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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (220 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista Ceres     Open Access  
Revista Ciências Exatas e Naturais : RECEN     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
TECA : Tecnologia i Ciència dels Aliments     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theory and Practice of Meat Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Vitae     Open Access  
Zagadnienia Ekonomiki Rolnej     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.424]   [H-I: 32]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1616 journals]
  • Identification and changes of different volatile compounds in meat of
           crucian carp under short-term starvation by GC-MS coupled with HS-SPME
    • Authors: Yong Jiang; Li Zhao, Meilan Yuan, Ao Fu
      Abstract: The different volatile compounds in meat of crucian carp under short-term starvation stress were investigated in this study by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. The detail workflow included Mzmine, analysis of variance, automatic mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS), and genetic algorithm. Seventy-two kinds of volatile compounds were identified by AMDIS and 42 kinds of different compounds were selected including 19 aromatics, 7 alcohols, 1 ketones, 2 aldehydes, 2 esters, and 11 unknown compounds. Samples from starvation groups were separated clearly on principal components analysis by 42 volatile compounds. The results suggest that starvation could cause the change of flavor of fish meat, and the changing patterns of these different volatile compounds were revealed.Practical applicationsIn southern China, farm-raised crucian carps are usually put into clean water under short-term starvation for eliminating smell before they are sold. This phenomenon has attracted the attention of the researcher. The present study reveals the changing patterns of volatile compounds in meat of crucian carp by using headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and starvation groups were classified based on the volatile data. The results demonstrated that combination of Mzmine, ANOVA, AMDIS, and GA can be applied to select different volatile compounds successfully, and this method could be used for the identification of different compounds in similar gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T22:26:12.06465-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12375
  • Investigation of glucosinolates, and the antioxidant activity of Dolsan
           leaf mustard kimchi extract using HPLC and LC-PDA-MS/MS
    • Authors: SunKyung Oh; Chigen Tsukamoto, KiWoong Kim, MyeongRak Choi
      Abstract: Leaf mustard (Brassica juncea), the main ingredient of leaf mustard kimchi, has a variety of biologically active secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates (GSLs), flavonoids, and polyphenols. In this study, the changes in GSL content and antioxidant properties during the storage of Dolsan leaf mustard kimchi (DLMK) for 35 days were examined by separation and purification of DLMK extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and preparative octadecylsilane-HPLC. The total GSL content and antioxidant activity of the DLMK extracts had significantly lower values on day 21 of storage (p
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T04:40:33.774834-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12366
  • Hepatoprotective effects of different combinations of sweet orange, Unshiu
           mikan, and mini tomato juice powders against tert-butyl
           hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells
    • Authors: Susoma Jannat; Md Yousof Ali, Hyeung-Rak Kim, Prashamsa Koirala, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of raw mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) juice powder to attenuate cytotoxicity in combination with juice powders from two orange species [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck and Citrus unshiu Marcow]. To this end, the hepatoprotective activities of these combinations against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells were evaluated, and the most suitable ratios for optimal flavonoid availability were identified. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) and the extent of upregulation of phase-ІІ proteins such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were quantified to assess the hepatoprotective effects of four different ratios of these powders. Three main compounds–hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were analyzed by simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the 2:1:3 powder mixture were 8.69 mg/g GAE and 2.56 mg/g QE, respectively. The levels of these contents were correlated with the decrease in ROS, increase in GSH level, and restoration of HO-1. Furthermore, the hepatoprotective efficacy of each of the four ratios was attributed to its flavonoid content. These results indicate that combinations of juice powders, particularly at a ratio of 2:1:3, are a potentially useful therapeutic source of phenolic compounds for the treatment of oxidative stress-related hepatotoxicity.Practical applicationsSweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.), Unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow) and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are rich sources of phenolic compounds which are consumed frequently in Korea. This research provides proper understanding of the consumption of these fruits in combination to deliver effective amount of phenolic compounds to promote human health and fight against oxidative stress related diseases. The present study demonstrates the hepatoprotective effect through prevention of oxidative stress, suggesting that combinations of juice powders may have beneficial effects in preventing hepatic diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T21:55:27.540297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12369
  • 1H NMR-based metabolic investigation of the effect of Lentinula
           edodes-derived polysaccharides on aged mice
    • Authors: Xu Xiaofei; Yang Jiguo, Ning Zhengxiang, Zhang Xuewu
      Abstract: Few comprehensive metabolic profiles of Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides on mammalians have been reported to date. In previous studies, a novel heteropolysaccharide, named L2, obtained from L. edodes had shown anti-ageing effects in mice. In this study, a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in aged mice gavaged with L2 for better understanding of anti-ageing mechanism. Six metabolites in urine were identified as potential markers for L2 treatment. An increase in α-oxoglutarate (α-OG) and a decrease in β-hydroxybutyrate, glutamate, glucose, choline, and lactate were observed. Enrichment pathway analysis indicated that 11 metabolic pathways were disrupted after L2 treatment. These altered metabolic pathways are mainly associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and glycolysis. The results suggest that L2 could exert anti-ageing effects partly by regulating these pathways. Moreover, these findings may help better understand the mechanisms of the bioactivities of L. edodes-derived polysaccharides.Practical applicationsIn this study, a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in aged mice gavaged with a novel heteropolysaccharide L2 from Lentinula edodes. The findings may help better understand the mechanisms of bioactivities of L. edodes-derived polysaccharides, and used for further development of L2 in food and medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T21:38:11.435164-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12371
  • Aqueous and enzyme-extracted phenolic compounds from brewers' spent grain
           (BSG): Assessment of their antioxidant potential
    • Authors: Damian Crowley; Yvonne O'Callaghan, Aoife L. McCarthy, Alan Connolly, Richard J. Fitzgerald, Nora M. O'Brien
      Abstract: Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is a major coproduct of the brewing industry and a potential valuable source of protein, cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, lipid, and phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant potential of phenolic extracts isolated from BSG using cell wall degrading enzymes, Depol 740L, Shearzyme and, Ultraflo Max. The phenolic extracts were prepared from black BSG (derived from barley grains roasted at 200°C) and pale BSG (derived from malted barley grains). The phenolic extracts protected against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA single strand breaks in U937 cells as assessed using the comet assay. The extracts also protected against a H2O2 challenge in HepG2 cells, as assessed by measuring the cellular content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Enzyme-extracted black and pale BSG phenolic extracts protected against oxidant-induced DNA damage and enhanced the cellular antioxidant activity in cells.Practical applicationsEnzyme-extraction may be an effective alternative to conventional solvent extraction for the isolation of novel bioactive components, such as phenolics, from Brewers' spent grain. The BSG extracts may be used as a source of functional ingredients for the development of foods with potential benefits to human health.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T21:24:02.459281-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12370
  • Neuritogenic and neuroprotective constituents from Aquilaria crassna
    • Authors: Chonlakan Supasuteekul; Sarin Tadtong, Waraporn Putalun, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Parkpoom Tengamnuay, Boonchoo Sritularak
      Abstract: The leaves of Aquilaria crassna (Thymelaeaceae) are recently become an attractive research due to their potential in antioxidative, antibacterial, antipyretic, analgesic, and laxative activities. However, the neuritogenic and neuroprotective effects of A. crassna leaves have never been reported. In this study, three phenolic glycosides were isolated from A. crassna leaves. The isolates were identified as genkwanin 5-O-β-primevoside (1), iriflophenone 3,5-C-β-d-diglucoside (2) and iriflophenone 3-C-β-d-glucoside (3). The neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compound 1 and 2, at very low concentration (100 ng/mL of compound 1 and 1 ng/mL of compound 2), exhibited the protection of P19-derived neurons and promoted the neurite outgrowth of the cultured neurons. In addition, a preliminary study on these compounds revealed that there was no correlation between their antioxidative properties and their neuroprotective activities.Practical applicationsAgarwood leaves have been used as an ingredient in foods and drinks for health promotion in Asian countries. The results of this study also suggest that Aquilaria crassna leaves are potentially sources of neuritogenic and neuroprotective constituents, which may be developed as functional foods for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T01:10:32.567205-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12365
  • Clinical application of a cocoa and unripe banana flour beverage for
           overweight women with abdominal obesity: Prospective, double-blinded and
           randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: Camilla Ribeiro Vieira; Fernanda Laurides Ribeiro de Oliveira Lomeu, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Roberta Ribeiro Silva
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess the effect of a cocoa and unripe banana flour beverage (UBF) on fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), gastrointestinal symptoms, fecal characteristics and inflammation, in overweight women with abdominal adiposity.MethodsThis prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial involved 60 female volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years. One group received a cocoa beverage (n = 30) and one group received a cocoa and UBF beverage (n = 30), for 6 weeks. Intestinal microbiota was indirectly assessed by consistency, shape, and color of feces, determination of fecal SCFA, and gastrointestinal symptoms.ResultsBoth beverages increased the production of propionic acid (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T01:41:07.993209-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12372
  • Screening of phytochemicals and toxicity of medicinal plants, Dillenia
           species, reveals potential natural product resources
    • Authors: Tikumporn Thooptianrat; Arunrat Chaveerach, Runglawan Sudmoon, Tawatchai Tanee, Thomas Liehr, Nelli Babayan
      Abstract: Plants in genus Dillenia have traditionally been consumed as foods and used for cancer and diarrhea treatments. Crude hexane extracts of nine species, D. aurea, D. excelsa, D. grandifolia, D. ovata, D. parviflora, D. philippinensis, D. pulchella, D. reticulata, and D. suffruticosa were analyzed for chemical contents via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and for their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on leukocytes via cell counting and comet assays. Oleamide, a chemopreventive agent which acts against Alzheimer's disease, enhances memory function and promotes sleep, was found at the highest amount (18.05–75.60%). The other components discovered in high amounts were squalene and vitamin E. The IC50 of all studied species was higher than 430 µg/mL. Comet assay indicated insignificant DNA damage (p > .05). These results indicate that the plants containing a high amount of useful phytochemicals are nontoxic to normal human cells, thus may be safely applied for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other related conditions.Practical applicationsOleamide has an important role in living things, especially in humans. Its functions are, improved memory recovery, induced deep sleep and appetite in elders. Based on the principles of phytotherapy, a plant species actually contains several pharmacological compounds in a different quantity; a medicinal reading should be in a single unit. In agreement with a high quantity of oleamide in Dillenia species, many species would be selected to produce natural products in convenient forms, and in drug discovery, because this serves as active principles in drugs as well as templates for synthesis of new drugs. In this research, seven out of nine species including Dillenia aurea, D. excelsa, D. grandifolia, D. ovata, D. parviflora, D. philippinensis, and D. reticulata contained high amounts of oleamide, were expected to release single medicinal activity, and show no cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Accordingly, they should effectively be made available in modified forms in order to be health products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T02:36:12.470196-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12363
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro antioxidant
           potential of ajwain seed (Trachyspermum ammi L.) essential oil and its
    • Authors: Kritika Dhaiwal; Khushminder Kaur Chahal, Dalvir Kataria, Amit Kumar
      Abstract: The aim was to study the composition of ajwain seed oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate antioxidant activity of ajwain seed oil, its fractions, extracts, thymol, and its derivatives. GC-MS analysis of ajwain seed essential oil showed the presence of 47 compounds. Thymol (31.40%) was found to be the major component while γ-terpinene, isobornyl isobutyrate, and p-cymene were minor compounds. The antioxidant potential of selected components was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. Results demonstrated that methanol extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 value 130 µg/mL), Hydroxyl radical (IC50 value 120 µg/mL), nitric oxide (IC50 value 90 µg/mL) scavenging assays, and highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (780 µg Fe (II)/g dry weight) as compared to hexane and dichloromethane extracts. Total phenolic (16.52 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonoid contents (3.89 mg quercetin equivalent/g) were also found to be higher in methanol extract compared to other extracts and ajwain oil.Practical applicationsDegradation of food materials by oxidation and its prevention during production, storage, and distribution is an important issue in the food industry. Due to the potential carcinogenic effect of some synthetic antioxidants, much attention has been paid to naturally-derived compounds having potential to act as antioxidants. The present study revealed that the methanol extract of ajwain seeds which contained terpenoids, phenols, and flavonoids as essential phytochemicals have high antioxidant properties, which can provide opportunities for use in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and food industries.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T23:25:31.538114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12364
  • Levansucrase production by Zymomonas mobilis: Optimization of process
           parameters and fructooligosaccharide production
    • Authors: Özlem Erdal; Burcu Kaplan-Türköz, Özge Taştan, Yekta Göksungur
      Abstract: This article investigates the production and optimization of levansucrase using synthetic medium by Zymomonas mobilis NRRL B-14023. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of three different fermentation parameters on levansucrase enzyme production. Maximum levansucrase activity of 13.3 µmol glucose/min was obtained at the optimum levels of process variables (pH 4.90, initial sucrose concentration 159.01 g/L and fermentation temperature 30.3°C). Response surface methodology was found to be useful in optimizing and determining the interactions among process variables. The purity of levansucrase used in enzyme assays were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a dominant protein band of size around 47 kDa was obtained. The sequence of the produced enzyme was determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. The presence of kestose in the reaction mixture showed that Z. mobilis levansucrase can produce fructooligosaccharides. This study fulfills the lack of mathematical and statistical approaches in optimizing the levansucrase production by Z. mobilis.Practical applicationsLevansucrases are responsible for the production of valuable fructans; fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan. Fructooligosaccharides are sugar polymers three times less sweet than sucrose and naturally present in some foods. FOS have important promising use in the food industry due to their properties such as solubility in water, stability during storage, low calorie value, and prebiotic effects. In this research, the production of microbial levansucrase was optimized for potential industrial applications by response surface methodology. Future studies will focus on conversion of intrinsic sucrose of foods to FOS using levansucrase.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T22:35:25.603537-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12361
  • Supplementation of standardized extract from fermented Smilax china L.
           leaf containing secondary metabolites moderated diet-induced obesity by
           modulating the activity antioxidant enzymes and hepatic lipogenesis
    • Authors: Minjung Kim; Seung-Beom Seo, Juhyung Kim, Nguyen Khoi Song Tran, Tae-Sik Park, Seung-Hwan Yang, Soon-Dong Kim, Ye-Kyung Lee, Sang-Il Lee, Joo-Won Suh, Soon-Mi Shim
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of non-fermented Smilax china L. (SC) and fermented Smilax china L. leaf extract by Aspergillus oryzae (FSC) on lipogenesis and antioxidant activities in diet induced-obese mice. While principal bioactive constituents in SC were decreased by fermentation, diverse secondary metabolites were identified. Both SC and FSC supplementation reduced body weight and epididymal fat mass in mice fed a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels were lowered by SC treatment and the degree of lipid reduction was higher in FSC-treated group due to hepatic upregulation of lipogenic genes. SC and FSC improved hepatic function by lowering the activity of serum biomarker enzymes. In contrast, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were elevated and cellular lipid peroxide were decreased in liver. Taken together, FSC is more potent in preventing obesity and ameliorating hepatic function by fermentation-mediated production of bioactive constituents that have higher antioxidant and anti-obese efficacy.Practical applicationsThe studies revealing that specific mechanism regarding anti-obesity effect of consumption of SC leaf in animal models is limited. Extract of fermented SC by Aspergillus oryzae (FSC) could be used as a bioactive ingredient for functional food products that can have a health claim for reducing hepatic lipogenesis in the liver in high-fat diet induced-obese mice.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T21:10:50.875868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12357
  • Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of an endemic Thymus
           fontanesii Boiss. & Reut. with chemotype carvacrol, and its healing
           capacity on gastric lesions
    • Authors: Lilia Mouhi; Houria Moghrani, Noureddine Nasrallah, Abdeltif Amrane, Rachida Maachi
      Abstract: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Thymus fontanesii with chemotype carvacrol and its gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model by using the image analysis method by means of the ImageJ® software. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the acute toxicity was evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by two methods such the Carrageenan-induced paw edema in mouse at dose of 500 mg/kg and topical inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate at dose of 03 and 10 mg/ear. The antiulcer activity of the essential oil of the studied plant was assayed at dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, by ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats, showed a significant decrease of gastric lesion areas. The obtained results confirm the anti-inflammatory and the gastroprotective activity probably attributed to its main compound, carvacrol which support the traditionally uses of the studied plant.Practical applicationsThe Thymus fontanesii, which is an endemic plant to Algeria and Tunisia, is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation and fever. This study revealed that the T. fontanesii essential oil with chemotype carvacrol possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity, side by side with the antiulcer activity as the Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model showed a significant decrease of gastric lesion areas. Thus, it stands as a promising candidate for further investigations in this area.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T05:10:33.079545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12359
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-02-11T03:37:50.408521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12325
  • Antimutagenicity, antibacteria, and water holding capacity of chitosan
           from Luffa aegyptiaca Mill and Cucumis sativus L.
    • Authors: Hui-Fang Chiu; Shin-Ru Huang, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Chin-Kun Wang
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to separate the chitosan (deacetylated products) in the peel and the flesh of loofah (Luffa aegyptiaca) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to evaluate its water holding capacity, antibacterial and antimutagenicity activities. The levels of glucosamine (degree of deacetylation; DD) in ultrapure deacetylated (UD) chitosan product of loofah and cucumber were much higher than other deacetylated chitosan products. Also, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber showed better water absorption and moisture holding capacity. All the deacetylated chitosan products effectively suppress the survival of Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes in a dose-depended manner. Furthermore, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber effectively reduced the mutagenicity on various strains of Salmonella typhimurium namely TA100 and TA102. Hence, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber might be used to improve skin tone as well as prescribed with a standard chemotherapeutic agent as an adjuvant therapy.Practical applicationsLuffa aegyptiaca Mill (loofah) and Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) are common summer vegetables in Asia, especially in Taiwan, India, and China. Recently, the chitosan (deacetylated chitin) present in the fresh loofah (Luffa) and cucumber attracted more researchers owing to its high biodegradability, nontoxicity, and several other biological properties like antiobesity, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. Also, this study shows that loofah and cucumber (UD fraction) are the richest sources for chitosan a vegan source with dermal protective, antibacterial, and antimutagenicity activities. Hence, UD chitosan products of loofah and cucumber may be recommended with other skin protective agents and cancer condition with the standard drug, since it acts as an antimutagenic agent.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T03:50:32.812625-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12362
  • Purification, partial biochemical characterization and inactivation of
           polyphenol oxidase from Mexican Golden Delicious apple (Malus domestica)
    • Authors: Norma A. Marrufo-Hernández; Gisela Palma-Orozco, Hiram I. Beltrán, Hugo Nájera
      Abstract: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a critical molecule because of its participation in enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables during ripening, handling, storage, and processing. In this contribution, PPO was extracted, purified, and characterized from Golden Delicious apples, PPO activity was increased 319-fold with a yield of 1.6%. A monomer of 58 kDa was obtained by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE; the optimum temperature and pH were 35°C and 6.0, respectively; the best catalytic efficiencies (Vmax/Km ratios [U/(mg·mM)]) were 15,402 for 4-methylcatechol and 5,941 for pyrogallol. The most efficient inhibitors were sodium metabisulfite (≥1 mM) and tropolone (≥10 mM). PPO activity decreased as the temperature increased and thermal inactivation was achieved at 80°C in 5 min. An Ea of 69.2 kJ/mol was estimated from the kinetic inactivation at different temperatures. Microwave irradiation inactivates PPO after 120 s in crude extract and after 60 s in fresh apple juice.Practical applicationsAccording to FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) data, Mexico produced about 858,608 tons of apple in 2013, Mexico is in 30th place in the world overall apple production. It is important to characterize the Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) from Golden Delicious apple and provide data on its inactivation. PPO has been considered a crucial molecule because of its participation in enzymatic browning in several fruit and vegetables during ripening, handling, storage, and processing, being responsible for economical loses for producers and industry. In this contribution PPO was extracted, purified, and partially characterized from Mexican Golden Delicious apples by fast protein liquid chromatography. Also some inactivation methods like the use of several inhibitors and antibrowning agents, thermal and microwave inactivation where tested. The information obtained in this research is important for better understanding of PPO from Golden Delicious apple and gives information on ways to optimize inactivation process of the purified enzyme or in apple juice.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T22:09:59.985207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12356
  • Food: The Chemistry of its Components
    • Authors: Eunice C. Y. Li-Chan
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T22:07:38.700055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12360
  • Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted
           from enzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leaves
    • Authors: Chang-Wei Zhang; Cheng-Zhang Wang, Ran Tao
      Abstract: Three high purified polysaccharide monomers (GBP11, GBP22, and GBP33) were obtained from enzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leave using DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Sephadex G-100 column, and their basic structural characterization were investigated by utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, high-performance ion chromatography, and Infrared Spectroscopy. In addition, antioxidant activities of related polysaccharides were also evaluated. The results showed that the molecular weight of GBP11, GBP22, and GBP33 were 1.944 × 103 KDa, 5.167 × 103 KDa, and 45.98 KDa, singly, and they were mainly made up of glucose, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose with a molar ratio of 62.2:1.98:3.84:1.24, 3.57:68.0:4.67:0.36 and 5.34:48.8:1.70:8.97, respectively. Moreover, GBP22, GBP, and GBP11 demonstrated the strongest free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion, showing that they have potential application value on the functional food and cosmetic industry.Practical applicationsEnzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leaves includes lots of carbohydrate, it will cause eutrophication and environment pollution if it is directly poured out. This research indicates that carbohydrate extracted from enzymatic hydrolysate of Ginkgo biloba leaves are made up of different polysaccharide monomers with various molecular weight and monosaccharide composition. Moreover, these polysaccharide monomers possess appreciating antioxidant activities. Therefore, this research could lay a foundation for the high-value application of polysaccharides in functional food and cosmetic industry, and provide theoretical reference for the treatment of waste water.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T04:40:50.926846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12352
  • In vitro anti-inflammatory and skin protective properties of extract
           comprising ceramides from de-oiled rice bran
    • Authors: Manas R. Sahoo; Sandeep R. Varma, Neeraj K. Patel, Thiyagarajan O. Sivaprakasam, Abheepsa Mishra, Ganesh Muguli, Suresh K. Babu, U. V. Babu, Rangesh Paramesh, Atul N. Jadhav
      Abstract: De-oiled rice bran is a byproduct of rice processing industries and rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and fibers. Although rich in nutrients, it is unfit for human consumption and used as animal feed. This study was conducted to explore the therapeutic value of rice bran ceramides. Methanolic extract of de-oiled rice bran (RBE) was obtained by hot soxhlet extraction method and evaluated for presence of ceramide. Further, the rice bran ceramide extract (RBE) was subjected to column chromatography and the presence of ceramide ascertained by spectroscopic studies. Cytotoxic effect of RBE was tested on THP-1 and HaCaT cells. The tested concentrations of RBE (100 and 200 µg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, IL-6, and IL-5) in THP-1 cells. RBE enhanced skin-barrier function (involucrin and filaggrin) in HaCaT cells, up-regulated aquaporin-3 (AQP-3) expression, and inhibited hyaluronidase activity in HaCaT cells. Thus, RBE exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and skin protective benefits in vitro.Practical applicationsDe-oiled rice bran is cheap, easily procurable, rich in phytonutrients, and possess therapeutic value. In the current study, extract comprising ceramides from de-oiled rice bran (RBE) showed significant anti-inflammatory and skin protective effects on THP-1 and HaCaT cells, respectively. The results of the present investigation highlights the promising use of rice bran ceramides as potential anti-inflammatory and skin protective ingredient in nutritional and skin-care formulations or products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T01:15:47.534763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12353
  • Comparison of phytochemicals, antimicrobial, and antioxidant capacities in
           different anatomical parts of Ficus microcarpa (Moraceae)
    • Authors: Ilhem Rjeibi; Sana Ncib, Hichem Alimi, Anouar Ben Saad, Imen Saïd, Sami Souid
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional value, chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity of leaves, fruits, and roots from Ficus microcarpa. The results showed that all plant parts are rich sources of sulfated polysaccharides and phenolics; in aerial roots, polyphenols and flavonoids dominate. Epicatechin, coumaric acid, and quercetin were present in roots, leaves, and fruits, but in different amounts. Gallic acid and rutin were detected only in roots extracts. The minerals compositions indicated that K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were present in all plant parts. The antioxidant properties determined by hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were better in root and in correlation with the chemical composition changes.Practical applicationsOur results provided evidence that the F. microcarpa could be a potential source of natural antioxidant that may replace synthetic product and prevents from oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. Moreover, due to its potential antimicrobial activity, F. microcarpa can be used in pharmaceutical industry to treat damages caused by some pathogenic germs.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T00:20:46.953473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12354
  • Cabbage and cucumber extracts exhibited anticholinesterase, antimonoamine
           oxidase and antioxidant properties
    • Authors: Ganiyu Oboh; Adedayo Oluwaseun Ademiluyi, Opeyemi Babatunde Ogunsuyi, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye, Abayomi Felix Dada, Aline Augusti Boligon
      Abstract: Aqueous extracts of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were evaluated for inhibitory effects on activities of enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase) relevant to neurodegeneration (in vitro). In addition, their total phenol and flavonoid contents, as well as HPLC characterization of constituent phenolic compounds were determined. Antioxidant properties and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue by extracts were also evaluated. Both extracts inhibited these enzymes with cucumber extract being more potent. Cucumber extract also had higher phenolic contents. Quercetin, caffeic acid and gallic acid were some of the predominant phenolic compounds in both samples, but with significantly higher levels in cucumber. Furthermore, both extracts had antioxidant properties and inhibited lipid peroxidation. These findings may explain the potentials of cabbage and cucumber to serve as sources of phytochemicals for the management of Alzheimer's disease.Practical applicationNeurodegenerative diseases in general and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular remain a global health challenge with huge socioeconomic impacts and therapeutic drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors used in the management of AD are not without their attendant side effects. Hence, the need for natural sources of these enzyme inhibitors with additional antioxidant properties, which can be of therapeutic benefit in the management of AD with little or no side effects. In this study, the neuroprotective potentials of cabbage and cucumber extracts were investigated as possible sources of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the management of AD.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T01:03:21.83883-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12358
  • Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of raw and processed
           forms of hausa potato (Solenostemon rotundifolius poir)
    • Authors: C. O. Eleazu; K. C. Eleazu, M. A. Iroaganachi, W. Kalu
      Abstract: This study reported for the first time, the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices (pGIs) of the flours from raw and processed (boiled and fried) S. rotundifolius tubers following standard techniques. The flours contained considerable amounts of proteins and starch. The fried tubers had higher fat contents compared with the raw or boiled while the ash contents of the processed tubers did not differ significantly from the raw. The boiled tubers had lower digestible starch (DS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) but statistically same amounts of amylose compared with the raw or fried tubers; higher amounts of resistant starch (RS) compared with the raw, fried and white bread, respectively. While RDS and DS were positively correlated with the pGIs of the tubers, RS was negatively correlated and RS formation during processing was evident only in the boiled tubers. The study showed that the raw and processed tubers possessed intermediate glycemic indices.Practical applicationsThere has been an upsurge in recent times on the interest in nutraceuticals, one of which reasons is attributed to their roles in arresting some metabolic disorders, one of which is type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes are often restrained to particular types of diets which results in their complaints of monotony of staying on a particular diet. S. rotundifolius tuber is one of such plants that have been found to possess nutraceutical potentials due to its nutritional and pharmacological properties as reported in several studies. However, the tuber is eaten after being processed and there is paucity of information in literature on the effect of processing on the digestibility of its starch. Therefore, the findings of this study which revealed that both the raw and processed S. rotundifolius tubers possessed intermediate glycemic indices indicate their usefulness as potential meals for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T04:10:24.595631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12355
  • Anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic effects of
           Dunaliella salina on human KB oral carcinoma cells
    • Authors: Hui-Fang Chiu; Jin-Yi Liao, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Oksana Golovinskaia, Chin-Kun Wang
      Abstract: This study was aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects of Dunaliella salina (DS) on KB human oral squamous carcinoma cells. Phytochemical analysis of DS by HPLC revealed the presence of different types of carotenoids like α-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and higher contents of all trans-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene. Antioxidative indexes like reducing capacity, chelating activity, DPPH and superoxide anion scavenging activities were significantly enhanced by treating with DS in dose-depended fashion. Whereas, the in vitro studies with KB cell line showed antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of DS by suppressing the KB cell count. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory property of DS was confirmed by downregulating the protein expression of COX-2 in DS treated group. Also, DS extract would trigger apoptosis of KB cell in a dose-depended manner. Based on the above results, it clearly displays its anticarcinogenic efficacy, however, further studies are needed to explore the in-depth mechanism behind its chemotherapeutic property.Practical applicationsDS is a type of microalgae found in salty lakes and considered as the richest source of β-carotene than any other plant-based products. DS exhibit various biological properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and therefore used as a nutraceutical agent by several pharmaceutical companies. Also, DS has been utilized by the tradition medicine practitioners in Asian countries like China, and Japan to treat various ailments like wound healing, vomiting, and ulcer. Modern researchers also hinted that DS are effective against many metabolic syndromes as well as several types of cancer. However, till date, no studies exist on the anticancer effect of DS (carotenoids) related to oral cancer. The present study indicates that DS could exert antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects and thus endorse its anticarcinogenic effect. Hence, in future, it might be used for treating oral cancer as an adjuvant therapy along with standard chemotherapeutic agents.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T04:55:23.566299-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12349
  • Effect of dietary supplementation of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus l.) and
           walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum müll. Arg.) on sexual behavior,
           hormonal level, and antioxidant status in male rats
    • Authors: Ayodeji Augustine Olabiyi; Ganiyu Oboh, Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha
      Abstract: This study evaluated the enhancing effect of dietary supplementation of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) and walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg.) on erectile function in normal male rats. Adult male (40) and female (40) rats (200–250 g) were procured for the study. The male rats were divided into five groups each consisting of eight rats (n = 8). The experiment was performed for fourteen (14) days after which behavioral studies (sexual and anxiety), sex hormone levels, and biochemical assays (catalase, superoxide dismutase, total thiol, and reduced glutathione) were conducted. The groups with supplemented diet containing tiger nut and walnut showed significantly increased sexual behavior, hormone levels, and antioxidant activities. These enhanced activities could be part of the mechanism by which the nuts exert their aphrodisiac properties.Practical applicationsThe results suggest the potential ability of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) and walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg.) to promote erectile function and be useful functional foods for both animal and human nutrition.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T20:20:27.799792-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12351
  • Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from gelatin
           hydrolysate of seabass skin
    • Authors: Thanasak Sae-Leaw; Supatra Karnjanapratum, Yvonne C. O'Callaghan, Martina B. O'Keeffe, Richard J. FitzGerald, Nora M. O'Brien, Soottawat Benjakul
      Abstract: Antioxidant peptides from gelatin hydrolysate of seabass (Lates calcarifer) skin prepared by Alcalase were isolated using a series of chromatographic techniques including Sephadex G-25 column and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Identification of the antioxidant peptides was carried out using UPLC–ESI-MS/MS. Four potent antioxidant peptides with 5–12 amino acid residues were identified as Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly-Pro-Arg (646.3671 Da), Gly-Ala-Thr-Gly-Pro-Gln-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Arg (1,107.5905 Da), Val-Leu-Gly-Pro-Phe (532.3130 Da), and Gln-Leu-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Val (780.4614 Da). The identified peptides were synthesized and analyzed for 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activity. Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly-Pro-Arg exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (81.41 mmol TE/µmol peptide) (P 
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T02:35:31.690886-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12350
  • Hesperetin inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production during adipocyte
           differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells
    • Authors: Yeon-Joo Lee; Min-Jung Seo, Ok-Hwan Lee, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
      Abstract: In this study, we evaluated whether Hesperetin (HT), which is citrus flavonoids, affects lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis and underlying molecular actions. To this end, cells were incubated in the presence or absence of HT during adipocyte differentiation. Oil Red O (ORO) staining showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited by 63% at a concentration of 25 μM HT compared to control. Additionally, treatment with HT inhibited the expression of adipogenic factors and lipogenic factors. Moreover, our results showed that the decreased expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) induced by HT reduced ROS production during adipocyte differentiation. HT also exhibited ROS scavenging activity associated with its antiadipogenic effects during adipogenesis. These results show the inhibitory effect of HT on lipid accumulation and ROS production during adipocyte differentiation. These findings suggest that HT could be a potential agent for combating obesity and oxidative-related diseases.Practical applicationsHT is a bioflavonoid that has been studied for its antilipid synthesis and antioxidative properties. However, the effects of HT on lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during adipogenesis and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. In the present study, we show the inhibitory effect of HT on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production during adipocyte differentiation. These findings suggest that HT is a promising bioactive agent for the treatment of obesity and oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2016-12-04T23:56:44.339444-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12348
  • Determination of phenolic compounds profile in chestnut and floral honeys
           and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
    • Authors: Mesut Ertan Güneş; Saliha Şahin, Cevdet Demir, Ebru Borum, Aycan Tosunoğlu
      Abstract: Thirty chestnut and twenty-six of floral honeys were collected from different regions of Turkey. The amounts of phenolic compounds in honeys were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The antioxidant capacities were determined by ABTS and CHROMAC methods. The total phenolic content of honeys were determined by spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Caffeic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids are the major phenolic compounds with the contents of 44.52, 17.48, and 21.50 mg/kg, respectively in chestnut honeys. Chestnut honeys exhibited the higher antioxidant and better antimicrobial activities, and than the floral honeys. Floral honeys contain similar amounts of propolis flavonoids such as pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin. The results show that these flavonoids can be used as chemical markers in honey samples.Practical applicationsHoney is an important natural product that contains major compounds including glucose and fructose and minor components such as amino acids, organic acids, enzymes, vitamins, proteins, phytochemical substances mainly flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Plants are important sources of natural compounds that contain polyphenolic derivatives such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. These bioactive compounds can be transferred from plants to honey. Polyphenolic compounds were recognized as the major components responsible for health-promoting properties of honey. This article evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of chestnut and floral honeys. The chemical content and biological properties of honey have been studied extensively in many but there are a few studies in our knowledge about the determination of phenolic compounds in chestnut honey.
      PubDate: 2016-12-04T23:56:38.80241-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12345
  • The effect of dietary curcumin on hepatic chymase activity and serum
           fetuin-A levels in rats fed on a high-fat diet
    • Authors: Yıldız Öner-İyidoğan; Muhammed Seyithanoğlu, Sevda Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Hikmet Koçak, Şule Beyhan-Özdaş, Necla Koçak-Toker
      Abstract: The effects of curcumin on mast cell chymase activity in fatty liver and serum fetuin-A levels in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received HFD (60% of total calories from fat) and 1 g curcumin/kg HFD for 16 weeks. Hepatic chymase activity was determined using spectrophotometric analysis while liver lipid levels were measured using colorimetric methods and serum fetuin-A, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were detected using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Hepatic fat accumulation and fibrotic changes were ameliorated with curcumin treatment. Curcumin significantly reduced hepatic lipids, chymase activity, and serum fetuin-A levels. Decreased serum leptin and augmented adiponectin levels were also observed. These findings suggest that curcumin attenuated hepatic fat accumulation and regulated adipokine levels. The reduction of liver chymase activity and serum fetuin-A levels may also contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in fatty liver disease induced inflammatory status.Practical applicationsCurcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is extracted from the dried root of the rhizome Curcuma longa, is a popular dietary spice (turmeric) in Asia and used in curry. Turmeric is widely used as food component, flavoring agent, and colorant. This research revealed that dietary curcumin treatment reduces hepatic fat accumulation, ameliorates liver damage, and inflammation related to fat storage. Therefore, curcumin may be a potential protective agent in the prevention of fatty liver disease and the anti-inflammatory capacity of curcumin may reveal a beneficial application in medicine and also food technology.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T04:11:14.696923-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12347
  • Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activity of commercial tropical
           red wines (Vitis vinifera L.) from São Francisco Valley, Brazil
    • Authors: Carla Valéria da Silva Padilha; Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Luíz Claudio Corrêa, Marcos dos Santos Lima, Giuliano Elias Pereira
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of commercial red wines produced from Vitis vinifera L. grapes grown in the São Francisco Valley (SFV), which is a tropical region in northeastern Brazil. All wines showed phenolic compound contents consistent with those of other traditional wine producing regions and high antioxidant activity. In total, 20 phenolic compounds were quantified by RP-HPLC-DAD-FD and the antioxidant activity was positively correlated with the content of syringic acid > peonidin 3-O-glucoside > ρ-coumaric acid > (+)-catechin, epigallocatechin gallate > cyanidin-3-O-glucoside > procyanidin A2 > (-)-epicatechin, highlighting the contribution of these bioactive compounds to the antioxidant potential of tropical wines. This study shows that it is possible to obtain wines with a good bioactive component and high antioxidant activity in tropical climates such as that of the SFV. The data reported herein contribute to our knowledge of the wine producing potential of new regions worldwide.Practical applicationsAn important difference between the tropical viticulture practiced in the São Francisco Valley (SFV) and that of other traditional regions of the world is that in the SFV each vine can produce two harvests per year. Also, since this is a region with hot weather, high luminosity and abundant water for irrigation, wineries operate according to a particular scheme, according to the best period in which to harvest the grapes and to prune the vines. Also, the “step” system can be applied, where the harvesting is distributed within a certain period (e.g., one month, several months, or the whole year). Thus, it is possible to prepare wines throughout the year. This study contributes to gaining a better enological understanding of the wines produced in an atypical grape production region.
      PubDate: 2016-11-20T22:36:30.277362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12346
  • Mango peel powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress, inflammation,
           and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic dysfunction in rats
    • Authors: Anayt Ulla; Md Tariqur Rahman, Zaki Farhad Habib, Md Moshfequr Rahman, Nusrat Subhan, Biswajit Sikder, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Md Hemayet Hossain, Md Ashraful Alam
      Abstract: The study reports the phenolic profiles and hepatoprotective properties of mango peel powder against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. It was found that the mango peel possesses high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids as analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Supplementation of mango peel powder in CCl4 administered rats exhibit strong protective effects in vivo. The results suggest that mango peel powder supplementation antagonized the CCl4-induced increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and hepatic malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, mango peel powder supplementation prevented decrease in antioxidant catalase activity and glutathione concentration in CCl4-administered rats. Mango peel powder supplementation also prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in liver of CCl4 treated rats. This finding demonstrates that the polyphenol-rich mango peel powder can be explored as a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent against oxidative-stress-related liver disorders.Practical applicationsMango (Mangifera indica L.), the most important fruit in Anacardiaceae family, is a tropical fruit which possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. The research showed that mango peel possesses numerous phenolic antioxidants. The results also demonstrated that mango peel powder exerts a protective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. Every year, considerable amount of mango peel is produced in juice industries which are left as waste product. Thus, this project will provide a potential source of phenolic compounds and potential approach to prevent liver diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-11-20T22:30:33.805807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12344
  • Aspartame inhibits migration of human intestinal epithelial cells
    • Authors: Tawiwan Sawadsopanon; Kulwara Meksawan, Pithi Chanvorachote
      Abstract: The migratory and proliferative capabilities of the epithelial cell on the surface of gastro-intestinal (GI) tract are important for wound healing. As aspartame is one of the most common artificial sweeteners in use in a variety of food products, knowledge regarding its effect on the wound healing behaviors of epithelial cells in the GI tract is of interest. The present study has revealed for the first time that aspartame at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited intestinal epithelial cell migration determined by both wound healing and Boyden chamber cell migration assays, while it had no effect on the proliferation of the cells. Furthermore, the number of lamellipodia per cell significantly reduced in aspartame-treated cells. In terms of molecular mechanisms, the study found that aspartame suppressed the cellular levels of the migration regulatory proteins namely, integrins, activated FAK, activated Akt, Cav-1, RhoA-GTP, and Rac1-GTP. Altogether, the study reports that aspartame may affect intestinal wound healing capability through suppression of cell migration.Practical applicationsAspartame is an artificial sweetener widely used in various food products. Although many studies regarding the toxicity of aspartame have been conducted, the effects of aspartame on intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation have not been much investigated. The results of the present study indicate that aspartame has a significant inhibitory effect on intestinal epithelial cell migration with well-defined underlying mechanisms. The present study provides additional molecular mechanistic information of this substance on epithelial cells and may serve to trigger further investigations that could lead to cautionary recommendations in the use of aspartame in those suffering GI ulcers or other high-risk populations.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T02:15:49.800636-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12341
  • Phytochemical components of Carissa carandas and the inhibitory effects of
           fruit juice on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2
    • Authors: Monthana Weerawatanakorn; Min-Hsiung Pan
      Abstract: The fruit of Carissa carandas (CC) has been widely used as folk medicine in many areas over a long period of time. The juice from the ripe fruit has become very popular among consumers. There is little scientific evidence supporting the health benefits of this fruits. Our objective was to evaluate the phytochemical profile and anti-inflammatory effects of the flesh of the fruit and of the juice. The results showed that the total phenolic contents in the seed are higher than that found in the pulp. Both the phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the fruit and pulp increased over the stages of fruit maturity. HPLC analysis revealed that, per mg/kg of lyophilized fruit juice, ferulic acid (305.79 mg/kg), rutin (106.47 mg/kg), and cyanidin-3-glucoside (89.40 mg/kg) were the main phenolic acid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin compounds. The fruit juice down-regulated the induction of inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.Practical applicationsThis report provides scientific evidence to support the health benefit of fruit juice from Carissa carandas. The ripe fruit of Carissa carandas can be used as a novel source of functional beverage in food manufacture because they possess not only antioxidant properties, but also an anti-inflammatory effect.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T02:00:24.471197-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12343
  • Kinetics of enzymatic inactivation and loss of anthocyanins and
           antioxidant activity in red cabbage blanched under different conditions
    • Authors: Anahi Bernstein; Caciano P. Zapata Noreña
      Abstract: The inactivation kinetics of the enzymes polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, and myrosinase, the degradation of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of the red cabbage were studied during steam blanching at 100°C and in water at 80 and 90°C, in times of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min. Losses of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity during blanching in water were caused by heat and diffusion. The results indicated that the best blanching condition was obtained by steam for 4 min, with reduction of 98.0 and 47.6% in the enzymatic activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, respectively, and in this condition the losses of anthocyanins and antioxidant and myrosinase activities were of 37.9, 6.7 and 64.2%, respectively. The rate constants of reaction increased for all the enzymes with the rise of blanching temperature, and for the anthocyanins and antioxidant activity the rate constants of reaction were lower for steam.Practical applicationsBlanching is an important unit operation used for inactivating enzymes that produce deleterious changes, such as the browning and loss of texture in vegetables. However, as a consequence of overheating, losses in sensorial, nutritional and bioactive properties may occur in foods. Red cabbage has important quantities of anthocyanins, which have antioxidant properties. In addition, red cabbage contains glucosinolates, which when hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase produce bioactive compounds and products involved in cancer chemoprotection. However, blanching might inactivate this enzyme and this way reduces the production of these beneficial compounds. The results obtained in this work might be used in the preservation of beneficial enzyme (myrosinase) and inactivation of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T00:00:27.638902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12340
  • Novel protease from the leaves of edible medicinal plant Aster koraiensis
           Nakai with antithrombotic activity: Purification and partial
    • Authors: Jun-Hui Choi; Kyung-Je Kim, Sung-Jun Kim, Seung Kim
      Abstract: Nakaiase, a novel protease with antithrombotic and anticoagulant properties was purified from the leaves of Aster koraiensis Nakai, an edible medicinal plant. It had a molecular weight of 23 kDa, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The protease was active at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The amidolytic activity of nakaiase was inhibited by EDTA, EGTA, and several metal ions (Ca, Ni, and Zn). Nakaiase inhibited fibrin clot formation and degraded blood clot. It also inhibit activated factor X and thrombin enzymatic activity. In addition, nakaiase prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time. Further, the protease exerted significant protective effects against thrombin-induced pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. Nakaiase at a dose of 20 mg/kg was devoid of hemorrhagic activity. These results suggest that nakaiase has similar property to metalloprotease-like protease, and has potential as a therapeutic agent for thrombosis owing to its antithrombotic properties and lack of hemorrhagic activity.Practical applicationsAster koraiensis Nakai, an edible medicinal plant, has long been used as a traditional medicine and healthy food source in Korea because of its pharmacological efficacy. This study provides beneficial information regarding the antithrombotic potential of A. koraiensis Nakai and bioactive enzymes. Our findings clarify the antithrombotic activities of a new purified protease, which is useful in the development of potential natural pharmacological resources and agents for functional food and clinical application.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T04:00:25.680543-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12334
  • Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for
           cinnamic acid determination and its use to evaluate components of dried
           hot peppers (Capsicum annum) associated with growth inhibition of
           Salmonella enterica serovars
    • Authors: Joseph E. Jablonski; Mary Teena Johnson, Susanne E. Keller
      Abstract: A rapid and selective hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) method was developed to measure cinnamic acids in dried chili peppers (Capsicum annum) for the purpose of investigating the association between cinnamic acid levels and inhibition of Salmonella growth in the peppers. Trans-cinnamic and hydroxy-cinnamic acids were quantified in 15 varieties of chili peppers by the HILIC-MS method, using electrospray ionization in negative mode with multiple reaction monitoring for detection. Trans-cinnamic acid and 4-OH-cinnamic acid were found in all samples; highest concentrations were 0.81 and 7.15 ppm, respectively. The compound, 2-OH-cinnamic acid was not detected. Mean recoveries of the target compounds from spiked samples were greater than 79%. The pepper samples were evaluated for Salmonella growth inhibition after addition of moisture to the dried samples. No correlation was found between Salmonella growth inhibition and cinnamic acid content, suggesting that these cinnamic acids are not major inhibitory compounds in these peppers.Practical applicationsThe HILIC-MS method developed for the analysis of dried chili peppers is a simple, sensitive method for organic acids and is applicable to any food matrix. Only extraction and automated filtration are employed to produce extracts for analysis. Ammonium formate buffer in the mobile phase, pH 6, enhances ionization of acids for negative ESI-MS detection relative to the degree of ionization from use of acidic mobile phases containing formic or acetic acid modifiers. The use of 4-Cl-benzoic acid as internal standard and evaluation of matrix effects from the dried pepper extracts are important for future research in similar applications. The HILIC chromatographic separation may separate critical peak pairs in pepper extracts that are not resolvable by reversed-phase HPLC.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T23:00:24.955457-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12342
  • A comparative study of effects of extraction solvents/techniques on
           percentage yield, polyhenolic composition, and antioxidant potential of
           various extracts obtained from stems of Nepeta leucophylla: RP-HPLC-DAD
           assessment of its polyhenolic constituents
    • Authors: Ajay Sharma; Damanjit Singh Cannoo
      Abstract: In the present study, the methanol, chloroform, and hexane extracts were isolated from the stems of Nepeta leucophylla using maceration method, soxhlet extraction method, and ultrasonic assisted extraction method. These extracts were analyzed for their total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant potential using nitric oxide scavenging (NOS), DPPH˙ (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results of percentage yield, TPC, and TFC for various extracts varied from 0.99 to 12.16%, 0.34 to 133.7 mg GAE/g DPE, and 20.21 to 282.74 mg RE/g DPE, respectively, whereas the results of antioxidant potential of TAC, FRAP, percentage inhibition of NO and DPPH˙ scavenging activity ranged from 0.11 to 40.74 mg AAE/g DPE, 4.41 to 148.65 mg Fe (II) E/g DPE, 1.29 to 35.56%, and 14.93 to 90.43%, respectively.Practical applicationsN. leucophylla is an important wild Himalayan aromatic plant. Traditionally, it is used for the cure of malarial fever and its leaves are consumed as herbal tea. It is also known to have antifungal and antibacterial activity. The present results indicate that the SEM is the best technique for the isolation of naturally occurring antioxidants (NOAs) using methanol as a solvent from the powdered stem of N. leucophylla. Our research findings also indicate that the various extracts obtained from the stem of N. leucophylla show high antioxidant potential (FRAP, TAC, NO, and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activity) and are rich source of different NOAs viz. polyphenolics, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids etc. These classes of NOAs are also well known for their therapeutic potential like antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties. Hence, the stem of N. leucophylla may play a promising role in health benefits, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and functional foods development.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12T23:46:17.080954-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12337
  • Antioxidant activity and the potential for cholesterol-lowering of
           phenolic extract of Morus alba, Morus multicaulis, and Morus laevigata
           leaves from Yunnan (China)
    • Authors: Yanxin Zhang; Wei Du, Xuewen Zhang, Hongmu Zhao, Yanhui Wang
      Abstract: The free and bound phenolic extracts of leaves from three mulberry species, Morus alba Linn., M. multicaulis Perr., and M. laevigata Wall. from Yunnan (China), were evaluated for the first time to examine their phenolic composition, antioxidant, and cholesterol-lowering capacity in HepG2 cells. The result showed that the total phenolic content of six extracts were ranged from 0.54 to 17.63 mg GAE/g DW, and the total flavonoids content varied from 0.52 to 35.62 mg RE/g DW. Chlorogenic acid, Rutin, and Catechin were the main compounds in the selected mulberries. The antioxidant properties in a positive correlation with the phenolic contents of mulberries were exhibited. The free phenolic extract of M. multicaulis Perr. significantly decrease the intracellular cholesterol content in HepG2 cells. In a word, the free phenolic extracts of M. multicaulis Perr. could be used as for further nutritional studies for cholesterol-lowering in the food and medicine industries.Practical applicationsMulberry leaves, especially M. multicaulis could be used for the development of mulberry products by the functional food industry. Actually, attending to their phenolic composition, mulberry leaves could be used for the development of teas and other beverages. Their extracts could also be used as additives to create or fortify foods such as muesli bars, yoghurts, and so on. Moreover, owing to their particular phenolic composition, they can be considered promising sources of phytochemical compounds with proven biological activities. Nevertheless, whether the consumption of a mulberry leaves tea can be beneficial to human health is a question that deserves further works on their bioavailability and biological properties. In addition to these, mulberry leaves also have a significant potential used in medicine industry.
      PubDate: 2016-10-10T02:05:58.122872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12339
  • A novel curcuminoid-tea polyphenol formulation: Preparation,
           characterization, and in vitro anti-cancer activity
    • Authors: Rui Li; Kun Jia, Xiang-Gui Chen, Hong-Tao Xiao
      Abstract: Curcuminoids and tea polyphenols (CTP) are nutraceuticals with anticancer activity. To evaluate their combined in vitro anti-cancer activity, the CTP mixture was loaded on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNPs). The resulting CTP-SLNPs were characterized and shown to have good chemical stability, making them suitable for delivery to cancer cells. A validated HPLC-MS method was developed to monitor the composition and quality of the prepared CTP-SLNP formulation, by identifying and quantifying its eight main components (epigallocatechin, epicatechin, catechin, epigallocatechingallate, epicatechingallate, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin). The in vitro activity of CTP-SLNPs was evaluated and shown to significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and CT-26 cancer cells lines, indicating that anti-cancer properties of curcuminoids and tea polyphenols were enhanced in the CTP-SLNPs formulation. The results of this work are promising for further investigation and development of CTP-SLNPs as nanomedicines for cancer.Practical applicationsThis research presents a practical approach for utilizing the anti-cancer benefits of natural bioactive ingredients from tea and turmeric, and has potential applications in clinical cancer therapy. The present work provides a stable CTP-SLNPs formulation with significant anti-cancer activity, which could be used for further development as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. The validated analytical method presented here can be used for characterization and comprehensive quality control of the novel CTP-SLNPs formulation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-09T20:40:56.570114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12332
  • β-Glucan, but not Lactobacillus plantarum P-8, inhibits lipid
           accumulation through selected lipid metabolic enzymes in obese rats
    • Authors: Hsiu-Chuan Lee; Wei-Ting Yu, Yu-Ru Guo, Shih-Yi Huang
      Abstract: We compared the effects of barley β-glucan and Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 on changes in body weight, white adipose tissue, and the activities of specific lipid metabolic enzymes in diet-induced obese rats. Obese rats were administered barley β-glucan (B), L. plantarum P-8 (P), or both for 8 weeks. The results showed that the dietary intervention reduced the body weight and white adipose tissue accumulation, and altered gut microbiota in the distal faeces of the B group. Furthermore, acetate and propionate levels considerably increased in the caecal digest and rectal feces of the B group. In addition, β-glucan, but not L. plantarum P-8, increased the activities of hepatic acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase and reduced epididymal fat lipoprotein lipase activity, thus resulting in decreased white adipose tissue accumulation in the obese rats. However, β-glucan and L. plantarum P-8 showed no synergistic effects.Practical applicationsβ-Glucan ameliorates hyperlipidaemia, increases hepatic acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities, and reduces epididymal fat lipoprotein lipase activity, thus resulting in reduced white adipose tissue accumulation in obese rats. β-Glucan reduces of reducing lipid levels and regulating specific lipid metabolic enzymes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T03:46:17.856043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12336
  • γ-amino butyric acid-enriched barley bran lowers adrenocorticotropic
           hormone and corticosterone levels in immobilized stressed rats
    • Authors: Ravichandran Vijaya Abinaya; Pichiah Balasubramanian Tirupathi Pichiah, Shalom Sara Thomas, Su-Gon Kim, Doo-Won Han, Yoon-Seok Song, Suk-Heung Oh, Youn-Soo Cha
      Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the potential effects of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-fortified barley bran against chronic stress induced Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6), based on diet; control group (C), stress with no treatment (STR + NT), stress plus dietary Panax ginseng at 100 mg/kg (positive control group, STR + PG), and stress plus 0.5% GABA-fortified barley bran (STR + BB-G). After 21 days, stress biomarkers and liver toxicity biomarkers were measured. The stress biomarkers adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were decreased (p 
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T03:30:48.294418-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12324
  • Comparative studies on interactions of l-ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol,
           procyanidin B3, β-carotene, and astaxanthin with lysozyme using
           fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods
    • Authors: Xiang-Rong Li; Jin-Jin Jia, Yun-Hui Yan, Tian-Jun Ni
      Abstract: l-Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, procyanidin B3, β-carotene, and astaxanthin are five classic dietary antioxidants. In this study, the interaction between them and lysozyme was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. The quenching mechanisms of lysozyme by them are all static quenching at lower concentrations of antioxidants, but at higher concentrations, predominantly by the “sphere of action” mechanisms. The binding constants of lysozyme-antioxidants systems are in the following order as: astaxanthin>β-carotene > procyanidin B3 > l-ascorbic acid>α-tocopherol. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that the binding process of α-tocopherol to lysozyme is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy. For the other four antioxidants-lysozyme systems, the binding processes are all entropy process. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy shows that the five antioxidants may induce microenvironmental changes of lysozyme. Molecular docking results reveal that the five antioxidants bind into the enzyme active site and lysozyme activity is inhibited, in accordance with the results of lysozyme activity experiment.Practical applicationsAntioxidants are used worldwide as food additives to protect foodstuffs against deterioration caused by oxidation, such as fat rancidity and color changes. Dietary antioxidant is considered to be a safe natural product. However, it may act as an antinutritional factor, in terms of the inhibition of proteases, when ingested in excess. Lysozyme with high natural abundance is an enzyme known for its unique ability to damage bacterial cell walls, thereby providing protection against bacterial infections. When the diverse endogenous and exogenous ligands enter into the human body, ligand–lysozyme conjugation can be observed. Therefore, lysozyme is selected to investigate the binding characteristics of five classic dietary antioxidants, which is critical in order to understand their possible delivery, consequent availability, and relevant health risks.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30T03:25:48.115562-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12338
  • In vitro studies on the effect of watercress juice on digestive enzymes
           relevant to type 2 diabetes and obesity and antioxidant activity
    • Authors: Vítor Spínola; Joana Pinto, Paula C. Castilho
      Abstract: Inhibition of enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipids metabolism is an important strategy against type 2 diabetes and obesity, by suppressing dietary sugar and fat absorption. This work reports, for the first time, the in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase by watercress juice (WJ). Juice was analyzed for qualitative and quantitative composition and in vitro antioxidant activities. Several components were identified, namely hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and other minor water-soluble phytochemicals. Quantitative data revealed a dimer of caffeoylmalic acid (0.73 mg mL−1 of juice), disinapoylgentibiose (0.64 mg mL−1), ferulic acid (0.56 mg mL−1), and isorhamnetin-O-sophoroside-O-malonyl(hexoside) (0.38 mg mL−1) as the predominant polyphenols. The results showed that WJ had dose-dependent inhibitory potential against targeted enzymes, displaying a more potent inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase relative to α-amylase and lipase. WJ can be considered a potential complementary dietary approach to control hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia, through inhibition of digestive enzymes.Practical applicationsCurrently, raw watercress is widely consumed in liquid form, alone or together with other fresh vegetables, as an ingredient of the “detox juices.” Studies on watercress phenolic composition and antidiabetic properties have been performed on extracts, but not on juice, which is closer to the edible form. The present study supports consumption of watercress juice as source of phytochemicals potentially capable of inhibiting digestive enzymes linked to diabetes and obesity prevention/control.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29T00:15:46.175543-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12335
  • Black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract exerts phenotypic effects on
           white adipose tissue and reverses liver steatosis in diet-induced obese
    • Authors: Mina Kim; Pichiah Balasubramanian Tirupathi Pichiah, Dae Keun Kim, Youn-Soo Cha
      Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to examine the extent to which black adzuki bean (BAB) extract attenuates the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed one of the following diets for 12 weeks: control diet containing 10% of its energy as fat (CD); high-fat diet, containing 60% of its energy as fat (HD); high-fat diet mixed with 1% freeze-dried BAB extract powder (BAB); or high-fat diet mixed with 0.08% kaempferol (Kfr). Compared to the HD group, the BAB group showed significantly reduced body weight, reduced white adipose tissue weight, and a reduced adipocyte phenotype. Moreover, the BAB group exhibited decreased signs of liver pathology, decreased liver weight, and decreased formation of hepatic lipid droplets. Lipogenesis-associated genes were significantly downregulated in epididymal fat tissue, while lipolytic and β-oxidation genes were upregulated in the BAB group relative to the HD group. Overall, BAB extract is a promising dietary supplement with the potential to attenuate obesity.Practical applicationsThe adzuki bean has been traditionally consumed as a food and has been used as a traditional remedy in East Asia. Moreover, black adzuki beans have been shown to exhibit beneficial effects, such as anti-obesity and anti-steatosis effects, by regulating lipid metabolism.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29T00:01:12.971664-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12333
  • Major trypsin like-serine proteinases from albacore tuna (Thunnus
           alalunga) spleen: Biochemical characterization and the effect of
           extraction media
    • Authors: Tanchanok Poonsin; Pakteera Sripokar, Soottawat Benjakul, Benjamin K. Simpson, Wonnop Visessanguan, Sappasith Klomklao
      Abstract: This investigation aimed to characterize the proteinases and to study the effect of extraction media on proteinases recovery from albacore tuna spleen. Optimal activity of splenic extract was at pH 9.5 and 55°C. The enzyme was stable in a wide pH range of 6.0–10.0 but unstable at the temperatures greater than 50°C for 30–120 min. The proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, N-ethylmaleimide, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and N-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) and continuously decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. The molecular weights of spleen proteinases were 22, 24, 31, and 34 kDa based on the proteinase activity of zones separated by electrophoresis. Spleen powder isolation with 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 containing 1.25 M NaCl and 2% (v/v) Brij 35 gave a higher recovery of proteinase activity than other extractants tested (p 
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T04:12:53.855086-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12323
  • Preservation effect of high pressure processing on ascorbic acid of fruits
           and vegetables: A review
    • Authors: Somya Tewari; Rachna Sehrawat, Prabhat K. Nema, Barjinder Pal Kaur
      Abstract: High Pressure Processing (HPP) is a well-established nonthermal technology for ensuring microbial safety and nutritional quality of foods. Ascorbic acid (AA) is highly labile antioxidant, susceptible to degradation when exposed to oxygen, change in pH, temperature, or pressure. Preservation of AA in fruit and vegetable products is a prime concern for food processors. This review summarizes recent data on the effect of HPP on AA content of different fruits and vegetables, and their products. In most of the food products, HPP has supported either preservation or better retention of AA after pressurization (400–600 MPa/5–10 min) at lower or room temperature. High pressure processed foods have demonstrated better stability of AA during refrigeration storage as compared to thermally processed ones. These studies establish the positive implications of HPP and justify its potential use as a promising preservation technique to safeguard AA in food products.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T20:20:24.405295-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12319
  • Suppression of lipid deterioration in boiled-dried anchovy by coating with
           fish gelatin hydrolysates
    • Authors: Hyung Jun Kim; Kwang Tae Son, Su Gwang Lee, Sun Young Park, Min Soo Heu, Jin-Soo Kim
      Abstract: This study was conducted to optimize the processing conditions of coating for preventing oxidation using response surface methodology (RSM) and to investigate the quality improvement of coated boiled-dried anchovy. RSM showed that the optimum ultrafiltrates from the second rockfish skin gelatin hydrolysate (FGH) concentration (%) and pre-drying time (min) for boiled anchovy were 4.6% and 180 min, respectively. Immediately after drying, the peroxide value (POV) and TBA value of the coated boiled-dried anchovy were significantly lower than those of the uncoated anchovy. In both coated and uncoated boiled-dried anchovies, the POV and TBA values increased during storage, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio of the boiled-dried anchovy decreased. Variation in these values was lower for the coated samples than for the uncoated samples. Thus, the coating on boiled-dried anchovy may be effective for preventing lipid oxidation.Practical applicationsThis manuscript addresses the problem of lipid oxidation in boiled-dried anchovy. The boiled-dried anchovy are important dried seafood in Korea. However, the quality of boiled-dried anchovy quickly decreased by lipid oxidation during processing, storage and distribution. This study has focused on the suppression of lipid deterioration in boiled-dried anchovy. According to the results of this study, lipid deterioration of the boiled-dried anchovy suppressed by coating invisible edible film from fish gelatin hydrolysates. Therefore, invisible edible film from fish gelatin hydrolysates could be used for the suppression of lipid deterioration in dried fish.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T04:50:22.257453-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12331
  • Antibacterial effects of two monoterpene glycosides from Hosta plantaginea
           (lam.) Aschers
    • Authors: Qinghu Wang; Jingjing Han, Baiyinmuqier Bao
      Abstract: In this paper, we carried out a systematic chemical study on the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract from the flowers of Hosta plantaginea (Lam.) Aschers (H. plantaginea), which resulted in the isolation of a new compound (1) together with one known compound (2). The structure elucidations of new compound were carried out by 1D [1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] and 2D-NMR spectral analysis. Studies on the antibacterial activity established that compound 1 showed statistically higher inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) compared to streptomycin and compound 2. Among the tested bacteria, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) was the most sensitive and Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) was found to be the most resistant. The antibacterial activities exhibited by compound 1 demonstrate their potential for use as nutraceuticals and in food preservation.Practical applicationsThe flowers of H. plantaginea are used as a clinical medicine to treat many diseases, such as swelling, mastadenitis, otitismedia, anabrosis, lung heat, and terrific heat. Various pharmacological properties have been observed in some steroidal glycosides and alkaloids from H. plantaginea including cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory. In the article, the antibacterial activities of two monoterpene glycosides from the flowers of H. plantaginea have been evaluated for the first time. Therefore, the results may have some useful practical implications at both the food and medicine technology.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T01:20:29.674402-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12320
  • Modulation of the secondary and tertiary structures of African yam bean
           (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed globulins, albumins and protein concentrate
           by pH and NaCl
    • Authors: Comfort F. Ajibola; Tayo N. Fagbemi, Rotimi E. Aluko
      Abstract: African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed flour was extracted with 0.5 M NaCl and the supernatant dialyzed against water to obtain two protein products, the water-soluble albumin and water-insoluble globulin. The flour was also extracted separately with alkaline water followed by acid-induced protein precipitation at pH 5.0 to produce a protein concentrate. Amino acid composition was similar for the three protein products and showed a low Arg/Lys ratio. The three protein products had higher contents of the α-helix fraction than the β-strand but the level of unordered secondary structure was highest at pH 8.0. The near-UV chromatograms showed phenylalanine and tyrosine transitions in the albumin, whereas only the phenylalanine transition was seen in globulin and protein concentrate. Addition of increasing levels of NaCl led to increased structural rigidity in the albumin and protein concentrate but not so much in the globulin.Practical applicationsPlant proteins continue to be highly desirable as functional ingredients in foods, especially low fat products. However, functionality of seed proteins from under-utilized crops has not been properly studied. It is well known that food matrices vary in ionic strength and pH, which then determine protein functionality during processing and storage. Since protein functionality is directly dependent on structural conformation, knowledge of the structural properties of seed proteins at different pH and salt concentrations could facilitate formulation of food products with desirable or novel attributes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T01:42:15.357219-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12321
  • The biochemical composition of the leaves and seeds meals of moringa
           species as non-conventional sources of nutrients
    • Authors: Fahad Al Juhaimi; Kashif Ghafoor, Elfadıl E. Babiker, Bertrand Matthäus, Mehmet Musa Özcan
      Abstract: Some physicochemical properties of the oil, crude protein, sugars, and amino acids of the leaves and seed meals of two Moringa species were determined and compared using Student's T-test. The oil properties and fatty acid composition were significantly (at either p ≤ .01 or p ≤ .05) varied between the two species. The sterols and tocopherols contents of the species oil differed significantly. Most of the sterols were not detected in Moringa oleifera oil. The sugars contents were significantly different between the two species. The protein contents of M. oleifera leaves and seed meals were significantly higher than those of Moringa peregrina. Compared with M. peregrina, the M. oleifera leaves and seed meals had significantly higher amounts of amino acids. The most concentrated amino acids in the M. oleifera leaves and seed meals were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leucine whereas those in M. peregrina were threonine, serine, and proline.Practical applicationsMoringa seed kernels contain a significant amount of oil. Moringa leaves are a good human food and animal feed. Various parts of Moringa oleifera are incorporated into the traditional food of humans. The leaves of Moringa are a good source of protein, vitamin A, B, and C. The leaf of M. oleifera contains crude protein up to 25%. In many tropical and subtropical countries, various parts of M. oleifera (leaves, fruits, immature pods, and flowers) are incorporated into the traditional food of humans.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T01:10:57.193744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12322
  • Characterization of Endogenous Protease and the Changes in Proteolytic
           Activity of Acetes vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri During Kapi
    • Authors: Jaksuma Pongsetkul; Soottawat Benjakul, Punnanee Sumpavapol, Kazufumi Osako, Nandhsha Faithong
      Abstract: Characteristics of endogenous proteases of shrimp, Acetes vulgaris (AP) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (MP) as well as the changes in proteolytic activity during Kapi production were investigated. Maximal activity of AP and MP was found at pH 7, 60C and pH 8, 60C, respectively. Activity of both proteases decreased with increasing NaCl concentration (0–30%). Both extracts were strongly inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide-phenylmethane-sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), suggesting that major proteases belonged to serine proteases. This was coincidental with high trypsin activity toward BAPNA and chymotrypsin activity toward BTEE. Proteolytic activity, trypsin and chymotrypsin were detectable throughout Kapi fermentation. The activity was decreased when salting was implemented. Nevertheless, activities increased continuously with increasing fermentation time. During Kapi production, proteins underwent degradation as indicated by the formation of oligopeptides and disappearance of myosin heavy chain and actin. Therefore, both endogenous and microbial proteases were more likely involved in proteolysis of shrimp during Kapi production.Practical ApplicationsKapi, traditional salted shrimp paste, is usually used as a condiment to enhance the palatability of many Thai foods. Recently, small shrimp Acetes Vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri have become the new alternative raw materials for Kapi production because of their availability. During fermentation, protein hydrolysis is induced by endogenous proteases in shrimp as well as those produced by halophilic bacteria. Those changes medicated by proteolysis can be associated with the final characteristics of Kapi.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T03:30:22.894474-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12311
  • Stabilization of Black Soybean Anthocyanin by Chitosan Nanoencapsulation
           and Copigmentation
    • Authors: Aera Ko; Ji-Soo Lee, Hee Sop Nam, Hyeon Gyu Lee
      Abstract: To stabilize the color and the antioxidant activity of black soybean anthocyanin, the potential of nanoencapsulation and copigmentation was investigated. Anthocyanin was copigmented with sinapic acid and nanoencapsulated by the ionic gelation method. The stability of anthocyanin in terms of color and antioxidant activity was significantly improved by both nanoencapsulation and copigmentation (P < 0.05). The nanoencapsulation was more efficient in improving the antioxidant activity and the color stability of Anthocyanin at high temperature. In addition, the highest stability of anthocyanin was observed in the copigmented anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles, in which half-lives and retention were more than 2.6 and 7.4-fold greater than those of nonencapsulated anthocyanin. These results suggested that a combination of copigmentation and nanoencapsulation could be an effective technique for improving the color and antioxidant stability of anthocyanin.Practical ApplicationsAlthough anthocyanin of black soybean has diverse health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-obesity, and hypolipidemic effects, few studies have been conducted with black soybean anthocyanin. In this manuscript, to stabilize the color and the antioxidant activity of black soybean anthocyanin, the potential of nanoencapsulation and copigmentation was investigated. The result suggests that a combination of copigmentation and nanoencapsulation could be useful for improving anthocyanin stability in terms of color and antioxidant activity. Therefore, this strategy for stability of black soybean anthocyanin could be practically employed in the food and nutrition industry because it can improve not only visual color but also biological activity of anthocyanin-related products.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T03:23:23.346731-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12316
  • Modulatory effects of rice bran and its oil on lipid metabolism in insulin
           resistance rats
    • Authors: Hanan M. F. Abd El-Wahab; Mona A. Mohamed, Hanaa H. El Sayed, Alshimaa E. Bauomy
      Abstract: The study was designed to evaluate the effects of rice bran (RB) or its oil (RBO) on lipid metabolism, hepatic insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Co A (HMG-CoA) reductase in rats fed high-fructose diet (HFD). Rats were divided into four groups: Group 1, animals received standard diet as control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on a HFD. Groups 3 and 4 animals fed HFD containing RB (5%) instead of cellulose and RBO (10%) instead of corn oil, respectively for 5 weeks. Fructose feeding to rats caused significant elevations in plasma glucose, serum insulin, and lipid profile, while serum total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced compared to control. Hepatic concentration of IRS-1 was decreased while malondialdehyde (MDA) and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA were elevated compared to control group. Addition of RB or RBO to fructose fed rats alleviated the hazardous effects of fructose.Practical applicationsRats fed high-fructose diet were used as a model of insulin resistance accompanied by deleterious metabolic consequences including hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension in rats and these metabolic effects are similar to those observed in human multi-metabolic syndrome X. Supplementation of rice bran or rice bran oil to fructose-fed rats improves insulin resistance and reduces lipo- and glucotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T21:40:34.05285-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12318
  • Unsaponifiable Matter from Rice Bran Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Lipid
           Accumulation by Activating AMPK in HepG2 Cells
    • Authors: Hyeonmi Ham; Koan Sik Woo, Yu Young Lee, Byongwon Lee, In-Hwan Kim, Junsoo Lee
      Abstract: Rice bran, a major by-product of rice milling, has a variety of health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering effects. However, the effects of rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) on hepatic lipid metabolism remain unclear. In this study, the effects of rice bran USM in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipid accumulation and its putative mechanism in HepG2 cells were investigated. USM significantly inhibited high glucose-induced lipid accumulation and suppressed fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c expression in HepG2 cells. It also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase. Moreover, a specific inhibitor of AMPK attenuated the effects of USM on lipid accumulation. These results demonstrate that rice bran USM prevents hepatic lipid accumulation via an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway and provides a promising approach for novel lipid-lowering therapies.Practical ApplicationRice bran is known to be rich in phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol, all of which have health benefits. In recent years, the recognition of the health benefits of rice bran has resulted in its increased use in a range of food products, which far exceeds its usage as a dietary supplement. This study provides biological evidence that supports the use of rice bran unsaponifiable matter in the prevention of hepatic lipid accumulation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-15T23:35:22.06441-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12313
  • Protoaphin-fb, Newly Isolated from Galla Rhois, Suppresses LPS-Stimulated
           Inflammatory Reactions in Murine Macrophages
    • Authors: Hee Won Lee; Yoon Hee Kim
      Abstract: Protoaphin-fb is a phenolic compound newly isolated from Galla Rhois, a Korean medical plant. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of protoaphin-fb in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) were investigated. Protoaphin-fb inhibited release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by reducing protein expression levels of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, protoaphin-fb suppressed release of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α induced by LPS. Further study indicated that protoaphin-fb blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB from the cytosol to nucleus, which is one of the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory action of protoaphin-fb. Collectively, these data suggest that protoaphin-fb might be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.Practicl ApplicationsGalla Rhois has long been used in Korean traditional medicine due to its various pharmacological effects, including hepatic protective effect, anti-bacterial activity, and anti-platelet effect. The results of this research demonstrate that protoaphin-fb is effective in attenuating inflammation. This result suggests its potential applicability in functional foods, cosmetic industry, and medicine manufacturing for people suffering from inflammation and inflammatory-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-08-15T22:25:22.204133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12317
  • In vitro Activities of the Four Structurally Similar Flavonols Weakened by
           the Prior Thermal and Oxidative Treatments to a Human Colorectal Cancer
    • Authors: Bo Wang; Jing Wang, Xin-Huai Zhao
      Abstract: Four structurally similar flavonols galangin, kaempferol, morin and myricetin in solutions were heated at 100C for 30 min or oxidized by air for 6 h, and then assessed for in vitro activities to human colon cancer cells (HCT-116) in terms of anti-proliferation, apoptosis induction, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. The oxidized and especially heated flavonol solutions showed degradation with decreased violet absorption, and the four flavonols and treated flavonols all could induce the cells with apoptotic morphology. Other results indicated that galangin with less −OH in its molecules had the highest activities to the cells, followed by morin, kaempferol and myricetin with increased −OH numbers in their molecules. The oxidized and especially heated flavonols always showed weaker anti-proliferation, apoptosis induction, ROS generation and membrane disruption than native flavonol counterparts, demonstrating adverse effects of the thermal and oxidative treatments on these anti-cancer activities of flavonols.Practical ApplicationsIn this study, the four flavonols were proved to have anti-cancer activities to human colon cancer HCT-116 cells shown as growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, membrane disruption, and enhancement of ROS generation. However, oxidative and especially thermal treatments of the flavonols were observed to decrease these activities. The results demonstrate an important conclusion that improperly and excessive heating and storage of plant foods might induce flavonol (or flavonoid) degradation, and thus bring about adverse effects on anti-cancer properties of plant foods. The effects of other treatments on anti-cancer properties of flavonoid or plant foods containing them are suggested for further investigation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T02:11:51.558994-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12310
  • Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Rice Bran Protein Using Response Surface
    • Authors: Suphat Phongthai; Seung-Taik Lim, Saroat Rawdkuen
      Abstract: Rice bran was used for isolating protein through ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The protein was converted into protein hydrolysates (PH) with three commercial enzymes. The optimal condition for rice bran protein production was 76% sonication amplitude, 18 min extraction and 0.99 g/10 mL solid–liquid ratio, which gave protein yield of 4.73 ± 0.03%. The degree of hydrolysis for the rice bran protein by Subtilisin A (SPH), Actinase E (APH) and Neutrase 0.8L (NPH) was 20.03 ± 0.24%, 13.84 ± 0.04% and 5.54 ± 0.07%, respectively. The molecular weight of the isolated proteins ranged between
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T23:30:40.201815-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12314
  • Erectogenic, Antihypertensive, Antidiabetic, Anti-Oxidative Properties and
           Phenolic Compositions of Almond Fruit (Terminalia catappa L.) Parts (Hull
           and Drupe) – in vitro
    • Authors: Stephen A. Adefegha; Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I. Oyeleye, Isaac Ejakpovi
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of almond (Terminalia catappa L.) fruit parts (hull and drupe) extracts on key enzymes (arginase, angiotensin-1-converting enzyme, α-amylase and α-glucosidase) relevant to erectile dysfunction, type-2 diabetes and hypertension, assess their antioxidant properties and characterize their phenolic constituents. The hull and drupe extracts were prepared by a mixture of absolute methanol and 1N HCl, evaporated to dryness and used for subsequent analysis. The result revealed that the hull and drupe extracts inhibited arginase, angiotensin-1-converting enzyme, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Both extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+, chelated Fe2+ and inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat penile homogenate in vitro. Chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid and kaempferol were identified as the major phenolic compounds. This study suggests that these fruit parts can be natural sources of erectogenic, antihypertensive antidiabetic and anti-oxidative agents. However, the hull showed better potential than the drupe.Practical ApplicationsThe results suggest that Almond (Terminalia catappa L.) fruit parts, including the hull and drupe, have potential applications as functional foods and nutraceuticals for both animal and human nutrition. In addition, the hull and drupe could be useful for therapeutic purposes as erectogenic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and anti-oxidative agents.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:51:15.331152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12309
  • The Protective Effect of Antioxidant Enriched Fractions from Colored
           Potatoes Against Hepatotoxic Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hepatocytes and
    • Authors: Da Hye Kim; Myungsuk Kim, Sang-Bin Oh, Kyung Mi Lee, Sang Min Kim, Chu Won Nho, Won Byong Yoon, Kyungsu Kang, Cheol-Ho Pan
      Abstract: Herein, we prepared standardized antioxidant-enriched fractions from red (AFR) and purple (AFP) colored potatoes and evaluated their protective effects against hepatotoxicity induced by oxidative stress. The major compound contained in both AFR and AFP was 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Experiments in vitro showed that AFR and AFP protected against HepG2 cell death induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) as determined by cell viability assay. AFR and AFP recovered alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities, which increased by t-BHP treatment in HepG2 cells. AFR and AFP also inhibited the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, in vivo experiments in mice showed that AFR and AFP protected against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity and recovered serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. AFR and AFP also rescued serum antioxidant enzyme activities, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, which were disturbed by t-BHP treatment. Our data clearly demonstrate that AFR and AFP protect against hepatic damage induced by oxidative stress.Practical ApplicationsColored potatoes contain plentiful amounts of antioxidant compounds that can be developed into dietary supplements for the improvement of human health. We prepared antioxidant-enriched fractions from red and purple colored potatoes (AFR and AFP, respectively) to be used as hepatoprotective agents. Based on chemical profiling analysis, we found that 5-caffeoylquinic acid can serve as a marker for the standardization of AFR and AFP as functional food materials. AFR and AFP strongly protected against oxidative stress and injury both in cultured hepatocytes and mice. AFR and AFP prevented the cell death of hepatocytes, and they also rescued hepatic damage markers ALT and AST both in cell and animal experiments. Generally, AFP showed higher hepatoprotective activity than AFR. Taken together, AFR and AFP may be promising candidates as functional foods for improving human liver function.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T22:20:50.601283-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12315
  • Lipid Oxidation and Biochemical Quality of Indian Mackerel during Frozen
           Storage: Effect of Previous Treatment with Plant Extracts
    • Authors: Pankyamma Viji; Puthanpurackal Kizhakkethil Binsi, Sivam Visnuvinayagam, Chitradurga Obaiah Mohan, Gudipati Venkateshwarlu, Teralandur Krishnaswamy Srinivasa Gopal
      Abstract: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of mint extract (ME) and citrus extract (CE) on lipid oxidation and biochemical changes of Indian mackerel during frozen storage. ME yielded significantly higher amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds and exhibited potential antioxidant activity as measured by Ferric Reducing Power Assay (FRAP) than CE. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in ME (0.5%, w/v) and CE (1%, w/v) for 30 min, frozen in air blast freezer and stored at −20C for 8 months. Formation of lipid peroxides and thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were significantly inhibited by ME followed by CE compared to control ©. Plant extract treatment also led to lower lipid hydrolysis and trimethyl amine generation (TMA-N) during frozen storage. The results of the study suggest ME is a very effective inhibitor of lipid and myoglobin oxidation and has great potential as a natural preservative for controlling the biochemical changes in frozen stored fatty fishes.Practical ApplicationsFrozen stored fatty fishes are highly susceptible to quality loss due to lipid oxidation and other biochemical changes. Although synthetic additives are widely used as antioxidants, the recent trend is to replace those with natural counterparts. This study evaluates the effects of plant extract treatment on lipid oxidation and biochemical quality of Indian mackerel during frozen storage. Mint extract treatment was found effectively retarding the lipid and myoglobin oxidation during storage and could be useful to processors for achieving better profitability and consumer satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T10:05:43.150131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12308
  • Eckol from Eisenia bicyclis Inhibits Inflammation Through the Akt/NF-κB
           Signaling in Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Human Keratinocyte Hacat
    • Authors: Sung-Hwan Eom; Eun-Hye Lee, Kunbawui Park, Ji-Young Kwon, Poong-Ho Kim, Won-Kyo Jung, Young-Mog Kim
      Abstract: To investigate whether eckol, a phlorotannin compound from edible brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis, could be responsible for the suppression of inflammatory processes, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of eckol on Propionibacterium acnes-induced human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells. P. acnes–treated HaCaT cells increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chomokines. We also examined in vitro regulatory function of eckol on production of nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)−2 and MMP-9 as well as expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Eckol inhibited the expression or formation production of these proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in HaCaT cells. Additionally, treatment of HaCaT cells with P. acnes significantly increased protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Eckol inhibited P. acnes-mediated phosphorylation of Akt and activation of NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that eckol could be a potential therapeutic agent to effectively treat the inflammatory skin disease induced by P. acnes.Practical ApplicationsEisenia bicyclis is a common perennial phaeophyceae (brown alga) and generally inhabits the region of Ulleung Island in the East sea of Korea. This edible seaweed is widely consumed in various ways such as appetizers, casseroles, muffins, pilafs, and soups. E. bicyclis also has various physiological properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities because of their substantial quantities of phenolic compounds, constituted mainly by marine-derived polyphenols (phlorotannins). Eckol, one of phlorotannins from E. bicyclis, shows therapeutic effectiveness against viable P. acnes-induced inflammation in HaCaT cells. Thus, we suggest that eckol from E. bicyclis is a potential treatment for anti-inflammatory therapy for acne vulgaris.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T10:05:32.248805-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12312
  • Therapeutic Efficacy of Hammada scoparia Extract Against Ethanol Induced
           Renal Dysfunction in Wistar Rats
    • Authors: Bourogaa Ezzeddine; Jarraya-Mezghani Raoudha, Damak Mohamed, El Feki Abdelfattah
      Abstract: Renoprotective effect of Hammada scoparia extracts was evaluated in Wistar albino rats which were distributed into five groups of six animals each. Three groups were treated simultaneously with ethanol 35% (4 g/kg) and plant extracts for 4 weeks. Other animals (EtOH) were given ethanol alone, and the control received 0.9% NaCl. The results showed that methanolic extract attenuated the increase of TBARS in kidneys, and also enhanced antioxidant status of the rats by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase by 42, 32 and 49%, respectively. The glycogen synthase kinase-3β and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 were overexpressed in kidneys of ethanol-treated rats, but was normalized after methanolic extract administration. The results suggest that the renal protection of H. scoparia leaf extract was caused by inactivation of GSK-3β expression which leads to enhancement of antioxidant activity in the kidney and a decrease in lipid peroxidation rate.Practical ApplicationHammada scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) is widely used in North African traditional medicine, as prevention against several diseases such cancer, hepatitis, inflammation and obesity. Recent studies have also shown that H. scoparia leaves extract possessed molluscicidal activity, a potent antitumoral activity and hepatoprotective effect. Taking into consideration the ability of natural components to reduce several diseases, the present study has evaluated the renoprotective effect of H. scoparia leaves extract which may prove to be effective against ethanol-induced renal disorders.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T02:20:32.306094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12307
  • Study on the Anti-Tumor Ability of Niaowangzhong Green Tea
    • Authors: Dan Li; Yingyu Chen, Yahui Huang, Lijuan Zhang, Jiagan Yang, Xingguo Xu, Qing Liu, Xu Zhang
      Abstract: It has been known that green tea not only possesses certain chemo-preventive effects on cancer, but also can kill directly some types of tumor cells. Niaowangzhong tea (C. sinensis), a special tea resource growing in Qiannan Buyi, a Miao Minority Autonomous Prefecture in Guizhou province, China, is one of the most popular medicinal beverages for local people there. The aims of this study were to analyze the quality components and their relative contents present in Niaowangzhong green tea and to investigate whether or not the water extract of this green tea has the antitumor capability in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical analysis indicated that this green tea extract contained relatively higher levels of tea polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids compounds and polysaccharides. In the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)−2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, this green tea extract showed inhibitory activity against several types of tumor cells, including breast, prostate, colorectal and gastric cancer cell lines, with higher selectivity toward human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of MGC-803 was 32.5 μΜ as compared to that (367.9 μΜ) of normal vascular endothelial cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses showed that the proportion of cells arrested at the G0/G1 phase was increased with the increase in concentration, and the proportion of apoptotic cells was also increased. Niaowangzhong green tea extract could significantly inhibit tumor-sphere formation in the in vivo antitumor experiment and the growth of MGC-803-derived tumor in nude mice. At the concentration of 500 mg/kg/day, inhibition rate was 31.0% without causing obvious toxic side effects. This study revealed a potent anti-cancer activity of this special green tea and its promising potential as chemo-preventive agent and proper dietary practice for prevention and control of cancers.Practical ApplicationThis study has indicated that Niaowangzhong green tea extract caused stronger cytotoxic effects on two kinds of digestive tract tumor cells HCT-15 and MGC-803, suggesting that as one of the most popular medicinal beverages, this green tea extract may be more suitable for treating digestive tract cancers since it can be more accessible to the locations of digestive and intestinal tracts. Therefore, this specific green tea merits further depth study on underlying mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels and further development for potential medical application and dietary practices for prevention of cancers, especially for digestive and intestinal tracts. Co-administration of the anti-cancer drugs and Niaowangzhong green tea may reduce the toxic side effects and drug resistance while achieving desired effect because of the reason that Niaowangzhong green tea extract are mediated through the synergic effects of a variety of anti-cancer compounds present it and had no obvious toxic side effects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T00:55:34.954384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12305
  • Fermentation of Sargassum thunbergii by Kimchi-Derived Lactobacillus sp.
           SH-1 Attenuates LPS-Stimulated Inflammatory Response Via Downregulation of
    • Authors: Ok-Ju Mun; Myeong Sook Kwon, Fatih Karadeniz, Mihyang Kim, Sang-Hyeon Lee, Yuck-Young Kim, Youngwan Seo, Mi-Soon Jang, Ki-Ho Nam, Chang-Suk Kong
      Abstract: The fermentative effect of Sargassum thunbergii by lactic acid bacteria on the inflammatory responses was evaluated in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The fermentation of S. thunbergii was carried out using isolated Lactobacillus sp. SH-1 at 30C for 2 days. As a result, we confirmed that the fermentation of S. thunbergii with Lactobacillus sp. SH-1 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as important inflammatory factors. In comparing analysis, 85% aq. MeOH and nHexane fractions significantly inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed expression of cytokines iNOS, COX-2, TNFɑ, IL-1β and IL-6. Therefore, effective suppression of proinflammatory cytokine indicated that the fermentation process using Lactobacillus sp. SH-1 may provide a beneficial effect on the bioactive compound content of the extract.Practical ApplicationsS. thunbergii is a common edible algae known for its potential health benefits. Although several algae species are being utilized in functional food industry, necessity for wide spectrum of bioactivities as well as enhanced efficiency remains. Natural processing the functional food products in order to obtain enhanced and added potential is a method mainly preferred in nutraceutical field. In this study, fermentation of S. thunbergii with kimchi-derived bacteria was chosen for processing the alga and shown to enhance the anti-inflammatory effect, promoting the utilization of fermented algae as potential nutraceutical against inflammation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T22:30:25.257358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12306
  • Changes in Protein Hydrolysates During Processing of Chinese Traditional
           Dry-Cured Bacon (Laròu) Production
    • Authors: Jinjie Zhang; Xihong Zhao
      Abstract: Protein and its degradation products are the main nutrients and flavor precursors in pork products. In this study, protein, total nitrogen (TN), water-soluble nitrogen (WSN), peptides, and free amino acids (FAAs) were analyzed during the production process of Chinese traditional dry-cured bacon, “Laròu.” Results indicated that the TN content showed no significant changes throughout the whole process, while the WSN content decreased sharply during the salting period but increased during aging. The sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile indicated that protein decomposition effectively took place during the late aging period. A decreasing tendency of the total peptides was observed throughout the aging period. On the contrary, the content of total FAAs increased significantly in the final products. Protein degradation and related flavor compound formation mostly occurred during the aging period of the “Laròu” manufacturing.Practical Applications“Laròu” is a popular Chinese dry-cured meat product for its special chewiness and flavor. This study investigates the changes in proteolysis during the process of “Laròu” and provides the theoretical bases for the quality improvement of Chinese traditional dry-cured meat products.
      PubDate: 2016-07-18T01:10:55.412576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12304
  • Therapeutic Potential of Myrtus communis Subsp.communis Extract Against
           Acetic ACID-Induced Colonic Inflammation in Rats
    • Authors: Ali Sen; Meral Yuksel, Gizem Bulut, Leyla Bitis, Feriha Ercan, Nagehan Ozyilmaz-Yay, Ozben Akbulut, Hamit Cobanoğlu, Sevil Ozkan, Goksel Sener
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract from leaves of Myrtus communis subsp. communis (MC) on acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. On the fourth day of colitis induction, all rats were decapitated. Colitis was assessed by macroscopic and microscopic scores and by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, luminol, lucigenin, nitric oxid and peroxynitrite chemiluminescence (CL). Colitis caused significant increases in the colonic MDA levels, MPO activity, CL values, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores along with significant decrease in tissue GSH level. However, treatment with MC extract reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by AA with the protective effects being similar to that of sulphasalazine treatment. The study showed that MC extract could alleviate colitis in rats and can be considered an alternative therapeutic approach for management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).Practical ApplicationsMyrtus communis subsp. communis leaves are used as antihypertensive, antitussive, antiemetic, diuretic, antidiarrheic, cardiotonic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory agents in folk medicine. This study revealed that the ethanol extract of the plant possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity, confirming its traditional use.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:51.994322-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12297
  • The Antimicrobial Effects of Thyme, Garlic and Basil Oleoresins Against
           Bacillus coagulans in Tomato Sauce
    • Authors: Ahsen Rayman Ergün; Taner Baysal
      Abstract: The antimicrobial activities of thyme (Thymus serpyllum), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oleoresins against Bacillus coagulans in a tomato based sauce was investigated.The inhibitory and bactericidal effects of oleoresins against B. coagulans ATCC 7050 were tested in the sauce media (pH 4.2 and °Brix (soluble solids content) 10). As a result, thymol as a major component of thyme oleoresin similar to its essential oil; estragol, eugenol, and eucolyptol for basil, and octadecanoic acid and oleic acid for the garlic oleoresin were identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minumum inhibition concentrations (MIC) were found as 2.5 ml, 1.25 ml, and 1.25 ml/100 ml sauce for the thyme, basil, and garlic oleoresins, respectively. These findings demonstrated that basil and garlic have the same inhibitory effects against bacteria and were more effective than thyme in the tomato based sauce. In addition at the the end of 8 h, with thyme, basil and garlic oleoresins 3.20, 2.50 and 2.56 log reductions were provided.Practical ApplicationsOleoresins have similar compositions to essential oils. There is limited study about oleoresins especially for in vitro studies. MIC values were found as 2.5 ml, 1.25 ml, 1.25 ml/100 ml sauce for thyme, basil, garlic for B. coagulans, respectively. Oleoresins have antimicrobial effects and could be used in sauces and other industrial food products. In addition oleoresins could be used for further researches. They have a potential alternative to preservatives with their inhibitory and bacterisidal activities.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:51.515665-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12296
  • Structural Properties of Phycoerythrin from Dulse Palmaria palmata
    • Authors: Yoshikatsu Miyabe; Tomoe Furuta, Tomoyuki Takeda, Gaku Kanno, Takeshi Shimizu, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Zuoqi Gai, Hajime Yasui, Hideki Kishimura
      Abstract: We found that the red alga dulse (Palmaria palmata) contains a lot of proteins, which is mainly composed of phycoerythrin (PE) and the protein hydrolysates showed high angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Therefore, we investigated the structure of dulse PE to discuss its structure-function relationship. We prepared the chloroplast DNA and analyzed the nucleotide sequences encoding PE by cDNA cloning method. It was clarified that dulse PE has α- and β-subunits and they are composed by 164 amino acids (MW: 17,638) and 177 amino acids (MW: 18,407), respectively. The dulse PE contained conserved cysteine residues for chromophore attachment site. On the alignment of amino acid sequences of dulse PE with those of other red algal PE, the sequence identities were very high (81–92%). In addition, we purified and crystallized the dulse PE, and its crystal structure was determined at 2.09 Å resolution by molecular replacement method. The revealed 3D structure of dulse PE which forms an (αβ)6 hexamer was similar to other red algal PEs. Conversely, it was clarified that the dulse PE proteins are rich in hydrophobic amino acid residues (51.0%), especially aromatic amino acid and proline residues. The data imply that the high ACE inhibitory activity of dulse protein hydrolysates would be caused by the specific amino acid composition and sequence of dulse PE.Practical ApplicationsDulse is an abundant and underused resource, which contains a lot of phycobiliproteins. Then, the dulse protein hydrolysates strongly inhibited the activity of ACE. Therefore, it has the potential to be an ingredient of functional food.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:47.617256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12301
  • Supplementation of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Peel in Diet Ameliorates
           Cataract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
    • Authors: Mahendranath Gondi; Shaik Akbar Basha, Paramahans V. Salimath, Ummiti J.S. Prasada Rao
      Abstract: Cataract is a secondary complication of diabetes and consumption of diet rich in antioxidants and dietary fiber exerts beneficial effects. The effect of mango peel on delay in progression of cataract was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diets supplemented with mango peel at 5 and 10% levels ameliorated cataract formation. On treatment of diabetic rats with peel for 16 weeks, lens soluble protein content, glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased by 1.5–2.5 fold while lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels as well as advanced glycation end products formation in lens proteins of diabetic rats were significantly decreased. Mango peel supplementation also inhibited polyol pathway enzyme activities in diabetic rats. Thus, mango peel was effective against development of diabetic cataract mainly through augmentation of antioxidant levels, inhibition of polyol pathway enzymes and AGEs formation in lens of diabetic rats.Practical ApplicationsOxidative damage to the constituents of eye lens is considered to be the major mechanism for development of various types of cataract and intake of food rich in antioxidants has been reported to delay progression of cataract. Mango peel is a by-product of mango pulp processing industry and is rich in antioxidants and exhibits antidiabetic properties. This study found that mango peel supplemented diet delayed the progression of diabetic cataract formation. Thus, mango peel can be supplemented in foods for management of diabetes and its complications.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:43.437327-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12300
  • α-Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Different Ipomoea
           aquatica Cultivars and LC–MS/MS Profiling of the Active Cultivar
    • Authors: Umar Lawal; Sze Wei Leong, Khozirah Shaari, Intan Safinar Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas
      Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracted using water and methanol at various concentrations on the total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Three I. aquatica cultivars were used in this study including the upland type with narrow leaves (K-11), low-land aquatic types with broader shaped leaves (K-25), and bamboo-shaped leaves (K-88). The results revealed that 70% methanol extract of K-11 showed higher total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities than the other two cultivars. The phytochemical constituents in the active extract K-11 were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass spectroscopy. Eighteen compounds were detected of which 13 were tentatively identified as quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3,7-di-O-glucoside, nomilinic acid glucoside, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside and 3,4,5-tricaffeolquinic acid, fatty acid together with quercetin, and tricaffeoylquinic acid derivatives.Practical ApplicationsAntioxidants protect the human body against infections and degenerative diseases by inhibiting and scavenging free radicals. The present study showed that all methanol extracts of I. aquatica are rich in polyphenols in which 70% methanol extract showed highest in vitro antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Knowledge about the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of I. aquatica will promote its usage as a functional food, and it can be utilized as an antioxidant sources in food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:05:35.878426-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12303
  • Geographical and Environmental Variation in Chemical Constituents and
           Antioxidant Properties in Roscoea procera Wall
    • Authors: Sandeep Rawat; Indra D. Bhatt, Ranbeer S. Rawal, Shyamal K. Nandi
      Abstract: Roscoea procera is an important Himalayan medicinal plant known for its food and medicinal potential due to antioxidant activity. Among its wild populations, total phenolic and flavonoid content in the rhizomes varied significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-29T02:30:32.177243-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12302
  • Preliminary Characterization of Phenolic Acid Composition and
           Hepatoprotective Effect of Stachys pumila
    • Authors: Remziye Aysun Kepekçi; Sait Polat, Gülfidan Çoşkun, Ahmet Çelik, A. Sarper Bozkurt, Önder Yumrutaş, Mustafa Pehlivan
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate phenolic acid composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Stachys pumila extract (SPE) against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity. Pretreatment of rats with SPE significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:40:39.784004-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12286
  • Enzymatic Water Extraction of Polysaccharides from Epimedium brevicornu
           and Their Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect Against DNA Damage
    • Authors: Juan Yang; Hua-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Yan Cao, Xiao-Hua Yang, Feng-Zhong Wang, Qiang Guo, Chen-Qian Sun
      Abstract: A protocol of enzymatic water extraction was developed to isolate antiradical and DNA damage inhibitory polysaccharides from Epimedium brevicornu (EbP) using single factor experiments and orthogonal test for the first time. Compared to conventinal heating extraction, enzymatic water extraction dramatically enhanced extraction yield, shortened extraction duration, reduced extractant consumption and decreased extraction temperature. Structural features of EbP were investigated by infrared spectroscopy. And some other physicochemical properties like solubility of EbP were identified. EbP obtained by enzymatic water extraction exhibited ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS+• radicals. Consistent with their free radical-scavenging activities, Epimedium polysaccharides possessed protective effect against plasmid DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. In summary, enzymatic water extraction seems to be a promising technique for separating Epimedium polysaccharides, which might act as a natural antioxidant or a chemopreventive agent due to their free radical-scavenging capacity and protective activity against DNA damage caused by oxidative stress.Practical ApplicationsPolysaccharides are considered one of the most important bioactive constituents in the famous edible medicinal plant, Epimedium brevicornu. In the present study, enzymatic water extraction of polysaccharides from Epimedium brevicornu was optimized for further large-scale industrial processing for the first time. Epimedium polysaccharides obtained by enzymatic water extraction have proved to possess antioxidant and DNA damage inhibitory activities, which show great potential for becoming a nutraceutical in healthy foods or even a phytopharmaceutical.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T20:30:38.681359-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12298
  • Characterization and Antibacterial Mode of Action of Lactic Acid Bacterium
           Leuconostoc mesenteroides HJ69 from Kimchi
    • Authors: Vivek K. Bajpai; Irfan Ahmad Rather, Rajib Majumder, Fanar Hamad Alshammari, Gyeong-Jun Nam, Yong-Ha Park
      Abstract: This study characterized a lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides HJ69 at biochemical and molecular level, isolate from traditional Korean fermented food Kimchi. Cell free supernatant (CFS) of L. mesenteroides HJ69 exhibited significant (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T02:00:29.250985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12290
  • Antifungal Activity of Trans-2-Hexenal Against Penicillium cyclopium by a
           Membrane Damage Mechanism
    • Authors: Jihong Zhang; Hu Tian, Helong Sun, Xianyou Wang
      Abstract: The study investigated the antifungal activity and potential antifungal mechanisms of volatile compounds (i.e., E-2-hexenal) against Penicillium cyclopium, one of the main tomato postharvest pathogens, which was obtained and purified from postharvest tomato surface. Experimental data suggested that the volatile compound exhibited strong antifungal activity against the targeted pathogens, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 160 μL/L and 320μL/L for E-2-hexenal, respectively. The membrane permeability of the P. cyclopium increased with increasing concentrations of E-2-hexenal, as evidenced by cell constituent release, leakage of potassium ions, and extracellular conductivity. Moreover, E-2-hexenal could induce a decrease in total lipid content and extracellular pH. These results suggest that the anti-fungal activity of E-2-hexenal against P. cyclopium can be attributed to the disruption of the cell membrane integrity, the increase of membrane permeability and the leakage of cell components.Practical ApplicationsPenicillium cyclopium was isolated from the surface of tomato fruits after harvest. E-2-hexenal had an inhibitory effect on the hyphae and spores of P. cyclopium. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were determined by using different concentrations of E-2-hexenal against P. cyclopium. The study results indicate that the antifungal activity of E-2-hexenal against P. cyclopium can be attributed to the disruption of the cell membrane integrity, the increase of membrane permeability and the leakage of cell components. The study results provided a reference for extending the storage of tomato fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T01:45:33.96612-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12289
  • Biological Activity and Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Teucrium
           orientale Var. glabrescens by SPME and GC-FID/MS
    • Authors: Sermet Yildirmiş; Rezzan Aliyazicioglu, Ozan Emre Eyupoglu, Ufuk Ozgen, Sengul Alpay Karaoglu
      Abstract: This study describes the constituents of phenolic acids, volatile components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens. Antioxidant activity of methanolic and aquous extracts were examined by three different methods, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The phenolic constituents were also determined by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Solid phase microextraction of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Dedector/Mass Spectromerty, Solid-Phase Microextraction (GC-FID/MS, SPME). The antimicrobial activity was studied by agar diffusion method. Extracts showed strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and contained large amounts of antioxidant compounds. Rosmarinic acid, p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were detected in methanolic extract of plant. Aquous extract was especially effective against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The main chemical classes identified consisted of aldehydes (32.5%), hydrocarbons (29.8%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.8%). Common volatile components of plant detected included nonanal, thuja-2,4 (10)-diene and tetracosane.Practical ApplicationsMedicinal plants are natural resources used in the treatment of various ailments. Teucrium species have been widely used in folk medicine as a remedy for gastritis, parasitic worms, colds, digestive ulcers, etc. Teucrium species are the subject of growing interest because of their biological properties. Although studies on screening the antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity of the Teucrium species have been done densely, studies on phenolic compounds of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens are very limited. Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens extracts studied proved to be a good source of antioxidants, antimicrobial agents and volatile components that might serve to protect health and fight against several diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T01:45:28.83406-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12284
  • Studies on the Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Potentials of Cirsium
           arvense subsp. vestitum
    • Authors: Ibrahim Demirtas; Ali Riza Tufekci, Ayse Sahin Yaglioglu, Mahfuz Elmastas
      Abstract: The antioxidant (DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging and FRAP) and antiproliferative activities against Vero cells (african green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) of Cirsium arvense (CA) of all parts [root (Kinghorn et al. 2004), stem (CAS), flower (CAF) and leaves] and isolated compounds were investigated in vitro. CAR was shown to have the highest antiproliferative activity against HeLa and C6 cell lines as compared to other parts. A flavon glucoside (linarin), a steroid glucoside (daucosterin), a steroid (stigmasterol) and a new benzymidazole molecule (E−6-(3-(5,6-dimethoxy-1H-benzo[d] imidazol-2-yl)allyloxy)−5-(hydroxymethyl)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,3,4-triol) were isolated from the CAR. The structures of these molecules were determined by the 13C (carbon) and 1H (proton)- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. CAR for C6 cell line, CAS for HeLa and Vero cell line were observed the highest antiproliferative activity. In addition, CAR showed the stronger DPPH activity than α-tocopherol and BHT at high concentrations. The FRAP and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of CAR (Fr-7) were found to be higher than BHT.Practical ApplicationsCirsium species are considered as agricultural weed among villagers in Turkey and are used as alternative medicinal plant for years. Studies have shown that these species are rich with regard to bioactive seconder metabolites. There is no phytochemical/bioactivity study about this plant until now. Our findings showed that the extracts of this plant possessed potent antioxidant activities. Four compounds, one of which is a new one to literature, were isolated and characterized. Finally, Cirsium arvense, being considered as an invader plant in agricultural fields, can be evaluated as a good source of antioxidant products.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T01:51:41.453725-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12299
  • Cognitive Enhancing and Antioxidative Potentials of Velvet Beans (Mucuna
           pruriens) and Horseradish (Moringa oleifera) Seeds Extracts: A Comparative
    • Authors: Stephen A. Adefegha; Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I. Oyeleye, Felix A. Dada, Isaac Ejakpovi, Aline A. Boligon
      Abstract: Velvet beans and Horseradish seeds are widely consumed as food, and use in folklore for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction although with limited information on their mechanisms of action. This study investigated and compared the effects of aqueous extracts of these seeds on the cholinergic [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] and monoaminergic [monoamine oxidase (MAO)] enzymes and FeSO4-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) in isolated rat brain homogenate. Results revealed that both extracts inhibited AChE, BChE, MAO and TBARS in a dose-dependent manner. However, Horseradish seeds extract had higher AChE, BChE and MAO inhibitory abilities with IC50 values of 0.27, 0.18 and 0.14 mg/mL, respectively, relatively to Velvet beans (AChE = 0.39; BChE = 0.39; MAO = 0.29 mg/mL) extract but displayed lower TBARS inhibitory ability. These biological properties of the seeds explain possible mechanisms for their neuroprotective abilities. However, Horseradish seeds showed better promising potentials than Velvet beans seeds.Practical ApplicationEdible seeds are well known for their various health benefits due to their bioactivity. The findings from this study will add valuable preliminary information regarding the potential use of Velvet beans seeds and Horseradish seeds as cheap, natural, alternative and/or complementary sources of antioxidative and neuroprotective agents. The findings will provide scientific evidence on health advantages of these seeds that might result from their consumption; thereby enabling consumers and patients with neurodegeneration to make better choices.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T02:50:42.095622-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12292
  • Evaluation of Brans of Different Rice Varieties for their Antioxidative
           and Antihyperglycemic Potentials
    • Authors: Tanko Abubakar; Nazrim Marikkar, Abubakar Salleh, Azrina Azlan, Make Jivan
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic potentials of bran extracts of seven traditional rice varieties against those of three commercial varieties. The total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities, the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of the rice bran extracts were studied in vitro using relevant assays. The results showed that the rice bran extracts of traditional varieties namely, Beras merah and Beras hitam displayed significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibition (96.56 and 81.52%) and α-amylase inhibition (88.44 and 84.27%) than the other varieties. Being high in polyphenolic content, they tended to display better anti-oxidant capacities than the commercial varieties. Hence, brans of traditional rice varieties such Beras merah and Beras hitam could be potentially useful as raw materials for nutritional supplements and natural anti-diabetic agents.Practical ApplicationThe findings of this study highlighted the anti-oxidative, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of some rice brans obtained from Malaysian rice varieties. Since the traditional rice varieties (Beras Merah and Beras Hitam) exhibit significantly higher α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, they could be harnessed as raw materials for preparation of ingredients for pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals intended for diabetes management. The findings might give impetus to the Malaysian paddy industry to expand cultivation of Beras Merah and Beras Hitam to produce more bran for value added product formulations for people with special dietary requirements.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T02:50:27.520766-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12295
  • Effect of High Intensity Ultrasound on the Gel and Structural Properties
           of Ctenopharyngodon idellus Myofibrillar Protein
    • Authors: Qing-Hui Wen; Zong-Cai Tu, Lu Zhang, Hui Wang, Hai-Xia Chang
      Abstract: Effect of ultrasound (US) treatment at 0–800 W on the gel properties of Ctenopharyngodon idellus myofibrillar protein (MP) was first evaluated by analyzing the textural properties, water-holding capacity (WHC) and whiteness. Particle size, fluorescence spectra, free sulfhydryl (SH) groups and microstructure were measured to investigate the structure changes. The MP gel treated with US at 600 W gave the best gel properties, including the highest gel strength, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, WHC and whiteness. Compared with untreated gel, the gel network structure of MP gel treated by US was also more denser and uniform. The reduced particle size, narrowed particle distribution, decreased free SH content and intrinsic fluorescence, as well as improved surface hydrophobicity caused by US treatment indicated the unfolding and disaggragation of MP, which could also be the possible mechanism of improved gel properties.Practical ApplicationsThe gelation characteristics of myofibrillar protein (MP) are largely responsible for the textural and functional properties of fish products, and are especially important for the quality of surimi. The poor gel properties of Ctenopharyngodon idellus MP largely limited its application in food industry. This research found that high intensity US at 200–800 W, especially at 600 W, could greatly improve the gel properties of C. idellus MP, which can provide a promising alternative to modify the gel properties of MP, and promote the application of C. idellus MP in food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T03:50:27.610236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12288
  • Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells by Sri Lankan Endemic
           Mango (Mangifera zeylanica) Fruit Peel through Oxidative Stress and
           Analysis of its Phytochemical Constituents
    • Authors: Meran Keshawa Ediriweera; Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon, Ira Thabrew, E. Dilip De Silva
      Abstract: In this study, in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the organic extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Mangifera zeylanica fruit peel and flesh on estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 cancer cells were examined. Chloroform extract of the peel was found to be cytotoxic to cancer cells (IC50 78.46 ± 1.7 µg/mL) while none of the flesh extracts were cytotoxic. Caspase 7 activity was increased and DNA fragmentation as well as morphological features of apoptosis shown by acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Hoechst (33258) staining occurred in response to the chloroform extract of the peel. Peel chloroform extract also increased production of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase and depleted glutathione levels. The overall results of our study suggest that the peel chloroform extract can induce breast cancer cell apoptosis, perhaps by activation of an oxidative stress mechanism.Practical ApplicationsMangifera zeylanica (Sri Lankan endemic mango) is a plant endemic to Sri Lanka with edible fruits. Traditional Ayurvedic practitioners have used the bark of this plant for the treatment of some cancers. In the present study, the ability of Sri Lankan endemic mango fruit peel and flesh to inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer was explored. Only the chloroform extract of the fruit peel exhibited the capacity to mediate apoptosis via oxidative stress mechanism and this activity appeared to be due to the presence of some bio-active phytochemicals in the peel. This preliminary observation provides a rationale for use of dried M. zeylanica fruit peel as a cheap anticancer dietary supplement in Sri Lanka.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T03:50:23.903098-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12294
  • Catalytic and Operational Stability of Acidic Proteases from Monterey
           Sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) Immobilized on a Partially Deacetylated
           Chitin Support
    • Authors: Jesus Aaron Salazar-Leyva; Jaime Lizardi-Mendoza, Juan Carlos Ramirez-Suarez, Maria Elena Lugo-Sanchez, Elisa Miriam Valenzuela-Soto, Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer, Francisco Javier Castillo-Yañez, Ramon Pacheco-Aguilar
      Abstract: Recovery of valuable compounds from by-products generated from seafood processing represents an opportunity to produce value-added products. Sardine acidic proteases were immobilized on partially deacetylated chitin through ionic linkages, using sodium tripolyphosphate as a support activating agent. Maximal enzyme activities of free and immobilized proteases were detected at pH 2, at which the immobilized form had higher stability than the free enzymes. Optimum temperatures for free and immobilized proteases were 40 and 50C, respectively, while thermal stability of immobilized proteases was greater than that of free proteases. Reusability studies showed that after a second catalytic cycle, the immobilized enzyme maintained about 40% of the initial activity. The immobilization process enhanced the long term storage stability of sardine proteases compared to free enzymes. Results suggest that the immobilized enzyme could be used as a biotechnological aid for food processing when low pH and temperature around 50C are needed.Practical ApplicationsFish waste constitutes a serious environmental problem due to high disposal costs. Besides, this waste is commonly discarded or used for low value processes. Therefore, this study proposes the immobilization of sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) acidic proteases from fish viscera waste, on a partially deacetylated chitin support extracted from shrimp (Penaeus spp.) head. This research suggests that seafood protease immobilization onto chitinous supports presents an opportunity to improve the stability of these enzymes and consequently enhance potential application of these valuable biocatalysts as biotechnological aid, mainly for food processing and other value added products.
      PubDate: 2016-05-27T21:50:28.512349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12287
  • HPLC Analysis of Twelve Compounds from Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb and their
           Structural Elucidation
    • Authors: Wugedunqiqige Bao; Qinghu Wang, Jingjing Han, Narenchaoketu Han
      Abstract: An investigation of ethyl acetate extracts from Artemisa sacrorum Ledeb (A. sacrorum) has led to the isolation of two new flavonoids together with 10 known compounds. At the same time, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of the 12 compounds in A. sacrorum. The separation by gradient elution was performed on Hypersil ODS-2 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 30C with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase, and monitored by absorbance at 261 nm. The recovery of the method is from 93.33 to 98.67%, and linearity (r > 0.9992) was obtained for 12 compounds. A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values less than 2.0%) were also achieved. This assay was successfully applied to the determination of 12 compounds in 10 samples.Practical ApplicationsThe antitumor effects of A. sacrorum have been well known in folk medicine, which suggesting that extracted components from A. sacrorum could potentially treat tumor disease. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural compounds diversity in A. sacrorum is of great importance to evaluate their antitumor effects.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18T03:41:15.067073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12291
  • Antimicrobial Impact for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 and
           Enterococcus faecium A15 Isolated from Some Traditional Egyptian Dairy
           Products on Some Pathogenic Bacteria
    • Authors: Shady El-Ghaish; Mohamed Khalifa, Ahmed Elmahdy
      Abstract: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 and Enterococcus faecium A15 had antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes EGDEe 107776. Bacteriocins produced from isolated strains are stable between pH 5 and 8 and stable also until 100C for 10 min. The amount of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 reached to the maximum (2560 AU/mL) at the end of logarithmic phase while Enterococcus faecium A15 was observed in logarithmic phase. PCR results revealed the presence of nisin Z structural gene in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 and enterocin B gene for Enterococcus faecium A15. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 was free from genes of asa1, gelE, espfm, cylA, efaAfs. Otherwise, Enterococcus faecium A15 did not contain an asal, espfm and cylA genes. Tested strains were sensitive to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamycin. Tested strains were not able to hydrolyze red blood cells.Practical ApplicationsNowadays, the addition of bacteriocins and/or bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as natural food preservatives to food products (i.e. cheese and yoghurt) has been considered with the aim of increasing the food safety of these products. Bacteriocins have successfully been used to control Listeria monocytogenes. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A15 could be used as starter culture or co-culture in food system for preventing the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and increasing the safety and shelf-life of dairy products. Enterococcus faecium A15 was able to produce gelatinase but not able to hydrolyze red blood cells. On the other hand, the bacteriocin produced from Enterococcus faecium A15 may find application as bio-preservatives for increasing the shelf-life of Egyptian Dairy products.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18T03:36:11.876012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12279
  • Antioxidant Activity and α-Amylase Inhibitory Effect of Polyphenolic-Rich
           Extract from Origanum Glandulosum Desf
    • Authors: Afef Béjaoui; Abdennacer Boulila, Adnen Sanaa, Mohamed Boussaid, Xavier Fernandez
      Abstract: The polyphenolic-rich extract of Tunisian Origanum glandulosum Desf. was investigated for its phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and potential to contribute to the dietary management of type II diabetes. By mean of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) 16 phenolics were characterized. The major detected compounds are caffeic acid, luteloin glucoside, xanthomicrol and carvacrol. The polyphenolic-rich extract presented a notable antioxidant activity similar to that of the synthetic antioxidant Trolox. It was found to inhibit, in a concentration dependent manner, the α-amylase activity with an IC50 value (8.22 mg/mL) comparable to that of Acarbose (6.12 mg/mL).Overall, our findings suggest that O. glandulosum could be considered as a valuable source of high-value phytochemicals with pharmaceutical and functional food additive applications.Practical ApplicationsOriganum glandulosum Desf., a North African endemic species, is one of the most used plants in folk medicine against whooping cough, fever, bronchitis and diabetes. In the present work, the ability of O. glandulosum to inhibit pancreatic α-amylase in vitro as well as to act as antioxidant food was investigated. The results suggest that O. glandulosum could be considered as a valuable source of phytochemicals with a potent α-amylase inhibition property and antioxidant capacity. Further animal and clinical studies were needed to confirm the potential use of O. glandulosum for the management of type II diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T22:02:36.454705-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12271
  • Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from
           an Edible Seaweed Undaria Pinnatifida
    • Authors: Jayanta Kumar Patra; Se-Weon Lee, Jae Gyu Park, Kwang-Hyun Baek
      Abstract: This study was conducted to extract essential oil from an edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, and determine its chemical constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis of the U. pinnatifida essential oil (UPEO) revealed 26 volatile compounds comprising a total of 97.03%. Fatty acids such as tetradecanoic acid (31.32%) and hexadecanoic acid (22.39%) were present in the highest amount, followed by 3-hexen-1-ol (5.67%), erythritol (4.73%), 4-imidazolidinone (4.40%) and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (4.37%). UPEO displayed potent antibacterial activity (9.5–11.0 mm inhibition zone), an MIC of 12.5–25.0 mg/mL and an MBC of 25.0 mg/mL. UPEO also exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 85.54 µg/mL), reducing power (IC0.5 178.82 µg/mL) and superoxide radical scavenging (IC50 260.89 µg/mL) potential. Taken together, these results indicate that UPEO could be an economical and safe resource for natural antioxidant and antibacterial compounds that can be utilized in food processing, cosmetics and pharmaceutical sectors.Practical ApplicationsSeaweeds are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds with various medicinal properties. The essential oils extracted from an edible seaweed, U. pinnatifida, could serve as an alternative source of natural antioxidant compounds with the potential for use as food additives and in food preservation and cosmetics. Use of this compound could minimize the use of synthetic antioxidant compounds that trigger health hazards. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds present in the UPEO could serve as a source of natural antibiotics against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T05:56:05.110408-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12278
  • Protective Effect of Astaxanthin on Primary Retinal Cells of the Gerbil
           Psammomys Obesus Cultured in Diabetic Milieu
    • Authors: Basma Baccouche; Sihem Mbarek, Ahmed Dellaa, Imane Hammoum, Concetta M. Messina, Andrea Santulli, Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chekir
      Abstract: Astaxanthin is a major marine carotenoid with powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The in vitro protective effect of astaxanthin in adult retinal cells of the type-2 diabetic model Psammomys obesus in hyperglycemic conditions was investigated. Primary retinal cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) or high concentrations of glucose (25 and 40 mM) for 5 days and treated with 1–20 µM astaxanthin for the last 48 h of culturing. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and cell viability were assessed using MTT test and trypan blue exclusion dye. Retinal cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that mitochondrial function increased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T01:15:58.911432-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12274
  • Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Properties and Hypoglycemic Effect of
           Chaya (Cnidoscolus Chayamansa) in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats
    • Authors: Minerva Ramos-Gomez; Marely G. Figueroa-Pérez, Horacio Guzman-Maldonado, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Sandra Mendoza, Teódulo Quezada-Tristán, Rosalia Reynoso-Camacho
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aqueous chaya extract (Cnidoscolus spp.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Compounds identified and quantified included flavonoids and phenolic acids, in addition to saponins and alkaloids, among others. Several new phenolic compounds (coutaric, vanillic, and rosmarinic acids, and hesperidin), saponins (phytolaccagenic and oleanolic acids, and hederagenin derivatives) and alkaloids (choline, trigonelline, and sitsirikine), were identified. In vivo studies showed that a 4-week chaya extract treatment (2% w/v) produced hypoglycemic effects not related with insulin secretion or with the inhibition of starch digestive enzymes, rather with a decrease in glucose absorption. Chaya extract was also helpful in reducing hyperlipidemia, which appears not to be related to pancreatic lipase inhibition. Nevertheless, the increase in urinary microalbumin concentration and the diuretic effect suggests possible alterations in renal function after long-term intake of aqueous chaya extract.Practical ApplicationsChaya infusions are widely used for diabetes control and this study confirmed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. In addition, new compounds were identified. Therefore, chaya extract can potentially be used to develop functional beverages.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T00:17:01.53661-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12281
  • Apium Graveolens Extract Attenuates Adjuvant Induced Arthritis by Reducing
           Oxidative Stress
    • Authors: Nutjanat Choosri; Supita Tanasawet, Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Wanida Sukketsiri
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an Apium graveolens extract (AGE) on the arthritis in rats induced using Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA into the subplantar of the left hind paws. The AGE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and prednisone 10 mg/kg were given orally at day 5 to day 28 after induction. Treatment of AGE significantly attenuated the severity of CFA-induced arthritis and decreased the arthritis score, paw and ankle thickness. Any histopathological changes were noted. The plasma levels of total peroxide (TP) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were significantly decreased by oral administration of AGE as well as the total antioxidant status (TAS) was significantly increased. Furthermore, oral administrations of AGE remarkably attenuated the increased nitric oxide (NO) levels after induction as was also the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma of CFA-induced arthritic rats.Practical ApplicationsApium graveolens Linn has been consumed as food and traditionally used for inflammatory diseases, gout and rheumatic condition. However, there is no report for pharmacological activity of A. graveolens in the treatment of arthritis. Our results indicate that A. graveolens could alleviate CFA-induced arthritis in rats by decreasing the level of TP, OSI, NO and MPO activity as well as by increasing the level of TAS. Insights from our study may provide the beneficial uses of A. graveolens as a functional food and nutraceutical development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T20:50:43.441975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12276
  • Blends of Cold Pressed Black Cumin Oil and Sunflower Oil with Improved
           Stability: A Study Based on Changes in the Levels of Volatiles,
           Tocopherols and Thymoquinone during Accelerated Oxidation Conditions
    • Authors: Mustafa Kiralan; Merve Ulaş, Ayşegül Özaydin, Necla Özdemır, Gülcan Özkan, Alı Bayrak, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
      Abstract: Blends (5%, 10% and 20%, w/w) of cold-pressed black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil (BCO) with sunflower oil (SO) were formulated. Oxidative stability (OxS) of SO and blends during storage at thermal accelerated oxidation conditions including Rancimat method (110C) and Schaal oven test (60C) was studied. Progression of oxidation was followed by measuring peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT). Changes in the volatile oxidation compounds, thymoquinone and tocopherols levels of oils and blends during thermal oxidation were also recorded. Blending did not affect significantly the fatty acids profile of blends wherein linoleic and oleic acids were the main constituents. Inverse relationships were noted between PV and OxS at termination of storage. Levels of CD and CT in SO and blends increased with increase in time. Nine volatile oxidation compounds including hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, 2-heptanone, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were identified using the headspace/solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS/SPME-GC/MS). Hexanal and (E)-2-heptenal were predominant identified compounds wherein these compounds increased during oxidation at 60C. Stability of blends was better than SO, most likely due to changes in the levels of thymoquinone and tocopherols’ found in BCO.Practical ApplicationBlending of edible oils have emerged as an economical way of improving organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics of vegetable oils besides enhancement the oxidative stability. Among new sources of edible oils with high levels of bioactive compounds, cold pressed black cumin oil (BCO) is of interest and may play a role in human health. At different levels of blending SO with BCO, the stability of sunflower oil (SO) was enhanced. The optimal level of BCO enrichment will depend on the actual food application. It is expected that commercial exploitation of BCO:SO blends with affordable cost for consumers will be soon realized.
      PubDate: 2016-04-17T20:20:42.170293-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12272
  • Bacillus Subtilis-Fermented Red Bean (Red Bean Natto) Reduces
           Hyperlipidemia Levels in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet
    • Authors: Nai-Nu Lin; Yen-Feng Lee, Yi-Jen Chi, Ming-Fu Wang, Yin-Ching Chan, Kung-Chi Chan, Ying-Ju Chen, Yung-Tsung Chiu
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 50% red beans ethanol natto extracts fermented by Bacillus subtilis on hyperlipidemia in hamsters. Forty male hamsters were randomly assigned to normal control, high-fat control, and high-fat with RBNE (red beans natto extracts) (200 and 1000 mg/kg BW) groups. RBNE treatment for 8 weeks significantly decreased the body and visceral fat weight in hamsters. Compared to the high-fat diet group, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), total triacylglycerol (TAG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations as well as atherogenic index of plasma AIP [Log(TAG/HDL-C)] were significantly lower in the RBNE-fed group. The consumption of RBNE significantly reduced the liver contents of TC, esterified cholesterol (CE) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and increased a regulator of lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha). Furthermore, the circulating level of irisin was decreased.Practical ApplicationThe oral administration of Bacillus subtilis-fermented red bean natto extract (RBNE), a popular Asian dessert, effectively moderated the metabolism of lipids and positively affected the blood and liver profiles of hamsters fed with a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet. Importantly, RBNE significantly suppressed the increase in visceral fat mass. Additionally, RBNE appears to protect the liver and alleviate the magnitude of fatty liver development. RBNE also upregulated PPAR-alpha protein expression in the liver, suggesting that supplementation may improve lipid metabolism in part through the beta-oxidation of lipids and promotion of lipid secretion. Furthermore, RBNE may ameliorate hyperlipidemia involving irisin, a newly identified hormone, in hamsters fed a cholesterol- and lipid-enriched diet. In conclusion, RBNE with high hypocholesterolemic activities may be helpful for patients with atherosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T00:11:25.936179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12264
  • Optimization Study in Extracting Anti-Oxidative and Α-Amylase Inhibitor
           Peptides from Cumin Seeds (Cuminum Cyminum)
    • Authors: Hwee-Leng Siow; Chee-Yuen Gan
      Abstract: Bioactive peptide with DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power and α-amylase inhibition properties were successfully extracted from cumin seed using protamex. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction condition. The effects of temperature (X1: 30–50C), time (X2: 1–2 h) and S/E ratio (X3: 20–40 (w/w)) were investigated using the Box-behnken design. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and quadratic models were found to be significant for all responses. Three-dimensional response surfaces plotted and the optimum condition was determined as follows: X1 = 42.6C, X2 = 1.83 h and X3 = 20 (w/w). Low molecular mass of peptides (2.0–28.5 kDa) were produced in this condition and the pre-diluted extract to a dilution factor of 20 gave %DPPHsc of 34.67% and reducing power of 3.67 mM while the non-diluted extract exhibited α-amylase inhibition activity of 22.67%. A close agreement was found between the predicted and experimental values.Practical ApplicationsThis study highlights that bioactive peptides derived from cumin seed have demonstrated antioxidative and antidiabetic activities, offering health promoting effect beyond its basic nutritional functions. Extraction of these bioactive peptides with the best yield and the highest bioactivity offer a great potential in functional food or nutraceutical applications. The application of response surface methodology is useful to optimize the extraction parameters for increase extraction efficiency. This would make it possible to improve the technological processes for producing high content of bioactive peptides with less cost and shorter time. Knowledge generated in this study will be beneficial in developing strategies to explore bioactive peptides from natural sources with food and pharmaceutical applications.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T00:05:50.116207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12280
  • The Inhibitory Effects of Yixing Black Tea Extracts on A-Glucosidase
    • Authors: Wenxing Hao; Miao Wang, Mengxian Lv
      Abstract: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the body's metabolic processes and are commonly used for the treatment of type II diabetes. This study investigated the effects of various extracts from black tea on α-glucosidase. The black tea extracts strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity. The half inhibition rate (IC50) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), n-butyl alcohol extract (NBAE) and water extract (WE) produced by ethanol extraction were 3.89, 2.92 and 78.28 μg/mL, respectively, and the IC50 values of the extracts produced by water extraction were 8.19, 4.50 and 6.98 μg/mL. These extracts had much better inhibitory effects than acarbose (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). The inhibitory kinetics of the EAE and NBAE from ethanol extraction and WE from water extraction on α-glucosidase were also studied. The results showed that NBAE had a noncompetitive inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase whereas EAE and WE had a mixed inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase.Practical ApplicationsTea has been widely consumed in China as a kind of traditional drink, and tea has many beneficial health functions, however, the application of tea products in the treatment of diseases is not widely used. The results showed that the extracts of Yixing black tea have a strong inhibition on α-glucosidase, more effective than acarbose, without side effects. Therefore, the extracts of Yixing black tea maybe developed as functional food additives in dietary therapy or a potential therapeutic agent in controlling and preventing type II diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T04:15:40.641401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12269
  • Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Common Edible
           Cephalopods and their Antioxidative Effects using different in vitro
    • Authors: Kajal Chakraborty; Minju Joy, Vamshi Krishna Raola, Fasina Makkar
      Abstract: Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of ethyl acetate-methanol (EtOAc-MeOH) extract of cephalopods, Amphioctopus marginatus, Uroteuthis duvaucelii, Sepia pharaonis, Sepiella inermis and Cistopus indicus were evaluated using different in vitro systems. EtOAc-MeOH fractions of S. inermis, A. marinates and C. indicus showed greater ferrous ion chelating ability (IC90 5.01–5.8 mg/mL), and were effective in neutralizing the ABTS (IC90 3.5–4.01 mg/mL), and DPPH radicals (IC90 4.69–5.8 mg/mL). The utilities of deconvolated 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy for analyzing the signature peaks and abundance of bioactive functional groups in the extracts of cephalopods were illustrated. The EtOAc-MeOH extract derived from S. inermis showed greater angiotensin-converting enzyme-I (ACE-I) inhibitory activity (IC90 0.45 mg/mL) than other cephalopods (IC90 > 0.50 mg/mL). A significant colinearity was found between the electronegative groups present in the downfield position of NMR spectra vis-à-vis antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory activities of EtOAc-MeOH extracts from C. indicus and S. inermis.Practical ApplicationsThe edible cephalopod species are largely accessible in the coastal areas of India and exhibited a number of potential bioactivities against various diseases caused by free radical formation that can cause oxidative stress. This study revealed the bioactive potential of cephalopods, particularly Sepiella inermis, Amphioctopus marginatus and Cystopus indicus as potential angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The utilities of nuclear magnetic resonance-based spectroscopic tools for analyzing the relative abundance of the functional groups, which were responsible for bioactivities present in the ethyl acetate-methanol extracts of cephalopod species have been illustrated. The results from the present study will be helpful to develop new generation leads as nutraceuticals from the cephalopod species and in combating oxidative stress induced hypertensive disorders.
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T21:26:03.714508-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12268
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