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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (221 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Review of Agricultural and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access  
Revista Ciências Exatas e Naturais : RECEN     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
TECA : Tecnologia i Ciència dels Aliments     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theory and Practice of Meat Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Vitae     Open Access  
Zagadnienia Ekonomiki Rolnej     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.424]   [H-I: 32]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Optimization of extraction of antioxidative phenolic compounds from cashew
           (Anacardium occidentale L.) leaves using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Lalita Chotphruethipong; Soottawat Benjakul, Kongkarn Kijroongrojana
      Abstract: Optimization of extraction of antioxidative phenolic compounds from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) leaves was performed using response surface methodology (RSM). The central composite design (CCD) was used to establish treatments based on three independent variables, including extraction temperature, time, and ethanol-to-solid ratio. Total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidative activities (DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, and FRAP), and % yield were monitored. The extraction yield was 8.64% under the following optimized condition: extraction at 34.7°C for 64 min with an ethanol-to-solid ratio of 18:1 vol/wt. TPC was 564.60 mg GAE/g dry extract and DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, and FRAP were 11.74, 5.56, and 8.11 mmol TE/g dry extract, respectively. The experiment values were in accordance with the predicted values. Isoquercetin, catechin, hydroquinin, gallic acid, tannic acid, and rutin were found in the extract. The extract could therefore be used as natural antioxidant for food application or as nutraceutical.Practical applicationsCashew leaf is a potential source of phenolics with antioxidative activity. Extraction method is the first important step in isolation of interested compound, in which the target compounds are extracted with high recovery and without interferences. Optimization of extraction is the procedure that can be used to extract the bioactive compounds having antioxidant capacity with high efficiency. Cashew leaf extract also can be used for food application or serve as nutraceuticals.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T05:20:30.106968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12379
  • Antihypertensive and bovine plasma oxidation-inhibitory activities of
           spent hen meat protein hydrolysates
    • Authors: Chibuike C. Udenigwe; Abraham T. Girgih, Aishwarya Mohan, Min Gong, Sunday A. Malomo, Rotimi E. Aluko
      Abstract: Hydrolysis of spent hen meat proteins with pepsin and pepsin + pancreatin yielded SPH-P and SPH-PPc hydrolysates, respectively. The hydrolysates dose-dependently inhibited activities of human recombinant renin (IC50 0.34 and 0.52 mg/mL, respectively) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, IC50 0.64 and 0.42 mg/mL, respectively). The hydrolysates had lower cysteine and tryptophan contents but similar contents of other amino acids when compared with the parent spent hen protein isolate. SPH-P, but not SPH-PPc, dose-dependently increased the sulfhydryl content and ferric reducing antioxidant capacity of bovine plasma oxidized with H2O2, which demonstrate its protective effect against oxidation. Oral administration of the protein hydrolysates to spontaneously hypertensive rats at 200 mg/kg body weight induced −26.5 mmHg (SPH-P) and −35.8 mmHg (SPH-PPc) maximum lowering of systolic blood pressure after 2 hr. The antihypertensive effects of the hydrolysates were reduced at 8 hr and completely lost at 24 hr post-gavage.Practical applicationsBioactive peptides have been produced from various protein sources and the nature of the matrix can influence their enzymatic release. Our findings demonstrate that spent hen meat proteins can be used as precursors of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. In vivo effects observed in hypertensive rats indicate that the peptides, or their derivatives, are bioavailable to exert short-term blood pressure reduction. Valourization of the poultry by-products can be pursued in formulating meat peptide-based functional foods. Such products can be used for managing oxidative stress and hypertension-related health problems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T05:15:24.231977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12378
  • Extraction optimization, structural characterization and bioactivity
           evaluation of triterpenoids from hawthorn (Crataegus cuneata) fruits
    • Authors: Zeynep Tohtahon; Lu Zhang, Jianxin Han, Xing Xie, Zongcai Tu, Tao Yuan
      Abstract: This research aimed to optimize the extraction condition, and to identify and investigate the bioactivities of triterpenoids from Crataegus cuneata. The optimum extraction conditions for recovering triterpenoids from hawthorn were ultrasound-assisted extraction with 80% methanol at 30°C, 400 W for 20 min, which resulted in the recovery of total triterpenoids of 28.47 mg/g dry material. Further isolation work led to the isolation and identification of six triterpenoids: ursolic acid (1), maslic acid (2), corsolic acid (3), pomolic acid (4), euscaphic acid (5), and 2α, 19α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (6) from the triterpenoid-enriched C. cuneata fruits extracts (TCFE). Among which pomolic acid and euscaphic acid were firstly found in genus Crataegus. Biological evaluation revealed that all of the isolated triterpenoids and TCFE showed considerable xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, while some of isolates exhibited considerable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.Practical applicationsTriterpenoids are one class of the major compounds with broad biological activities in hawthorn species. Crataegus cuneata is one of the two major hawthorn species found in China. But, there is few data on the constituents and bioactivity of triterpenoids present in C. cuneata. This research indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction is the suitable method for extracting triterpenoids from C. cuneata, and TCFE could be potentially used for against xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase-induced diseases, which could provide useful information for the further development of C. cuneata fruits.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T05:05:28.579151-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12377
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-04-12T04:08:32.186084-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12326
  • Fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs) contribution in olive oil aroma
           and volatile biogenesis during olive preprocessing storage
    • Authors: Ines Gharbi; Manel Issaoui, Dorsaf Haddadi, Soukaina Gheith, Amel Rhim, Imed Cheraief, Mohamed Nour, Guido Flamini, Mohamed Hammami
      Abstract: The present paper reports on the impact of the microbial growth changes, occuring during fifteen days of cv. Chemlali preprocessing storage in different containers representing the common practice during olive processing (plastic bags, reticular bags, and plastic boxes), on olive oil quality. Next, the microorganisms of their microflora (Fungi) were isolated and identified and their effect on olive oil aroma and volatile biogenesis was evaluated by comparing the olive oil volatile profile versus fungal volatile organic compounds. HS-SPME technique was used for volatile component sampling. Virgin olive oil (VOO) chemical quality indices did not show major variations during storage. Olive oil contained novel volatile compounds that could enhance its flavor, but also contained some off-flavor compounds which could reduce its organoleptic characteristics and thus its quality. Results show that olive microflora can contribute to the biogenesis of olive oil volatiles and thus some genera could potentially be used to enhance olive oil aroma.Practical applicationsThe present paper try to assess the potential contribution of fungi in the biogenesis of volatiles found in olive oil. The identification of microorganisms capable of producing volatile compounds would have a great impact; the diverse functions of Fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs) can be developed for use in potential biotechnological applications (biofuel, biocontrol, etc.) with greater market value. For olive oil industry applications, some fungal volatile organic compounds are useful for the control of postharvest plant disease; someothers should be explored due to their antioxidant properties. Application of some of the microflora members or even application of enzymes that these microorganisms produce and that contribute to volatile biogenesis could have much to offer in olive oil quality.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T00:35:29.337183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12368
  • Anti-mutagenicity, hypouricemic and antioxidant activities of alkaloids
           from vinegar and mei vinegar
    • Authors: Hui-Fang Chiu; Yachih Cheng, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Chin-Kun Wang
      Abstract: The objective of the present experiment was to assess the protective activity of sorghum vinegar (V) and mei vinegar (MV) and its alkaloids by evaluating its antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, and hypouricemic activities. The acetic acid concentration, metallic ions like calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and alkaloid contents (β-carbolines) were much higher in MV than V. MV exhibited better xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity to endorse its antihyperuricemic effect. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity and solubility of urate were substantially ameliorated in MV than V. Both V and MV effectively reduced the mutagenicity induced by mutagenic agents like N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]-quinoline on various strains of Salmonella typhimurium namely TA100 and TA102. Based on the outcome of the current study, it indicated that MV might be recommended for treating the uric acid related disorder (gout) along with standard hypouricemic drugs.Practical applicationsFor many year mei vinegar (plum) has been used as a physiological alkaline food and hence recommended for treating various ailments like an ulcer, gastritis, and arthritis (gout). However, the scientific evidence behind vinegar for treating arthritis (gout) was unknown and hence the current study was undertaken to showcase the beneficial activity by checking the antioxidant, antimutagenic and hypouricemic activities of MV and V. Ample amount of studies proved that alkaloids (β-carboline) are the major phytocomponents of fruit or grain vinegar with numerous health promoting properties and hence, we speculate that alkaloids in MV might largely contribute to antioxidant, antimutagenic, and hypouricemic activities. Our results confirm our hypothesis and indicating that MV with higher content of alkaloids showed better beneficial property than V. Therefore, MV can be used as a functional food for curbing uric acid related disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T00:35:25.939355-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12373
  • Apigenin: A current review on its beneficial biological activities
    • Authors: Xiang Zhou; Feng Wang, Ruijun Zhou, Xiuming Song, Meilin Xie
      Abstract: Apigenin, identified as 4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, is a natural flavonoid compound present in a variety of fruits, vegetables, functional foods, and medicinal plants. Many studies have revealed that apigenin has the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on the various cancer cells, prevents the atherogenesis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, ischemia/reperfusion-induced heart injury, and autoimmune myocarditis, protects the chemicals- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, inhibits the asthma, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, abnormal behavior, and oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced neural cell apoptosis, improves the pancreatitis, type 2 diabetes and its complication, osteoporosis, and collagen-induced arthritis. These biological effects suggest that apigenin may be a potential health promoting agent. In the article, we will review these effects and possible biochemical mechanisms.Practical applicationsApigenin-rich chamomile, propolis, and garlic oil have been used in the prevention ane cure of hypertension and chemicals-induced liver injury as food supplements. However, their bioactive components and mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Apigenin may be a common effective component and play an important role in the process of therapy. In addition, apigenin itself may also be considered as a potential functional food, but the further development will be needed to apply to the prevention and treatment of some-related diseases in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T23:40:31.444804-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12376
  • Gui-ling-gao inhibits Concanavalin A-induced inflammation by suppressing
           the expressions of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines in mice isolated
    • Authors: Huan Zhang; Min-Yi Wu, De-Jian Guo, Chun-Wai Wan, Shun-Wan Chan
      Abstract: Gui-ling-gao (GLG), also known as turtle/tortoise jelly, has been traditionally used as a functional food in southern China, Singapore, and Malaysia to regulate the immune system. In the present study, the antiinflammatory effects of GLG against Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice isolated splenocytes were evaluated. GLG significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T02:10:30.158211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12367
  • Purification and characterization of a peptide from soybean with cancer
           cell proliferation inhibition
    • Authors: Srinivas J. Rayaprolu; Navam S. Hettiarachchy, Ronny Horax, Geetha Kumar-Phillips, Rohana Liyanage, Jackson Lay, Pengyin Chen
      Abstract: A peptide from protein hydrolysate fraction obtained from a high oleic acid soybean line (N98-4445A) that had shown significant activity against human cancer cell lines was identified and purified. Three peptides showing highest activity were identified by reverse phase HPLC in the 10–50 kDa fraction of the protein and purified using peptide specific affinity chromatography column. The three individual peptides were tested for anti-proliferative activity against blood, colon and liver cancer cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell titer assay. Enhanced colon cancer cell inhibition (80%) was observed after testing a pure peptide (molecular size of 18 kDa with 158 amino acid residues) which also demonstrated a time-response of 96 hr after incubation based on trypan blue dye exclusion study. The impact of this study lies in deriving a pure single peptide with anti-proliferative activity on human colon and blood cancer cells.Practical applicationsSoybean is cultivated in the United States mostly for extracting the oil leaving the residue (soybean meal) which is commonly used as an animal feed due to its high protein content. This study has shown that soy peptides produced enzymatically from the meal of a high oleic acid soybean line (N98-4445A) were found to have anticancer activity. This study demonstrated an impending value for a pure peptide derived from this soy peptides as an alternative and inexpensive anti-cancer therapeutic agent as well as a value addition to soy meal by-product.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:01:50.405425-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12374
  • Identification and changes of different volatile compounds in meat of
           crucian carp under short-term starvation by GC-MS coupled with HS-SPME
    • Authors: Yong Jiang; Li Zhao, Meilan Yuan, Ao Fu
      Abstract: The different volatile compounds in meat of crucian carp under short-term starvation stress were investigated in this study by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. The detail workflow included Mzmine, analysis of variance, automatic mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS), and genetic algorithm. Seventy-two kinds of volatile compounds were identified by AMDIS and 42 kinds of different compounds were selected including 19 aromatics, 7 alcohols, 1 ketones, 2 aldehydes, 2 esters, and 11 unknown compounds. Samples from starvation groups were separated clearly on principal components analysis by 42 volatile compounds. The results suggest that starvation could cause the change of flavor of fish meat, and the changing patterns of these different volatile compounds were revealed.Practical applicationsIn southern China, farm-raised crucian carps are usually put into clean water under short-term starvation for eliminating smell before they are sold. This phenomenon has attracted the attention of the researcher. The present study reveals the changing patterns of volatile compounds in meat of crucian carp by using headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and starvation groups were classified based on the volatile data. The results demonstrated that combination of Mzmine, ANOVA, AMDIS, and GA can be applied to select different volatile compounds successfully, and this method could be used for the identification of different compounds in similar gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T22:26:12.06465-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12375
  • Investigation of glucosinolates, and the antioxidant activity of Dolsan
           leaf mustard kimchi extract using HPLC and LC-PDA-MS/MS
    • Authors: SunKyung Oh; Chigen Tsukamoto, KiWoong Kim, MyeongRak Choi
      Abstract: Leaf mustard (Brassica juncea), the main ingredient of leaf mustard kimchi, has a variety of biologically active secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates (GSLs), flavonoids, and polyphenols. In this study, the changes in GSL content and antioxidant properties during the storage of Dolsan leaf mustard kimchi (DLMK) for 35 days were examined by separation and purification of DLMK extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and preparative octadecylsilane-HPLC. The total GSL content and antioxidant activity of the DLMK extracts had significantly lower values on day 21 of storage (p
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T04:40:33.774834-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12366
  • Hepatoprotective effects of different combinations of sweet orange, Unshiu
           mikan, and mini tomato juice powders against tert-butyl
           hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells
    • Authors: Susoma Jannat; Md Yousof Ali, Hyeung-Rak Kim, Prashamsa Koirala, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of raw mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) juice powder to attenuate cytotoxicity in combination with juice powders from two orange species [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck and Citrus unshiu Marcow]. To this end, the hepatoprotective activities of these combinations against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells were evaluated, and the most suitable ratios for optimal flavonoid availability were identified. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) and the extent of upregulation of phase-ІІ proteins such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were quantified to assess the hepatoprotective effects of four different ratios of these powders. Three main compounds–hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were analyzed by simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the 2:1:3 powder mixture were 8.69 mg/g GAE and 2.56 mg/g QE, respectively. The levels of these contents were correlated with the decrease in ROS, increase in GSH level, and restoration of HO-1. Furthermore, the hepatoprotective efficacy of each of the four ratios was attributed to its flavonoid content. These results indicate that combinations of juice powders, particularly at a ratio of 2:1:3, are a potentially useful therapeutic source of phenolic compounds for the treatment of oxidative stress-related hepatotoxicity.Practical applicationsSweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.), Unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow) and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are rich sources of phenolic compounds which are consumed frequently in Korea. This research provides proper understanding of the consumption of these fruits in combination to deliver effective amount of phenolic compounds to promote human health and fight against oxidative stress related diseases. The present study demonstrates the hepatoprotective effect through prevention of oxidative stress, suggesting that combinations of juice powders may have beneficial effects in preventing hepatic diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T21:55:27.540297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12369
  • 1H NMR-based metabolic investigation of the effect of Lentinula
           edodes-derived polysaccharides on aged mice
    • Authors: Xu Xiaofei; Yang Jiguo, Ning Zhengxiang, Zhang Xuewu
      Abstract: Few comprehensive metabolic profiles of Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides on mammalians have been reported to date. In previous studies, a novel heteropolysaccharide, named L2, obtained from L. edodes had shown anti-ageing effects in mice. In this study, a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in aged mice gavaged with L2 for better understanding of anti-ageing mechanism. Six metabolites in urine were identified as potential markers for L2 treatment. An increase in α-oxoglutarate (α-OG) and a decrease in β-hydroxybutyrate, glutamate, glucose, choline, and lactate were observed. Enrichment pathway analysis indicated that 11 metabolic pathways were disrupted after L2 treatment. These altered metabolic pathways are mainly associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and glycolysis. The results suggest that L2 could exert anti-ageing effects partly by regulating these pathways. Moreover, these findings may help better understand the mechanisms of the bioactivities of L. edodes-derived polysaccharides.Practical applicationsIn this study, a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in aged mice gavaged with a novel heteropolysaccharide L2 from Lentinula edodes. The findings may help better understand the mechanisms of bioactivities of L. edodes-derived polysaccharides, and used for further development of L2 in food and medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T21:38:11.435164-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12371
  • Aqueous and enzyme-extracted phenolic compounds from brewers' spent grain
           (BSG): Assessment of their antioxidant potential
    • Authors: Damian Crowley; Yvonne O'Callaghan, Aoife L. McCarthy, Alan Connolly, Richard J. Fitzgerald, Nora M. O'Brien
      Abstract: Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is a major coproduct of the brewing industry and a potential valuable source of protein, cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, lipid, and phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant potential of phenolic extracts isolated from BSG using cell wall degrading enzymes, Depol 740L, Shearzyme and, Ultraflo Max. The phenolic extracts were prepared from black BSG (derived from barley grains roasted at 200°C) and pale BSG (derived from malted barley grains). The phenolic extracts protected against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA single strand breaks in U937 cells as assessed using the comet assay. The extracts also protected against a H2O2 challenge in HepG2 cells, as assessed by measuring the cellular content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Enzyme-extracted black and pale BSG phenolic extracts protected against oxidant-induced DNA damage and enhanced the cellular antioxidant activity in cells.Practical applicationsEnzyme-extraction may be an effective alternative to conventional solvent extraction for the isolation of novel bioactive components, such as phenolics, from Brewers' spent grain. The BSG extracts may be used as a source of functional ingredients for the development of foods with potential benefits to human health.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T21:24:02.459281-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12370
  • Neuritogenic and neuroprotective constituents from Aquilaria crassna
    • Authors: Chonlakan Supasuteekul; Sarin Tadtong, Waraporn Putalun, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Parkpoom Tengamnuay, Boonchoo Sritularak
      Abstract: The leaves of Aquilaria crassna (Thymelaeaceae) are recently become an attractive research due to their potential in antioxidative, antibacterial, antipyretic, analgesic, and laxative activities. However, the neuritogenic and neuroprotective effects of A. crassna leaves have never been reported. In this study, three phenolic glycosides were isolated from A. crassna leaves. The isolates were identified as genkwanin 5-O-β-primevoside (1), iriflophenone 3,5-C-β-d-diglucoside (2) and iriflophenone 3-C-β-d-glucoside (3). The neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compound 1 and 2, at very low concentration (100 ng/mL of compound 1 and 1 ng/mL of compound 2), exhibited the protection of P19-derived neurons and promoted the neurite outgrowth of the cultured neurons. In addition, a preliminary study on these compounds revealed that there was no correlation between their antioxidative properties and their neuroprotective activities.Practical applicationsAgarwood leaves have been used as an ingredient in foods and drinks for health promotion in Asian countries. The results of this study also suggest that Aquilaria crassna leaves are potentially sources of neuritogenic and neuroprotective constituents, which may be developed as functional foods for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T01:10:32.567205-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12365
  • Clinical application of a cocoa and unripe banana flour beverage for
           overweight women with abdominal obesity: Prospective, double-blinded and
           randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: Camilla Ribeiro Vieira; Fernanda Laurides Ribeiro de Oliveira Lomeu, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Roberta Ribeiro Silva
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess the effect of a cocoa and unripe banana flour beverage (UBF) on fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), gastrointestinal symptoms, fecal characteristics and inflammation, in overweight women with abdominal adiposity.MethodsThis prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial involved 60 female volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years. One group received a cocoa beverage (n = 30) and one group received a cocoa and UBF beverage (n = 30), for 6 weeks. Intestinal microbiota was indirectly assessed by consistency, shape, and color of feces, determination of fecal SCFA, and gastrointestinal symptoms.ResultsBoth beverages increased the production of propionic acid (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T01:41:07.993209-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12372
  • Screening of phytochemicals and toxicity of medicinal plants, Dillenia
           species, reveals potential natural product resources
    • Authors: Tikumporn Thooptianrat; Arunrat Chaveerach, Runglawan Sudmoon, Tawatchai Tanee, Thomas Liehr, Nelli Babayan
      Abstract: Plants in genus Dillenia have traditionally been consumed as foods and used for cancer and diarrhea treatments. Crude hexane extracts of nine species, D. aurea, D. excelsa, D. grandifolia, D. ovata, D. parviflora, D. philippinensis, D. pulchella, D. reticulata, and D. suffruticosa were analyzed for chemical contents via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and for their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on leukocytes via cell counting and comet assays. Oleamide, a chemopreventive agent which acts against Alzheimer's disease, enhances memory function and promotes sleep, was found at the highest amount (18.05–75.60%). The other components discovered in high amounts were squalene and vitamin E. The IC50 of all studied species was higher than 430 µg/mL. Comet assay indicated insignificant DNA damage (p > .05). These results indicate that the plants containing a high amount of useful phytochemicals are nontoxic to normal human cells, thus may be safely applied for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other related conditions.Practical applicationsOleamide has an important role in living things, especially in humans. Its functions are, improved memory recovery, induced deep sleep and appetite in elders. Based on the principles of phytotherapy, a plant species actually contains several pharmacological compounds in a different quantity; a medicinal reading should be in a single unit. In agreement with a high quantity of oleamide in Dillenia species, many species would be selected to produce natural products in convenient forms, and in drug discovery, because this serves as active principles in drugs as well as templates for synthesis of new drugs. In this research, seven out of nine species including Dillenia aurea, D. excelsa, D. grandifolia, D. ovata, D. parviflora, D. philippinensis, and D. reticulata contained high amounts of oleamide, were expected to release single medicinal activity, and show no cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Accordingly, they should effectively be made available in modified forms in order to be health products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T02:36:12.470196-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12363
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro antioxidant
           potential of ajwain seed (Trachyspermum ammi L.) essential oil and its
    • Authors: Kritika Dhaiwal; Khushminder Kaur Chahal, Dalvir Kataria, Amit Kumar
      Abstract: The aim was to study the composition of ajwain seed oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate antioxidant activity of ajwain seed oil, its fractions, extracts, thymol, and its derivatives. GC-MS analysis of ajwain seed essential oil showed the presence of 47 compounds. Thymol (31.40%) was found to be the major component while γ-terpinene, isobornyl isobutyrate, and p-cymene were minor compounds. The antioxidant potential of selected components was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. Results demonstrated that methanol extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 value 130 µg/mL), Hydroxyl radical (IC50 value 120 µg/mL), nitric oxide (IC50 value 90 µg/mL) scavenging assays, and highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (780 µg Fe (II)/g dry weight) as compared to hexane and dichloromethane extracts. Total phenolic (16.52 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonoid contents (3.89 mg quercetin equivalent/g) were also found to be higher in methanol extract compared to other extracts and ajwain oil.Practical applicationsDegradation of food materials by oxidation and its prevention during production, storage, and distribution is an important issue in the food industry. Due to the potential carcinogenic effect of some synthetic antioxidants, much attention has been paid to naturally-derived compounds having potential to act as antioxidants. The present study revealed that the methanol extract of ajwain seeds which contained terpenoids, phenols, and flavonoids as essential phytochemicals have high antioxidant properties, which can provide opportunities for use in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and food industries.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T23:25:31.538114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12364
  • Levansucrase production by Zymomonas mobilis: Optimization of process
           parameters and fructooligosaccharide production
    • Authors: Özlem Erdal; Burcu Kaplan-Türköz, Özge Taştan, Yekta Göksungur
      Abstract: This article investigates the production and optimization of levansucrase using synthetic medium by Zymomonas mobilis NRRL B-14023. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of three different fermentation parameters on levansucrase enzyme production. Maximum levansucrase activity of 13.3 µmol glucose/min was obtained at the optimum levels of process variables (pH 4.90, initial sucrose concentration 159.01 g/L and fermentation temperature 30.3°C). Response surface methodology was found to be useful in optimizing and determining the interactions among process variables. The purity of levansucrase used in enzyme assays were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a dominant protein band of size around 47 kDa was obtained. The sequence of the produced enzyme was determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. The presence of kestose in the reaction mixture showed that Z. mobilis levansucrase can produce fructooligosaccharides. This study fulfills the lack of mathematical and statistical approaches in optimizing the levansucrase production by Z. mobilis.Practical applicationsLevansucrases are responsible for the production of valuable fructans; fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan. Fructooligosaccharides are sugar polymers three times less sweet than sucrose and naturally present in some foods. FOS have important promising use in the food industry due to their properties such as solubility in water, stability during storage, low calorie value, and prebiotic effects. In this research, the production of microbial levansucrase was optimized for potential industrial applications by response surface methodology. Future studies will focus on conversion of intrinsic sucrose of foods to FOS using levansucrase.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T22:35:25.603537-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12361
  • Supplementation of standardized extract from fermented Smilax china L.
           leaf containing secondary metabolites moderated diet-induced obesity by
           modulating the activity antioxidant enzymes and hepatic lipogenesis
    • Authors: Minjung Kim; Seung-Beom Seo, Juhyung Kim, Nguyen Khoi Song Tran, Tae-Sik Park, Seung-Hwan Yang, Soon-Dong Kim, Ye-Kyung Lee, Sang-Il Lee, Joo-Won Suh, Soon-Mi Shim
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of non-fermented Smilax china L. (SC) and fermented Smilax china L. leaf extract by Aspergillus oryzae (FSC) on lipogenesis and antioxidant activities in diet induced-obese mice. While principal bioactive constituents in SC were decreased by fermentation, diverse secondary metabolites were identified. Both SC and FSC supplementation reduced body weight and epididymal fat mass in mice fed a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels were lowered by SC treatment and the degree of lipid reduction was higher in FSC-treated group due to hepatic upregulation of lipogenic genes. SC and FSC improved hepatic function by lowering the activity of serum biomarker enzymes. In contrast, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were elevated and cellular lipid peroxide were decreased in liver. Taken together, FSC is more potent in preventing obesity and ameliorating hepatic function by fermentation-mediated production of bioactive constituents that have higher antioxidant and anti-obese efficacy.Practical applicationsThe studies revealing that specific mechanism regarding anti-obesity effect of consumption of SC leaf in animal models is limited. Extract of fermented SC by Aspergillus oryzae (FSC) could be used as a bioactive ingredient for functional food products that can have a health claim for reducing hepatic lipogenesis in the liver in high-fat diet induced-obese mice.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T21:10:50.875868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12357
  • Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of an endemic Thymus
           fontanesii Boiss. & Reut. with chemotype carvacrol, and its healing
           capacity on gastric lesions
    • Authors: Lilia Mouhi; Houria Moghrani, Noureddine Nasrallah, Abdeltif Amrane, Rachida Maachi
      Abstract: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Thymus fontanesii with chemotype carvacrol and its gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model by using the image analysis method by means of the ImageJ® software. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the acute toxicity was evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by two methods such the Carrageenan-induced paw edema in mouse at dose of 500 mg/kg and topical inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate at dose of 03 and 10 mg/ear. The antiulcer activity of the essential oil of the studied plant was assayed at dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, by ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats, showed a significant decrease of gastric lesion areas. The obtained results confirm the anti-inflammatory and the gastroprotective activity probably attributed to its main compound, carvacrol which support the traditionally uses of the studied plant.Practical applicationsThe Thymus fontanesii, which is an endemic plant to Algeria and Tunisia, is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation and fever. This study revealed that the T. fontanesii essential oil with chemotype carvacrol possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity, side by side with the antiulcer activity as the Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model showed a significant decrease of gastric lesion areas. Thus, it stands as a promising candidate for further investigations in this area.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T05:10:33.079545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12359
  • Antimutagenicity, antibacteria, and water holding capacity of chitosan
           from Luffa aegyptiaca Mill and Cucumis sativus L.
    • Authors: Hui-Fang Chiu; Shin-Ru Huang, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Chin-Kun Wang
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to separate the chitosan (deacetylated products) in the peel and the flesh of loofah (Luffa aegyptiaca) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to evaluate its water holding capacity, antibacterial and antimutagenicity activities. The levels of glucosamine (degree of deacetylation; DD) in ultrapure deacetylated (UD) chitosan product of loofah and cucumber were much higher than other deacetylated chitosan products. Also, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber showed better water absorption and moisture holding capacity. All the deacetylated chitosan products effectively suppress the survival of Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes in a dose-depended manner. Furthermore, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber effectively reduced the mutagenicity on various strains of Salmonella typhimurium namely TA100 and TA102. Hence, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber might be used to improve skin tone as well as prescribed with a standard chemotherapeutic agent as an adjuvant therapy.Practical applicationsLuffa aegyptiaca Mill (loofah) and Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) are common summer vegetables in Asia, especially in Taiwan, India, and China. Recently, the chitosan (deacetylated chitin) present in the fresh loofah (Luffa) and cucumber attracted more researchers owing to its high biodegradability, nontoxicity, and several other biological properties like antiobesity, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. Also, this study shows that loofah and cucumber (UD fraction) are the richest sources for chitosan a vegan source with dermal protective, antibacterial, and antimutagenicity activities. Hence, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber may be recommended with other skin protective agents and cancer condition with the standard drug, since it acts as an antimutagenic agent.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T03:50:32.812625-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12362
  • Purification, partial biochemical characterization and inactivation of
           polyphenol oxidase from Mexican Golden Delicious apple (Malus domestica)
    • Authors: Norma A. Marrufo-Hernández; Gisela Palma-Orozco, Hiram I. Beltrán, Hugo Nájera
      Abstract: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a critical molecule because of its participation in enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables during ripening, handling, storage, and processing. In this contribution, PPO was extracted, purified, and characterized from Golden Delicious apples, PPO activity was increased 319-fold with a yield of 1.6%. A monomer of 58 kDa was obtained by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE; the optimum temperature and pH were 35°C and 6.0, respectively; the best catalytic efficiencies (Vmax/Km ratios [U/(mg·mM)]) were 15,402 for 4-methylcatechol and 5,941 for pyrogallol. The most efficient inhibitors were sodium metabisulfite (≥1 mM) and tropolone (≥10 mM). PPO activity decreased as the temperature increased and thermal inactivation was achieved at 80°C in 5 min. An Ea of 69.2 kJ/mol was estimated from the kinetic inactivation at different temperatures. Microwave irradiation inactivates PPO after 120 s in crude extract and after 60 s in fresh apple juice.Practical applicationsAccording to FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) data, Mexico produced about 858,608 tons of apple in 2013, Mexico is in 30th place in the world overall apple production. It is important to characterize the Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) from Golden Delicious apple and provide data on its inactivation. PPO has been considered a crucial molecule because of its participation in enzymatic browning in several fruit and vegetables during ripening, handling, storage, and processing, being responsible for economical loses for producers and industry. In this contribution PPO was extracted, purified, and partially characterized from Mexican Golden Delicious apples by fast protein liquid chromatography. Also some inactivation methods like the use of several inhibitors and antibrowning agents, thermal and microwave inactivation where tested. The information obtained in this research is important for better understanding of PPO from Golden Delicious apple and gives information on ways to optimize inactivation process of the purified enzyme or in apple juice.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T22:09:59.985207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12356
  • Food: The Chemistry of its Components
    • Authors: Eunice C. Y. Li-Chan
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T22:07:38.700055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12360
  • Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted
           from enzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leaves
    • Authors: Chang-Wei Zhang; Cheng-Zhang Wang, Ran Tao
      Abstract: Three high purified polysaccharide monomers (GBP11, GBP22, and GBP33) were obtained from enzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leave using DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Sephadex G-100 column, and their basic structural characterization were investigated by utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, high-performance ion chromatography, and Infrared Spectroscopy. In addition, antioxidant activities of related polysaccharides were also evaluated. The results showed that the molecular weight of GBP11, GBP22, and GBP33 were 1.944 × 103 KDa, 5.167 × 103 KDa, and 45.98 KDa, singly, and they were mainly made up of glucose, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose with a molar ratio of 62.2:1.98:3.84:1.24, 3.57:68.0:4.67:0.36 and 5.34:48.8:1.70:8.97, respectively. Moreover, GBP22, GBP, and GBP11 demonstrated the strongest free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion, showing that they have potential application value on the functional food and cosmetic industry.Practical applicationsEnzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leaves includes lots of carbohydrate, it will cause eutrophication and environment pollution if it is directly poured out. This research indicates that carbohydrate extracted from enzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leaves are made up of different polysaccharide monomers with various molecular weight and monosaccharide composition. Moreover, these polysaccharide monomers possess appreciating antioxidant activities. Therefore, this research could lay a foundation for the high-value application of polysaccharides in functional food and cosmetic industry, and provide theoretical reference for the treatment of waste water.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T04:40:50.926846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12352
  • In vitro anti-inflammatory and skin protective properties of extract
           comprising ceramides from de-oiled rice bran
    • Authors: Manas R. Sahoo; Sandeep R. Varma, Neeraj K. Patel, Thiyagarajan O. Sivaprakasam, Abheepsa Mishra, Ganesh Muguli, Suresh K. Babu, U. V. Babu, Rangesh Paramesh, Atul N. Jadhav
      Abstract: De-oiled rice bran is a byproduct of rice processing industries and rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and fibers. Although rich in nutrients, it is unfit for human consumption and used as animal feed. This study was conducted to explore the therapeutic value of rice bran ceramides. Methanolic extract of de-oiled rice bran (RBE) was obtained by hot soxhlet extraction method and evaluated for presence of ceramide. Further, the rice bran ceramide extract (RBE) was subjected to column chromatography and the presence of ceramide ascertained by spectroscopic studies. Cytotoxic effect of RBE was tested on THP-1 and HaCaT cells. The tested concentrations of RBE (100 and 200 µg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, IL-6, and IL-5) in THP-1 cells. RBE enhanced skin-barrier function (involucrin and filaggrin) in HaCaT cells, up-regulated aquaporin-3 (AQP-3) expression, and inhibited hyaluronidase activity in HaCaT cells. Thus, RBE exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and skin protective benefits in vitro.Practical applicationsDe-oiled rice bran is cheap, easily procurable, rich in phytonutrients, and possess therapeutic value. In the current study, extract comprising ceramides from de-oiled rice bran (RBE) showed significant anti-inflammatory and skin protective effects on THP-1 and HaCaT cells, respectively. The results of the present investigation highlights the promising use of rice bran ceramides as potential anti-inflammatory and skin protective ingredient in nutritional and skin-care formulations or products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T01:15:47.534763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12353
  • Comparison of phytochemicals, antimicrobial, and antioxidant capacities in
           different anatomical parts of Ficus microcarpa (Moraceae)
    • Authors: Ilhem Rjeibi; Sana Ncib, Hichem Alimi, Anouar Ben Saad, Imen Saïd, Sami Souid
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional value, chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity of leaves, fruits, and roots from Ficus microcarpa. The results showed that all plant parts are rich sources of sulfated polysaccharides and phenolics; in aerial roots, polyphenols and flavonoids dominate. Epicatechin, coumaric acid, and quercetin were present in roots, leaves, and fruits, but in different amounts. Gallic acid and rutin were detected only in roots extracts. The minerals compositions indicated that K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were present in all plant parts. The antioxidant properties determined by hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were better in root and in correlation with the chemical composition changes.Practical applicationsOur results provided evidence that the F. microcarpa could be a potential source of natural antioxidant that may replace synthetic product and prevents from oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. Moreover, due to its potential antimicrobial activity, F. microcarpa can be used in pharmaceutical industry to treat damages caused by some pathogenic germs.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T00:20:46.953473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12354
  • Cabbage and cucumber extracts exhibited anticholinesterase, antimonoamine
           oxidase and antioxidant properties
    • Authors: Ganiyu Oboh; Adedayo Oluwaseun Ademiluyi, Opeyemi Babatunde Ogunsuyi, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye, Abayomi Felix Dada, Aline Augusti Boligon
      Abstract: Aqueous extracts of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were evaluated for inhibitory effects on activities of enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase) relevant to neurodegeneration (in vitro). In addition, their total phenol and flavonoid contents, as well as HPLC characterization of constituent phenolic compounds were determined. Antioxidant properties and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue by extracts were also evaluated. Both extracts inhibited these enzymes with cucumber extract being more potent. Cucumber extract also had higher phenolic contents. Quercetin, caffeic acid and gallic acid were some of the predominant phenolic compounds in both samples, but with significantly higher levels in cucumber. Furthermore, both extracts had antioxidant properties and inhibited lipid peroxidation. These findings may explain the potentials of cabbage and cucumber to serve as sources of phytochemicals for the management of Alzheimer's disease.Practical applicationNeurodegenerative diseases in general and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular remain a global health challenge with huge socioeconomic impacts and therapeutic drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors used in the management of AD are not without their attendant side effects. Hence, the need for natural sources of these enzyme inhibitors with additional antioxidant properties, which can be of therapeutic benefit in the management of AD with little or no side effects. In this study, the neuroprotective potentials of cabbage and cucumber extracts were investigated as possible sources of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the management of AD.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T01:03:21.83883-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12358
  • Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of raw and processed
           forms of hausa potato (Solenostemon rotundifolius poir)
    • Authors: C. O. Eleazu; K. C. Eleazu, M. A. Iroaganachi, W. Kalu
      Abstract: This study reported for the first time, the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices (pGIs) of the flours from raw and processed (boiled and fried) S. rotundifolius tubers following standard techniques. The flours contained considerable amounts of proteins and starch. The fried tubers had higher fat contents compared with the raw or boiled while the ash contents of the processed tubers did not differ significantly from the raw. The boiled tubers had lower digestible starch (DS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) but statistically same amounts of amylose compared with the raw or fried tubers; higher amounts of resistant starch (RS) compared with the raw, fried and white bread, respectively. While RDS and DS were positively correlated with the pGIs of the tubers, RS was negatively correlated and RS formation during processing was evident only in the boiled tubers. The study showed that the raw and processed tubers possessed intermediate glycemic indices.Practical applicationsThere has been an upsurge in recent times on the interest in nutraceuticals, one of which reasons is attributed to their roles in arresting some metabolic disorders, one of which is type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes are often restrained to particular types of diets which results in their complaints of monotony of staying on a particular diet. S. rotundifolius tuber is one of such plants that have been found to possess nutraceutical potentials due to its nutritional and pharmacological properties as reported in several studies. However, the tuber is eaten after being processed and there is paucity of information in literature on the effect of processing on the digestibility of its starch. Therefore, the findings of this study which revealed that both the raw and processed S. rotundifolius tubers possessed intermediate glycemic indices indicate their usefulness as potential meals for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T04:10:24.595631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12355
  • Anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic effects of
           Dunaliella salina on human KB oral carcinoma cells
    • Authors: Hui-Fang Chiu; Jin-Yi Liao, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Oksana Golovinskaia, Chin-Kun Wang
      Abstract: This study was aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects of Dunaliella salina (DS) on KB human oral squamous carcinoma cells. Phytochemical analysis of DS by HPLC revealed the presence of different types of carotenoids like α-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and higher contents of all trans-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene. Antioxidative indexes like reducing capacity, chelating activity, DPPH and superoxide anion scavenging activities were significantly enhanced by treating with DS in dose-depended fashion. Whereas, the in vitro studies with KB cell line showed antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of DS by suppressing the KB cell count. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory property of DS was confirmed by downregulating the protein expression of COX-2 in DS treated group. Also, DS extract would trigger apoptosis of KB cell in a dose-depended manner. Based on the above results, it clearly displays its anticarcinogenic efficacy, however, further studies are needed to explore the in-depth mechanism behind its chemotherapeutic property.Practical applicationsDS is a type of microalgae found in salty lakes and considered as the richest source of β-carotene than any other plant-based products. DS exhibit various biological properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and therefore used as a nutraceutical agent by several pharmaceutical companies. Also, DS has been utilized by the tradition medicine practitioners in Asian countries like China, and Japan to treat various ailments like wound healing, vomiting, and ulcer. Modern researchers also hinted that DS are effective against many metabolic syndromes as well as several types of cancer. However, till date, no studies exist on the anticancer effect of DS (carotenoids) related to oral cancer. The present study indicates that DS could exert antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects and thus endorse its anticarcinogenic effect. Hence, in future, it might be used for treating oral cancer as an adjuvant therapy along with standard chemotherapeutic agents.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T04:55:23.566299-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12349
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