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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 278 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (12 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (204 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (204 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review     Open Access  
International innovation. Food and agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Food Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access  
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access  
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 27]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Conversion of Flavonols Kaempferol and Quercetin in Mulberry (Morus
           Alba L.) Leaf Using Plant‐Fermenting Lactobacillus Plantarum
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the levels of flavonols in mulberry leaf fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a traditional Korean soybean‐fermented food. Flavonol kaempferol and quercetin contents were markedly higher in fermentates of mulberry leave (FML) extracts than in unfermented mulberry leave (UFML) extracts (kaempferol and quercetin: 30.43 ± 1.83 mg/100 g and 49.96 ± 2.74 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry in FML versus 0.54 ± 0.11 mg/100 g and 0.58 ± 0.15 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry in UFML). In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in FML extract were 1,183.28 ± 2.99 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry and 425.61 ± 9.73 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry, respectively, which were considerably higher than those of the control UFML extract. Practical Applications Flavonols kaempferol and quercetin with antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties have been implicated in the prevention and development of therapies for cancers, cardiovascular disease, neurological and metabolic disorders, and bone diseases and so on. These results suggest that Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a traditional Korean soybean‐fermented food could be used as a starter strain for improvement of biologically beneficial flavonol compounds in plant‐derived food materials.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T03:17:42.418149-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12176
  • Characterization of a Solvent‐Tolerant Manganese Peroxidase (MnP)
           from Ganoderma Lucidum and Its Application in Fruit Juice Clarification
    • Authors: Tamilvendan Manavalan; Vetriselvan Manavalan, Kalaichelvan P. Thangavelu, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
      Abstract: Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is necessary in fruit juice clarification for the degradation of phenolic compounds. In the present study, MnP was produced using basal medium supplemented with tamarind shell (1% w/v), ethanol (2% v/v) and gallic acid (1 mM) to a maximum activity of 65 U/mL. A 43.0 kDa MnP was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G‐100 and DEAE‐cellulose column chromatography with 6.5‐fold and 13% yield. The optimal activity of the purified MnP was achieved at pH 5.5 and temperature of 45C with 2,6‐dimethoxyphenol as substrate. The inhibitors sodium azide, cyanide and EDTA inhibited the MnP activity up to 100, 93 and 84%, respectively. MnP showed high activity and stability in the presence of different metal ions, surfactants and organic solvents. Clarification of different fruit juices with MnP showed its potential application in the food and beverage industry. Practical Applications Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is extensively used in various applications, such as pulp delignification, dye decoloration, biotransformation, biosensor applications and fruit juice clarification. Ganoderma lucidum‐derived purified MnP is a solvent‐tolerant metalloenzyme that showed its potential for industrial application in clarification of various fruit juices. The stability of MnP in the presence of various divalent cations, surfactants and solvents suggests that it could be used in industrial effluent treatments as well as the food and beverage industry.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T03:17:22.639034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12188
  • Comparative Study of Chemical Composition, In Vitro Inhibition of
           Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Enzymes, and Antioxidant Potentials of
           Essential Oil from Peels and Seeds of Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis [L.]
           Osbeck) Fruits
    • Authors: Ayokunle Olubode Ademosun; Ganiyu Oboh, Adebayo John Olupona, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye, Taiwo Mary Adewuni, Esther Emem Nwanna
      Abstract: This study was designed to compare the chemical compositions and effect of essential oils from the peels and seeds of sweet orange on cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], butyrylcholinesterase [BChE]) and monoaminergic (monoamine oxidase [MAO]) enzymes. The ability of the essential oils to protect the brain against Fe2+‐induced lipid peroxidation was also investigated. Forty and forty‐four compounds were identified in peels and seed essential oils, respectively, using gas chromatography. The essential oils inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO in dose‐dependent manner. However, essential oil from the peels had higher inhibition on cholinergic enzymes but lower inhibitory effect on MAO and Fe2+‐induced lipid peroxidation compared to the seed essential oils. This study also revealed the presence of volatile compounds. Conclusively, both essential oils could be used as therapeutic agents in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Practical Applications Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peels and seeds are waste materials in the production of orange juice and can be used as a source to produce essential oils which can be of use in the production of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study provided reference information for the first time on the chemical composition and potential application of sweet orange peels and seed essential oils in the treatment and management of Alzheimer's diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T01:47:55.001858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12187
  • Irradiation and Evaporation Enhance Physicochemical Characteristics, AEAC,
           FRAP, Protein and Proline Contents of Tualang Honey
    • Authors: Md Ibrahim Khalil; Md Asiful Islam, Nadia Alam, Siew Hua Gan, Siti Amrah Sulaiman
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different honey processing parameters (temperature, light, gamma irradiation, evaporation and sachet packaging) on the physical, biochemical and antioxidant characteristics of Tualang honey samples that have been stored for 1 year. The protein and proline contents doubled following radiation and evaporation. Radiation and evaporation also developed the honey quality by decreasing the moisture content and improving the antioxidant parameters (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and color intensity), and maintaining the total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of the honey within the recommended levels. Cold temperature storage maintained the moisture contents and 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural levels within safe levels. However, in case of sachet honey, cold temperature storage is not recommendable as room temperature improved the protein, proline and FRAP content. Irradiation and evaporation of honey samples are recommended as these processes tend to improve the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties and increase the protein and proline contents of honey. Practical Applications As the physicochemical, biochemical and antioxidant potentials of honey have seen to be improved significantly after irradiation and evaporation, these can be potential techniques to improve the quality of honey prior to consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T21:13:16.700042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12182
  • Effect of Storage Temperature on Carbohydrate Metabolism and Development
           of Cold‐Induced Sweetening in Indian Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)
    • Authors: Joseph Hubert Galani Yamdeu; Pooja H. Gupta, Nilesh J. Patel, Avadh K. Shah, Jayant G. Talati
      Abstract: This study investigated the changes in carbohydrate metabolism in tubers of 11 Indian potato varieties stored at room temperature, 15C and 4C for 150 days to understand the development of cold‐induced sweetening (CIS). Low‐temperature storage negligibly influenced starch and maltose contents of the tubers but induced a significant increase of reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, fructose, glucose and hexoses : sucrose ratio, and a decrease of sucrose content was noticeable at 4C. A strong positive correlation was found between reducing sugars and total soluble sugars, and between fructose and glucose. The activity of β‐amylase was considerably increased by storage at low temperature, and it weakly correlated with starch content. Also, the absence of maltose accumulation with increased β‐amylase activity was observed. Acid invertase activity drastically rose at low temperature and strongly paralleled reducing sugars, glucose, fructose and hexose : sucrose ratio. The K. Jyoti variety was designated as CIS‐tolerant and the K. Badshah variety as CIS‐susceptible. Practical Applications Development of cold‐induced sweetening (CIS) is important for basic research and for potato‐processing industry. This work allowed us to group 11 Indian potato varieties into low‐sugar‐forming and high‐sugar‐forming groups, to identify varieties suitable for processing immediately after harvest or short time storage and to identify varieties with high starch content suitable for starch extraction. Hence, it provides capital information to the industry about varieties with good starch yield, which can be cold‐stored without drastic sugar increase, and to breeders for searching genes of resistance to CIS in Indian potatoes. This study also demonstrated that during CIS development in these varieties, acid invertase is the key enzyme, β‐amylase is not the main enzyme of starch degradation and there is possible significant activity of maltase in potato tubers. These observations pave the way through biotechnology work to develop new potato varieties which can cope with this postharvest problem.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T20:33:04.221926-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12190
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate and Caffeine Prevent DNA Adduct Formation and
           Interstrand Cross‐Links Induced by Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde
    • Authors: Mingfu Wang; Wen Hao
      Abstract: Highlights Acrolein/crotonaldehyde causes DNA adducts and interstrand cross‐links. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) traps acrolein/crotonaldehyde. ECCG lowers DNA adduct formation and interstrand cross‐links. Abstract The present work explored the potential application of phytochemicals in the prevention of DNA adduct formation and interstrand cross‐links (ICLs) caused by acrolein (ACR) and crotonaldehyde (CRO). Our study showed that epigallocatechin gallate, a major phenolic compound in green tea, was the most effective compound to prevent DNA adduct formation caused by ACR and CRO and trap ACR and CRO in a chemical system. As an example, epigallocatechin gallate showed the inhibitory effect on dG damage caused by ACR (67.1%) and the best trapping ability against ACR (100%) at the concentration of 10 mM, significantly different from the control without the addition of a phytochemical (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T02:05:10.821909-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12178
  • Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Rich Moringa oleifera Lam.
           Extracts in Food Systems
    • Abstract: Moringa oleifera Lam. has long been used in traditional medicine and for culinary purposes. This study aimed at determining the phenolic content as well as the antioxidative properties of leaf and pod extracts of M. oleifera Lam. in vitro and in mayonnaise and bulk sunflower oil. The methanolic leaf and pod extracts (MLE and MPE) had the highest phenolic content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activities in the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) assay (1,298 ± 4.1 μmol Fe [II]/g fresh weight) compared with the aqueous extracts. Moreover, MLE was the most effective free radical scavenger and metal chelator in the deoxyribose and iron chelation assays, respectively. The antioxidant efficacy of MLE and MPE at 0.2 and 0.4% was compared with that of butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%) in bulk sunflower oil and mayonnaise. The peroxide and conjugated diene values showed that the extracts effectively protected both systems. MLE at 0.4% exhibited the most potent antioxidant effect. Practical Applications Reactive oxygen species, generated by lipid oxidation, can compromise the safety of foods resulting in harmful effects on human health. There is much interest in natural antioxidants as an effective means to retard oxidative changes in foods due to toxicological concerns associated with synthetic antioxidants. M. oleifera L. is currently underutilized as a food plant despite scientific evidence of its nutritional quality and health benefits mainly ascribed to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. This study was aimed at determining the phenolic content and the in vitro antioxidant properties of M. oleifera leaf and pod extracts. The effect of the extracts on oxidative stability in mayonnaise and bulk sunflower oil was also evaluated. Results show that this food plant represents an untapped potential that could be used as a source of natural food additives to retard oxidative damage in various food systems and thus prolonging the shelf life of lipid‐bearing foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T01:52:31.23693-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12181
  • Comparative Study on In Vitro Anti‐Proliferative and Apoptotic
           Effects of Organic and Non‐Organic Tea Extracts
    • Authors: Peik Lin Teoh
      Abstract: This study compared the anti‐proliferative and apoptotic effects of organic and non‐organic Sabah tea on cancer cell lines. Anti‐proliferative assays showed that the tea extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of MCF‐7 and HeLa cells. The IC50 values for MCF‐7 and HeLa were 20.9 ± 2.6 to 39.3 ± 0.8 and 38.5 ± 3.8 to 42.0 ± 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. Statistical differences were observed in MCF‐7 cells treated with organic and non‐organic tea extracts. However, no differences were found in HeLa cells. Morphological changes were observed in both treated cell lines when compared with the untreated cells. However, the formation of DNA laddering was only observed in the treated MCF‐7 cells. Reduction of BCL‐2 expression was found in the treated MCF‐7 cells but BAX expression was unaltered. In conclusion, the effect of different farming systems on the proliferation of cancer cells could be cell‐type‐dependent but they showed no obvious differences in their effects on preventing cancer cell growth and inducing apoptosis. Practical Applications Tea is well known for its various health benefits due to its bioactivity. The findings from this study will add valuable preliminary information regarding the potential of organic and non‐organic tea as natural chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. These findings will provide scientific evidence on health advantages that might result from organic food consumption; thus, consumers will be able to make more informed choices.
      PubDate: 2015-08-17T03:53:03.242404-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12180
  • Optimization of Alkali Extraction of Polysaccharides From Foxtail Millet
           and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro
    • Authors: Aishi Zhu; Liyang Tang, Qiaohui Fu, Maoqian Xu, Jie Chen
      Abstract: Highlights Extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet with alkali solution. Response surface methodology was used. The antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides was investigated in vitro. Model was set up to optimize extraction of polysaccharides. The best extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h and extraction temperature 72.7C. Abstract Response surface methodology was employed to obtain the best possible combination of alkali concentration, liquid–solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature for maximum polysaccharide yields in the experiment of alkali extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet. The antioxidant activity of the obtained polysaccharides was meanwhile investigated in vitro. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second‐order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The optimum extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h, and extraction temperature 72.7C, the experimental yield was 46.21 mg/g, which was well in close agreement with the model's predicted value (45.60 mg/g). The polysaccharides of foxtail millet have better capacity of radical‐scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical‐scavenging activity. The mathematical model had high correlation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T23:28:03.733069-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12183
  • Factors Affecting the Quality Attributes of Unripe Grape Functional Food
    • Abstract: Unripe grapes with sour taste can be processed into various products such as verjuice and sour grape sauce. They have gained popularity because of increasing consumers' demands for natural and functional foods. It was aimed to detect some physicochemical properties and the antioxidant capacity of unripe grape products. Five verjuice and five sour grape sauce samples were analyzed and the mean of the values 2.41 for pH, 0.97 for water activity, 5.63 for soluble solid content, 3.83% for titratable acidity, 6.721 g/L for total sugar content and 473.96 mg/L for total phenol content were obtained. Antioxidant contents of the samples were detected between 0.010–0.231 and 0.035–0.885 μmol TE/mL by FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and TEAC (Trolox‐Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assays, respectively. Variation in the result of analysis depends on factors such as varieties, maturation stage, harvesting time, genotypic differences and environmental stress. Unripe grape products could be good alternatives for functional nutrition with their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Practical Applications The food industry is looking for new, available and low‐cost alternatives to supply the demand of the consumers on functional and natural foods. Grapes are a good source of antioxidant‐rich food products by making them functional and also extending their shelf life. Unripe grape products such as verjuice and sour grape sauce, used as a flavoring and acidifying agent, could also be considered natural sanitizers. Unripe grape products, directly or as an additive in foods, could contribute to the functional and natural food production.
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T23:27:40.190919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12175
  • Influence of High‐Pressure/High‐Temperature Extraction on the
           Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Barley Grains
    • Abstract: The influence of extraction temperature (90–180C), solvent concentration (36–90% ethanol) and time (30–90 min) on extractability of phenolic compounds from barley grains and on antiradical power of extracts was examined. RSM was used to design and optimize the processing parameters. Experimental results of total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and antiradical power of barley extracts were in the range from 3.27 to 26.60 mgGAE/gdb, 0.91 to 6.09 mgCE/gdb and 0.33 to 4.05 gDPPH/mLext, respectively. HPLC analysis of extracts showed epigallocatechin gallate to be the predominant phenolic compound, representing up to 93% of all phenolic compounds determined. Based on RSM analysis, temperature was the most significant factor affecting the observed responses (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T22:02:06.903187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12177
  • An In Situ Study on the Effects of Extracts of Taraxacum
           Officinale, Paulliniia Pinnata and Thonningia Sanguinea on
           Mitochondrial Function
    • Abstract: Taraxacum officinale leaves are popular among Ghanaians as vegetable and/or beverage while extracts of Taraxacum officinale, Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea are present in common herbal remedies widely available without prescription in Ghana. This study was therefore aimed to identify possible interactions between these medicinal plant extracts and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. The effects of these extracts on mitochondrial oxygen consumption were therefore investigated in situ using permeabilized mouse cardiac muscle fiber preparations and a substrate‐inhibitor titration. The results showed that the ethanolic fraction of T. officinale leaves significantly increased the respiration rate in presence of rotenone and the state 3/state 2 ratio (respiratory control ratio) while the ethanolic extract of P. pinnata stem significantly decreased succinate‐stimulated respiration. The aqueous extract of T. sanguinea also significantly decreased respiration in presence of rotenone. Practical Applications The present study revealed that the extracts from Taraxacum officinale, Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea exhibited the potential to influence mitochondrial respiratory chain function. The result presented in this study provides evidence that T. officinale offers an opportunity to be explored as a natural energy booster. The decrease in succinate‐stimulated respiration caused by the extract from P. pinnata provides further evidence for its use as a fish poison and strongly suggests that its use in herbal remedies may be detrimental. Furthermore, information about similar effects caused by traditional remedies would be useful not only in the discovery of novel therapeutic agents but also identification of extracts with the potential for long term toxicity.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T21:52:50.999177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12163
  • Effect of Rice Bran Unsaponifiables on High‐Fat Diet‐Induced
           Obesity in Mice
    • Authors: Hyeonmi Ham; Jeehye Sung, Junsoo Lee
      Abstract: Rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) was prepared by the saponification method and contained 1,635 mg of tocopherols and tocotrienols, 5,514 mg of policosanols, 36,425 mg of phytosterols, and 2,968 mg of oryzanols per 100 g of USM. Mice were divided into five groups: a normal diet (ND), high‐fat diet (HFD), HFD with 10, 20 and 50 mg USM/kg body weight/day group. After 6 weeks, the administration of USM at doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg reduced the body weight gain, food efficiency ratio and size of the epididymal fat tissue compared with those in the HFD group. In addition, the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol level as well as the atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor were also reduced in the USM fed groups compared with those in the HFD group. These findings suggest that USM from rice bran may have excellent hypolipidemic potential to prevent obesity. Practical Applications Rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) contains a variety of functional compounds. This study investigated the hypolipidemic effects of USM from rice bran in high‐fat diet‐fed mice. The result of this study suggested that rice bran USM was beneficial in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia. The use of rice bran USM may have implications for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T20:01:53.995044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12170
  • Variation in Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity in Yellow
           Himalayan (Rubus ellipticus Smith) and Hill Raspberry (Rubus
           niveus Thunb.)
    • Authors: Amit Badhani; Sandeep Rawat, Indra D. Bhatt, Ranbeer S. Rawal
      Abstract: Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in the fruits of Rubus ellipticus and Rubus niveus were studied. A significant variation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T21:04:59.081026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12172
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2015-07-22T01:02:02.619192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12076
  • Antioxidant Activities and Major Bioactive Components of Consecutive
           Extracts from Blue Honeysuckle (Lonicera Caerulea L.) Cultivated in
    • Authors: Lei Zhao; Siran Li, Lei Zhao, Ye Zhu, Tianyang Hao
      Abstract: Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) fruits were extracted consecutively by five solvents of different polarity, and the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), ABTS [2,2′‐azino‐bis‐(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid)] and CV (cyclic voltammetry) assays. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents. Among the five extracts, the methanol extract with the strongest antioxidant activity was selected for further study. It showed protective effects on 2,2′‐azobis (2‐amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)‐induced DNA and erythrocyte oxidative damage. Moreover, bioactive components of the methanol extract were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Six polyphenols were characterized, including chlorogenic acid, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside, peonidin‐3‐glucoside, quercetin‐3‐rutinoside, quercetin‐3‐glucoside and apigenin‐(malonyl)‐hexoside. Among these, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside was the predominant antioxidant component. These results suggested that the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle fruits could be used as a promising ingredient for functional foods or nutraceuticals to prevent diseases arising from oxidative processes. Practical Applications Berries are important sources of natural antioxidants, which can protect the body from oxidative damage. Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) has been harvested from the wild in regions of China, Russia and Japan for hundreds of years. It is more winter‐hardy than blueberry. The berries are similar in appearance and taste to blueberries. For the above reasons, blue honeysuckle has a certain market at early season. The results of the present study indicate that the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle showed notable antioxidant activity in different assays in vitro. The methanol extract is rich in polyphenolics, particularly in anthocyanins. Therefore, the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle could be explored as a natural antioxidant for application in functional foods or nutraceuticals.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:40:58.229274-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12173
  • Heat‐Treated Solar Sea Salt Has Antioxidant Activity In Vitro and
           Produces Less Oxidative Stress in Rats Compared with Untreated Solar Sea
    • Abstract: We have investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative activity of solar sea salts(SS) roasted with (BS) or without (RS) bamboo, which are widely consumed as dietary salts in Korea. BS exhibited antioxidative activity in the in vitro assays of various radical‐scavenging activities and DNA oxidation. RS also scavenged superoxide radicals and inhibited DNA oxidation. However, SS did not exhibit antioxidative activity in vitro. Sprague‐Dawley rats were orally administered various salts (1.8 g NaCl equivalent/kg) daily for 7 weeks. The rats fed RS and BS exhibited significantly lower levels of lipid peroxidation and a higher total thiol content than the SS group (P 
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:40:36.292722-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12165
  • In Vivo Anti‐Hyperglycemic Potential of Brahmi Gritham and Docking
           Studies of Its Active Components Against Protein Kinase C and CD38
    • Authors: Udhaya Lavinya B; Monisha Swaminathan, Yashodhara Bhattacharya, Shreni Tandon, Sabina Evan Prince
      Abstract: The anti‐hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of the Indian herbal formulation Brahmi gritham were studied in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic female Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight [b.w.], i.p.). Estimation of blood glucose levels, liver glycogen content and antioxidant levels were carried out in experimental rats. The tested parameters were compared with those of the glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.) treated group. Molecular docking studies were carried out to analyze the interaction patterns of protein kinase C (PKC) and CD38 of chosen proteins of signal transduction pathways that are significant in the pathogenesis of diabetes against active components of Brahmi gritham. Immunohistochemistry of pancreas revealed that Brahmi gritham was able to restore β‐cell mass and function near to that of the normal control. In silico studies showed that apigenin and quercetin showed significant interactions with PKC, while clitorin, bacopaside I and II showed significant interactions with CD38. Quercetin showed highest percentage inhibition of α‐amylase enzyme. Practical Applications Brahmi gritham is a traditional polyherbal formulation used in Ayurveda to treat memory disorders. The individual components of this formulation are known to possess significant antioxidant properties and contain several biologically active compounds found to be effective in treating various disorders, including diabetes and obesity. The efficacy of Brahmi gritham in diabetes management has not yet been studied, and therefore, the present study provides insights into the anti‐hyperglycemic potential of this formulation in rat model. In addition, the results of in silico analysis would pave way for better utilization of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin in diabetes management and in particular microvascular diabetic complications.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:01:16.651663-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12166
  • Chemical Constituents, Quantitative Analysis and Antioxidant Activities of
           Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.
    • Authors: Ramazan Erenler; Isa Telci, Musa Ulutas, Ibrahim Demirtas, Fatih Gul, Mahfuz Elmastas, Omer Kayir
      Abstract: Echinacea is valuable for its pharmaceutical, medicinal and agricultural properties. Flowers and leaves of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. were extracted with methanol, filtered, and solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to get four separate extracts. The flowers and leaves of both plants were boiled in water then extracted with ethyl acetate to achieve another four extracts. Quantifications of chemical constituents of extracts were determined by TOF‐LC/MS. The main compound of methanol extracts of E. purpurea and E. pallida leaves and flowers was cichoric acid. Caffeic acid was the chief compound of water extracts of both plant leaves and flowers. The antioxidant activities including DPPH free radical scavenging, ABTS cation radical scavenging and reducing power were assayed and structure–activity relationships were postulated. Water extracts of both Echinaceae species of flowers and leaves revealed excellent antioxidant activities. Practical Applications Echinacea, which is a medicinal and aromatic plant, has been used for traditional medicine in many countries. The water extract of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. exhibited excellent antioxidant activities; therefore, these Echinacea species can be used as natural agents in food and pharmaceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2015-07-19T23:51:52.498287-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12168
  • Walnut Oil – Unexplored Raw Material for Lipase‐Catalyzed
           Synthesis of Low‐Calorie Structured Lipids for Clinical Nutrition
    • Authors: Tsvetomira Todorova; Maya Guncheva, Roza Dimitrova, Svetlana Momchilova
      Abstract: Low‐calorie structured lipids that contain medium‐chain fatty acids in the sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions of the glycerol backbone, and long‐chain fatty acid in the sn‐2 (MLM type) were synthesized in one‐step acidolysis of walnut oil with caprylic acid. Caprylic acid residues were incorporated selectively into sn‐1,3 positions of triacylglycerols using 1,3‐specific immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme) and Rhizopus delemar (PP‐RhDL) as catalysts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, we achieved an excellent yield of the desired MLM‐type structured lipids (97 mole % with Lipozyme and 96.4 mole % with PP‐RhDL). The synthetic activity of PP‐RhDL was not influenced by the reaction medium whereas the Lipozyme was more effective in hexane than in solvent‐free medium. The same degree of conversion of initial triacylglycerols was observed for the two enzymes in four consecutive reaction cycles. The amount of MLM‐type structured lipids, however, decreased with each following cycle at the expense of mono‐substituted with caprylic acid triacylglycerols (MLL type). Practical Applications Structured lipids (SLs) that contain medium‐chain fatty acids in the sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions of the glycerol backbone, and long‐chain fatty acids in the sn‐2 (MLM type) are known to improve liver function, minimize risk of infections, and reduce the number of gastrointestinal complications in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and are used in clinical nutrition as well as specialized food for athletes because they provide fast energy supply. After an enzymatic modification of walnut oil, high yield of SLs with caprylic acid residue in the sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions of the glycerol backbone and long‐chain fatty acid residue in the sn‐2 position of triglycerides was obtained.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16T01:37:07.158919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12167
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Effect of Black Raspberry Seed Oil in
           High‐Fat Diet‐Induced Obese Mice
    • Authors: Hee Jae Lee; Hana Jung, Hyunnho Cho, Keum Taek Hwang
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the anti‐inflammatory effect of black raspberry seed (BRS) oil on high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese mice. BRS oil was composed of 57.0% linoleic and 29.4% α‐linolenic acids. Five‐week‐old C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD: BRS oil diet consisting of 50% calories from lard and 10% from BRS oil, while control diet consisted of 50% calories from lard, 5% from soybean oil and 5% from corn oil. Inflammation‐involved proteins were lower in the liver of the mice fed the BRS oil than those in the control. mRNA levels of pro‐inflammatory markers in the liver and adipose tissue of the BRS oil group were lower and anti‐inflammatory markers were higher in the BRS oil group compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that BRS oil may be a good source of α‐linolenic acid, an n‐3 fatty acid, with anti‐inflammatory effects on HFD‐induced obese mice. Practical Applications Black raspberry seed (BRS) oil, which could be obtained from black raspberry wine pomace, contains about 30% α‐linolenic acid, an n‐3 fatty acid. Supplementation of BRS oil might lower inflammation in high‐fat diet‐induced obese mice, when measuring protein and mRNA levels of pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory markers in the liver and adipose tissue of the mice. The results would promote utilization of BRS, a by‐product of wine production, and consequently help black raspberry producers and manufacturers.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16T00:50:44.062211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12169
  • Antihyperglycemic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Butanol
           Extract from Spirulina Platensis
    • Authors: K.G. Mallikarjun Gouda; M.D. Kavitha, R. Sarada
      Abstract: The butanol extract of Spirulina was found to have potent α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 23.0 ± 0.4 μg/mL. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated to be 121.0 ± 3.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 27.4 ± 1.2 mg rutin equivalent/100 g of Spirulina biomass. The butanol extract also exhibited rat intestinal α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 37.5 ± 2.8 μg/mL. The butanol extract had showed antioxidant activities with DPPH (1, 1‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical), reducing power, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide scavenging activity and showed antimicrobial activity against gram‐positive and gram‐negative bacteria. The present results indicate that Spirulina can be used for nutraceutical applications. Practical Application Spirulina has Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status and FDA approval for dietary supplement; therefore, it can be used as food supplement for health benefits. The therapeutic approach for preventing diabetes mellitus is to retard the absorption of glucose through inhibition of α‐glucosidase.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T08:40:09.772428-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12164
  • Growth Inhibition and Cytotoxicity in Human Lung and Cervical Cancer Cell
           Lines and Glutathione S‐Transferase Inhibitory Activity of Selected
           Sri Lankan Traditional Red Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Brans
    • Authors: W.K.S.M. Abeysekera; G.A.S. Premakumara, Ahsana Dar, M. Iqbal Choudhary, W.D. Ratnasooriya, Muhammad Kashif, C. Mudassar, S.R. Ali, N.V. Chandrasekharan
      Abstract: Extracts, fractions and gastrointestinal‐resistant protein hydrolysates (GRPH) from rice bran (RB) of four Sri Lankan traditional varieties were studied for growth inhibition (GI) and cytotoxicity against human lung cancer (NCI‐H460), cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines and effect on glutathione S‐transferase (GST) in vitro. RB extracts showed significantly high (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-29T00:05:33.139041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12162
  • The Effect of Cultivar and Ripening on Antioxidant System and PAL Activity
           of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Grown in Tunisia
    • Authors: Jalila Bekir; Jalloul Bouajila, Mohamed Mars
      Abstract: In this study, attempts were made to evaluate and to compare antioxidative defense system of three pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) (Chetoui, Gabsi and Garsi) at three ripening stages (UR, HR and FR). We report, for the first time, a decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and PAL activities from UR to FR stages for all pomegranate cultivars, whereas glutathione reductase activity increased gradually and significantly. The highest phenolics and ascorbic acid contents were detected in UR fruits but anthocyanins and tannin contents varied greatly within cultivars. Using the DPPH assay, the free radical‐scavenging activity of Garsi cultivar decreased significantly from UR to HR stages and finally increased in ripe fruit arils, whereas it decreases continuously during ripening of Chetoui and Gabsi cultivars. Significant correlations were detected between enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Statistical analyses showed that stage and cultivar factors influenced significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T03:02:03.283919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12159
  • Purification, Dynamic Changes and Antioxidant Activities of Oleuropein in
           Olive (Olea Europaea L.) Leaves
    • Abstract: Oleuropein was extracted from olive leaves by ultrasonic‐assisted method and purified by silica gel column chromatography. The sample was identified as oleuropein by UV, infrared, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis. Oleuropein and total phenolic contents over a year were determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography and Folin–Ciocalteu methods. The results showed that 13.52% of pure oleuropein was found with a high purity of 96.54% and purification efficiency of 78.49%. Oleuropein and total phenolic contents of different olive varieties were quite different, but both had similar trends over the year. Five methods, including DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), ABST (2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), ferric reducing antioxidant power, total reducing power and nitrite‐scavenging ability, were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of oleuropein, and the IC50 were 34.54 ± 0.14 μg/mL, 18.79 ± 0.82 μg/mL, 75.32 ± 1.83 μg/mL, 13.80 ± 0.68 μg/mL and 1.00 ± 0.08 mg/mL, respectively. Practical Applications This study provides information on the changes in contents including oleuropein and total phenolics in a year to help understand the relationship between content of oleuropein and various influencing factors. Currently, the metabolic pathways of oleuropein are not clear. These results provide information for the study of the metabolism of phenolic compounds in olive and promote research at the molecular level. Oleuropein occupies a large proportion of total polyphenols in olive and can be to be purified by silica gel column chromatography with high purification efficiency for industrial production and laboratory production. In addition, the comprehensive evaluation of activity in vitro shows that oleuropein is more useful than BHT (2,6‐di‐tert‐butyl‐4‐methylphenol) for the application in food and human health.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T04:13:07.239933-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12152
  • Effect of Extraction and Processing Conditions on Organic Acids of
           Barberry Fruits
    • Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani; Mohammad Ali Sahari, Mohsen Barzegar
      Abstract: The bioactive compounds of barberry such as organic acids are widely used in medical and food industries. The effects of extraction and processing conditions including varieties (B. integerrima: A, B. vulgaris: P), solvents (water: W, ethanol: E), light (presence: L or absence: T), pH (3 and 1.5), temperatures (25 and 50C), processes of heating (at 95 and 80C), chilling (ref. 1 and 2 months), freezing (con), microwave (mic) and gamma irradiation (at doses of 0.5–10 kGy) on organic acid profile were studied. The highest (acetic, malic and ascorbic) and lowest (fumaric) amounts (mg/100g extract) of organic acids in extraction conditions were as follows: acetic in AWT325 (23,124.53 ± 747.33), malic in PET1.525 (21,035.18 ± 21.05), ascorbic in AET350 (19,796.20 ± 104.44) and fumaric in PWL325 (62.30 ± 0.45). The highest and lowest amounts of organic acids in processing conditions were as follows, respectively: acetic (Amic 17,915.07 ± 164.38) and fumaric (Acon 38.84 ± 1.44). Practical Applications The Berberis vulgaris fruit is useful as tonic for liver and heart; it prevents chronic bleeding; reduces mucus, triglycerides, cholesterol and blood pressure; and also purifies the blood. It is effective in the treatment of gallbladder, bleeding hemorrhoids, antiparasitic liver, diabetes, gout, kidney stones, colon cancer, prostate inflammation, malaria, fever, asthma and neurological diseases. Owing to its color and mellow taste B. vulgaris fruit is used as a seasoning in Persian food. Barberry fruits are used in preparing sauces, jellies, carbonated drinks, candies, food color powders, jams, marmalades, chocolates and nectars. B. integerrima fruits are used to prepare juices. The use of barberry fruit as a natural food colorant rich in anthocyanins instead of harmful artificial ones was studied by researchers. In addition, barberry fruits contain polyphenols with beneficial antioxidant activities that reduce damages due to free radicals and prevent chronic diseases and cancers.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T01:56:30.306578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12158
  • Potential Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Hepatoprotective Effects of
           Crataegus Meyeri
    • Authors: Cennet Ozay; Ramazan Mammadov, Gulten Tasdelen, Ege Riza Karagur, Hakan Akca
      Abstract: In this study, the potential antioxidant, antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effects of Crataegus meyeri Pojark. were investigated. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic flower extracts was evaluated by using DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) and β‐carotene–linoleic acid assays. Total phenolic contents were also measured. The results obtained showed that C. meyeri can act as a high radical scavenger reaching 88.67%. In vitro antiproliferative activity for the same extracts was determined by MTT [3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay against PC3 and PC14 cells. The extracts of the plant at concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.25% were administered orally to the three experimental groups, including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, and blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and GGT (gamma‐glutamyltransferase). In biochemical assay, a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST was found in the experimental groups. Practical Applications The antioxidant activity studies on Crataegus species have exhibited that these species possess considerable antioxidant potential because of their polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and procyanidines. In this study, the findings are consistent with these observations. However, our results also demonstrated that C. meyeri exerts a protective effect against partial hepatectomy‐induced liver injury in rats and could provide a new potential approach to inhibit the proliferation of human non‐small cell lung cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:19:57.471646-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12161
  • Effects of Clarification and Pasteurization on the Phenolics, Antioxidant
           Capacity, Color Density and Polymeric Color of Black Carrot (Daucus
           Carota L.) Juice
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of clarification and pasteurization on the total phenolic (TP) contents, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) values of black carrot juices (BCJs). The effects of the phenolic compounds on the color density (CD) and polymeric color values were also evaluated. Depectinization (13 and 59%) and pasteurization (1.1‐ and 2.3‐fold) treatments led to increases in the TP and HCA contents in the BCJ, and bentonite (10 and 7%) and gelatin–kieselsol (25 and 29%) treatments led to reductions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) was identified as the major HCA by high‐performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. There were strong correlations between the AOC values with the TP and HCA contents (r = 0.750–0.996). Additionally, there were significant effects from the ratios of anthocyanins (ACN) to HCAs and ACN to CGA on the degree of polymerization. Because of the increased TP and HCA contents with AOC and CD values, depectinization and pasteurization were recommended for BCJ production. Practical Applications There is great interest in black carrot juice (BCJ) because of its high antioxidant capacity and intense color. After pressing, BCJ should be depectinized to produce juice with a high antioxidant capacity. To produce BCJ with an intense color, the depectinized juice should be clarified with bentonite. Gelatin and kieselsol led to a substantial reduction in color. To produce clear BCJ, clarification should include bentonite in addition to gelatin and kieselsol. However, the gelatin and kieselsol dosages should be carefully determined.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:18:27.85545-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12155
  • Phenolic Extract from Propolis and Bee Pollen: Composition, Antioxidant
           and Antibacterial Activities
    • Authors: Adel A.A. Mohdaly; Awad A. Mahmoud, Mohamed H.H. Roby, Iryna Smetanska, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
      Abstract: Bee products (e.g., propolis and bee pollen) are traditional healthy foods. In this study, antioxidant properties and in vitro antibacterial activity of honeybee pollen and propolis methanol extracts were determined. Propolis with higher phenolic content showed significant greater activity over pollen extracts. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and p‐coumaric acid were detected as main phenolic compounds in propolis extract. 3,4‐Dimethoxycinnamic acid was the major phenolic component in pollen extract. Propolis extract (5 μg/mL) exhibited 28% antiradical action against 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The scavenging activity of propolis and pollen extracts against 2,2′‐Azinobis (3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6 sulfonic acid) (ABTS) reached a maximum of 94.3 and 76.5%, respectively, at an extract concentration of 25 μg/mL. Stabilization factor of propolis extract was 13.7, while it was 6 for pollen. Results revealed that both extracts showed highly antibacterial action against gram‐positive bacteria with a minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/mL. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing elevated antibacterial activity against gram‐negative bacteria Salmonella enterica. Practical Applications Besides their potential pharmaceutical use, propolis and pollen could be efficient protective agents for use as natural antioxidant and antibacterial additives in food systems. It has been observed that the biological activities of propolis and pollen depend on their chemical composition, which, in turn, depends on geographical diversity and the genetic variety of the queens. On the basis of the present study, propolis extract showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities compared with the pollen extract. This may be due to its higher amounts in caffeic, ferulic and p‐coumaric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report comparing the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Egyptian bee pollen and propolis extracts and their chemical constituents.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T22:18:08.011477-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12160
  • Evaluation of In Vitro Invertase Inhibitory Activity of Manilkara zapota
           Seeds – A Novel Strategy to Manage Diabetes Mellitus
    • Authors: Thiyagarajan Sathishkumar; Srinivasan Anitha, Rajakumar Esther Sharon, Velayudham Santhi, Mani Sukanya, Kuppamuthu Kumaraesan, Vinohar Stephen Rapheal
      Abstract: Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit), Manilkara zapota (sapota), Mangifera indica (mango), Vitis vinifera (grapes), Citrus sinensis (orange) and Syzygium cumini (jambul) seeds were selected to evaluate the in vitro invertase inhibitory activity. M. zapota (shake flask method: 98.7%) and A. heterophyllus (shake flask method: 35.6%) seeds recorded the highest and lowest in vitro invertase inhibitory activity, respectively. The two‐dimensional thin‐layer chromatography and two‐dimensional preparative thin‐layer chromatography (2D PTLC) analyses have demonstrated the presence of polyphenols in M. zapota and A. heterophyllus seeds. The 2D PTLC eluate of M. zapota has recorded a significant invertase inhibitory activity. Liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry photo diode array analysis of M. zapota has exhibited the presence of four different polyphenols such as benzoyl hexosyl methyl luteolin sulfate (m/z 662.1), 6C/8C hexosyl, 6C/8C pentosyl apigenin (m/z 568), one unknown carboxylated flavonol glycoside (m/z 484.7) and one unknown flavone derivative (m/z 473.8). Practical Applications The fruits of Manilkara zapota and Artocarpus heterophyllus have been consumed for their sweet delicious nature by most Asian community. Ethnobotanically, many parts of the above said species have been taken orally to treat various ailments. In the current scenario, appropriate food formulation as a health mix may be tried along with the seeds of M. zapota and/or A. heterophyllus to have a balanced glycemic control in the biological system.
      PubDate: 2015-06-09T04:07:42.729367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12157
  • Anti‐Inflammatory and Gastroprotective Activities of Cudrania
           Tricuspidata Leaf Extract Against Acute HCl/Ethanol‐Induced Gastric
           Mucosal Injury in Sprague‐Dawley Rats
    • Abstract: We investigated the inhibitory effect of Cudrania tricuspidata ethanol 10% extract (CTL10) on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in Sprague‐Dawley rats. After oral administration of CTL10 (100 or 300 mg/kg) for 7 days, acute gastric inflammation was induced by 70% ethanol and 0.15 M HCl. After 1 h of ethanol administration, the animals were sacrificed. Pretreatment with CTL10 showed attenuation of gastric mucosal injury, hemorrhages and gastric juice secretion induced by ethanol administration. Oral administration of CTL10 significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Additionally, pretreatment with 300 mg/kg CTL10 significantly decreased the expression of nuclear factor‐κB, cyclooxygenase‐2, interferon‐γ, interleukin‐6 and tumor necrosis factor‐α compared with the gastric inflammation group. Based on this study, CTL10 may be considered a potential agent to control acute gastric inflammation induced by alcohol through the antioxidative effect of CTL10. Practical Applications Ethanol directly and dose‐dependently impairs the gastric mucosal barrier, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol‐induced gastric inflammation remain incompletely understood. However, there is evidence that free radical production and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute gastric inflammation by ethanol. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Cudrania tricuspidata ethanol 10% extract (CTL10) on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in Sprague‐Dawley (SD) rats. We found that CTL10 has inhibitory effects on gastric inflammation induced by acute ethanol treatment in SD rats. Although the exact mechanism underlying these effects is unclear, the effects on acute gastric inflammation suggest a mechanism involving the antioxidant properties of C. tricuspidata. C. tricuspidata may be a new alternative for the clinical management of gastric inflammation while serving as an antioxidant against oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:32:27.57397-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12149
  • Antioxidant, Anti‐Inflammatory, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and
           Antimicrobial Activities of Turkish Endemic Centaurea antiochia var.
    • Abstract: The antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of extract from the Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss. & Bal.) Wagenitz, an endemic plant species from Turkey, were investigated. The results indicated that the extract inhibits FeCl3/ascorbic acid‐induced phosphatidylcholine liposome oxidation, scavenges stable 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radicals, and reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extract inhibited AChE and both cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and COX‐2, which suggests this species might be a potential source of plant‐derived anti‐inflammatory and anti‐AChE substances. The extract may also act as an antimicrobial agent because it inhibited the growth of Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria as well as yeast. These findings may scientifically explain some uses of this species in Turkish folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory and wound healing agent. Practical Applications The Centaurea species are known by the vernacular name “peygamber çiçeği” in Turkish folk medicine. Ethnobotanical reports indicate the Centaurea species have antidiabetic, anti‐inflammatory, wound healing, digestive, stomachic, diuretic, astringent, hypotensive, antipyretic, laxative, analgesic, tonic, hemostatic and antibacterial properties. Considering the important role oxidative stress and inflammation play in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, C. antiochia var. praealta may be used as a medicinal plant to treat Alzheimer's disease. This study also confirms the efficacy of this plant as a natural antimicrobial agent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:32:06.768578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12143
  • Inhibition of Bigeye Snapper (Priacanthus Macracanthus) Proteinases by
           Trypsin Inhibitor from Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacores) Roe
    • Authors: Sappasith Klomklao; Soottawat Benjakul, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Abstract: The inhibitory effect of partially purified trypsin inhibitor from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) roe (TIYTR) on proteolysis of bigeye snapper (Priacanthus macracanthus) proteinases was investigated. TIYTR inhibited sarcoplasmic proteinases and autolysis of bigeye snapper mince and its washed mince at 60C in a concentration‐dependent manner. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) in the mince and the washed mince of bigeye snapper was better retained when higher concentrations of TIYTR were used. The presence of NaCl (3.0% w/w) slightly enhanced the inhibitory activity of TIYTR (3.5–5.8%). Both TIYTR and beef plasma protein (at a level of incorporation of 3% w/w) showed higher inhibition of bigeye snapper proteinases than egg white (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T03:09:21.56611-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12148
  • In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Selected Legumes Against Pancreatic Lipase
    • Authors: Siew Siew Lee; Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Su Peng Loh
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory potential of seven selected legumes against pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme related to obesity. The samples investigated include chickpea (Cicer arietinum), dhal (Lens culinaris), mung bean (Vigna radiata), red bean (Vigna angularis), black‐eyed pea (Vigna unguiculata), yellow soya bean and black soya bean (Glycine max). The results showed no significant differences between the median inhibition concentration (IC50) values of red bean (5.90 ± 0.59 mg/mL), chickpea (6.30 ± 2.19 mg/mL), black soya bean (6.65 ± 0.62 mg/mL), black‐eyed pea (6.73 ± 1.84 mg/mL) and yellow soya bean (6.97 ± 0.67 mg/mL). Dhal (IC50: 7.94 ± 0.18 mg/mL) and mung bean (IC50: 8.14 ± 0.41 mg/mL) exhibited the least pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and their IC50 values were significantly lower than those of red bean and chickpea (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T20:31:32.770448-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12150
  • Extraction of Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage by Ultrasonic and Conventional
           Methods: Optimization and Evaluation
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the optimization of conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasonic extraction (UE) conditions of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) anthocyanins using response surface methodology. The results showed that the highest anthocyanin content of red cabbage anthocyanin extracts was obtained at 40C, with an extraction time of 75 min and ethanol concentration of 42.39% at a fixed solid–liquid ratio (1:3 w/v) for CE and UE. However, it has been determined that ultrasonic application provides 11.92% more anthocyanin extraction in comparison with CE. Thus, anthocyanin degradation that occurs due to high temperature application can be prevented and extraction can be carried out in one stage extraction using less solvent. In conclusion, it has been determined that ultrasonic application is superior to conventional application when used in moderate conditions (temperature‐solvent concentration) for anthocyanin extraction purposes. Practical Applications Nowadays, studies on extraction of anthocyanins from fruit and vegetables that contain high amounts of anthocyanins and utilization of these extracts in food industry are of interest. Extraction of anthocyanins is time‐consuming and inefficient, and higher extraction temperatures cause the degradation of anthocyanins. Therefore, it is a key focus to develop new extraction methods with faster extraction rates and higher yields in anthocyanin extraction. The results are important for the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method and the optimized conditions could be successfully employed by the nutraceutical and food industry to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage. Extraction can be carried out in a single extraction step by using less solvent and it will have significant contributions, especially for industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T04:57:41.236865-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12153
  • Ramalina Lichens and Their Major Metabolites as Possible Natural
           Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents
    • Abstract: Three lichen species of Ramalina (R. farinacea, R. fastigiata and R. fraxinea) were examined. Evernic, fumarprotocetraric, lecanoric, stictic and usnic acid levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography‐diode array detection. Acetone, methanol and ethanol were used to examine the efficiencies of different solvent systems for the extraction of lichen acids. The total phenol contents in the extracts were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacities were determined by the ABTS (2,2′‐azino‐bis[3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid]) method. The methanol extracts of the Ramalina species showed the highest antioxidant capacities. Broth microdilution testing was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extracts of the three Ramalina species. The MIC values of all extracts ranged from 64 to 512 μg/mL for all bacterial strains tested in this study. Practical Applications Lichens and their natural products are used worldwide for decorations, brewing and distilling, food, fodder, spice and natural remedies, and in the perfume and dying industries. Lichens produce a large number of phenolic compounds, such as depsides, depsidones and dibenzofurans. Lichens with antioxidant activity have increased abilities to scavenge toxic‐free radicals due to their phenolic groups. In recent years, many lichen substances have been found to have several biological activities. This article evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and lichen acids of three Ramalina species. This is the first study to determine the stictic acid level in a R. farinacea extract and fumarprotocetraric acid and lecanoric acid levels in an R. fastigiata extract. The results of this study will contribute significantly to current knowledge regarding the utility of antimicrobial and antioxidant materials.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T23:59:13.913608-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12142
  • HPLC‐DAD System‐Based Phenolic Content Analysis and In Vitro
           Antioxidant Activities of Rice Bran Obtained from Aush Dhan (Oryza Sativa)
           of Bangladesh
    • Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza; Zarin Tasnim Gias, Priota Islam, Sadia Sabnam, Preeti Jain, Md Hemayet Hossain, Md Ashraful Alam
      Abstract: Food fibers are recently gaining interest in the scientific community for their beneficial role in various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Rice bran is an important source of food fibers. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of polyphenolic compounds in rice bran of Aush Dhan and determine the in vitro antioxidant activities in different extracts such as ethanol, ethylacetate and toluene extracts. Various antioxidant assays, including DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content, were studied. Moreover, high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds. The extracts showed effective DPPH free radical, hydrogen peroxide radical and nitric oxide scavenging activities. However, reducing power was not significant compared with the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. Phytochemical analysis shows that rice bran contains reducing sugar, flavonoids and tannins. Furthermore, high‐performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC‐DAD) analysis showed that rice bran contains high amount of rutin hydrate along with epicatechin, which are strong natural antioxidants. These results suggest that rice bran contains high amount of antioxidants, which may be used as a source of polyphenolic compounds and can be used to treat chronic disease. Practical Applications Rice bran is produced every year in an enormous amount in Bangladesh as it is one of the largest producers of rice in the world. Rice bran is used in poultry and cattle farm as animal feed. Recently, it is also used to produce cooking oil and serves as an important ingredient in traditional medicine system in Bangladesh. The assessment of the antioxidant properties, phenolic content and composition of rice bran obtained from Aus Dhan (Oryza sativa) may give insight into their applications in functional foods and nutraceutical development.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T00:00:58.840726-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12154
  • Biochemical and Visual Changes in Cactus Stems (Opuntia
           ficus‐indica Mill.) Stored at 4, 12 and 26C
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify visible and microscopic symptoms as well as certain biochemical changes associated with chilling injury (CI) in “Atlixco” cactus stems. Cladodes were harvested, disinfected, minimally processed and stored at 4, 12 and 26C for 14–21 days. Results indicated that cactus stems were sensitive to CI at 4 and 12C and exhibited pitting and bronzing as visible symptoms of this disorder. Confocal microscopy showed that mitochondrial integrity was maintained at 4C whereas a deterioration of these organelles occurred at 12 and 26C. Electrolyte leakage, together with an increase in the levels of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glutathione and the reduced form of ascorbic acid were associated with CI. In spite of the presence of CI at 4C, cactus stems were still able to preserve their taste quality and no adverse effects were observed on either firmness or color for 21 days. Practical Applications Minimally processed products should be refrigerated at ≤4C in order to maintain their quality and prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms. However, the refrigeration of cactus stems at suboptimal temperatures causes the appearance of chilling injury (CI). Previous studies have mentioned the general symptoms of this physiological disorder in cactus stems, but no one has described the symptomatology in detail and there is yet to be reported histological and biochemical characterization that might serve to confirm or diagnose its presence. This study describes the symptoms of CI and provides histological and biochemical indicators for its early identification during storage. It also constitutes the preliminary stage to the future application of postharvest technologies that induce tolerance to CI, preventing browning and preserving the quality of minimally processed cactus stems in order to expand their domestic and international markets.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T00:00:45.722064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12144
  • Anti‐Amyloidogenic Properties of Dryopteris Crassirhizoma Roots in
           Alzheimer's Disease Cellular Model
    • Abstract: The inhibitory effects of Dryopteris crassirhizoma roots on Aβ production, which is one of the major causes of Alzheimer's disease, were investigated as they have not been studied at all. The methanol extract of D. crassirhizoma roots significantly reduced the production of Aβ in Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells overexpressing amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). This reduction was more pronounced with the butanol layer of D. crassirhizoma roots, which is partitioned based on solvent polarity. In addition, reduced production of Aβ by D. crassirhizoma roots was accompanied with increased production of sAPPβ, which is a proteolytic fragment of APP by β‐secretases. The expression of β‐secretases was also decreased by treatment with D. crassirhizoma roots. Furthermore, the amount of CTFα, a proteolytic fragment of APP by α‐secretases, is significantly increased by D. crassirhizoma roots. These results indicate that D. crassirhizoma roots efficiently decreased Aβ production by inhibiting β‐secretases and increasing α‐secretases. Practical Applications Dryopteris crassirhizoma roots efficiently reduced Aβ production. Therefore, D. crassirhizoma has the potential to be developed into an anti‐Aβ agent, which may have beneficial effects for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T04:01:33.101942-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12156
  • Physicochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Two Phenotypes of Galega
           Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala cv. Galega)
    • Abstract: Some quality attributes of two traditional phenotypes (curly and smooth) of Brassica oleracea var. acephala cv. Galega were examined. The analyses showed that both varieties had high contents of total phenolics (314.83–322.25 GAE mg/100 g), vitamin C (83.83–104.44 mg/100 g) and chlorophyll (142–160 mg/100 g), and both displayed high antioxidant capacity (EC50 = 4.24–4.76). Comparison of the varieties revealed lower vitamin C and chlorophyll contents and higher lightness, yellowness and color saturation values in whole curly kale than in whole smooth kale. The soluble solids, total phenolics, vitamin C and chlorophyll contents and the antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in leaves than in stems of both varieties. However, pH, moisture content, lightness, greenness, yellowness and color saturation values were higher in stems than in leaves. Practical Applications The study demonstrates that the Galega kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cv. Galega) has a high antioxidant capacity and high contents of phenolics, vitamin C and chlorophyll. The findings clearly show the high potential value of Galega kale as a source of natural antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T04:00:35.846187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12151
  • Extraction and Biochemical Characterization of Peptidases from Giant
           Catfish Viscera by Aqueous Two‐Phase System
    • Abstract: Peptidases were extracted from the viscera of farmed giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas) in an aqueous two‐phase system (ATPS) of 15% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG‐2000) and 15% (w/w) sodium citrate. The recovery of the enzymes was 273% with 12‐fold purification. Protein pattern, activity and inhibitory staining confirmed that the proteins with molecular weights of 12 and 31 kDa were a mixture of proteolytic enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were 8.0 and 70C, respectively. Besides, it retained more than 50% of activity at the highest salt concentration (30% w/v). The enzyme was strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitors (>80% inhibition), while low inhibition with cysteine‐, aspartic‐ and metallo‐protease inhibitors (
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T01:05:47.59649-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12145
  • Varietal Differences in the Antioxidative Properties of Soybean [Glycine
           Max (L.) Merr.] Seeds
    • Authors: D. Easwar Rao; K.V. Chaitanya
      Abstract: The antioxidant defense system in the seeds of 18 different soybean varieties was evaluated by studying the concentrations of total antioxidants, ascorbate, glutathione, α‐tocopherol, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC and glutathione reductase (GR, EC were also investigated in soybean seeds along with the concentrations of H2O2 and the lipid peroxidation (LP) rates were determined. Observations made in this study suggest that soybean seeds possess strong antioxidative defense system necessary for successfully ameliorating the toxicity of reactive oxygen species, and the varieties ADB‐22, NRC‐37 and LSB‐1 have better antioxidative defense properties than other varieties, which will also enhance their nutritive values. Practical Applications Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important legume crop, cultivated for its protein, edible oil and antioxidants. The rich nutraceutical constituents of soybean that have been isolated in earlier investigations are attributed to their protective properties against cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of total antioxidant content, lipid peroxidation rates and secondary metabolites in the seeds of 18 different soybean varieties grown in India, which can be used for the identification of superior varieties with respect to its antioxidant properties for their consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T00:49:54.264979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12136
  • Anti‐Diabetic and Anti‐Inflammatory Potential of the Edible
           Brown Alga Hizikia Fusiformis
    • Abstract: Hizikia fusiformis, an edible brown alga, is found abundantly in Korea, Japan and China. We investigated the methanolic (MeOH) extract of H. fusiformis and its different fractions for anti‐diabetic and anti‐inflammatory activity. Of these, the CH2Cl2 and EtOAc fractions exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities against ONOO− free radicals, PTP1B and α‐glucosidase. Repeated column chromatography based on bioactivity‐guided fractionation yielded fucosterol and fucoxanthin from the CH2Cl2 fraction and these two compounds inhibited tyrosine nitration in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, the CH2Cl2 fraction inhibited nitric oxide production and significantly suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, whereas the EtOAc fraction effectively inhibited t‐butyl hydroperoxide (t‐BHP)‐induced generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. The results demonstrate the potential anti‐diabetic and anti‐inflammatory activities of H. fusiformis. Practical Applications Hizikia fusiformis has been used as a health food for hundreds of years in northwest Pacific areas. It is well known for its distinctive flavor and high content of calcium, vitamin A, inorganic salt, iodine and dietary fiber, all of which enable prevention of various diseases including diabetes, high blood pressure, colorectal cancer, constipation, thyroid cancer and beriberi. Modern research has suggested its potential for treatment of arteriosclerosis and osteoporosis. The findings of this study demonstrate the anti‐diabetic and anti‐inflammatory activities of the methanolic (MeOH) extracts of H. fusiformis and supports use of this seaweed as a functional food and a potential anti‐diabetic.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T00:47:32.884353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12138
  • The Relative Contributions of Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin to Antioxidant
           Activities of Two Endemic Prangos (Umbelliferae) Species (P. Heynia
           and P. Denticulata)
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the metal chelating, radical‐scavenging and anti‐lipid peroxidative properties and the chlorogenic acid/rutin contents of two endemic Prangos species; Prangos heyniae H. Duman & M. F. Watson and Prangos denticulata Fisch. & Mey. According to high‐performance liquid chromatography analysis, the highest rutin and chlorogenic acid contents were found in P. denticulata leaf methanol extract (33.6 ± 2.8 μg/mg extract) and P. heyniae leaf methanol extract (24.8 ± 0.2 μg/mg extract), respectively. The water and methanol extracts of the species showed high scavenging abilities and significant capacities to suppress lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrated that chlorogenic acid may be an important component in the antioxidant activities of these Prangos species. Practical Applications Prangos Lindl. (Umbelliferae) species are known as “Çakşir otu” in Turkey and used to make herbed cheese to give the desired aroma and taste. Young shoots of Prangos species are used as boiled vegetables and pickles. Prangos species have been used in folk medicine as emulient, carminative, to stop bleeding and heal the scars. The results demonstrated that the extracts of two Prangos species exhibited good antioxidant activity, which correlated with high polyphenol content. Therefore, they may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food supplementation or development of nutraceuticals.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T00:47:11.910865-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12137
  • Comprehensive Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Volatile Compounds
           of Sudanese Honeys
    • Authors: Haroon Elrasheid Tahir; Zou Xiaobo, Li Zhihua, Zhu Yaodi
      Abstract: Honey samples were collected from different floral and geographical origins. The total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, antioxidant contents, FRAP/DPPH (ferric reducing antioxidant power/1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazy) assays and the color characteristics were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey samples exhibited high radical‐scavenging activity (DPPH%) ranging from 50.41 ± 0.8 to 70.5 ± 0.9%, FRAP from 556.9 ± 15.0 to 1,340.2 ± 8.7 mM and phenolic from 79.4 ± 1.9 to −232.7 ± 0.2 mg GAE/100 g. The volatiles were identified by means of solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME‐GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, terpenes, phenols and hydrocarbon represented the most abundant compounds in honeys among the 69 volatile components identified. Correlation between phytochemical and antioxidant assay parameters was found to be statistically significant (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:37:55.410139-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12135
  • Antidiabetic Potential of Hydro‐Alcoholic Extract of Moringa
           Peregrina Leaves: Implication as Functional Food for Prophylactic
           Intervention in Prediabetic Stage
    • Authors: Mohammad Fahad Ullah; Showket H. Bhat, Faisel M. Abuduhier
      Abstract: In recent years, the herbal and dietary sources of bioactive components having pharmacological properties and therapeutic significance in traditional system of medicine have attracted much attention in complementary and adjuvant therapies. Some preclinical studies on animal models have shown benefits of Moringa species such as M. oleifera in experimentally induced diabetes. Most of these studies have taken the anti‐hyperglycemic effect as the end‐point indicator of antidiabetic properties. The present study has explored the antidiabetic potential of M. peregrina, another species of Moringa, native to Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The hydro‐alcoholic (methanol‐aqueous) extract of the dried leaves of the plant demonstrated inhibitory activity against three in vitro models of enzyme assay (α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV) critical for diabetes management. The antioxidant property was also evaluated which correlated with the phytochemical analysis of the extracts displaying the presence of phenolics, tannins and saponins. These findings provide partial evidence to support the traditional use of Moringa in diabetes and endorse its regular consumption as functional food for high‐risk populations at the borderline prediabetic stage. Practical Applications M. peregrina is commonly consumed as food and serves as an important ingredient in traditional medicine in Arabian peninsula. The assessment of the antidiabetic potential of the plant provides an insight into its application as functional food and in nutraceutical development for prophylactic intervention in hyperglycemic conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:06:21.295018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12140
  • Purification and Characterization of Trypsin from Hepatopancreas of
           Pacific White Shrimp
    • Authors: Theeraphol Senphan; Soottawat Benjakul, Hideki Kishimura
      Abstract: Trypsin from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and a series of chromatographies including diethylaminoethyl sepharose and soybean trypsin inhibitor sepharose 4B columns. Trypsin was purified to 50.4‐fold with a yield of 13.7%. Based on native‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), the purified trypsin showed a single band. Trypsin had a molecular weight of 24 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate‐PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature for α‐N‐benzoyl‐dl‐arginine‐p‐nitroanilide (BAPNA) hydrolysis were 8.0 and 60C, respectively. Trypsin was stable to heat treatment up to 60C and over a pH range of 7.0–11.0. The activity was strongly inhibited by soybean N‐ρ‐tosyl‐L‐lysine chloromethyl ketone. Purified trypsin had Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) and catalytic constant (kcat) of 1.60 mM and 3.33 s−1, respectively, when BAPNA was used as the substrate. Trypsin with high kcat indicated its high capacity of hydrolysis and it could serve as a promising protease. Practical Applications Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas generally serves as a major source of proteases, especially trypsin and chymotrypsin, which can be used as an alternative food processing aid. Proteases in the hepatopancreas can be recovered and further used, in which the cost of commercially available proteases can be reduced. Furthermore, the by‐product can be better exploited and the extracted proteases can increase the revenues for the shrimp processor.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:05:50.19288-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12147
  • Hydrolysis as a Valorization Strategy for Unused Marine Food Biomass:
           Boarfish and Small‐Spotted Catshark Discards and By‐Products
    • Abstract: Discarded fish represent a serious obstacle to the sustainability of fisheries. The main outcome of analyses on the impact of discarding has been the implementation of a zero‐discard policy in EU (European Union) waters. One concern in implementing this policy is finding alternatives to help fishers alleviate the costs of nondiscarding. Boarfish and small‐spotted catshark are frequently discarded along the Northwest Coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Boarfish protein hydrolysates (BPHs) were prepared using a pancreas crude extract (PCE) from small‐spotted catshark and compared with those prepared with commercial proteases. BPH prepared with PCE and commercial trypsin contained more protein than alcalase hydrolysates; however, the latter showed greater solubility. Emulsifying and foaming properties were higher when using bovine trypsin, followed by PCE. Antioxidant activities were similar. Fish by‐products or fish with low flesh yields, usually wasted, contain valuable compounds that could be employed to obtain value‐added products such as fish protein hydrolysates. Practical Applications This manuscript addresses the problem of underutilized marine biomass: discards and byproducts from boarfish (Capros aper) and small‐spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). These species are frequently discarded or used for low‐value processes. One of the main challenges that face the objective of bycatch and discard reduction is finding alternatives that help the fishing industry overcome the costs associated with landing captures. Fish protein hydrolysates have many different potential applications and this manuscript suggests a selection of them, such as utilization as a food or feed ingredient.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:05:35.853518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12141
  • Assessment of the Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Three
           Species of Edible Seaweeds
    • Abstract: Extraction of secondary metabolites from St. Lawrence Estuary edible seaweeds – Saccharina longicruris, Ascophyllum nodosum and Ulva lactuca – was carried out by pressurized liquid extraction using ethanol. The antioxidant potential of extracts was evaluated through DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and the antibacterial activity was tested against food spoilage bacteria: Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus and Brochothrix thermosphacta. Of all seaweed extracts, A. nodosum exhibited the highest phenolic and carotenoid contents, 50.2 mg GAE/g and 85 μg/g, respectively. A. nodosum also displayed the best DPPH scavenging activity, EC50 10.4 μg/mL, and best capacity to reduce ferric ion, 677.2 μmol TE/g dry weight at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. U. lactuca extracts showed the highest growth inhibition of E. coli, 69.5%; M. luteus, 61.4%; and B. thermosphacta, 21.4%. These findings suggest a high potential of St. Lawrence Estuary seaweed extracts for application in the food industry. Practical Applications Food producers, food industries, governments and consumers are aware of the importance to look into effective preventive measures in food quality and food safety fields. The decay of foods is caused by physical, chemical and biological factors, which leads to the loss of the organoleptic characteristics and consumer safety. Natural extracts combining both antioxidant and antibacterial activities can be used for further applications in reducing food spoilage and prolonging food shelf life. The majority of natural extracts could be approved as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). St. Lawrence Estuary seaweed extracts possess high potential for application in the food industry using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, which was selected for extraction efficiency purposes. In addition, production of seaweeds extracts using approved food‐grade ethanol solvent by PLE method involves, on an industrial scale, cost savings.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:03:21.474046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12146
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