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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 296 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (14 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (66 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (216 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (216 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal  
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International innovation. Food and agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Food Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maize Research and Development     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Oilseeds Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

  First | 1 2 3     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 27]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Protective Mechanisms of Unsaponifiable Matter from Rice Bran Against
           Tert‐Butyl Hydroperoxide‐Induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2
    • Abstract: Rice bran is rich source of phytochemicals, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, policosanols, γ‐oryzanol, triterpene alcohol and other minor compounds. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of unsaponifiable matter from rice bran on tert‐butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)‐induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of USM (0–100 µg/mL) for 6 h and oxidative stress was induced by TBHP. The result indicated that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with USM significantly reduced TBHP‐induced oxidative damage, as determined by cell cytotoxicity and intracellular reactive oxygen species generations. USM activated nuclear factor‐erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and subsequently enhanced the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes including heme oxygenase‐1, glutamate‐cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase‐1. These results suggest that USM‐mediated up‐regulation of phase II detoxifying enzymes via Nrf2‐signaling pathways may provide a pivotal mechanism for its hepatoprotective action. Practical Applications Rice bran is a major byproduct of the rice milling process and is produced every year in an enormous amount in Korea. Rice bran is mainly used as animal feed, cooking oil, and cosmetics. It contains important bioactive compounds. This study provides biological evidence that supports the use of rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) in the prevention of oxidative damage. The assessment of the protective mechanism of rice bran USM against oxidative damage may give insight into its application as bioactive ingredients in the production and development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:19:40.142562-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12251
  • Production of Peptides with Radical Scavenging Activity and Recovery of
           Total Carotenoids Using Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysis of Shrimp Waste
    • Abstract: The enzymatic hydrolysis of shrimp waste by the commercial protease Alcalase was evaluated as an alternative for recovery of valuable components, protein and astaxanthin. The influence of temperature (40–70C) and enzyme : substrate ratio (2.0–6.0%, g enzyme/100 g protein) on degree of hydrolysis, recovery of protein and antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was studied. The total carotenoids content in each insoluble fraction obtained after centrifugation of raw hydrolysate were also determined. All variables had significant effect on the responses. To obtain maximum antioxidant activity of hydrolysate and recovery of protein and total carotenoids in sediment, the following optimum conditions are suggested, 55C and 4.0%. Under these conditions, degree of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity and recovery of protein and total carotenoids were determined, obtaining values of 3.63%, 66.8%, 39.53 μmol Trolox equivalents/g protein and 72.67%, respectively. Practical Applications Shrimp wastes, removed during processing, represent up to 50% of the weight of raw material. These discards are normally used to obtaining low‐value products, such as animal feed and fertilizers. Since they contain valuable components such as protein, chitin and astaxanthin carotenoid, significant amounts of nutrients are underused. Thus, better utilization of these discards through the manufacture of value‐added products can result in expansion of aquaculture industry, maximization of economical benefits and reduction of environmental pollution. Enzymatic hydrolysis of shrimp waste represents a potencial process for recovery of total carotenoids in the insoluble fraction and obtaining a hydrolysate that can be used as protein supplementation and/or antioxidant component in food systems.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:19:18.22836-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12246
  • Quantitative Analysis of Functional Components From Nelumbo Nucifera Root
           Fermented Broth with Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects
    • Abstract: The goals of this study were to develop a new functional beverage and/or syrup from Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) root by fermentation utilizing brown sugar and to determine its various functional properties and nutritive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents significantly increased after 15 and 30 days of fermentation as compared to control (brown sugar broth only) and their amounts ranged from 41–521 µg gallic acid equivalents/mL to 31–63 µg quercetin equivalents/mL, respectively. Gas chromatography‐mass spectra analysis determined the presence of 2‐furanacetic acid, 4‐hydroxyphenyl ethanol, lyxofuranose, silane, morpholine, and cinnamic acid as major phenolic compounds in lotus root sugar syrup samples after 180 days of fermentation. All tested fermented lotus root sugar syrup samples showed highest functional activities in a time‐dependent manner, including inhibition of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and nitrite radicals (at pH 1.2) as well as superoxide dismutase‐like activities (87.24 ± 2.89%, 99.51 ± 0.67% and 44.39 ± 1.96%, respectively). Syrup samples also inhibited tyrosinase enzyme activity in vitro by 49.79 ± 2.24% compared with control (15.13 ± 0.12%). These findings suggest that lotus root fermented sugar syrup could be a natural food supplement of bioactive components with potent antioxidant and antityrosinase effects. Practical Applications Plant‐based functional foods show enormous potential as human health supplements. Foods rich in polyphenolic compounds such as phenolics and flavonoids can act as scavengers of free radicals, thus protecting the human body from oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been used in traditional medicine system as a health beneficial supplement. Fermentation has been shown to improve the nutritional and medicinal potentials of plants and/or vegetables for human use. This study confirmed fermentation of lotus root using brown sugar, resulting in the production of a fermented functional beverage with enhanced bioactivity. The fermented beverage rich in various nutritional components, including phenolic sand flavonoids, showed potent pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and antimelanogenesis activities, suggesting it might be considered as a good functional food supplement.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:18:57.250221-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12242
  • Synergetic Hepatoprotective Effect of Phenolic Fractions Obtained from
           Ficus Carica Dried Fruit and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on CCL4‐Induced
           Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effect of the Ficus carica dried fruits, extra virgin olive oil and their phenolic fractions on CCl4‐induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Administration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) (3.0 g/kg/day) per oral (p.o.) and their methanol extract (MEEVOO) (2.1 mg/kg/day) intravenously (i.v.) for 7 days significantly prevented CCl4‐induced elevation of levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The methanol dried fig extract (MEDF) (38.07 mg/kg/day, i.v.) was found to be more hepatoprotective than the dried figs (DF) (4 g/kg/day, p.o.). Administration of MEEVOO with the MEDF significantly prevented CCl4‐induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT and ALP. Treatment of rats with CCl4 led to a marked increase in lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme, Catalase (CAT) was significantly decreased in all treated animals. Practical Applications Dried fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit is an important part of traditional Mediterranean Algerian diet since antiquity and widely consumed with extra virgin olive oil because of their nutritional importance along with their medicinal value. Obtained results suggest a synergistic functionality of dried figs and extra virgin olive oil extracts. The observed hepatoprotective effect is believed to occur due to antioxidant properties of the contents of extra virgin olive oil and dried figs extract, which may provide a new drug to be used for prophylaxis against liver diseases and it validates its folkloric use by Algerian people.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T19:56:41.625565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12241
  • Inhibitory Effects of the Active Components Isolated from Satureja
           Boissieri Hausskn. Ex Boiss. On Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate the active components from the essential oil (EO) of Satureja boissieri and to investigate the cytotoxic effects of these components on human cervical epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. The major components of EO were found to be p‐cymene (23.15%), γ‐terpinene (22.84%), thymol (18.96%) and carvacrol (21.25%) using GC‐MS. The components were separated by column chromatography and p‐cymene, thymol and spathulenol were isolated as pure terpenoids. The cytotoxic activity of the components was investigated using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). The pure compounds, p‐cymene and thymol exhibited excellent cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line. Practical Applications Satureja boissieri Hausskn. ex Boiss.(Lamiaceae) is known as Catri/Kekik and used as a condiment and herbal tea in the kitchen of local people in Turkey. The genus Satureja has therapeutic properties because of its high amounts of active components such as thymol, carvacrol, p‐cymene and γ‐terpinene. The results demonstrated that S. boissieri and its active components may be suggested as a promising natural agents for alleviating human cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell growth.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T19:47:02.880492-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12238
  • Honey and its Phytochemicals: Plausible Agents in Combating Colon Cancer
           through its Diversified Actions
    • Authors: Aruna Priyadharshni Subramanian; Agnes Aruna John, Muthu Vignesh Vellayappan, Arunpandian Balaji, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mahitosh Mandal, Eko Supriyanto
      Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Among them, colorectal cancer is linked with diet as the epithelial cells of colon and rectum come in direct contact with diet. Diets rich in phenolic constituents are associated in eradicating various noncommunicable diseases including cancer. This work illustrates antiproliferative effects of honey and its phytochemicals against colorectal cancer to limelight. Honey and its phytochemicals are found to inhibit the cancer growth. Changes like activation of caspase‐3, caspase‐8, polyadenosine diphosphate‐ribose polymerase cleavage, boost in ROS level activating mitochondrial pathway, lipid layer breakage, DNA fragmentation, increase of G0/G1 phase cells, up‐regulation of Bax regulators and p53 dependent apoptosis are significant. It is high time for scientists to initiate more trails using honey and its phytochemicals against some immune‐deficient animal models of colon cancer and in low‐ and high‐risk human individuals to validate honey as a mighty sword against colon cancer. This review promulgates honey and its phytochemicals as candidates in colon cancer prevention. Practical Application Colon cancer is the third largest cause of cancer death worldwide. The standard chemotherapeutic agents are usually noneffective in the latter stages of cancer. As colorectal cancer is more prone to the diet consumed, scientists have explored many dietary compounds to treat this particular type of cancer. In our review, we highlight the effect of honey and its phenolic constituents against the colon cancer cells. Various, in vitro experiments done are enlisted. This review also emphasis the need of numerous studies that are needed to be initiated to explore the anticancer effect of crude honey specifically. As honey is one of the ingredients used in daily life, honey can also be used in chemoprevention against colon cancer.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T02:02:23.8406-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12239
  • Kinetic Characterization and Thermal Properties of Two Acidic Peroxidases
           from White Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.)
    • Abstract: Soluble and membrane‐bound peroxidases (POD) were extracted from white cabbage. Optimum activity was obtained at pH 4.0 for both enzymes. The KM and Vm values for H2O2 were found to be 0.62 mM and 6.5 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD; and 1.1 mM and 7.75 μM/min, respectively, for membrane‐bound POD. The KM and Vm values for ABTS were found to be 0.92 mM and 7.4 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD; and 0.43 mM and 6.95 μM/min, respectively, for membrane‐bound POD. The effect of several reducing agents was studied. The effect of cyclodextrins was studied and the complexation constant between ABTS and HP‐β‐CDs was calculated (Kc = 303 M−1). A thermal inactivation study showed a first‐order inactivation kinetic for both enzymes and the Arrhenius plot yielded a straight line with a slope equivalent to activation energy of 153.1 kj/mol for membrane‐bound POD and 49.1 kj/mol for soluble POD. Practical Applications Roots of horseradish serve at present as the major source of commercially available peroxidase. However, this peroxidase has certain problems with regard stability and inactivation under certain conditions, hence the interest in finding novel plant peroxidases with greater stability and similar applicability. White cabbage peroxidase could be highly promising for biotechnological applications, taking into account, its high activity, low cost of the raw material and the easy extraction method described.
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T23:38:10.74168-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12229
  • Ethanolic Extract of Radish Sprout (Raphanus Sativus L.) Prevents
           Bisphenol A‐Induced Testicular Dysfunction in Male Rats
    • Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the potential reproductive health benefits of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) sprout ethanolic extract (RSE) in a bisphenol A (BPA)‐exposed rat model of testicular disorders and to identify the bioactive components of RSE. RSE and its butanolic layer (RSE‐BuOH) exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity, as determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. The RSE‐BuOH was fractionated using chromatography with active guided fractionation, and 10 major compounds were identified in gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry analysis. Among them, 3‐hexyl‐1‐cyclopentene and 2‐cyclopentene‐1‐tridecanoic acid were confirmed to be the major components. In addition, administration of RSE significantly restored body weight, testes weight and sperm cell rate in BPA‐exposed rats. In particular, administration of RSE‐BuOH to BPA‐exposed rats significantly increased sperm cell rate and serum testosterone level. These results suggest that RSE may attenuate reproductive dysfunction caused by BPA‐induced oxidative stress in male rats. Practical Applications Oral exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) is known to alter endocrine functions and weaken reproduction by decreasing semen quality in humans. Oxidative stress induced by BPA affects semen quality and damages sperm DNA. This is the first study to evaluate the beneficial effects of radish sprout (RS) on male reproductive dysfunction in BPA‐exposed rats. The study enhances the understanding of the mechanisms by which the antioxidants in RS ethanolic extracts protect sperm against oxidative stress, and provides a basis for the development of food supplements from RS, a widely consumed food ingredient with few side effects.
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T03:27:02.803143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12245
  • Optimization of Ultrasonic‐Assisted Extraction of Quercetin and
           Cyanidin from Pyracantha Coccinea and Their Scavenging Effect on Free
    • Abstract: The response surface method was used to optimize the quercetin and cyanidin content experimental parameters for the ultrasonic‐assisted extraction of phenolics from Pyracantha coccinea. The optimal conditions were an extraction time of 97 and 93 min, ethanol concentration of 71 and 79% (v/v), HCl concentration of 1.55 and 1.52 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio of 12.2 and 12.6 mL/g for determining the quercetin and cyanidin contents, respectively. The predicted quercetin and cyanidin contents were 2.30 and 4.01 mg/g, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted at the 95% confidence level, which indicates the response surface method was suitable for optimizing the ultrasound‐assisted extraction of phenolics from P. coccinea. The scavenging effects of cyanidin and quercetin in P. coccinea extract, which extracted at optimum conditions, on free radicals were investigated using the Fenton oxidation. It was also demonstrated that cyanidin had more effective free radical scavenging activity than quercetin. Practical Applications The phenolic compounds differ in polarity, acidity, number of both hydroxyl groups and aromatic rings, concentration and matrix complexity, specific extractions techniques must be designed and optimized for each phenolic compound. Response surface methods have been used widely to produce and optimize different industrially important biotechnological and biochemical products. A central composite design was used to optimize the parameters for P. coccinea extractions based on the quercetin and cyanidin content. The study results indicate the ultrasonic‐assisted extraction is an economical and efficient method for extracting quercetin and cyanidin from P. coccinea. The free radical scavenging effects of the two phenolic compounds investigated in this study. They act as free scavengers and inhibit free radical production. This study indicates P. coccinea can be considered a good source of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T23:51:15.15398-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12236
  • Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Properties of Widely Consumed Date
           Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Fruit Varieties in Algerian Oases
    • Authors: Safia Ali Haimoud; Rachida Allem, Abdelaziz Merouane
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to estimate the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities of methanolic extracts of date palm fruits grown in Algeria. Four in vitro methods were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (AA), namely β‐carotene‐linoleic acid system, phosphomolybdenum method, 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Ferric‐Reducing Antioxidant Power assay. The anti‐inflammatory activity was carried out using carrageenan‐induced edema model. The extracts were found to be a rich source of polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The methanolic extract of Ali Ourached cultivar showed the highest AA for the four methods cited previously (76.85%, 90.25 μmol of ascorbic acid/g of extract, 206 µg/mL and 56.04 μmol Fe (II) ∕ 100 g DW, respectively). Anti‐inflammatory findings revealed noticeable reduction of paw volume ranging from 35.64 to 67.56% as a response to oral administration of 250 mg/kg dose of methanolic extracts. This study constitutes an endeavor for understanding the bioactive phytochemical variability in date palm fruit cultivars and corresponding antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Practical Applications In this study, the biological potentials of methanolic extracts of date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were evaluated. The date cultivars could potentially be considered as a functional food and could be useful as a good source of natural antioxidant compounds with possible applications to reduce oxidative stress and treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies. The results suggest that date palm fruits contain potent antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties that can find application in food science, food technology and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T03:39:12.80382-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12227
  • Purification, Identification and Characterization of Aspartic Proteases of
           Chicken Intestine
    • Authors: S.N. Jamdar; P. Harikumar
      Abstract: Chicken intestine, an underutilized by‐product of poultry industry is a rich source of tissue proteases, especially aspartic proteases. Two of the major aspartic proteases of the tissue were purified from lysosomal and post lysosomal fractions and identified by N‐terminal amino acid sequencing as cathepsin D and pepsin, respectively. The enzymes differed in their molecular and biochemical properties like molecular weight, optimum conditions for protein degradation and stability in different conditions of pH and temperature. Both enzymes were completely inhibited by pepstatin. The kinetic constant, Km for chicken intestinal pepsin and cathepsin D (for haemoglobin substrate) were estimated to be 6.45 μM and 22.7 μM, respectively. The interaction of both enzymes with different food proteins suggests pepsin could be used in applications demanding extensive hydrolysis of proteins, while cathepsin D could be used in those needing controlled degradation of proteins. Practical Applications Chicken intestine is a by‐product of poultry industry. The tissue could serve as a major source of proteases especially aspartic proteases, which can be used as an alternative for proteases currently used in food industries. Aspartic proteases (pepsin and cathepsin D) from this tissue can be recovered and used for preparation of protein hydrolysates in a more economical way. Furthermore, the byproduct can be exploited to increase revenues for poultry processors.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T23:36:40.451656-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12237
  • Role of Lys5 Residue in β‐Strand I of the Sweet‐Tasting
           Protein Brazzein
    • Abstract: To identify critical residues responsible for sweetness in brazzein and elucidate the interaction mechanisms of brazzein with the sweet taste receptor, three mutants of Lys5 residue in N‐terminal β‐strand I of brazzein were constructed by site‐directed mutagenesis. Mutations of Lys to Asp or Glu at position 5 of brazzein significantly decreased its sweetness, while mutation of Lys5 to Arg resulted in a molecule with slightly decreased sweetness to des‐pE1M‐brazzein. From these results, it is suggested that the positive charge of Lys5 in β‐strand I of brazzein is essential for its function and necessary for structural integrity. Practical Applications Brazzein is a sweet‐tasting protein which has been isolated from the fruit of the West African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon and is 500 to 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose. Brazzein is attractive as a candidate sweetener for control of obesity, because of its potential sweetness, sugar‐like taste and good stability. The present study offers information on the precise interaction mechanism of brazzein with human sweet taste receptor responsible for the sweetness of brazzein, and can be of great value in future design of sweeter brazzein variants.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T23:36:17.766739-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12231
  • The Protective Role of Tomato Powder in the Toxicity, Fatty Infiltration
           and Necrosis Induced by Oxidized Tallow in Rabbits
    • Authors: Alam Zeb; Iftikharul Haq
      Abstract: Tomato powder (TP) was used against the toxicity produced by thermally oxidized tallow (OT) in rabbits. Male rabbits were fed TP, OT alone or in combination. Serum biochemical markers, hematology and liver pathology were investigated. It was found that TP was rich in lycopene, β‐carotene and phenolic compounds. Rabbits fed OT elevated the serum biochemical markers (total cholesterol, LDL, TG and ALT), which was reduced to normal ranges by the administration of TP. TP alone had significant positive effects on the HDL‐cholesterol and LDL‐cholesterol, but had no significant effects on hematological parameters. OT produced fatty liver, necrosis and in some cases, hepatitis in the rabbit liver. Supplementation of TP reduced the severity of fat generation, and restored the normal architecture of the liver. In conclusion, TP was protective against oxidative stress and consequent toxic effects, fatty infiltration and necrosis caused by thermally OT in rabbits. Practical Applications Tallow is widely used in food preparations. During thermal treatment, it is oxidized with the formation of oxidized compounds producing off‐flavor in foods, which on ingestion causes several adverse effects. Tomato is one of the major components of food preparation and this report, which shows the ameliorative effects of tomato powder against the oxidative stress produced in animals provides an opportunity for controlling the toxicity produced by the oxidized tallow (OT) in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:20:16.267763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12234
  • Phytosynthesis and Antileishmanial Activity of Gold Nanoparticles by
           Maytenus Royleanus
    • Authors: Aftab Ahmad; Fatima Syed, Muhammad Imran, Arif Ullah Khan, Kamran Tahir, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Qipeng Yuan
      Abstract: In this report, we present a simple and green approach to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with efficient antileishmanial activity. Phytochemicals from the aqueous extract Maytenus royleanus stem were used to reduce and stabilize the gold ions into metallic nanoparticles. UV‐Vis spectroscopy was employed to detect the characteristic surface plasmon resonance pattern of AuNPs (550 nm). X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X‐ray studies were carried out to determine the crystalline nature and elemental composition of AuNPs. The surface functionalities of nanoparticles were identified with Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD and transmission electron microscopy revealed that AuNPs were mostly hexagonal in shape with an approximate particle size of 30 nm. Significant antileishmanial activity was shown by AuNPs. AuNPs inhibited the parasite growth by 75% after 72 h of incubation. The findings of this study indicate that these nanoparticles could be an alternative, safe, and effective source of antileishmanial agents. Practical Applications Maytenus royleanus is widely used in folk medicine for various types of ailments however; this specie has not been analyzed for various biological activities. Furthermore, no report is available on the synthesis and biological activities of gold nanoparticles from Maytenus roylenus. Metal nanoparticles are extensively used in products such as detergents, soaps, shampoos, cosmetic products, toothpaste and pharmaceutical and medical area. The assessment of the antioxidant properties and leishmanicidal activity of gold nanoparticles from M. royleanus may give an insight into its applications in drug development.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:19:53.90718-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12232
  • Phytochemical Characterization of Dioscorea Alata Leaf and Stem By
           Silylation Followed by GC‐MS Analysis
    • Authors: Priyankar Dey; Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
      Abstract: Dioscorea alata L. (family Dioscoreaceae) is a popular food and nutritional supplement in various parts of the world. It is also used for the treatment of diverse ailments in Indian and Chinese ethnopharmacological practices. Recent pharmacognostic studies have demonstrated potent immunomodulatory activities of D. alata extracts. However, the basic phytochemical constituents remained mostly unknown. Therefore, the present study was performed to identify the major phytochemical constituents present in D. alata leaf and stem. The plant materials were initially derived to comparatively volatile and non‐polar state using silylation method. The samples were then analysed using gas chromatography coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. Compound identification were performed by mass fragment comparison. The results revealed the presence of several bioactive constituents which could be attributed to the nutritional value and potent bioactivities of D. alata. Practical Applications D. alata is a nutritious food and its consumption is associated with treatment of various diseases in traditional medicinal systems. The present study, reveals the identity of the bioactive phytochemicals present in the leaf and stem of D. alata. The individual bioactivities of the phytocompounds identified could be correlated with the pharmacological properties of D. alata.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:19:31.670394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12235
  • A Study on Biological Activity of the Polyphenol Fraction from Fruits of
           Rosa Rugosa Thunb
    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the biological activity of Rosa rugosa Thunb. extracts in the four versions: methanolic (ME), diethyl ether (EE), ethyl acetate (EA) and water (WE). We studied the antioxidant activity of the extracts in relation to phospholipid membranes, their association constants with the membrane, and antiradical and anti‐inflammatory activity. Percentage of their liposomal encapsulation was also assessed. R. rugosa ME and EA extracts were observed to decrease peroxidation of PC liposomes (UVC‐induced) to similar levels (ME) or lower (EA) compared with the activity of Rosa canina L. The other two extracts (EE and WE) of R. rugosa showed significantly lower antioxidant activity than extracts of R. canina. R. rugosa quenched DPPH• and inhibited COX activity. R. rugosa EA has the highest association constant, whereas the association constants of EE, ME, and WE are approximately 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller. EA extract also showed the highest percentage of encapsulation in liposomal carriers. Practical Applications Literature reports attest to the healing properties of extract of R. canina (Litozin, AXELLUS, Denmark). Our studies have demonstrated that extracts of R. rugosa have strong antioxidant (in relation to UV‐induced oxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes) and antiradical (in relation to DPPH•) properties, indicating a potential use of these extracts as natural antioxidants, e.g., in the food, pharmaceutical and beauty industry, in particular for protecting peroxidation sensitive components such as unsaturated fatty acids. The ability of R. rugosa extract (the EA version) to strongly inhibit oxidation of arachidonic acid, induced by COX‐1 and COX‐2, indicates a possibility of application of this extract in prevention and/or elimination of arthritis. The determined high level of encapsulation of R. rugosa EA extract in liposomal carriers may increase the bioavailability of the extract supplied to the body in the form of liposomal nanocapsules and thus be instrumental in effective treatment of inflammatory conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:18:49.710245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12228
  • DNA Damage Inhibition Properties of Sundarban Honey and its Phenolic
    • Authors: Rizwana Afroz; E.M. Tanvir, Sudip Paul, Nikhil Chandra Bhoumik, Siew Hua Gan, MD. Ibrahim Khalil
      Abstract: Abstract Sundarban honey is one of the most renowned and popular types of honey from Bangladesh. This study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potentials of Sundarban honey. The estimated polyphenol, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and protein contents in the investigated honey were found to be 593.96 ± 13.71 mg GAEs/kg, 50.00 ± 0.00 mg CEs/kg, 117.04 ± 1.05 mg/kg, 60.58 ± 3.23 g/100 g and 6.43 ± 0.12 mg/g, respectively. Some phenolics including gallic acid, pyrogallol, vanillic acid and trans‐Cinnamic acid, as well as three flavonoids, naringin, rutin and quercetin, were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Sundarban honey was found to possess protective activity against hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation‐induced damage to pBR322. The DNA protection activity of honey corresponded to its antioxidant potential and exhibited dose‐dependent effects. Practical Application Sundarban honey, a wild multifloral honey produced by Apis dorsata bees is one of the most renowned types of honey from Bangladesh and confers protection against oxidative stress‐induced liver and kidney damage. This honey can a be very good source of natural antioxidant which particularly contains some phenolic compounds including gallic, vanillic and trans‐Cinnamic acids as well as three flavonoids (naringin, rutin and quercetin). Sundarban honey can protect against oxidative DNA damage and consecutive illness.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:18:28.618127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12240
  • Black Rice (Oryza Sativa, Heukmi) Extracts Stimulate Osteogenesis but
           Inhibit Adipogenesis in Mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 Cells
    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of BREs named Heukmi on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. BREs stimulate osteogenesis, enhancing the mRNA expression of runt‐related transcription factor 2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), increasing ALP protein expression and cellular enzyme activity, thus elevating intracellular calcium deposition. BREs also suppressed adipogenesis by downregulating peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ, C/EBPδ and C/EBPα, major regulators in adipogenesis. In cells stimulated with BREs, the rate of fatty acid synthesis was significantly decreased, while there was no effect on the rate of fatty acid oxidation, resulting in reduced intracellular lipid accumulation. This reciprocal regulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis by BREs correlated with the regulation of Wnt signaling pathway. BREs enhanced the expression of genes in Wnt signaling pathway, including Wnt3a and β‐catenin. Together, these results suggest that BREs may enhance osteogenic differentiation and suppress adipogenic differentiation via Wnt signaling. Practical Applications Black rice (Oryza sativa, Heukmi) is a colored rice strain with several known biological effects including anti‐obesogenic activity. Black rice extract regulates cell differentiation thus suppresses adipogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of black rice extract on the differentiation of MSCs. In MSCs, the suppression of adipogenesis could promote osteogenic differentiation program and facilitates bone formation. The present study attempts to shed some light on the questions whether black rice extract induces osteogenesis in MSCs with suppression of adipogenesis. The results of the study could be a basis for further research on this precious rice strain and also to promote its consumption on a large scale.
      PubDate: 2015-12-18T02:44:42.653948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12210
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of the Flowers of Prunus persica var.
    • Abstract: The crude methanolic Prunus persica var. davidiana (P. persica var. davidiana) flower extract was subsequently fractionated versus hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and butanol and their potential in vitro anti‐inflammatory effects investigated. The hexane and methylene chloride extracts were withdrawn from the study because they were toxic. The methanolic, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts significantly suppressed the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced nitric oxide (NO) production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expressions. mRNA and protein levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)‐2 were also significantly inhibited by all three extracts relative to the LPS‐treated group. However, only the ethyl acetate fraction reduced prostaglandin E (PGE)2 levels appreciably. All three extracts significantly suppressed interleukin (IL)‐1β protein expression but had no effect on the LPS‐induced TNF‐α and IL‐6 protein levels. The mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α, IL‐1β and IL‐6 were also significantly suppressed, except for the ethyl acetate fraction, which had no appreciable effect on IL‐6 mRNA. Moreover, the LPS‐induced phosphorylations of c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase (JNK)‐1 and extracellular signal‐regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were significantly suppressed by the three extracts, whereas the butanol fraction had no effect on p‐P38 expression. The results of this study demonstrate that the crude methanolic extract (M) of P. persica flowers and the ethyl acetate (E) and butanol (B) fractions possess significant anti‐inflammatory activities and have potential as leads for the discovery of anti‐inflammatory phytocompounds. Practical Applications Inflammation is implicated in a good number of diseases. Chronic and uncontrolled inflammation results in several malignancies, necessitating the need for adequate treatment. The present study exhibits the in vitro efficacy of fractionated P. persica flower extracts against inflammation. The result of this study should be applied in the extraction of leads and further development of inflammatory drugs of natural origin to obviate the noxious effect of current synthetic pharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: 2015-12-08T04:20:37.896178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12206
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2015-12-03T02:03:55.768119-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12078
  • In Silico Assessment of the Potential of Patatin as a Precursor of
           Bioactive Peptides
    • Authors: Yu Fu; Wei Wu, Minpeng Zhu, Zhigang Xiao
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate patatin, a major storage protein in potato tuber, as a precursor of bioactive peptides based on in silico approaches. In silico proteolysis of patatin using 16 proteases released numerous bioactive peptides exhibiting antioxidant, angiotensin‐I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)‐IV inhibitory, glucose uptake, neuropeptide inhibitory and ion flow‐regulating capacities. Chymotrypsin C released the most bioactive sequences from patatin compared with other proteases. In addition, the results of PeptideRanker demonstrated that a number of di‐ and tripeptides derived from patatin possessed great potential as bioactive peptides. Practical Applications Patatin is a major protein in potato fruit juice, which is regarded as a by‐product of potato starch industry. Effective conversion of patatin into high value‐added ingredients will significantly improve its potential for food application and elevate its commercial value. This study provides a theoretical basis for development of patatin as a high value‐added and biofunctional ingredient in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-12-02T02:45:18.399737-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12213
  • Effects of a Natural Extract of Aronia melanocarpa Berry on Endothelial
           Cell Nitric Oxide Production
    • Abstract: The effects of acute and chronic treatment with Aronia extracts on nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in bovine coronary artery endothelial cells were investigated. Acute time course and concentration–response experiments were performed to determine the time and concentration at which Aronia induced maximal NO synthesis and eNOS phosphorylation. The findings indicate that relatively low concentrations (0.1 μg/mL) of Aronia extract significantly induced NO synthesis and eNOS phosphorylation after 10 min of treatment. Increased sensitivity of eNOS and a significant increase in NO synthesis resulted from longer term stimulation with Aronia (48 h) and an acute re‐treatment of the cells (10 min). Practical Applications These in vitro results may be translated into potential future clinical applications where Aronia extracts may be used for prevention and coadjuvant treatment of cardiovascular diseases via increases in endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and related improvements in vascular functions. Given the dose–response effect of Aronia extract in vitro and metabolism of polyphenols that occurs in humans, dose–response studies would be necessary to define the optimal daily amount to be consumed.
      PubDate: 2015-12-02T02:36:36.845894-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12226
  • Physio‐Chemical Changes During Repeated Frying of Cooked Oil: A
    • Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak; Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru, Keasvan Radha Krishnan
      Abstract: Today, fried foods are very famous everywhere around the world and it can be observed by the increasing number of fast food restaurants in the last few decades. Deep frying of foods at high temperature enhances the sensorial properties which include the unique fried flavor, golden brown color and crispy texture. Chemical reactions like oxidation, polymerization, hydrolysis, etc., take place in the food system, which ultimately alters the physical and chemical properties of fat. Consequently, so many by‐products such as free fatty acids, alcohols, cyclic compounds, dimers and polymers are produced. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the physical and chemical changes during deep fat frying to monitor the quality of fried foods. In this review, we constituted the previous studies on the changes in fats during frying and methods used to analyze the quality of fried oil, in order to explore the areas which require further research. Practical Applications Deep frying is the most common and one of the oldest methods of food preparation worldwide. To reduce the expenses, the oil tends to be used repeatedly for frying. Repeated use of this oil has become a common practice due to low level of awareness among the public about the bad effect of this practice. Nowadays, the consumption of deep‐fried food has gained popularity which may cause increased risk of obesity. When heated repeatedly, changes in physical appearance of the oil will occur such as increased viscosity and darkening in color, which may alter the fatty acid composition of the oil. In this review, we have investigated the detail mechanism of decay of oil and parameters to be measured to know the quality and safety of oil.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27T01:36:48.247783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12215
  • The Influence of Hot Water and Calcium Chloride on the Changes in Cell
           Wall Composition and the Activities of Cell Wall Hydrolases during Storage
           in Agaricus bisporus
    • Authors: Y. Karakurt; D. Toka
      Abstract: Mushrooms show significant losses in firmness due mainly to the changes in cell walls after harvest. This study was performed to determine the effects of CaCl2 and hot water dips on the changes in firmness, cell wall composition and hydrolase activities of mushrooms during storage. Mushrooms were treated with various concentrations of CaCl2 and hot water at various degrees and stored for 12 days at 10C. The results showed that the firmness of mushrooms decreased significantly and their cell walls have undergone significant changes during 12 days storage period after harvest. Polysaccharide content decreased significantly during storage. This decrease was mainly due to the decrease in the strong alkaline‐soluble polysaccharides. Xyloglucanase and beta glucanase activities increased significantly during storage, possibly contributing significantly to the polysaccharide losses. CaCl2 and hot water treatments significantly reduced the changes in cell wall components and cell wall hydrolase activities. The results suggest that CaCl2 and hot water treatments could be used to reduce the changes in firmness and cell walls after harvest and extend the shelf life of mushroom. Practical Applications Mushrooms show rapid deterioration after harvest due mainly to changes in cell walls and have a very short shelf life. This significantly reduces their marketing period. The results demonstrate that both hot water and CaCl2 significantly delay cell wall degradation and prolong the shelf life of mushrooms. The results of the study have the potential to be used to decide on what treatments should be used to extend the shelf life and marketing period of mushrooms.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27T01:35:22.263693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12219
  • Bioconversion of Platycodon Grandiflorum Saponins by the Platycodin
           D‐Converting Microorganism, Yeast Cyberlindnera Fabianii
    • Abstract: This study sought to identify a new strain of microorganism from a natural source, nuruk, for use in the production of platycodin D (PD) from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG). A non‐Saccharomyces yeast capable of producing PD was isolated from nuruk and identified as Cyberlindnera fabianii. The enzyme responsible for PD production was traced with partially purified crude enzyme extracts (CEE) from yeast C. fabianii 48. The best enzyme fraction responsible for production of PD was the >100 kDa CEE. In addition, the bioconversion pathway for production of PD by the >100 kDa CEE with PD, platycodin D2 (PD2) and platycodin D3 (PD3) substrates was investigated. The >100 kDa CEE was able to degrade PD3 to PD and had no effect on PD and PD2. Practical Applications Platycodin D, the most superior saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), has been reported to have numerous biological effects including prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia, obesity, inflammation and cancer. This study will contribute to future research in drug development, health benefits and applications by searching for potent fermenting microorganisms and developing an improved bioprocess for use in large‐scale production of value‐added PG saponins.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T03:12:24.679618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12217
  • Phytochemical Constituents and the Effect of Processing on Antioxidant
           Properties of Seeds of an Underutilized Wild Legume
           Bauhinia Petersiana
    • Authors: Cathrine Katayi Chidewe; Pride Chirukamare, Loveness Kuziva Nyanga, Cuthbert Johnson Zvidzai, Kudakwashe Chitindingu
      Abstract: Phytochemical constituents and effect of processing on antioxidant activity of the seeds of Bauhinia petersiana were investigated. Phytochemical screening of raw seeds was done on ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of the raw and processed seeds were determined using in vitro tests involving inhibition of DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardenolides, proteins, terpenoids, carbohydrates and anthraquinones were variedly distributed in different extracts of the seeds. The raw, boiled and roasted seeds contained similar amounts of total phenolics and tannins, however, flavonoids were higher in the roasted seeds. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of raw and processed seeds was similar to that of ascorbic acid, catechin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Reducing power increased when samples were roasted. Superoxide and H2O2 scavenging activity of raw and processed seeds were similar to that of ascorbic acid. Practical Applications The ground roasted seeds of Bauhinia petersiana have, since time immemorial, been used as a coffee substitute by communities in Zimbabwe. Our research findings indicate that roasting of the seeds of B. petersiana resulted in increased antioxidant potential through in vitro model. These results mean that the seeds of B. petersiana could be a useful source of natural antioxidant if utilized as roasted ground coffee, compared to the raw or boiled seeds. The analyzed seeds also contained a range of phytochemicals including terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, amino acids, saponins, alkaloids and phenolic compounds; hence, it would be a useful natural source of various phytochemicals that have health benefits. These research findings would be useful in promoting commercial production of coffee or other products from the wild coffee bean.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:22:04.4446-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12221
  • The Influence of Natural Astaxanthin on the Formulation and Storage of
           Marinated Chicken Steaks
    • Abstract: The present study reports on the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp processing by‐products using corn oil. Its antioxidant activities at different concentrations were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging (IC50 = 6.3 μg/mL), reducing power, β‐carotene bleaching (IC50 = 20.4 μg/mL) and total antioxidant capacity assays. Interestingly, astaxanthin extract showed strong antioxidant activity. The astaxanthin from shrimp by‐products was added to marinated chicken steaks as a natural antioxidant, and samples were stored for 7 days at 4C. Our results show that with 10 mg of astaxanthin/kg of chicken steaks, lipid oxidation during storage was minimal and microbiological quality was preserved. These results were further confirmed by histological and sensory analyses. Overall, the results indicated that the addition of natural astaxanthin can minimize lipid oxidation and improve microbiological stability during the formulation and storage of marinated chicken steaks. Practical Applications Shrimp waste is one of the important sources of natural astaxanthin. This carotenoid was reported to be a potent antioxidant and has a variety of biological activities. So, the natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp by‐products can be considered a promising candidate for application as a natural antioxidant agent for use in chicken meat formulations to control and retard lipid oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:03:57.093353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12224
  • Effect of Citrus paradisi and Ocimum sanctum Infusions on Blood Pressure
           Regulation and Its Association with Renal Alterations in Obese Rats
    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Citrus paradisi and Ocimum sanctum infusions in obese rats, and its association with renal alterations. Both herbal infusions decreased blood pressure. The effect of O. sanctum was related to improved renal vascular remodeling, renin and angiotensinogen gene downregulation, as well as reduced renal triglyceride accumulation, and lipid and protein oxidation. Hibiscus sabdariffa showed similar results, which was used for comparison purposes due to its antihypertensive properties. Conversely, C. paradisi exerted a slight effect on these renal alterations, suggesting that its antihypertensive activity may be related to other mechanisms. The hypotensive effects of O. sanctum and C. paradisi may be related to their epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin content, respectively. Furthermore, new phytochemicals were identified in the infusions, such as hederagenin and oleanolic acid β‐D‐glucuronopyranosyl, choline, trigonelline and sitsirikine. The results suggest that these infusions might be used as adjuvant treatments for obesity‐related hypertension. Practical Applications Ocimum sanctum leaves and flowers and Citrus paradisi fruit are widely recommended in the traditional medicine due to their hypotensive properties. In this study, we evaluated the antihypertensive potential of infusions elaborated with these herbal materials, which are inexpensive beverages of easy preparation. The findings of this study demonstrate that O. sanctum and C. paradisi infusions decrease blood pressure. Therefore, these herbs could be used as functional ingredients in the elaboration of beverages, providing a new therapeutic approach for obesity‐related hypertension.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:03:24.274373-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12216
  • Optimization Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and
           Inhibitory Activities of Angiotensin I‐Converting Enzyme (ACE),
           α‐Glucosidase and α‐Amylase from Mentha
           Spicata L
    • Abstract: Ideal extraction conditions were estimated based on the maximum phenolic content, antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity of angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE), α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase enzymes from Mentha spicata L. The optimum extraction conditions for phenolic compounds with maximum ACE inhibitory activity occurred in a mixture of acetone and water (1:1) at 40C for 6 h. The optimal extraction conditions for phenolic compounds with maximum α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity were obtained in a mixture of methanol, acetone and water extraction (1:1:1) and in a mixture of methanol and distilled water (1:1) at 50C for 8 h. The major free phenolic compound extracted with the various extraction solvents, times and temperatures was rutin. The predominant bound phenolic compounds were caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, which did not exist as free phenolic compounds. Practical Applications This study suggested the optimum extraction conditions of phenolic compounds with maximum capacity of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties recommended to be used in food industry as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical herbal extract.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:02:40.500828-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12222
  • Effect of pH during Extraction on the Antioxidant and Antiglycated
           Activities of Polysaccharides from Opuntia Ficus Indica
    • Authors: Mohamed Aymen Chaouch; Jawhar Hafsa, Christophe Rihouey, Didier Le Cerf, Hatem Majdoub
      Abstract: The extraction of carbohydrates from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes at different pH was carried out by ultrasound followed by ethanol precipitation and dialysis. The extraction yields ranged from 4.6 to 24.5%. The highest content in galacturonic acid was observed for the acidic extract (37.4%). On high‐performance size exclusion chromatography, the average molecular weight of all extracts ranged from 7,500,000 to 9,610,000 g/mol. The antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides was tested by three assays (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazil radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and Linoleic acid peroxidation). The glucose‐induced advanced glycation end‐product (AGE) formation of all extracts was also carried out using in vitro galactose–bovine serum albumin assay. Results showed that the acidic extract exhibited even better antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of AGE formation. Practical Applications Plant extracts containing polysaccharides are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin and epithelium wounds and of mucous membrane irritation. In this case, polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, which is a plant native to South America and cultivated in dry regions as an important nutrient and food source, also are used in traditional medicine for their antiulcer and wound‐healing effects. Thus, Opuntia ficus indica cladodes could be a natural candidate for research of herbal complement to the treatment of many diseases. The results found in this study reveal that the extraction under acidic conditions may enhance the antioxidant and antiglycated potential of polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T01:41:54.088071-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12220
  • Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Cytoprotective Effect of Soybean Milk
           Fermented with Lactobacillus Fermentum Zhao
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity and protective effects of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum Zhao (FSM‐FLZ) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‐induced porcine renal proximal tubule LLC‐PK1 cells. FSM‐FLZ was effective against DPPH and ●OH radical in a concentration‐dependent manner. FSM‐FLZ treatment significantly increased cell viability and reduced the H2O2‐induced oxidative injury in LLC‐PK1 cells. In addition, FSM‐FLZ dose‐dependently decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lipid peroxidation, and increased the activities and mRNA expressions of endogenous catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes. This study demonstrated that FSM‐FLZ is a free radical scavenger and protects against H2O2‐induced oxidative injury in LLC‐PK1 cells through reducing intracellular ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity. Practical Applications Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a well‐known probiotic and showed antimicrobial, antitumor, reduction of serum cholesterol and immune‐modulation activity. Lactobacillus fermentum ZHAO is a newly discovered LAB; it was isolated from Yak yoghurt. It was used to ferment soybean milk and the antioxidation effects of soybean milk were determined. L. fermentum ZHAO fermented soybean milk could be used as a new functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16T03:18:31.258881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12223
  • Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Composite Shark Catfish
           (Pangasius pangasius) Skin Collagen Films Integrated with Chitosan and
           Calcium Salts
    • Authors: Jeevithan Elango; Jeya Shakila Robinson, Jeyasekaran Geevaretnam, Emmanuel J. Rupia, Varatharajakumar Arumugam, Sukumar Durairaj, Wu Wenhui
      Abstract: Collagen, collagen–chitosan (C1), collagen–calcium acetate (C2) and collagen–chitosan–calcium acetate (C3) films were prepared from shark catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin, and were investigated for their mechanical and functional properties. Collagen was characterized as type I and contained three identical chains. C3 film had higher tensile strength (10.4 MPa) and Young's modulus (570 MPa). Composite films had low swelling rates and solubility and lasted for 6 days before complete biodegradation. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested that the interactions of collagen with chitosan and calcium salts affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple helical structure. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph of collagen films depicted the formation of spindle‐like structures with chitosan, granules with calcium acetate salts and porous structures in C3 films. Therefore, it was concluded that the collagen films had better mechanical, functional and in‐vitro biodegradation properties by the addition of calcium and chitosan. These results demonstrate the potential application of composite collagen films from shark catfish skin in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Practical Applications To reuse fish‐processing waste for biomedical materials, multicomposite collagen films were prepared from shark catfish skin and examined for their physicofunctional and mechanical properties. The purified collagen was combined with calcium and chitosan to improve the film properties. These results suggest that collagen films had better mechanical, in‐vitro biodegradation and functional properties by the addition of calcium and chitosan. Accordingly, the prepared multicomposite fish collagen films could be suitable materials in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries as alternatives to mammalian collagen films.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16T03:17:08.730878-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12214
  • Enhanced in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides From
           Enteromorpha Prolifera by Enzymatic Degradation
    • Abstract: In order to improve the antioxidant activity of polysaccharide derived from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP), PEP was hydrolyzed to relatively low molecular weight polysaccharides in the presence of either pectinase or gluco‐amylase. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the hydrolysis conditions based on the polysaccharide degradation rate. Optimum hydrolysis for pectinase was found to be: enzyme concentration 9.36 U/mL, reaction temperature 56C and pH 4.45; for gluco‐amylase, the optimum conditions were: enzyme concentration 14.20 U/mL, reaction temperature 49C and pH 4.48. The enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharide obtained under optimal conditions were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by determining their ability to scavenge 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The results indicate that the enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharide exhibited stronger free radical scavenging ability than nondegraded polysaccharide, while pectinase hydrolyzed polysaccharide was found to possess superior radical scavenging ability to that of gluco‐amylase hydrolyzed polysaccharide. Practical Applications In order to fully utilize polysaccharide resources, an effective method to improve the antioxidant activity of Enteromorpha prolifera was established by enzymatic degradation. The hydrolysates obtained by this method may be used as ingredients of functional foods due to their antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T23:27:42.186411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12218
  • Phenolic Composition and Hepatoprotective Activities of Allium Hookeri
           Against Hydrogen‐Peroxide‐Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured
    • Abstract: Allium hookeri were extracted with water and 80% ethanol, and their phenolic compositions, as well as their antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against H2O2‐induced damage in cultured hepatocytes were determined. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the water and ethanol extract were rich in phenolic compounds. The A. hookeri extracts exhibited similar scavenging activities against 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl and 2,2‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzthiazoline)‐6‐sulfonic acid cation radicals. The ethanol extract exhibited a significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T23:27:21.306163-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12225
  • Phenolic Profile, Organic Acids and Antioxidant Activity of Frozen Pulp
           and Juice of the Jambolan (Syzygium Cumini)
    • Abstract: Phenolic compounds belonging to the families of flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic acids and t‐resveratrol (quantified by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and fluorescence detection), organic acids and in vitro antioxidant activity were determined for the frozen pulp and juice of jambolan (also known as black plum). The main organic acids were malic and lactic. The concentration of total phenolics and monomeric anthocyanins are similar to those of other foods considered as sources of these compounds in the human diet. The flavonoids present were procyanidin B1 and catechin, and the main monoglucoside anthocyanin present was cyanidin 3‐glucoside, representing 11% of total monomeric anthocyanins of the products. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were the main phenolic acids. The antioxidant activities of jambolan products were considered acceptable as compared to other potentially antioxidant foods. The bioactive compounds contributed significantly to the total antioxidant activity of the jambolan products. It was noted that procyanidin B1 was the main antioxidant compound present. Practical Applications Several studies on the bioactive compounds of jambolan (also known as black plum) have been reported, but few of them describe the properties of products derived from this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of processed jambolan products in terms of a number of phenolic groups and organic acids to provide new information relevant to the development of potential antioxidant foods. The black plum is a perishable fruit with only one annual harvest, which hinders its consumption in the fresh state. This paper proposes two types of processed foods based on this fruit for use in fruit processing plants.
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T06:00:40.719767-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12209
  • DNA Protection and Antioxidant Potential of Chestnut Shell Extracts
    • Authors: Kyoung Hee Seo; Ji Young Lee, Trishna Debnath, Yong Min Kim, Jung Youl Park, Young Ock Kim, Soo Jin Park, Beong Ou Lim
      Abstract: Castanea crenata is a species of chestnut originally native to South Korea and Japan. In this study, chestnut shell was investigated as a potential source of antioxidant compounds. Distilled water and ethanol extracts were prepared from chestnut shell and their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro using different analytical methods, including 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl, 2,2‐azino‐bis‐(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid), hydroxyl, superoxide radical and nitrite scavenging, reducing (Fe3+ to Fe2+) power, linoleic acid oxidation inhibition and free radical‐induced DNA damage prevention activity. The extracts showed excellent radical‐scavenging activities and prevented free radical‐induced DNA damage. The antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the observed phenolic and flavonoid contents. Our results suggest that the extracts derived from chestnut shells could be a potent source of natural antioxidants. Practical Applications Chestnuts (Castanea crenata) are widely available in Korea. The chestnut inner shell has been used as a cosmetic material for a long time in Korea, and previous research has demonstrated that chestnut fruits and leaves contain phenolic compounds. However, little is known about the potential uses of chestnut shell. Chestnut has been sold as an anti‐wrinkle and anti‐aging compound when mixed with honey, and previous research on the chestnut inner shell has suggested that this material inhibited the biosynthesis of melanin. Recently, it has been reported that chestnut inner shell extracts inhibited the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high‐fat diet. The food industry uses ∼7000 tons of chestnuts annually during the production of marron‐glacé, chestnut purée, etc. The peeling process generates a waste product, i.e., the shell, which accounts for ∼10% of the weight of whole chestnuts, and is used as fuel.
      PubDate: 2015-11-08T20:52:54.892141-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12179
  • Screening of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa Plant for
           α‐Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
    • Authors: E. Sabina; I.S.M. Zaidul, Kashif Ghafoor, J.M. Jaffri, F. Sahena, E.E. Babiker, V. Perumal, M. Hamed, M. Amid, A. Khatib
      Abstract: Phaleria macrocarpa is an herbal plant used in Malaysia to enhance vitality. The aim of this study was to screen the α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of different parts (fruit flesh, leaves and stem) of P. macrocarpa. Methanol (polar) and n‐hexane (nonpolar) extracts, obtained by room temperature solvent extraction, were evaluated for in vitro α‐glucosidase activity inhibition. The compounds were identified by using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) according to their similarity index of >70%, which might be responsible for α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity. The methanol extract of the fruit flesh had the highest yield (25.6 ± 0.5%), whereas the n‐hexane extract of the stem is more effective against α‐glucosidase activity (IC50 0.8 ± 0.1 μg/mL). The fruit flesh (IC501.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL) and leaves (IC501.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL) had also well effectively. The identified metabolites are predominantly phenolics, carbohydrates, triterpenes and organic acids, such as D‐fructose, squalene, α‐linolenic acid and α‐D‐glucopyranoside. In‐depth chemical profiling using GC‐MS was performed for the first time for this plant to assess the likely compounds present in the extract that could be associated with anti‐hyperglycemic activity. Of the three parts tested, every part indicates the potential α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity and hexane extract of stem showed more inhibitory activity among all extracts. Thus, P. macrocarpa can attenuate hyperglycemia by potently inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, making it a viable plant as a source of natural compounds for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Practical Application P. macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. belongs to the Thymelaeaceae family, which is known as “Mahkota Dewa” is one of the well‐known traditional herbs in South Asian countries. Every part of this plant has been reported to be used as a traditional medicine for diabetic treatment for many years. In the present study, the ability of this plant to inhibit carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α‐glucosidase) was explored. All extracts tested exhibited the content to inhibit yeast α‐glucosidase enzymes in vitro, and these beneficial effects appear to be due to some bioactive compounds in P. macrocarpa. Our preliminary investigation gives a principle for further animal and clinical studies of a possible use of P. macrocarpa for the management of diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2015-11-08T20:52:32.450114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12212
  • Inhibitory Effect of Agrimonia Pilosa Leaf Extract on the UV‐Induced
           Photoaging‐Related Ion Channel, ORAI1, and the Enzymes Tyrosinase
           and Elastase
    • Abstract: Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. has received considerable attention as a natural product for its applications in cosmetics owing to its anti‐skin wrinkling and whitening effects. The ORAI1 ion channel is known to be involved in UV‐induced photoaging. Additionally, tyrosinase and elastase are key enzymes in the process of wrinkle formation and pigmentation. We determined that A. pilosa leaf extract and its fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n‐butanol) inhibit this channel and associated key enzymes. Whole‐cell patch‐clamp experiments demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction had a potent inhibitory effect on IORAI1 (99 ± 1%) at 100 μg/mL. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions had tyrosinase inhibitory activity (46.1 ± 0.84% and 35.7 ± 1.40% at 330 μg/mL, respectively). Additionally, these fractions inhibited elastase activity by 48.3 ± 1.20% and 45.4 ± 1.51% at 330 μg/mL, respectively. Our results suggest that A. pilosa leaves are a potential anti‐wrinkle and whitening agent. Practical Applications Agrimonia pilosa has been widely used for the treatment of sore throat, headache, bloody dysentery, parasitic infection and eczema in traditional oriental medicine. Recently, it has also been used as an external application for the treatment of various dermatological problems, such as healing wounds, diminishing wrinkles, pigmentation and atopic dermatitis. However, to date, no report has detailed the mechanisms of A. pilosa's anti‐photoaging activity. This research revealed that the extract of A. pilosa leaves meditates ORAI1 channel activity and directly inhibits tyrosinase and elastase activity. Therefore, A. pilosa may be a potential therapeutic agent in the prevention of UV‐induced photoaging.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T02:18:29.42283-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12171
  • Subacute Effects of Standardized Fumaria Vaillantii Lois. Ethanol Extract
           on Trace Element Levels, Biochemical and Histopathological Parameters in
           Experimental Liver Toxicity
    • Abstract: In this study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extracts of Fumaria vaillantii Lois. was investigated against CCl4‐induced toxicity in rats. F. vaillantii (500 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and tissue malondialdehyde levels, and a significant increase in the reduced glutathione and catalase levels, compared with the CCl4 group. These findings were approved by histopathological observations. Additionally, a significant decrease was found in liver Cu levels (18.5%) of the extract‐treated group (500 mg/kg), while an increase in liver Zn (16.2%) levels was observed compared with the CCl4 group. These changes in liver Zn and Cu levels caused by F. vaillantii extract may contribute to its positive effects on liver toxicity. Phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extract were examined and the extract was standardized by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection on the basis of rutin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids as markers. Practical Applications Fumaria species have been used both as food and traditional medicine. In some Mediterranean countries, the leaves of the plant are cooked or eaten as salad. In Turkey, they are also being drunk as herbal tea, eaten as salad and roasted. The results suggested that F. vaillantii ethanol extract standardized by rutin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids had a significant protective effect against CCl4‐induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, F. vaillantii can be consumed safely and because of its beneficial effect on liver toxicity, its standardized ethanol extract can be used in the preparation of herbal medicines or food supplements in pharmaceutical and food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T00:39:27.466856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12208
  • Potential Protective Effect of Cold‐Pressed Coriandrum Sativum Oil
           Against Carbon Tetrachloride‐Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    • Abstract: The protective effect of cold‐pressed coriander (Coriandrum sativum) oil (CO) against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was studied. CO is characterized by its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with two doses of CO (100 and 200 mg/kg) with administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg, CCl4 in olive oil) for 8 weeks. Liver biochemical parameters were determined in animals treated with CO. The results clearly demonstrated that CO augments the antioxidants' defense mechanism against CCl4‐induced toxicity and provides evidence that CO may have a therapeutic role in free radical–mediated diseases. Treatment with CO significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, kidney function indicators, protein profile, lipid profile and antioxidant markers of CCl4‐induced liver injury rats. The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the CO supplements as the hepatic malondialdehyde levels were lowered, whereas reduced glutathione levels were elevated. The hepatoprotective impact of CO was also supported by histopathological studies of liver tissue. Histopathological examination showed that CO reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis in CCl4‐treated rats. The results indicate the potentiality of CO to act as natural antioxidant by preventing the peroxidative damage caused by CCl4. Practical Applications Biologically active natural compounds are of interest for pharmaceutical industry in the prevention of different diseases caused by lipid peroxidative damage (i.e., ischemia, coronary atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and carcinogenesis). In the present study, the capability of cold‐pressed Coriandrum sativum oil (CO) to protect against CCl4‐induced hepatotoxicity was investigated. The study suggested that CO has potent hepatoprotective activity in CCl4‐induced liver injury in rats. CO possesses antioxidant potential and inhibits the deleterious effect of free radicals generated by CCl4. CO is rich in tocols, phenolic compounds and other bioactive constituents, which might be responsible for the protective effects. These observations provide biochemical data supporting the potential clinical use of CO in the treatment of some hepatic disorders. The results suggest that the ability of CO to ameliorate CCl4‐induced liver injury is associated with its antioxidant and radical‐scavenging characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T00:39:08.7935-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12211
  • Exogenous Application of Oxalic Acid Delays Pericarp Browning and Maintain
           Fruit Quality of Litchi cv. “Gola”
    • Authors: Muhammad Shafique; Ahmad Sattar Khan, Aman Ullah Malik, Muhammad Shahid
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of oxalic acid on pericarp browning, biochemical quality, antioxidative and enzymatic changes in litchi cv. “Gola” fruit under extended cold storage, which has not been studied extensively. Postharvest application of 2 mM oxalic acid reduced fruit weight loss and delayed pericarp browning by maintaining higher anthocyanin contents, as compared with control. Activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes in litchi peel as well as pulp tissues were reduced in fruit treated with 2 mM oxalic acid during 28 days of cold storage. Activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and level of total phenolic contents and total antioxidants in litchi peel as well as pulp tissues were significantly higher in 2 mM oxalic acid‐treated fruit. In conclusion, postharvest application of 2 mM oxalic acid significantly delayed pericarp browning and maintained better quality of litchi cv. “Gola” fruit during cold storage. Practical Applications Pericarp browning of litchi fruit is associated with postharvest oxidative stress, which deteriorates its quality, long‐term storability and commercial value. Postharvest application of oxalic acid has been found to be a useful strategy to overcome the issue of pericarp browning and enhance antioxidative potential of litchi under low temperature storage; thereby, applicable to commercial supply chains for domestic and export markets. Furthermore, this study may facilitate in understanding the changes in antioxidative potential and enzymatic activities during cold storage with gradual browning in pulp as well as peel tissues of litchi.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T21:55:19.095624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12207
  • Identification of β‐Glucosidase Activity of Enterococcus
           Faecalis CRNB‐A3 in Airag and Its Potential to Convert
           Ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax Ginseng
    • Abstract: The objectives of this study were to isolate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting β‐glucosidase activity from Airag, and investigate the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme on saponin (Korean ginsenoside). Of the 33 types of LAB with positive reactions (β‐glucosidase) in the Esculin Iron Agar test, one LAB (CRNB‐A3) was found to have high hydrolytic activity for ginsenoside Rb1. 16S rDNA analysis revealed that CRNB‐A3 was Enterococcus faecalis (99.9% homology). The optimum temperature and pH for growth of CRNB‐A3 in MRS broth were 35C and 8.0, respectively. Crude enzyme from E. faecalis CRNB‐A3 showed ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into minor ginsenosides Rg3 and Rg5. The use of an API ZYM kit showed that E. faecalis CRNB‐A3 had higher activities of leucine arylamidase, esterase and β‐glucosidase than any other enzyme activities. Additionally, E. faecalis CRNB‐A3 was identified as being hetero‐fermentative. Practical Applications The fermentation of Panax ginseng yields many compounds from ginsenoside that have varying biological functions. These compounds are widely consumed in Korea and other Asian nations in the form of extracts, alcohols, candy, fermented liquids and pharmacological products. This study revealed that an Airag (Mongolian KOUMISS) LAB strain possessed a strong ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3 and Rg5, which could be used in food and cosmetic industries for making yogurts, beverage products, cosmetics and other products for ginsenoside supplementations.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19T20:26:51.416343-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12201
  • Origanum Vulgare L. Extracts Versus Thymol: An
           Anti‐Inflammatory Study on Activated Microglial and Mixed Glial
    • Authors: Samar Javadian; Farzaneh Sabouni, Kamahldin Haghbeen
      Abstract: Origanum vulgare L. is a well‐known herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Methanolic extracts of the aerial parts of O. vulgare were prepared and subjected to high‐performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thymol was identified and measured in these extracts. The leaf and stem extracts showed moderate phenolic content and radical‐scavenging capability. Methanolic solution of thymol and the extracts of O. vulgare showed strong anti‐inflammatory effect on the activated microglial and mixed glial cells through inhibition of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor‐α expression. No cytotoxicity was observed at the effective concentrations of the thymol (0.15 mg/mL), the leaf (2.25 mg/mL) or the stem (1.5 mg/mL) extracts. The results of this study indicate that thymol may play a role in the anti‐inflammatory activity of O. vulgare extracts. However, the effect of other components of the extracts should not be ignored. Practical Applications Oregano has long been used in Persian traditional medicine in various prescriptions and is renowned for its diuretic, stomachic, antineuralgic, antitussive and expectorant properties. The results of this research demonstrate its potential for use in herbal formulations, drinks or as a food additive for people suffering from neurodegenerative disorders, especially during the early stages of these diseases. The results suggest that compounds with chemical structures similar to thymol may be the components of methanolic extracts of oregano that are effective in reducing inflammation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08T23:49:38.671365-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12199
  • Anti‐Glycation of Active Compounds Purified from Graptopetalum
    • Abstract: Graptopetalum paraguayense was shown to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti‐hepatocellular carcinoma activities in a recent study. In this work, fractions of the G. paraguayense aqueous solution were extracted using n‐hexane, ethyl acetate (EF) and n‐butanol, and its antioxidative and anti‐glycative activities were evaluated. The EF extract exhibited the highest antioxidative activity, potently inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reduced glycation‐induced protein oxidation. Additionally, the EF extract protected Hep G2 cells against AGE‐induced DNA damage. Five major components were isolated and identified in the EF fraction by semi‐preparative high‐performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance: gallic acid, isoquercitrin‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate), astragalin‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate), isoquercitrin‐2‐acetyl‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate) and astragalin‐2‐acetyl‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate). G. paraguayense exhibited antioxidant and anti‐glycation activities, likely because of the presence of gallic acid. The findings indicate the potential for using G. paraguayense for development of novel treatments for diabetes. Practical Applications Herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia are relatively cheap and locally available. The results indicated that the extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense may be developed as functional foods for antidiabetic treatment mediated by attenuations of advanced glycation end product oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08T22:31:31.06651-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12203
  • Purification and Characterization of Trypsin Inhibitor from Yellowfin Tuna
           (Thunnus Albacores) Roe
    • Authors: Sappasith Klomklao; Soottawat Benjakul, Hideki Kishimura, Kazufumi Osako, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Abstract: Trypsin inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from the roe of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) by heat treatment at 60C for 10 min, followed by column chromatographies on Sephacryl S‐200, Sephadex G‐50 and DEAE‐cellulose. The trypsin inhibitor was purified 11.29‐fold with a yield of 46.02%. Yellowfin tuna trypsin inhibitor migrated as a single band using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified trypsin inhibitor had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa when analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. No inhibitory activity was obtained under reducing condition of β‐mercaptoethanol. Maximal activity was recorded at pH 7.0 and 50C. The purified inhibitor was stable in the temperature range of 20–60C for 10 min and in the pH range of 5–8. NaCl concentration up to 3% did not significantly affect the inhibitory activity of purified trypsin inhibitor. However, the activity decreased when trypsin inhibitor was incubated with metal ions (Cu+, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) at ambient temperature for 30 min. Practical Applications Trypsin inhibitor from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) roe, the by‐products of tuna processing, can be purified. The yellowfin tuna trypsin inhibitor is a salt‐stable peptide and could be useful for food applications, especially surimi.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:19:48.581684-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12204
  • Effects of Chard (Beta Vulgaris L. Var. Cicla) on Cardiac Damage in
           Valproic Acid–Induced Toxicity
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chard on valproic acid (VPA)‐induced cardiac damage. Female Sprague‐Dawley rats were grouped as control, chard given control (100 mg/kg/day, by gavage), VPA (500 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) and chard given VPA (100 mg/kg/day chard by gavage, 500 mg/kg/day VPA, intraperitoneally). The aqueous extracts of chard leaves were given 1 h prior to administration of VPA for 7 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total sialic acid (SA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity significantly increased in the VPA group compared with the control group (P 
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:19:28.193289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12202
  • Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory
           Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Redflower Ragleaf (Crassocephalum
           Crepidioides) Extract
    • Authors: S.A. Adefegha; G. Oboh, O.R. Molehin, J.A. Saliu, M.L. Athayde, A.A. Boligon
      Abstract: Consumption of vegetables has been suggested to be a practical strategy in the management of several degenerative diseases. The present study characterized the phenolic constituents, assessed the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect and evaluated the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts of redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides [Benth.] S. Moore [Asteraceae]) used as food and traditional medicine in Africa. The vegetable extract was found to be rich in phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and rutin). Furthermore, the extract (IC50 = 139.75 μg/mL) inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose‐dependent manner and had high antioxidant properties as typified by the radical scavenging abilities, reducing property, Fe2+ chelating ability and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue (in vitro). These results reveal that the vegetable extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential. Practical Applications Redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides) may be a good source of potential phenolic phytochemicals that act as natural antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and may be beneficial for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:14:54.030258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12200
  • Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity and In Vitro Growth
           Inhibition of Struvite Crystals by Ipomoea Eriocarpa Leaf Extracts
    • Authors: Moonjit Das; Himaja Malipeddi, N. Arunai Nambiraj, Reshma Rajan
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the total phenol, flavonoid, terpenoid and sterol contents and the antioxidant properties of water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Ipomoea eriocarpa. The antioxidant activity of the three extracts was studied using 2,2‐diphenyl‐dipicrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide methods. The in vitro growth inhibition of struvite crystals was also investigated in the presence of three extracts. Struvite crystals were grown using the single diffusion gel growth technique. The crystals were characterized using powder X‐ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric with differential thermal analysis. The ethanol extract showed the highest phenolic, flavonoid and terpenoid contents and possessed better antioxidant properties compared with the water and chloroform extracts. Furthermore, the ethanol extract was the only one that showed growth‐inhibition properties. The inhibition of crystal growth by different concentrations of the leaf extract of I. eriocarpa was promising and rapid, indicating that the plant can potentially prevent and cure struvite‐based urolithiasis. Practical Applications Ipomoea eriocarpa is traditionally used as a vegetable in India. The seeds are nutritious and a good source of carbohydrates and proteins. From the present studies, it can be concluded that regular consumption of this plant can provide a good source of natural antioxidants to the body. Therapeutic doses of the ethanol extract can inhibit or reduce the size of struvite‐based kidney stones and could help in the passage of stones through the urinary tube. Thus, the plant can potentially prevent as well as cure struvite‐based urolithiasis.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:03:55.626486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12205
  • A Bioactive Constituent of Ginger, 6‐Shogaol, Prevents Adipogenesis
           and Stimulates Lipolysis in 3T3‐L1 Adipocytes
    • Abstract: Zingiber officinale Roscoe, one of the most widely used spices, has been reported to have anti‐obesity and anti‐diabetes effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 6‐shogaol, a bioactive compound present in ginger, on the adipogenic process in 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes. The anti‐adipogenic effects of 6‐shogaol was significantly higher than the more widely investigated 6‐gingerol, another major ginger constituent. We observed that 6‐shogaol inhibited the expression of two master regulators of adipogenesis, PPARγ and C/EBPα, and also stimulated lipolysis in mature 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that 6‐shogaol, not 6‐gingerol, is the major compound present in ginger responsible for its reported anti‐adipogenic properties. Practical Applications Ginger is widely consumed all over the world, and has been associated with various health benefits. At least some of these benefits have been previously attributed to 6‐gingerol. In the present study, we observed that 6‐shogaol has more potent anti‐adipogenic effects than 6‐gingerol in 3T3‐L1 cells. This is the first study to investigate the anti‐obesity effect of 6‐shogaol in vitro, and provides a new perspective on future development of ginger‐based anti‐obesity strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:59:15.838066-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12191
  • Proteinases from the Liver of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus Alalunga): Optimum
           Extractant and Biochemical Characteristics
    • Authors: Pakteera Sripokar; Tanchanok Poonsin, Manat Chaijan, Soottawat Benjakul, Sappasith Klomklao
      Abstract: Proteolytic activity of the extract from albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) liver was studied. Optimum pH and temperature for casein hydrolysis were 8.5 and 55C, respectively. The enzyme was stable to heat treatment up to 50C and in the pH range of 7.0–10.0 for 30–120 min. The proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, N‐p‐tosyl‐L‐lysine chloromethyl ketone and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Activities of the liver extract continuously decreased with increasing NaCl concentration (0–30%), while activities increased as CaCl2 concentration increased. Based on activity staining, the molecular weights of the proteinases in albacore tuna liver were 21, 24, 30 and 34 kDa. Optimum extraction medium for proteinase recovery from albacore tuna liver was also investigated. Extraction of the liver powder with 50 mM Na phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.2% (v/v) Brij 35 rendered a higher recovery of proteinase activity than other extractants tested (P 
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:35:46.643421-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12174
  • Nutritional Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of
           Selected Wild Edible Plants
    • Authors: Hamayun Khan; Syed Aleem Jan, Mehwish Javed, Rabia Shaheen, Zahid Khan, Aftab Ahmad, Sher Zaman Safi, Muhammad Imran
      Abstract: This study determines the nutritional composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of wild plants available in Pakistan. Eight wild plant species, such as Chenopodium murale, Eruca sativa, Goldbachia laevigata, Malcolmia africana, Malva neglecta, Medicago polymorpha, Melilotus officinalis and Nasturtium officinale, were collected from their natural habitat and analyzed. Proximate analysis of plants showed good amount of fibers and proteins in M. neglecta and M. officinalis. Among the minerals, calcium and potassium were predominantly present in all plants. The total antioxidant and free radical‐scavenging activities of the plant species showed a linear correlation with the total phenolics. Our results indicated that methanolic extracts of plant species have measurable inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. These results may provide useful information for the evaluation of the selected wild plants in terms of their nutritional potential and medicinal values. Practical Applications The nutritional values and medicinal potential of wild‐plant food are of considerable importance as they help to pinpoint traditional food resources of poor population in developing countries. However, it is important to build awareness among the community to accept wild‐plant foods as useful as the cultivated ones. The assessment of nutritional composition, antioxidant properties, antibacterial and phytochemical composition of the selected wild plants may provide potential insights into their applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals development. The current work will provide new reference data and will give awareness to public consuming these unconventional plants as food.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T01:22:04.514088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12189
  • Effect of Genotype, Environment and Malting on the Antioxidant Activity
           and Phenolic Content of Indian Barley
    • Authors: Sneh Narwal; Dinesh Kumar, Ramesh Pal Singh Verma
      Abstract: Seventy‐two Indian barley varieties were screened for their antioxidant activity for 2 years using two antiradical systems. Differences in the levels of antioxidant activity in 2 years were obtained, but the genotypic differences still remained and a 2‐fold variability was observed in the antioxidant activity. Year‐to‐year differences were also obtained when the selected varieties were analyzed for their free and bound phenolic contents. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the five varieties grown at six different locations revealed that the antioxidant activity and the free phenolics were more influenced by the genotype, whereas the bound and the total phenolics were most influenced by the environment. After malting, no significant changes were observed in the antioxidant activity; however, a 2‐fold increase was observed in the total phenolic content, which was mainly due to the increase in the level of free phenolics after malting. Practical Applications Barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content can be beneficial both as food and also in brewing. This is the first time that almost all the released varieties from India have been analyzed for their antioxidant potential. In India, around 20% of the barley produced is used for malt production. Therefore, the effect of malting on the antioxidant activity and the free and bound phenolic components in 12 malting barley varieties was also studied. This study could help in identifying barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity for food purposes and the barley varieties with high phenolics for the brewing purposes. Identification of such lines can help the breeding program in developing food and malt barley varieties with improved levels of antioxidants, which can provide better health and industrial benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16T03:38:22.546529-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12198
  • Potentiation of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Artisanal
           Honeys Using Specific Heat Treatments
    • Abstract: The effect of temperature on the phenol content, flavonoids content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) in five artisanal honeys of different floral origins was investigated. The total phenol and total flavonoid content showed either linear or quadratic curves (P 
      PubDate: 2015-09-06T21:57:49.69375-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12186
  • Antioxidant Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolysate Derived From Hairtail Surimi
    • Abstract: In this study, a column reactor filled with immobilized chymotrypsin–trypsin (I‐CT) was used to prepare antioxidant peptides from hairtail surimi wash water. At the optimum reaction temperature (30C), when residence time is 5 min (flow rate is 3 mL/min), the conversion rate of the I‐CT column enzymatic reactor could be maintained above 60%. The half‐life of the column reactor was in excess of 6 h. At 30C, when residence time is 15 min (flow rate is 1 mL/min), the antioxidant capacity of the resulting enzymatic hydrolysate was the highest (1.59 mmol/L FeSO4 equivalent) and the product conversion rate was 67.0%. Tricine–sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the main ingredients of enzymatic hydrolysate were low‐molecular‐weight peptides (
      PubDate: 2015-09-06T21:57:31.501731-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12185
  • Effects of Selenium on the Growth and Fermentation Properties of
           Se‐Enriched Bacillus Subtilis J‐2
    • Authors: Shan Wu; Na Zhou, Dongsheng Li, Sai He, Yang Chen, Ye Bai, Mingquan Zhou, Jianjun He, Chao Wang
      Abstract: This paper describes the effect of sodium selenite on the growth and fermentation properties of Bacillus subtilis J‐2 (BSJ‐2) which was isolated from the water of Chinese fermented pickles. The results of the optimum Se‐added conditions are as follows: addition concentration 45 μg/mL, addition time 4 h and inoculation quantity 2%. At this site, the Se conversion ratio was 73.8 ± 3.4%. With the increasing of selenium concentration, the alkaline protease activity has a slight increase at the optimum growth conditions, while the variation of the neutral protease activity had no significant difference among the five samples in the 1,000–1,100 μg/mL range. Added selenium had a positive impact on the antimicrobial ability of strains. Practical Applications The increasing popularity of Se‐enriched microorganism among food preservatives and food fermentation was well concerned about in the recent years. The present study has demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis has a suitable Se‐enriched condition and can enhance the growth and protease activities applied in food fermentation which can promote efficiency and cost savings. Health‐promoting effect is shown through the relatively high conversion on Se‐enriched Bacillus subtilis J‐2. It is expected that Se‐enriched B. subtilis J‐2 could be applied in food industries as an antiseptic agent to improve the antimicrobial ability. Our previous studies demonstrated that Se‐enriched B. subtilis can be applied as a safe and healthy potential dietary resource of nontoxic selenium to food fermentation and effective functional substance in food and medical industry.
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T01:45:50.572602-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12184
  • Conversion of Flavonols Kaempferol and Quercetin in Mulberry (Morus
           Alba L.) Leaf Using Plant‐Fermenting Lactobacillus Plantarum
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the levels of flavonols in mulberry leaf fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a traditional Korean soybean‐fermented food. Flavonol kaempferol and quercetin contents were markedly higher in fermentates of mulberry leave (FML) extracts than in unfermented mulberry leave (UFML) extracts (kaempferol and quercetin: 30.43 ± 1.83 mg/100 g and 49.96 ± 2.74 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry in FML versus 0.54 ± 0.11 mg/100 g and 0.58 ± 0.15 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry in UFML). In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in FML extract were 1,183.28 ± 2.99 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry and 425.61 ± 9.73 mg/100 g equivalent weight of dry, respectively, which were considerably higher than those of the control UFML extract. Practical Applications Flavonols kaempferol and quercetin with antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties have been implicated in the prevention and development of therapies for cancers, cardiovascular disease, neurological and metabolic disorders, and bone diseases and so on. These results suggest that Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a traditional Korean soybean‐fermented food could be used as a starter strain for improvement of biologically beneficial flavonol compounds in plant‐derived food materials.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T03:17:42.418149-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12176
  • Characterization of a Solvent‐Tolerant Manganese Peroxidase (MnP)
           from Ganoderma Lucidum and Its Application in Fruit Juice Clarification
    • Authors: Tamilvendan Manavalan; Vetriselvan Manavalan, Kalaichelvan P. Thangavelu, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
      Abstract: Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is necessary in fruit juice clarification for the degradation of phenolic compounds. In the present study, MnP was produced using basal medium supplemented with tamarind shell (1% w/v), ethanol (2% v/v) and gallic acid (1 mM) to a maximum activity of 65 U/mL. A 43.0 kDa MnP was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G‐100 and DEAE‐cellulose column chromatography with 6.5‐fold and 13% yield. The optimal activity of the purified MnP was achieved at pH 5.5 and temperature of 45C with 2,6‐dimethoxyphenol as substrate. The inhibitors sodium azide, cyanide and EDTA inhibited the MnP activity up to 100, 93 and 84%, respectively. MnP showed high activity and stability in the presence of different metal ions, surfactants and organic solvents. Clarification of different fruit juices with MnP showed its potential application in the food and beverage industry. Practical Applications Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is extensively used in various applications, such as pulp delignification, dye decoloration, biotransformation, biosensor applications and fruit juice clarification. Ganoderma lucidum‐derived purified MnP is a solvent‐tolerant metalloenzyme that showed its potential for industrial application in clarification of various fruit juices. The stability of MnP in the presence of various divalent cations, surfactants and solvents suggests that it could be used in industrial effluent treatments as well as the food and beverage industry.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T03:17:22.639034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12188
  • Comparative Study of Chemical Composition, In Vitro Inhibition of
           Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Enzymes, and Antioxidant Potentials of
           Essential Oil from Peels and Seeds of Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis [L.]
           Osbeck) Fruits
    • Authors: Ayokunle Olubode Ademosun; Ganiyu Oboh, Adebayo John Olupona, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye, Taiwo Mary Adewuni, Esther Emem Nwanna
      Abstract: This study was designed to compare the chemical compositions and effect of essential oils from the peels and seeds of sweet orange on cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], butyrylcholinesterase [BChE]) and monoaminergic (monoamine oxidase [MAO]) enzymes. The ability of the essential oils to protect the brain against Fe2+‐induced lipid peroxidation was also investigated. Forty and forty‐four compounds were identified in peels and seed essential oils, respectively, using gas chromatography. The essential oils inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO in dose‐dependent manner. However, essential oil from the peels had higher inhibition on cholinergic enzymes but lower inhibitory effect on MAO and Fe2+‐induced lipid peroxidation compared to the seed essential oils. This study also revealed the presence of volatile compounds. Conclusively, both essential oils could be used as therapeutic agents in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Practical Applications Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peels and seeds are waste materials in the production of orange juice and can be used as a source to produce essential oils which can be of use in the production of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study provided reference information for the first time on the chemical composition and potential application of sweet orange peels and seed essential oils in the treatment and management of Alzheimer's diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-08-28T01:47:55.001858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12187
  • Irradiation and Evaporation Enhance Physicochemical Characteristics, AEAC,
           FRAP, Protein and Proline Contents of Tualang Honey
    • Authors: Md Ibrahim Khalil; Md Asiful Islam, Nadia Alam, Siew Hua Gan, Siti Amrah Sulaiman
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different honey processing parameters (temperature, light, gamma irradiation, evaporation and sachet packaging) on the physical, biochemical and antioxidant characteristics of Tualang honey samples that have been stored for 1 year. The protein and proline contents doubled following radiation and evaporation. Radiation and evaporation also developed the honey quality by decreasing the moisture content and improving the antioxidant parameters (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and color intensity), and maintaining the total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of the honey within the recommended levels. Cold temperature storage maintained the moisture contents and 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural levels within safe levels. However, in case of sachet honey, cold temperature storage is not recommendable as room temperature improved the protein, proline and FRAP content. Irradiation and evaporation of honey samples are recommended as these processes tend to improve the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties and increase the protein and proline contents of honey. Practical Applications As the physicochemical, biochemical and antioxidant potentials of honey have seen to be improved significantly after irradiation and evaporation, these can be potential techniques to improve the quality of honey prior to consumption.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T21:13:16.700042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12182
  • Effect of Storage Temperature on Carbohydrate Metabolism and Development
           of Cold‐Induced Sweetening in Indian Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)
    • Authors: Joseph Hubert Galani Yamdeu; Pooja H. Gupta, Nilesh J. Patel, Avadh K. Shah, Jayant G. Talati
      Abstract: This study investigated the changes in carbohydrate metabolism in tubers of 11 Indian potato varieties stored at room temperature, 15C and 4C for 150 days to understand the development of cold‐induced sweetening (CIS). Low‐temperature storage negligibly influenced starch and maltose contents of the tubers but induced a significant increase of reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, fructose, glucose and hexoses : sucrose ratio, and a decrease of sucrose content was noticeable at 4C. A strong positive correlation was found between reducing sugars and total soluble sugars, and between fructose and glucose. The activity of β‐amylase was considerably increased by storage at low temperature, and it weakly correlated with starch content. Also, the absence of maltose accumulation with increased β‐amylase activity was observed. Acid invertase activity drastically rose at low temperature and strongly paralleled reducing sugars, glucose, fructose and hexose : sucrose ratio. The K. Jyoti variety was designated as CIS‐tolerant and the K. Badshah variety as CIS‐susceptible. Practical Applications Development of cold‐induced sweetening (CIS) is important for basic research and for potato‐processing industry. This work allowed us to group 11 Indian potato varieties into low‐sugar‐forming and high‐sugar‐forming groups, to identify varieties suitable for processing immediately after harvest or short time storage and to identify varieties with high starch content suitable for starch extraction. Hence, it provides capital information to the industry about varieties with good starch yield, which can be cold‐stored without drastic sugar increase, and to breeders for searching genes of resistance to CIS in Indian potatoes. This study also demonstrated that during CIS development in these varieties, acid invertase is the key enzyme, β‐amylase is not the main enzyme of starch degradation and there is possible significant activity of maltase in potato tubers. These observations pave the way through biotechnology work to develop new potato varieties which can cope with this postharvest problem.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T20:33:04.221926-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12190
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate and Caffeine Prevent DNA Adduct Formation and
           Interstrand Cross‐Links Induced by Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde
    • Authors: Mingfu Wang; Wen Hao
      Abstract: Highlights Acrolein/crotonaldehyde causes DNA adducts and interstrand cross‐links. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) traps acrolein/crotonaldehyde. ECCG lowers DNA adduct formation and interstrand cross‐links. Abstract The present work explored the potential application of phytochemicals in the prevention of DNA adduct formation and interstrand cross‐links (ICLs) caused by acrolein (ACR) and crotonaldehyde (CRO). Our study showed that epigallocatechin gallate, a major phenolic compound in green tea, was the most effective compound to prevent DNA adduct formation caused by ACR and CRO and trap ACR and CRO in a chemical system. As an example, epigallocatechin gallate showed the inhibitory effect on dG damage caused by ACR (67.1%) and the best trapping ability against ACR (100%) at the concentration of 10 mM, significantly different from the control without the addition of a phytochemical (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T02:05:10.821909-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12178
  • Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Rich Moringa oleifera Lam.
           Extracts in Food Systems
    • Abstract: Moringa oleifera Lam. has long been used in traditional medicine and for culinary purposes. This study aimed at determining the phenolic content as well as the antioxidative properties of leaf and pod extracts of M. oleifera Lam. in vitro and in mayonnaise and bulk sunflower oil. The methanolic leaf and pod extracts (MLE and MPE) had the highest phenolic content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activities in the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) assay (1,298 ± 4.1 μmol Fe [II]/g fresh weight) compared with the aqueous extracts. Moreover, MLE was the most effective free radical scavenger and metal chelator in the deoxyribose and iron chelation assays, respectively. The antioxidant efficacy of MLE and MPE at 0.2 and 0.4% was compared with that of butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%) in bulk sunflower oil and mayonnaise. The peroxide and conjugated diene values showed that the extracts effectively protected both systems. MLE at 0.4% exhibited the most potent antioxidant effect. Practical Applications Reactive oxygen species, generated by lipid oxidation, can compromise the safety of foods resulting in harmful effects on human health. There is much interest in natural antioxidants as an effective means to retard oxidative changes in foods due to toxicological concerns associated with synthetic antioxidants. M. oleifera L. is currently underutilized as a food plant despite scientific evidence of its nutritional quality and health benefits mainly ascribed to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. This study was aimed at determining the phenolic content and the in vitro antioxidant properties of M. oleifera leaf and pod extracts. The effect of the extracts on oxidative stability in mayonnaise and bulk sunflower oil was also evaluated. Results show that this food plant represents an untapped potential that could be used as a source of natural food additives to retard oxidative damage in various food systems and thus prolonging the shelf life of lipid‐bearing foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24T01:52:31.23693-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12181
  • Comparative Study on In Vitro Anti‐Proliferative and Apoptotic
           Effects of Organic and Non‐Organic Tea Extracts
    • Authors: Peik Lin Teoh
      Abstract: This study compared the anti‐proliferative and apoptotic effects of organic and non‐organic Sabah tea on cancer cell lines. Anti‐proliferative assays showed that the tea extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of MCF‐7 and HeLa cells. The IC50 values for MCF‐7 and HeLa were 20.9 ± 2.6 to 39.3 ± 0.8 and 38.5 ± 3.8 to 42.0 ± 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. Statistical differences were observed in MCF‐7 cells treated with organic and non‐organic tea extracts. However, no differences were found in HeLa cells. Morphological changes were observed in both treated cell lines when compared with the untreated cells. However, the formation of DNA laddering was only observed in the treated MCF‐7 cells. Reduction of BCL‐2 expression was found in the treated MCF‐7 cells but BAX expression was unaltered. In conclusion, the effect of different farming systems on the proliferation of cancer cells could be cell‐type‐dependent but they showed no obvious differences in their effects on preventing cancer cell growth and inducing apoptosis. Practical Applications Tea is well known for its various health benefits due to its bioactivity. The findings from this study will add valuable preliminary information regarding the potential of organic and non‐organic tea as natural chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. These findings will provide scientific evidence on health advantages that might result from organic food consumption; thus, consumers will be able to make more informed choices.
      PubDate: 2015-08-17T03:53:03.242404-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12180
  • Optimization of Alkali Extraction of Polysaccharides From Foxtail Millet
           and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro
    • Authors: Aishi Zhu; Liyang Tang, Qiaohui Fu, Maoqian Xu, Jie Chen
      Abstract: Highlights Extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet with alkali solution. Response surface methodology was used. The antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides was investigated in vitro. Model was set up to optimize extraction of polysaccharides. The best extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h and extraction temperature 72.7C. Abstract Response surface methodology was employed to obtain the best possible combination of alkali concentration, liquid–solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature for maximum polysaccharide yields in the experiment of alkali extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet. The antioxidant activity of the obtained polysaccharides was meanwhile investigated in vitro. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second‐order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The optimum extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h, and extraction temperature 72.7C, the experimental yield was 46.21 mg/g, which was well in close agreement with the model's predicted value (45.60 mg/g). The polysaccharides of foxtail millet have better capacity of radical‐scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical‐scavenging activity. The mathematical model had high correlation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T23:28:03.733069-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12183
  • Factors Affecting the Quality Attributes of Unripe Grape Functional Food
    • Abstract: Unripe grapes with sour taste can be processed into various products such as verjuice and sour grape sauce. They have gained popularity because of increasing consumers' demands for natural and functional foods. It was aimed to detect some physicochemical properties and the antioxidant capacity of unripe grape products. Five verjuice and five sour grape sauce samples were analyzed and the mean of the values 2.41 for pH, 0.97 for water activity, 5.63 for soluble solid content, 3.83% for titratable acidity, 6.721 g/L for total sugar content and 473.96 mg/L for total phenol content were obtained. Antioxidant contents of the samples were detected between 0.010–0.231 and 0.035–0.885 μmol TE/mL by FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and TEAC (Trolox‐Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assays, respectively. Variation in the result of analysis depends on factors such as varieties, maturation stage, harvesting time, genotypic differences and environmental stress. Unripe grape products could be good alternatives for functional nutrition with their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Practical Applications The food industry is looking for new, available and low‐cost alternatives to supply the demand of the consumers on functional and natural foods. Grapes are a good source of antioxidant‐rich food products by making them functional and also extending their shelf life. Unripe grape products such as verjuice and sour grape sauce, used as a flavoring and acidifying agent, could also be considered natural sanitizers. Unripe grape products, directly or as an additive in foods, could contribute to the functional and natural food production.
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T23:27:40.190919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12175
  • Influence of High‐Pressure/High‐Temperature Extraction on the
           Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Barley Grains
    • Abstract: The influence of extraction temperature (90–180C), solvent concentration (36–90% ethanol) and time (30–90 min) on extractability of phenolic compounds from barley grains and on antiradical power of extracts was examined. RSM was used to design and optimize the processing parameters. Experimental results of total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and antiradical power of barley extracts were in the range from 3.27 to 26.60 mgGAE/gdb, 0.91 to 6.09 mgCE/gdb and 0.33 to 4.05 gDPPH/mLext, respectively. HPLC analysis of extracts showed epigallocatechin gallate to be the predominant phenolic compound, representing up to 93% of all phenolic compounds determined. Based on RSM analysis, temperature was the most significant factor affecting the observed responses (P 
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T22:02:06.903187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12177
  • An In Situ Study on the Effects of Extracts of Taraxacum
           Officinale, Paulliniia Pinnata and Thonningia Sanguinea on
           Mitochondrial Function
    • Abstract: Taraxacum officinale leaves are popular among Ghanaians as vegetable and/or beverage while extracts of Taraxacum officinale, Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea are present in common herbal remedies widely available without prescription in Ghana. This study was therefore aimed to identify possible interactions between these medicinal plant extracts and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. The effects of these extracts on mitochondrial oxygen consumption were therefore investigated in situ using permeabilized mouse cardiac muscle fiber preparations and a substrate‐inhibitor titration. The results showed that the ethanolic fraction of T. officinale leaves significantly increased the respiration rate in presence of rotenone and the state 3/state 2 ratio (respiratory control ratio) while the ethanolic extract of P. pinnata stem significantly decreased succinate‐stimulated respiration. The aqueous extract of T. sanguinea also significantly decreased respiration in presence of rotenone. Practical Applications The present study revealed that the extracts from Taraxacum officinale, Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea exhibited the potential to influence mitochondrial respiratory chain function. The result presented in this study provides evidence that T. officinale offers an opportunity to be explored as a natural energy booster. The decrease in succinate‐stimulated respiration caused by the extract from P. pinnata provides further evidence for its use as a fish poison and strongly suggests that its use in herbal remedies may be detrimental. Furthermore, information about similar effects caused by traditional remedies would be useful not only in the discovery of novel therapeutic agents but also identification of extracts with the potential for long term toxicity.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T21:52:50.999177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12163
  • Effect of Rice Bran Unsaponifiables on High‐Fat Diet‐Induced
           Obesity in Mice
    • Authors: Hyeonmi Ham; Jeehye Sung, Junsoo Lee
      Abstract: Rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) was prepared by the saponification method and contained 1,635 mg of tocopherols and tocotrienols, 5,514 mg of policosanols, 36,425 mg of phytosterols, and 2,968 mg of oryzanols per 100 g of USM. Mice were divided into five groups: a normal diet (ND), high‐fat diet (HFD), HFD with 10, 20 and 50 mg USM/kg body weight/day group. After 6 weeks, the administration of USM at doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg reduced the body weight gain, food efficiency ratio and size of the epididymal fat tissue compared with those in the HFD group. In addition, the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol level as well as the atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor were also reduced in the USM fed groups compared with those in the HFD group. These findings suggest that USM from rice bran may have excellent hypolipidemic potential to prevent obesity. Practical Applications Rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) contains a variety of functional compounds. This study investigated the hypolipidemic effects of USM from rice bran in high‐fat diet‐fed mice. The result of this study suggested that rice bran USM was beneficial in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia. The use of rice bran USM may have implications for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T20:01:53.995044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12170
  • Variation in Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity in Yellow
           Himalayan (Rubus ellipticus Smith) and Hill Raspberry (Rubus
           niveus Thunb.)
    • Authors: Amit Badhani; Sandeep Rawat, Indra D. Bhatt, Ranbeer S. Rawal
      Abstract: Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in the fruits of Rubus ellipticus and Rubus niveus were studied. A significant variation (P 
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T21:04:59.081026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12172
  • Antioxidant Activities and Major Bioactive Components of Consecutive
           Extracts from Blue Honeysuckle (Lonicera Caerulea L.) Cultivated in
    • Authors: Lei Zhao; Siran Li, Lei Zhao, Ye Zhu, Tianyang Hao
      Abstract: Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) fruits were extracted consecutively by five solvents of different polarity, and the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), ABTS [2,2′‐azino‐bis‐(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid)] and CV (cyclic voltammetry) assays. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents. Among the five extracts, the methanol extract with the strongest antioxidant activity was selected for further study. It showed protective effects on 2,2′‐azobis (2‐amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)‐induced DNA and erythrocyte oxidative damage. Moreover, bioactive components of the methanol extract were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Six polyphenols were characterized, including chlorogenic acid, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside, peonidin‐3‐glucoside, quercetin‐3‐rutinoside, quercetin‐3‐glucoside and apigenin‐(malonyl)‐hexoside. Among these, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside was the predominant antioxidant component. These results suggested that the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle fruits could be used as a promising ingredient for functional foods or nutraceuticals to prevent diseases arising from oxidative processes. Practical Applications Berries are important sources of natural antioxidants, which can protect the body from oxidative damage. Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) has been harvested from the wild in regions of China, Russia and Japan for hundreds of years. It is more winter‐hardy than blueberry. The berries are similar in appearance and taste to blueberries. For the above reasons, blue honeysuckle has a certain market at early season. The results of the present study indicate that the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle showed notable antioxidant activity in different assays in vitro. The methanol extract is rich in polyphenolics, particularly in anthocyanins. Therefore, the methanol extract of blue honeysuckle could be explored as a natural antioxidant for application in functional foods or nutraceuticals.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:40:58.229274-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12173
  • Heat‐Treated Solar Sea Salt Has Antioxidant Activity In Vitro and
           Produces Less Oxidative Stress in Rats Compared with Untreated Solar Sea
    • Abstract: We have investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative activity of solar sea salts(SS) roasted with (BS) or without (RS) bamboo, which are widely consumed as dietary salts in Korea. BS exhibited antioxidative activity in the in vitro assays of various radical‐scavenging activities and DNA oxidation. RS also scavenged superoxide radicals and inhibited DNA oxidation. However, SS did not exhibit antioxidative activity in vitro. Sprague‐Dawley rats were orally administered various salts (1.8 g NaCl equivalent/kg) daily for 7 weeks. The rats fed RS and BS exhibited significantly lower levels of lipid peroxidation and a higher total thiol content than the SS group (P 
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:40:36.292722-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12165
  • In Vivo Anti‐Hyperglycemic Potential of Brahmi Gritham and Docking
           Studies of Its Active Components Against Protein Kinase C and CD38
    • Authors: Udhaya Lavinya B; Monisha Swaminathan, Yashodhara Bhattacharya, Shreni Tandon, Sabina Evan Prince
      Abstract: The anti‐hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of the Indian herbal formulation Brahmi gritham were studied in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic female Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight [b.w.], i.p.). Estimation of blood glucose levels, liver glycogen content and antioxidant levels were carried out in experimental rats. The tested parameters were compared with those of the glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.) treated group. Molecular docking studies were carried out to analyze the interaction patterns of protein kinase C (PKC) and CD38 of chosen proteins of signal transduction pathways that are significant in the pathogenesis of diabetes against active components of Brahmi gritham. Immunohistochemistry of pancreas revealed that Brahmi gritham was able to restore β‐cell mass and function near to that of the normal control. In silico studies showed that apigenin and quercetin showed significant interactions with PKC, while clitorin, bacopaside I and II showed significant interactions with CD38. Quercetin showed highest percentage inhibition of α‐amylase enzyme. Practical Applications Brahmi gritham is a traditional polyherbal formulation used in Ayurveda to treat memory disorders. The individual components of this formulation are known to possess significant antioxidant properties and contain several biologically active compounds found to be effective in treating various disorders, including diabetes and obesity. The efficacy of Brahmi gritham in diabetes management has not yet been studied, and therefore, the present study provides insights into the anti‐hyperglycemic potential of this formulation in rat model. In addition, the results of in silico analysis would pave way for better utilization of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin in diabetes management and in particular microvascular diabetic complications.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20T00:01:16.651663-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12166
  • Antioxidant, Anti‐Inflammatory, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and
           Antimicrobial Activities of Turkish Endemic Centaurea antiochia var.
    • Abstract: The antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of extract from the Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss. & Bal.) Wagenitz, an endemic plant species from Turkey, were investigated. The results indicated that the extract inhibits FeCl3/ascorbic acid‐induced phosphatidylcholine liposome oxidation, scavenges stable 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radicals, and reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extract inhibited AChE and both cyclooxygenase (COX)‐1 and COX‐2, which suggests this species might be a potential source of plant‐derived anti‐inflammatory and anti‐AChE substances. The extract may also act as an antimicrobial agent because it inhibited the growth of Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria as well as yeast. These findings may scientifically explain some uses of this species in Turkish folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory and wound healing agent. Practical Applications The Centaurea species are known by the vernacular name “peygamber çiçeği” in Turkish folk medicine. Ethnobotanical reports indicate the Centaurea species have antidiabetic, anti‐inflammatory, wound healing, digestive, stomachic, diuretic, astringent, hypotensive, antipyretic, laxative, analgesic, tonic, hemostatic and antibacterial properties. Considering the important role oxidative stress and inflammation play in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, C. antiochia var. praealta may be used as a medicinal plant to treat Alzheimer's disease. This study also confirms the efficacy of this plant as a natural antimicrobial agent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-08T02:32:06.768578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12143
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