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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 279 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (12 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (62 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (205 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review     Open Access  
International innovation. Food and agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Food Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access  
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 27]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1610 journals]
  • Growth Inhibition and Cytotoxicity in Human Lung and Cervical Cancer Cell
           Lines and Glutathione S‐Transferase Inhibitory Activity of Selected
           Sri Lankan Traditional Red Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Brans
    • Authors: W.K.S.M. Abeysekera; G.A.S. Premakumara, Ahsana Dar, M. Iqbal Choudhary, W.D. Ratnasooriya, Muhammad Kashif, C. Mudassar, S.R. Ali, N.V. Chandrasekharan
      Abstract: Extracts, fractions and gastrointestinal‐resistant protein hydrolysates (GRPH) from rice bran (RB) of four Sri Lankan traditional varieties were studied for growth inhibition (GI) and cytotoxicity against human lung cancer (NCI‐H460), cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines and effect on glutathione S‐transferase (GST) in vitro. RB extracts showed significantly high (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-29T00:05:33.139041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12162
       
  • The Effect of Cultivar and Ripening on Antioxidant System and PAL Activity
           of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Grown in Tunisia
    • Authors: Jalila Bekir; Jalloul Bouajila, Mohamed Mars
      Abstract: In this study, attempts were made to evaluate and to compare antioxidative defense system of three pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) (Chetoui, Gabsi and Garsi) at three ripening stages (UR, HR and FR). We report, for the first time, a decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and PAL activities from UR to FR stages for all pomegranate cultivars, whereas glutathione reductase activity increased gradually and significantly. The highest phenolics and ascorbic acid contents were detected in UR fruits but anthocyanins and tannin contents varied greatly within cultivars. Using the DPPH assay, the free radical‐scavenging activity of Garsi cultivar decreased significantly from UR to HR stages and finally increased in ripe fruit arils, whereas it decreases continuously during ripening of Chetoui and Gabsi cultivars. Significant correlations were detected between enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Statistical analyses showed that stage and cultivar factors influenced significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T03:02:03.283919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12159
       
  • Purification, Dynamic Changes and Antioxidant Activities of Oleuropein in
           Olive (Olea Europaea L.) Leaves
    • Authors: Wu Zun‐Qiu; Yue Gui‐Zhou, Zhu Qing‐Ping, Jiang You‐Jun, Tang Kai‐Yu, Chen Hua‐Ping, Yang Ze‐Shen, Huang Qian‐Ming
      Abstract: Oleuropein was extracted from olive leaves by ultrasonic‐assisted method and purified by silica gel column chromatography. The sample was identified as oleuropein by UV, infrared, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis. Oleuropein and total phenolic contents over a year were determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography and Folin–Ciocalteu methods. The results showed that 13.52% of pure oleuropein was found with a high purity of 96.54% and purification efficiency of 78.49%. Oleuropein and total phenolic contents of different olive varieties were quite different, but both had similar trends over the year. Five methods, including DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), ABST (2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), ferric reducing antioxidant power, total reducing power and nitrite‐scavenging ability, were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of oleuropein, and the IC50 were 34.54 ± 0.14 μg/mL, 18.79 ± 0.82 μg/mL, 75.32 ± 1.83 μg/mL, 13.80 ± 0.68 μg/mL and 1.00 ± 0.08 mg/mL, respectively. Practical Applications This study provides information on the changes in contents including oleuropein and total phenolics in a year to help understand the relationship between content of oleuropein and various influencing factors. Currently, the metabolic pathways of oleuropein are not clear. These results provide information for the study of the metabolism of phenolic compounds in olive and promote research at the molecular level. Oleuropein occupies a large proportion of total polyphenols in olive and can be to be purified by silica gel column chromatography with high purification efficiency for industrial production and laboratory production. In addition, the comprehensive evaluation of activity in vitro shows that oleuropein is more useful than BHT (2,6‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐methylphenol) for the application in food and human health.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T04:13:07.239933-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12152
       
  • Effect of Extraction and Processing Conditions on Organic Acids of
           Barberry Fruits
    • Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani; Mohammad Ali Sahari, Mohsen Barzegar
      Abstract: The bioactive compounds of barberry such as organic acids are widely used in medical and food industries. The effects of extraction and processing conditions including varieties (B. integerrima: A, B. vulgaris: P), solvents (water: W, ethanol: E), light (presence: L or absence: T), pH (3 and 1.5), temperatures (25 and 50C), processes of heating (at 95 and 80C), chilling (ref. 1 and 2 months), freezing (con), microwave (mic) and gamma irradiation (at doses of 0.5–10 kGy) on organic acid profile were studied. The highest (acetic, malic and ascorbic) and lowest (fumaric) amounts (mg/100g extract) of organic acids in extraction conditions were as follows: acetic in AWT325 (23,124.53 ± 747.33), malic in PET1.525 (21,035.18 ± 21.05), ascorbic in AET350 (19,796.20 ± 104.44) and fumaric in PWL325 (62.30 ± 0.45). The highest and lowest amounts of organic acids in processing conditions were as follows, respectively: acetic (Amic 17,915.07 ± 164.38) and fumaric (Acon 38.84 ± 1.44). Practical Applications The Berberis vulgaris fruit is useful as tonic for liver and heart; it prevents chronic bleeding; reduces mucus, triglycerides, cholesterol and blood pressure; and also purifies the blood. It is effective in the treatment of gallbladder, bleeding hemorrhoids, antiparasitic liver, diabetes, gout, kidney stones, colon cancer, prostate inflammation, malaria, fever, asthma and neurological diseases. Owing to its color and mellow taste B. vulgaris fruit is used as a seasoning in Persian food. Barberry fruits are used in preparing sauces, jellies, carbonated drinks, candies, food color powders, jams, marmalades, chocolates and nectars. B. integerrima fruits are used to prepare juices. The use of barberry fruit as a natural food colorant rich in anthocyanins instead of harmful artificial ones was studied by researchers. In addition, barberry fruits contain polyphenols with beneficial antioxidant activities that reduce damages due to free radicals and prevent chronic diseases and cancers.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T01:56:30.306578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12158
       
  • Potential Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Hepatoprotective Effects of
           Crataegus Meyeri
    • Authors: Cennet Ozay; Ramazan Mammadov, Gulten Tasdelen, Ege Riza Karagur, Hakan Akca
      Abstract: In this study, the potential antioxidant, antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effects of Crataegus meyeri Pojark. were investigated. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic flower extracts was evaluated by using DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) and β‐carotene–linoleic acid assays. Total phenolic contents were also measured. The results obtained showed that C. meyeri can act as a high radical scavenger reaching 88.67%. In vitro antiproliferative activity for the same extracts was determined by MTT [3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay against PC3 and PC14 cells. The extracts of the plant at concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.25% were administered orally to the three experimental groups, including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, and blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and GGT (gamma‐glutamyltransferase). In biochemical assay, a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST was found in the experimental groups. Practical Applications The antioxidant activity studies on Crataegus species have exhibited that these species possess considerable antioxidant potential because of their polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and procyanidines. In this study, the findings are consistent with these observations. However, our results also demonstrated that C. meyeri exerts a protective effect against partial hepatectomy‐induced liver injury in rats and could provide a new potential approach to inhibit the proliferation of human non‐small cell lung cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:19:57.471646-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12161
       
  • Effects of Clarification and Pasteurization on the Phenolics, Antioxidant
           Capacity, Color Density and Polymeric Color of Black Carrot (Daucus
           Carota L.) Juice
    • Authors: Ufuk Dereli; Meltem Türkyilmaz, Oktay Yemiş, Mehmet Özkan
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of clarification and pasteurization on the total phenolic (TP) contents, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) values of black carrot juices (BCJs). The effects of the phenolic compounds on the color density (CD) and polymeric color values were also evaluated. Depectinization (13 and 59%) and pasteurization (1.1‐ and 2.3‐fold) treatments led to increases in the TP and HCA contents in the BCJ, and bentonite (10 and 7%) and gelatin–kieselsol (25 and 29%) treatments led to reductions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) was identified as the major HCA by high‐performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. There were strong correlations between the AOC values with the TP and HCA contents (r = 0.750–0.996). Additionally, there were significant effects from the ratios of anthocyanins (ACN) to HCAs and ACN to CGA on the degree of polymerization. Because of the increased TP and HCA contents with AOC and CD values, depectinization and pasteurization were recommended for BCJ production. Practical Applications There is great interest in black carrot juice (BCJ) because of its high antioxidant capacity and intense color. After pressing, BCJ should be depectinized to produce juice with a high antioxidant capacity. To produce BCJ with an intense color, the depectinized juice should be clarified with bentonite. Gelatin and kieselsol led to a substantial reduction in color. To produce clear BCJ, clarification should include bentonite in addition to gelatin and kieselsol. However, the gelatin and kieselsol dosages should be carefully determined.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:18:27.85545-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12155
       
  • Phenolic Extract from Propolis and Bee Pollen: Composition, Antioxidant
           and Antibacterial Activities
    • Authors: Adel A.A. Mohdaly; Awad A. Mahmoud, Mohamed H.H. Roby, Iryna Smetanska, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
      Abstract: Bee products (e.g., propolis and bee pollen) are traditional healthy foods. In this study, antioxidant properties and in vitro antibacterial activity of honeybee pollen and propolis methanol extracts were determined. Propolis with higher phenolic content showed significant greater activity over pollen extracts. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and p‐coumaric acid were detected as main phenolic compounds in propolis extract. 3,4‐Dimethoxycinnamic acid was the major phenolic component in pollen extract. Propolis extract (5 μg/mL) exhibited 28% antiradical action against 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The scavenging activity of propolis and pollen extracts against 2,2′‐Azinobis (3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6 sulfonic acid) (ABTS) reached a maximum of 94.3 and 76.5%, respectively, at an extract concentration of 25 μg/mL. Stabilization factor of propolis extract was 13.7, while it was 6 for pollen. Results revealed that both extracts showed highly antibacterial action against gram‐positive bacteria with a minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/mL. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing elevated antibacterial activity against gram‐negative bacteria Salmonella enterica. Practical Applications Besides their potential pharmaceutical use, propolis and pollen could be efficient protective agents for use as natural antioxidant and antibacterial additives in food systems. It has been observed that the biological activities of propolis and pollen depend on their chemical composition, which, in turn, depends on geographical diversity and the genetic variety of the queens. On the basis of the present study, propolis extract showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities compared with the pollen extract. This may be due to its higher amounts in caffeic, ferulic and p‐coumaric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report comparing the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Egyptian bee pollen and propolis extracts and their chemical constituents.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:18:08.011477-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12160
       
  • Evaluation of In Vitro Invertase Inhibitory Activity of Manilkara zapota
           Seeds – A Novel Strategy to Manage Diabetes Mellitus
    • Authors: Thiyagarajan Sathishkumar; Srinivasan Anitha, Rajakumar Esther Sharon, Velayudham Santhi, Mani Sukanya, Kuppamuthu Kumaraesan, Vinohar Stephen Rapheal
      Abstract: Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit), Manilkara zapota (sapota), Mangifera indica (mango), Vitis vinifera (grapes), Citrus sinensis (orange) and Syzygium cumini (jambul) seeds were selected to evaluate the in vitro invertase inhibitory activity. M. zapota (shake flask method: 98.7%) and A. heterophyllus (shake flask method: 35.6%) seeds recorded the highest and lowest in vitro invertase inhibitory activity, respectively. The two‐dimensional thin‐layer chromatography and two‐dimensional preparative thin‐layer chromatography (2D PTLC) analyses have demonstrated the presence of polyphenols in M. zapota and A. heterophyllus seeds. The 2D PTLC eluate of M. zapota has recorded a significant invertase inhibitory activity. Liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry photo diode array analysis of M. zapota has exhibited the presence of four different polyphenols such as benzoyl hexosyl methyl luteolin sulfate (m/z 662.1), 6C/8C hexosyl, 6C/8C pentosyl apigenin (m/z 568), one unknown carboxylated flavonol glycoside (m/z 484.7) and one unknown flavone derivative (m/z 473.8). Practical Applications The fruits of Manilkara zapota and Artocarpus heterophyllus have been consumed for their sweet delicious nature by most Asian community. Ethnobotanically, many parts of the above said species have been taken orally to treat various ailments. In the current scenario, appropriate food formulation as a health mix may be tried along with the seeds of M. zapota and/or A. heterophyllus to have a balanced glycemic control in the biological system.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T04:07:42.729367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12157
       
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:42:13.070693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12075
       
  • Anti‐Inflammatory and Gastroprotective Activities of Cudrania
           Tricuspidata Leaf Extract Against Acute HCl/Ethanol‐Induced Gastric
           Mucosal Injury in Sprague‐Dawley Rats
    • Authors: Ok‐Kyung Kim; Da‐Eun Nam, Woojin Jun, Jeongmin Lee
      Abstract: We investigated the inhibitory effect of Cudrania tricuspidata ethanol 10% extract (CTL10) on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in Sprague‐Dawley rats. After oral administration of CTL10 (100 or 300 mg/kg) for 7 days, acute gastric inflammation was induced by 70% ethanol and 0.15 M HCl. After 1 h of ethanol administration, the animals were sacrificed. Pretreatment with CTL10 showed attenuation of gastric mucosal injury, hemorrhages and gastric juice secretion induced by ethanol administration. Oral administration of CTL10 significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Additionally, pretreatment with 300 mg/kg CTL10 significantly decreased the expression of nuclear factor‐κB, cyclooxygenase‐2, interferon‐γ, interleukin‐6 and tumor necrosis factor‐α compared with the gastric inflammation group. Based on this study, CTL10 may be considered a potential agent to control acute gastric inflammation induced by alcohol through the antioxidative effect of CTL10. Practical Applications Ethanol directly and dose‐dependently impairs the gastric mucosal barrier, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol‐induced gastric inflammation remain incompletely understood. However, there is evidence that free radical production and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute gastric inflammation by ethanol. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Cudrania tricuspidata ethanol 10% extract (CTL10) on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in Sprague‐Dawley (SD) rats. We found that CTL10 has inhibitory effects on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in SD rats. Although the exact mechanism underlying these effects is unclear, the effects on acute gastric inflammation suggest a mechanism involving the antioxidant properties of C. tricuspidata. C. tricuspidata may be a new alternative for the clinical management of gastric inflammation while serving as an antioxidant against oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:32:27.57397-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12149
       
  • Antioxidant, Anti‐Inflammatory, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and
           Antimicrobial Activities of Turkish Endemic Centaurea antiochia var.
           Praealta
    • Authors: Nurten Ozsoy; Sukran Kultur, Tugba Yilmaz‐Ozden, Berna Ozbek Celik, Ayse Can, Gulay Melikoglu
      Abstract: The antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of extract from the Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss. & Bal.) Wagenitz, an endemic plant species from Turkey, were investigated. The results indicated that the extract inhibits FeCl3/ascorbic acid‐induced phosphatidylcholine liposome oxidation, scavenges stable 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radicals, and reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extract inhibited AChE and both cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and COX‐2, which suggests this species might be a potential source of plant‐derived anti‐inflammatory and anti‐AChE substances. The extract may also act as an antimicrobial agent because it inhibited the growth of Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria as well as yeast. These findings may scientifically explain some uses of this species in Turkish folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory and wound healing agent. Practical Applications The Centaurea species are known by the vernacular name “peygamber çiçeği” in Turkish folk medicine. Ethnobotanical reports indicate the Centaurea species have antidiabetic, anti‐inflammatory, wound healing, digestive, stomachic, diuretic, astringent, hypotensive, antipyretic, laxative, analgesic, tonic, hemostatic and antibacterial properties. Considering the important role oxidative stress and inflammation play in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, C. antiochia var. praealta may be used as a medicinal plant to treat Alzheimer's disease. This study also confirms the efficacy of this plant as a natural antimicrobial agent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:32:06.768578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12143
       
  • Inhibition of Bigeye Snapper (Priacanthus Macracanthus) Proteinases by
           Trypsin Inhibitor from Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacores) Roe
    • Authors: Sappasith Klomklao; Soottawat Benjakul, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Abstract: The inhibitory effect of partially purified trypsin inhibitor from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) roe (TIYTR) on proteolysis of bigeye snapper (Priacanthus macracanthus) proteinases was investigated. TIYTR inhibited sarcoplasmic proteinases and autolysis of bigeye snapper mince and its washed mince at 60C in a concentration‐dependent manner. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) in the mince and the washed mince of bigeye snapper was better retained when higher concentrations of TIYTR were used. The presence of NaCl (3.0% w/w) slightly enhanced the inhibitory activity of TIYTR (3.5–5.8%). Both TIYTR and beef plasma protein (at a level of incorporation of 3% w/w) showed higher inhibition of bigeye snapper proteinases than egg white (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T03:09:21.56611-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12148
       
  • In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Selected Legumes Against Pancreatic Lipase
    • Authors: Siew Siew Lee; Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Su Peng Loh
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory potential of seven selected legumes against pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme related to obesity. The samples investigated include chickpea (Cicer arietinum), dhal (Lens culinaris), mung bean (Vigna radiata), red bean (Vigna angularis), black‐eyed pea (Vigna unguiculata), yellow soya bean and black soya bean (Glycine max). The results showed no significant differences between the median inhibition concentration (IC50) values of red bean (5.90 ± 0.59 mg/mL), chickpea (6.30 ± 2.19 mg/mL), black soya bean (6.65 ± 0.62 mg/mL), black‐eyed pea (6.73 ± 1.84 mg/mL) and yellow soya bean (6.97 ± 0.67 mg/mL). Dhal (IC50: 7.94 ± 0.18 mg/mL) and mung bean (IC50: 8.14 ± 0.41 mg/mL) exhibited the least pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and their IC50 values were significantly lower than those of red bean and chickpea (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T20:31:32.770448-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12150
       
  • Extraction of Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage by Ultrasonic and Conventional
           Methods: Optimization and Evaluation
    • Authors: Aslıhan Demirdöven; Kenan Özdoğan, Kader Erdoğan‐Tokatlı
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the optimization of conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasonic extraction (UE) conditions of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) anthocyanins using response surface methodology. The results showed that the highest anthocyanin content of red cabbage anthocyanin extracts was obtained at 40C, with an extraction time of 75 min and ethanol concentration of 42.39% at a fixed solid–liquid ratio (1:3 w/v) for CE and UE. However, it has been determined that ultrasonic application provides 11.92% more anthocyanin extraction in comparison with CE. Thus, anthocyanin degradation that occurs due to high temperature application can be prevented and extraction can be carried out in one stage extraction using less solvent. In conclusion, it has been determined that ultrasonic application is superior to conventional application when used in moderate conditions (temperature‐solvent concentration) for anthocyanin extraction purposes. Practical Applications Nowadays, studies on extraction of anthocyanins from fruit and vegetables that contain high amounts of anthocyanins and utilization of these extracts in food industry are of interest. Extraction of anthocyanins is time‐consuming and inefficient, and higher extraction temperatures cause the degradation of anthocyanins. Therefore, it is a key focus to develop new extraction methods with faster extraction rates and higher yields in anthocyanin extraction. The results are important for the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method and the optimized conditions could be successfully employed by the nutraceutical and food industry to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage. Extraction can be carried out in a single extraction step by using less solvent and it will have significant contributions, especially for industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:57:41.236865-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12153
       
  • Ramalina Lichens and Their Major Metabolites as Possible Natural
           Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents
    • Authors: Saliha Şahin; Seyhan Oran, Pınar Şahintürk, Cevdet Demir, Şule Öztürk
      Abstract: Three lichen species of Ramalina (R. farinacea, R. fastigiata and R. fraxinea) were examined. Evernic, fumarprotocetraric, lecanoric, stictic and usnic acid levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography‐diode array detection. Acetone, methanol and ethanol were used to examine the efficiencies of different solvent systems for the extraction of lichen acids. The total phenol contents in the extracts were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacities were determined by the ABTS (2,2′‐azino‐bis[3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid]) method. The methanol extracts of the Ramalina species showed the highest antioxidant capacities. Broth microdilution testing was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extracts of the three Ramalina species. The MIC values of all extracts ranged from 64 to 512 μg/mL for all bacterial strains tested in this study. Practical Applications Lichens and their natural products are used worldwide for decorations, brewing and distilling, food, fodder, spice and natural remedies, and in the perfume and dying industries. Lichens produce a large number of phenolic compounds, such as depsides, depsidones and dibenzofurans. Lichens with antioxidant activity have increased abilities to scavenge toxic‐free radicals due to their phenolic groups. In recent years, many lichen substances have been found to have several biological activities. This article evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and lichen acids of three Ramalina species. This is the first study to determine the stictic acid level in a R. farinacea extract and fumarprotocetraric acid and lecanoric acid levels in an R. fastigiata extract. The results of this study will contribute significantly to current knowledge regarding the utility of antimicrobial and antioxidant materials.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T23:59:13.913608-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12142
       
  • HPLC‐DAD System‐Based Phenolic Content Analysis and In Vitro
           Antioxidant Activities of Rice Bran Obtained from Aush Dhan (Oryza Sativa)
           of Bangladesh
    • Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza; Zarin Tasnim Gias, Priota Islam, Sadia Sabnam, Preeti Jain, Md Hemayet Hossain, Md Ashraful Alam
      Abstract: Food fibers are recently gaining interest in the scientific community for their beneficial role in various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Rice bran is an important source of food fibers. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of polyphenolic compounds in rice bran of Aush Dhan and determine the in vitro antioxidant activities in different extracts such as ethanol, ethylacetate and toluene extracts. Various antioxidant assays, including DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content, were studied. Moreover, high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds. The extracts showed effective DPPH free radical, hydrogen peroxide radical and nitric oxide scavenging activities. However, reducing power was not significant compared with the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. Phytochemical analysis shows that rice bran contains reducing sugar, flavonoids and tannins. Furthermore, high‐performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC‐DAD) analysis showed that rice bran contains high amount of rutin hydrate along with epicatechin, which are strong natural antioxidants. These results suggest that rice bran contains high amount of antioxidants, which may be used as a source of polyphenolic compounds and can be used to treat chronic disease. Practical Applications Rice bran is produced every year in an enormous amount in Bangladesh as it is one of the largest producers of rice in the world. Rice bran is used in poultry and cattle farm as animal feed. Recently, it is also used to produce cooking oil and serves as an important ingredient in traditional medicine system in Bangladesh. The assessment of the antioxidant properties, phenolic content and composition of rice bran obtained from Aus Dhan (Oryza sativa) may give insight into their applications in functional foods and nutraceutical development.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T00:00:58.840726-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12154
       
  • Biochemical and Visual Changes in Cactus Stems (Opuntia
           ficus‐indica Mill.) Stored at 4, 12 and 26C
    • Authors: Lizette Liliana Rodríguez‐Verástegui; Juliana Osorio‐Córdoba, Fernando Díaz de León‐Sánchez, Clara Pelayo‐Zaldívar, David Manuel Díaz‐Pontones, Elsa Bosquez‐Molina, Guadalupe Judith Márquez‐Guzmán, Héctor Bernardo Escalona‐Buendía, José Ramón Verde‐Calvo, Laura Josefina Pérez‐Flores
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify visible and microscopic symptoms as well as certain biochemical changes associated with chilling injury (CI) in “Atlixco” cactus stems. Cladodes were harvested, disinfected, minimally processed and stored at 4, 12 and 26C for 14–21 days. Results indicated that cactus stems were sensitive to CI at 4 and 12C and exhibited pitting and bronzing as visible symptoms of this disorder. Confocal microscopy showed that mitochondrial integrity was maintained at 4C whereas a deterioration of these organelles occurred at 12 and 26C. Electrolyte leakage, together with an increase in the levels of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glutathione and the reduced form of ascorbic acid were associated with CI. In spite of the presence of CI at 4C, cactus stems were still able to preserve their taste quality and no adverse effects were observed on either firmness or color for 21 days. Practical Applications Minimally processed products should be refrigerated at ≤4C in order to maintain their quality and prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms. However, the refrigeration of cactus stems at suboptimal temperatures causes the appearance of chilling injury (CI). Previous studies have mentioned the general symptoms of this physiological disorder in cactus stems, but no one has described the symptomatology in detail and there is yet to be reported histological and biochemical characterization that might serve to confirm or diagnose its presence. This study describes the symptoms of CI and provides histological and biochemical indicators for its early identification during storage. It also constitutes the preliminary stage to the future application of postharvest technologies that induce tolerance to CI, preventing browning and preserving the quality of minimally processed cactus stems in order to expand their domestic and international markets.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T00:00:45.722064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12144
       
  • Anti‐Amyloidogenic Properties of Dryopteris Crassirhizoma Roots in
           Alzheimer's Disease Cellular Model
    • Authors: Jae‐Moon Kim; Kwang Woo Hwang, Hwan‐Bin Joo, So‐Young Park
      Abstract: The inhibitory effects of Dryopteris crassirhizoma roots on Aβ production, which is one of the major causes of Alzheimer's disease, were investigated as they have not been studied at all. The methanol extract of D. crassirhizoma roots significantly reduced the production of Aβ in Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells overexpressing amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). This reduction was more pronounced with the butanol layer of D. crassirhizoma roots, which is partitioned based on solvent polarity. In addition, reduced production of Aβ by D. crassirhizoma roots was accompanied with increased production of sAPPβ, which is a proteolytic fragment of APP by β‐secretases. The expression of β‐secretases was also decreased by treatment with D. crassirhizoma roots. Furthermore, the amount of CTFα, a proteolytic fragment of APP by α‐secretases, is significantly increased by D. crassirhizoma roots. These results indicate that D. crassirhizoma roots efficiently decreased Aβ production by inhibiting β‐secretases and increasing α‐secretases. Practical Applications Dryopteris crassirhizoma roots efficiently reduced Aβ production. Therefore, D. crassirhizoma has the potential to be developed into an anti‐Aβ agent, which may have beneficial effects for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T04:01:33.101942-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12156
       
  • Physicochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Two Phenotypes of Galega
           Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala cv. Galega)
    • Authors: Jorge Armesto; Javier Carballo, Sidonia Martínez
      Abstract: Some quality attributes of two traditional phenotypes (curly and smooth) of Brassica oleracea var. acephala cv. Galega were examined. The analyses showed that both varieties had high contents of total phenolics (314.83–322.25 GAE mg/100 g), vitamin C (83.83–104.44 mg/100 g) and chlorophyll (142–160 mg/100 g), and both displayed high antioxidant capacity (EC50 = 4.24–4.76). Comparison of the varieties revealed lower vitamin C and chlorophyll contents and higher lightness, yellowness and color saturation values in whole curly kale than in whole smooth kale. The soluble solids, total phenolics, vitamin C and chlorophyll contents and the antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in leaves than in stems of both varieties. However, pH, moisture content, lightness, greenness, yellowness and color saturation values were higher in stems than in leaves. Practical Applications The study demonstrates that the Galega kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cv. Galega) has a high antioxidant capacity and high contents of phenolics, vitamin C and chlorophyll. The findings clearly show the high potential value of Galega kale as a source of natural antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T04:00:35.846187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12151
       
  • Extraction and Biochemical Characterization of Peptidases from Giant
           Catfish Viscera by Aqueous Two‐Phase System
    • Authors: Sunantha Ketnawa; Oscar Martinez‐Alvarez, Soottawat Benjakul, Saroat Rawdkuen
      Abstract: Peptidases were extracted from the viscera of farmed giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas) in an aqueous two‐phase system (ATPS) of 15% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG‐2000) and 15% (w/w) sodium citrate. The recovery of the enzymes was 273% with 12‐fold purification. Protein pattern, activity and inhibitory staining confirmed that the proteins with molecular weights of 12 and 31 kDa were a mixture of proteolytic enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were 8.0 and 70C, respectively. Besides, it retained more than 50% of activity at the highest salt concentration (30% w/v). The enzyme was strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitors (>80% inhibition), while low inhibition with cysteine‐, aspartic‐ and metallo‐protease inhibitors (
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T01:05:47.59649-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12145
       
  • Varietal Differences in the Antioxidative Properties of Soybean [Glycine
           Max (L.) Merr.] Seeds
    • Authors: D. Easwar Rao; K.V. Chaitanya
      Abstract: The antioxidant defense system in the seeds of 18 different soybean varieties was evaluated by studying the concentrations of total antioxidants, ascorbate, glutathione, α‐tocopherol, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7) were also investigated in soybean seeds along with the concentrations of H2O2 and the lipid peroxidation (LP) rates were determined. Observations made in this study suggest that soybean seeds possess strong antioxidative defense system necessary for successfully ameliorating the toxicity of reactive oxygen species, and the varieties ADB‐22, NRC‐37 and LSB‐1 have better antioxidative defense properties than other varieties, which will also enhance their nutritive values. Practical Applications Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important legume crop, cultivated for its protein, edible oil and antioxidants. The rich nutraceutical constituents of soybean that have been isolated in earlier investigations are attributed to their protective properties against cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of total antioxidant content, lipid peroxidation rates and secondary metabolites in the seeds of 18 different soybean varieties grown in India, which can be used for the identification of superior varieties with respect to its antioxidant properties for their consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T00:49:54.264979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12136
       
  • Anti‐Diabetic and Anti‐Inflammatory Potential of the Edible
           Brown Alga Hizikia Fusiformis
    • Authors: Yu Ran Han; Md. Yousof Ali, Mi‐Hee Woo, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
      Abstract: Hizikia fusiformis, an edible brown alga, is found abundantly in Korea, Japan and China. We investigated the methanolic (MeOH) extract of H. fusiformis and its different fractions for anti‐diabetic and anti‐inflammatory activity. Of these, the CH2Cl2 and EtOAc fractions exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities against ONOO− free radicals, PTP1B and α‐glucosidase. Repeated column chromatography based on bioactivity‐guided fractionation yielded fucosterol and fucoxanthin from the CH2Cl2 fraction and these two compounds inhibited tyrosine nitration in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, the CH2Cl2 fraction inhibited nitric oxide production and significantly suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, whereas the EtOAc fraction effectively inhibited t‐butyl hydroperoxide (t‐BHP)‐induced generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. The results demonstrate the potential anti‐diabetic and anti‐inflammatory activities of H. fusiformis. Practical Applications Hizikia fusiformis has been used as a health food for hundreds of years in northwest Pacific areas. It is well known for its distinctive flavor and high content of calcium, vitamin A, inorganic salt, iodine and dietary fiber, all of which enable prevention of various diseases including diabetes, high blood pressure, colorectal cancer, constipation, thyroid cancer and beriberi. Modern research has suggested its potential for treatment of arteriosclerosis and osteoporosis. The findings of this study demonstrate the anti‐diabetic and anti‐inflammatory activities of the methanolic (MeOH) extracts of H. fusiformis and supports use of this seaweed as a functional food and a potential anti‐diabetic.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T00:47:32.884353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12138
       
  • The Relative Contributions of Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin to Antioxidant
           Activities of Two Endemic Prangos (Umbelliferae) Species (P. Heynia
           and P. Denticulata)
    • Authors: Feyza Oke‐Altuntas; Belma Aslim, Hayri Duman, Ali Rifat Gulpinar, Murat Kartal
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the metal chelating, radical‐scavenging and anti‐lipid peroxidative properties and the chlorogenic acid/rutin contents of two endemic Prangos species; Prangos heyniae H. Duman & M. F. Watson and Prangos denticulata Fisch. & Mey. According to high‐performance liquid chromatography analysis, the highest rutin and chlorogenic acid contents were found in P. denticulata leaf methanol extract (33.6 ± 2.8 μg/mg extract) and P. heyniae leaf methanol extract (24.8 ± 0.2 μg/mg extract), respectively. The water and methanol extracts of the species showed high scavenging abilities and significant capacities to suppress lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrated that chlorogenic acid may be an important component in the antioxidant activities of these Prangos species. Practical Applications Prangos Lindl. (Umbelliferae) species are known as “Çakşir otu” in Turkey and used to make herbed cheese to give the desired aroma and taste. Young shoots of Prangos species are used as boiled vegetables and pickles. Prangos species have been used in folk medicine as emulient, carminative, to stop bleeding and heal the scars. The results demonstrated that the extracts of two Prangos species exhibited good antioxidant activity, which correlated with high polyphenol content. Therefore, they may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food supplementation or development of nutraceuticals.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T00:47:11.910865-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12137
       
  • Comprehensive Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Volatile Compounds
           of Sudanese Honeys
    • Authors: Haroon Elrasheid Tahir; Zou Xiaobo, Li Zhihua, Zhu Yaodi
      Abstract: Honey samples were collected from different floral and geographical origins. The total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, antioxidant contents, FRAP/DPPH (ferric reducing antioxidant power/1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazy) assays and the color characteristics were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey samples exhibited high radical‐scavenging activity (DPPH%) ranging from 50.41 ± 0.8 to 70.5 ± 0.9%, FRAP from 556.9 ± 15.0 to 1,340.2 ± 8.7 mM and phenolic from 79.4 ± 1.9 to −232.7 ± 0.2 mg GAE/100 g. The volatiles were identified by means of solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, terpenes, phenols and hydrocarbon represented the most abundant compounds in honeys among the 69 volatile components identified. Correlation between phytochemical and antioxidant assay parameters was found to be statistically significant (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:37:55.410139-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12135
       
  • Antidiabetic Potential of Hydro‐Alcoholic Extract of Moringa
           Peregrina Leaves: Implication as Functional Food for Prophylactic
           Intervention in Prediabetic Stage
    • Authors: Mohammad Fahad Ullah; Showket H. Bhat, Faisel M. Abuduhier
      Abstract: In recent years, the herbal and dietary sources of bioactive components having pharmacological properties and therapeutic significance in traditional system of medicine have attracted much attention in complementary and adjuvant therapies. Some preclinical studies on animal models have shown benefits of Moringa species such as M. oleifera in experimentally induced diabetes. Most of these studies have taken the anti‐hyperglycemic effect as the end‐point indicator of antidiabetic properties. The present study has explored the antidiabetic potential of M. peregrina, another species of Moringa, native to Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The hydro‐alcoholic (methanol‐aqueous) extract of the dried leaves of the plant demonstrated inhibitory activity against three in vitro models of enzyme assay (α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV) critical for diabetes management. The antioxidant property was also evaluated which correlated with the phytochemical analysis of the extracts displaying the presence of phenolics, tannins and saponins. These findings provide partial evidence to support the traditional use of Moringa in diabetes and endorse its regular consumption as functional food for high‐risk populations at the borderline prediabetic stage. Practical Applications M. peregrina is commonly consumed as food and serves as an important ingredient in traditional medicine in Arabian peninsula. The assessment of the antidiabetic potential of the plant provides an insight into its application as functional food and in nutraceutical development for prophylactic intervention in hyperglycemic conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:06:21.295018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12140
       
  • Purification and Characterization of Trypsin from Hepatopancreas of
           Pacific White Shrimp
    • Authors: Theeraphol Senphan; Soottawat Benjakul, Hideki Kishimura
      Abstract: Trypsin from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and a series of chromatographies including diethylaminoethyl sepharose and soybean trypsin inhibitor sepharose 4B columns. Trypsin was purified to 50.4‐fold with a yield of 13.7%. Based on native‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), the purified trypsin showed a single band. Trypsin had a molecular weight of 24 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate‐PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature for α‐N‐benzoyl‐dl‐arginine‐p‐nitroanilide (BAPNA) hydrolysis were 8.0 and 60C, respectively. Trypsin was stable to heat treatment up to 60C and over a pH range of 7.0–11.0. The activity was strongly inhibited by soybean N‐ρ‐tosyl‐L‐lysine chloromethyl ketone. Purified trypsin had Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) and catalytic constant (kcat) of 1.60 mM and 3.33 s−1, respectively, when BAPNA was used as the substrate. Trypsin with high kcat indicated its high capacity of hydrolysis and it could serve as a promising protease. Practical Applications Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas generally serves as a major source of proteases, especially trypsin and chymotrypsin, which can be used as an alternative food processing aid. Proteases in the hepatopancreas can be recovered and further used, in which the cost of commercially available proteases can be reduced. Furthermore, the by‐product can be better exploited and the extracted proteases can increase the revenues for the shrimp processor.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:05:50.19288-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12147
       
  • Hydrolysis as a Valorization Strategy for Unused Marine Food Biomass:
           Boarfish and Small‐Spotted Catshark Discards and By‐Products
    • Authors: M. Blanco; C.G. Sotelo, R.I. Pérez‐Martín
      Abstract: Discarded fish represent a serious obstacle to the sustainability of fisheries. The main outcome of analyses on the impact of discarding has been the implementation of a zero‐discard policy in EU (European Union) waters. One concern in implementing this policy is finding alternatives to help fishers alleviate the costs of nondiscarding. Boarfish and small‐spotted catshark are frequently discarded along the Northwest Coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Boarfish protein hydrolysates (BPHs) were prepared using a pancreas crude extract (PCE) from small‐spotted catshark and compared with those prepared with commercial proteases. BPH prepared with PCE and commercial trypsin contained more protein than alcalase hydrolysates; however, the latter showed greater solubility. Emulsifying and foaming properties were higher when using bovine trypsin, followed by PCE. Antioxidant activities were similar. Fish by‐products or fish with low flesh yields, usually wasted, contain valuable compounds that could be employed to obtain value‐added products such as fish protein hydrolysates. Practical Applications This manuscript addresses the problem of underutilized marine biomass: discards and byproducts from boarfish (Capros aper) and small‐spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). These species are frequently discarded or used for low‐value processes. One of the main challenges that face the objective of bycatch and discard reduction is finding alternatives that help the fishing industry overcome the costs associated with landing captures. Fish protein hydrolysates have many different potential applications and this manuscript suggests a selection of them, such as utilization as a food or feed ingredient.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:05:35.853518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12141
       
  • Assessment of the Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Three
           Species of Edible Seaweeds
    • Authors: Catherine Boisvert; Lucie Beaulieu, Claudie Bonnet, Émilien Pelletier
      Abstract: Extraction of secondary metabolites from St. Lawrence Estuary edible seaweeds – Saccharina longicruris, Ascophyllum nodosum and Ulva lactuca – was carried out by pressurized liquid extraction using ethanol. The antioxidant potential of extracts was evaluated through DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and the antibacterial activity was tested against food spoilage bacteria: Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus and Brochothrix thermosphacta. Of all seaweed extracts, A. nodosum exhibited the highest phenolic and carotenoid contents, 50.2 mg GAE/g and 85 μg/g, respectively. A. nodosum also displayed the best DPPH scavenging activity, EC50 10.4 μg/mL, and best capacity to reduce ferric ion, 677.2 μmol TE/g dry weight at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. U. lactuca extracts showed the highest growth inhibition of E. coli, 69.5%; M. luteus, 61.4%; and B. thermosphacta, 21.4%. These findings suggest a high potential of St. Lawrence Estuary seaweed extracts for application in the food industry. Practical Applications Food producers, food industries, governments and consumers are aware of the importance to look into effective preventive measures in food quality and food safety fields. The decay of foods is caused by physical, chemical and biological factors, which leads to the loss of the organoleptic characteristics and consumer safety. Natural extracts combining both antioxidant and antibacterial activities can be used for further applications in reducing food spoilage and prolonging food shelf life. The majority of natural extracts could be approved as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). St. Lawrence Estuary seaweed extracts possess high potential for application in the food industry using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, which was selected for extraction efficiency purposes. In addition, production of seaweeds extracts using approved food‐grade ethanol solvent by PLE method involves, on an industrial scale, cost savings.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:03:21.474046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12146
       
  • Peptide Aggregation during Plastein Reaction Enhanced Bile
           Acid‐Binding Capacity of Enzymatic Chicken Meat Hydrolysates
    • Authors: Chibuike C. Udenigwe; Aishwarya Mohan, Sihong Wu
      Abstract: Plastein, a product of protease‐induced peptide aggregation, was formed from chicken meat hydrolysates (CMHs) produced with Alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin. Plastein reaction resulted in increased surface hydrophobicity, except for the Alcalase reaction, possibly due to clustering of aggregating hydrophobic peptides. The protease‐induced process resulted in increased capacity of CMH to bind primary, secondary and conjugated bile acids. Although the CMH had similar amino acid compositions, pancreatin hydrolysates and the resulting plastein yielded the highest binding capacity, followed by bromelain. This indicates that factors other than the total hydrophobic amino acid residues, such as surface hydrophobicity, would have contributed to bile acid binding. CMH plastein samples bound more trihydroxyl than dihydroxyl bile acids, which is the opposite of the activity of cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant. The findings will promote the design of peptide‐based bile acid‐binding resins from protease‐treated meat products for regulating endogenous lipid levels during hyperlipidemia. Practical Applications Hydrophobic amino acid residues of hydrolysates and peptides are thought to be crucial for bile acid binding. The findings from this study demonstrate that hydrolysates with similar hydrophobic amino acid composition have significantly different activities, and that protease‐induced peptide aggregation can be used to enhance bile acid‐binding capacity. This process can be explored for use in the recovery of meat proteins for the development of peptide‐based nutraceutical resins for the management of hyperlipidemia in humans.
      PubDate: 2015-04-27T04:07:34.713371-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12139
       
  • Three Pathways Assess Anti‐Inflammatory Response of Epicatechin with
           Lipopolysaccharide‐Mediated Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells
    • Authors: Deng‐Jye Yang; Shih‐Chuan Liu, Yi‐Chen Chen, Shih‐Han Hsu, Yu‐Pei Chang, Jau‐Tien Lin
      Abstract: The inhibitory effects of epicatechin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced production of pro‐inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells were estimated in the study. The results show that epicatechin could down‐regulate the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase‐2 as well as the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro‐inflammatory cytokines (interleukin‐1β [IL‐1β], IL‐6 and tumor necrosis factor‐α [TNF‐α]) in LPS‐induced RAW264.7 cells. The attenuation of LPS‐induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells by epicatechin was found to be closely correlated with inhibition of activation of an inhibitor of κB kinase α/β and sequential translocation of nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) p50/P65 subunits. Moreover, the suppression of activation of mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (including extracellular signal‐regulated kinase [ERK], Jun N‐terminus kinase [JNK] and p38) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was also involved in the anti‐inflammatory effects of epicatechin. Practical Applications Epicatechin is a major polyphenolic component with effective antioxidant activity in litchi flowers. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of phytochemicals might contribute to their anti‐inflammatory actions. The results of our study suggest that epicatechin effectively attenuates the production of inflammatory mediators including NO, PGE2, TNF‐α, IL‐1β and IL‐6 in the LPS‐induced macrophages through inactivation of NF‐κB, MAPKs (ERK, JNK and p38) and JAK2/STAT3 pathways. Litchi flowers might have the potential for anti‐inflammation through suitable treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T03:31:05.630459-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12134
       
  • Curcuminoid Extraction from Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.): Efficacy of
           Bromine‐Modified Curcuminoids Against Food Spoilage Flora
    • Authors: Palanivel Sathishkumar; Sundaresan Hemalatha, Mani Arulkumar, Rajagounder Ravikumar, Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff, Tony Hadibarata, Thayumanavan Palvannan
      Abstract: Curcuminoids are nutraceutical compounds used worldwide for medicine as well as in food preparations. In the present study, curcuminoid extraction was optimized using response surface methodology. The antimicrobial properties of curcuminoids and bromine‐modified curcuminoids (BMCs) were determined against food spoilage flora and foodborne pathogens. The maximum curcuminoid yield was obtained when turmeric, methanol and time were 5.77 g, 22.52 mL and 12.53 h, respectively. The high‐performance liquid chromatogram of the extracted curcuminoids indicated three peaks at 9.5, 10.1 and 10.7 min, which correspond to bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin in the ratio of 28:24:48, respectively. Curcuminoids had a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of BMCs was significantly decreased to 34.5, 14.7 and 30.2% for the tested gram‐positive bacteria, gram‐negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. Practical Applications This finding suggests that bromine‐modified curcuminoids would be a good candidate for food manufacturing industries to control food spoilage flora and foodborne pathogens.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:33:01.084826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12133
       
  • Hepatoprotective Activity of Haliotis discus hannai Ino Extract on
           Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Liver Damage in Rats
    • Authors: Trishna Debnath; Da Hye Kim, Jeong Eun Jo, Jeong Jun Lee, Han Jong Pyo, Beong Ou Lim
      Abstract: The hepatoprotective activity of Haliotis discus hannai Ino extract (HDE) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced liver damage was investigated in rats. LPS (5 mg/kg body weight) produced hepatic damage that was manifested by significant increases in the activities of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and reduced antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde) activities. These antioxidant activities were elevated by HDE administration to LPS‐treated rats. These results suggested that HDE extracts had a potential hepatoprotective effect in LPS‐induced liver damage without any acute toxicity. In addition, reducing power of the extracts and their ability to scavenge free radicals were evaluated by applying DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt]. This study demonstrates that these extracts have potential hepatoprotective activity which is mainly attributed to the antioxidant potential. Practical Applications Pacific abalone is an important marine food resource in many Asian countries. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated numerous health benefits of Pacific abalone. In South Korea, abalone has important economic significance as a food and as a functional food. In addition, numerous recent research studies have focused on the nutritional and pharmaceutical values of abalone.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:31:50.204459-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12131
       
  • Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Activities and Genotoxic Evaluations of
           Calendula officinalis
    • Authors: Syed Mubashar Sabir; Muhammad Fareed Khan, Joao Batista Texeira Rocha, Aline Augusti Boligon, Margareth Linde Athayde
      Abstract: Our study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and genotoxic activities obtained from hot water extracts of flowers and leaves of Calendula officinalis Linn. (Compositae). The extracts effectively prevented the lipid peroxidation induced by different prooxidants (10 μM FeSO4 and 5 μM sodium nitroprusside) in rat liver and brain homogenates. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activities of the extracts were evaluated by the quenching of 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 184.16 μg/mL) and deoxyribose (IC50 = 28.1 μg/mL) assays. The results obtained on alkaline comet assay revealed that exposure of human lymphocytes to aqueous extract of flower at a relatively high concentration (0.4 mg/mL) did not induce genotoxic effects. The major phenolic acids, some flavonoid aglycone and glycosides, were identified in flower and leaves by high performance liquid chromatography. These results indicate that C. officinalis has a significant antioxidant activity and can be effectively utilized against oxidative stress‐related diseases. Practical Applications C. officinalis is a medicinal plant which has been used in traditional medicine for skin complaints, wounds and burns, conjunctivitis, poor eyesight, menstrual irregularities, varicose veins, hemorrhoids and duodenal ulcers. As oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the inducing factors for the development of various metabolic disorders, the present study proposes to evaluate the antioxidant potential of flower and leaf extracts of plant, which may prove to be beneficial against these disorders.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:31:34.688297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12132
       
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Activities of Rubus Fruit Anthocyanins in Inflamed
           Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells
    • Authors: Hana Jung; Hee Jae Lee, Hyunnho Cho, Keum Taek Hwang
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate anti‐inflammatory activities of anthocyanin fractions (AF) from blackberries (BB), Korean raspberries (KR) and black raspberries (BR) and their major anthocyanins (cyanidin‐3‐glucoside [C3G] and cyanidin‐3‐rutinoside [C3R]) in inflamed intestinal epithelial Caco‐2 cells. Nitrite scavenging activity of C3G was significantly higher than that of C3R and the AF measured by a chemical method. All the AF and individual anthocyanins significantly inhibit nitric oxide (NO) secretion, inducible NO synthase expression and nuclear factor‐κB activation in the Caco‐2 cells exposed to conditioned medium (CM) from lipopolysaccharide‐stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In the CM‐stimulated Caco‐2 cells, C3G, BBAF and KRAF inhibited NO production significantly more than C3R and BRAF, and C3G and BBAF expressed nuclear factor E2‐related factor 2 significantly more than the control. The individual anthocyanins also significantly downregulated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in Caco‐2 cell lines. The results suggest that anthocyanins in Rubus fruits, particularly C3G, may promote anti‐inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells. Practical Applications Rubus fruits are widely consumed in various ways including wine and raw fruits. These Rubus fruits have various physiological properties such as antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities because of their substantial quantities of phenolic compounds, constituted mainly by anthocyanins. Our results show that Rubus fruits may have potential health benefit in inflamed intestinal epithelial cells, which may be attributed to their major anthocyanins.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:30:02.720025-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12130
       
  • A High Salt‐Tolerant Thermoactive Esterase from Golden Grey Mullet:
           Purification, Characterization and Kinetic Properties
    • Authors: Nabil Smichi; Ahmed Fendri, Youssef Gargouri, Nabil Miled
      Abstract: An esterase was purified from the golden grey mullet viscera using successively a Sephacryl S‐100 gel filtration, an anion‐exchange chromatography and a high‐performance liquid chromatography filtration column. The pure esterase (GmDE) is a monomer that has a molecular mass of about 55 kDa, as determined by SDS‐PAGE analysis. The purified enzyme displayed a specific activity of 100 U/mg on short‐chain triacylglycerols at a temperature of 50C. GmDE is therefore a thermoactive enzyme as compared to other fish lipolytic enzymes that have been studied so far. No significant lipolytic activity was noticed when long‐chain triacylglycerol (olive oil) was used as a substrate. It is worth noting that the pure esterase was active in the presence of salt concentrations as high as 0.8 M. The GmDE N‐terminal amino acid sequence showed no similarities with that of other known fish esterases. Altogether, these results suggest that the GmDE is a member of a new group of digestive esterases belonging to vertebrates. Practical Applications Characterization of an esterase from low‐value fish viscera and the use of digestive enzyme may add value to this discarded species. Furthermore, the activity and stability at alkaline pH may also find use in laundry detergents. The thermoactivity of the purified esterase makes it a good candidate for potential application in food processing operations. Finally, the stability of the enzyme in high salt concentrations suggests that it can be used as an additive in different processes (food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical operations).
      PubDate: 2015-04-17T01:21:10.976185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12129
       
  • Protective Effect of Lycii Radicis Cortex against
           6‐Hydroxydopamine‐Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death
    • Authors: Hyo Geun Kim; Myung Sook Oh
      Abstract: An oxidative defense system imbalance leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative ailments such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we examined the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRCE) in an in vitro PD model induced by 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA), which induces selective dopaminergic cell death through oxidative stress. LRCE resulted in significant protective effects in SH‐SY5Y cells and showed strong radical scavenging effects. In addition, LRCE inhibited intracellular ROS and extracellular nitrite production and glutathione depletion induced by 6‐OHDA. Furthermore, LRCE blocked the destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of caspase‐3. Moreover, dopaminergic neuronal protection of LRCE from 6‐OHDA exposure was confirmed in the rat primary mesencephalic culture system. LRCE is therefore considered to exert beneficial effects on dopaminergic neurons, resulting to antiparkinsonian effects via antioxidant activities. Practical Applications The current findings suggest that owing to its effects on antioxidant activity, Lycii Radicis Cortex may be useful as an alternative therapy to prevent and treat neurodegeneration including dopaminergic neuron dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T22:23:21.165533-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12127
       
  • Enzymatic Production of a Soluble Fiber Hydrolyzate from Chinese Cabbage
           Waste and Its Health‐Related Properties
    • Authors: Seo Yeon Park; Kyung Young Yoon
      Abstract: A feasibility study on the potential use of Chinese cabbage waste as a raw material for the production of soluble dietary fiber was performed. The alkali‐soluble fraction obtained by extracting Chinese cabbage waste was hydrolyzed by two commercial xylanase preparations to produce soluble fiber hydrolyzates. The freeze‐dried soluble fiber was treated with 85% ethanol and separated into the alcohol‐soluble dietary fiber (ASF) and alcohol‐insoluble dietary fiber (AIF) fractions. ASF had a significantly greater promoting effect on the growth of lactic acid bacteria. AIF effectively hindered the diffusion of glucose and bile acid from dialysis membranes and displayed a significantly greater bile acid retarding effect than carboxymethylcellulose and pectin. Thus, the water‐soluble dietary fiber obtained from Chinese cabbage waste by enzymatic hydrolysis has potential use as a fiber source with prebiotic, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Practical Applications Dietary fiber, which has many health‐related benefits, is added to various food products as a functional ingredient or acceptability factor. The aim of this study was to produce soluble dietary fiber from Chinese cabbage waste by enzymatic hydrolysis. Our results indicated that soluble fiber hydrolyzate from Chinese cabbage is a practical new resource for preparing functional drinks and nutraceutical products for use in the food industry. The use of agro‐industrial waste to produce bioactive ingredients could improve the economic value of such waste.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T01:10:13.384934-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12126
       
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitory Activity of Peanut Testa Extracts against
           Human Cancer Cell Lines
    • Authors: Somprasong Khaopha; Sanun Jogloy, Aran Patanothai, Thanaset Senawong
      Abstract: Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this study, HDAC inhibitory activity of 15 Valencia‐type peanut testa extracts was assessed in mammalian cell model. Nine of 15 testa extracts exhibited HDAC inhibitory activity. Two peanut testa extracts (genotypes ICG15042 and KK4) possessing the greatest HDAC inhibitory activity could inhibit the growth of all five human cancer cell lines tested. At 72‐h treatment, both ICG15042 and KK4 testa extracts showed the most effective growth inhibition on Jurkat T‐leukemia cells with IC50 values of 28.81 and 30.00 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts were more toxic against the cancerous cell lines, but safer toward a noncancer cell line. Growth inhibitory effects of both extracts appeared to be mediated by induction of apoptosis in a dose‐dependent manner. Moreover, some phenolic acids including protocatechuic, syringic, p‐coumaric, ferulic and sinapinic acids, which may underpin their anticancer activity, were also identified and analyzed quantitatively. Practical Applications HDAC inhibitory potentials of phenolic‐rich testa extracts of 15 Valencia‐type peanut genotypes in mammalian cell model were evaluated. The results suggest that peanut skins (testae) of nine peanut genotypes possessed HDAC inhibitory activity and two of them (ICG15042 and KK4), with the highest HDAC inhibitory activity, could inhibit cancer cell growth via apoptosis induction. Accordingly, peanut skins could be useful for application in areas such as alternative medicine for cancer treatment and functional food for dietary prevention of cancer.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T04:00:42.097403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12128
       
  • The Molecular Mechanisms of Apoptosis Induced by Allium flavum L.
           and Synergistic Effects with New‐Synthesized Pd(II) Complex on Colon
           Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Milena Milutinović; Milan Stanković, Danijela Cvetković, Vuk Maksimović, Biljana Šmit, Radoslav Pavlović, Snežana Marković
      Abstract: Considering that induction of apoptosis is one of the main strategies in cancer therapy, the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxic effects of Allium flavum L. on colon cancer cell lines were investigated and applied in single and co‐treatments with new‐synthesized Pd(II) complex. The analysis of chemical composition identified caffeic acid glycosides as the most dominant phenolics in A. flavum extract. In all investigated extracts, A. flavum showed cytotoxic effects on colon cancer cells (IC50 = 1.64–84 μg/mL) but not on healthy cells. Combinations of plant extracts with Pd(II) complex caused lower IC50 values and better proapoptotic activity. Pd(II) complex induced high percentage of necrosis in a single treatment, but in the combination with plant extracts it had better proapoptotic and lower necrotic activity. Treatments and co‐treatments induced higher O2− production and influenced apoptosis biomarkers, leading to Fas protein overexpression and activation of caspases 8 and 9. Practical Applications In view of the achieved anticancer properties, insufficiently investigated Allium flavum L. is a promising candidate for developing new anticancer compounds and deserves further research and scientific validation. This study has great impact on investigation of new anticancer substances from natural source, focuses on the importance of using plants as the source of medicinal drugs, contributes to the development of the appropriate therapy and gives contribution in both scientific and practical means. Because of its synergistic actions with the newly synthesized chemical anticancer agent and ability to reduce side effects (thus reducing necrotic activity of Pd[II] complex), A. flavum can be used as a dietary food supplement or supplement to chemotherapy perhaps in combination with currently used chemotherapeutics or in some strategies in cancer therapy. This finding is also important from a nutritional point of view because this extracts contain significant amounts of bioactive constituents, which provide health benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:49:16.606927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12123
       
  • Hepatoprotective Effect of Lentinus edodes Mycelia Fermented Formulation
           against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Rats
    • Authors: Won‐Seok Chung; Jing‐Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Jong‐Min Park, Sun‐Ok Park, Sang‐Jong Lee, Songhee Jeon, Hojun Kim
      Abstract: The hepatoprotective effects of fermented black rice bran extracts (FF1 and FF2: black rice bran fermented by Lentinus edodes derived from mycelium supplemented with soybean or Hovenia dulcis) and their associated mechanisms were evaluated. In an in vitro experiment, FFs caused significant amelioration of the metabolic function of rat hepatocytes treated with NH4Cl. In addition, administration of FFs to rats with chronic liver injury induced by 12‐week continual alcohol consumption resulted in significant restoration of body weight shrinkage, notable attenuation of excessive aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and endotoxin in serum, malondialdehyde in liver and the lactulose/mannitol ratio in urine. Furthermore, FF1 or FF2 also caused significant downregulation of gene expression of several critical inflammatory mediators (interleukin‐6, tumor necrosis factor‐alpha, cyclooxygenase‐2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase). Histopathological findings also indicated that FFs reduced inflammation, necrosis and fatty infiltration in liver tissue. Taken together, FFs exert hepatoprotective effects through anti‐inflammatory and anti‐lipid peroxidative properties and regulation of intestinal permeability. Practical Applications In this study, mycelia fermentation was utilized as a feasible strategy for enhancing the hepatotherapeutic effect of black rice and herbs. The findings demonstrated that Hovenia dulcis exerts a synergistic protective effect on an alcoholic liver disease animal model and could provide a new effective potential approach to alleviate alcoholic liver diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:43:25.313996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12124
       
  • Phytochemical Profiling and Assessment of Low‐Density Lipoprotein
           Oxidation, Foam Cell‐Preventing Ability and Antioxidant Activity of
           Commercial Products of Emblica officinalis Fruit
    • Authors: Sinjitha S. Nambiar; Nandini Prasad Shetty
      Abstract: Emblica officinalis, a medicinal fruit, despite its versatility in preventing diseases, lacks widespread consumption owing to its astringent taste. Hence, it is commercially modified into various products to increase its consumption. This study compares antioxidant activity and atherosclerotic foam cell‐prevention ability of popular commercial products of E. officinalis with that of unmodified fruit juice. The antioxidant activity of the capsule product was similar to pure juice, followed by sweetened fruit product. The capsule product showed the highest low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation prevention (87%) next only to natural juice (91.15%). Capsule had the highest ability to prevent uptake of oxidized LDL in macrophages, equaling pure juice. Capsule had the highest phenolic content similar to pure juice. Phenolic compounds contributed 93% of the total antioxidant activity. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis of capsule and natural juice showed similar phenolic and flavonoid profiles indicating that capsule product could reproduce the beneficial effects of natural fruit with none of its astringent taste. Practical Application Emblica officinalis fruit is known for its versatility in curing diseases, but it has an astringent taste which is altered in commercially modified products to ensure widespread consumption. The health benefits of these products, however, are not well known. The study was conducted to detect the antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid compound content in these various processed foods. This could help generate consumer awareness on the nutritional benefits of these products as compared with the fruit in its natural form.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T02:02:20.615061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12122
       
  • Gastroprotective Effects of Methanolic Extract of Sterculia
           nobilis Smith Seeds in Reserpine‐Induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice
           
    • Authors: Jia‐Le Song; Peng Sun, Rui Wang, Xin Zhao
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract from Sterculia nobilis Smith seeds (SSME) on reserpine (25 mg/kg)‐induced gastric ulcer using an Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse animal model. Gastric juice secretion, total acidity of gastric juice, serum neuropeptides, including motilin (MTL), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SS) levels, as well as gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. SSME effectively reduced reserpine‐induced gastric juice secretion and decreased the total acidity in gastric juice. In addition, SSME reduced the serum levels of MTL and SP, and increased VIP and SS levels in serum. It also resulted in an increase in SOD and a reduction of MDA levels in gastric tissue. Results from the present study suggest that SSME has a gastroprotective effect on reserpine‐induced gastric ulcer in mice by reducing gastric juice secretion, modulating serum neuropeptide levels, increasing the gastric SOD activity and attenuating the gastric MDA generation. Practical Applications The Sterculia nobilis Smith seed has been traditionally consumed as a fruit in South China, Vietnam, India and Indonesia. It has been demonstrated to exhibit numerous beneficial functions such as regulation of gastrointestinal function and improving eyesight.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T01:57:13.643214-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12125
       
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of Haliotis discus hannai Ino on
           Dextran Sulfate Sodium‐Induced Colitis in Mice
    • Authors: Trishna Debnath; Mohammad Al Mijan, Da Hye Kim, Jeong Eun Jo, Young Ock Kim, Jeong Jun Lee, Han Jong Pyo, Beong Ou Lim
      Abstract: In this study, an ethanol extract (HDE1) and a fermented extract (HDE2) of Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Pacific abalone) were administered to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‐induced colitis. Both extracts were administered at 50 mg/kg and evaluated for their anti‐inflammatory effects. Histological evaluations indicated that HDE1 effectively suppressed colonic tissue damage in mice with DSS‐induced colitis. In addition, the expression levels of immune‐related cytokines and transcription factors such as interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription‐1 (pSTAT1), interleukin‐4 (IL‐4), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription‐6 (pSTAT6) and Gata3 were also downregulated by both extracts. These results indicated that both HDE1 and HDE2 suppressed inflammatory cytokines and mediators. However, histological examinations clearly suggested that HDE1 had greater efficacy in attenuating colonic tissue damage by DSS than HDE2. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential anti‐inflammatory agent for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Practical Applications Pacific abalone is an important marine food source in many Asian countries. The health benefits of Pacific abalone have been demonstrated in a number of studies. This study investigated the anti‐inflammatory effects of Pacific abalone extracts in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis. An ethanol extract (HDE1) of Pacific abalone potently suppressed the mucosal tissue damage and crypt loss in the colons of mice exposed to DSS. In addition, inflammatory cytokines and mediators were effectively suppressed by HDE1. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential therapy for ulcerative colitis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:37:45.24747-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12118
       
 
 
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