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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 280 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (13 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (62 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review     Open Access  
International innovation. Food and agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Food Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access  
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 27]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1607 journals]
  • Comprehensive Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Volatile Compounds
           of Sudanese Honeys
    • Authors: Haroon Elrasheid Tahir; Zou Xiaobo, Li Zhihua, Zhu Yaodi
      Abstract: Honey samples were collected from different floral and geographical origins. The total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, antioxidant contents, FRAP/DPPH (ferric reducing antioxidant power/1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazy) assays and the color characteristics were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey samples exhibited high radical‐scavenging activity (DPPH%) ranging from 50.41 ± 0.8 to 70.5 ± 0.9%, FRAP from 556.9 ± 15.0 to 1,340.2 ± 8.7 mM and phenolic from 79.4 ± 1.9 to −232.7 ± 0.2 mg GAE/100 g. The volatiles were identified by means of solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, terpenes, phenols and hydrocarbon represented the most abundant compounds in honeys among the 69 volatile components identified. Correlation between phytochemical and antioxidant assay parameters was found to be statistically significant (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:37:55.410139-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12135
       
  • Antidiabetic Potential of Hydro‐Alcoholic Extract of Moringa
           Peregrina Leaves: Implication as Functional Food for Prophylactic
           Intervention in Prediabetic Stage
    • Authors: Mohammad Fahad Ullah; Showket H. Bhat, Faisel M. Abuduhier
      Abstract: In recent years, the herbal and dietary sources of bioactive components having pharmacological properties and therapeutic significance in traditional system of medicine have attracted much attention in complementary and adjuvant therapies. Some preclinical studies on animal models have shown benefits of Moringa species such as M. oleifera in experimentally induced diabetes. Most of these studies have taken the anti‐hyperglycemic effect as the end‐point indicator of antidiabetic properties. The present study has explored the antidiabetic potential of M. peregrina, another species of Moringa, native to Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The hydro‐alcoholic (methanol‐aqueous) extract of the dried leaves of the plant demonstrated inhibitory activity against three in vitro models of enzyme assay (α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV) critical for diabetes management. The antioxidant property was also evaluated which correlated with the phytochemical analysis of the extracts displaying the presence of phenolics, tannins and saponins. These findings provide partial evidence to support the traditional use of Moringa in diabetes and endorse its regular consumption as functional food for high‐risk populations at the borderline prediabetic stage. Practical Applications M. peregrina is commonly consumed as food and serves as an important ingredient in traditional medicine in Arabian peninsula. The assessment of the antidiabetic potential of the plant provides an insight into its application as functional food and in nutraceutical development for prophylactic intervention in hyperglycemic conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:06:21.295018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12140
       
  • Purification and Characterization of Trypsin from Hepatopancreas of
           Pacific White Shrimp
    • Authors: Theeraphol Senphan; Soottawat Benjakul, Hideki Kishimura
      Abstract: Trypsin from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and a series of chromatographies including diethylaminoethyl sepharose and soybean trypsin inhibitor sepharose 4B columns. Trypsin was purified to 50.4‐fold with a yield of 13.7%. Based on native‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), the purified trypsin showed a single band. Trypsin had a molecular weight of 24 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate‐PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature for α‐N‐benzoyl‐dl‐arginine‐p‐nitroanilide (BAPNA) hydrolysis were 8.0 and 60C, respectively. Trypsin was stable to heat treatment up to 60C and over a pH range of 7.0–11.0. The activity was strongly inhibited by soybean N‐ρ‐tosyl‐L‐lysine chloromethyl ketone. Purified trypsin had Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) and catalytic constant (kcat) of 1.60 mM and 3.33 s−1, respectively, when BAPNA was used as the substrate. Trypsin with high kcat indicated its high capacity of hydrolysis and it could serve as a promising protease. Practical Applications Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas generally serves as a major source of proteases, especially trypsin and chymotrypsin, which can be used as an alternative food processing aid. Proteases in the hepatopancreas can be recovered and further used, in which the cost of commercially available proteases can be reduced. Furthermore, the by‐product can be better exploited and the extracted proteases can increase the revenues for the shrimp processor.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:05:50.19288-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12147
       
  • Hydrolysis as a Valorization Strategy for Unused Marine Food Biomass:
           Boarfish and Small‐Spotted Catshark Discards and By‐Products
    • Authors: M. Blanco; C.G. Sotelo, R.I. Pérez‐Martín
      Abstract: Discarded fish represent a serious obstacle to the sustainability of fisheries. The main outcome of analyses on the impact of discarding has been the implementation of a zero‐discard policy in EU (European Union) waters. One concern in implementing this policy is finding alternatives to help fishers alleviate the costs of nondiscarding. Boarfish and small‐spotted catshark are frequently discarded along the Northwest Coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Boarfish protein hydrolysates (BPHs) were prepared using a pancreas crude extract (PCE) from small‐spotted catshark and compared with those prepared with commercial proteases. BPH prepared with PCE and commercial trypsin contained more protein than alcalase hydrolysates; however, the latter showed greater solubility. Emulsifying and foaming properties were higher when using bovine trypsin, followed by PCE. Antioxidant activities were similar. Fish by‐products or fish with low flesh yields, usually wasted, contain valuable compounds that could be employed to obtain value‐added products such as fish protein hydrolysates. Practical Applications This manuscript addresses the problem of underutilized marine biomass: discards and byproducts from boarfish (Capros aper) and small‐spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). These species are frequently discarded or used for low‐value processes. One of the main challenges that face the objective of bycatch and discard reduction is finding alternatives that help the fishing industry overcome the costs associated with landing captures. Fish protein hydrolysates have many different potential applications and this manuscript suggests a selection of them, such as utilization as a food or feed ingredient.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:05:35.853518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12141
       
  • Assessment of the Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Three
           Species of Edible Seaweeds
    • Authors: Catherine Boisvert; Lucie Beaulieu, Claudie Bonnet, Émilien Pelletier
      Abstract: Extraction of secondary metabolites from St. Lawrence Estuary edible seaweeds – Saccharina longicruris, Ascophyllum nodosum and Ulva lactuca – was carried out by pressurized liquid extraction using ethanol. The antioxidant potential of extracts was evaluated through DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and the antibacterial activity was tested against food spoilage bacteria: Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus and Brochothrix thermosphacta. Of all seaweed extracts, A. nodosum exhibited the highest phenolic and carotenoid contents, 50.2 mg GAE/g and 85 μg/g, respectively. A. nodosum also displayed the best DPPH scavenging activity, EC50 10.4 μg/mL, and best capacity to reduce ferric ion, 677.2 μmol TE/g dry weight at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. U. lactuca extracts showed the highest growth inhibition of E. coli, 69.5%; M. luteus, 61.4%; and B. thermosphacta, 21.4%. These findings suggest a high potential of St. Lawrence Estuary seaweed extracts for application in the food industry. Practical Applications Food producers, food industries, governments and consumers are aware of the importance to look into effective preventive measures in food quality and food safety fields. The decay of foods is caused by physical, chemical and biological factors, which leads to the loss of the organoleptic characteristics and consumer safety. Natural extracts combining both antioxidant and antibacterial activities can be used for further applications in reducing food spoilage and prolonging food shelf life. The majority of natural extracts could be approved as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). St. Lawrence Estuary seaweed extracts possess high potential for application in the food industry using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, which was selected for extraction efficiency purposes. In addition, production of seaweeds extracts using approved food‐grade ethanol solvent by PLE method involves, on an industrial scale, cost savings.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:03:21.474046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12146
       
  • Peptide Aggregation during Plastein Reaction Enhanced Bile
           Acid‐Binding Capacity of Enzymatic Chicken Meat Hydrolysates
    • Authors: Chibuike C. Udenigwe; Aishwarya Mohan, Sihong Wu
      Abstract: Plastein, a product of protease‐induced peptide aggregation, was formed from chicken meat hydrolysates (CMHs) produced with Alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin. Plastein reaction resulted in increased surface hydrophobicity, except for the Alcalase reaction, possibly due to clustering of aggregating hydrophobic peptides. The protease‐induced process resulted in increased capacity of CMH to bind primary, secondary and conjugated bile acids. Although the CMH had similar amino acid compositions, pancreatin hydrolysates and the resulting plastein yielded the highest binding capacity, followed by bromelain. This indicates that factors other than the total hydrophobic amino acid residues, such as surface hydrophobicity, would have contributed to bile acid binding. CMH plastein samples bound more trihydroxyl than dihydroxyl bile acids, which is the opposite of the activity of cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant. The findings will promote the design of peptide‐based bile acid‐binding resins from protease‐treated meat products for regulating endogenous lipid levels during hyperlipidemia. Practical Applications Hydrophobic amino acid residues of hydrolysates and peptides are thought to be crucial for bile acid binding. The findings from this study demonstrate that hydrolysates with similar hydrophobic amino acid composition have significantly different activities, and that protease‐induced peptide aggregation can be used to enhance bile acid‐binding capacity. This process can be explored for use in the recovery of meat proteins for the development of peptide‐based nutraceutical resins for the management of hyperlipidemia in humans.
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T04:07:34.713371-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12139
       
  • Three Pathways Assess Anti‐Inflammatory Response of Epicatechin with
           Lipopolysaccharide‐Mediated Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells
    • Authors: Deng‐Jye Yang; Shih‐Chuan Liu, Yi‐Chen Chen, Shih‐Han Hsu, Yu‐Pei Chang, Jau‐Tien Lin
      Abstract: The inhibitory effects of epicatechin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced production of pro‐inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells were estimated in the study. The results show that epicatechin could down‐regulate the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase‐2 as well as the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro‐inflammatory cytokines (interleukin‐1β [IL‐1β], IL‐6 and tumor necrosis factor‐α [TNF‐α]) in LPS‐induced RAW264.7 cells. The attenuation of LPS‐induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells by epicatechin was found to be closely correlated with inhibition of activation of an inhibitor of κB kinase α/β and sequential translocation of nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) p50/P65 subunits. Moreover, the suppression of activation of mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (including extracellular signal‐regulated kinase [ERK], Jun N‐terminus kinase [JNK] and p38) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was also involved in the anti‐inflammatory effects of epicatechin. Practical Applications Epicatechin is a major polyphenolic component with effective antioxidant activity in litchi flowers. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of phytochemicals might contribute to their anti‐inflammatory actions. The results of our study suggest that epicatechin effectively attenuates the production of inflammatory mediators including NO, PGE2, TNF‐α, IL‐1β and IL‐6 in the LPS‐induced macrophages through inactivation of NF‐κB, MAPKs (ERK, JNK and p38) and JAK2/STAT3 pathways. Litchi flowers might have the potential for anti‐inflammation through suitable treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T03:31:05.630459-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12134
       
  • Curcuminoid Extraction from Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.): Efficacy of
           Bromine‐Modified Curcuminoids Against Food Spoilage Flora
    • Authors: Palanivel Sathishkumar; Sundaresan Hemalatha, Mani Arulkumar, Rajagounder Ravikumar, Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff, Tony Hadibarata, Thayumanavan Palvannan
      Abstract: Curcuminoids are nutraceutical compounds used worldwide for medicine as well as in food preparations. In the present study, curcuminoid extraction was optimized using response surface methodology. The antimicrobial properties of curcuminoids and bromine‐modified curcuminoids (BMCs) were determined against food spoilage flora and foodborne pathogens. The maximum curcuminoid yield was obtained when turmeric, methanol and time were 5.77 g, 22.52 mL and 12.53 h, respectively. The high‐performance liquid chromatogram of the extracted curcuminoids indicated three peaks at 9.5, 10.1 and 10.7 min, which correspond to bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin in the ratio of 28:24:48, respectively. Curcuminoids had a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of BMCs was significantly decreased to 34.5, 14.7 and 30.2% for the tested gram‐positive bacteria, gram‐negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. Practical Applications This finding suggests that bromine‐modified curcuminoids would be a good candidate for food manufacturing industries to control food spoilage flora and foodborne pathogens.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:33:01.084826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12133
       
  • Hepatoprotective Activity of Haliotis discus hannai Ino Extract on
           Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Liver Damage in Rats
    • Authors: Trishna Debnath; Da Hye Kim, Jeong Eun Jo, Jeong Jun Lee, Han Jong Pyo, Beong Ou Lim
      Abstract: The hepatoprotective activity of Haliotis discus hannai Ino extract (HDE) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced liver damage was investigated in rats. LPS (5 mg/kg body weight) produced hepatic damage that was manifested by significant increases in the activities of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and reduced antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde) activities. These antioxidant activities were elevated by HDE administration to LPS‐treated rats. These results suggested that HDE extracts had a potential hepatoprotective effect in LPS‐induced liver damage without any acute toxicity. In addition, reducing power of the extracts and their ability to scavenge free radicals were evaluated by applying DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt]. This study demonstrates that these extracts have potential hepatoprotective activity which is mainly attributed to the antioxidant potential. Practical Applications Pacific abalone is an important marine food resource in many Asian countries. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated numerous health benefits of Pacific abalone. In South Korea, abalone has important economic significance as a food and as a functional food. In addition, numerous recent research studies have focused on the nutritional and pharmaceutical values of abalone.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:31:50.204459-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12131
       
  • Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Activities and Genotoxic Evaluations of
           Calendula officinalis
    • Authors: Syed Mubashar Sabir; Muhammad Fareed Khan, Joao Batista Texeira Rocha, Aline Augusti Boligon, Margareth Linde Athayde
      Abstract: Our study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and genotoxic activities obtained from hot water extracts of flowers and leaves of Calendula officinalis Linn. (Compositae). The extracts effectively prevented the lipid peroxidation induced by different prooxidants (10 μM FeSO4 and 5 μM sodium nitroprusside) in rat liver and brain homogenates. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activities of the extracts were evaluated by the quenching of 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 184.16 μg/mL) and deoxyribose (IC50 = 28.1 μg/mL) assays. The results obtained on alkaline comet assay revealed that exposure of human lymphocytes to aqueous extract of flower at a relatively high concentration (0.4 mg/mL) did not induce genotoxic effects. The major phenolic acids, some flavonoid aglycone and glycosides, were identified in flower and leaves by high performance liquid chromatography. These results indicate that C. officinalis has a significant antioxidant activity and can be effectively utilized against oxidative stress‐related diseases. Practical Applications C. officinalis is a medicinal plant which has been used in traditional medicine for skin complaints, wounds and burns, conjunctivitis, poor eyesight, menstrual irregularities, varicose veins, hemorrhoids and duodenal ulcers. As oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the inducing factors for the development of various metabolic disorders, the present study proposes to evaluate the antioxidant potential of flower and leaf extracts of plant, which may prove to be beneficial against these disorders.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:31:34.688297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12132
       
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Activities of Rubus Fruit Anthocyanins in Inflamed
           Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells
    • Authors: Hana Jung; Hee Jae Lee, Hyunnho Cho, Keum Taek Hwang
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate anti‐inflammatory activities of anthocyanin fractions (AF) from blackberries (BB), Korean raspberries (KR) and black raspberries (BR) and their major anthocyanins (cyanidin‐3‐glucoside [C3G] and cyanidin‐3‐rutinoside [C3R]) in inflamed intestinal epithelial Caco‐2 cells. Nitrite scavenging activity of C3G was significantly higher than that of C3R and the AF measured by a chemical method. All the AF and individual anthocyanins significantly inhibit nitric oxide (NO) secretion, inducible NO synthase expression and nuclear factor‐κB activation in the Caco‐2 cells exposed to conditioned medium (CM) from lipopolysaccharide‐stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In the CM‐stimulated Caco‐2 cells, C3G, BBAF and KRAF inhibited NO production significantly more than C3R and BRAF, and C3G and BBAF expressed nuclear factor E2‐related factor 2 significantly more than the control. The individual anthocyanins also significantly downregulated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in Caco‐2 cell lines. The results suggest that anthocyanins in Rubus fruits, particularly C3G, may promote anti‐inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells. Practical Applications Rubus fruits are widely consumed in various ways including wine and raw fruits. These Rubus fruits have various physiological properties such as antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities because of their substantial quantities of phenolic compounds, constituted mainly by anthocyanins. Our results show that Rubus fruits may have potential health benefit in inflamed intestinal epithelial cells, which may be attributed to their major anthocyanins.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:30:02.720025-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12130
       
  • A High Salt‐Tolerant Thermoactive Esterase from Golden Grey Mullet:
           Purification, Characterization and Kinetic Properties
    • Authors: Nabil Smichi; Ahmed Fendri, Youssef Gargouri, Nabil Miled
      Abstract: An esterase was purified from the golden grey mullet viscera using successively a Sephacryl S‐100 gel filtration, an anion‐exchange chromatography and a high‐performance liquid chromatography filtration column. The pure esterase (GmDE) is a monomer that has a molecular mass of about 55 kDa, as determined by SDS‐PAGE analysis. The purified enzyme displayed a specific activity of 100 U/mg on short‐chain triacylglycerols at a temperature of 50C. GmDE is therefore a thermoactive enzyme as compared to other fish lipolytic enzymes that have been studied so far. No significant lipolytic activity was noticed when long‐chain triacylglycerol (olive oil) was used as a substrate. It is worth noting that the pure esterase was active in the presence of salt concentrations as high as 0.8 M. The GmDE N‐terminal amino acid sequence showed no similarities with that of other known fish esterases. Altogether, these results suggest that the GmDE is a member of a new group of digestive esterases belonging to vertebrates. Practical Applications Characterization of an esterase from low‐value fish viscera and the use of digestive enzyme may add value to this discarded species. Furthermore, the activity and stability at alkaline pH may also find use in laundry detergents. The thermoactivity of the purified esterase makes it a good candidate for potential application in food processing operations. Finally, the stability of the enzyme in high salt concentrations suggests that it can be used as an additive in different processes (food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical operations).
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:21:10.976185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12129
       
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2015-04-13T00:25:24.782041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12074
       
  • Protective Effect of Lycii Radicis Cortex against
           6‐Hydroxydopamine‐Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death
    • Authors: Hyo Geun Kim; Myung Sook Oh
      Abstract: An oxidative defense system imbalance leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative ailments such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we examined the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRCE) in an in vitro PD model induced by 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA), which induces selective dopaminergic cell death through oxidative stress. LRCE resulted in significant protective effects in SH‐SY5Y cells and showed strong radical scavenging effects. In addition, LRCE inhibited intracellular ROS and extracellular nitrite production and glutathione depletion induced by 6‐OHDA. Furthermore, LRCE blocked the destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of caspase‐3. Moreover, dopaminergic neuronal protection of LRCE from 6‐OHDA exposure was confirmed in the rat primary mesencephalic culture system. LRCE is therefore considered to exert beneficial effects on dopaminergic neurons, resulting to antiparkinsonian effects via antioxidant activities. Practical Applications The current findings suggest that owing to its effects on antioxidant activity, Lycii Radicis Cortex may be useful as an alternative therapy to prevent and treat neurodegeneration including dopaminergic neuron dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T22:23:21.165533-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12127
       
  • Enzymatic Production of a Soluble Fiber Hydrolyzate from Chinese Cabbage
           Waste and Its Health‐Related Properties
    • Authors: Seo Yeon Park; Kyung Young Yoon
      Abstract: A feasibility study on the potential use of Chinese cabbage waste as a raw material for the production of soluble dietary fiber was performed. The alkali‐soluble fraction obtained by extracting Chinese cabbage waste was hydrolyzed by two commercial xylanase preparations to produce soluble fiber hydrolyzates. The freeze‐dried soluble fiber was treated with 85% ethanol and separated into the alcohol‐soluble dietary fiber (ASF) and alcohol‐insoluble dietary fiber (AIF) fractions. ASF had a significantly greater promoting effect on the growth of lactic acid bacteria. AIF effectively hindered the diffusion of glucose and bile acid from dialysis membranes and displayed a significantly greater bile acid retarding effect than carboxymethylcellulose and pectin. Thus, the water‐soluble dietary fiber obtained from Chinese cabbage waste by enzymatic hydrolysis has potential use as a fiber source with prebiotic, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Practical Applications Dietary fiber, which has many health‐related benefits, is added to various food products as a functional ingredient or acceptability factor. The aim of this study was to produce soluble dietary fiber from Chinese cabbage waste by enzymatic hydrolysis. Our results indicated that soluble fiber hydrolyzate from Chinese cabbage is a practical new resource for preparing functional drinks and nutraceutical products for use in the food industry. The use of agro‐industrial waste to produce bioactive ingredients could improve the economic value of such waste.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T01:10:13.384934-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12126
       
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitory Activity of Peanut Testa Extracts against
           Human Cancer Cell Lines
    • Authors: Somprasong Khaopha; Sanun Jogloy, Aran Patanothai, Thanaset Senawong
      Abstract: Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this study, HDAC inhibitory activity of 15 Valencia‐type peanut testa extracts was assessed in mammalian cell model. Nine of 15 testa extracts exhibited HDAC inhibitory activity. Two peanut testa extracts (genotypes ICG15042 and KK4) possessing the greatest HDAC inhibitory activity could inhibit the growth of all five human cancer cell lines tested. At 72‐h treatment, both ICG15042 and KK4 testa extracts showed the most effective growth inhibition on Jurkat T‐leukemia cells with IC50 values of 28.81 and 30.00 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts were more toxic against the cancerous cell lines, but safer toward a noncancer cell line. Growth inhibitory effects of both extracts appeared to be mediated by induction of apoptosis in a dose‐dependent manner. Moreover, some phenolic acids including protocatechuic, syringic, p‐coumaric, ferulic and sinapinic acids, which may underpin their anticancer activity, were also identified and analyzed quantitatively. Practical Applications HDAC inhibitory potentials of phenolic‐rich testa extracts of 15 Valencia‐type peanut genotypes in mammalian cell model were evaluated. The results suggest that peanut skins (testae) of nine peanut genotypes possessed HDAC inhibitory activity and two of them (ICG15042 and KK4), with the highest HDAC inhibitory activity, could inhibit cancer cell growth via apoptosis induction. Accordingly, peanut skins could be useful for application in areas such as alternative medicine for cancer treatment and functional food for dietary prevention of cancer.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T04:00:42.097403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12128
       
  • The Molecular Mechanisms of Apoptosis Induced by Allium flavum L.
           and Synergistic Effects with New‐Synthesized Pd(II) Complex on Colon
           Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Milena Milutinović; Milan Stanković, Danijela Cvetković, Vuk Maksimović, Biljana Šmit, Radoslav Pavlović, Snežana Marković
      Abstract: Considering that induction of apoptosis is one of the main strategies in cancer therapy, the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxic effects of Allium flavum L. on colon cancer cell lines were investigated and applied in single and co‐treatments with new‐synthesized Pd(II) complex. The analysis of chemical composition identified caffeic acid glycosides as the most dominant phenolics in A. flavum extract. In all investigated extracts, A. flavum showed cytotoxic effects on colon cancer cells (IC50 = 1.64–84 μg/mL) but not on healthy cells. Combinations of plant extracts with Pd(II) complex caused lower IC50 values and better proapoptotic activity. Pd(II) complex induced high percentage of necrosis in a single treatment, but in the combination with plant extracts it had better proapoptotic and lower necrotic activity. Treatments and co‐treatments induced higher O2− production and influenced apoptosis biomarkers, leading to Fas protein overexpression and activation of caspases 8 and 9. Practical Applications In view of the achieved anticancer properties, insufficiently investigated Allium flavum L. is a promising candidate for developing new anticancer compounds and deserves further research and scientific validation. This study has great impact on investigation of new anticancer substances from natural source, focuses on the importance of using plants as the source of medicinal drugs, contributes to the development of the appropriate therapy and gives contribution in both scientific and practical means. Because of its synergistic actions with the newly synthesized chemical anticancer agent and ability to reduce side effects (thus reducing necrotic activity of Pd[II] complex), A. flavum can be used as a dietary food supplement or supplement to chemotherapy perhaps in combination with currently used chemotherapeutics or in some strategies in cancer therapy. This finding is also important from a nutritional point of view because this extracts contain significant amounts of bioactive constituents, which provide health benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:49:16.606927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12123
       
  • Hepatoprotective Effect of Lentinus edodes Mycelia Fermented Formulation
           against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Rats
    • Authors: Won‐Seok Chung; Jing‐Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Jong‐Min Park, Sun‐Ok Park, Sang‐Jong Lee, Songhee Jeon, Hojun Kim
      Abstract: The hepatoprotective effects of fermented black rice bran extracts (FF1 and FF2: black rice bran fermented by Lentinus edodes derived from mycelium supplemented with soybean or Hovenia dulcis) and their associated mechanisms were evaluated. In an in vitro experiment, FFs caused significant amelioration of the metabolic function of rat hepatocytes treated with NH4Cl. In addition, administration of FFs to rats with chronic liver injury induced by 12‐week continual alcohol consumption resulted in significant restoration of body weight shrinkage, notable attenuation of excessive aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and endotoxin in serum, malondialdehyde in liver and the lactulose/mannitol ratio in urine. Furthermore, FF1 or FF2 also caused significant downregulation of gene expression of several critical inflammatory mediators (interleukin‐6, tumor necrosis factor‐alpha, cyclooxygenase‐2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase). Histopathological findings also indicated that FFs reduced inflammation, necrosis and fatty infiltration in liver tissue. Taken together, FFs exert hepatoprotective effects through anti‐inflammatory and anti‐lipid peroxidative properties and regulation of intestinal permeability. Practical Applications In this study, mycelia fermentation was utilized as a feasible strategy for enhancing the hepatotherapeutic effect of black rice and herbs. The findings demonstrated that Hovenia dulcis exerts a synergistic protective effect on an alcoholic liver disease animal model and could provide a new effective potential approach to alleviate alcoholic liver diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:43:25.313996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12124
       
  • Identification of β‐Glucosidase Activity of Lactobacillus
           Plantarum CRNB22 in Kimchi and Its Potential to Convert Ginsenoside
           Rb1 from Panax Ginseng
    • Authors: Gereltuya Renchinkhand; Young W. Park, Soo‐Hyun Cho, Gyu‐Yong Song, Hyoung Churl Bae, Sol‐Ji Choi, Myoung Soo Nam
      Abstract: This study involved isolating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that exhibit β‐glucosidase activity from kimchi and examining the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme on saponin. Of the 28 types of LAB found in Korean kimchi that 6 strains exhibited positive β‐glucosidase activity based on the esculin iron agar test, only CRNB22 strain was able to hydrolyze ginsenoside Rb1. The crude enzyme from this kimchi LAB strain showed strong ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rg3 and Rg5. This isolated strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum via an API 50 kit and 16S rDNA analysis (99.9% homology) and was therefore named Lactobacillus plantarum CRNB22. The optimum incubation conditions for L. plantarum CRNB22 were found to be 40C at pH 7.0 in de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe (MRS) broth. L. plantarum CRNB22 was further identified to be a hetero‐fermentative bacterium, producing mostly oxalic and lactic acids after 72 h of incubation in 10% reconstituted skim milk. Practical Applications Fermentation of Panax ginseng can yield many compounds converted from ginsenoside that have various biological functions compared with nonfermented ginseng. These compounds are widely consumed in Korea and Asian countries in the form of extracts, alcohols, candy, fermented liquids and pharmacological products. This present study has shown that a kimchi lactic acid bacteria strain has a strong ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rg3 and Rg5, and the strain can be used to manufacture yogurts, beverages, cosmetics and other products that are supplemented with ginsenosides. It is expected that the demonstration of health‐promoting functional properties of ginsenoside Rg3 and Rg5 would enhance the growth of the ginseng food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:43:09.656762-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12116
       
  • Phytochemical Profiling and Assessment of Low‐Density Lipoprotein
           Oxidation, Foam Cell‐Preventing Ability and Antioxidant Activity of
           Commercial Products of Emblica officinalis Fruit
    • Authors: Sinjitha S. Nambiar; Nandini Prasad Shetty
      Abstract: Emblica officinalis, a medicinal fruit, despite its versatility in preventing diseases, lacks widespread consumption owing to its astringent taste. Hence, it is commercially modified into various products to increase its consumption. This study compares antioxidant activity and atherosclerotic foam cell‐prevention ability of popular commercial products of E. officinalis with that of unmodified fruit juice. The antioxidant activity of the capsule product was similar to pure juice, followed by sweetened fruit product. The capsule product showed the highest low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation prevention (87%) next only to natural juice (91.15%). Capsule had the highest ability to prevent uptake of oxidized LDL in macrophages, equaling pure juice. Capsule had the highest phenolic content similar to pure juice. Phenolic compounds contributed 93% of the total antioxidant activity. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis of capsule and natural juice showed similar phenolic and flavonoid profiles indicating that capsule product could reproduce the beneficial effects of natural fruit with none of its astringent taste. Practical Application Emblica officinalis fruit is known for its versatility in curing diseases, but it has an astringent taste which is altered in commercially modified products to ensure widespread consumption. The health benefits of these products, however, are not well known. The study was conducted to detect the antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid compound content in these various processed foods. This could help generate consumer awareness on the nutritional benefits of these products as compared with the fruit in its natural form.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T02:02:20.615061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12122
       
  • Gastroprotective Effects of Methanolic Extract of Sterculia
           nobilis Smith Seeds in Reserpine‐Induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice
           
    • Authors: Jia‐Le Song; Peng Sun, Rui Wang, Xin Zhao
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract from Sterculia nobilis Smith seeds (SSME) on reserpine (25 mg/kg)‐induced gastric ulcer using an Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse animal model. Gastric juice secretion, total acidity of gastric juice, serum neuropeptides, including motilin (MTL), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SS) levels, as well as gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. SSME effectively reduced reserpine‐induced gastric juice secretion and decreased the total acidity in gastric juice. In addition, SSME reduced the serum levels of MTL and SP, and increased VIP and SS levels in serum. It also resulted in an increase in SOD and a reduction of MDA levels in gastric tissue. Results from the present study suggest that SSME has a gastroprotective effect on reserpine‐induced gastric ulcer in mice by reducing gastric juice secretion, modulating serum neuropeptide levels, increasing the gastric SOD activity and attenuating the gastric MDA generation. Practical Applications The Sterculia nobilis Smith seed has been traditionally consumed as a fruit in South China, Vietnam, India and Indonesia. It has been demonstrated to exhibit numerous beneficial functions such as regulation of gastrointestinal function and improving eyesight.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T01:57:13.643214-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12125
       
  • Central Composite Design Applied to Optimize the Hydroalcoholic Extraction
           of Bilberry (Vaccinium Myrtillus L.) Fruits
    • Authors: Violeta Nour; Ion Trandafir, Sina Cosmulescu
      Abstract: The present study optimized the hydroalcoholic extraction conditions to maximize the anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bilberry extracts. Optimal conditions with regard to ethanol concentration (X1: 8.17–91.83% v/v), extraction time (X2: 8.27–41.73 days) and solid‐to‐liquid ratio (X3: 0.38–1.22, w/v) were identified using central composite design combined with response surface methodology. The results showed a good fit with the proposed second‐order polynomial models for all responses (R2 > 0.964). Among the three extraction parameters, ethanol concentration had the main impact on the extraction efficiency for all responses. The optimum extraction conditions that maximized total anthocyanin content are ethanol concentration 91.83%, solid‐to‐liquid ratio 1.22 and extraction time 23.5 days, whereas maximum total phenolic content under the same conditions is reached after 28 days of extraction. Tristimulus colorimetry was used to evaluate color properties of bilberry extracts, and correlations were assessed between CIELab indices, anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Practical Applications Bilberries possess high antioxidant potential due to their richness in phenolics, especially anthocyanins, which occur not only in the skin but throughout the red fruit flesh. These compounds can be efficiently extracted with ethanol or aqueous‐based ethanol solutions in order to obtain bilberry liqueur, a noble, full of color and flavor drink, with potential health benefits. In this study, optimum conditions for the hydroalcoholic extraction of bilberries were determined. Alcohol concentration, extraction time and solid‐to‐liquid ratio were the extraction parameters investigated in order to optimize the total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bilberry extract. Optimal operating conditions to maximize the efficiency of the extraction can be used in handcrafted or industrial application.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T00:18:17.97455-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12119
       
  • Comparison of Chemical Composition, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant
           Activity of Three Olive‐Waste Cakes
    • Authors: E. Uribe; A. Pasten, R. Lemus‐Mondaca, A. Vega‐Gálvez, I. Quispe‐Fuentes, J. Ortiz, K. Di Scala
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical composition, phenolic, tocopherol, flavonoid, flavanol, dietary fiber and β‐carotene contents, as well as the antioxidant activity of three olive‐waste cakes from varieties Picual, Frantoio and Arbequina. Frantoio presented the highest dietary fiber content and Arbequina showed the highest β‐carotene content. Results indicated that total phenolic content followed the sequence (Frantoio > Picual > Arbequina). Picual presented the highest free phenolic and flavonoid contents (3499.11 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g dry weight (DW) and 1331.45 mg CTE/100 g DW, respectively) showing the highest antioxidant capacity. The identified free phenolic compounds of the three varieties were gallic acid, 3‐hydroxytyrosol, rutin hydrate, tyrosol and p‐coumaric acids. The α‐tocopherol was the predominant for the three varieties. Practical Aplications Olive oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value‐added ingredients for various industrial applications. Therefore, the information here reported may stimulate engineers to re‐evaluate these wastes, with the possibility to recover significant amounts of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity and dietary fiber in order to produce food additives in the scenario of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T00:15:51.935325-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12120
       
  • Rosmarinic Acid Levels, Phenolic Contents, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial
           Activities of the Extracts from Salvia verbenaca L. Obtained with
           Different Solvents and Procedures
    • Authors: Milica Kostić; Bojan Zlatković, Bojana Miladinović, Slavoljub Živanović, Tatjana Mihajilov‐Krstev, Dragana Pavlović, Dušanka Kitić
      Abstract: The present paper investigated the quantities of total polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives, rosmarinic acid and thujone, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in 12 Salvia verbenaca L. extracts. The sample, prepared with 80% methanol using ultrasound extraction (UE) contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (236.44 ± 12.80 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, 190.27 ± 9.89 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g), tannins (187.81 ± 12.93 mg CE/g, 148.95 ± 10.00 mg GAE/g) and hydroxycinnamic derivatives (13.52 ± 0.24%), and was superior in the antimicrobial activity test. The highest amount of total flavonoids (10.55 ± 0.44 μg of rutin/mg) was quantified in the ethanolic extract prepared using UE. The extract made with 80% ethanol using UE had the highest rosmarinic acid level (94.00 ± 1.58 μg/mg) and was the most active in the β‐carotene/linoleic acid system. The 80% methanolic extract made by maceration was the most active in 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl assay. Thujone was absent from all extracts. Practical Applications The use of plants and products derived from plants has increased in the food industry in the past decade because of the comforts and advantages they provide when used as natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. The genus Salvia L. has been proven to be a relevant source of powerful natural antioxidant agents and preservatives used in food and medical products for centuries. The results indicate that Salvia verbenaca extracts are rich in polyphenolics, particularly in rosmarinic acid. The alcoholic extracts exerted significant levels of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities; therefore, the extracts of S. verbenaca could be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents for food preservation. In addition, thujone, a neurotoxic monoterpene commonly present in Salvia species, was absent from all samples, which would allow extracts to be orally applicable. As an outcome of the proposed beneficial effects, S. verbenaca extracts could be used in functional foods and dietary supplements.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:58:34.657974-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12121
       
  • Impact of Chicory‐Supplemented Diet on HMG‐CoA Reductase,
           Acetyl‐CoA Carboxylase, Visfatin and Anti‐Oxidant Status in
           Triton WR‐1339‐Induced Hyperlipidemia
    • Authors: Walaa A. Keshk; Saad A. Noeman
      Abstract: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of chicory (Cichorium intybus Linn.) against hyperlipidemia and its subsequent effect in rats. Sixty male albino rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups. Hyperlipidemia was induced via intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR‐1339 at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight three times a week for 2 weeks. Chicory‐supplemented diet (10 g/100 g diet) was given for 4 weeks to group II and group IV. Chicory caused significant improvement in lipid profile and decreased the liver and heart acetyl‐CoA carboxylase activity, atherogenic indices, hepatic 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG‐CoA) reductase mRNA level and visfatin level. Meanwhile, significant increase in paraoxonase‐1, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was recorded. In conclusion, chicory has the potential role of being hypolipidemic, anti‐lipotoxic, anti‐oxidant and anti‐atherogenic factor. Practical Applications Herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia are relatively cheap and locally available. The results showed that chicory (Cichorium intybus) has the potential of being hypolipidemic, anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and decreased the atherogenic risk indices and anti‐steatotic. Thus, it may represent a new source of natural food supplement aimed at preventing dyslipidemic risk for atherosclerosis, cardiac and hepatic steatosis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:52:50.935384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12115
       
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of Haliotis discus hannai Ino on
           Dextran Sulfate Sodium‐Induced Colitis in Mice
    • Authors: Trishna Debnath; Mohammad Al Mijan, Da Hye Kim, Jeong Eun Jo, Young Ock Kim, Jeong Jun Lee, Han Jong Pyo, Beong Ou Lim
      Abstract: In this study, an ethanol extract (HDE1) and a fermented extract (HDE2) of Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Pacific abalone) were administered to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‐induced colitis. Both extracts were administered at 50 mg/kg and evaluated for their anti‐inflammatory effects. Histological evaluations indicated that HDE1 effectively suppressed colonic tissue damage in mice with DSS‐induced colitis. In addition, the expression levels of immune‐related cytokines and transcription factors such as interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription‐1 (pSTAT1), interleukin‐4 (IL‐4), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription‐6 (pSTAT6) and Gata3 were also downregulated by both extracts. These results indicated that both HDE1 and HDE2 suppressed inflammatory cytokines and mediators. However, histological examinations clearly suggested that HDE1 had greater efficacy in attenuating colonic tissue damage by DSS than HDE2. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential anti‐inflammatory agent for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Practical Applications Pacific abalone is an important marine food source in many Asian countries. The health benefits of Pacific abalone have been demonstrated in a number of studies. This study investigated the anti‐inflammatory effects of Pacific abalone extracts in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis. An ethanol extract (HDE1) of Pacific abalone potently suppressed the mucosal tissue damage and crypt loss in the colons of mice exposed to DSS. In addition, inflammatory cytokines and mediators were effectively suppressed by HDE1. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential therapy for ulcerative colitis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:37:45.24747-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12118
       
  • Wild Edible Mushrooms as a Natural Source of Phenolics and Antioxidants
    • Authors: Oktay Yildiz; Zehra Can, Abdul Qayoom Laghari, Hüseyin Şahin, Meltem Malkoç
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic contents, antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of four edible mushroom species, Ganoderma lucidum, Morchella esculenta, Lentinula edodes and Hericium erinaceus. Extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. Total phenolic contents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu's reagent and the results were calculated using gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl free radical‐scavenging antioxidant activities were also measured and Trolox was used as positive control. Phenolic composition was determined using high‐performance liquid chromatography and comparisons with standards. Total phenolic contents were highest in G. lucidum (26.40 mg GAE/g), followed by M. esculenta, L. edodes and H. erinaceus. The same trend was observed in individual phenolic composition and antioxidant activities, these also were higher in G. lucidum compared with the other species. Practical Applications Mushrooms are becoming increasingly important as a foodstuff and also in medicine because of their phenolic and antioxidant contents. The edible mushrooms investigated in this study are used as food and food flavoring because of their pleasant taste and aroma. They are also used for medicinal purposes in Turkey and across the world. All four edible mushrooms were determined to be very rich in natural antioxidants. The profile of the phenolic composition of these Turkish edible mushrooms is presented in this study. Our research shows that these mushrooms have very high antioxidant capacities and may assist the treatment of some diseases, if used for alternative medicines.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29T04:07:35.537096-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12107
       
  • R. oryzae Cellulases: A New Approach to Degrading Lignocellulosic
           Material
    • Authors: Larine Kupski; Maria Augusta Carvalho Silvello, Milena Ramos Vaz Fontes, Tiago Silva Lima, Helen Treichel, Eliana Badiale Furlong
      Abstract: During the fermentative processes with Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560 and Trichoderma reesei QM 9414, the effects of rice hull and moisture content on the endoglucanase and total cellulase activities were investigated by response surface methodology, employing a central composite rotatable design. The nutrient solution and bioreactor design were also studied. In tray bioreactors maximum cellulase activity was achieved with 82.5% of rice hull and 17.5% of rice bran, with an initial moisture content of 30% for Rhizopus, while 100% of rice hull with an initial moisture content of 50% was used for Trichoderma in Erlenmeyer bioreactors. The results obtained for Rhizopus were 91% higher for endoglucanase when compared with Trichoderma, confirming the potential of the newly isolated R. oryzae CCT 7560 for cellulase production. In addition, this provided an economical and environmentally viable destination for one of the biggest wastes resulting from the rice industry, the rice hull. Practical Applications Most cellulases related in the literature are obtained from fermentative processes employing genetically modified microorganisms during extensive time to achieve maximum activity. The microorganism studied in this work (Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560) exhibited rapid enzymatic production indicating its use to obtain digestible carbohydrates from agribusiness waste in a quick and safe way.
      PubDate: 2015-01-26T05:40:01.908174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12097
       
  • Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Jipicao Yam
    • Authors: Rui Li; Ning Li, Zhaosheng Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Wenzhi Liu
      Abstract: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from Jipicao yam grown in China, and its characteristic was studied. Among the various substrates employed, the Vmax/Km ratio indicated that PPO had the best affinity to catechol and the worst affinity to p‐hydroxyphenylalanine. The optimum pH for this enzyme was 6.8, and the optimum temperature was 30C. When the temperature was lower than 60C, PPO was relatively stable. Fe3+ and Mg2+ improved the activity, while Ca2+, K+, Ba2+ and Mn2+ ions could significantly inhibit the activity. NaHSO3, Vc, L‐cysteine, phytic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid‐2Na had different inhibiting effects on the activity of PPO, and the former three were strong inhibitors of PPO activities. Practical Applications Our paper studied the properties of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from Jipicao yam, including optimum temperature, optimum pH, thermal stability, substrate specificity and the effect of metal ions and inhibitors so as to select a reasonable method to restrain the activity of PPO, then providing a theoretical basis for inhibiting enzymatic browning that occurred during the process of manufacturing and storage to improve the nutritional value and exterior quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T20:37:46.876309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12117
       
  • Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanolic Extract of BAU Kul
           (Ziziphus mauritiana), an Improved Variety of Fruit from Bangladesh
    • Authors: E. M. Tanvir; Rizwana Afroz, Nurul Karim, Md. Abdul Mottalib, Md. Ibrahim Hossain, Md. Asiful Islam, Siew Hua Gan, Md. Ibrahim Khalil
      Abstract: BAU Kul (Ziziphus mauritiana) is a new and improved variety of plum fruit from Bangladesh. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant potency and antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of BAU Kul using Soxhlet extraction followed by complete evaporation of residual methanol. BAU Kul is a very good source of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and tannins. The reducing sugar and protein content of BAU Kul were 1.68 and 0.81% by weight, respectively. BAU Kul was very active in 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐ picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (527.28 ± 9.2 [μM Fe (II)]/100 g), thus confirming its high antioxidant potential. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well‐diffusion method. BAU Kul was most toxic to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed (in order) by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli and Chromobacterium violaceum. In conclusion, BAU Kul is a nutritious fruit that provides good antioxidant and antibacterial activities (in particular toward P. aeruginosa) and a cheap source of vitamins. Practical Applications BAU Kul is a new and sweet seasonal fruit which is very popular to the consumers of Bangladesh. This fruit can be a good source of nutrients as well as the antioxidants applicable in different types of diseases caused by oxidative stresses. BAU Kul can also be used as traditional medicine for different types for infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:14:47.746701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12109
       
 
 
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