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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 299 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (14 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (216 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (216 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista Ceres     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
TECA : Tecnologia i Ciència dels Aliments     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Vitae     Open Access  
Zagadnienia Ekonomiki Rolnej     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.424]   [H-I: 32]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1609 journals]
  • Antibacterial effects of two monoterpene glycosides from Hosta plantaginea
           (lam.) Aschers
    • Authors: Qinghu Wang; Jingjing Han, Baiyinmuqier Bao
      Abstract: In this paper, we carried out a systematic chemical study on the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract from the flowers of Hosta plantaginea (Lam.) Aschers (H. plantaginea), which resulted in the isolation of a new compound (1) together with one known compound (2). The structure elucidations of new compound were carried out by 1D [1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] and 2D‐NMR spectral analysis. Studies on the antibacterial activity established that compound 1 showed statistically higher inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) compared to streptomycin and compound 2. Among the tested bacteria, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) was the most sensitive and Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) was found to be the most resistant. The antibacterial activities exhibited by compound 1 demonstrate their potential for use as nutraceuticals and in food preservation. Practical applications The flowers of H. plantaginea are used as a clinical medicine to treat many diseases, such as swelling, mastadenitis, otitismedia, anabrosis, lung heat, and terrific heat. Various pharmacological properties have been observed in some steroidal glycosides and alkaloids from H. plantaginea including cytotoxic and anti‐inflammatory. In the article, the antibacterial activities of two monoterpene glycosides from the flowers of H. plantaginea have been evaluated for the first time. Therefore, the results may have some useful practical implications at both the food and medicine technology.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T01:20:29.674402-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12320
       
  • Modulation of the secondary and tertiary structures of African yam bean
           (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed globulins, albumins and protein concentrate
           by pH and NaCl
    • Authors: Comfort F. Ajibola; Tayo N. Fagbemi, Rotimi E. Aluko
      Abstract: African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed flour was extracted with 0.5 M NaCl and the supernatant dialyzed against water to obtain two protein products, the water‐soluble albumin and water‐insoluble globulin. The flour was also extracted separately with alkaline water followed by acid‐induced protein precipitation at pH 5.0 to produce a protein concentrate. Amino acid composition was similar for the three protein products and showed a low Arg/Lys ratio. The three protein products had higher contents of the α‐helix fraction than the β‐strand but the level of unordered secondary structure was highest at pH 8.0. The near‐UV chromatograms showed phenylalanine and tyrosine transitions in the albumin, whereas only the phenylalanine transition was seen in globulin and protein concentrate. Addition of increasing levels of NaCl led to increased structural rigidity in the albumin and protein concentrate but not so much in the globulin. Practical applications Plant proteins continue to be highly desirable as functional ingredients in foods, especially low fat products. However, functionality of seed proteins from under‐utilized crops has not been properly studied. It is well known that food matrices vary in ionic strength and pH, which then determine protein functionality during processing and storage. Since protein functionality is directly dependent on structural conformation, knowledge of the structural properties of seed proteins at different pH and salt concentrations could facilitate formulation of food products with desirable or novel attributes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T01:42:15.357219-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12321
       
  • The biochemical composition of the leaves and seeds meals of moringa
           species as non‐conventional sources of nutrients
    • Abstract: Some physicochemical properties of the oil, crude protein, sugars, and amino acids of the leaves and seed meals of two Moringa species were determined and compared using Student's T‐test. The oil properties and fatty acid composition were significantly (at either p ≤ .01 or p ≤ .05) varied between the two species. The sterols and tocopherols contents of the species oil differed significantly. Most of the sterols were not detected in Moringa oleifera oil. The sugars contents were significantly different between the two species. The protein contents of M. oleifera leaves and seed meals were significantly higher than those of Moringa peregrina. Compared with M. peregrina, the M. oleifera leaves and seed meals had significantly higher amounts of amino acids. The most concentrated amino acids in the M. oleifera leaves and seed meals were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leucine whereas those in M. peregrina were threonine, serine, and proline. Practical applications Moringa seed kernels contain a significant amount of oil. Moringa leaves are a good human food and animal feed. Various parts of Moringa oleifera are incorporated into the traditional food of humans. The leaves of Moringa are a good source of protein, vitamin A, B, and C. The leaf of M. oleifera contains crude protein up to 25%. In many tropical and subtropical countries, various parts of M. oleifera (leaves, fruits, immature pods, and flowers) are incorporated into the traditional food of humans.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T01:10:57.193744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12322
       
  • Characterization of Endogenous Protease and the Changes in Proteolytic
           Activity of Acetes vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri During Kapi
           Production
    • Authors: Jaksuma Pongsetkul; Soottawat Benjakul, Punnanee Sumpavapol, Kazufumi Osako, Nandhsha Faithong
      Abstract: Characteristics of endogenous proteases of shrimp, Acetes vulgaris (AP) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (MP) as well as the changes in proteolytic activity during Kapi production were investigated. Maximal activity of AP and MP was found at pH 7, 60C and pH 8, 60C, respectively. Activity of both proteases decreased with increasing NaCl concentration (0–30%). Both extracts were strongly inhibited by N‐ethylmaleimide‐phenylmethane‐sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), suggesting that major proteases belonged to serine proteases. This was coincidental with high trypsin activity toward BAPNA and chymotrypsin activity toward BTEE. Proteolytic activity, trypsin and chymotrypsin were detectable throughout Kapi fermentation. The activity was decreased when salting was implemented. Nevertheless, activities increased continuously with increasing fermentation time. During Kapi production, proteins underwent degradation as indicated by the formation of oligopeptides and disappearance of myosin heavy chain and actin. Therefore, both endogenous and microbial proteases were more likely involved in proteolysis of shrimp during Kapi production. Practical Applications Kapi, traditional salted shrimp paste, is usually used as a condiment to enhance the palatability of many Thai foods. Recently, small shrimp Acetes Vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri have become the new alternative raw materials for Kapi production because of their availability. During fermentation, protein hydrolysis is induced by endogenous proteases in shrimp as well as those produced by halophilic bacteria. Those changes medicated by proteolysis can be associated with the final characteristics of Kapi.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T03:30:22.894474-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12311
       
  • Stabilization of Black Soybean Anthocyanin by Chitosan Nanoencapsulation
           and Copigmentation
    • Abstract: To stabilize the color and the antioxidant activity of black soybean anthocyanin, the potential of nanoencapsulation and copigmentation was investigated. Anthocyanin was copigmented with sinapic acid and nanoencapsulated by the ionic gelation method. The stability of anthocyanin in terms of color and antioxidant activity was significantly improved by both nanoencapsulation and copigmentation (P < 0.05). The nanoencapsulation was more efficient in improving the antioxidant activity and the color stability of Anthocyanin at high temperature. In addition, the highest stability of anthocyanin was observed in the copigmented anthocyanin‐loaded nanoparticles, in which half‐lives and retention were more than 2.6 and 7.4‐fold greater than those of nonencapsulated anthocyanin. These results suggested that a combination of copigmentation and nanoencapsulation could be an effective technique for improving the color and antioxidant stability of anthocyanin. Practical Applications Although anthocyanin of black soybean has diverse health‐promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti‐obesity, and hypolipidemic effects, few studies have been conducted with black soybean anthocyanin. In this manuscript, to stabilize the color and the antioxidant activity of black soybean anthocyanin, the potential of nanoencapsulation and copigmentation was investigated. The result suggests that a combination of copigmentation and nanoencapsulation could be useful for improving anthocyanin stability in terms of color and antioxidant activity. Therefore, this strategy for stability of black soybean anthocyanin could be practically employed in the food and nutrition industry because it can improve not only visual color but also biological activity of anthocyanin‐related products.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T03:23:23.346731-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12316
       
  • Modulatory effects of rice bran and its oil on lipid metabolism in insulin
           resistance rats
    • Abstract: The study was designed to evaluate the effects of rice bran (RB) or its oil (RBO) on lipid metabolism, hepatic insulin receptor substrate‐1 (IRS‐1) and hepatic expression of 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl‐Co A (HMG‐CoA) reductase in rats fed high‐fructose diet (HFD). Rats were divided into four groups: Group 1, animals received standard diet as control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on a HFD. Groups 3 and 4 animals fed HFD containing RB (5%) instead of cellulose and RBO (10%) instead of corn oil, respectively for 5 weeks. Fructose feeding to rats caused significant elevations in plasma glucose, serum insulin, and lipid profile, while serum total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced compared to control. Hepatic concentration of IRS‐1 was decreased while malondialdehyde (MDA) and HMG‐CoA reductase mRNA were elevated compared to control group. Addition of RB or RBO to fructose fed rats alleviated the hazardous effects of fructose. Practical applications Rats fed high‐fructose diet were used as a model of insulin resistance accompanied by deleterious metabolic consequences including hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension in rats and these metabolic effects are similar to those observed in human multi‐metabolic syndrome X. Supplementation of rice bran or rice bran oil to fructose‐fed rats improves insulin resistance and reduces lipo‐ and glucotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T21:40:34.05285-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12318
       
  • Unsaponifiable Matter from Rice Bran Attenuates High Glucose‐Induced
           Lipid Accumulation by Activating AMPK in HepG2 Cells
    • Abstract: Rice bran, a major by‐product of rice milling, has a variety of health benefits, including antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and cholesterol‐lowering effects. However, the effects of rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) on hepatic lipid metabolism remain unclear. In this study, the effects of rice bran USM in the prevention of high glucose‐induced lipid accumulation and its putative mechanism in HepG2 cells were investigated. USM significantly inhibited high glucose‐induced lipid accumulation and suppressed fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element‐binding protein‐1c expression in HepG2 cells. It also increased the phosphorylation of AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase. Moreover, a specific inhibitor of AMPK attenuated the effects of USM on lipid accumulation. These results demonstrate that rice bran USM prevents hepatic lipid accumulation via an AMPK‐dependent signaling pathway and provides a promising approach for novel lipid‐lowering therapies. Practical Application Rice bran is known to be rich in phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ‐oryzanol, all of which have health benefits. In recent years, the recognition of the health benefits of rice bran has resulted in its increased use in a range of food products, which far exceeds its usage as a dietary supplement. This study provides biological evidence that supports the use of rice bran unsaponifiable matter in the prevention of hepatic lipid accumulation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-15T23:35:22.06441-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12313
       
  • Protoaphin‐fb, Newly Isolated from Galla Rhois, Suppresses
           LPS‐Stimulated Inflammatory Reactions in Murine Macrophages
    • Authors: Hee Won Lee; Yoon Hee Kim
      Abstract: Protoaphin‐fb is a phenolic compound newly isolated from Galla Rhois, a Korean medical plant. In the present study, the anti‐inflammatory effects of protoaphin‐fb in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐stimulated murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) were investigated. Protoaphin‐fb inhibited release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by reducing protein expression levels of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase‐2 in LPS‐treated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, protoaphin‐fb suppressed release of interleukin‐6 and tumor necrosis factor‐α induced by LPS. Further study indicated that protoaphin‐fb blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor‐κB from the cytosol to nucleus, which is one of the underlying mechanisms of the anti‐inflammatory action of protoaphin‐fb. Collectively, these data suggest that protoaphin‐fb might be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Practicl Applications Galla Rhois has long been used in Korean traditional medicine due to its various pharmacological effects, including hepatic protective effect, anti‐bacterial activity, and anti‐platelet effect. The results of this research demonstrate that protoaphin‐fb is effective in attenuating inflammation. This result suggests its potential applicability in functional foods, cosmetic industry, and medicine manufacturing for people suffering from inflammation and inflammatory‐related diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-08-15T22:25:22.204133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12317
       
  • In vitro Activities of the Four Structurally Similar Flavonols Weakened by
           the Prior Thermal and Oxidative Treatments to a Human Colorectal Cancer
           Line
    • Abstract: Four structurally similar flavonols galangin, kaempferol, morin and myricetin in solutions were heated at 100C for 30 min or oxidized by air for 6 h, and then assessed for in vitro activities to human colon cancer cells (HCT‐116) in terms of anti‐proliferation, apoptosis induction, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. The oxidized and especially heated flavonol solutions showed degradation with decreased violet absorption, and the four flavonols and treated flavonols all could induce the cells with apoptotic morphology. Other results indicated that galangin with less −OH in its molecules had the highest activities to the cells, followed by morin, kaempferol and myricetin with increased −OH numbers in their molecules. The oxidized and especially heated flavonols always showed weaker anti‐proliferation, apoptosis induction, ROS generation and membrane disruption than native flavonol counterparts, demonstrating adverse effects of the thermal and oxidative treatments on these anti‐cancer activities of flavonols. Practical Applications In this study, the four flavonols were proved to have anti‐cancer activities to human colon cancer HCT‐116 cells shown as growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, membrane disruption, and enhancement of ROS generation. However, oxidative and especially thermal treatments of the flavonols were observed to decrease these activities. The results demonstrate an important conclusion that improperly and excessive heating and storage of plant foods might induce flavonol (or flavonoid) degradation, and thus bring about adverse effects on anti‐cancer properties of plant foods. The effects of other treatments on anti‐cancer properties of flavonoid or plant foods containing them are suggested for further investigation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T02:11:51.558994-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12310
       
  • Ultrasonic‐Assisted Extraction of Rice Bran Protein Using Response
           Surface Methodology
    • Abstract: Rice bran was used for isolating protein through ultrasonic‐assisted extraction. The protein was converted into protein hydrolysates (PH) with three commercial enzymes. The optimal condition for rice bran protein production was 76% sonication amplitude, 18 min extraction and 0.99 g/10 mL solid–liquid ratio, which gave protein yield of 4.73 ± 0.03%. The degree of hydrolysis for the rice bran protein by Subtilisin A (SPH), Actinase E (APH) and Neutrase 0.8L (NPH) was 20.03 ± 0.24%, 13.84 ± 0.04% and 5.54 ± 0.07%, respectively. The molecular weight of the isolated proteins ranged between
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T23:30:40.201815-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12314
       
  • Erectogenic, Antihypertensive, Antidiabetic, Anti‐Oxidative Properties
           and Phenolic Compositions of Almond Fruit (Terminalia catappa L.) Parts
           (Hull and Drupe) – in vitro
    • Authors: Stephen A. Adefegha; Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I. Oyeleye, Isaac Ejakpovi
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of almond (Terminalia catappa L.) fruit parts (hull and drupe) extracts on key enzymes (arginase, angiotensin‐1‐converting enzyme, α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase) relevant to erectile dysfunction, type‐2 diabetes and hypertension, assess their antioxidant properties and characterize their phenolic constituents. The hull and drupe extracts were prepared by a mixture of absolute methanol and 1N HCl, evaporated to dryness and used for subsequent analysis. The result revealed that the hull and drupe extracts inhibited arginase, angiotensin‐1‐converting enzyme, α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase activities in a dose‐dependent manner. Both extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+, chelated Fe2+ and inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat penile homogenate in vitro. Chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid and kaempferol were identified as the major phenolic compounds. This study suggests that these fruit parts can be natural sources of erectogenic, antihypertensive antidiabetic and anti‐oxidative agents. However, the hull showed better potential than the drupe. Practical Applications The results suggest that Almond (Terminalia catappa L.) fruit parts, including the hull and drupe, have potential applications as functional foods and nutraceuticals for both animal and human nutrition. In addition, the hull and drupe could be useful for therapeutic purposes as erectogenic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and anti‐oxidative agents.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:51:15.331152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12309
       
  • The Protective Effect of Antioxidant Enriched Fractions from Colored
           Potatoes Against Hepatotoxic Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hepatocytes and
           Mice
    • Abstract: Herein, we prepared standardized antioxidant‐enriched fractions from red (AFR) and purple (AFP) colored potatoes and evaluated their protective effects against hepatotoxicity induced by oxidative stress. The major compound contained in both AFR and AFP was 5‐caffeoylquinic acid. Experiments in vitro showed that AFR and AFP protected against HepG2 cell death induced by tert‐butyl hydroperoxide (t‐BHP) as determined by cell viability assay. AFR and AFP recovered alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities, which increased by t‐BHP treatment in HepG2 cells. AFR and AFP also inhibited the cleavage of PARP and caspase‐3 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, in vivo experiments in mice showed that AFR and AFP protected against t‐BHP‐induced hepatotoxicity and recovered serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. AFR and AFP also rescued serum antioxidant enzyme activities, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, which were disturbed by t‐BHP treatment. Our data clearly demonstrate that AFR and AFP protect against hepatic damage induced by oxidative stress. Practical Applications Colored potatoes contain plentiful amounts of antioxidant compounds that can be developed into dietary supplements for the improvement of human health. We prepared antioxidant‐enriched fractions from red and purple colored potatoes (AFR and AFP, respectively) to be used as hepatoprotective agents. Based on chemical profiling analysis, we found that 5‐caffeoylquinic acid can serve as a marker for the standardization of AFR and AFP as functional food materials. AFR and AFP strongly protected against oxidative stress and injury both in cultured hepatocytes and mice. AFR and AFP prevented the cell death of hepatocytes, and they also rescued hepatic damage markers ALT and AST both in cell and animal experiments. Generally, AFP showed higher hepatoprotective activity than AFR. Taken together, AFR and AFP may be promising candidates as functional foods for improving human liver function.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T22:20:50.601283-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12315
       
  • Lipid Oxidation and Biochemical Quality of Indian Mackerel during Frozen
           Storage: Effect of Previous Treatment with Plant Extracts
    • Authors: Pankyamma Viji; Puthanpurackal Kizhakkethil Binsi, Sivam Visnuvinayagam, Chitradurga Obaiah Mohan, Gudipati Venkateshwarlu, Teralandur Krishnaswamy Srinivasa Gopal
      Abstract: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of mint extract (ME) and citrus extract (CE) on lipid oxidation and biochemical changes of Indian mackerel during frozen storage. ME yielded significantly higher amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds and exhibited potential antioxidant activity as measured by Ferric Reducing Power Assay (FRAP) than CE. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in ME (0.5%, w/v) and CE (1%, w/v) for 30 min, frozen in air blast freezer and stored at −20C for 8 months. Formation of lipid peroxides and thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were significantly inhibited by ME followed by CE compared to control ©. Plant extract treatment also led to lower lipid hydrolysis and trimethyl amine generation (TMA‐N) during frozen storage. The results of the study suggest ME is a very effective inhibitor of lipid and myoglobin oxidation and has great potential as a natural preservative for controlling the biochemical changes in frozen stored fatty fishes. Practical Applications Frozen stored fatty fishes are highly susceptible to quality loss due to lipid oxidation and other biochemical changes. Although synthetic additives are widely used as antioxidants, the recent trend is to replace those with natural counterparts. This study evaluates the effects of plant extract treatment on lipid oxidation and biochemical quality of Indian mackerel during frozen storage. Mint extract treatment was found effectively retarding the lipid and myoglobin oxidation during storage and could be useful to processors for achieving better profitability and consumer satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T10:05:43.150131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12308
       
  • Eckol from Eisenia bicyclis Inhibits Inflammation Through the Akt/NF‐κB
           Signaling in Propionibacterium acnes‐Induced Human Keratinocyte Hacat
           Cells
    • Abstract: To investigate whether eckol, a phlorotannin compound from edible brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis, could be responsible for the suppression of inflammatory processes, we examined the anti‐inflammatory effects of eckol on Propionibacterium acnes‐induced human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells. P. acnes–treated HaCaT cells increased the expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines and chomokines. We also examined in vitro regulatory function of eckol on production of nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)−2 and MMP‐9 as well as expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase‐2, and tumor necrosis factor‐α. Eckol inhibited the expression or formation production of these proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in HaCaT cells. Additionally, treatment of HaCaT cells with P. acnes significantly increased protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF‐κB) activation. Eckol inhibited P. acnes‐mediated phosphorylation of Akt and activation of NF‐κB in a dose‐dependent manner. These results suggest that eckol could be a potential therapeutic agent to effectively treat the inflammatory skin disease induced by P. acnes. Practical Applications Eisenia bicyclis is a common perennial phaeophyceae (brown alga) and generally inhabits the region of Ulleung Island in the East sea of Korea. This edible seaweed is widely consumed in various ways such as appetizers, casseroles, muffins, pilafs, and soups. E. bicyclis also has various physiological properties such as antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities because of their substantial quantities of phenolic compounds, constituted mainly by marine‐derived polyphenols (phlorotannins). Eckol, one of phlorotannins from E. bicyclis, shows therapeutic effectiveness against viable P. acnes‐induced inflammation in HaCaT cells. Thus, we suggest that eckol from E. bicyclis is a potential treatment for anti‐inflammatory therapy for acne vulgaris.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T10:05:32.248805-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12312
       
  • Therapeutic Efficacy of Hammada scoparia Extract Against Ethanol Induced
           Renal Dysfunction in Wistar Rats
    • Authors: Bourogaa Ezzeddine; Jarraya-Mezghani Raoudha, Damak Mohamed, El Feki Abdelfattah
      Abstract: Renoprotective effect of Hammada scoparia extracts was evaluated in Wistar albino rats which were distributed into five groups of six animals each. Three groups were treated simultaneously with ethanol 35% (4 g/kg) and plant extracts for 4 weeks. Other animals (EtOH) were given ethanol alone, and the control received 0.9% NaCl. The results showed that methanolic extract attenuated the increase of TBARS in kidneys, and also enhanced antioxidant status of the rats by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase by 42, 32 and 49%, respectively. The glycogen synthase kinase-3β and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 were overexpressed in kidneys of ethanol-treated rats, but was normalized after methanolic extract administration. The results suggest that the renal protection of H. scoparia leaf extract was caused by inactivation of GSK-3β expression which leads to enhancement of antioxidant activity in the kidney and a decrease in lipid peroxidation rate. Practical Application Hammada scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) is widely used in North African traditional medicine, as prevention against several diseases such cancer, hepatitis, inflammation and obesity. Recent studies have also shown that H. scoparia leaves extract possessed molluscicidal activity, a potent antitumoral activity and hepatoprotective effect. Taking into consideration the ability of natural components to reduce several diseases, the present study has evaluated the renoprotective effect of H. scoparia leaves extract which may prove to be effective against ethanol-induced renal disorders.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T02:20:32.306094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12307
       
  • Study on the Anti-Tumor Ability of Niaowangzhong Green Tea
    • Authors: Dan Li; Yingyu Chen, Yahui Huang, Lijuan Zhang, Jiagan Yang, Xingguo Xu, Qing Liu, Xu Zhang
      Abstract: It has been known that green tea not only possesses certain chemo-preventive effects on cancer, but also can kill directly some types of tumor cells. Niaowangzhong tea (C. sinensis), a special tea resource growing in Qiannan Buyi, a Miao Minority Autonomous Prefecture in Guizhou province, China, is one of the most popular medicinal beverages for local people there. The aims of this study were to analyze the quality components and their relative contents present in Niaowangzhong green tea and to investigate whether or not the water extract of this green tea has the antitumor capability in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical analysis indicated that this green tea extract contained relatively higher levels of tea polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids compounds and polysaccharides. In the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)−2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, this green tea extract showed inhibitory activity against several types of tumor cells, including breast, prostate, colorectal and gastric cancer cell lines, with higher selectivity toward human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of MGC-803 was 32.5 μΜ as compared to that (367.9 μΜ) of normal vascular endothelial cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses showed that the proportion of cells arrested at the G0/G1 phase was increased with the increase in concentration, and the proportion of apoptotic cells was also increased. Niaowangzhong green tea extract could significantly inhibit tumor-sphere formation in the in vivo antitumor experiment and the growth of MGC-803-derived tumor in nude mice. At the concentration of 500 mg/kg/day, inhibition rate was 31.0% without causing obvious toxic side effects. This study revealed a potent anti-cancer activity of this special green tea and its promising potential as chemo-preventive agent and proper dietary practice for prevention and control of cancers. Practical Application This study has indicated that Niaowangzhong green tea extract caused stronger cytotoxic effects on two kinds of digestive tract tumor cells HCT-15 and MGC-803, suggesting that as one of the most popular medicinal beverages, this green tea extract may be more suitable for treating digestive tract cancers since it can be more accessible to the locations of digestive and intestinal tracts. Therefore, this specific green tea merits further depth study on underlying mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels and further development for potential medical application and dietary practices for prevention of cancers, especially for digestive and intestinal tracts. Co-administration of the anti-cancer drugs and Niaowangzhong green tea may reduce the toxic side effects and drug resistance while achieving desired effect because of the reason that Niaowangzhong green tea extract are mediated through the synergic effects of a variety of anti-cancer compounds present it and had no obvious toxic side effects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T00:55:34.954384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12305
       
  • Fermentation of Sargassum thunbergii by Kimchi‐Derived Lactobacillus sp.
           SH‐1 Attenuates LPS‐Stimulated Inflammatory Response Via
           Downregulation of JNK
    • Abstract: The fermentative effect of Sargassum thunbergii by lactic acid bacteria on the inflammatory responses was evaluated in LPS‐induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The fermentation of S. thunbergii was carried out using isolated Lactobacillus sp. SH‐1 at 30C for 2 days. As a result, we confirmed that the fermentation of S. thunbergii with Lactobacillus sp. SH‐1 significantly inhibited LPS‐stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2), tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α), interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) as important inflammatory factors. In comparing analysis, 85% aq. MeOH and nHexane fractions significantly inhibited NO production in a dose‐dependent manner and suppressed expression of cytokines iNOS, COX‐2, TNFɑ, IL‐1β and IL‐6. Therefore, effective suppression of proinflammatory cytokine indicated that the fermentation process using Lactobacillus sp. SH‐1 may provide a beneficial effect on the bioactive compound content of the extract. Practical Applications S. thunbergii is a common edible algae known for its potential health benefits. Although several algae species are being utilized in functional food industry, necessity for wide spectrum of bioactivities as well as enhanced efficiency remains. Natural processing the functional food products in order to obtain enhanced and added potential is a method mainly preferred in nutraceutical field. In this study, fermentation of S. thunbergii with kimchi‐derived bacteria was chosen for processing the alga and shown to enhance the anti‐inflammatory effect, promoting the utilization of fermented algae as potential nutraceutical against inflammation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T22:30:25.257358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12306
       
  • Changes in Protein Hydrolysates During Processing of Chinese Traditional
           Dry‐Cured Bacon (Laròu) Production
    • Authors: Jinjie Zhang; Xihong Zhao
      Abstract: Protein and its degradation products are the main nutrients and flavor precursors in pork products. In this study, protein, total nitrogen (TN), water‐soluble nitrogen (WSN), peptides, and free amino acids (FAAs) were analyzed during the production process of Chinese traditional dry‐cured bacon, “Laròu.” Results indicated that the TN content showed no significant changes throughout the whole process, while the WSN content decreased sharply during the salting period but increased during aging. The sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE) profile indicated that protein decomposition effectively took place during the late aging period. A decreasing tendency of the total peptides was observed throughout the aging period. On the contrary, the content of total FAAs increased significantly in the final products. Protein degradation and related flavor compound formation mostly occurred during the aging period of the “Laròu” manufacturing. Practical Applications “Laròu” is a popular Chinese dry‐cured meat product for its special chewiness and flavor. This study investigates the changes in proteolysis during the process of “Laròu” and provides the theoretical bases for the quality improvement of Chinese traditional dry‐cured meat products.
      PubDate: 2016-07-18T01:10:55.412576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12304
       
  • Therapeutic Potential of Myrtus communis Subsp.communis Extract Against
           Acetic ACID‐Induced Colonic Inflammation in Rats
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract from leaves of Myrtus communis subsp. communis (MC) on acetic acid (AA)‐induced ulcerative colitis in rats. On the fourth day of colitis induction, all rats were decapitated. Colitis was assessed by macroscopic and microscopic scores and by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, luminol, lucigenin, nitric oxid and peroxynitrite chemiluminescence (CL). Colitis caused significant increases in the colonic MDA levels, MPO activity, CL values, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores along with significant decrease in tissue GSH level. However, treatment with MC extract reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by AA with the protective effects being similar to that of sulphasalazine treatment. The study showed that MC extract could alleviate colitis in rats and can be considered an alternative therapeutic approach for management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Practical Applications Myrtus communis subsp. communis leaves are used as antihypertensive, antitussive, antiemetic, diuretic, antidiarrheic, cardiotonic, antidiabetic and anti‐inflammatory agents in folk medicine. This study revealed that the ethanol extract of the plant possesses significant anti‐inflammatory activity, confirming its traditional use.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:51.994322-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12297
       
  • The Antimicrobial Effects of Thyme, Garlic and Basil Oleoresins Against
           Bacillus coagulans in Tomato Sauce
    • Abstract: The antimicrobial activities of thyme (Thymus serpyllum), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oleoresins against Bacillus coagulans in a tomato based sauce was investigated.The inhibitory and bactericidal effects of oleoresins against B. coagulans ATCC 7050 were tested in the sauce media (pH 4.2 and °Brix (soluble solids content) 10). As a result, thymol as a major component of thyme oleoresin similar to its essential oil; estragol, eugenol, and eucolyptol for basil, and octadecanoic acid and oleic acid for the garlic oleoresin were identified with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). Minumum inhibition concentrations (MIC) were found as 2.5 ml, 1.25 ml, and 1.25 ml/100 ml sauce for the thyme, basil, and garlic oleoresins, respectively. These findings demonstrated that basil and garlic have the same inhibitory effects against bacteria and were more effective than thyme in the tomato based sauce. In addition at the the end of 8 h, with thyme, basil and garlic oleoresins 3.20, 2.50 and 2.56 log reductions were provided. Practical Applications Oleoresins have similar compositions to essential oils. There is limited study about oleoresins especially for in vitro studies. MIC values were found as 2.5 ml, 1.25 ml, 1.25 ml/100 ml sauce for thyme, basil, garlic for B. coagulans, respectively. Oleoresins have antimicrobial effects and could be used in sauces and other industrial food products. In addition oleoresins could be used for further researches. They have a potential alternative to preservatives with their inhibitory and bacterisidal activities.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:51.515665-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12296
       
  • Structural Properties of Phycoerythrin from Dulse Palmaria palmata
    • Authors: Yoshikatsu Miyabe; Tomoe Furuta, Tomoyuki Takeda, Gaku Kanno, Takeshi Shimizu, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Zuoqi Gai, Hajime Yasui, Hideki Kishimura
      Abstract: We found that the red alga dulse (Palmaria palmata) contains a lot of proteins, which is mainly composed of phycoerythrin (PE) and the protein hydrolysates showed high angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Therefore, we investigated the structure of dulse PE to discuss its structure‐function relationship. We prepared the chloroplast DNA and analyzed the nucleotide sequences encoding PE by cDNA cloning method. It was clarified that dulse PE has α‐ and β‐subunits and they are composed by 164 amino acids (MW: 17,638) and 177 amino acids (MW: 18,407), respectively. The dulse PE contained conserved cysteine residues for chromophore attachment site. On the alignment of amino acid sequences of dulse PE with those of other red algal PE, the sequence identities were very high (81–92%). In addition, we purified and crystallized the dulse PE, and its crystal structure was determined at 2.09 Å resolution by molecular replacement method. The revealed 3D structure of dulse PE which forms an (αβ)6 hexamer was similar to other red algal PEs. Conversely, it was clarified that the dulse PE proteins are rich in hydrophobic amino acid residues (51.0%), especially aromatic amino acid and proline residues. The data imply that the high ACE inhibitory activity of dulse protein hydrolysates would be caused by the specific amino acid composition and sequence of dulse PE. Practical Applications Dulse is an abundant and underused resource, which contains a lot of phycobiliproteins. Then, the dulse protein hydrolysates strongly inhibited the activity of ACE. Therefore, it has the potential to be an ingredient of functional food.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:47.617256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12301
       
  • Supplementation of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Peel in Diet Ameliorates
           Cataract in Streptozotocin‐Induced Diabetic Rats
    • Authors: Mahendranath Gondi; Shaik Akbar Basha, Paramahans V. Salimath, Ummiti J.S. Prasada Rao
      Abstract: Cataract is a secondary complication of diabetes and consumption of diet rich in antioxidants and dietary fiber exerts beneficial effects. The effect of mango peel on delay in progression of cataract was evaluated in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats. Diets supplemented with mango peel at 5 and 10% levels ameliorated cataract formation. On treatment of diabetic rats with peel for 16 weeks, lens soluble protein content, glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased by 1.5–2.5 fold while lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels as well as advanced glycation end products formation in lens proteins of diabetic rats were significantly decreased. Mango peel supplementation also inhibited polyol pathway enzyme activities in diabetic rats. Thus, mango peel was effective against development of diabetic cataract mainly through augmentation of antioxidant levels, inhibition of polyol pathway enzymes and AGEs formation in lens of diabetic rats. Practical Applications Oxidative damage to the constituents of eye lens is considered to be the major mechanism for development of various types of cataract and intake of food rich in antioxidants has been reported to delay progression of cataract. Mango peel is a by‐product of mango pulp processing industry and is rich in antioxidants and exhibits antidiabetic properties. This study found that mango peel supplemented diet delayed the progression of diabetic cataract formation. Thus, mango peel can be supplemented in foods for management of diabetes and its complications.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:43.437327-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12300
       
  • α‐Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Different
           Ipomoea aquatica Cultivars and LC–MS/MS Profiling of the Active Cultivar
           
    • Authors: Umar Lawal; Sze Wei Leong, Khozirah Shaari, Intan Safinar Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas
      Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracted using water and methanol at various concentrations on the total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activities. Three I. aquatica cultivars were used in this study including the upland type with narrow leaves (K‐11), low‐land aquatic types with broader shaped leaves (K‐25), and bamboo‐shaped leaves (K‐88). The results revealed that 70% methanol extract of K‐11 showed higher total phenolic content and α‐glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities than the other two cultivars. The phytochemical constituents in the active extract K‐11 were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass spectroscopy. Eighteen compounds were detected of which 13 were tentatively identified as quercetin‐3‐O‐sophoroside, quercetin‐3‐O‐glucoside, quercetin‐3,7‐di‐O‐glucoside, nomilinic acid glucoside, 4,5‐di‐O‐caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5‐di‐O‐caffeoylquinic acid, luteolin‐7‐glucoside and 3,4,5‐tricaffeolquinic acid, fatty acid together with quercetin, and tricaffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Practical Applications Antioxidants protect the human body against infections and degenerative diseases by inhibiting and scavenging free radicals. The present study showed that all methanol extracts of I. aquatica are rich in polyphenols in which 70% methanol extract showed highest in vitro antioxidant and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activities. Knowledge about the antioxidant and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activities of I. aquatica will promote its usage as a functional food, and it can be utilized as an antioxidant sources in food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:35.878426-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12303
       
  • Geographical and Environmental Variation in Chemical Constituents and
           Antioxidant Properties in Roscoea procera Wall
    • Authors: Sandeep Rawat; Indra D. Bhatt, Ranbeer S. Rawal, Shyamal K. Nandi
      Abstract: Roscoea procera is an important Himalayan medicinal plant known for its food and medicinal potential due to antioxidant activity. Among its wild populations, total phenolic and flavonoid content in the rhizomes varied significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-29T02:30:32.177243-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12302
       
  • Preliminary Characterization of Phenolic Acid Composition and
           Hepatoprotective Effect of Stachys pumila
    • Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate phenolic acid composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Stachys pumila extract (SPE) against CCl4‐induced acute hepatotoxicity. Pretreatment of rats with SPE significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:40:39.784004-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12286
       
  • Enzymatic Water Extraction of Polysaccharides from Epimedium brevicornu
           and Their Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect Against DNA Damage
    • Abstract: A protocol of enzymatic water extraction was developed to isolate antiradical and DNA damage inhibitory polysaccharides from Epimedium brevicornu (EbP) using single factor experiments and orthogonal test for the first time. Compared to conventinal heating extraction, enzymatic water extraction dramatically enhanced extraction yield, shortened extraction duration, reduced extractant consumption and decreased extraction temperature. Structural features of EbP were investigated by infrared spectroscopy. And some other physicochemical properties like solubility of EbP were identified. EbP obtained by enzymatic water extraction exhibited ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS+• radicals. Consistent with their free radical‐scavenging activities, Epimedium polysaccharides possessed protective effect against plasmid DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. In summary, enzymatic water extraction seems to be a promising technique for separating Epimedium polysaccharides, which might act as a natural antioxidant or a chemopreventive agent due to their free radical‐scavenging capacity and protective activity against DNA damage caused by oxidative stress. Practical Applications Polysaccharides are considered one of the most important bioactive constituents in the famous edible medicinal plant, Epimedium brevicornu. In the present study, enzymatic water extraction of polysaccharides from Epimedium brevicornu was optimized for further large‐scale industrial processing for the first time. Epimedium polysaccharides obtained by enzymatic water extraction have proved to possess antioxidant and DNA damage inhibitory activities, which show great potential for becoming a nutraceutical in healthy foods or even a phytopharmaceutical.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T20:30:38.681359-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12298
       
  • Characterization and Antibacterial Mode of Action of Lactic Acid Bacterium
           Leuconostoc mesenteroides HJ69 from Kimchi
    • Abstract: This study characterized a lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides HJ69 at biochemical and molecular level, isolate from traditional Korean fermented food Kimchi. Cell free supernatant (CFS) of L. mesenteroides HJ69 exhibited significant (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T02:00:29.250985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12290
       
  • Antifungal Activity of Trans‐2‐Hexenal Against Penicillium cyclopium
           by a Membrane Damage Mechanism
    • Authors: Jihong Zhang; Hu Tian, Helong Sun, Xianyou Wang
      Abstract: The study investigated the antifungal activity and potential antifungal mechanisms of volatile compounds (i.e., E‐2‐hexenal) against Penicillium cyclopium, one of the main tomato postharvest pathogens, which was obtained and purified from postharvest tomato surface. Experimental data suggested that the volatile compound exhibited strong antifungal activity against the targeted pathogens, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 160 μL/L and 320μL/L for E‐2‐hexenal, respectively. The membrane permeability of the P. cyclopium increased with increasing concentrations of E‐2‐hexenal, as evidenced by cell constituent release, leakage of potassium ions, and extracellular conductivity. Moreover, E‐2‐hexenal could induce a decrease in total lipid content and extracellular pH. These results suggest that the anti‐fungal activity of E‐2‐hexenal against P. cyclopium can be attributed to the disruption of the cell membrane integrity, the increase of membrane permeability and the leakage of cell components. Practical Applications Penicillium cyclopium was isolated from the surface of tomato fruits after harvest. E‐2‐hexenal had an inhibitory effect on the hyphae and spores of P. cyclopium. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were determined by using different concentrations of E‐2‐hexenal against P. cyclopium. The study results indicate that the antifungal activity of E‐2‐hexenal against P. cyclopium can be attributed to the disruption of the cell membrane integrity, the increase of membrane permeability and the leakage of cell components. The study results provided a reference for extending the storage of tomato fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T01:45:33.96612-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12289
       
  • Biological Activity and Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Teucrium
           orientale Var. glabrescens by SPME and GC‐FID/MS
    • Abstract: This study describes the constituents of phenolic acids, volatile components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens. Antioxidant activity of methanolic and aquous extracts were examined by three different methods, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2‐diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The phenolic constituents were also determined by reverse phase‐high performance liquid chromatography. Solid phase microextraction of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens was analyzed by Gas Chromatography‐Flame Ionization Dedector/Mass Spectromerty, Solid‐Phase Microextraction (GC‐FID/MS, SPME). The antimicrobial activity was studied by agar diffusion method. Extracts showed strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and contained large amounts of antioxidant compounds. Rosmarinic acid, p‐coumaric acid and p‐hydroxybenzoic acid were detected in methanolic extract of plant. Aquous extract was especially effective against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The main chemical classes identified consisted of aldehydes (32.5%), hydrocarbons (29.8%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.8%). Common volatile components of plant detected included nonanal, thuja‐2,4 (10)‐diene and tetracosane. Practical Applications Medicinal plants are natural resources used in the treatment of various ailments. Teucrium species have been widely used in folk medicine as a remedy for gastritis, parasitic worms, colds, digestive ulcers, etc. Teucrium species are the subject of growing interest because of their biological properties. Although studies on screening the antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity of the Teucrium species have been done densely, studies on phenolic compounds of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens are very limited. Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens extracts studied proved to be a good source of antioxidants, antimicrobial agents and volatile components that might serve to protect health and fight against several diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T01:45:28.83406-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12284
       
  • Studies on the Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Potentials of Cirsium
           arvense subsp. vestitum
    • Authors: Ibrahim Demirtas; Ali Riza Tufekci, Ayse Sahin Yaglioglu, Mahfuz Elmastas
      Abstract: The antioxidant (DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging and FRAP) and antiproliferative activities against Vero cells (african green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) of Cirsium arvense (CA) of all parts [root (Kinghorn et al. 2004), stem (CAS), flower (CAF) and leaves] and isolated compounds were investigated in vitro. CAR was shown to have the highest antiproliferative activity against HeLa and C6 cell lines as compared to other parts. A flavon glucoside (linarin), a steroid glucoside (daucosterin), a steroid (stigmasterol) and a new benzymidazole molecule (E−6‐(3‐(5,6‐dimethoxy‐1H‐benzo[d] imidazol‐2‐yl)allyloxy)−5‐(hydroxymethyl)‐tetrahydro‐2H‐pyran‐2,3,4‐triol) were isolated from the CAR. The structures of these molecules were determined by the 13C (carbon) and 1H (proton)‐ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT‐IR), and Gas Chromatography‐Mass Spectrometry (GC‐MS) techniques. CAR for C6 cell line, CAS for HeLa and Vero cell line were observed the highest antiproliferative activity. In addition, CAR showed the stronger DPPH activity than α‐tocopherol and BHT at high concentrations. The FRAP and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of CAR (Fr‐7) were found to be higher than BHT. Practical Applications Cirsium species are considered as agricultural weed among villagers in Turkey and are used as alternative medicinal plant for years. Studies have shown that these species are rich with regard to bioactive seconder metabolites. There is no phytochemical/bioactivity study about this plant until now. Our findings showed that the extracts of this plant possessed potent antioxidant activities. Four compounds, one of which is a new one to literature, were isolated and characterized. Finally, Cirsium arvense, being considered as an invader plant in agricultural fields, can be evaluated as a good source of antioxidant products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T01:51:41.453725-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12299
       
  • Cognitive Enhancing and Antioxidative Potentials of Velvet Beans (Mucuna
           pruriens) and Horseradish (Moringa oleifera) Seeds Extracts: A Comparative
           Study
    • Authors: Stephen A. Adefegha; Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I. Oyeleye, Felix A. Dada, Isaac Ejakpovi, Aline A. Boligon
      Abstract: Velvet beans and Horseradish seeds are widely consumed as food, and use in folklore for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction although with limited information on their mechanisms of action. This study investigated and compared the effects of aqueous extracts of these seeds on the cholinergic [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] and monoaminergic [monoamine oxidase (MAO)] enzymes and FeSO4‐induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) in isolated rat brain homogenate. Results revealed that both extracts inhibited AChE, BChE, MAO and TBARS in a dose‐dependent manner. However, Horseradish seeds extract had higher AChE, BChE and MAO inhibitory abilities with IC50 values of 0.27, 0.18 and 0.14 mg/mL, respectively, relatively to Velvet beans (AChE = 0.39; BChE = 0.39; MAO = 0.29 mg/mL) extract but displayed lower TBARS inhibitory ability. These biological properties of the seeds explain possible mechanisms for their neuroprotective abilities. However, Horseradish seeds showed better promising potentials than Velvet beans seeds. Practical Application Edible seeds are well known for their various health benefits due to their bioactivity. The findings from this study will add valuable preliminary information regarding the potential use of Velvet beans seeds and Horseradish seeds as cheap, natural, alternative and/or complementary sources of antioxidative and neuroprotective agents. The findings will provide scientific evidence on health advantages of these seeds that might result from their consumption; thereby enabling consumers and patients with neurodegeneration to make better choices.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T02:50:42.095622-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12292
       
  • Evaluation of Brans of Different Rice Varieties for their Antioxidative
           and Antihyperglycemic Potentials
    • Authors: Tanko Abubakar; Nazrim Marikkar, Abubakar Salleh, Azrina Azlan, Make Jivan
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic potentials of bran extracts of seven traditional rice varieties against those of three commercial varieties. The total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities, the α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory potentials of the rice bran extracts were studied in vitro using relevant assays. The results showed that the rice bran extracts of traditional varieties namely, Beras merah and Beras hitam displayed significantly higher α‐glucosidase inhibition (96.56 and 81.52%) and α‐amylase inhibition (88.44 and 84.27%) than the other varieties. Being high in polyphenolic content, they tended to display better anti‐oxidant capacities than the commercial varieties. Hence, brans of traditional rice varieties such Beras merah and Beras hitam could be potentially useful as raw materials for nutritional supplements and natural anti‐diabetic agents. Practical Application The findings of this study highlighted the anti‐oxidative, α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory potentials of some rice brans obtained from Malaysian rice varieties. Since the traditional rice varieties (Beras Merah and Beras Hitam) exhibit significantly higher α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibition, they could be harnessed as raw materials for preparation of ingredients for pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals intended for diabetes management. The findings might give impetus to the Malaysian paddy industry to expand cultivation of Beras Merah and Beras Hitam to produce more bran for value added product formulations for people with special dietary requirements.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T02:50:27.520766-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12295
       
  • Effect of High Intensity Ultrasound on the Gel and Structural Properties
           of Ctenopharyngodon idellus Myofibrillar Protein
    • Abstract: Effect of ultrasound (US) treatment at 0–800 W on the gel properties of Ctenopharyngodon idellus myofibrillar protein (MP) was first evaluated by analyzing the textural properties, water‐holding capacity (WHC) and whiteness. Particle size, fluorescence spectra, free sulfhydryl (SH) groups and microstructure were measured to investigate the structure changes. The MP gel treated with US at 600 W gave the best gel properties, including the highest gel strength, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, WHC and whiteness. Compared with untreated gel, the gel network structure of MP gel treated by US was also more denser and uniform. The reduced particle size, narrowed particle distribution, decreased free SH content and intrinsic fluorescence, as well as improved surface hydrophobicity caused by US treatment indicated the unfolding and disaggragation of MP, which could also be the possible mechanism of improved gel properties. Practical Applications The gelation characteristics of myofibrillar protein (MP) are largely responsible for the textural and functional properties of fish products, and are especially important for the quality of surimi. The poor gel properties of Ctenopharyngodon idellus MP largely limited its application in food industry. This research found that high intensity US at 200–800 W, especially at 600 W, could greatly improve the gel properties of C. idellus MP, which can provide a promising alternative to modify the gel properties of MP, and promote the application of C. idellus MP in food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T03:50:27.610236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12288
       
  • Induction of Apoptosis in MCF‐7 Breast Cancer Cells by Sri Lankan
           Endemic Mango (Mangifera zeylanica) Fruit Peel through Oxidative Stress
           and Analysis of its Phytochemical Constituents
    • Authors: Meran Keshawa Ediriweera; Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon, Ira Thabrew, E. Dilip De Silva
      Abstract: In this study, in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the organic extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Mangifera zeylanica fruit peel and flesh on estrogen receptor positive MCF‐7 cancer cells were examined. Chloroform extract of the peel was found to be cytotoxic to cancer cells (IC50 78.46 ± 1.7 µg/mL) while none of the flesh extracts were cytotoxic. Caspase 7 activity was increased and DNA fragmentation as well as morphological features of apoptosis shown by acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Hoechst (33258) staining occurred in response to the chloroform extract of the peel. Peel chloroform extract also increased production of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, glutathione‐S‐transferase and super oxide dismutase and depleted glutathione levels. The overall results of our study suggest that the peel chloroform extract can induce breast cancer cell apoptosis, perhaps by activation of an oxidative stress mechanism. Practical Applications Mangifera zeylanica (Sri Lankan endemic mango) is a plant endemic to Sri Lanka with edible fruits. Traditional Ayurvedic practitioners have used the bark of this plant for the treatment of some cancers. In the present study, the ability of Sri Lankan endemic mango fruit peel and flesh to inhibit MCF‐7 breast cancer was explored. Only the chloroform extract of the fruit peel exhibited the capacity to mediate apoptosis via oxidative stress mechanism and this activity appeared to be due to the presence of some bio‐active phytochemicals in the peel. This preliminary observation provides a rationale for use of dried M. zeylanica fruit peel as a cheap anticancer dietary supplement in Sri Lanka.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T03:50:23.903098-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12294
       
  • Catalytic and Operational Stability of Acidic Proteases from Monterey
           Sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) Immobilized on a Partially Deacetylated
           Chitin Support
    • Abstract: Recovery of valuable compounds from by‐products generated from seafood processing represents an opportunity to produce value‐added products. Sardine acidic proteases were immobilized on partially deacetylated chitin through ionic linkages, using sodium tripolyphosphate as a support activating agent. Maximal enzyme activities of free and immobilized proteases were detected at pH 2, at which the immobilized form had higher stability than the free enzymes. Optimum temperatures for free and immobilized proteases were 40 and 50C, respectively, while thermal stability of immobilized proteases was greater than that of free proteases. Reusability studies showed that after a second catalytic cycle, the immobilized enzyme maintained about 40% of the initial activity. The immobilization process enhanced the long term storage stability of sardine proteases compared to free enzymes. Results suggest that the immobilized enzyme could be used as a biotechnological aid for food processing when low pH and temperature around 50C are needed. Practical Applications Fish waste constitutes a serious environmental problem due to high disposal costs. Besides, this waste is commonly discarded or used for low value processes. Therefore, this study proposes the immobilization of sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) acidic proteases from fish viscera waste, on a partially deacetylated chitin support extracted from shrimp (Penaeus spp.) head. This research suggests that seafood protease immobilization onto chitinous supports presents an opportunity to improve the stability of these enzymes and consequently enhance potential application of these valuable biocatalysts as biotechnological aid, mainly for food processing and other value added products.
      PubDate: 2016-05-27T21:50:28.512349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12287
       
  • AMP Kinase Activation and Inhibition of Nuclear Factor‐Kappa B
           (NF‐κB) Translocation Contribute to the Anti‐Inflammatory Effect of
           Tricin
    • Abstract: Tricin is a methylated flavone widely distributed in cereal crops. The mechanism underlying the anti‐inflammatory effects of tricin was examined using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Tricin up to 50 μg/mL showed no cytotoxic effects and significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The inhibition of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX‐2) expression were determined by western blotting. The level of iNOS expression was decreased by 80% with tricin concentration as low as 3 μg/mL. Moreover, treatment with tricin significantly decreased the production of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF‐α), interlukin 1β (IL‐1β), and IL‐6. These effects were mediated by inhibition of the nuclear factor‐kappa B (NF‐κB) translocation through stimulation of adenosine monophosphate‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) in macrophages. Practical Applications Tricin is a flavonoid found in the outer layer of cereal crops including cereal byproducts. This study demonstrated that anti‐inflammatory activity mediated by tricin was related to AMPK activation that inhibits NF‐κB translocation. Since AMPK activation is a promising target to modulate lipid and glucose metabolism, tricin has great potential as anti‐diabetic and anti‐obesity agent. Cereal bran fraction containing high tricin content can be a practical source to deliver valuable bioactive compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T00:10:32.504386-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12293
       
  • HPLC Analysis of Twelve Compounds from Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb and their
           Structural Elucidation
    • Authors: Wugedunqiqige Bao; Qinghu Wang, Jingjing Han, Narenchaoketu Han
      Abstract: An investigation of ethyl acetate extracts from Artemisa sacrorum Ledeb (A. sacrorum) has led to the isolation of two new flavonoids together with 10 known compounds. At the same time, a high‐performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of the 12 compounds in A. sacrorum. The separation by gradient elution was performed on Hypersil ODS‐2 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 30C with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase, and monitored by absorbance at 261 nm. The recovery of the method is from 93.33 to 98.67%, and linearity (r > 0.9992) was obtained for 12 compounds. A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values less than 2.0%) were also achieved. This assay was successfully applied to the determination of 12 compounds in 10 samples. Practical Applications The antitumor effects of A. sacrorum have been well known in folk medicine, which suggesting that extracted components from A. sacrorum could potentially treat tumor disease. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural compounds diversity in A. sacrorum is of great importance to evaluate their antitumor effects.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18T03:41:15.067073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12291
       
  • Antimicrobial Impact for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 and
           Enterococcus faecium A15 Isolated from Some Traditional Egyptian Dairy
           Products on Some Pathogenic Bacteria
    • Abstract: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 and Enterococcus faecium A15 had antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes EGDEe 107776. Bacteriocins produced from isolated strains are stable between pH 5 and 8 and stable also until 100C for 10 min. The amount of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 reached to the maximum (2560 AU/mL) at the end of logarithmic phase while Enterococcus faecium A15 was observed in logarithmic phase. PCR results revealed the presence of nisin Z structural gene in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 and enterocin B gene for Enterococcus faecium A15. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 was free from genes of asa1, gelE, espfm, cylA, efaAfs. Otherwise, Enterococcus faecium A15 did not contain an asal, espfm and cylA genes. Tested strains were sensitive to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamycin. Tested strains were not able to hydrolyze red blood cells. Practical Applications Nowadays, the addition of bacteriocins and/or bacteriocin‐producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as natural food preservatives to food products (i.e. cheese and yoghurt) has been considered with the aim of increasing the food safety of these products. Bacteriocins have successfully been used to control Listeria monocytogenes. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 could be used as starter culture or co‐culture in food system for preventing the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and increasing the safety and shelf‐life of dairy products. Enterococcus faecium A15 was able to produce gelatinase but not able to hydrolyze red blood cells. On the other hand, the bacteriocin produced from Enterococcus faecium A15 may find application as bio‐preservatives for increasing the shelf‐life of Egyptian Dairy products.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18T03:36:11.876012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12279
       
  • Cross‐Linking Activity of Ethanolic Coconut Husk Extract Toward Sardine
           (Sardinella albella) Muscle Proteins
    • Authors: Natchaphol Buamard; Soottawat Benjakul
      Abstract: Effects of ethanolic coconut husk extract (ECHE) at various levels (0–0.03%, based on protein content) on the heat‐induced aggregation of natural actomyosin (NAM), extracted from sardine (Sardinella albella) muscle, were studied. During heating from 20 to 90C, the NAM solution showed increased turbidity, surface hydrophobicity, and disulfide bond content. Aggregation was more pronounced as ECHE concentration increased (P 
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T06:03:39.752689-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12283
       
  • Antioxidant Activity and α‐Amylase Inhibitory Effect of
           Polyphenolic‐Rich Extract from Origanum Glandulosum Desf
    • Abstract: The polyphenolic‐rich extract of Tunisian Origanum glandulosum Desf. was investigated for its phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and potential to contribute to the dietary management of type II diabetes. By mean of an ultra‐performance liquid chromatography‐electrospray ionization‐ mass spectrometry (UPLC‐PDA‐ESI‐MS) 16 phenolics were characterized. The major detected compounds are caffeic acid, luteloin glucoside, xanthomicrol and carvacrol. The polyphenolic‐rich extract presented a notable antioxidant activity similar to that of the synthetic antioxidant Trolox. It was found to inhibit, in a concentration dependent manner, the α‐amylase activity with an IC50 value (8.22 mg/mL) comparable to that of Acarbose (6.12 mg/mL). Overall, our findings suggest that O. glandulosum could be considered as a valuable source of high‐value phytochemicals with pharmaceutical and functional food additive applications. Practical Applications Origanum glandulosum Desf., a North African endemic species, is one of the most used plants in folk medicine against whooping cough, fever, bronchitis and diabetes. In the present work, the ability of O. glandulosum to inhibit pancreatic α‐amylase in vitro as well as to act as antioxidant food was investigated. The results suggest that O. glandulosum could be considered as a valuable source of phytochemicals with a potent α‐amylase inhibition property and antioxidant capacity. Further animal and clinical studies were needed to confirm the potential use of O. glandulosum for the management of type II diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T22:02:36.454705-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12271
       
  • Effects of Cooking and Fermentation on the Chemical Composition,
           Functional Properties and Protein Digestibility of Sandbox (Hura
           Crepitans) Seeds
    • Authors: Omolayo R. Osungbade; Olasunkanmi S. Gbadamosi, Oladipupo Q. Adiamo
      Abstract: The effects of cooking and natural fermentation on the chemical composition, functional properties and protein digestibility of Hura crepitans seeds were investigated. The results showed a high protein content and in vitro protein digestibility which increased with cooking (at 100C) and increase in fermentation period (24–96 h). Functional analyses showed a decrease in oil absorption, water absorption, foaming and emulsion properties while fermentation increased the pH, bulk density and least gel concentration. The protein solubility profile of H. crepitans was pH‐dependent as higher solubility was observed in the alkaline than acidic region. The foaming and emulsifying properties were decreased with increase in salt (NaCl) concentration. Therefore, cooking and fermentation processes of H. crepitans seeds can enhance utilization of the seeds. Practical Applications Sandbox (Hura crepitans) seed is one of the underutilized oilseeds in Nigeria that is rich in protein. This study shows that through cooking and fermentation processes, the chemical composition and functional properties of the seeds can be enhanced. These processes will also increase availability and digestibility of protein in the seeds. Therefore, cooked and fermented sandbox seeds can be used as ingredients in food fortification owing to the high protein content and good functional properties.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:46:06.124654-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12273
       
  • Purification and identification of Ace‐inhibitory peptides from poultry
           viscera protein hydrolysate
    • Authors: Sushma Mane; S.N. Jamdar
      Abstract: Three novel Angiotensin I‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were isolated from poultry viscera protein hydrolysate (PVPH). The purification steps involved ultrafiltration of PVPH to eliminate the high molecular weight peptides and RP‐HPLC. The ACE inhibitory activity was resolved into three peaks on C18 column with retention times of 15.0, 18.9 and 20.9 min and amino acid sequences of the three peptides were determined to be ARIYH, LRKGNLE and RVWCP, respectively. The peptides exhibited resistance to hydrolysis by gastrointestinal proteases and extreme temperature (100C) and pH (1–12) at least for 2 h. Two of these peptides were competitive inhibitors, while the third was noncompetitive. The in vitro ACE inhibitory activity of PVPH revealed it could be a promising economic source for nutraceutical applications. Practical Applications Poultry viscera is a protein‐rich by‐product of poultry processing industry. The tissue protein and its hydrolysate offer huge potential for different bioactive peptides. In the present study three novel ACE inhibitory peptides were identified and characterized from poultry viscera protein hydrolysate (PVPH). These peptides could be tested further for their in vivo antihypertensive effect and as functional ingredient in foods.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:30:56.647038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12275
       
  • Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from
           an Edible Seaweed Undaria Pinnatifida
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to extract essential oil from an edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, and determine its chemical constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis of the U. pinnatifida essential oil (UPEO) revealed 26 volatile compounds comprising a total of 97.03%. Fatty acids such as tetradecanoic acid (31.32%) and hexadecanoic acid (22.39%) were present in the highest amount, followed by 3‐hexen‐1‐ol (5.67%), erythritol (4.73%), 4‐imidazolidinone (4.40%) and (9Z)‐hexadec‐9‐enoic acid (4.37%). UPEO displayed potent antibacterial activity (9.5–11.0 mm inhibition zone), an MIC of 12.5–25.0 mg/mL and an MBC of 25.0 mg/mL. UPEO also exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 85.54 µg/mL), reducing power (IC0.5 178.82 µg/mL) and superoxide radical scavenging (IC50 260.89 µg/mL) potential. Taken together, these results indicate that UPEO could be an economical and safe resource for natural antioxidant and antibacterial compounds that can be utilized in food processing, cosmetics and pharmaceutical sectors. Practical Applications Seaweeds are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds with various medicinal properties. The essential oils extracted from an edible seaweed, U. pinnatifida, could serve as an alternative source of natural antioxidant compounds with the potential for use as food additives and in food preservation and cosmetics. Use of this compound could minimize the use of synthetic antioxidant compounds that trigger health hazards. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds present in the UPEO could serve as a source of natural antibiotics against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T05:56:05.110408-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12278
       
  • Phenolic Acid and Flavonoid Composition of Malaysian Honeys
    • Authors: Mohammed Moniruzzaman; Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Siew Hua Gan
      Abstract: In the present study, the phenolic acid and flavonoid composition of eight different honeys (acacia, pineapple, gelam, longan, borneo, rubber tree, sourwood and tualang honeys) originating from different regions of Malaysia are reported. Solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for their identification and quantification. A total of thirteen different phenolic compounds consisting of seven flavonoids and six phenolic acids were investigated. Among these phenolic compounds, five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, coniferic, benzoic and trans‐cinnamic acids) and five flavonoids (catechin, myricetin, naringenin, hesperetin and kaempferol) were detected in the investigated honeys. Longan and tualang honeys contained the highest number (n = 7 for each) of phenolic compounds, while only five phenolic compounds were detected in acacia, borneo and rubber tree honeys. Among the phenolic acids, benzoic acid was the most abundant (75%) followed by caffeic acid, catechin, myricetin, gallic acid and naringenin. The mean concentrations of caffeic, gallic and benzoic acids as well as catechin in the analyzed Malaysian honeys were 2.49, 0.81, 0.64 and 0.61 mg/kg, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that the investigated Malaysian honeys are a good source of different types of phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are important antioxidants. Practical Applications The study provides an overview on phenolic and flavonoid composition of several types of Malaysian honeys. The phenolic composition of some honeys from Malaysia is reported for the first time in this study. The data can be useful for future in vivo studies that involve evaluation of honey's medicinal properties and provide an insight into the type of honey in Malaysia that contains high antioxidant properties. In addition, the sample preparation technique (solid phase extraction) used in this study can provide a basis for the extraction of similar phenolic compounds in other types of honey.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T05:55:44.269201-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12282
       
  • Protective Effect of Astaxanthin on Primary Retinal Cells of the Gerbil
           Psammomys Obesus Cultured in Diabetic Milieu
    • Abstract: Astaxanthin is a major marine carotenoid with powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The in vitro protective effect of astaxanthin in adult retinal cells of the type‐2 diabetic model Psammomys obesus in hyperglycemic conditions was investigated. Primary retinal cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) or high concentrations of glucose (25 and 40 mM) for 5 days and treated with 1–20 µM astaxanthin for the last 48 h of culturing. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and cell viability were assessed using MTT test and trypan blue exclusion dye. Retinal cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that mitochondrial function increased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T01:15:58.911432-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12274
       
  • Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Properties and Hypoglycemic Effect of
           Chaya (Cnidoscolus Chayamansa) in STZ‐Induced Diabetic Rats
    • Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aqueous chaya extract (Cnidoscolus spp.) in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats. Compounds identified and quantified included flavonoids and phenolic acids, in addition to saponins and alkaloids, among others. Several new phenolic compounds (coutaric, vanillic, and rosmarinic acids, and hesperidin), saponins (phytolaccagenic and oleanolic acids, and hederagenin derivatives) and alkaloids (choline, trigonelline, and sitsirikine), were identified. In vivo studies showed that a 4‐week chaya extract treatment (2% w/v) produced hypoglycemic effects not related with insulin secretion or with the inhibition of starch digestive enzymes, rather with a decrease in glucose absorption. Chaya extract was also helpful in reducing hyperlipidemia, which appears not to be related to pancreatic lipase inhibition. Nevertheless, the increase in urinary microalbumin concentration and the diuretic effect suggests possible alterations in renal function after long‐term intake of aqueous chaya extract. Practical Applications Chaya infusions are widely used for diabetes control and this study confirmed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. In addition, new compounds were identified. Therefore, chaya extract can potentially be used to develop functional beverages.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T00:17:01.53661-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12281
       
  • Apium Graveolens Extract Attenuates Adjuvant Induced Arthritis by Reducing
           Oxidative Stress
    • Authors: Nutjanat Choosri; Supita Tanasawet, Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Wanida Sukketsiri
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an Apium graveolens extract (AGE) on the arthritis in rats induced using Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA into the subplantar of the left hind paws. The AGE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and prednisone 10 mg/kg were given orally at day 5 to day 28 after induction. Treatment of AGE significantly attenuated the severity of CFA‐induced arthritis and decreased the arthritis score, paw and ankle thickness. Any histopathological changes were noted. The plasma levels of total peroxide (TP) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were significantly decreased by oral administration of AGE as well as the total antioxidant status (TAS) was significantly increased. Furthermore, oral administrations of AGE remarkably attenuated the increased nitric oxide (NO) levels after induction as was also the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma of CFA‐induced arthritic rats. Practical Applications Apium graveolens Linn has been consumed as food and traditionally used for inflammatory diseases, gout and rheumatic condition. However, there is no report for pharmacological activity of A. graveolens in the treatment of arthritis. Our results indicate that A. graveolens could alleviate CFA‐induced arthritis in rats by decreasing the level of TP, OSI, NO and MPO activity as well as by increasing the level of TAS. Insights from our study may provide the beneficial uses of A. graveolens as a functional food and nutraceutical development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T20:50:43.441975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12276
       
  • Blends of Cold Pressed Black Cumin Oil and Sunflower Oil with Improved
           Stability: A Study Based on Changes in the Levels of Volatiles,
           Tocopherols and Thymoquinone during Accelerated Oxidation Conditions
    • Abstract: Blends (5%, 10% and 20%, w/w) of cold‐pressed black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil (BCO) with sunflower oil (SO) were formulated. Oxidative stability (OxS) of SO and blends during storage at thermal accelerated oxidation conditions including Rancimat method (110C) and Schaal oven test (60C) was studied. Progression of oxidation was followed by measuring peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT). Changes in the volatile oxidation compounds, thymoquinone and tocopherols levels of oils and blends during thermal oxidation were also recorded. Blending did not affect significantly the fatty acids profile of blends wherein linoleic and oleic acids were the main constituents. Inverse relationships were noted between PV and OxS at termination of storage. Levels of CD and CT in SO and blends increased with increase in time. Nine volatile oxidation compounds including hexanal, (E)‐2‐hexenal, 2‐heptanone, (E)‐2‐heptenal, 1‐octen‐3‐one, 1‐octen‐3‐ol, (E)‐2‐octenal, (E,E)‐2,4‐octadienal and (E,E)‐2,4‐decadienal were identified using the headspace/solid phase microextraction‐gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS/SPME‐GC/MS). Hexanal and (E)‐2‐heptenal were predominant identified compounds wherein these compounds increased during oxidation at 60C. Stability of blends was better than SO, most likely due to changes in the levels of thymoquinone and tocopherols’ found in BCO. Practical Application Blending of edible oils have emerged as an economical way of improving organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics of vegetable oils besides enhancement the oxidative stability. Among new sources of edible oils with high levels of bioactive compounds, cold pressed black cumin oil (BCO) is of interest and may play a role in human health. At different levels of blending SO with BCO, the stability of sunflower oil (SO) was enhanced. The optimal level of BCO enrichment will depend on the actual food application. It is expected that commercial exploitation of BCO:SO blends with affordable cost for consumers will be soon realized.
      PubDate: 2016-04-17T20:20:42.170293-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12272
       
  • Bacillus Subtilis‐Fermented Red Bean (Red Bean Natto) Reduces
           Hyperlipidemia Levels in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 50% red beans ethanol natto extracts fermented by Bacillus subtilis on hyperlipidemia in hamsters. Forty male hamsters were randomly assigned to normal control, high‐fat control, and high‐fat with RBNE (red beans natto extracts) (200 and 1000 mg/kg BW) groups. RBNE treatment for 8 weeks significantly decreased the body and visceral fat weight in hamsters. Compared to the high‐fat diet group, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), total triacylglycerol (TAG), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations as well as atherogenic index of plasma AIP [Log(TAG/HDL‐C)] were significantly lower in the RBNE‐fed group. The consumption of RBNE significantly reduced the liver contents of TC, esterified cholesterol (CE) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and increased a regulator of lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor alpha (PPAR‐alpha). Furthermore, the circulating level of irisin was decreased. Practical Application The oral administration of Bacillus subtilis‐fermented red bean natto extract (RBNE), a popular Asian dessert, effectively moderated the metabolism of lipids and positively affected the blood and liver profiles of hamsters fed with a high‐cholesterol and high‐fat diet. Importantly, RBNE significantly suppressed the increase in visceral fat mass. Additionally, RBNE appears to protect the liver and alleviate the magnitude of fatty liver development. RBNE also upregulated PPAR‐alpha protein expression in the liver, suggesting that supplementation may improve lipid metabolism in part through the beta‐oxidation of lipids and promotion of lipid secretion. Furthermore, RBNE may ameliorate hyperlipidemia involving irisin, a newly identified hormone, in hamsters fed a cholesterol‐ and lipid‐enriched diet. In conclusion, RBNE with high hypocholesterolemic activities may be helpful for patients with atherosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T00:11:25.936179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12264
       
  • Optimization Study in Extracting Anti‐Oxidative and Α‐Amylase
           Inhibitor Peptides from Cumin Seeds (Cuminum Cyminum)
    • Abstract: Bioactive peptide with DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power and α‐amylase inhibition properties were successfully extracted from cumin seed using protamex. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction condition. The effects of temperature (X1: 30–50C), time (X2: 1–2 h) and S/E ratio (X3: 20–40 (w/w)) were investigated using the Box‐behnken design. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and quadratic models were found to be significant for all responses. Three‐dimensional response surfaces plotted and the optimum condition was determined as follows: X1 = 42.6C, X2 = 1.83 h and X3 = 20 (w/w). Low molecular mass of peptides (2.0–28.5 kDa) were produced in this condition and the pre‐diluted extract to a dilution factor of 20 gave %DPPHsc of 34.67% and reducing power of 3.67 mM while the non‐diluted extract exhibited α‐amylase inhibition activity of 22.67%. A close agreement was found between the predicted and experimental values. Practical Applications This study highlights that bioactive peptides derived from cumin seed have demonstrated antioxidative and antidiabetic activities, offering health promoting effect beyond its basic nutritional functions. Extraction of these bioactive peptides with the best yield and the highest bioactivity offer a great potential in functional food or nutraceutical applications. The application of response surface methodology is useful to optimize the extraction parameters for increase extraction efficiency. This would make it possible to improve the technological processes for producing high content of bioactive peptides with less cost and shorter time. Knowledge generated in this study will be beneficial in developing strategies to explore bioactive peptides from natural sources with food and pharmaceutical applications.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T00:05:50.116207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12280
       
  • Enzymatic Extraction of Oil from Balanites Aegyptiaca (Desert Date) Kernel
           and Comparison with Solvent Extracted Oil
    • Abstract: Aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from Balanites aegyptiaca (desert date) kernel was optimized using a mixture of four enzymes (alcalase, cellulase, viscozyme L and protease). The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of the oil obtained by enzyme assisted aqueous extraction and byorganic solvent extraction were compared. Using 2% of each enzyme and 1:10 of water‐to‐kernel flour ratio, the yield of oil extraction was 38%, estimated in comparison with extraction by Soxhlet method. Linoleic acid was the most prominent fatty acid, followed by oleic acid, and palmitic acid. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the fatty acid composition of the oil extracted using enzymes mixtures and organic solvents. However, the oil obtained by aqueous enzymatic extraction presented a significantly lower (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T19:11:00.24401-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12270
       
  • Production and Characterization of an Extracellular
           β‐d‐Fructofuranosidase from Fusarium Graminearum During Solid‐State
           Fermentation Using Wheat Bran as a Carbon Source
    • Abstract: The search for new sources of β‐d‐fructofuranosidases with potential for utilization in the food and beverage industries is an important task. The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum was recently reported to produce β‐d‐fructofuranosidase with suitable properties for biotechnological applications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to purify and characterize F. graminearum β‐d‐fructofuranosidase. High levels of the enzyme were obtained in Solid‐State Fermentation (at 30C for 7 days) using wheat bran as a carbon source. The extracellular enzyme was purified 8‐fold with 14% recovery using ethanol precipitation, diethylaminoethyl‐Cellulose, and Sephacryl S‐200. The optimum temperature and pH for the heterodimeric protein (94 kDa and 66 kDa), were 55–60C and 4.5, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 30–50C for 1 h, and at pH 3.0–8.0. Enzymatic activity was enhanced by Mn2+ (127%) and was inhibited by Hg2+. The Km values were 31.6 and 24.1 mM for sucrose and raffinose, respectively. Practical Applications β‐d‐Fructofuranosidases are enzymes with a wide range of industrial applications, especially in the food and beverage industries. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to invert sugar syrup. In addition, some β‐d‐fructofuranosidases can catalyze transfructosylation reaction for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOSes). Both invert sugar and FOSes are important materials for the food industry. The main sources of β‐d‐fructofuranosidase are microorganisms; the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is a new source of β‐d‐fructofuranosidase with attractive properties for practical applications. The characterization of F. graminearum β‐d‐fructofuranosidase is an important step to determine its potential practical applications.
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T03:45:48.283345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12253
       
  • The Inhibitory Effects of Yixing Black Tea Extracts on A‐Glucosidase
    • Authors: Wenxing Hao; Miao Wang, Mengxian Lv
      Abstract: Alpha‐glucosidase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the body's metabolic processes and are commonly used for the treatment of type II diabetes. This study investigated the effects of various extracts from black tea on α‐glucosidase. The black tea extracts strongly inhibited α‐glucosidase activity. The half inhibition rate (IC50) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), n‐butyl alcohol extract (NBAE) and water extract (WE) produced by ethanol extraction were 3.89, 2.92 and 78.28 μg/mL, respectively, and the IC50 values of the extracts produced by water extraction were 8.19, 4.50 and 6.98 μg/mL. These extracts had much better inhibitory effects than acarbose (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). The inhibitory kinetics of the EAE and NBAE from ethanol extraction and WE from water extraction on α‐glucosidase were also studied. The results showed that NBAE had a noncompetitive inhibitory effect on α‐glucosidase whereas EAE and WE had a mixed inhibitory effect on α‐glucosidase. Practical Applications Tea has been widely consumed in China as a kind of traditional drink, and tea has many beneficial health functions, however, the application of tea products in the treatment of diseases is not widely used. The results showed that the extracts of Yixing black tea have a strong inhibition on α‐glucosidase, more effective than acarbose, without side effects. Therefore, the extracts of Yixing black tea maybe developed as functional food additives in dietary therapy or a potential therapeutic agent in controlling and preventing type II diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T04:15:40.641401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12269
       
  • Metabolite Profile and Bioactivity of Musa X Paradisiaca L. Flower
           Extracts
    • Authors: Jayashree Acharya; Swagata Karak, Bratati De
      Abstract: The flower extracts of two cultivated varieties of Musa X paradisiaca viz. Kanthali and Kancha Kela were assayed against the enzymes α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, β‐glucuronidase and Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme, which are related to different diseased states like diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, hepatic disorder and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. The extracts inhibited all the enzymes except α‐amylase by Musa X paradisiaca cv. Kanthali. Significantly high activities were observed in both the cultivated varieties for inhibiting the enzymes β‐glucuronidase and Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme with respect to the known inhibitors of such enzymes silymarin and Lisinopril, respectively. The chemical constituents present in the methanol extracts were profiled following GC‐MS based metabolomics approach. Eleven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar alcohols, six fatty acids, three phenols, two amino acids and a sterol could be identified. Practical Applications The male flowers of Musa X paradisiaca are cooked as vegetable in South‐East Asia. The flowers are also useful in diabetes. Enzyme inhibitors have properties to prevent or control different noninfectious diseases. So, the flower extracts of two varieties of the plant were assayed for their activities against the glycosidases, acetylcholinesterase, β‐glucuronidase and Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme. The activities of the flower extracts against the enzymes suggest that they may have beneficial effects in controlling diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-03-22T22:00:44.478097-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12263
       
  • Angiotensin‐I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Common Edible
           Cephalopods and their Antioxidative Effects using different in vitro
           Models
    • Authors: Kajal Chakraborty; Minju Joy, Vamshi Krishna Raola, Fasina Makkar
      Abstract: Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of ethyl acetate‐methanol (EtOAc‐MeOH) extract of cephalopods, Amphioctopus marginatus, Uroteuthis duvaucelii, Sepia pharaonis, Sepiella inermis and Cistopus indicus were evaluated using different in vitro systems. EtOAc‐MeOH fractions of S. inermis, A. marinates and C. indicus showed greater ferrous ion chelating ability (IC90 5.01–5.8 mg/mL), and were effective in neutralizing the ABTS (IC90 3.5–4.01 mg/mL), and DPPH radicals (IC90 4.69–5.8 mg/mL). The utilities of deconvolated 1H and 13C‐NMR spectroscopy for analyzing the signature peaks and abundance of bioactive functional groups in the extracts of cephalopods were illustrated. The EtOAc‐MeOH extract derived from S. inermis showed greater angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐I (ACE‐I) inhibitory activity (IC90 0.45 mg/mL) than other cephalopods (IC90 > 0.50 mg/mL). A significant colinearity was found between the electronegative groups present in the downfield position of NMR spectra vis‐à‐vis antioxidative and ACE‐inhibitory activities of EtOAc‐MeOH extracts from C. indicus and S. inermis. Practical Applications The edible cephalopod species are largely accessible in the coastal areas of India and exhibited a number of potential bioactivities against various diseases caused by free radical formation that can cause oxidative stress. This study revealed the bioactive potential of cephalopods, particularly Sepiella inermis, Amphioctopus marginatus and Cystopus indicus as potential angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors. The utilities of nuclear magnetic resonance‐based spectroscopic tools for analyzing the relative abundance of the functional groups, which were responsible for bioactivities present in the ethyl acetate‐methanol extracts of cephalopod species have been illustrated. The results from the present study will be helpful to develop new generation leads as nutraceuticals from the cephalopod species and in combating oxidative stress induced hypertensive disorders.
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T21:26:03.714508-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12268
       
  • Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of Defatted Rice Bran (Oryza
           Sativa L.) Protein Hydrolysates on Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells
    • Authors: Tanatorn Saisavoey; Papassara Sangtanoo, Onrapak Reamtong, Aphichart Karnchanatat
      Abstract: Defatted rice bran (DRB) is a by‐product of oil extraction from rice bran (Oryza sativa L.), and has health benefits. This in vitro study investigated the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory effects of four crude DRB protein hydrolysate fractions prepared by pepsin‐pancreatin digestion and fractionated by ultrafiltration on a transformed macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. Protein hydrolysates with MW
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:04:46.65311-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12266
       
  • In Vitro and In Vivo α‐Glucosidase and α‐Amylase Inhibitory Effects
           of the Water Extract of Leaves of Pepper (Capcicum Annuum L. Cultivar
           Dangjo) and the Active Constituent Luteolin 7‐O‐Glucoside
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic potential of the water extract of pepper (Capcicum annuum L. cultivar Dangjo) leaves (WEPL) and the active constituent luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside (LG) isolated from WEPL. WEPL showed in vitro α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase inhibitory activity. LG also showed a similar α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase inhibitory activity, suggesting that the ability of WEPL to inhibit both enzymes may be due to the presence of LG and other polyphenols in WEPL. Supporting this observation, both WEPL and LG significantly reduced blood glucose levels in streptozocin‐induced diabetic mice when challenged with oral administration of sucrose, but not after oral glucose challenge. Hence, inhibition of α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase may possibly be one of the mechanisms for WEPL and LG to exert hypoglycemic activity, indicating that pepper leaves may be considered as a potential candidate for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Practical Applications Leaves of pepper cultivars, including Dangjo pepper, are commonly consumed as food in Korea. The findings of this study demonstrate that the water extract of pepper leaves exhibits the capacity to inhibit carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase) in vitro and in vivo and these beneficial effects appear to be due to some specific bioactive compounds in pepper leaves, in particular luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside. Our preliminary observation provides a rationale for a possible use of pepper leaves for the management of postprandial hyperglycemia.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T20:01:42.988572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12252
       
  • Effect of Pretreatments and Defatting of Seabass Skins on Properties and
           Fishy Odor of Gelatin
    • Abstract: The impact of different pretreatments and defatting processes of seabass skins on fishy odor and other properties of gelatin was investigated. Skin pretreated with 0.05 M citric acid, followed by defatting using 30% isopropanol (G‐Ci‐Def) had the lowest residual phospholipid content (P 
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T02:45:23.406596-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12267
       
  • Hepatoprotective Effects of Chitosan‐Phloroglucinol Conjugate in
           Cultured Hepatocyte
    • Abstract: Biopolymer‐based antioxidant chitosan‐phloroglucinol conjugate (CPC) was prepared and the hepatoprotective effect of CPC against H2O2‐induced oxidative stress in cultured hepatocytes was investigated by measuring intracellualar reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzyme expression. No cytotoxicities were observed in CPC and unmodified chitosan (UC) in the tested concentrations. Treatment with 650 µM H2O2 induced significant cytotoxicity (59.38% of cell viability) compared with nontreatment, however, the co‐treatment of CPC and/or UC significantly attenuated cytoxicity. CPC showed better hepatoprotective effect than UC and increased cell viability by up to 85.01%. The treatment of CPC suppressed ROS formation and cellular membrane lipid peroxidation and increased the intracellular GSH level, which may have contributed to ameliorating the oxidative damage in the hepatocytes. CPC augmented the expression of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes through modulation of Nrf2 translocation in the nucleus of cultured hepatocytes. Practical Applications Chitosan and phloroglucinol are naturally occurring antioxidant molecules and chitosan‐phloroglucinol conjugate (CPC) with hepatoprotective effect can be prepared using eco‐friendly methods. In the present study, for the first time, we observed the hepatoprotective effect of CPC. This result provides a new perspective on development of biopolymer‐based hepatoprotective agents.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T02:41:54.155674-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12265
       
  • Generation of Bioactive Hydrolysates and Peptides from Bovine Hemoglobin
           with In Vitro Renin, Angiotensin‐I‐Converting Enzyme and Dipeptidyl
           Peptidase‐IV Inhibitory Activities
    • Authors: Tomas Lafarga; Dilip K. Rai, Paula O'connor, Maria Hayes
      Abstract: Bovine hemoglobin was selected for use in the generation of bioactive hydrolysates with potential for use as functional food ingredients for prevention of disorders such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Bovine hemoglobin was isolated and hydrolyzed with papain, which was selected using in silico analysis. The generated hydrolysate was enriched by ultrafiltration and further purified by high performance liquid chromatography. A number of peptides were identified using de novo peptide sequencing and these peptides were chemically synthesized to confirm their bioactivity in vitro. Three multifunctional peptides with both, ACE‐I and renin‐inhibitory properties and one peptide with ACE‐I‐inhibiting properties were identified. These included the di‐peptide HR with ACE‐I and renin IC50 values of 0.19 and 7.09 mM, respectively. The generated papain hydrolysate of bovine hemoglobin not only inhibited the enzymes ACE‐I and renin but also the enzyme DPP‐IV, which has been linked to type‐2 diabetes. Practical Applications Slaughterhouse blood represents a problematic coproduct to meat processors due to the large volumes generated and its high pollutant load, and it is usually discarded as waste or used for low value purposes such as blood meal. However, bovine blood represents a valuable source of protein which is underused in the food industry. To find potential applications for this largely underutilized coproduct, the ACE‐I, renin and DPP‐IV inhibitory properties of a papain hydrolysate of bovine hemoglobin were studied and a number of novel multifunctional bioactive hydrolysates and peptides were identified. Results obtained herein may not only reduce blood disposal but also have a role in improving public health. In addition, this study demonstrates the potential of bovine hemoglobin as a resource for the generation of bioactive peptides and opens new commercial opportunities for its use beyond its current applications in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T20:02:56.391469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12259
       
  • Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Acids Profiles of Artemisia Selengensis
           Turcz Extracted with Various Methods by HPLC‐QTOF‐MS/MS
    • Abstract: Effects of dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM), microwave, ultrasound, maceration and high temperature, on the phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) were investigated. Microwave exhibited the best extraction efficacy on phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the content of 40.30 μg GAE/mg Extract, and 37.75 μg RTE/mg Extract, respectively. Microwave extract (MWE) also showed the strongest DPPH· and HO· scavenging ability (IC50 value of 0.23 and 0.50 mg/mL, respectively), and reducing power (Ab0.3 value of 0.23 mg/mL). Quinic acid, 3 caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), 2 coumaroylquinic acids, 4 dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) were identified as the major phenolic acids in AST using HPLC‐QTOF‐MS/MS, and 3‐CQA (63.71 μg/mL) showed the highest content followed by 1,5‐diCQA (17.91 μg/mL) and 3,5‐diCQA (13.50 μg/mL). MWE had the highest 3‐CQA and diCQAs. While, high temperature could promote the degradation of diCQAs, 3‐ and 4‐caffeoyl are more liable to decompose as compared with 1‐ and 5‐caffeoyl. Practical Application Over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in body will induce various chronic diseases. AST is an underutilized vegetable with many health benefits. This research indicates that AST possessed appreciating antioxidant activities and abundant phenolic acids, it is could be a potentail antioxidants resource and for prevention of chronic diseases associated with ROS. It also suggested that microwave could be a promising method for extracting the antioxidants in AST. Therefore, this research could lay a foundation for the high‐value application of AST in food, health care and natural therapy industry, and provide some methodological references for the development of antioxidants in AST.
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T02:26:01.532814-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12255
       
  • Comparative Bioactive Properties of Bivalve Clams Against Different
           Disease Molecular Targets
    • Authors: Minju Joy; Kajal Chakraborty, Vijayagopal Pananghat
      Abstract: Clams occupy a predominant share of the edible bivalve mollusks in the coastal regions, and are important seafood resources. Antioxidant, anti‐diabetic, anti‐inflammatory and antihypertensive potential of ethyl acetate‐methanol (EtOAc‐MeOH) extract of bivalve clams, Villorita cyprinoides and Paphia malabarica were evaluated using various in vitro systems. EtOAc‐MeOH fraction of P. malabarica demonstrated greater 1, 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazil (0.76 mg/mL) and 2, 2′‐azino‐bis‐3‐ethylbenzothiozoline‐6‐sulfonic acid (1.27 mg/mL) radical scavenging ability. A greater anti‐ACE, anti‐COX‐2/5‐LOX properties (1.11, 0.92 and 1.51 mg/mL, respectively), along with DPP‐IV (1.00 mg/mL) and α‐glucosidase (1.47 mg/mL) inhibitory activities were recorded in the EtOAc‐MeOH fraction of P. malabarica than V. cyprinoides. A significant co‐linearity was found between various bioactive properties and the down‐fielded electronegative groups present in the 1H‐NMR spectra of the crude EtOAc‐MeOH fractions of bivalve clams. The current findings showed the importance of the bivalves as potential source of antioxidative leads for use as functional food supplements to combat oxidative stress‐induced diseases. Practical Applications The edible bivalve clams, V. cyprinoides and P. malabarica are broadly available in the coastal regions of India and demonstrated to possess a number of bioactivities against different disease targets induced by free radical formation. The EtOAc‐MeOH fractions obtained from these bivalve clams recorded the COX‐1 and COX‐2 ratio of greater than 2.0 compared with NSAIDs (
      PubDate: 2016-02-11T05:34:49.88473-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12256
       
  • Antigrowth and Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Hypericum Olympicum L. and
           Hypericum Adenotrichum Spach. on Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro: Involvement
           of DNA Damage
    • Authors: Nazlihan Aztopal; Merve Erkisa, Serap Celikler, Engin Ulukaya, Ferda Ari
      Abstract: Hypericum species are used in different folk medicines and screened for their biological activity including cancer. We, therefore, evaluated the possible cytotoxic/apoptotic and genotoxic activities of Hypericum adenotrichum Spach. and Hypericum olympicum L. Antigrowth effect was screened in human lung cancer cell lines (A549 and PC3) by the ATP viability assay, while genotoxic activity was performed using the Comet assay. Histological and biochemical methods were utilized to elucidate the cell death mode. The results indicate that the crude methanol extracts of H. olympicum L. and H. adenotrichum have both antigrowth/cytotoxic and genotoxic activities on these cells in a dose dependent manner. These extracts clearly induced apoptosis in PC3 lung cancer cell lines. In this study, we report for the first time that the H. olympicum and H. adenotrichum exhibits potential cytotoxic and genotoxic activities in lung cancer cells as well as the apoptosis‐inducing roles through DNA damage in PC3 cells. Practical Applications Medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine worldwide and several have been screened for their anticancer properties, we evaluated the possible cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of the Hypericum adenotrichum and Hypericum olympicum, which are still used in Turkish folk medicine. H. adenotrichum Spach., an endemic species in Turkey, and H. olympicum L., which are known as “kantaron” and used traditionally for their wound healing and antiseptic properties. It was found that Hypericum species showed a significant growth‐inhibiting effect on human lung cancer cells and induced apoptosis‐like cell death by DNA damage in PC3 lung cancer cells. These species may have a potential as anticancer agents and inspire to new improvements for medicinal chemistry.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T02:50:46.134623-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12248
       
  • Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insights into the Regulation of
           Flower Bud Differentiation in Crocus Sativus L.
    • Authors: Hengfeng Zhang; Qingcui Wei, Chengzhong Li, Chunmao Jiang, Huanchao Zhang
      Abstract: Two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to gain a further understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with flower bud differentiation in Crocus sativus L. A total of 101 proteins exhibited significant differential expression, and 72 proteins were reliably identified. During the process of flower bud differentiation in Crocus sativus L., FBA, TPI, NSE, enolase, LOS2, MDH and succinyl‐CoA ligase, provided adequate energy and nutrition to complete flower bud differentiation. Methionine‐tRNA ligase and arginine may likely interact with phytohormones and signalling molecules. A number of regulatory and antioxidant‐related proteins, such as HSP, chaperonin, APX, CAT, GME, Trx and TpxII, transferred defense related signal molecules in response to various stresses. Several proteins associated with cytoskeleton and protein metabolism, also revealed a higher abundance, including proteins that were critical for fiber development. In conclusion, our results provide novel insights into the molecular basis for flower bud differentiation in Crocus sativus L. Practical Applications Crocus sativus L. is known as “plant gold,” and has always been used as a flavor and color in foods, as well as a dye. In the production of Crocus sativus L., flowers are the principal products. At present, florescence of Crocus sativus L., which to be handly picked, is too concentrated and the gradual deterioration of flower quality restrict the development of Crocus sativus L. industry. In this study, the biological functionalities and molecular mechanisms of some key proteins that involved for flower bud differentiation were detected and identified by proteomics analysis. This study laid a theoretical basis for the temporal regulation of blooms, selective breeding and the control of gene regulation in the active biosynthetic components of stigmas. An improved understanding of the impact of key proteins during flowering could potentially provide further scope for optimizing Crocus sativus L. industry.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T02:50:25.425254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12254
       
  • In Vitro Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of the Ethanolic Extract
           of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus Pelamis) Heart
    • Authors: Md. Yousof Ali; Hee Jin Jung, Susoma Jannat, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
      Abstract: Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, are distributed throughout the Pacific Ocean in the tropical and subtropical areas, including South Korea, Japan and Indonesia. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of 70% ethanol (EtOH) extract of skipjack tuna heart were investigated via protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α‐glucosidase, human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, peroxynitrite (ONOO−), 2,2′‐azino‐bis‐3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical, and total reactive oxygen species (ROS). The 70% EtOH tuna heart extract exhibited potent inhibitory activity against PTP1B, α‐glucosidase and HRAR with inhibition percentages of 85.42, 82.70 and 51.1%, respectively, at a concentration range of 1–2 mg/mL. In addition, it was a potent inhibitor against DPPH, ABTS, ONOO−, and ROS with inhibition percentages of 69.45, 58.31, 96.20 and 34.02%, respectively, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The total phenolic content present in tuna extract was 15.80 mg/g GAE. The results demonstrate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of tuna heart extract. Practical Application Tuna has been consumed as a healthy protein source for hundreds of years. As a food, skipjack is a very good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and omega‐3 fatty acids and can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Generally, the meat of skipjack tuna is used as food and other parts such as the heart are used as fertilizer. Recent studies have identified a number of bioactive components from fish muscle protein, collagen, peptides, gelatin, oil, bone and internal organs that remain after processing. These fish components showed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antiproliferative, antimicrobial and antianemic activities. The findings demonstrated antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of tuna heart extract.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T02:49:47.638525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12257
       
  • Evaluation of Theobroma cacao (COCOA) Derived Phenolic Phytochemical
           Fractions on the In Vitro Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes
    • Abstract: Theobroma cacao (cocoa) contains a wide variety of phenolic phytochemicals, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), and their bioactivities have been reported in various reports. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of cocoa. Defatted cocoa powder was extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature. The acetone extract was subjected to LH‐20 column chromatography using two different methods to recover fractions of different polarities. The extract and resulting fractions were evaluated for the total phenolic content, PAC content and in vitro inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. COAE‐PAC had higher total phenolic content and PACs than COAE‐LMW; however, COAE‐LMW resulted to higher inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Our findings suggest that cocoa acetone extracts have potential to manage post‐prandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes and that this effect is not PAC dependent. Practical Applciation Type 2 diabetes prevention is a major hurdle of our society. Various research findings suggest that natural product ingredients in combination with lifestyle changes can prevent the progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. To effectively design natural product ingredients for the prevention of prediabetes progression to type 2 diabetes requires thorough evaluation of the mechanism of action and potential bioactives. Proanthocyanidins (PACs) present in cocoa have been linked to various health benefits of cocoa. Recent findings suggest that cocoa can potentially prevent type 2 diabetes via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. This work identifies whether this inhibitory activity is PAC or lower molecular weight phenolic dependent. Ultimately, this work contributes a small piece in the deeper evaluation of cocoa for the management of type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T03:09:28.258605-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12244
       
  • Antioxidant and Pro‐Oxidant Activities of Savoy Cabbage (Brassica
           Oleracea L. Var. Sabauda) Sprout Extracts
    • Authors: Luana Quassinti; Giuseppe Gianfranceschi, Giulio Lupidi, Antonino Miano, Massimo Bramucci
      Abstract: Diets rich in foods containing antioxidants, such as fruits and vegetables, could help to prevent cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and slow the aging process. The aim of this work was to look at the seed sprouts of a member of the Brassica genus, Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabauda) to determine the antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts made from powdered form of its sprouts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of extracts was tested using 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzthiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. A useful indicator of ROS, 2′,7′‐dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF‐DA), was used to determine the antioxidant and pro‐oxidant activity of sprout extracts in a cell‐based assay. Significant values of “in vitro” antioxidant activity were found in aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts. Aqueous sprout extract showed a dose‐dependent pro‐oxidant activity, higher than hydroalcoholic extract in a cell‐based assay. The pro‐oxidant activity was correlated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and proved thermolabile. Practical Applications Compounds with important biological activity have been isolated and characterized from sprouts and can be used in the nutraceutical field. Sprouts contain a cocktail of antioxidant compounds that shows a strong reducing activity. The study was extended to Savoy cabbage sprout extracts using cell‐based assay. Antioxidant and pro‐oxidant activities were put in evidence. The present results draw attention to the real antioxidant capacity of a plant extract. An adequate assessment of the antioxidant capacity should take in account the pro‐oxidant activity of an extract.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T03:09:07.540378-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12247
       
  • Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Urease Inhibitory Activities of
           Phenolics‐Rich Pomegranate Peel Hydro‐Alcoholic Extracts
    • Authors: Tariq Ismail; Saeed Akhtar, Piero Sestili, Muhammad Riaz, Amir Ismail, Ronald G. Labbe
      Abstract: This study was aimed at exploring biological properties of PoP for their potential use as an ingredient of choice in nutraceuticals and ethnic drug formulations. Pomegranate peel extracts (PoPx), derived from hydro‐alcoholic extracts were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial and potential antiulcer properties. Higher levels of total phenolics (427.19 mgGAE/g of extracts) recovered from hydro‐alcoholic extracts exhibited significant (P 
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T03:08:01.767685-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12250
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 391 - 392
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T23:48:37.954232-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12195
       
  • Role of Lys5 Residue in β‐Strand I of the Sweet‐Tasting
           Protein Brazzein
    • Pages: 446 - 450
      Abstract: To identify critical residues responsible for sweetness in brazzein and elucidate the interaction mechanisms of brazzein with the sweet taste receptor, three mutants of Lys5 residue in N‐terminal β‐strand I of brazzein were constructed by site‐directed mutagenesis. Mutations of Lys to Asp or Glu at position 5 of brazzein significantly decreased its sweetness, while mutation of Lys5 to Arg resulted in a molecule with slightly decreased sweetness to des‐pE1M‐brazzein. From these results, it is suggested that the positive charge of Lys5 in β‐strand I of brazzein is essential for its function and necessary for structural integrity. Practical Applications Brazzein is a sweet‐tasting protein which has been isolated from the fruit of the West African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon and is 500 to 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose. Brazzein is attractive as a candidate sweetener for control of obesity, because of its potential sweetness, sugar‐like taste and good stability. The present study offers information on the precise interaction mechanism of brazzein with human sweet taste receptor responsible for the sweetness of brazzein, and can be of great value in future design of sweeter brazzein variants.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T23:36:17.766739-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12231
       
  • Purification, Identification and Characterization of Aspartic Proteases of
           Chicken Intestine
    • Authors: S.N. Jamdar; P. Harikumar
      Pages: 451 - 462
      Abstract: Chicken intestine, an underutilized by‐product of poultry industry is a rich source of tissue proteases, especially aspartic proteases. Two of the major aspartic proteases of the tissue were purified from lysosomal and post lysosomal fractions and identified by N‐terminal amino acid sequencing as cathepsin D and pepsin, respectively. The enzymes differed in their molecular and biochemical properties like molecular weight, optimum conditions for protein degradation and stability in different conditions of pH and temperature. Both enzymes were completely inhibited by pepstatin. The kinetic constant, Km for chicken intestinal pepsin and cathepsin D (for haemoglobin substrate) were estimated to be 6.45 μM and 22.7 μM, respectively. The interaction of both enzymes with different food proteins suggests pepsin could be used in applications demanding extensive hydrolysis of proteins, while cathepsin D could be used in those needing controlled degradation of proteins. Practical Applications Chicken intestine is a by‐product of poultry industry. The tissue could serve as a major source of proteases especially aspartic proteases, which can be used as an alternative for proteases currently used in food industries. Aspartic proteases (pepsin and cathepsin D) from this tissue can be recovered and used for preparation of protein hydrolysates in a more economical way. Furthermore, the byproduct can be exploited to increase revenues for poultry processors.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T23:36:40.451656-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12237
       
  • Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Properties of Widely Consumed Date
           Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Fruit Varieties in Algerian Oases
    • Authors: Safia Ali Haimoud; Rachida Allem, Abdelaziz Merouane
      Pages: 463 - 471
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to estimate the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities of methanolic extracts of date palm fruits grown in Algeria. Four in vitro methods were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (AA), namely β‐carotene‐linoleic acid system, phosphomolybdenum method, 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Ferric‐Reducing Antioxidant Power assay. The anti‐inflammatory activity was carried out using carrageenan‐induced edema model. The extracts were found to be a rich source of polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The methanolic extract of Ali Ourached cultivar showed the highest AA for the four methods cited previously (76.85%, 90.25 μmol of ascorbic acid/g of extract, 206 µg/mL and 56.04 μmol Fe (II) ∕ 100 g DW, respectively). Anti‐inflammatory findings revealed noticeable reduction of paw volume ranging from 35.64 to 67.56% as a response to oral administration of 250 mg/kg dose of methanolic extracts. This study constitutes an endeavor for understanding the bioactive phytochemical variability in date palm fruit cultivars and corresponding antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Practical Applications In this study, the biological potentials of methanolic extracts of date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were evaluated. The date cultivars could potentially be considered as a functional food and could be useful as a good source of natural antioxidant compounds with possible applications to reduce oxidative stress and treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies. The results suggest that date palm fruits contain potent antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties that can find application in food science, food technology and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T03:39:12.80382-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12227
       
  • Optimization of Ultrasonic‐Assisted Extraction of Quercetin and Cyanidin
           from Pyracantha Coccinea and Their Scavenging Effect on Free Radicals
    • Pages: 472 - 479
      Abstract: The response surface method was used to optimize the quercetin and cyanidin content experimental parameters for the ultrasonic‐assisted extraction of phenolics from Pyracantha coccinea. The optimal conditions were an extraction time of 97 and 93 min, ethanol concentration of 71 and 79% (v/v), HCl concentration of 1.55 and 1.52 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio of 12.2 and 12.6 mL/g for determining the quercetin and cyanidin contents, respectively. The predicted quercetin and cyanidin contents were 2.30 and 4.01 mg/g, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted at the 95% confidence level, which indicates the response surface method was suitable for optimizing the ultrasound‐assisted extraction of phenolics from P. coccinea. The scavenging effects of cyanidin and quercetin in P. coccinea extract, which extracted at optimum conditions, on free radicals were investigated using the Fenton oxidation. It was also demonstrated that cyanidin had more effective free radical scavenging activity than quercetin. Practical Applications The phenolic compounds differ in polarity, acidity, number of both hydroxyl groups and aromatic rings, concentration and matrix complexity, specific extractions techniques must be designed and optimized for each phenolic compound. Response surface methods have been used widely to produce and optimize different industrially important biotechnological and biochemical products. A central composite design was used to optimize the parameters for P. coccinea extractions based on the quercetin and cyanidin content. The study results indicate the ultrasonic‐assisted extraction is an economical and efficient method for extracting quercetin and cyanidin from P. coccinea. The free radical scavenging effects of the two phenolic compounds investigated in this study. They act as free scavengers and inhibit free radical production. This study indicates P. coccinea can be considered a good source of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T23:51:15.15398-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12236
       
  • Kinetic Characterization and Thermal Properties of Two Acidic Peroxidases
           from White Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.)
    • Pages: 480 - 489
      Abstract: Soluble and membrane‐bound peroxidases (POD) were extracted from white cabbage. Optimum activity was obtained at pH 4.0 for both enzymes. The KM and Vm values for H2O2 were found to be 0.62 mM and 6.5 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD; and 1.1 mM and 7.75 μM/min, respectively, for membrane‐bound POD. The KM and Vm values for ABTS were found to be 0.92 mM and 7.4 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD; and 0.43 mM and 6.95 μM/min, respectively, for membrane‐bound POD. The effect of several reducing agents was studied. The effect of cyclodextrins was studied and the complexation constant between ABTS and HP‐β‐CDs was calculated (Kc = 303 M−1). A thermal inactivation study showed a first‐order inactivation kinetic for both enzymes and the Arrhenius plot yielded a straight line with a slope equivalent to activation energy of 153.1 kj/mol for membrane‐bound POD and 49.1 kj/mol for soluble POD. Practical Applications Roots of horseradish serve at present as the major source of commercially available peroxidase. However, this peroxidase has certain problems with regard stability and inactivation under certain conditions, hence the interest in finding novel plant peroxidases with greater stability and similar applicability. White cabbage peroxidase could be highly promising for biotechnological applications, taking into account, its high activity, low cost of the raw material and the easy extraction method described.
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T23:38:10.74168-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12229
       
  • Ethanolic Extract of Radish Sprout (Raphanus Sativus L.) Prevents
           Bisphenol A‐Induced Testicular Dysfunction in Male Rats
    • Pages: 490 - 498
      Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the potential reproductive health benefits of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) sprout ethanolic extract (RSE) in a bisphenol A (BPA)‐exposed rat model of testicular disorders and to identify the bioactive components of RSE. RSE and its butanolic layer (RSE‐BuOH) exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity, as determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. The RSE‐BuOH was fractionated using chromatography with active guided fractionation, and 10 major compounds were identified in gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry analysis. Among them, 3‐hexyl‐1‐cyclopentene and 2‐cyclopentene‐1‐tridecanoic acid were confirmed to be the major components. In addition, administration of RSE significantly restored body weight, testes weight and sperm cell rate in BPA‐exposed rats. In particular, administration of RSE‐BuOH to BPA‐exposed rats significantly increased sperm cell rate and serum testosterone level. These results suggest that RSE may attenuate reproductive dysfunction caused by BPA‐induced oxidative stress in male rats. Practical Applications Oral exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) is known to alter endocrine functions and weaken reproduction by decreasing semen quality in humans. Oxidative stress induced by BPA affects semen quality and damages sperm DNA. This is the first study to evaluate the beneficial effects of radish sprout (RS) on male reproductive dysfunction in BPA‐exposed rats. The study enhances the understanding of the mechanisms by which the antioxidants in RS ethanolic extracts protect sperm against oxidative stress, and provides a basis for the development of food supplements from RS, a widely consumed food ingredient with few side effects.
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T03:27:02.803143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12245
       
  • Inhibitory Effects of the Active Components Isolated from Satureja
           Boissieri Hausskn. Ex Boiss. On Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line
    • Pages: 499 - 506
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate the active components from the essential oil (EO) of Satureja boissieri and to investigate the cytotoxic effects of these components on human cervical epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. The major components of EO were found to be p‐cymene (23.15%), γ‐terpinene (22.84%), thymol (18.96%) and carvacrol (21.25%) using GC‐MS. The components were separated by column chromatography and p‐cymene, thymol and spathulenol were isolated as pure terpenoids. The cytotoxic activity of the components was investigated using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). The pure compounds, p‐cymene and thymol exhibited excellent cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line. Practical Applications Satureja boissieri Hausskn. ex Boiss.(Lamiaceae) is known as Catri/Kekik and used as a condiment and herbal tea in the kitchen of local people in Turkey. The genus Satureja has therapeutic properties because of its high amounts of active components such as thymol, carvacrol, p‐cymene and γ‐terpinene. The results demonstrated that S. boissieri and its active components may be suggested as a promising natural agents for alleviating human cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell growth.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T19:47:02.880492-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12238
       
  • Synergetic Hepatoprotective Effect of Phenolic Fractions Obtained from
           Ficus Carica Dried Fruit and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on CCL4‐Induced
           Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    • Pages: 507 - 516
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effect of the Ficus carica dried fruits, extra virgin olive oil and their phenolic fractions on CCl4‐induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Administration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) (3.0 g/kg/day) per oral (p.o.) and their methanol extract (MEEVOO) (2.1 mg/kg/day) intravenously (i.v.) for 7 days significantly prevented CCl4‐induced elevation of levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The methanol dried fig extract (MEDF) (38.07 mg/kg/day, i.v.) was found to be more hepatoprotective than the dried figs (DF) (4 g/kg/day, p.o.). Administration of MEEVOO with the MEDF significantly prevented CCl4‐induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT and ALP. Treatment of rats with CCl4 led to a marked increase in lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme, Catalase (CAT) was significantly decreased in all treated animals. Practical Applications Dried fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit is an important part of traditional Mediterranean Algerian diet since antiquity and widely consumed with extra virgin olive oil because of their nutritional importance along with their medicinal value. Obtained results suggest a synergistic functionality of dried figs and extra virgin olive oil extracts. The observed hepatoprotective effect is believed to occur due to antioxidant properties of the contents of extra virgin olive oil and dried figs extract, which may provide a new drug to be used for prophylaxis against liver diseases and it validates its folkloric use by Algerian people.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T19:56:41.625565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12241
       
  • Production of Peptides with Radical Scavenging Activity and Recovery of
           Total Carotenoids Using Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysis of Shrimp Waste
    • Pages: 517 - 525
      Abstract: The enzymatic hydrolysis of shrimp waste by the commercial protease Alcalase was evaluated as an alternative for recovery of valuable components, protein and astaxanthin. The influence of temperature (40–70C) and enzyme : substrate ratio (2.0–6.0%, g enzyme/100 g protein) on degree of hydrolysis, recovery of protein and antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was studied. The total carotenoids content in each insoluble fraction obtained after centrifugation of raw hydrolysate were also determined. All variables had significant effect on the responses. To obtain maximum antioxidant activity of hydrolysate and recovery of protein and total carotenoids in sediment, the following optimum conditions are suggested, 55C and 4.0%. Under these conditions, degree of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity and recovery of protein and total carotenoids were determined, obtaining values of 3.63%, 66.8%, 39.53 μmol Trolox equivalents/g protein and 72.67%, respectively. Practical Applications Shrimp wastes, removed during processing, represent up to 50% of the weight of raw material. These discards are normally used to obtaining low‐value products, such as animal feed and fertilizers. Since they contain valuable components such as protein, chitin and astaxanthin carotenoid, significant amounts of nutrients are underused. Thus, better utilization of these discards through the manufacture of value‐added products can result in expansion of aquaculture industry, maximization of economical benefits and reduction of environmental pollution. Enzymatic hydrolysis of shrimp waste represents a potencial process for recovery of total carotenoids in the insoluble fraction and obtaining a hydrolysate that can be used as protein supplementation and/or antioxidant component in food systems.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:19:18.22836-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12246
       
  • Protective Mechanisms of Unsaponifiable Matter from Rice Bran Against
           Tert‐Butyl Hydroperoxide‐Induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells
    • Pages: 526 - 534
      Abstract: Rice bran is rich source of phytochemicals, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, policosanols, γ‐oryzanol, triterpene alcohol and other minor compounds. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of unsaponifiable matter from rice bran on tert‐butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)‐induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of USM (0–100 µg/mL) for 6 h and oxidative stress was induced by TBHP. The result indicated that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with USM significantly reduced TBHP‐induced oxidative damage, as determined by cell cytotoxicity and intracellular reactive oxygen species generations. USM activated nuclear factor‐erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and subsequently enhanced the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes including heme oxygenase‐1, glutamate‐cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase‐1. These results suggest that USM‐mediated up‐regulation of phase II detoxifying enzymes via Nrf2‐signaling pathways may provide a pivotal mechanism for its hepatoprotective action. Practical Applications Rice bran is a major byproduct of the rice milling process and is produced every year in an enormous amount in Korea. Rice bran is mainly used as animal feed, cooking oil, and cosmetics. It contains important bioactive compounds. This study provides biological evidence that supports the use of rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) in the prevention of oxidative damage. The assessment of the protective mechanism of rice bran USM against oxidative damage may give insight into its application as bioactive ingredients in the production and development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:19:40.142562-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12251
       
  • Honey and its Phytochemicals: Plausible Agents in Combating Colon Cancer
           through its Diversified Actions
    • Authors: Aruna Priyadharshni Subramanian; Agnes Aruna John, Muthu Vignesh Vellayappan, Arunpandian Balaji, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mahitosh Mandal, Eko Supriyanto
      Pages: 613 - 629
      Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Among them, colorectal cancer is linked with diet as the epithelial cells of colon and rectum come in direct contact with diet. Diets rich in phenolic constituents are associated in eradicating various noncommunicable diseases including cancer. This work illustrates antiproliferative effects of honey and its phytochemicals against colorectal cancer to limelight. Honey and its phytochemicals are found to inhibit the cancer growth. Changes like activation of caspase‐3, caspase‐8, polyadenosine diphosphate‐ribose polymerase cleavage, boost in ROS level activating mitochondrial pathway, lipid layer breakage, DNA fragmentation, increase of G0/G1 phase cells, up‐regulation of Bax regulators and p53 dependent apoptosis are significant. It is high time for scientists to initiate more trails using honey and its phytochemicals against some immune‐deficient animal models of colon cancer and in low‐ and high‐risk human individuals to validate honey as a mighty sword against colon cancer. This review promulgates honey and its phytochemicals as candidates in colon cancer prevention. Practical Application Colon cancer is the third largest cause of cancer death worldwide. The standard chemotherapeutic agents are usually noneffective in the latter stages of cancer. As colorectal cancer is more prone to the diet consumed, scientists have explored many dietary compounds to treat this particular type of cancer. In our review, we highlight the effect of honey and its phenolic constituents against the colon cancer cells. Various, in vitro experiments done are enlisted. This review also emphasis the need of numerous studies that are needed to be initiated to explore the anticancer effect of crude honey specifically. As honey is one of the ingredients used in daily life, honey can also be used in chemoprevention against colon cancer.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T02:02:23.8406-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12239
       
 
 
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