ± 0.15 g/100 g, respectively. The high ferric‐reducing antioxidant power value (6336.71 ± 554.88 μmol Fe [II]/g) also indicated a high antioxidant potency for Apple kul. Apple kul showed highest activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Practical Applications Apple kul is full of vital potential antioxidants and can act as an antimicrobial agent, which is beneficial to fight against oxidative stress associated diseases as well as against harmful bacteria to maintain a healthy human life.
      PubDate: 2014-11-11T07:20:44.901351-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12100
  • Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Anti‐Lipid Peroxidation Activities
           of Ethanolic Extract of a Medicinal Plant, Andrographis paniculata
    • Authors: Vivek K. Bajpai; Pooja Agrawal, Yong‐Ha Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Various human diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species and free radicals generated in the living cells. Current research is directed toward finding naturally occurring antioxidant components of plant origin. This study was outlined to probe phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti‐lipid peroxidation potential of ethanolic whole plant extract of Andrographis paniculata (EWPEAP) using different antioxidant and free radical scavenging models. The phytochemical analysis of EWPEAP revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, phenols and steroids. The EWPEAP showed the antioxidant capacity as the inhibition of 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical by 72.4%. The EWPEAP also had potent inhibitory effect on scavenging nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by 66.5%, 62.2% and 62.5%, respectively. Moreover, the EWPEAP displayed concentration‐dependent reducing power ability and significant (P 
      PubDate: 2014-11-07T01:03:04.440326-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12092
  • Antioxidant and Atherogenic Foam cell Prevention Ability of Methanol and
           Aqueous Extract of Emblica Officinalis Fruits and Its Effect on CD36 and
           ABCA1 Gene Expression in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cell Line
    • Authors: Sinjitha S. Nambiar; Nandini Prasad Shetty
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Different solvent extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits were assessed for antioxidant activity, and it was seen that the methanol and water extracts showed the highest activity. Foam cell formation, the basis of atherosclerotic plaque formation, was prevented by only the methanol and water extracts of Emblica and not by acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts in RAW 264.7 cell lines. Gene expression studies showed that CD36 scavenger receptor expression was downregulated and ABCA1 (cholesterol efflux receptor) expression was upregulated in a dose‐ and time‐dependent manner with the upregulation seen at 12 and 24 h time points. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis for methanol and water extracts showed coumaric acid to be the next abundant compound followed by caffeic acid after myricetin and gallic acid, which were also present in other extracts in high amounts. A high correlation was seen between caffeic acid, gallic acid, coumaric acid and total antioxidant capacity. Practical Applications Emblica officinalis fruits, commonly incorporated in various food products, has been known to be a “wonder fruit” since ancient times and has been known to dissolve atherosclerotic plaque in arteries. However, the precise molecular mechanism of its action has not been elucidated yet. Furthermore, a systematic study of the extraction system is yet to be done. The present work attempts to shed some light on these questions to form a basis for further research on this precious, but under exploited fruit, and also to promote its consumption on a large scale.
      PubDate: 2014-10-14T02:36:00.801078-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12089
  • Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from the Bud of
           Lonicera confusa
    • Authors: Xiao‐Feng Feng; Feng Liu, Chang‐Hu Lin, Xiao‐Jing Lin, Na‐Na Liu, Xiao Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A polyphenol oxidase (PPO), located in the bud of Lonicera confusa, was extracted, purified and characterized. Ammonium sulfate precipitation and diethyl‐aminoethanol‐cellulose were used to purify the PPO 20.27‐fold. The molecular mass of PPO was 28.8 kDa, as determined by size exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index. The optimum pH value and temperature for PPO activity in the presence of l‐3,4‐dihydroxyphenylalanine (l‐DOPA) as a substrate were 8.5 and 15C, respectively. The enzyme was stable after 60 min at 10 and 20C, and the PPO activity remained above 90%. The Km for l‐DOPA was determined to be 2.26 mM. The PPO exhibited both diphenolase and triphenolase activities. Using Vmax/Km as a specificity constant, pyrocatechol was the better substrate for PPO. Moreover, ascorbic acid was a strong inhibitor that inhibited more than 78% of PPO activity at 1 mM. Practical Applications Lonicera confusa is often used in the fields of medicine and drink production. L. confusa quickly turns brown during drying and storage. Our results may facilitate the characterization of the mechanism involved in this browning process and thus provide a strategy for controlling the browning reaction as this reaction is a serious limitation in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30T02:14:30.603879-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12085
  • Effect of Alkaline Electrolyzed Water as an Inhibitor of Enzymatic
           Browning in Red Delicious Apples
    • Authors: Mi Jeong Kim; Yen‐Con Hung
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, hue angle, chroma and browning index (BI) of alkaline electrolyzed (EO) water‐treated apples were compared with apples treated with other anti‐browning agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid and sodium metabisulfite). Alkaline EO water was shown to reduce PPO activity by about 66%. Apples treated in alkaline EO water for 5 min had less reduction on hue angle (97.0–91.1) after 24‐h storage than apples treated with deionized water (93.4–83.7) and hence less brown. Apples treated in alkaline EO water also had lower BI (40.8) after 24 h than ascorbic acid‐treated apples (47.6). Alkaline EO water when combined with other anti‐browning agents to treat apple was more effective on preventing browning than with the individual anti‐browning agents alone. This study demonstrated that alkaline EO water can be a promising treatment solution to prevent browning and thereby enhance the quality of fresh‐cut apples. Practical Applications The prevention of browning in fresh‐cut produce is important for maintaining the quality of minimally processed products. A lot of anti‐browning agents were used to prevent the enzymatic browning. However, some anti‐browning compounds are associated with potential health hazards. Therefore, the use of natural anti‐browning agents is still needed to produce healthy products with high quality. The anti‐browning properties observed in alkaline electrolyzed (EO) water suggested that it can be a promising treatment solution to prevent browning and thereby enhance the quality of fresh‐cut apples. Alkaline EO water is environment friendly, safe for human contact and can be produced on site when needed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-29T02:41:14.527475-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12086
  • Biochemical Profile of Leaf, Silk and Grain Samples of Eight Maize
           Landraces (Zea mays L.) Cultivated in Two Low‐Input
           Agricultural Systems
    • Authors: Virgílio Gavicho Uarrota; Ricardo Brasil Severino, Carina Malinowsky, Simone Kobe Oliveira, Shirley Kuhnen, Rosendo Augusto Yunes, Marcelo Maraschin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Highlights We analyzed total carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids in grains, leaves and silks of maize landraces. Higher amounts of secondary metabolites were found in leaves and silks. High performance liquid chromatography revealed the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin as the major carotenoids in grains. Matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry of crude extracts showed a higher richness of anthocyanin in leaf samples than in silks. Abstract This research aimed to determine the biochemical profile of leaf, silk and grain samples of eight maize landraces (Zea mays L.) cultivated in southern Brazil. To accomplish this, reverse‐phase high performance liquid chromatography‐UV‐visible (RP‐HPLC‐UV‐vis), UV‐vis spectrophotometry, matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (MALDI‐TOF MS) and chemometrics were used to examine carotenoids and their isomers, anthocyanin and phenolic acids. Leaf tissue samples showed higher amounts of carotenoids (838.6 μg/g – Língua de Papagaio variety), anthocyanins (405.8 μg/g – Palha Roxa variety) and phenolics (655.0 μg/g – Roxo variety), followed by maize silks and grains. RP‐HPLC‐UV‐vis analysis of grain extracts revealed xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin as the major compounds. The anthocyanin profile by MALDI‐TOF MS identified pelargonidin, cyanidin, peonidin, malvidin and glucoside derivatives in leaf extracts, and silk samples were shown to contain cyanidin, peonidin and 7‐methoxy‐apigeninidin glucoside. These findings indicate that the discarded material, i.e., leaves and silks, can be prospected as bioactive biomasses useful to industrial sectors. Practical Applications The present study indicates that leaves and silks of maize landraces, typically discarded in the normal process of agricultural production, can be prospected in food systems as potential sources of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolics. Moreover, acquisition of these raw materials for development of new products in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries can be accomplished with no or negligible cost. Thus, the preservation of this valuable germplasm is to be encouraged, as it will increase the possibility of economic return to small farmers.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T03:17:26.623342-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12087
  • Comparative Study on the Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Properties and HPLC
           Fingerprinting of Three Varieties of Celosia Species
    • Authors: O.R. Molehin; S.A. Adefegha, G. Oboh, J.A. Saliu, M.L. Athayde, A.A. Boligon
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, the phenolic content, characterization and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of three varieties of Celosia species were assessed. Celosia laxa had significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T20:37:25.917697-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12090
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