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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 290 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (14 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (64 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (212 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (212 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal  
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International innovation. Food and agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Food Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Oilseeds Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 27]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Bioconversion of Platycodon Grandiflorum Saponins by the Platycodin
           D‐Converting Microorganism, Yeast Cyberlindnera Fabianii
    • Abstract: This study sought to identify a new strain of microorganism from a natural source, nuruk, for use in the production of platycodin D (PD) from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG). A non‐Saccharomyces yeast capable of producing PD was isolated from nuruk and identified as Cyberlindnera fabianii. The enzyme responsible for PD production was traced with partially purified crude enzyme extracts (CEE) from yeast C. fabianii 48. The best enzyme fraction responsible for production of PD was the >100 kDa CEE. In addition, the bioconversion pathway for production of PD by the >100 kDa CEE with PD, platycodin D2 (PD2) and platycodin D3 (PD3) substrates was investigated. The >100 kDa CEE was able to degrade PD3 to PD and had no effect on PD and PD2. Practical Applications Platycodin D, the most superior saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), has been reported to have numerous biological effects including prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia, obesity, inflammation and cancer. This study will contribute to future research in drug development, health benefits and applications by searching for potent fermenting microorganisms and developing an improved bioprocess for use in large‐scale production of value‐added PG saponins.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T03:12:24.679618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12217
  • Phytochemical Constituents and the Effect of Processing on Antioxidant
           Properties of Seeds of an Underutilized Wild Legume
           Bauhinia Petersiana
    • Authors: Cathrine Katayi Chidewe; Pride Chirukamare, Loveness Kuziva Nyanga, Cuthbert Johnson Zvidzai, Kudakwashe Chitindingu
      Abstract: Phytochemical constituents and effect of processing on antioxidant activity of the seeds of Bauhinia petersiana were investigated. Phytochemical screening of raw seeds was done on ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of the raw and processed seeds were determined using in vitro tests involving inhibition of DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardenolides, proteins, terpenoids, carbohydrates and anthraquinones were variedly distributed in different extracts of the seeds. The raw, boiled and roasted seeds contained similar amounts of total phenolics and tannins, however, flavonoids were higher in the roasted seeds. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of raw and processed seeds was similar to that of ascorbic acid, catechin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Reducing power increased when samples were roasted. Superoxide and H2O2 scavenging activity of raw and processed seeds were similar to that of ascorbic acid. Practical Applications The ground roasted seeds of Bauhinia petersiana have, since time immemorial, been used as a coffee substitute by communities in Zimbabwe. Our research findings indicate that roasting of the seeds of B. petersiana resulted in increased antioxidant potential through in vitro model. These results mean that the seeds of B. petersiana could be a useful source of natural antioxidant if utilized as roasted ground coffee, compared to the raw or boiled seeds. The analyzed seeds also contained a range of phytochemicals including terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, amino acids, saponins, alkaloids and phenolic compounds; hence, it would be a useful natural source of various phytochemicals that have health benefits. These research findings would be useful in promoting commercial production of coffee or other products from the wild coffee bean.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:22:04.4446-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12221
  • The Influence of Natural Astaxanthin on the Formulation and Storage of
           Marinated Chicken Steaks
    • Abstract: The present study reports on the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp processing by‐products using corn oil. Its antioxidant activities at different concentrations were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging (IC50 = 6.3 μg/mL), reducing power, β‐carotene bleaching (IC50 = 20.4 μg/mL) and total antioxidant capacity assays. Interestingly, astaxanthin extract showed strong antioxidant activity. The astaxanthin from shrimp by‐products was added to marinated chicken steaks as a natural antioxidant, and samples were stored for 7 days at 4C. Our results show that with 10 mg of astaxanthin/kg of chicken steaks, lipid oxidation during storage was minimal and microbiological quality was preserved. These results were further confirmed by histological and sensory analyses. Overall, the results indicated that the addition of natural astaxanthin can minimize lipid oxidation and improve microbiological stability during the formulation and storage of marinated chicken steaks. Practical Applications Shrimp waste is one of the important sources of natural astaxanthin. This carotenoid was reported to be a potent antioxidant and has a variety of biological activities. So, the natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp by‐products can be considered a promising candidate for application as a natural antioxidant agent for use in chicken meat formulations to control and retard lipid oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:03:57.093353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12224
  • Effect of Citrus paradisi and Ocimum sanctum Infusions on Blood Pressure
           Regulation and Its Association with Renal Alterations in Obese Rats
    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Citrus paradisi and Ocimum sanctum infusions in obese rats, and its association with renal alterations. Both herbal infusions decreased blood pressure. The effect of O. sanctum was related to improved renal vascular remodeling, renin and angiotensinogen gene downregulation, as well as reduced renal triglyceride accumulation, and lipid and protein oxidation. Hibiscus sabdariffa showed similar results, which was used for comparison purposes due to its antihypertensive properties. Conversely, C. paradisi exerted a slight effect on these renal alterations, suggesting that its antihypertensive activity may be related to other mechanisms. The hypotensive effects of O. sanctum and C. paradisi may be related to their epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin content, respectively. Furthermore, new phytochemicals were identified in the infusions, such as hederagenin and oleanolic acid β‐D‐glucuronopyranosyl, choline, trigonelline and sitsirikine. The results suggest that these infusions might be used as adjuvant treatments for obesity‐related hypertension. Practical Applications Ocimum sanctum leaves and flowers and Citrus paradisi fruit are widely recommended in the traditional medicine due to their hypotensive properties. In this study, we evaluated the antihypertensive potential of infusions elaborated with these herbal materials, which are inexpensive beverages of easy preparation. The findings of this study demonstrate that O. sanctum and C. paradisi infusions decrease blood pressure. Therefore, these herbs could be used as functional ingredients in the elaboration of beverages, providing a new therapeutic approach for obesity‐related hypertension.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:03:24.274373-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12216
  • Optimization Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and
           Inhibitory Activities of Angiotensin I‐Converting Enzyme (ACE),
           α‐Glucosidase and α‐Amylase from Mentha
           Spicata L
    • Abstract: Ideal extraction conditions were estimated based on the maximum phenolic content, antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity of angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE), α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase enzymes from Mentha spicata L. The optimum extraction conditions for phenolic compounds with maximum ACE inhibitory activity occurred in a mixture of acetone and water (1:1) at 40C for 6 h. The optimal extraction conditions for phenolic compounds with maximum α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity were obtained in a mixture of methanol, acetone and water extraction (1:1:1) and in a mixture of methanol and distilled water (1:1) at 50C for 8 h. The major free phenolic compound extracted with the various extraction solvents, times and temperatures was rutin. The predominant bound phenolic compounds were caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, which did not exist as free phenolic compounds. Practical Applications This study suggested the optimum extraction conditions of phenolic compounds with maximum capacity of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties recommended to be used in food industry as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical herbal extract.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:02:40.500828-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12222
  • Effect of pH during Extraction on the Antioxidant and Antiglycated
           Activities of Polysaccharides from Opuntia Ficus Indica
    • Authors: Mohamed Aymen Chaouch; Jawhar Hafsa, Christophe Rihouey, Didier Le Cerf, Hatem Majdoub
      Abstract: The extraction of carbohydrates from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes at different pH was carried out by ultrasound followed by ethanol precipitation and dialysis. The extraction yields ranged from 4.6 to 24.5%. The highest content in galacturonic acid was observed for the acidic extract (37.4%). On high‐performance size exclusion chromatography, the average molecular weight of all extracts ranged from 7,500,000 to 9,610,000 g/mol. The antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides was tested by three assays (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazil radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and Linoleic acid peroxidation). The glucose‐induced advanced glycation end‐product (AGE) formation of all extracts was also carried out using in vitro galactose–bovine serum albumin assay. Results showed that the acidic extract exhibited even better antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of AGE formation. Practical Applications Plant extracts containing polysaccharides are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin and epithelium wounds and of mucous membrane irritation. In this case, polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, which is a plant native to South America and cultivated in dry regions as an important nutrient and food source, also are used in traditional medicine for their antiulcer and wound‐healing effects. Thus, Opuntia ficus indica cladodes could be a natural candidate for research of herbal complement to the treatment of many diseases. The results found in this study reveal that the extraction under acidic conditions may enhance the antioxidant and antiglycated potential of polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T01:41:54.088071-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12220
  • Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Cytoprotective Effect of Soybean Milk
           Fermented with Lactobacillus Fermentum Zhao
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity and protective effects of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum Zhao (FSM‐FLZ) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‐induced porcine renal proximal tubule LLC‐PK1 cells. FSM‐FLZ was effective against DPPH and ●OH radical in a concentration‐dependent manner. FSM‐FLZ treatment significantly increased cell viability and reduced the H2O2‐induced oxidative injury in LLC‐PK1 cells. In addition, FSM‐FLZ dose‐dependently decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lipid peroxidation, and increased the activities and mRNA expressions of endogenous catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes. This study demonstrated that FSM‐FLZ is a free radical scavenger and protects against H2O2‐induced oxidative injury in LLC‐PK1 cells through reducing intracellular ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity. Practical Applications Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a well‐known probiotic and showed antimicrobial, antitumor, reduction of serum cholesterol and immune‐modulation activity. Lactobacillus fermentum ZHAO is a newly discovered LAB; it was isolated from Yak yoghurt. It was used to ferment soybean milk and the antioxidation effects of soybean milk were determined. L. fermentum ZHAO fermented soybean milk could be used as a new functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16T03:18:31.258881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12223
  • Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Composite Shark Catfish
           (Pangasius pangasius) Skin Collagen Films Integrated with Chitosan and
           Calcium Salts
    • Authors: Jeevithan Elango; Jeya Shakila Robinson, Jeyasekaran Geevaretnam, Emmanuel J. Rupia, Varatharajakumar Arumugam, Sukumar Durairaj, Wu Wenhui
      Abstract: Collagen, collagen–chitosan (C1), collagen–calcium acetate (C2) and collagen–chitosan–calcium acetate (C3) films were prepared from shark catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin, and were investigated for their mechanical and functional properties. Collagen was characterized as type I and contained three identical chains. C3 film had higher tensile strength (10.4 MPa) and Young's modulus (570 MPa). Composite films had low swelling rates and solubility and lasted for 6 days before complete biodegradation. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested that the interactions of collagen with chitosan and calcium salts affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple helical structure. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph of collagen films depicted the formation of spindle‐like structures with chitosan, granules with calcium acetate salts and porous structures in C3 films. Therefore, it was concluded that the collagen films had better mechanical, functional and in‐vitro biodegradation properties by the addition of calcium and chitosan. These results demonstrate the potential application of composite collagen films from shark catfish skin in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Practical Applications To reuse fish‐processing waste for biomedical materials, multicomposite collagen films were prepared from shark catfish skin and examined for their physicofunctional and mechanical properties. The purified collagen was combined with calcium and chitosan to improve the film properties. These results suggest that collagen films had better mechanical, in‐vitro biodegradation and functional properties by the addition of calcium and chitosan. Accordingly, the prepared multicomposite fish collagen films could be suitable materials in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries as alternatives to mammalian collagen films.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16T03:17:08.730878-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12214
  • Enhanced in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides From
           Enteromorpha Prolifera by Enzymatic Degradation
    • Abstract: In order to improve the antioxidant activity of polysaccharide derived from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP), PEP was hydrolyzed to relatively low molecular weight polysaccharides in the presence of either pectinase or gluco‐amylase. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the hydrolysis conditions based on the polysaccharide degradation rate. Optimum hydrolysis for pectinase was found to be: enzyme concentration 9.36 U/mL, reaction temperature 56C and pH 4.45; for gluco‐amylase, the optimum conditions were: enzyme concentration 14.20 U/mL, reaction temperature 49C and pH 4.48. The enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharide obtained under optimal conditions were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by determining their ability to scavenge 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The results indicate that the enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharide exhibited stronger free radical scavenging ability than nondegraded polysaccharide, while pectinase hydrolyzed polysaccharide was found to possess superior radical scavenging ability to that of gluco‐amylase hydrolyzed polysaccharide. Practical Applications In order to fully utilize polysaccharide resources, an effective method to improve the antioxidant activity of Enteromorpha prolifera was established by enzymatic degradation. The hydrolysates obtained by this method may be used as ingredients of functional foods due to their antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T23:27:42.186411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12218
  • Phenolic Composition and Hepatoprotective Activities of Allium Hookeri
           Against Hydrogen‐Peroxide‐Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured
    • Abstract: Allium hookeri were extracted with water and 80% ethanol, and their phenolic compositions, as well as their antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against H2O2‐induced damage in cultured hepatocytes were determined. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the water and ethanol extract were rich in phenolic compounds. The A. hookeri extracts exhibited similar scavenging activities against 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl and 2,2‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzthiazoline)‐6‐sulfonic acid cation radicals. The ethanol extract exhibited a significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T23:27:21.306163-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12225
  • Phenolic Profile, Organic Acids and Antioxidant Activity of Frozen Pulp
           and Juice of the Jambolan (Syzygium Cumini)
    • Abstract: Phenolic compounds belonging to the families of flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic acids and t‐resveratrol (quantified by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and fluorescence detection), organic acids and in vitro antioxidant activity were determined for the frozen pulp and juice of jambolan (also known as black plum). The main organic acids were malic and lactic. The concentration of total phenolics and monomeric anthocyanins are similar to those of other foods considered as sources of these compounds in the human diet. The flavonoids present were procyanidin B1 and catechin, and the main monoglucoside anthocyanin present was cyanidin 3‐glucoside, representing 11% of total monomeric anthocyanins of the products. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were the main phenolic acids. The antioxidant activities of jambolan products were considered acceptable as compared to other potentially antioxidant foods. The bioactive compounds contributed significantly to the total antioxidant activity of the jambolan products. It was noted that procyanidin B1 was the main antioxidant compound present. Practical Applications Several studies on the bioactive compounds of jambolan (also known as black plum) have been reported, but few of them describe the properties of products derived from this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of processed jambolan products in terms of a number of phenolic groups and organic acids to provide new information relevant to the development of potential antioxidant foods. The black plum is a perishable fruit with only one annual harvest, which hinders its consumption in the fresh state. This paper proposes two types of processed foods based on this fruit for use in fruit processing plants.
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T06:00:40.719767-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12209
  • DNA Protection and Antioxidant Potential of Chestnut Shell Extracts
    • Authors: Kyoung Hee Seo; Ji Young Lee, Trishna Debnath, Yong Min Kim, Jung Youl Park, Young Ock Kim, Soo Jin Park, Beong Ou Lim
      Abstract: Castanea crenata is a species of chestnut originally native to South Korea and Japan. In this study, chestnut shell was investigated as a potential source of antioxidant compounds. Distilled water and ethanol extracts were prepared from chestnut shell and their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro using different analytical methods, including 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl, 2,2‐azino‐bis‐(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid), hydroxyl, superoxide radical and nitrite scavenging, reducing (Fe3+ to Fe2+) power, linoleic acid oxidation inhibition and free radical‐induced DNA damage prevention activity. The extracts showed excellent radical‐scavenging activities and prevented free radical‐induced DNA damage. The antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the observed phenolic and flavonoid contents. Our results suggest that the extracts derived from chestnut shells could be a potent source of natural antioxidants. Practical Applications Chestnuts (Castanea crenata) are widely available in Korea. The chestnut inner shell has been used as a cosmetic material for a long time in Korea, and previous research has demonstrated that chestnut fruits and leaves contain phenolic compounds. However, little is known about the potential uses of chestnut shell. Chestnut has been sold as an anti‐wrinkle and anti‐aging compound when mixed with honey, and previous research on the chestnut inner shell has suggested that this material inhibited the biosynthesis of melanin. Recently, it has been reported that chestnut inner shell extracts inhibited the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high‐fat diet. The food industry uses ∼7000 tons of chestnuts annually during the production of marron‐glacé, chestnut purée, etc. The peeling process generates a waste product, i.e., the shell, which accounts for ∼10% of the weight of whole chestnuts, and is used as fuel.
      PubDate: 2015-11-08T20:52:54.892141-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12179
  • Screening of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa Plant for
           α‐Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
    • Authors: E. Sabina; I.S.M. Zaidul, Kashif Ghafoor, J.M. Jaffri, F. Sahena, E.E. Babiker, V. Perumal, M. Hamed, M. Amid, A. Khatib
      Abstract: Phaleria macrocarpa is an herbal plant used in Malaysia to enhance vitality. The aim of this study was to screen the α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of different parts (fruit flesh, leaves and stem) of P. macrocarpa. Methanol (polar) and n‐hexane (nonpolar) extracts, obtained by room temperature solvent extraction, were evaluated for in vitro α‐glucosidase activity inhibition. The compounds were identified by using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) according to their similarity index of >70%, which might be responsible for α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity. The methanol extract of the fruit flesh had the highest yield (25.6 ± 0.5%), whereas the n‐hexane extract of the stem is more effective against α‐glucosidase activity (IC50 0.8 ± 0.1 μg/mL). The fruit flesh (IC501.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL) and leaves (IC501.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL) had also well effectively. The identified metabolites are predominantly phenolics, carbohydrates, triterpenes and organic acids, such as D‐fructose, squalene, α‐linolenic acid and α‐D‐glucopyranoside. In‐depth chemical profiling using GC‐MS was performed for the first time for this plant to assess the likely compounds present in the extract that could be associated with anti‐hyperglycemic activity. Of the three parts tested, every part indicates the potential α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity and hexane extract of stem showed more inhibitory activity among all extracts. Thus, P. macrocarpa can attenuate hyperglycemia by potently inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, making it a viable plant as a source of natural compounds for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Practical Application P. macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. belongs to the Thymelaeaceae family, which is known as “Mahkota Dewa” is one of the well‐known traditional herbs in South Asian countries. Every part of this plant has been reported to be used as a traditional medicine for diabetic treatment for many years. In the present study, the ability of this plant to inhibit carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α‐glucosidase) was explored. All extracts tested exhibited the content to inhibit yeast α‐glucosidase enzymes in vitro, and these beneficial effects appear to be due to some bioactive compounds in P. macrocarpa. Our preliminary investigation gives a principle for further animal and clinical studies of a possible use of P. macrocarpa for the management of diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2015-11-08T20:52:32.450114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12212
  • Inhibitory Effect of Agrimonia Pilosa Leaf Extract on the UV‐Induced
           Photoaging‐Related Ion Channel, ORAI1, and the Enzymes Tyrosinase
           and Elastase
    • Abstract: Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. has received considerable attention as a natural product for its applications in cosmetics owing to its anti‐skin wrinkling and whitening effects. The ORAI1 ion channel is known to be involved in UV‐induced photoaging. Additionally, tyrosinase and elastase are key enzymes in the process of wrinkle formation and pigmentation. We determined that A. pilosa leaf extract and its fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n‐butanol) inhibit this channel and associated key enzymes. Whole‐cell patch‐clamp experiments demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction had a potent inhibitory effect on IORAI1 (99 ± 1%) at 100 μg/mL. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions had tyrosinase inhibitory activity (46.1 ± 0.84% and 35.7 ± 1.40% at 330 μg/mL, respectively). Additionally, these fractions inhibited elastase activity by 48.3 ± 1.20% and 45.4 ± 1.51% at 330 μg/mL, respectively. Our results suggest that A. pilosa leaves are a potential anti‐wrinkle and whitening agent. Practical Applications Agrimonia pilosa has been widely used for the treatment of sore throat, headache, bloody dysentery, parasitic infection and eczema in traditional oriental medicine. Recently, it has also been used as an external application for the treatment of various dermatological problems, such as healing wounds, diminishing wrinkles, pigmentation and atopic dermatitis. However, to date, no report has detailed the mechanisms of A. pilosa's anti‐photoaging activity. This research revealed that the extract of A. pilosa leaves meditates ORAI1 channel activity and directly inhibits tyrosinase and elastase activity. Therefore, A. pilosa may be a potential therapeutic agent in the prevention of UV‐induced photoaging.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T02:18:29.42283-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12171
  • Subacute Effects of Standardized Fumaria Vaillantii Lois. Ethanol Extract
           on Trace Element Levels, Biochemical and Histopathological Parameters in
           Experimental Liver Toxicity
    • Abstract: In this study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extracts of Fumaria vaillantii Lois. was investigated against CCl4‐induced toxicity in rats. F. vaillantii (500 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and tissue malondialdehyde levels, and a significant increase in the reduced glutathione and catalase levels, compared with the CCl4 group. These findings were approved by histopathological observations. Additionally, a significant decrease was found in liver Cu levels (18.5%) of the extract‐treated group (500 mg/kg), while an increase in liver Zn (16.2%) levels was observed compared with the CCl4 group. These changes in liver Zn and Cu levels caused by F. vaillantii extract may contribute to its positive effects on liver toxicity. Phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extract were examined and the extract was standardized by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection on the basis of rutin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids as markers. Practical Applications Fumaria species have been used both as food and traditional medicine. In some Mediterranean countries, the leaves of the plant are cooked or eaten as salad. In Turkey, they are also being drunk as herbal tea, eaten as salad and roasted. The results suggested that F. vaillantii ethanol extract standardized by rutin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids had a significant protective effect against CCl4‐induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, F. vaillantii can be consumed safely and because of its beneficial effect on liver toxicity, its standardized ethanol extract can be used in the preparation of herbal medicines or food supplements in pharmaceutical and food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T00:39:27.466856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12208
  • Potential Protective Effect of Cold‐Pressed Coriandrum Sativum Oil
           Against Carbon Tetrachloride‐Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    • Abstract: The protective effect of cold‐pressed coriander (Coriandrum sativum) oil (CO) against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was studied. CO is characterized by its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with two doses of CO (100 and 200 mg/kg) with administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg, CCl4 in olive oil) for 8 weeks. Liver biochemical parameters were determined in animals treated with CO. The results clearly demonstrated that CO augments the antioxidants' defense mechanism against CCl4‐induced toxicity and provides evidence that CO may have a therapeutic role in free radical–mediated diseases. Treatment with CO significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, kidney function indicators, protein profile, lipid profile and antioxidant markers of CCl4‐induced liver injury rats. The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the CO supplements as the hepatic malondialdehyde levels were lowered, whereas reduced glutathione levels were elevated. The hepatoprotective impact of CO was also supported by histopathological studies of liver tissue. Histopathological examination showed that CO reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis in CCl4‐treated rats. The results indicate the potentiality of CO to act as natural antioxidant by preventing the peroxidative damage caused by CCl4. Practical Applications Biologically active natural compounds are of interest for pharmaceutical industry in the prevention of different diseases caused by lipid peroxidative damage (i.e., ischemia, coronary atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and carcinogenesis). In the present study, the capability of cold‐pressed Coriandrum sativum oil (CO) to protect against CCl4‐induced hepatotoxicity was investigated. The study suggested that CO has potent hepatoprotective activity in CCl4‐induced liver injury in rats. CO possesses antioxidant potential and inhibits the deleterious effect of free radicals generated by CCl4. CO is rich in tocols, phenolic compounds and other bioactive constituents, which might be responsible for the protective effects. These observations provide biochemical data supporting the potential clinical use of CO in the treatment of some hepatic disorders. The results suggest that the ability of CO to ameliorate CCl4‐induced liver injury is associated with its antioxidant and radical‐scavenging characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T00:39:08.7935-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12211
  • Exogenous Application of Oxalic Acid Delays Pericarp Browning and Maintain
           Fruit Quality of Litchi cv. “Gola”
    • Authors: Muhammad Shafique; Ahmad Sattar Khan, Aman Ullah Malik, Muhammad Shahid
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of oxalic acid on pericarp browning, biochemical quality, antioxidative and enzymatic changes in litchi cv. “Gola” fruit under extended cold storage, which has not been studied extensively. Postharvest application of 2 mM oxalic acid reduced fruit weight loss and delayed pericarp browning by maintaining higher anthocyanin contents, as compared with control. Activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes in litchi peel as well as pulp tissues were reduced in fruit treated with 2 mM oxalic acid during 28 days of cold storage. Activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and level of total phenolic contents and total antioxidants in litchi peel as well as pulp tissues were significantly higher in 2 mM oxalic acid‐treated fruit. In conclusion, postharvest application of 2 mM oxalic acid significantly delayed pericarp browning and maintained better quality of litchi cv. “Gola” fruit during cold storage. Practical Applications Pericarp browning of litchi fruit is associated with postharvest oxidative stress, which deteriorates its quality, long‐term storability and commercial value. Postharvest application of oxalic acid has been found to be a useful strategy to overcome the issue of pericarp browning and enhance antioxidative potential of litchi under low temperature storage; thereby, applicable to commercial supply chains for domestic and export markets. Furthermore, this study may facilitate in understanding the changes in antioxidative potential and enzymatic activities during cold storage with gradual browning in pulp as well as peel tissues of litchi.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T21:55:19.095624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12207
  • Identification of β‐Glucosidase Activity of Enterococcus
           Faecalis CRNB‐A3 in Airag and Its Potential to Convert
           Ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax Ginseng
    • Abstract: The objectives of this study were to isolate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting β‐glucosidase activity from Airag, and investigate the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme on saponin (Korean ginsenoside). Of the 33 types of LAB with positive reactions (β‐glucosidase) in the Esculin Iron Agar test, one LAB (CRNB‐A3) was found to have high hydrolytic activity for ginsenoside Rb1. 16S rDNA analysis revealed that CRNB‐A3 was Enterococcus faecalis (99.9% homology). The optimum temperature and pH for growth of CRNB‐A3 in MRS broth were 35C and 8.0, respectively. Crude enzyme from E. faecalis CRNB‐A3 showed ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into minor ginsenosides Rg3 and Rg5. The use of an API ZYM kit showed that E. faecalis CRNB‐A3 had higher activities of leucine arylamidase, esterase and β‐glucosidase than any other enzyme activities. Additionally, E. faecalis CRNB‐A3 was identified as being hetero‐fermentative. Practical Applications The fermentation of Panax ginseng yields many compounds from ginsenoside that have varying biological functions. These compounds are widely consumed in Korea and other Asian nations in the form of extracts, alcohols, candy, fermented liquids and pharmacological products. This study revealed that an Airag (Mongolian KOUMISS) LAB strain possessed a strong ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3 and Rg5, which could be used in food and cosmetic industries for making yogurts, beverage products, cosmetics and other products for ginsenoside supplementations.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19T20:26:51.416343-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12201
  • Origanum Vulgare L. Extracts Versus Thymol: An
           Anti‐Inflammatory Study on Activated Microglial and Mixed Glial
    • Authors: Samar Javadian; Farzaneh Sabouni, Kamahldin Haghbeen
      Abstract: Origanum vulgare L. is a well‐known herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Methanolic extracts of the aerial parts of O. vulgare were prepared and subjected to high‐performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thymol was identified and measured in these extracts. The leaf and stem extracts showed moderate phenolic content and radical‐scavenging capability. Methanolic solution of thymol and the extracts of O. vulgare showed strong anti‐inflammatory effect on the activated microglial and mixed glial cells through inhibition of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor‐α expression. No cytotoxicity was observed at the effective concentrations of the thymol (0.15 mg/mL), the leaf (2.25 mg/mL) or the stem (1.5 mg/mL) extracts. The results of this study indicate that thymol may play a role in the anti‐inflammatory activity of O. vulgare extracts. However, the effect of other components of the extracts should not be ignored. Practical Applications Oregano has long been used in Persian traditional medicine in various prescriptions and is renowned for its diuretic, stomachic, antineuralgic, antitussive and expectorant properties. The results of this research demonstrate its potential for use in herbal formulations, drinks or as a food additive for people suffering from neurodegenerative disorders, especially during the early stages of these diseases. The results suggest that compounds with chemical structures similar to thymol may be the components of methanolic extracts of oregano that are effective in reducing inflammation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08T23:49:38.671365-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12199
  • Anti‐Glycation of Active Compounds Purified from Graptopetalum
    • Abstract: Graptopetalum paraguayense was shown to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti‐hepatocellular carcinoma activities in a recent study. In this work, fractions of the G. paraguayense aqueous solution were extracted using n‐hexane, ethyl acetate (EF) and n‐butanol, and its antioxidative and anti‐glycative activities were evaluated. The EF extract exhibited the highest antioxidative activity, potently inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reduced glycation‐induced protein oxidation. Additionally, the EF extract protected Hep G2 cells against AGE‐induced DNA damage. Five major components were isolated and identified in the EF fraction by semi‐preparative high‐performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance: gallic acid, isoquercitrin‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate), astragalin‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate), isoquercitrin‐2‐acetyl‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate) and astragalin‐2‐acetyl‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate). G. paraguayense exhibited antioxidant and anti‐glycation activities, likely because of the presence of gallic acid. The findings indicate the potential for using G. paraguayense for development of novel treatments for diabetes. Practical Applications Herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia are relatively cheap and locally available. The results indicated that the extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense may be developed as functional foods for antidiabetic treatment mediated by attenuations of advanced glycation end product oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08T22:31:31.06651-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12203
  • Purification and Characterization of Trypsin Inhibitor from Yellowfin Tuna
           (Thunnus Albacores) Roe
    • Authors: Sappasith Klomklao; Soottawat Benjakul, Hideki Kishimura, Kazufumi Osako, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Abstract: Trypsin inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from the roe of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) by heat treatment at 60C for 10 min, followed by column chromatographies on Sephacryl S‐200, Sephadex G‐50 and DEAE‐cellulose. The trypsin inhibitor was purified 11.29‐fold with a yield of 46.02%. Yellowfin tuna trypsin inhibitor migrated as a single band using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified trypsin inhibitor had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa when analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. No inhibitory activity was obtained under reducing condition of β‐mercaptoethanol. Maximal activity was recorded at pH 7.0 and 50C. The purified inhibitor was stable in the temperature range of 20–60C for 10 min and in the pH range of 5–8. NaCl concentration up to 3% did not significantly affect the inhibitory activity of purified trypsin inhibitor. However, the activity decreased when trypsin inhibitor was incubated with metal ions (Cu+, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) at ambient temperature for 30 min. Practical Applications Trypsin inhibitor from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) roe, the by‐products of tuna processing, can be purified. The yellowfin tuna trypsin inhibitor is a salt‐stable peptide and could be useful for food applications, especially surimi.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:19:48.581684-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12204
  • Effects of Chard (Beta Vulgaris L. Var. Cicla) on Cardiac Damage in
           Valproic Acid–Induced Toxicity
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chard on valproic acid (VPA)‐induced cardiac damage. Female Sprague‐Dawley rats were grouped as control, chard given control (100 mg/kg/day, by gavage), VPA (500 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) and chard given VPA (100 mg/kg/day chard by gavage, 500 mg/kg/day VPA, intraperitoneally). The aqueous extracts of chard leaves were given 1 h prior to administration of VPA for 7 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total sialic acid (SA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity significantly increased in the VPA group compared with the control group (P 
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:19:28.193289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12202
  • Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory
           Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Redflower Ragleaf (Crassocephalum
           Crepidioides) Extract
    • Authors: S.A. Adefegha; G. Oboh, O.R. Molehin, J.A. Saliu, M.L. Athayde, A.A. Boligon
      Abstract: Consumption of vegetables has been suggested to be a practical strategy in the management of several degenerative diseases. The present study characterized the phenolic constituents, assessed the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect and evaluated the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts of redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides [Benth.] S. Moore [Asteraceae]) used as food and traditional medicine in Africa. The vegetable extract was found to be rich in phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and rutin). Furthermore, the extract (IC50 = 139.75 μg/mL) inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose‐dependent manner and had high antioxidant properties as typified by the radical scavenging abilities, reducing property, Fe2+ chelating ability and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue (in vitro). These results reveal that the vegetable extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential. Practical Applications Redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides) may be a good source of potential phenolic phytochemicals that act as natural antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and may be beneficial for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:14:54.030258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12200
  • Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity and In Vitro Growth
           Inhibition of Struvite Crystals by Ipomoea Eriocarpa Leaf Extracts
    • Authors: Moonjit Das; Himaja Malipeddi, N. Arunai Nambiraj, Reshma Rajan
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the total phenol, flavonoid, terpenoid and sterol contents and the antioxidant properties of water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Ipomoea eriocarpa. The antioxidant activity of the three extracts was studied using 2,2‐diphenyl‐dipicrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide methods. The in vitro growth inhibition of struvite crystals was also investigated in the presence of three extracts. Struvite crystals were grown using the single diffusion gel growth technique. The crystals were characterized using powder X‐ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric with differential thermal analysis. The ethanol extract showed the highest phenolic, flavonoid and terpenoid contents and possessed better antioxidant properties compared with the water and chloroform extracts. Furthermore, the ethanol extract was the only one that showed growth‐inhibition properties. The inhibition of crystal growth by different concentrations of the leaf extract of I. eriocarpa was promising and rapid, indicating that the plant can potentially prevent and cure struvite‐based urolithiasis. Practical Applications Ipomoea eriocarpa is traditionally used as a vegetable in India. The seeds are nutritious and a good source of carbohydrates and proteins. From the present studies, it can be concluded that regular consumption of this plant can provide a good source of natural antioxidants to the body. Therapeutic doses of the ethanol extract can inhibit or reduce the size of struvite‐based kidney stones and could help in the passage of stones through the urinary tube. Thus, the plant can potentially prevent as well as cure struvite‐based urolithiasis.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:03:55.626486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12205
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2015-10-06T01:08:40.849678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12077
  • A Bioactive Constituent of Ginger, 6‐Shogaol, Prevents Adipogenesis
           and Stimulates Lipolysis in 3T3‐L1 Adipocytes
    • Abstract: Zingiber officinale Roscoe, one of the most widely used spices, has been reported to have anti‐obesity and anti‐diabetes effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 6‐shogaol, a bioactive compound present in ginger, on the adipogenic process in 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes. The anti‐adipogenic effects of 6‐shogaol was significantly higher than the more widely investigated 6‐gingerol, another major ginger constituent. We observed that 6‐shogaol inhibited the expression of two master regulators of adipogenesis, PPARγ and C/EBPα, and also stimulated lipolysis in mature 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that 6‐shogaol, not 6‐gingerol, is the major compound present in ginger responsible for its reported anti‐adipogenic properties. Practical Applications Ginger is widely consumed all over the world, and has been associated with various health benefits. At least some of these benefits have been previously attributed to 6‐gingerol. In the present study, we observed that 6‐shogaol has more potent anti‐adipogenic effects than 6‐gingerol in 3T3‐L1 cells. This is the first study to investigate the anti‐obesity effect of 6‐shogaol in vitro, and provides a new perspective on future development of ginger‐based anti‐obesity strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:59:15.838066-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12191
  • Proteinases from the Liver of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus Alalunga): Optimum
           Extractant and Biochemical Characteristics
    • Authors: Pakteera Sripokar; Tanchanok Poonsin, Manat Chaijan, Soottawat Benjakul, Sappasith Klomklao
      Abstract: Proteolytic activity of the extract from albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) liver was studied. Optimum pH and temperature for casein hydrolysis were 8.5 and 55C, respectively. The enzyme was stable to heat treatment up to 50C and in the pH range of 7.0–10.0 for 30–120 min. The proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, N‐p‐tosyl‐L‐lysine chloromethyl ketone and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Activities of the liver extract continuously decreased with increasing NaCl concentration (0–30%), while activities increased as CaCl2 concentration increased. Based on activity staining, the molecular weights of the proteinases in albacore tuna liver were 21, 24, 30 and 34 kDa. Optimum extraction medium for proteinase recovery from albacore tuna liver was also investigated. Extraction of the liver powder with 50 mM Na phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.2% (v/v) Brij 35 rendered a higher recovery of proteinase activity than other extractants tested (P 
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:35:46.643421-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12174
  • Nutritional Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of
           Selected Wild Edible Plants
    • Authors: Hamayun Khan; Syed Aleem Jan, Mehwish Javed, Rabia Shaheen, Zahid Khan, Aftab Ahmad, Sher Zaman Safi, Muhammad Imran
      Abstract: This study determines the nutritional composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of wild plants available in Pakistan. Eight wild plant species, such as Chenopodium murale, Eruca sativa, Goldbachia laevigata, Malcolmia africana, Malva neglecta, Medicago polymorpha, Melilotus officinalis and Nasturtium officinale, were collected from their natural habitat and analyzed. Proximate analysis of plants showed good amount of fibers and proteins in M. neglecta and M. officinalis. Among the minerals, calcium and potassium were predominantly present in all plants. The total antioxidant and free radical‐scavenging activities of the plant species showed a linear correlation with the total phenolics. Our results indicated that methanolic extracts of plant species have measurable inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. These results may provide useful information for the evaluation of the selected wild plants in terms of their nutritional potential and medicinal values. Practical Applications The nutritional values and medicinal potential of wild‐plant food are of considerable importance as they help to pinpoint traditional food resources of poor population in developing countries. However, it is important to build awareness among the community to accept wild‐plant foods as useful as the cultivated ones. The assessment of nutritional composition, antioxidant properties, antibacterial and phytochemical composition of the selected wild plants may provide potential insights into their applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals development. The current work will provide new reference data and will give awareness to public consuming these unconventional plants as food.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:22:04.514088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12189
  • Effect of Genotype, Environment and Malting on the Antioxidant Activity
           and Phenolic Content of Indian Barley
    • Authors: Sneh Narwal; Dinesh Kumar, Ramesh Pal Singh Verma
      Abstract: Seventy‐two Indian barley varieties were screened for their antioxidant activity for 2 years using two antiradical systems. Differences in the levels of antioxidant activity in 2 years were obtained, but the genotypic differences still remained and a 2‐fold variability was observed in the antioxidant activity. Year‐to‐year differences were also obtained when the selected varieties were analyzed for their free and bound phenolic contents. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the five varieties grown at six different locations revealed that the antioxidant activity and the free phenolics were more influenced by the genotype, whereas the bound and the total phenolics were most influenced by the environment. After malting, no significant changes were observed in the antioxidant activity; however, a 2‐fold increase was observed in the total phenolic content, which was mainly due to the increase in the level of free phenolics after malting. Practical Applications Barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content can be beneficial both as food and also in brewing. This is the first time that almost all the released varieties from India have been analyzed for their antioxidant potential. In India, around 20% of the barley produced is used for malt production. Therefore, the effect of malting on the antioxidant activity and the free and bound phenolic components in 12 malting barley varieties was also studied. This study could help in identifying barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity for food purposes and the barley varieties with high phenolics for the brewing purposes. Identification of such lines can help the breeding program in developing food and malt barley varieties with improved levels of antioxidants, which can provide better health and industrial benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T03:38:22.546529-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12198
  • Potentiation of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Artisanal
           Honeys Using Specific Heat Treatments
    • Abstract: The effect of temperature on the phenol content, flavonoids content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) in five artisanal honeys of different floral origins was investigated. The total phenol and total flavonoid content showed either linear or quadratic curves (P 
      PubDate: 2015-09-06T21:57:49.69375-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12186
  • Antioxidant Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolysate Derived From Hairtail Surimi
    • Abstract: In this study, a column reactor filled with immobilized chymotrypsin–trypsin (I‐CT) was used to prepare antioxidant peptides from hairtail surimi wash water. At the optimum reaction temperature (30C), when residence time is 5 min (flow rate is 3 mL/min), the conversion rate of the I‐CT column enzymatic reactor could be maintained above 60%. The half‐life of the column reactor was in excess of 6 h. At 30C, when residence time is 15 min (flow rate is 1 mL/min), the antioxidant capacity of the resulting enzymatic hydrolysate was the highest (1.59 mmol/L FeSO4 equivalent) and the product conversion rate was 67.0%. Tricine–sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the main ingredients of enzymatic hydrolysate were low‐molecular‐weight peptides (
      PubDate: 2015-09-06T21:57:31.501731-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12185
  • Effects of Selenium on the Growth and Fermentation Properties of
           Se‐Enriched Bacillus Subtilis J‐2
    • Authors: Shan Wu; Na Zhou, Dongsheng Li, Sai He, Yang Chen, Ye Bai, Mingquan Zhou, Jianjun He, Chao Wang
      Abstract: This paper describes the effect of sodium selenite on the growth and fermentation properties of Bacillus subtilis J‐2 (BSJ‐2) which was isolated from the water of Chinese fermented pickles. The results of the optimum Se‐added conditions are as follows: addition concentration 45 μg/mL, addition time 4 h and inoculation quantity 2%. At this site, the Se conversion ratio was 73.8 ± 3.4%. With the increasing of selenium concentration, the alkaline protease activity has a slight increase at the optimum growth conditions, while the variation of the neutral protease activity had no significant difference among the five samples in the 1,000–1,100 μg/mL range. Added selenium had a positive impact on the antimicrobial ability of strains. Practical Applications The increasing popularity of Se‐enriched microorganism among food preservatives and food fermentation was well concerned about in the recent years. The present study has demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis has a suitable Se‐enriched condition and can enhance the growth and protease activities applied in food fermentation which can promote efficiency and cost savings. Health‐promoting effect is shown through the relatively high conversion on Se‐enriched Bacillus subtilis J‐2. It is expected that Se‐enriched B. subtilis J‐2 could be applied in food industries as an antiseptic agent to improve the antimicrobial ability. Our previous studies demonstrated that Se‐enriched B. subtilis can be applied as a safe and healthy potential dietary resource of nontoxic selenium to food fermentation and effective functional substance in food and medical industry.
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T01:45:50.572602-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12184
  • Conversion of Flavonols Kaempferol and Quercetin in Mulberry (Morus
           Alba L.) Leaf Using Plant‐Fermenting Lactobacillus Plantarum
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the levels of flavonols in mulberry leaf fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a traditional Korean soybean‐fermented food. Flavonol kaempferol and quercetin contents were markedly higher in fermentates of mulberry leave (FML) extracts than in unfermented mulberry leave (UFML) extracts (kaempferol and quercetin: 30.43 ± 1.83 mg/100 g and 49.96 ± 2.74 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry in FML versus 0.54 ± 0.11 mg/100 g and 0.58 ± 0.15 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry in UFML). In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in FML extract were 1,183.28 ± 2.99 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry and 425.61 ± 9.73 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry, respectively, which were considerably higher than those of the control UFML extract. Practical Applications Flavonols kaempferol and quercetin with antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties have been implicated in the prevention and development of therapies for cancers, cardiovascular disease, neurological and metabolic disorders, and bone diseases and so on. These results suggest that Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a traditional Korean soybean‐fermented food could be used as a starter strain for improvement of biologically beneficial flavonol compounds in plant‐derived food materials.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T03:17:42.418149-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12176
  • Characterization of a Solvent‐Tolerant Manganese Peroxidase (MnP)
           from Ganoderma Lucidum and Its Application in Fruit Juice Clarification
    • Authors: Tamilvendan Manavalan; Vetriselvan Manavalan, Kalaichelvan P. Thangavelu, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
      Abstract: Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is necessary in fruit juice clarification for the degradation of phenolic compounds. In the present study, MnP was produced using basal medium supplemented with tamarind shell (1% w/v), ethanol (2% v/v) and gallic acid (1 mM) to a maximum activity of 65 U/mL. A 43.0 kDa MnP was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G‐100 and DEAE‐cellulose column chromatography with 6.5‐fold and 13% yield. The optimal activity of the purified MnP was achieved at pH 5.5 and temperature of 45C with 2,6‐dimethoxyphenol as substrate. The inhibitors sodium azide, cyanide and EDTA inhibited the MnP activity up to 100, 93 and 84%, respectively. MnP showed high activity and stability in the presence of different metal ions, surfactants and organic solvents. Clarification of different fruit juices with MnP showed its potential application in the food and beverage industry. Practical Applications Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is extensively used in various applications, such as pulp delignification, dye decoloration, biotransformation, biosensor applications and fruit juice clarification. Ganoderma lucidum‐derived purified MnP is a solvent‐tolerant metalloenzyme that showed its potential for industrial application in clarification of various fruit juices. The stability of MnP in the presence of various divalent cations, surfactants and solvents suggests that it could be used in industrial effluent treatments as well as the food and beverage industry.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T03:17:22.639034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12188
  • Comparative Study of Chemical Composition, In Vitro Inhibition of
           Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Enzymes, and Antioxidant Potentials of
           Essential Oil from Peels and Seeds of Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis [L.]
           Osbeck) Fruits
    • Authors: Ayokunle Olubode Ademosun; Ganiyu Oboh, Adebayo John Olupona, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye, Taiwo Mary Adewuni, Esther Emem Nwanna
      Abstract: This study was designed to compare the chemical compositions and effect of essential oils from the peels and seeds of sweet orange on cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], butyrylcholinesterase [BChE]) and monoaminergic (monoamine oxidase [MAO]) enzymes. The ability of the essential oils to protect the brain against Fe2+‐induced lipid peroxidation was also investigated. Forty and forty‐four compounds were identified in peels and seed essential oils, respectively, using gas chromatography. The essential oils inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO in dose‐dependent manner. However, essential oil from the peels had higher inhibition on cholinergic enzymes but lower inhibitory effect on MAO and Fe2+‐induced lipid peroxidation compared to the seed essential oils. This study also revealed the presence of volatile compounds. Conclusively, both essential oils could be used as therapeutic agents in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Practical Applications Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peels and seeds are waste materials in the production of orange juice and can be used as a source to produce essential oils which can be of use in the production of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study provided reference information for the first time on the chemical composition and potential application of sweet orange peels and seed essential oils in the treatment and management of Alzheimer's diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T01:47:55.001858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12187
  • Irradiation and Evaporation Enhance Physicochemical Characteristics, AEAC,
           FRAP, Protein and Proline Contents of Tualang Honey
    • Authors: Md Ibrahim Khalil; Md Asiful Islam, Nadia Alam, Siew Hua Gan, Siti Amrah Sulaiman
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different honey processing parameters (temperature, light, gamma irradiation, evaporation and sachet packaging) on the physical, biochemical and antioxidant characteristics of Tualang honey samples that have been stored for 1 year. The protein and proline contents doubled following radiation and evaporation. Radiation and evaporation also developed the honey quality by decreasing the moisture content and improving the antioxidant parameters (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and color intensity), and maintaining the total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of the honey within the recommended levels. Cold temperature storage maintained the moisture contents and 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural levels within safe levels. However, in case of sachet honey, cold temperature storage is not recommendable as room temperature improved the protein, proline and FRAP content. Irradiation and evaporation of honey samples are recommended as these processes tend to improve the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties and increase the protein and proline contents of honey. Practical Applications As the physicochemical, biochemical and antioxidant potentials of honey have seen to be improved significantly after irradiation and evaporation, these can be potential techniques to improve the quality of honey prior to consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T21:13:16.700042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12182
  • Effect of Storage Temperature on Carbohydrate Metabolism and Development
           of Cold‐Induced Sweetening in Indian Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)
    • Authors: Joseph Hubert Galani Yamdeu; Pooja H. Gupta, Nilesh J. Patel, Avadh K. Shah, Jayant G. Talati
      Abstract: This study investigated the changes in carbohydrate metabolism in tubers of 11 Indian potato varieties stored at room temperature, 15C and 4C for 150 days to understand the development of cold‐induced sweetening (CIS). Low‐temperature storage negligibly influenced starch and maltose contents of the tubers but induced a significant increase of reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, fructose, glucose and hexoses : sucrose ratio, and a decrease of sucrose content was noticeable at 4C. A strong positive correlation was found between reducing sugars and total soluble sugars, and between fructose and glucose. The activity of β‐amylase was considerably increased by storage at low temperature, and it weakly correlated with starch content. Also, the absence of maltose accumulation with increased β‐amylase activity was observed. Acid invertase activity drastically rose at low temperature and strongly paralleled reducing sugars, glucose, fructose and hexose : sucrose ratio. The K. Jyoti variety was designated as CIS‐tolerant and the K. Badshah variety as CIS‐susceptible. Practical Applications Development of cold‐induced sweetening (CIS) is important for basic research and for potato‐processing industry. This work allowed us to group 11 Indian potato varieties into low‐sugar‐forming and high‐sugar‐forming groups, to identify varieties suitable for processing immediately after harvest or short time storage and to identify varieties with high starch content suitable for starch extraction. Hence, it provides capital information to the industry about varieties with good starch yield, which can be cold‐stored without drastic sugar increase, and to breeders for searching genes of resistance to CIS in Indian potatoes. This study also demonstrated that during CIS development in these varieties, acid invertase is the key enzyme, β‐amylase is not the main enzyme of starch degradation and there is possible significant activity of maltase in potato tubers. These observations pave the way through biotechnology work to develop new potato varieties which can cope with this postharvest problem.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T20:33:04.221926-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12190
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate and Caffeine Prevent DNA Adduct Formation and
           Interstrand Cross‐Links Induced by Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde
    • Authors: Mingfu Wang; Wen Hao
      Abstract: Highlights Acrolein/crotonaldehyde causes DNA adducts and interstrand cross‐links. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) traps acrolein/crotonaldehyde. ECCG lowers DNA adduct formation and interstrand cross‐links. Abstract The present work explored the potential application of phytochemicals in the prevention of DNA adduct formation and interstrand cross‐links (ICLs) caused by acrolein (ACR) and crotonaldehyde (CRO). Our study showed that epigallocatechin gallate, a major phenolic compound in green tea, was the most effective compound to prevent DNA adduct formation caused by ACR and CRO and trap ACR and CRO in a chemical system. As an example, epigallocatechin gallate showed the inhibitory effect on dG damage caused by ACR (67.1%) and the best trapping ability against ACR (100%) at the concentration of 10 mM, significantly different from the control without the addition of a phytochemical (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T02:05:10.821909-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12178
  • Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Rich Moringa oleifera Lam.
           Extracts in Food Systems
    • Abstract: Moringa oleifera Lam. has long been used in traditional medicine and for culinary purposes. This study aimed at determining the phenolic content as well as the antioxidative properties of leaf and pod extracts of M. oleifera Lam. in vitro and in mayonnaise and bulk sunflower oil. The methanolic leaf and pod extracts (MLE and MPE) had the highest phenolic content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activities in the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) assay (1,298 ± 4.1 μmol Fe [II]/g fresh weight) compared with the aqueous extracts. Moreover, MLE was the most effective free radical scavenger and metal chelator in the deoxyribose and iron chelation assays, respectively. The antioxidant efficacy of MLE and MPE at 0.2 and 0.4% was compared with that of butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%) in bulk sunflower oil and mayonnaise. The peroxide and conjugated diene values showed that the extracts effectively protected both systems. MLE at 0.4% exhibited the most potent antioxidant effect. Practical Applications Reactive oxygen species, generated by lipid oxidation, can compromise the safety of foods resulting in harmful effects on human health. There is much interest in natural antioxidants as an effective means to retard oxidative changes in foods due to toxicological concerns associated with synthetic antioxidants. M. oleifera L. is currently underutilized as a food plant despite scientific evidence of its nutritional quality and health benefits mainly ascribed to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. This study was aimed at determining the phenolic content and the in vitro antioxidant properties of M. oleifera leaf and pod extracts. The effect of the extracts on oxidative stability in mayonnaise and bulk sunflower oil was also evaluated. Results show that this food plant represents an untapped potential that could be used as a source of natural food additives to retard oxidative damage in various food systems and thus prolonging the shelf life of lipid‐bearing foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T01:52:31.23693-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12181
  • Comparative Study on In Vitro Anti‐Proliferative and Apoptotic
           Effects of Organic and Non‐Organic Tea Extracts
    • Authors: Peik Lin Teoh
      Abstract: This study compared the anti‐proliferative and apoptotic effects of organic and non‐organic Sabah tea on cancer cell lines. Anti‐proliferative assays showed that the tea extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of MCF‐7 and HeLa cells. The IC50 values for MCF‐7 and HeLa were 20.9 ± 2.6 to 39.3 ± 0.8 and 38.5 ± 3.8 to 42.0 ± 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. Statistical differences were observed in MCF‐7 cells treated with organic and non‐organic tea extracts. However, no differences were found in HeLa cells. Morphological changes were observed in both treated cell lines when compared with the untreated cells. However, the formation of DNA laddering was only observed in the treated MCF‐7 cells. Reduction of BCL‐2 expression was found in the treated MCF‐7 cells but BAX expression was unaltered. In conclusion, the effect of different farming systems on the proliferation of cancer cells could be cell‐type‐dependent but they showed no obvious differences in their effects on preventing cancer cell growth and inducing apoptosis. Practical Applications Tea is well known for its various health benefits due to its bioactivity. The findings from this study will add valuable preliminary information regarding the potential of organic and non‐organic tea as natural chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. These findings will provide scientific evidence on health advantages that might result from organic food consumption; thus, consumers will be able to make more informed choices.
      PubDate: 2015-08-17T03:53:03.242404-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12180
  • Optimization of Alkali Extraction of Polysaccharides From Foxtail Millet
           and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro
    • Authors: Aishi Zhu; Liyang Tang, Qiaohui Fu, Maoqian Xu, Jie Chen
      Abstract: Highlights Extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet with alkali solution. Response surface methodology was used. The antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides was investigated in vitro. Model was set up to optimize extraction of polysaccharides. The best extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h and extraction temperature 72.7C. Abstract Response surface methodology was employed to obtain the best possible combination of alkali concentration, liquid–solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature for maximum polysaccharide yields in the experiment of alkali extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet. The antioxidant activity of the obtained polysaccharides was meanwhile investigated in vitro. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second‐order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The optimum extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h, and extraction temperature 72.7C, the experimental yield was 46.21 mg/g, which was well in close agreement with the model's predicted value (45.60 mg/g). The polysaccharides of foxtail millet have better capacity of radical‐scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical‐scavenging activity. The mathematical model had high correlation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T23:28:03.733069-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12183
  • Factors Affecting the Quality Attributes of Unripe Grape Functional Food
    • Abstract: Unripe grapes with sour taste can be processed into various products such as verjuice and sour grape sauce. They have gained popularity because of increasing consumers' demands for natural and functional foods. It was aimed to detect some physicochemical properties and the antioxidant capacity of unripe grape products. Five verjuice and five sour grape sauce samples were analyzed and the mean of the values 2.41 for pH, 0.97 for water activity, 5.63 for soluble solid content, 3.83% for titratable acidity, 6.721 g/L for total sugar content and 473.96 mg/L for total phenol content were obtained. Antioxidant contents of the samples were detected between 0.010–0.231 and 0.035–0.885 μmol TE/mL by FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and TEAC (Trolox‐Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assays, respectively. Variation in the result of analysis depends on factors such as varieties, maturation stage, harvesting time, genotypic differences and environmental stress. Unripe grape products could be good alternatives for functional nutrition with their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Practical Applications The food industry is looking for new, available and low‐cost alternatives to supply the demand of the consumers on functional and natural foods. Grapes are a good source of antioxidant‐rich food products by making them functional and also extending their shelf life. Unripe grape products such as verjuice and sour grape sauce, used as a flavoring and acidifying agent, could also be considered natural sanitizers. Unripe grape products, directly or as an additive in foods, could contribute to the functional and natural food production.
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T23:27:40.190919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12175
  • Influence of High‐Pressure/High‐Temperature Extraction on the
           Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Barley Grains
    • Abstract: The influence of extraction temperature (90–180C), solvent concentration (36–90% ethanol) and time (30–90 min) on extractability of phenolic compounds from barley grains and on antiradical power of extracts was examined. RSM was used to design and optimize the processing parameters. Experimental results of total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and antiradical power of barley extracts were in the range from 3.27 to 26.60 mgGAE/gdb, 0.91 to 6.09 mgCE/gdb and 0.33 to 4.05 gDPPH/mLext, respectively. HPLC analysis of extracts showed epigallocatechin gallate to be the predominant phenolic compound, representing up to 93% of all phenolic compounds determined. Based on RSM analysis, temperature was the most significant factor affecting the observed responses (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T22:02:06.903187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12177
  • An In Situ Study on the Effects of Extracts of Taraxacum
           Officinale, Paulliniia Pinnata and Thonningia Sanguinea on
           Mitochondrial Function
    • Abstract: Taraxacum officinale leaves are popular among Ghanaians as vegetable and/or beverage while extracts of Taraxacum officinale, Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea are present in common herbal remedies widely available without prescription in Ghana. This study was therefore aimed to identify possible interactions between these medicinal plant extracts and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. The effects of these extracts on mitochondrial oxygen consumption were therefore investigated in situ using permeabilized mouse cardiac muscle fiber preparations and a substrate‐inhibitor titration. The results showed that the ethanolic fraction of T. officinale leaves significantly increased the respiration rate in presence of rotenone and the state 3/state 2 ratio (respiratory control ratio) while the ethanolic extract of P. pinnata stem significantly decreased succinate‐stimulated respiration. The aqueous extract of T. sanguinea also significantly decreased respiration in presence of rotenone. Practical Applications The present study revealed that the extracts from Taraxacum officinale, Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea exhibited the potential to influence mitochondrial respiratory chain function. The result presented in this study provides evidence that T. officinale offers an opportunity to be explored as a natural energy booster. The decrease in succinate‐stimulated respiration caused by the extract from P. pinnata provides further evidence for its use as a fish poison and strongly suggests that its use in herbal remedies may be detrimental. Furthermore, information about similar effects caused by traditional remedies would be useful not only in the discovery of novel therapeutic agents but also identification of extracts with the potential for long term toxicity.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T21:52:50.999177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12163
  • Effect of Rice Bran Unsaponifiables on High‐Fat Diet‐Induced
           Obesity in Mice
    • Authors: Hyeonmi Ham; Jeehye Sung, Junsoo Lee
      Abstract: Rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) was prepared by the saponification method and contained 1,635 mg of tocopherols and tocotrienols, 5,514 mg of policosanols, 36,425 mg of phytosterols, and 2,968 mg of oryzanols per 100 g of USM. Mice were divided into five groups: a normal diet (ND), high‐fat diet (HFD), HFD with 10, 20 and 50 mg USM/kg body weight/day group. After 6 weeks, the administration of USM at doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg reduced the body weight gain, food efficiency ratio and size of the epididymal fat tissue compared with those in the HFD group. In addition, the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol level as well as the atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor were also reduced in the USM fed groups compared with those in the HFD group. These findings suggest that USM from rice bran may have excellent hypolipidemic potential to prevent obesity. Practical Applications Rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) contains a variety of functional compounds. This study investigated the hypolipidemic effects of USM from rice bran in high‐fat diet‐fed mice. The result of this study suggested that rice bran USM was beneficial in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia. The use of rice bran USM may have implications for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T20:01:53.995044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12170
  • Variation in Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity in Yellow
           Himalayan (Rubus ellipticus Smith) and Hill Raspberry (Rubus
           niveus Thunb.)
    • Authors: Amit Badhani; Sandeep Rawat, Indra D. Bhatt, Ranbeer S. Rawal
      Abstract: Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in the fruits of Rubus ellipticus and Rubus niveus were studied. A significant variation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T21:04:59.081026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12172
  • Antioxidant Activities and Major Bioactive Components of Consecutive
           Extracts from Blue Honeysuckle (Lonicera Caerulea L.) Cultivated in
    • Authors: Lei Zhao; Siran Li, Lei Zhao, Ye Zhu, Tianyang Hao
      Abstract: Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) fruits were extracted consecutively by five solvents of different polarity, and the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), ABTS [2,2′‐azino‐bis‐(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid)] and CV (cyclic voltammetry) assays. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents. Among the five extracts, the methanol extract with the strongest antioxidant activity was selected for further study. It showed protective effects on 2,2′‐azobis (2‐amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)‐induced DNA and erythrocyte oxidative damage. Moreover, bioactive components of the methanol extract were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Six polyphenols were characterized, including chlorogenic acid, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside, peonidin‐3‐glucoside, quercetin‐3‐rutinoside, quercetin‐3‐glucoside and apigenin‐(malonyl)‐hexoside. Among these, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside was the predominant antioxidant component. These results suggested that the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle fruits could be used as a promising ingredient for functional foods or nutraceuticals to prevent diseases arising from oxidative processes. Practical Applications Berries are important sources of natural antioxidants, which can protect the body from oxidative damage. Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) has been harvested from the wild in regions of China, Russia and Japan for hundreds of years. It is more winter‐hardy than blueberry. The berries are similar in appearance and taste to blueberries. For the above reasons, blue honeysuckle has a certain market at early season. The results of the present study indicate that the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle showed notable antioxidant activity in different assays in vitro. The methanol extract is rich in polyphenolics, particularly in anthocyanins. Therefore, the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle could be explored as a natural antioxidant for application in functional foods or nutraceuticals.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:40:58.229274-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12173
  • Heat‐Treated Solar Sea Salt Has Antioxidant Activity In Vitro and
           Produces Less Oxidative Stress in Rats Compared with Untreated Solar Sea
    • Abstract: We have investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative activity of solar sea salts(SS) roasted with (BS) or without (RS) bamboo, which are widely consumed as dietary salts in Korea. BS exhibited antioxidative activity in the in vitro assays of various radical‐scavenging activities and DNA oxidation. RS also scavenged superoxide radicals and inhibited DNA oxidation. However, SS did not exhibit antioxidative activity in vitro. Sprague‐Dawley rats were orally administered various salts (1.8 g NaCl equivalent/kg) daily for 7 weeks. The rats fed RS and BS exhibited significantly lower levels of lipid peroxidation and a higher total thiol content than the SS group (P 
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:40:36.292722-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12165
  • In Vivo Anti‐Hyperglycemic Potential of Brahmi Gritham and Docking
           Studies of Its Active Components Against Protein Kinase C and CD38
    • Authors: Udhaya Lavinya B; Monisha Swaminathan, Yashodhara Bhattacharya, Shreni Tandon, Sabina Evan Prince
      Abstract: The anti‐hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of the Indian herbal formulation Brahmi gritham were studied in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic female Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight [b.w.], i.p.). Estimation of blood glucose levels, liver glycogen content and antioxidant levels were carried out in experimental rats. The tested parameters were compared with those of the glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.) treated group. Molecular docking studies were carried out to analyze the interaction patterns of protein kinase C (PKC) and CD38 of chosen proteins of signal transduction pathways that are significant in the pathogenesis of diabetes against active components of Brahmi gritham. Immunohistochemistry of pancreas revealed that Brahmi gritham was able to restore β‐cell mass and function near to that of the normal control. In silico studies showed that apigenin and quercetin showed significant interactions with PKC, while clitorin, bacopaside I and II showed significant interactions with CD38. Quercetin showed highest percentage inhibition of α‐amylase enzyme. Practical Applications Brahmi gritham is a traditional polyherbal formulation used in Ayurveda to treat memory disorders. The individual components of this formulation are known to possess significant antioxidant properties and contain several biologically active compounds found to be effective in treating various disorders, including diabetes and obesity. The efficacy of Brahmi gritham in diabetes management has not yet been studied, and therefore, the present study provides insights into the anti‐hyperglycemic potential of this formulation in rat model. In addition, the results of in silico analysis would pave way for better utilization of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin in diabetes management and in particular microvascular diabetic complications.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:01:16.651663-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12166
  • Chemical Constituents, Quantitative Analysis and Antioxidant Activities of
           Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.
    • Authors: Ramazan Erenler; Isa Telci, Musa Ulutas, Ibrahim Demirtas, Fatih Gul, Mahfuz Elmastas, Omer Kayir
      Abstract: Echinacea is valuable for its pharmaceutical, medicinal and agricultural properties. Flowers and leaves of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. were extracted with methanol, filtered, and solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to get four separate extracts. The flowers and leaves of both plants were boiled in water then extracted with ethyl acetate to achieve another four extracts. Quantifications of chemical constituents of extracts were determined by TOF‐LC/MS. The main compound of methanol extracts of E. purpurea and E. pallida leaves and flowers was cichoric acid. Caffeic acid was the chief compound of water extracts of both plant leaves and flowers. The antioxidant activities including DPPH free radical scavenging, ABTS cation radical scavenging and reducing power were assayed and structure–activity relationships were postulated. Water extracts of both Echinaceae species of flowers and leaves revealed excellent antioxidant activities. Practical Applications Echinacea, which is a medicinal and aromatic plant, has been used for traditional medicine in many countries. The water extract of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. exhibited excellent antioxidant activities; therefore, these Echinacea species can be used as natural agents in food and pharmaceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2015-07-19T23:51:52.498287-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12168
  • Walnut Oil – Unexplored Raw Material for Lipase‐Catalyzed
           Synthesis of Low‐Calorie Structured Lipids for Clinical Nutrition
    • Authors: Tsvetomira Todorova; Maya Guncheva, Roza Dimitrova, Svetlana Momchilova
      Abstract: Low‐calorie structured lipids that contain medium‐chain fatty acids in the sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions of the glycerol backbone, and long‐chain fatty acid in the sn‐2 (MLM type) were synthesized in one‐step acidolysis of walnut oil with caprylic acid. Caprylic acid residues were incorporated selectively into sn‐1,3 positions of triacylglycerols using 1,3‐specific immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme) and Rhizopus delemar (PP‐RhDL) as catalysts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, we achieved an excellent yield of the desired MLM‐type structured lipids (97 mole % with Lipozyme and 96.4 mole % with PP‐RhDL). The synthetic activity of PP‐RhDL was not influenced by the reaction medium whereas the Lipozyme was more effective in hexane than in solvent‐free medium. The same degree of conversion of initial triacylglycerols was observed for the two enzymes in four consecutive reaction cycles. The amount of MLM‐type structured lipids, however, decreased with each following cycle at the expense of mono‐substituted with caprylic acid triacylglycerols (MLL type). Practical Applications Structured lipids (SLs) that contain medium‐chain fatty acids in the sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions of the glycerol backbone, and long‐chain fatty acids in the sn‐2 (MLM type) are known to improve liver function, minimize risk of infections, and reduce the number of gastrointestinal complications in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and are used in clinical nutrition as well as specialized food for athletes because they provide fast energy supply. After an enzymatic modification of walnut oil, high yield of SLs with caprylic acid residue in the sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions of the glycerol backbone and long‐chain fatty acid residue in the sn‐2 position of triglycerides was obtained.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16T01:37:07.158919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12167
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Effect of Black Raspberry Seed Oil in
           High‐Fat Diet‐Induced Obese Mice
    • Authors: Hee Jae Lee; Hana Jung, Hyunnho Cho, Keum Taek Hwang
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the anti‐inflammatory effect of black raspberry seed (BRS) oil on high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese mice. BRS oil was composed of 57.0% linoleic and 29.4% α‐linolenic acids. Five‐week‐old C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD: BRS oil diet consisting of 50% calories from lard and 10% from BRS oil, while control diet consisted of 50% calories from lard, 5% from soybean oil and 5% from corn oil. Inflammation‐involved proteins were lower in the liver of the mice fed the BRS oil than those in the control. mRNA levels of pro‐inflammatory markers in the liver and adipose tissue of the BRS oil group were lower and anti‐inflammatory markers were higher in the BRS oil group compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that BRS oil may be a good source of α‐linolenic acid, an n‐3 fatty acid, with anti‐inflammatory effects on HFD‐induced obese mice. Practical Applications Black raspberry seed (BRS) oil, which could be obtained from black raspberry wine pomace, contains about 30% α‐linolenic acid, an n‐3 fatty acid. Supplementation of BRS oil might lower inflammation in high‐fat diet‐induced obese mice, when measuring protein and mRNA levels of pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory markers in the liver and adipose tissue of the mice. The results would promote utilization of BRS, a by‐product of wine production, and consequently help black raspberry producers and manufacturers.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16T00:50:44.062211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12169
  • Antihyperglycemic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Butanol
           Extract from Spirulina Platensis
    • Authors: K.G. Mallikarjun Gouda; M.D. Kavitha, R. Sarada
      Abstract: The butanol extract of Spirulina was found to have potent α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 23.0 ± 0.4 μg/mL. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated to be 121.0 ± 3.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 27.4 ± 1.2 mg rutin equivalent/100 g of Spirulina biomass. The butanol extract also exhibited rat intestinal α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 37.5 ± 2.8 μg/mL. The butanol extract had showed antioxidant activities with DPPH (1, 1‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical), reducing power, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide scavenging activity and showed antimicrobial activity against gram‐positive and gram‐negative bacteria. The present results indicate that Spirulina can be used for nutraceutical applications. Practical Application Spirulina has Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status and FDA approval for dietary supplement; therefore, it can be used as food supplement for health benefits. The therapeutic approach for preventing diabetes mellitus is to retard the absorption of glucose through inhibition of α‐glucosidase.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:40:09.772428-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12164
  • Growth Inhibition and Cytotoxicity in Human Lung and Cervical Cancer Cell
           Lines and Glutathione S‐Transferase Inhibitory Activity of Selected
           Sri Lankan Traditional Red Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Brans
    • Authors: W.K.S.M. Abeysekera; G.A.S. Premakumara, Ahsana Dar, M. Iqbal Choudhary, W.D. Ratnasooriya, Muhammad Kashif, C. Mudassar, S.R. Ali, N.V. Chandrasekharan
      Abstract: Extracts, fractions and gastrointestinal‐resistant protein hydrolysates (GRPH) from rice bran (RB) of four Sri Lankan traditional varieties were studied for growth inhibition (GI) and cytotoxicity against human lung cancer (NCI‐H460), cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines and effect on glutathione S‐transferase (GST) in vitro. RB extracts showed significantly high (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-29T00:05:33.139041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12162
  • The Effect of Cultivar and Ripening on Antioxidant System and PAL Activity
           of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Grown in Tunisia
    • Authors: Jalila Bekir; Jalloul Bouajila, Mohamed Mars
      Abstract: In this study, attempts were made to evaluate and to compare antioxidative defense system of three pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) (Chetoui, Gabsi and Garsi) at three ripening stages (UR, HR and FR). We report, for the first time, a decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and PAL activities from UR to FR stages for all pomegranate cultivars, whereas glutathione reductase activity increased gradually and significantly. The highest phenolics and ascorbic acid contents were detected in UR fruits but anthocyanins and tannin contents varied greatly within cultivars. Using the DPPH assay, the free radical‐scavenging activity of Garsi cultivar decreased significantly from UR to HR stages and finally increased in ripe fruit arils, whereas it decreases continuously during ripening of Chetoui and Gabsi cultivars. Significant correlations were detected between enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Statistical analyses showed that stage and cultivar factors influenced significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T03:02:03.283919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12159
  • Purification, Dynamic Changes and Antioxidant Activities of Oleuropein in
           Olive (Olea Europaea L.) Leaves
    • Abstract: Oleuropein was extracted from olive leaves by ultrasonic‐assisted method and purified by silica gel column chromatography. The sample was identified as oleuropein by UV, infrared, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis. Oleuropein and total phenolic contents over a year were determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography and Folin–Ciocalteu methods. The results showed that 13.52% of pure oleuropein was found with a high purity of 96.54% and purification efficiency of 78.49%. Oleuropein and total phenolic contents of different olive varieties were quite different, but both had similar trends over the year. Five methods, including DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), ABST (2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), ferric reducing antioxidant power, total reducing power and nitrite‐scavenging ability, were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of oleuropein, and the IC50 were 34.54 ± 0.14 μg/mL, 18.79 ± 0.82 μg/mL, 75.32 ± 1.83 μg/mL, 13.80 ± 0.68 μg/mL and 1.00 ± 0.08 mg/mL, respectively. Practical Applications This study provides information on the changes in contents including oleuropein and total phenolics in a year to help understand the relationship between content of oleuropein and various influencing factors. Currently, the metabolic pathways of oleuropein are not clear. These results provide information for the study of the metabolism of phenolic compounds in olive and promote research at the molecular level. Oleuropein occupies a large proportion of total polyphenols in olive and can be to be purified by silica gel column chromatography with high purification efficiency for industrial production and laboratory production. In addition, the comprehensive evaluation of activity in vitro shows that oleuropein is more useful than BHT (2,6‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐methylphenol) for the application in food and human health.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T04:13:07.239933-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12152
  • Effect of Extraction and Processing Conditions on Organic Acids of
           Barberry Fruits
    • Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani; Mohammad Ali Sahari, Mohsen Barzegar
      Abstract: The bioactive compounds of barberry such as organic acids are widely used in medical and food industries. The effects of extraction and processing conditions including varieties (B. integerrima: A, B. vulgaris: P), solvents (water: W, ethanol: E), light (presence: L or absence: T), pH (3 and 1.5), temperatures (25 and 50C), processes of heating (at 95 and 80C), chilling (ref. 1 and 2 months), freezing (con), microwave (mic) and gamma irradiation (at doses of 0.5–10 kGy) on organic acid profile were studied. The highest (acetic, malic and ascorbic) and lowest (fumaric) amounts (mg/100g extract) of organic acids in extraction conditions were as follows: acetic in AWT325 (23,124.53 ± 747.33), malic in PET1.525 (21,035.18 ± 21.05), ascorbic in AET350 (19,796.20 ± 104.44) and fumaric in PWL325 (62.30 ± 0.45). The highest and lowest amounts of organic acids in processing conditions were as follows, respectively: acetic (Amic 17,915.07 ± 164.38) and fumaric (Acon 38.84 ± 1.44). Practical Applications The Berberis vulgaris fruit is useful as tonic for liver and heart; it prevents chronic bleeding; reduces mucus, triglycerides, cholesterol and blood pressure; and also purifies the blood. It is effective in the treatment of gallbladder, bleeding hemorrhoids, antiparasitic liver, diabetes, gout, kidney stones, colon cancer, prostate inflammation, malaria, fever, asthma and neurological diseases. Owing to its color and mellow taste B. vulgaris fruit is used as a seasoning in Persian food. Barberry fruits are used in preparing sauces, jellies, carbonated drinks, candies, food color powders, jams, marmalades, chocolates and nectars. B. integerrima fruits are used to prepare juices. The use of barberry fruit as a natural food colorant rich in anthocyanins instead of harmful artificial ones was studied by researchers. In addition, barberry fruits contain polyphenols with beneficial antioxidant activities that reduce damages due to free radicals and prevent chronic diseases and cancers.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T01:56:30.306578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12158
  • Potential Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Hepatoprotective Effects of
           Crataegus Meyeri
    • Authors: Cennet Ozay; Ramazan Mammadov, Gulten Tasdelen, Ege Riza Karagur, Hakan Akca
      Abstract: In this study, the potential antioxidant, antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effects of Crataegus meyeri Pojark. were investigated. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic flower extracts was evaluated by using DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) and β‐carotene–linoleic acid assays. Total phenolic contents were also measured. The results obtained showed that C. meyeri can act as a high radical scavenger reaching 88.67%. In vitro antiproliferative activity for the same extracts was determined by MTT [3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay against PC3 and PC14 cells. The extracts of the plant at concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.25% were administered orally to the three experimental groups, including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, and blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and GGT (gamma‐glutamyltransferase). In biochemical assay, a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST was found in the experimental groups. Practical Applications The antioxidant activity studies on Crataegus species have exhibited that these species possess considerable antioxidant potential because of their polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and procyanidines. In this study, the findings are consistent with these observations. However, our results also demonstrated that C. meyeri exerts a protective effect against partial hepatectomy‐induced liver injury in rats and could provide a new potential approach to inhibit the proliferation of human non‐small cell lung cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:19:57.471646-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12161
  • Effects of Clarification and Pasteurization on the Phenolics, Antioxidant
           Capacity, Color Density and Polymeric Color of Black Carrot (Daucus
           Carota L.) Juice
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of clarification and pasteurization on the total phenolic (TP) contents, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) values of black carrot juices (BCJs). The effects of the phenolic compounds on the color density (CD) and polymeric color values were also evaluated. Depectinization (13 and 59%) and pasteurization (1.1‐ and 2.3‐fold) treatments led to increases in the TP and HCA contents in the BCJ, and bentonite (10 and 7%) and gelatin–kieselsol (25 and 29%) treatments led to reductions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) was identified as the major HCA by high‐performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. There were strong correlations between the AOC values with the TP and HCA contents (r = 0.750–0.996). Additionally, there were significant effects from the ratios of anthocyanins (ACN) to HCAs and ACN to CGA on the degree of polymerization. Because of the increased TP and HCA contents with AOC and CD values, depectinization and pasteurization were recommended for BCJ production. Practical Applications There is great interest in black carrot juice (BCJ) because of its high antioxidant capacity and intense color. After pressing, BCJ should be depectinized to produce juice with a high antioxidant capacity. To produce BCJ with an intense color, the depectinized juice should be clarified with bentonite. Gelatin and kieselsol led to a substantial reduction in color. To produce clear BCJ, clarification should include bentonite in addition to gelatin and kieselsol. However, the gelatin and kieselsol dosages should be carefully determined.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:18:27.85545-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12155
  • Phenolic Extract from Propolis and Bee Pollen: Composition, Antioxidant
           and Antibacterial Activities
    • Authors: Adel A.A. Mohdaly; Awad A. Mahmoud, Mohamed H.H. Roby, Iryna Smetanska, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
      Abstract: Bee products (e.g., propolis and bee pollen) are traditional healthy foods. In this study, antioxidant properties and in vitro antibacterial activity of honeybee pollen and propolis methanol extracts were determined. Propolis with higher phenolic content showed significant greater activity over pollen extracts. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and p‐coumaric acid were detected as main phenolic compounds in propolis extract. 3,4‐Dimethoxycinnamic acid was the major phenolic component in pollen extract. Propolis extract (5 μg/mL) exhibited 28% antiradical action against 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The scavenging activity of propolis and pollen extracts against 2,2′‐Azinobis (3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6 sulfonic acid) (ABTS) reached a maximum of 94.3 and 76.5%, respectively, at an extract concentration of 25 μg/mL. Stabilization factor of propolis extract was 13.7, while it was 6 for pollen. Results revealed that both extracts showed highly antibacterial action against gram‐positive bacteria with a minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/mL. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing elevated antibacterial activity against gram‐negative bacteria Salmonella enterica. Practical Applications Besides their potential pharmaceutical use, propolis and pollen could be efficient protective agents for use as natural antioxidant and antibacterial additives in food systems. It has been observed that the biological activities of propolis and pollen depend on their chemical composition, which, in turn, depends on geographical diversity and the genetic variety of the queens. On the basis of the present study, propolis extract showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities compared with the pollen extract. This may be due to its higher amounts in caffeic, ferulic and p‐coumaric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report comparing the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Egyptian bee pollen and propolis extracts and their chemical constituents.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:18:08.011477-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12160
  • Evaluation of In Vitro Invertase Inhibitory Activity of Manilkara zapota
           Seeds – A Novel Strategy to Manage Diabetes Mellitus
    • Authors: Thiyagarajan Sathishkumar; Srinivasan Anitha, Rajakumar Esther Sharon, Velayudham Santhi, Mani Sukanya, Kuppamuthu Kumaraesan, Vinohar Stephen Rapheal
      Abstract: Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit), Manilkara zapota (sapota), Mangifera indica (mango), Vitis vinifera (grapes), Citrus sinensis (orange) and Syzygium cumini (jambul) seeds were selected to evaluate the in vitro invertase inhibitory activity. M. zapota (shake flask method: 98.7%) and A. heterophyllus (shake flask method: 35.6%) seeds recorded the highest and lowest in vitro invertase inhibitory activity, respectively. The two‐dimensional thin‐layer chromatography and two‐dimensional preparative thin‐layer chromatography (2D PTLC) analyses have demonstrated the presence of polyphenols in M. zapota and A. heterophyllus seeds. The 2D PTLC eluate of M. zapota has recorded a significant invertase inhibitory activity. Liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry photo diode array analysis of M. zapota has exhibited the presence of four different polyphenols such as benzoyl hexosyl methyl luteolin sulfate (m/z 662.1), 6C/8C hexosyl, 6C/8C pentosyl apigenin (m/z 568), one unknown carboxylated flavonol glycoside (m/z 484.7) and one unknown flavone derivative (m/z 473.8). Practical Applications The fruits of Manilkara zapota and Artocarpus heterophyllus have been consumed for their sweet delicious nature by most Asian community. Ethnobotanically, many parts of the above said species have been taken orally to treat various ailments. In the current scenario, appropriate food formulation as a health mix may be tried along with the seeds of M. zapota and/or A. heterophyllus to have a balanced glycemic control in the biological system.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T04:07:42.729367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12157
  • Anti‐Inflammatory and Gastroprotective Activities of Cudrania
           Tricuspidata Leaf Extract Against Acute HCl/Ethanol‐Induced Gastric
           Mucosal Injury in Sprague‐Dawley Rats
    • Abstract: We investigated the inhibitory effect of Cudrania tricuspidata ethanol 10% extract (CTL10) on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in Sprague‐Dawley rats. After oral administration of CTL10 (100 or 300 mg/kg) for 7 days, acute gastric inflammation was induced by 70% ethanol and 0.15 M HCl. After 1 h of ethanol administration, the animals were sacrificed. Pretreatment with CTL10 showed attenuation of gastric mucosal injury, hemorrhages and gastric juice secretion induced by ethanol administration. Oral administration of CTL10 significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Additionally, pretreatment with 300 mg/kg CTL10 significantly decreased the expression of nuclear factor‐κB, cyclooxygenase‐2, interferon‐γ, interleukin‐6 and tumor necrosis factor‐α compared with the gastric inflammation group. Based on this study, CTL10 may be considered a potential agent to control acute gastric inflammation induced by alcohol through the antioxidative effect of CTL10. Practical Applications Ethanol directly and dose‐dependently impairs the gastric mucosal barrier, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol‐induced gastric inflammation remain incompletely understood. However, there is evidence that free radical production and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute gastric inflammation by ethanol. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Cudrania tricuspidata ethanol 10% extract (CTL10) on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in Sprague‐Dawley (SD) rats. We found that CTL10 has inhibitory effects on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in SD rats. Although the exact mechanism underlying these effects is unclear, the effects on acute gastric inflammation suggest a mechanism involving the antioxidant properties of C. tricuspidata. C. tricuspidata may be a new alternative for the clinical management of gastric inflammation while serving as an antioxidant against oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:32:27.57397-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12149
  • Antioxidant, Anti‐Inflammatory, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and
           Antimicrobial Activities of Turkish Endemic Centaurea antiochia var.
    • Abstract: The antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of extract from the Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss. & Bal.) Wagenitz, an endemic plant species from Turkey, were investigated. The results indicated that the extract inhibits FeCl3/ascorbic acid‐induced phosphatidylcholine liposome oxidation, scavenges stable 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radicals, and reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extract inhibited AChE and both cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and COX‐2, which suggests this species might be a potential source of plant‐derived anti‐inflammatory and anti‐AChE substances. The extract may also act as an antimicrobial agent because it inhibited the growth of Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria as well as yeast. These findings may scientifically explain some uses of this species in Turkish folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory and wound healing agent. Practical Applications The Centaurea species are known by the vernacular name “peygamber çiçeği” in Turkish folk medicine. Ethnobotanical reports indicate the Centaurea species have antidiabetic, anti‐inflammatory, wound healing, digestive, stomachic, diuretic, astringent, hypotensive, antipyretic, laxative, analgesic, tonic, hemostatic and antibacterial properties. Considering the important role oxidative stress and inflammation play in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, C. antiochia var. praealta may be used as a medicinal plant to treat Alzheimer's disease. This study also confirms the efficacy of this plant as a natural antimicrobial agent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:32:06.768578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12143
  • Inhibition of Bigeye Snapper (Priacanthus Macracanthus) Proteinases by
           Trypsin Inhibitor from Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacores) Roe
    • Authors: Sappasith Klomklao; Soottawat Benjakul, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Abstract: The inhibitory effect of partially purified trypsin inhibitor from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) roe (TIYTR) on proteolysis of bigeye snapper (Priacanthus macracanthus) proteinases was investigated. TIYTR inhibited sarcoplasmic proteinases and autolysis of bigeye snapper mince and its washed mince at 60C in a concentration‐dependent manner. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) in the mince and the washed mince of bigeye snapper was better retained when higher concentrations of TIYTR were used. The presence of NaCl (3.0% w/w) slightly enhanced the inhibitory activity of TIYTR (3.5–5.8%). Both TIYTR and beef plasma protein (at a level of incorporation of 3% w/w) showed higher inhibition of bigeye snapper proteinases than egg white (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T03:09:21.56611-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12148
  • Extraction of Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage by Ultrasonic and Conventional
           Methods: Optimization and Evaluation
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the optimization of conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasonic extraction (UE) conditions of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) anthocyanins using response surface methodology. The results showed that the highest anthocyanin content of red cabbage anthocyanin extracts was obtained at 40C, with an extraction time of 75 min and ethanol concentration of 42.39% at a fixed solid–liquid ratio (1:3 w/v) for CE and UE. However, it has been determined that ultrasonic application provides 11.92% more anthocyanin extraction in comparison with CE. Thus, anthocyanin degradation that occurs due to high temperature application can be prevented and extraction can be carried out in one stage extraction using less solvent. In conclusion, it has been determined that ultrasonic application is superior to conventional application when used in moderate conditions (temperature‐solvent concentration) for anthocyanin extraction purposes. Practical Applications Nowadays, studies on extraction of anthocyanins from fruit and vegetables that contain high amounts of anthocyanins and utilization of these extracts in food industry are of interest. Extraction of anthocyanins is time‐consuming and inefficient, and higher extraction temperatures cause the degradation of anthocyanins. Therefore, it is a key focus to develop new extraction methods with faster extraction rates and higher yields in anthocyanin extraction. The results are important for the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method and the optimized conditions could be successfully employed by the nutraceutical and food industry to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage. Extraction can be carried out in a single extraction step by using less solvent and it will have significant contributions, especially for industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:57:41.236865-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12153
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