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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 300 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (218 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
TECA : Tecnologia i Ciència dels Aliments     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 27]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from
           an Edible Seaweed Undaria Pinnatifida
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to extract essential oil from an edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, and determine its chemical constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis of the U. pinnatifida essential oil (UPEO) revealed 26 volatile compounds comprising a total of 97.03%. Fatty acids such as tetradecanoic acid (31.32%) and hexadecanoic acid (22.39%) were present in the highest amount, followed by 3‐hexen‐1‐ol (5.67%), erythritol (4.73%), 4‐imidazolidinone (4.40%) and (9Z)‐hexadec‐9‐enoic acid (4.37%). UPEO displayed potent antibacterial activity (9.5–11.0 mm inhibition zone), an MIC of 12.5–25.0 mg/mL and an MBC of 25.0 mg/mL. UPEO also exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 85.54 µg/mL), reducing power (IC0.5 178.82 µg/mL) and superoxide radical scavenging (IC50 260.89 µg/mL) potential. Taken together, these results indicate that UPEO could be an economical and safe resource for natural antioxidant and antibacterial compounds that can be utilized in food processing, cosmetics and pharmaceutical sectors. Practical Applications Seaweeds are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds with various medicinal properties. The essential oils extracted from an edible seaweed, U. pinnatifida, could serve as an alternative source of natural antioxidant compounds with the potential for use as food additives and in food preservation and cosmetics. Use of this compound could minimize the use of synthetic antioxidant compounds that trigger health hazards. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds present in the UPEO could serve as a source of natural antibiotics against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T05:56:05.110408-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12278
       
  • Phenolic Acid and Flavonoid Composition of Malaysian Honeys
    • Authors: Mohammed Moniruzzaman; Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Siew Hua Gan
      Abstract: In the present study, the phenolic acid and flavonoid composition of eight different honeys (acacia, pineapple, gelam, longan, borneo, rubber tree, sourwood and tualang honeys) originating from different regions of Malaysia are reported. Solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for their identification and quantification. A total of thirteen different phenolic compounds consisting of seven flavonoids and six phenolic acids were investigated. Among these phenolic compounds, five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, coniferic, benzoic and trans‐cinnamic acids) and five flavonoids (catechin, myricetin, naringenin, hesperetin and kaempferol) were detected in the investigated honeys. Longan and tualang honeys contained the highest number (n = 7 for each) of phenolic compounds, while only five phenolic compounds were detected in acacia, borneo and rubber tree honeys. Among the phenolic acids, benzoic acid was the most abundant (75%) followed by caffeic acid, catechin, myricetin, gallic acid and naringenin. The mean concentrations of caffeic, gallic and benzoic acids as well as catechin in the analyzed Malaysian honeys were 2.49, 0.81, 0.64 and 0.61 mg/kg, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that the investigated Malaysian honeys are a good source of different types of phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are important antioxidants. Practical Applications The study provides an overview on phenolic and flavonoid composition of several types of Malaysian honeys. The phenolic composition of some honeys from Malaysia is reported for the first time in this study. The data can be useful for future in vivo studies that involve evaluation of honey's medicinal properties and provide an insight into the type of honey in Malaysia that contains high antioxidant properties. In addition, the sample preparation technique (solid phase extraction) used in this study can provide a basis for the extraction of similar phenolic compounds in other types of honey.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T05:55:44.269201-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12282
       
  • Protective Effect of Astaxanthin on Primary Retinal Cells of the Gerbil
           Psammomys Obesus Cultured in Diabetic Milieu
    • Abstract: Astaxanthin is a major marine carotenoid with powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The in vitro protective effect of astaxanthin in adult retinal cells of the type‐2 diabetic model Psammomys obesus in hyperglycemic conditions was investigated. Primary retinal cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) or high concentrations of glucose (25 and 40 mM) for 5 days and treated with 1–20 µM astaxanthin for the last 48 h of culturing. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and cell viability were assessed using MTT test and trypan blue exclusion dye. Retinal cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that mitochondrial function increased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T01:15:58.911432-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12274
       
  • Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Properties and Hypoglycemic Effect of
           Chaya (Cnidoscolus Chayamansa) in STZ‐Induced Diabetic Rats
    • Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aqueous chaya extract (Cnidoscolus spp.) in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats. Compounds identified and quantified included flavonoids and phenolic acids, in addition to saponins and alkaloids, among others. Several new phenolic compounds (coutaric, vanillic, and rosmarinic acids, and hesperidin), saponins (phytolaccagenic and oleanolic acids, and hederagenin derivatives) and alkaloids (choline, trigonelline, and sitsirikine), were identified. In vivo studies showed that a 4‐week chaya extract treatment (2% w/v) produced hypoglycemic effects not related with insulin secretion or with the inhibition of starch digestive enzymes, rather with a decrease in glucose absorption. Chaya extract was also helpful in reducing hyperlipidemia, which appears not to be related to pancreatic lipase inhibition. Nevertheless, the increase in urinary microalbumin concentration and the diuretic effect suggests possible alterations in renal function after long‐term intake of aqueous chaya extract. Practical Applications Chaya infusions are widely used for diabetes control and this study confirmed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. In addition, new compounds were identified. Therefore, chaya extract can potentially be used to develop functional beverages.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T00:17:01.53661-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12281
       
  • Apium Graveolens Extract Attenuates Adjuvant Induced Arthritis by Reducing
           Oxidative Stress
    • Authors: Nutjanat Choosri; Supita Tanasawet, Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Wanida Sukketsiri
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an Apium graveolens extract (AGE) on the arthritis in rats induced using Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA into the subplantar of the left hind paws. The AGE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and prednisone 10 mg/kg were given orally at day 5 to day 28 after induction. Treatment of AGE significantly attenuated the severity of CFA‐induced arthritis and decreased the arthritis score, paw and ankle thickness. Any histopathological changes were noted. The plasma levels of total peroxide (TP) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were significantly decreased by oral administration of AGE as well as the total antioxidant status (TAS) was significantly increased. Furthermore, oral administrations of AGE remarkably attenuated the increased nitric oxide (NO) levels after induction as was also the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma of CFA‐induced arthritic rats. Practical Applications Apium graveolens Linn has been consumed as food and traditionally used for inflammatory diseases, gout and rheumatic condition. However, there is no report for pharmacological activity of A. graveolens in the treatment of arthritis. Our results indicate that A. graveolens could alleviate CFA‐induced arthritis in rats by decreasing the level of TP, OSI, NO and MPO activity as well as by increasing the level of TAS. Insights from our study may provide the beneficial uses of A. graveolens as a functional food and nutraceutical development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T20:50:43.441975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12276
       
  • Blends of Cold Pressed Black Cumin Oil and Sunflower Oil with Improved
           Stability: A Study Based on Changes in the Levels of Volatiles,
           Tocopherols and Thymoquinone during Accelerated Oxidation Conditions
    • Abstract: Blends (5%, 10% and 20%, w/w) of cold‐pressed black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil (BCO) with sunflower oil (SO) were formulated. Oxidative stability (OxS) of SO and blends during storage at thermal accelerated oxidation conditions including Rancimat method (110C) and Schaal oven test (60C) was studied. Progression of oxidation was followed by measuring peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT). Changes in the volatile oxidation compounds, thymoquinone and tocopherols levels of oils and blends during thermal oxidation were also recorded. Blending did not affect significantly the fatty acids profile of blends wherein linoleic and oleic acids were the main constituents. Inverse relationships were noted between PV and OxS at termination of storage. Levels of CD and CT in SO and blends increased with increase in time. Nine volatile oxidation compounds including hexanal, (E)‐2‐hexenal, 2‐heptanone, (E)‐2‐heptenal, 1‐octen‐3‐one, 1‐octen‐3‐ol, (E)‐2‐octenal, (E,E)‐2,4‐octadienal and (E,E)‐2,4‐decadienal were identified using the headspace/solid phase microextraction‐gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS/SPME‐GC/MS). Hexanal and (E)‐2‐heptenal were predominant identified compounds wherein these compounds increased during oxidation at 60C. Stability of blends was better than SO, most likely due to changes in the levels of thymoquinone and tocopherols’ found in BCO. Practical Application Blending of edible oils have emerged as an economical way of improving organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics of vegetable oils besides enhancement the oxidative stability. Among new sources of edible oils with high levels of bioactive compounds, cold pressed black cumin oil (BCO) is of interest and may play a role in human health. At different levels of blending SO with BCO, the stability of sunflower oil (SO) was enhanced. The optimal level of BCO enrichment will depend on the actual food application. It is expected that commercial exploitation of BCO:SO blends with affordable cost for consumers will be soon realized.
      PubDate: 2016-04-17T20:20:42.170293-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12272
       
  • Bacillus Subtilis‐Fermented Red Bean (Red Bean Natto) Reduces
           Hyperlipidemia Levels in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 50% red beans ethanol natto extracts fermented by Bacillus subtilis on hyperlipidemia in hamsters. Forty male hamsters were randomly assigned to normal control, high‐fat control, and high‐fat with RBNE (red beans natto extracts) (200 and 1000 mg/kg BW) groups. RBNE treatment for 8 weeks significantly decreased the body and visceral fat weight in hamsters. Compared to the high‐fat diet group, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), total triacylglycerol (TAG), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations as well as atherogenic index of plasma AIP [Log(TAG/HDL‐C)] were significantly lower in the RBNE‐fed group. The consumption of RBNE significantly reduced the liver contents of TC, esterified cholesterol (CE) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and increased a regulator of lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor alpha (PPAR‐alpha). Furthermore, the circulating level of irisin was decreased. Practical Application The oral administration of Bacillus subtilis‐fermented red bean natto extract (RBNE), a popular Asian dessert, effectively moderated the metabolism of lipids and positively affected the blood and liver profiles of hamsters fed with a high‐cholesterol and high‐fat diet. Importantly, RBNE significantly suppressed the increase in visceral fat mass. Additionally, RBNE appears to protect the liver and alleviate the magnitude of fatty liver development. RBNE also upregulated PPAR‐alpha protein expression in the liver, suggesting that supplementation may improve lipid metabolism in part through the beta‐oxidation of lipids and promotion of lipid secretion. Furthermore, RBNE may ameliorate hyperlipidemia involving irisin, a newly identified hormone, in hamsters fed a cholesterol‐ and lipid‐enriched diet. In conclusion, RBNE with high hypocholesterolemic activities may be helpful for patients with atherosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T00:11:25.936179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12264
       
  • Optimization Study in Extracting Anti‐Oxidative and
           Α‐Amylase Inhibitor Peptides from Cumin Seeds (Cuminum Cyminum)
           
    • Abstract: Bioactive peptide with DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power and α‐amylase inhibition properties were successfully extracted from cumin seed using protamex. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction condition. The effects of temperature (X1: 30–50C), time (X2: 1–2 h) and S/E ratio (X3: 20–40 (w/w)) were investigated using the Box‐behnken design. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and quadratic models were found to be significant for all responses. Three‐dimensional response surfaces plotted and the optimum condition was determined as follows: X1 = 42.6C, X2 = 1.83 h and X3 = 20 (w/w). Low molecular mass of peptides (2.0–28.5 kDa) were produced in this condition and the pre‐diluted extract to a dilution factor of 20 gave %DPPHsc of 34.67% and reducing power of 3.67 mM while the non‐diluted extract exhibited α‐amylase inhibition activity of 22.67%. A close agreement was found between the predicted and experimental values. Practical Applications This study highlights that bioactive peptides derived from cumin seed have demonstrated antioxidative and antidiabetic activities, offering health promoting effect beyond its basic nutritional functions. Extraction of these bioactive peptides with the best yield and the highest bioactivity offer a great potential in functional food or nutraceutical applications. The application of response surface methodology is useful to optimize the extraction parameters for increase extraction efficiency. This would make it possible to improve the technological processes for producing high content of bioactive peptides with less cost and shorter time. Knowledge generated in this study will be beneficial in developing strategies to explore bioactive peptides from natural sources with food and pharmaceutical applications.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T00:05:50.116207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12280
       
  • Enzymatic Extraction of Oil from Balanites Aegyptiaca (Desert Date) Kernel
           and Comparison with Solvent Extracted Oil
    • Abstract: Aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from Balanites aegyptiaca (desert date) kernel was optimized using a mixture of four enzymes (alcalase, cellulase, viscozyme L and protease). The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of the oil obtained by enzyme assisted aqueous extraction and byorganic solvent extraction were compared. Using 2% of each enzyme and 1:10 of water‐to‐kernel flour ratio, the yield of oil extraction was 38%, estimated in comparison with extraction by Soxhlet method. Linoleic acid was the most prominent fatty acid, followed by oleic acid, and palmitic acid. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the fatty acid composition of the oil extracted using enzymes mixtures and organic solvents. However, the oil obtained by aqueous enzymatic extraction presented a significantly lower (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T19:11:00.24401-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12270
       
  • Production and Characterization of an Extracellular
           β‐d‐Fructofuranosidase from Fusarium Graminearum During
           Solid‐State Fermentation Using Wheat Bran as a Carbon Source
    • Abstract: The search for new sources of β‐d‐fructofuranosidases with potential for utilization in the food and beverage industries is an important task. The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum was recently reported to produce β‐d‐fructofuranosidase with suitable properties for biotechnological applications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to purify and characterize F. graminearum β‐d‐fructofuranosidase. High levels of the enzyme were obtained in Solid‐State Fermentation (at 30C for 7 days) using wheat bran as a carbon source. The extracellular enzyme was purified 8‐fold with 14% recovery using ethanol precipitation, diethylaminoethyl‐Cellulose, and Sephacryl S‐200. The optimum temperature and pH for the heterodimeric protein (94 kDa and 66 kDa), were 55–60C and 4.5, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 30–50C for 1 h, and at pH 3.0–8.0. Enzymatic activity was enhanced by Mn2+ (127%) and was inhibited by Hg2+. The Km values were 31.6 and 24.1 mM for sucrose and raffinose, respectively. Practical Applications β‐d‐Fructofuranosidases are enzymes with a wide range of industrial applications, especially in the food and beverage industries. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to invert sugar syrup. In addition, some β‐d‐fructofuranosidases can catalyze transfructosylation reaction for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOSes). Both invert sugar and FOSes are important materials for the food industry. The main sources of β‐d‐fructofuranosidase are microorganisms; the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is a new source of β‐d‐fructofuranosidase with attractive properties for practical applications. The characterization of F. graminearum β‐d‐fructofuranosidase is an important step to determine its potential practical applications.
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T03:45:48.283345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12253
       
  • The Inhibitory Effects of Yixing Black Tea Extracts on A‐Glucosidase
    • Authors: Wenxing Hao; Miao Wang, Mengxian Lv
      Abstract: Alpha‐glucosidase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the body's metabolic processes and are commonly used for the treatment of type II diabetes. This study investigated the effects of various extracts from black tea on α‐glucosidase. The black tea extracts strongly inhibited α‐glucosidase activity. The half inhibition rate (IC50) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), n‐butyl alcohol extract (NBAE) and water extract (WE) produced by ethanol extraction were 3.89, 2.92 and 78.28 μg/mL, respectively, and the IC50 values of the extracts produced by water extraction were 8.19, 4.50 and 6.98 μg/mL. These extracts had much better inhibitory effects than acarbose (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). The inhibitory kinetics of the EAE and NBAE from ethanol extraction and WE from water extraction on α‐glucosidase were also studied. The results showed that NBAE had a noncompetitive inhibitory effect on α‐glucosidase whereas EAE and WE had a mixed inhibitory effect on α‐glucosidase. Practical Applications Tea has been widely consumed in China as a kind of traditional drink, and tea has many beneficial health functions, however, the application of tea products in the treatment of diseases is not widely used. The results showed that the extracts of Yixing black tea have a strong inhibition on α‐glucosidase, more effective than acarbose, without side effects. Therefore, the extracts of Yixing black tea maybe developed as functional food additives in dietary therapy or a potential therapeutic agent in controlling and preventing type II diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T04:15:40.641401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12269
       
  • Metabolite Profile and Bioactivity of Musa X Paradisiaca L. Flower
           Extracts
    • Authors: Jayashree Acharya; Swagata Karak, Bratati De
      Abstract: The flower extracts of two cultivated varieties of Musa X paradisiaca viz. Kanthali and Kancha Kela were assayed against the enzymes α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, β‐glucuronidase and Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme, which are related to different diseased states like diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, hepatic disorder and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. The extracts inhibited all the enzymes except α‐amylase by Musa X paradisiaca cv. Kanthali. Significantly high activities were observed in both the cultivated varieties for inhibiting the enzymes β‐glucuronidase and Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme with respect to the known inhibitors of such enzymes silymarin and Lisinopril, respectively. The chemical constituents present in the methanol extracts were profiled following GC‐MS based metabolomics approach. Eleven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar alcohols, six fatty acids, three phenols, two amino acids and a sterol could be identified. Practical Applications The male flowers of Musa X paradisiaca are cooked as vegetable in South‐East Asia. The flowers are also useful in diabetes. Enzyme inhibitors have properties to prevent or control different noninfectious diseases. So, the flower extracts of two varieties of the plant were assayed for their activities against the glycosidases, acetylcholinesterase, β‐glucuronidase and Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme. The activities of the flower extracts against the enzymes suggest that they may have beneficial effects in controlling diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-03-22T22:00:44.478097-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12263
       
  • Angiotensin‐I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Common
           Edible Cephalopods and their Antioxidative Effects using different in
           vitro Models
    • Authors: Kajal Chakraborty; Minju Joy, Vamshi Krishna Raola, Fasina Makkar
      Abstract: Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of ethyl acetate‐methanol (EtOAc‐MeOH) extract of cephalopods, Amphioctopus marginatus, Uroteuthis duvaucelii, Sepia pharaonis, Sepiella inermis and Cistopus indicus were evaluated using different in vitro systems. EtOAc‐MeOH fractions of S. inermis, A. marinates and C. indicus showed greater ferrous ion chelating ability (IC90 5.01–5.8 mg/mL), and were effective in neutralizing the ABTS (IC90 3.5–4.01 mg/mL), and DPPH radicals (IC90 4.69–5.8 mg/mL). The utilities of deconvolated 1H and 13C‐NMR spectroscopy for analyzing the signature peaks and abundance of bioactive functional groups in the extracts of cephalopods were illustrated. The EtOAc‐MeOH extract derived from S. inermis showed greater angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐I (ACE‐I) inhibitory activity (IC90 0.45 mg/mL) than other cephalopods (IC90 > 0.50 mg/mL). A significant colinearity was found between the electronegative groups present in the downfield position of NMR spectra vis‐à‐vis antioxidative and ACE‐inhibitory activities of EtOAc‐MeOH extracts from C. indicus and S. inermis. Practical Applications The edible cephalopod species are largely accessible in the coastal areas of India and exhibited a number of potential bioactivities against various diseases caused by free radical formation that can cause oxidative stress. This study revealed the bioactive potential of cephalopods, particularly Sepiella inermis, Amphioctopus marginatus and Cystopus indicus as potential angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors. The utilities of nuclear magnetic resonance‐based spectroscopic tools for analyzing the relative abundance of the functional groups, which were responsible for bioactivities present in the ethyl acetate‐methanol extracts of cephalopod species have been illustrated. The results from the present study will be helpful to develop new generation leads as nutraceuticals from the cephalopod species and in combating oxidative stress induced hypertensive disorders.
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T21:26:03.714508-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12268
       
  • Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of Defatted Rice Bran
           (Oryza Sativa L.) Protein Hydrolysates on Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells
    • Authors: Tanatorn Saisavoey; Papassara Sangtanoo, Onrapak Reamtong, Aphichart Karnchanatat
      Abstract: Defatted rice bran (DRB) is a by‐product of oil extraction from rice bran (Oryza sativa L.), and has health benefits. This in vitro study investigated the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory effects of four crude DRB protein hydrolysate fractions prepared by pepsin‐pancreatin digestion and fractionated by ultrafiltration on a transformed macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. Protein hydrolysates with MW
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:04:46.65311-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12266
       
  • In Vitro and In Vivo α‐Glucosidase and α‐Amylase
           Inhibitory Effects of the Water Extract of Leaves of Pepper (Capcicum
           Annuum L. Cultivar Dangjo) and the Active Constituent Luteolin
           7‐O‐Glucoside
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic potential of the water extract of pepper (Capcicum annuum L. cultivar Dangjo) leaves (WEPL) and the active constituent luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside (LG) isolated from WEPL. WEPL showed in vitro α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase inhibitory activity. LG also showed a similar α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase inhibitory activity, suggesting that the ability of WEPL to inhibit both enzymes may be due to the presence of LG and other polyphenols in WEPL. Supporting this observation, both WEPL and LG significantly reduced blood glucose levels in streptozocin‐induced diabetic mice when challenged with oral administration of sucrose, but not after oral glucose challenge. Hence, inhibition of α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase may possibly be one of the mechanisms for WEPL and LG to exert hypoglycemic activity, indicating that pepper leaves may be considered as a potential candidate for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Practical Applications Leaves of pepper cultivars, including Dangjo pepper, are commonly consumed as food in Korea. The findings of this study demonstrate that the water extract of pepper leaves exhibits the capacity to inhibit carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase) in vitro and in vivo and these beneficial effects appear to be due to some specific bioactive compounds in pepper leaves, in particular luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside. Our preliminary observation provides a rationale for a possible use of pepper leaves for the management of postprandial hyperglycemia.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T20:01:42.988572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12252
       
  • Effect of Pretreatments and Defatting of Seabass Skins on Properties and
           Fishy Odor of Gelatin
    • Abstract: The impact of different pretreatments and defatting processes of seabass skins on fishy odor and other properties of gelatin was investigated. Skin pretreated with 0.05 M citric acid, followed by defatting using 30% isopropanol (G‐Ci‐Def) had the lowest residual phospholipid content (P 
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T02:45:23.406596-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12267
       
  • Hepatoprotective Effects of Chitosan‐Phloroglucinol Conjugate in
           Cultured Hepatocyte
    • Abstract: Biopolymer‐based antioxidant chitosan‐phloroglucinol conjugate (CPC) was prepared and the hepatoprotective effect of CPC against H2O2‐induced oxidative stress in cultured hepatocytes was investigated by measuring intracellualar reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzyme expression. No cytotoxicities were observed in CPC and unmodified chitosan (UC) in the tested concentrations. Treatment with 650 µM H2O2 induced significant cytotoxicity (59.38% of cell viability) compared with nontreatment, however, the co‐treatment of CPC and/or UC significantly attenuated cytoxicity. CPC showed better hepatoprotective effect than UC and increased cell viability by up to 85.01%. The treatment of CPC suppressed ROS formation and cellular membrane lipid peroxidation and increased the intracellular GSH level, which may have contributed to ameliorating the oxidative damage in the hepatocytes. CPC augmented the expression of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes through modulation of Nrf2 translocation in the nucleus of cultured hepatocytes. Practical Applications Chitosan and phloroglucinol are naturally occurring antioxidant molecules and chitosan‐phloroglucinol conjugate (CPC) with hepatoprotective effect can be prepared using eco‐friendly methods. In the present study, for the first time, we observed the hepatoprotective effect of CPC. This result provides a new perspective on development of biopolymer‐based hepatoprotective agents.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T02:41:54.155674-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12265
       
  • Generation of Bioactive Hydrolysates and Peptides from Bovine Hemoglobin
           with In Vitro Renin, Angiotensin‐I‐Converting Enzyme and
           Dipeptidyl Peptidase‐IV Inhibitory Activities
    • Authors: Tomas Lafarga; Dilip K. Rai, Paula O'connor, Maria Hayes
      Abstract: Bovine hemoglobin was selected for use in the generation of bioactive hydrolysates with potential for use as functional food ingredients for prevention of disorders such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Bovine hemoglobin was isolated and hydrolyzed with papain, which was selected using in silico analysis. The generated hydrolysate was enriched by ultrafiltration and further purified by high performance liquid chromatography. A number of peptides were identified using de novo peptide sequencing and these peptides were chemically synthesized to confirm their bioactivity in vitro. Three multifunctional peptides with both, ACE‐I and renin‐inhibitory properties and one peptide with ACE‐I‐inhibiting properties were identified. These included the di‐peptide HR with ACE‐I and renin IC50 values of 0.19 and 7.09 mM, respectively. The generated papain hydrolysate of bovine hemoglobin not only inhibited the enzymes ACE‐I and renin but also the enzyme DPP‐IV, which has been linked to type‐2 diabetes. Practical Applications Slaughterhouse blood represents a problematic coproduct to meat processors due to the large volumes generated and its high pollutant load, and it is usually discarded as waste or used for low value purposes such as blood meal. However, bovine blood represents a valuable source of protein which is underused in the food industry. To find potential applications for this largely underutilized coproduct, the ACE‐I, renin and DPP‐IV inhibitory properties of a papain hydrolysate of bovine hemoglobin were studied and a number of novel multifunctional bioactive hydrolysates and peptides were identified. Results obtained herein may not only reduce blood disposal but also have a role in improving public health. In addition, this study demonstrates the potential of bovine hemoglobin as a resource for the generation of bioactive peptides and opens new commercial opportunities for its use beyond its current applications in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T20:02:56.391469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12259
       
  • Modulation of the Fragrance of Kam Sweet Rice by Jasmonic Acid and
           Abscisic Acid Might Involve the MYC2 and ABI5 Transcription Factors
    • Authors: Zheng Kong; Degang Zhao
      Abstract: Volatile compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and gas chromatography‐olfactometry (GC‐O). Results showed that nonanal had the highest odor activity value in the filling grains. Nonanal was enhanced by application of JA and inhibited by ABA in the seedlings of Kam sweet rice. C9‐aldehydes are significant odorants in many rice types and known products of the 9‐lipoxygenase and 9‐hydroperoxide lyases encoded by the OsLOX3 and OsHPL1 genes, respectively. OsLOX3 mRNA expression was higher in aromatic rice compared to a nonaromatic cultivar. mRNA expression of ABI5 and MYC2 negatively correlated with OsLOX3 expression (r = −0.841, P 
      PubDate: 2016-02-29T01:57:31.714164-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12243
       
  • The Effect of Alcohol Insoluble Polysaccharide (AIP) from Opuntia Humifusa
           on Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Mice
    • Abstract: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of alcohol‐insoluble polysaccharide (AIP) isolated from the fruit and stem of Opuntia humifusa on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Female mice 6 weeks of age were assigned to four groups: Sham‐operated (Sham), OVX control, OVX mice fed 5% AIP fruit of an O. humifusa supplemented diet (OVX + Fruit), and OVX mice fed 5% AIP stem of an O. humifusa supplemented diet (OVX + Stem). After eight weeks, the OVX + Fruit group and the OVX + Stem group demonstrated increased trabecular bone volume and bone mineral density, and partially improved bone microstructure of the proximal tibia was evident in OVX mice. The OVX + Fruit group and the OVX + Stem group also presented significant reductions in both bone resorption and bone formation. These results suggest that AIP from O. humifusa has beneficial effects on trabecular bone mass, through improving the structural properties of the tibia in OVX mice. Practical Applications The Opuntia humifusa, which has been traditionally consumed as a value‐added food, has been used to treat diuretic disease, constipation and arthritis. We found the fruit and stem AIP of O. humifusa played beneficial functions such as regulation of bone mineral density and improving cancellous bone, suggesting they could be applied as a functional food material for the prevention of osteoporosis.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T04:40:45.854324-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12261
       
  • The Effect of Berry Juices on the Level of Oxidative Stress in Yeast Cells
           Exposed to Acrylamide
    • Abstract: Many food products, especially highly processed, contain numerous toxic substances, one of which is acrylamide. The mechanism of its toxicity has been associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of berry juices (bilberry, black mulberry and raspberry) on the level of oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to acrylamide. Our results show that berry juices significantly protect yeast cells from negative effects of acrylamide. The protective effects of berries were manifested by restoring the growth of yeast cells and decreasing both the level of reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl groups. Furthermore, bilberry juice shows the most effective protection, probably due to the optimal content of antioxidants. Practical Applications As natural food ingredients, fruits are an important source of substances with antioxidant properties. In particular, berries with intense dark skin color, such as blueberries, mulberries and raspberries, are the primary object of interest by nutritionists and consumers all over the world. These fruits are not only a source of vitamins and trace elements which are necessary for human health, but also of antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds. Polyphenols play an important role in the prevention of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases; they are also known for their anti‐cancer and anti‐aging action. Looking for new opportunities to use berry fruits, we decided to test their ability to protect the organism against the toxic effect of ingredients present in highly processed foodstuffs. Our results show that berry juices may provide effective protection against toxicity of acrylamide. These results are further evidence of the benefits arising from the consumption of fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-02-23T03:26:47.277468-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12260
       
  • Assessment the Protective Role of Quercetin on Acrylamide‐Induced
           Oxidative Stress in Rats
    • Abstract: This study aimed to elucidate whether quercetin treatment could modulate acrylamide (ACR)‐induced DNA damage and oxidative changes in rat brain, liver, kidneys and testes tissues. Fifty adult albino rats were divided into five groups. The first group served as normal control, second group received 50 mg/kg quercetin (QTN) and third group received 20 mg/kg ACR. Fourth and fifth groups received dose of ACR along with 25 or 50 mg/kg QTN, respectively. ACR and QTN were given by oral administrations for 30 days. The results showed that, ACR administration induced significant elevation of alanine transferase, aspartate transferase activities, urea, creatinine and Malondialdehyde levels in serum, whereas, Acetylcholine esterase and testosterone levels were reduced after ACR administration. Moreover, ACR treatment increased Glutathione‐S‐transferase, Myeloperoxidase, Glutathione peroxidase activity, 8‐hydroxy deoxyguanosine, tumor necrosis factor‐α and nitric oxide contents in all tissues. QTN significantly improved the previous parameters. It played a role in ameliorating toxic effects of ACR in rats by reducing oxidative stress. Practical Applications Acrylamide was found in various fried, deep fried and oven‐baked foods that are regularly consumed like chips, crisps and bread, also biscuits, crackers and breakfast cereals. Acrylamide exposure led to increase of alanine transferase, aspartate transferase activities, urea, creatinine and Malondialdehyde levels in serum, whereas, Acetylcholine esterase and testosterone levels were reduced. Moreover, ACR treatment increased Glutathione‐S‐transferase, Myeloperoxidase, Glutathione peroxidase activity, 8‐hydroxy deoxyguanosine, tumor necrosis factor‐α and nitric oxide contents in all tissues. Our study revealed the protective role of quercetin on acrylamide‐induced oxidative stress in rats. Quercetin regulate the generation of inflammatory markers and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity in rat liver, kidneys, brain and testes tissues.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T00:22:40.633937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12262
       
  • Bioactivity Evaluation of Crude Polysaccharide from Rice Bran Fermented by
           Preussia Aemulans and the Changes in its Nutritional Contents
    • Authors: Yiting Li; Shili Meng, Min Shi, Xuansheng Hu, Yingnan Yang, Zhenya Zhang
      Abstract: A new functional fungus named Preussia aemulans isolated from the Cordyceps sinensis fruiting body was fermented with rice bran (RB). Under the optimal conditions for polysaccharide fermentation (15% maltose, 3% yeast extract, 15 days of fermentation time and 60% moisture content) polysaccharide content was increased from 19.80 ± 1.23 to 71.16 ± 2.63 mg/g dry matter. The amino acid, protein, phenolics and nucleoside contents were also significantly improved. The crude polysaccharide (CPS) sample isolated from the fermented RB indicated significant antioxidant activity. The EC50 values of 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), 2,2′‐azino‐bis (3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid; ABTS.+) and hydroxyl radicals (HO•) scavenging activities were 0.74, 0.76 and 0.22 mg/mL, respectively. The FT‐IR spectrum indicated CPS contained a β‐glycosidic linkage. For immunomodulatory activities, CPS strongly stimulated proliferation of macrophages (170.03 ± 9.64%), and production of nitric oxide (15.01 ± 0.33 μM). Practical Applications An approach to reuse RB was developed in this research. RB is actually rich in vitamins, minerals, amino acids and essential fatty acids and could be used as a fermentation medium. Cordyceps sinensis is a rare resource due to its specific growth environment, and it is diminishing because of over‐exploitation. The P. aemulans isolated from the C. sinensis fruiting body has similar physiological activity as C. sinensis. Using RB as a medium for fermentation by P. aemulans not only enables reuse of RB, but also ensures protection of a rare resource while enriching food diversity.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T00:21:57.190965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12258
       
  • Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Acids Profiles of Artemisia Selengensis
           Turcz Extracted with Various Methods by HPLC‐QTOF‐MS/MS
    • Abstract: Effects of dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM), microwave, ultrasound, maceration and high temperature, on the phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) were investigated. Microwave exhibited the best extraction efficacy on phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the content of 40.30 μg GAE/mg Extract, and 37.75 μg RTE/mg Extract, respectively. Microwave extract (MWE) also showed the strongest DPPH· and HO· scavenging ability (IC50 value of 0.23 and 0.50 mg/mL, respectively), and reducing power (Ab0.3 value of 0.23 mg/mL). Quinic acid, 3 caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), 2 coumaroylquinic acids, 4 dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) were identified as the major phenolic acids in AST using HPLC‐QTOF‐MS/MS, and 3‐CQA (63.71 μg/mL) showed the highest content followed by 1,5‐diCQA (17.91 μg/mL) and 3,5‐diCQA (13.50 μg/mL). MWE had the highest 3‐CQA and diCQAs. While, high temperature could promote the degradation of diCQAs, 3‐ and 4‐caffeoyl are more liable to decompose as compared with 1‐ and 5‐caffeoyl. Practical Application Over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in body will induce various chronic diseases. AST is an underutilized vegetable with many health benefits. This research indicates that AST possessed appreciating antioxidant activities and abundant phenolic acids, it is could be a potentail antioxidants resource and for prevention of chronic diseases associated with ROS. It also suggested that microwave could be a promising method for extracting the antioxidants in AST. Therefore, this research could lay a foundation for the high‐value application of AST in food, health care and natural therapy industry, and provide some methodological references for the development of antioxidants in AST.
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T02:26:01.532814-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12255
       
  • Synergistic and Additive Antimicrobial Activities of Curcumin, Manuka
           Honey and Whey Proteins
    • Authors: Prabhu Balan; Gorakh Mal, Shantanu Das, Harjinder Singh
      Abstract: Antimicrobial activity of curcumin, Manuka honey (MH, Leptospermum scoparium) and Whey protein isolate (WPI) and their synergistic and/or additive effects were tested against various Gram positive and negative bacterial strains for development of functional foods. Curcumin and MH each displayed 100% inhibition against all the tested strains of bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of curcumin and honey against different strains ranged from 100 to 250 µg/mL and 5–20% respectively. Except Bacillus subtilis, all other tested pathogens were completely inhibited by the mixture of subinhibitory concentrations of curcumin and MH. At these levels, the mixture of MH and WPI was more effective against Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella soneii and Proteus vulgaris. Mixture of curcumin and WPI completely inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Combinations of curcumin, MH and WPI had additive and/or synergistic antimicrobial activities and various combinations could be used in food formulations and pharmacological applications. Practical Applications Turmeric, honey and whey proteins are widely consumed all over the world, and have been associated with multiple health benefits. Synergistic and/or additive antimicrobial effects of curcumin, Manuka honey (MH) and whey protein isolate (WPI) were tested against various Gram positive and negative bacterial strains for development of functional foods. Curcumin and MH each showed complete inhibition against all the tested bacterial strains. These in vitro investigations demonstrate that combinations of curcumin, MH and WPI have potent antibacterial activities. To our knowledge, this is the first of such outcomes to be reported. The implication of the results of this study is that Curcumin, MH and WPI in various combinations could be used as a food supplement and also in pharmacological applications.
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T02:25:39.134387-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12249
       
  • Comparative Bioactive Properties of Bivalve Clams Against Different
           Disease Molecular Targets
    • Authors: Minju Joy; Kajal Chakraborty, Vijayagopal Pananghat
      Abstract: Clams occupy a predominant share of the edible bivalve mollusks in the coastal regions, and are important seafood resources. Antioxidant, anti‐diabetic, anti‐inflammatory and antihypertensive potential of ethyl acetate‐methanol (EtOAc‐MeOH) extract of bivalve clams, Villorita cyprinoides and Paphia malabarica were evaluated using various in vitro systems. EtOAc‐MeOH fraction of P. malabarica demonstrated greater 1, 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazil (0.76 mg/mL) and 2, 2′‐azino‐bis‐3‐ethylbenzothiozoline‐6‐sulfonic acid (1.27 mg/mL) radical scavenging ability. A greater anti‐ACE, anti‐COX‐2/5‐LOX properties (1.11, 0.92 and 1.51 mg/mL, respectively), along with DPP‐IV (1.00 mg/mL) and α‐glucosidase (1.47 mg/mL) inhibitory activities were recorded in the EtOAc‐MeOH fraction of P. malabarica than V. cyprinoides. A significant co‐linearity was found between various bioactive properties and the down‐fielded electronegative groups present in the 1H‐NMR spectra of the crude EtOAc‐MeOH fractions of bivalve clams. The current findings showed the importance of the bivalves as potential source of antioxidative leads for use as functional food supplements to combat oxidative stress‐induced diseases. Practical Applications The edible bivalve clams, V. cyprinoides and P. malabarica are broadly available in the coastal regions of India and demonstrated to possess a number of bioactivities against different disease targets induced by free radical formation. The EtOAc‐MeOH fractions obtained from these bivalve clams recorded the COX‐1 and COX‐2 ratio of greater than 2.0 compared with NSAIDs (
      PubDate: 2016-02-11T05:34:49.88473-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12256
       
  • Antigrowth and Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Hypericum Olympicum L. and
           Hypericum Adenotrichum Spach. on Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro: Involvement
           of DNA Damage
    • Authors: Nazlihan Aztopal; Merve Erkisa, Serap Celikler, Engin Ulukaya, Ferda Ari
      Abstract: Hypericum species are used in different folk medicines and screened for their biological activity including cancer. We, therefore, evaluated the possible cytotoxic/apoptotic and genotoxic activities of Hypericum adenotrichum Spach. and Hypericum olympicum L. Antigrowth effect was screened in human lung cancer cell lines (A549 and PC3) by the ATP viability assay, while genotoxic activity was performed using the Comet assay. Histological and biochemical methods were utilized to elucidate the cell death mode. The results indicate that the crude methanol extracts of H. olympicum L. and H. adenotrichum have both antigrowth/cytotoxic and genotoxic activities on these cells in a dose dependent manner. These extracts clearly induced apoptosis in PC3 lung cancer cell lines. In this study, we report for the first time that the H. olympicum and H. adenotrichum exhibits potential cytotoxic and genotoxic activities in lung cancer cells as well as the apoptosis‐inducing roles through DNA damage in PC3 cells. Practical Applications Medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine worldwide and several have been screened for their anticancer properties, we evaluated the possible cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of the Hypericum adenotrichum and Hypericum olympicum, which are still used in Turkish folk medicine. H. adenotrichum Spach., an endemic species in Turkey, and H. olympicum L., which are known as “kantaron” and used traditionally for their wound healing and antiseptic properties. It was found that Hypericum species showed a significant growth‐inhibiting effect on human lung cancer cells and induced apoptosis‐like cell death by DNA damage in PC3 lung cancer cells. These species may have a potential as anticancer agents and inspire to new improvements for medicinal chemistry.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T02:50:46.134623-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12248
       
  • Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insights into the Regulation of
           Flower Bud Differentiation in Crocus Sativus L.
    • Authors: Hengfeng Zhang; Qingcui Wei, Chengzhong Li, Chunmao Jiang, Huanchao Zhang
      Abstract: Two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to gain a further understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with flower bud differentiation in Crocus sativus L. A total of 101 proteins exhibited significant differential expression, and 72 proteins were reliably identified. During the process of flower bud differentiation in Crocus sativus L., FBA, TPI, NSE, enolase, LOS2, MDH and succinyl‐CoA ligase, provided adequate energy and nutrition to complete flower bud differentiation. Methionine‐tRNA ligase and arginine may likely interact with phytohormones and signalling molecules. A number of regulatory and antioxidant‐related proteins, such as HSP, chaperonin, APX, CAT, GME, Trx and TpxII, transferred defense related signal molecules in response to various stresses. Several proteins associated with cytoskeleton and protein metabolism, also revealed a higher abundance, including proteins that were critical for fiber development. In conclusion, our results provide novel insights into the molecular basis for flower bud differentiation in Crocus sativus L. Practical Applications Crocus sativus L. is known as “plant gold,” and has always been used as a flavor and color in foods, as well as a dye. In the production of Crocus sativus L., flowers are the principal products. At present, florescence of Crocus sativus L., which to be handly picked, is too concentrated and the gradual deterioration of flower quality restrict the development of Crocus sativus L. industry. In this study, the biological functionalities and molecular mechanisms of some key proteins that involved for flower bud differentiation were detected and identified by proteomics analysis. This study laid a theoretical basis for the temporal regulation of blooms, selective breeding and the control of gene regulation in the active biosynthetic components of stigmas. An improved understanding of the impact of key proteins during flowering could potentially provide further scope for optimizing Crocus sativus L. industry.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T02:50:25.425254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12254
       
  • In Vitro Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of the Ethanolic Extract
           of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus Pelamis) Heart
    • Authors: Md. Yousof Ali; Hee Jin Jung, Susoma Jannat, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
      Abstract: Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, are distributed throughout the Pacific Ocean in the tropical and subtropical areas, including South Korea, Japan and Indonesia. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of 70% ethanol (EtOH) extract of skipjack tuna heart were investigated via protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α‐glucosidase, human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, peroxynitrite (ONOO−), 2,2′‐azino‐bis‐3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical, and total reactive oxygen species (ROS). The 70% EtOH tuna heart extract exhibited potent inhibitory activity against PTP1B, α‐glucosidase and HRAR with inhibition percentages of 85.42, 82.70 and 51.1%, respectively, at a concentration range of 1–2 mg/mL. In addition, it was a potent inhibitor against DPPH, ABTS, ONOO−, and ROS with inhibition percentages of 69.45, 58.31, 96.20 and 34.02%, respectively, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The total phenolic content present in tuna extract was 15.80 mg/g GAE. The results demonstrate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of tuna heart extract. Practical Application Tuna has been consumed as a healthy protein source for hundreds of years. As a food, skipjack is a very good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and omega‐3 fatty acids and can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Generally, the meat of skipjack tuna is used as food and other parts such as the heart are used as fertilizer. Recent studies have identified a number of bioactive components from fish muscle protein, collagen, peptides, gelatin, oil, bone and internal organs that remain after processing. These fish components showed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antiproliferative, antimicrobial and antianemic activities. The findings demonstrated antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of tuna heart extract.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T02:49:47.638525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12257
       
  • Evaluation of Theobroma cacao (COCOA) Derived Phenolic Phytochemical
           Fractions on the In Vitro Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes
    • Abstract: Theobroma cacao (cocoa) contains a wide variety of phenolic phytochemicals, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), and their bioactivities have been reported in various reports. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of cocoa. Defatted cocoa powder was extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature. The acetone extract was subjected to LH‐20 column chromatography using two different methods to recover fractions of different polarities. The extract and resulting fractions were evaluated for the total phenolic content, PAC content and in vitro inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. COAE‐PAC had higher total phenolic content and PACs than COAE‐LMW; however, COAE‐LMW resulted to higher inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Our findings suggest that cocoa acetone extracts have potential to manage post‐prandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes and that this effect is not PAC dependent. Practical Applciation Type 2 diabetes prevention is a major hurdle of our society. Various research findings suggest that natural product ingredients in combination with lifestyle changes can prevent the progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. To effectively design natural product ingredients for the prevention of prediabetes progression to type 2 diabetes requires thorough evaluation of the mechanism of action and potential bioactives. Proanthocyanidins (PACs) present in cocoa have been linked to various health benefits of cocoa. Recent findings suggest that cocoa can potentially prevent type 2 diabetes via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. This work identifies whether this inhibitory activity is PAC or lower molecular weight phenolic dependent. Ultimately, this work contributes a small piece in the deeper evaluation of cocoa for the management of type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T03:09:28.258605-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12244
       
  • Antioxidant and Pro‐Oxidant Activities of Savoy Cabbage (Brassica
           Oleracea L. Var. Sabauda) Sprout Extracts
    • Authors: Luana Quassinti; Giuseppe Gianfranceschi, Giulio Lupidi, Antonino Miano, Massimo Bramucci
      Abstract: Diets rich in foods containing antioxidants, such as fruits and vegetables, could help to prevent cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and slow the aging process. The aim of this work was to look at the seed sprouts of a member of the Brassica genus, Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabauda) to determine the antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts made from powdered form of its sprouts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of extracts was tested using 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzthiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. A useful indicator of ROS, 2′,7′‐dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF‐DA), was used to determine the antioxidant and pro‐oxidant activity of sprout extracts in a cell‐based assay. Significant values of “in vitro” antioxidant activity were found in aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts. Aqueous sprout extract showed a dose‐dependent pro‐oxidant activity, higher than hydroalcoholic extract in a cell‐based assay. The pro‐oxidant activity was correlated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and proved thermolabile. Practical Applications Compounds with important biological activity have been isolated and characterized from sprouts and can be used in the nutraceutical field. Sprouts contain a cocktail of antioxidant compounds that shows a strong reducing activity. The study was extended to Savoy cabbage sprout extracts using cell‐based assay. Antioxidant and pro‐oxidant activities were put in evidence. The present results draw attention to the real antioxidant capacity of a plant extract. An adequate assessment of the antioxidant capacity should take in account the pro‐oxidant activity of an extract.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T03:09:07.540378-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12247
       
  • Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Urease Inhibitory Activities of
           Phenolics‐Rich Pomegranate Peel Hydro‐Alcoholic Extracts
    • Authors: Tariq Ismail; Saeed Akhtar, Piero Sestili, Muhammad Riaz, Amir Ismail, Ronald G. Labbe
      Abstract: This study was aimed at exploring biological properties of PoP for their potential use as an ingredient of choice in nutraceuticals and ethnic drug formulations. Pomegranate peel extracts (PoPx), derived from hydro‐alcoholic extracts were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial and potential antiulcer properties. Higher levels of total phenolics (427.19 mgGAE/g of extracts) recovered from hydro‐alcoholic extracts exhibited significant (P 
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T03:08:01.767685-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12250
       
  • Protective Mechanisms of Unsaponifiable Matter from Rice Bran Against
           Tert‐Butyl Hydroperoxide‐Induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2
           Cells
    • Abstract: Rice bran is rich source of phytochemicals, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, policosanols, γ‐oryzanol, triterpene alcohol and other minor compounds. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of unsaponifiable matter from rice bran on tert‐butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)‐induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of USM (0–100 µg/mL) for 6 h and oxidative stress was induced by TBHP. The result indicated that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with USM significantly reduced TBHP‐induced oxidative damage, as determined by cell cytotoxicity and intracellular reactive oxygen species generations. USM activated nuclear factor‐erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and subsequently enhanced the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes including heme oxygenase‐1, glutamate‐cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase‐1. These results suggest that USM‐mediated up‐regulation of phase II detoxifying enzymes via Nrf2‐signaling pathways may provide a pivotal mechanism for its hepatoprotective action. Practical Applications Rice bran is a major byproduct of the rice milling process and is produced every year in an enormous amount in Korea. Rice bran is mainly used as animal feed, cooking oil, and cosmetics. It contains important bioactive compounds. This study provides biological evidence that supports the use of rice bran unsaponifiable matter (USM) in the prevention of oxidative damage. The assessment of the protective mechanism of rice bran USM against oxidative damage may give insight into its application as bioactive ingredients in the production and development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:19:40.142562-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12251
       
  • Production of Peptides with Radical Scavenging Activity and Recovery of
           Total Carotenoids Using Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysis of Shrimp Waste
    • Abstract: The enzymatic hydrolysis of shrimp waste by the commercial protease Alcalase was evaluated as an alternative for recovery of valuable components, protein and astaxanthin. The influence of temperature (40–70C) and enzyme : substrate ratio (2.0–6.0%, g enzyme/100 g protein) on degree of hydrolysis, recovery of protein and antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was studied. The total carotenoids content in each insoluble fraction obtained after centrifugation of raw hydrolysate were also determined. All variables had significant effect on the responses. To obtain maximum antioxidant activity of hydrolysate and recovery of protein and total carotenoids in sediment, the following optimum conditions are suggested, 55C and 4.0%. Under these conditions, degree of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity and recovery of protein and total carotenoids were determined, obtaining values of 3.63%, 66.8%, 39.53 μmol Trolox equivalents/g protein and 72.67%, respectively. Practical Applications Shrimp wastes, removed during processing, represent up to 50% of the weight of raw material. These discards are normally used to obtaining low‐value products, such as animal feed and fertilizers. Since they contain valuable components such as protein, chitin and astaxanthin carotenoid, significant amounts of nutrients are underused. Thus, better utilization of these discards through the manufacture of value‐added products can result in expansion of aquaculture industry, maximization of economical benefits and reduction of environmental pollution. Enzymatic hydrolysis of shrimp waste represents a potencial process for recovery of total carotenoids in the insoluble fraction and obtaining a hydrolysate that can be used as protein supplementation and/or antioxidant component in food systems.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:19:18.22836-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12246
       
  • Quantitative Analysis of Functional Components From Nelumbo Nucifera Root
           Fermented Broth with Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects
    • Abstract: The goals of this study were to develop a new functional beverage and/or syrup from Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) root by fermentation utilizing brown sugar and to determine its various functional properties and nutritive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents significantly increased after 15 and 30 days of fermentation as compared to control (brown sugar broth only) and their amounts ranged from 41–521 µg gallic acid equivalents/mL to 31–63 µg quercetin equivalents/mL, respectively. Gas chromatography‐mass spectra analysis determined the presence of 2‐furanacetic acid, 4‐hydroxyphenyl ethanol, lyxofuranose, silane, morpholine, and cinnamic acid as major phenolic compounds in lotus root sugar syrup samples after 180 days of fermentation. All tested fermented lotus root sugar syrup samples showed highest functional activities in a time‐dependent manner, including inhibition of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and nitrite radicals (at pH 1.2) as well as superoxide dismutase‐like activities (87.24 ± 2.89%, 99.51 ± 0.67% and 44.39 ± 1.96%, respectively). Syrup samples also inhibited tyrosinase enzyme activity in vitro by 49.79 ± 2.24% compared with control (15.13 ± 0.12%). These findings suggest that lotus root fermented sugar syrup could be a natural food supplement of bioactive components with potent antioxidant and antityrosinase effects. Practical Applications Plant‐based functional foods show enormous potential as human health supplements. Foods rich in polyphenolic compounds such as phenolics and flavonoids can act as scavengers of free radicals, thus protecting the human body from oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been used in traditional medicine system as a health beneficial supplement. Fermentation has been shown to improve the nutritional and medicinal potentials of plants and/or vegetables for human use. This study confirmed fermentation of lotus root using brown sugar, resulting in the production of a fermented functional beverage with enhanced bioactivity. The fermented beverage rich in various nutritional components, including phenolic sand flavonoids, showed potent pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and antimelanogenesis activities, suggesting it might be considered as a good functional food supplement.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T20:18:57.250221-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12242
       
  • Synergetic Hepatoprotective Effect of Phenolic Fractions Obtained from
           Ficus Carica Dried Fruit and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on CCL4‐Induced
           Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effect of the Ficus carica dried fruits, extra virgin olive oil and their phenolic fractions on CCl4‐induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Administration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) (3.0 g/kg/day) per oral (p.o.) and their methanol extract (MEEVOO) (2.1 mg/kg/day) intravenously (i.v.) for 7 days significantly prevented CCl4‐induced elevation of levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The methanol dried fig extract (MEDF) (38.07 mg/kg/day, i.v.) was found to be more hepatoprotective than the dried figs (DF) (4 g/kg/day, p.o.). Administration of MEEVOO with the MEDF significantly prevented CCl4‐induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT and ALP. Treatment of rats with CCl4 led to a marked increase in lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme, Catalase (CAT) was significantly decreased in all treated animals. Practical Applications Dried fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit is an important part of traditional Mediterranean Algerian diet since antiquity and widely consumed with extra virgin olive oil because of their nutritional importance along with their medicinal value. Obtained results suggest a synergistic functionality of dried figs and extra virgin olive oil extracts. The observed hepatoprotective effect is believed to occur due to antioxidant properties of the contents of extra virgin olive oil and dried figs extract, which may provide a new drug to be used for prophylaxis against liver diseases and it validates its folkloric use by Algerian people.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T19:56:41.625565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12241
       
  • Inhibitory Effects of the Active Components Isolated from Satureja
           Boissieri Hausskn. Ex Boiss. On Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate the active components from the essential oil (EO) of Satureja boissieri and to investigate the cytotoxic effects of these components on human cervical epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. The major components of EO were found to be p‐cymene (23.15%), γ‐terpinene (22.84%), thymol (18.96%) and carvacrol (21.25%) using GC‐MS. The components were separated by column chromatography and p‐cymene, thymol and spathulenol were isolated as pure terpenoids. The cytotoxic activity of the components was investigated using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). The pure compounds, p‐cymene and thymol exhibited excellent cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line. Practical Applications Satureja boissieri Hausskn. ex Boiss.(Lamiaceae) is known as Catri/Kekik and used as a condiment and herbal tea in the kitchen of local people in Turkey. The genus Satureja has therapeutic properties because of its high amounts of active components such as thymol, carvacrol, p‐cymene and γ‐terpinene. The results demonstrated that S. boissieri and its active components may be suggested as a promising natural agents for alleviating human cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell growth.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T19:47:02.880492-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12238
       
  • Honey and its Phytochemicals: Plausible Agents in Combating Colon Cancer
           through its Diversified Actions
    • Authors: Aruna Priyadharshni Subramanian; Agnes Aruna John, Muthu Vignesh Vellayappan, Arunpandian Balaji, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mahitosh Mandal, Eko Supriyanto
      Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Among them, colorectal cancer is linked with diet as the epithelial cells of colon and rectum come in direct contact with diet. Diets rich in phenolic constituents are associated in eradicating various noncommunicable diseases including cancer. This work illustrates antiproliferative effects of honey and its phytochemicals against colorectal cancer to limelight. Honey and its phytochemicals are found to inhibit the cancer growth. Changes like activation of caspase‐3, caspase‐8, polyadenosine diphosphate‐ribose polymerase cleavage, boost in ROS level activating mitochondrial pathway, lipid layer breakage, DNA fragmentation, increase of G0/G1 phase cells, up‐regulation of Bax regulators and p53 dependent apoptosis are significant. It is high time for scientists to initiate more trails using honey and its phytochemicals against some immune‐deficient animal models of colon cancer and in low‐ and high‐risk human individuals to validate honey as a mighty sword against colon cancer. This review promulgates honey and its phytochemicals as candidates in colon cancer prevention. Practical Application Colon cancer is the third largest cause of cancer death worldwide. The standard chemotherapeutic agents are usually noneffective in the latter stages of cancer. As colorectal cancer is more prone to the diet consumed, scientists have explored many dietary compounds to treat this particular type of cancer. In our review, we highlight the effect of honey and its phenolic constituents against the colon cancer cells. Various, in vitro experiments done are enlisted. This review also emphasis the need of numerous studies that are needed to be initiated to explore the anticancer effect of crude honey specifically. As honey is one of the ingredients used in daily life, honey can also be used in chemoprevention against colon cancer.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T02:02:23.8406-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12239
       
  • Kinetic Characterization and Thermal Properties of Two Acidic Peroxidases
           from White Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.)
    • Abstract: Soluble and membrane‐bound peroxidases (POD) were extracted from white cabbage. Optimum activity was obtained at pH 4.0 for both enzymes. The KM and Vm values for H2O2 were found to be 0.62 mM and 6.5 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD; and 1.1 mM and 7.75 μM/min, respectively, for membrane‐bound POD. The KM and Vm values for ABTS were found to be 0.92 mM and 7.4 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD; and 0.43 mM and 6.95 μM/min, respectively, for membrane‐bound POD. The effect of several reducing agents was studied. The effect of cyclodextrins was studied and the complexation constant between ABTS and HP‐β‐CDs was calculated (Kc = 303 M−1). A thermal inactivation study showed a first‐order inactivation kinetic for both enzymes and the Arrhenius plot yielded a straight line with a slope equivalent to activation energy of 153.1 kj/mol for membrane‐bound POD and 49.1 kj/mol for soluble POD. Practical Applications Roots of horseradish serve at present as the major source of commercially available peroxidase. However, this peroxidase has certain problems with regard stability and inactivation under certain conditions, hence the interest in finding novel plant peroxidases with greater stability and similar applicability. White cabbage peroxidase could be highly promising for biotechnological applications, taking into account, its high activity, low cost of the raw material and the easy extraction method described.
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T23:38:10.74168-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12229
       
  • Ethanolic Extract of Radish Sprout (Raphanus Sativus L.) Prevents
           Bisphenol A‐Induced Testicular Dysfunction in Male Rats
    • Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the potential reproductive health benefits of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) sprout ethanolic extract (RSE) in a bisphenol A (BPA)‐exposed rat model of testicular disorders and to identify the bioactive components of RSE. RSE and its butanolic layer (RSE‐BuOH) exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity, as determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. The RSE‐BuOH was fractionated using chromatography with active guided fractionation, and 10 major compounds were identified in gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry analysis. Among them, 3‐hexyl‐1‐cyclopentene and 2‐cyclopentene‐1‐tridecanoic acid were confirmed to be the major components. In addition, administration of RSE significantly restored body weight, testes weight and sperm cell rate in BPA‐exposed rats. In particular, administration of RSE‐BuOH to BPA‐exposed rats significantly increased sperm cell rate and serum testosterone level. These results suggest that RSE may attenuate reproductive dysfunction caused by BPA‐induced oxidative stress in male rats. Practical Applications Oral exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) is known to alter endocrine functions and weaken reproduction by decreasing semen quality in humans. Oxidative stress induced by BPA affects semen quality and damages sperm DNA. This is the first study to evaluate the beneficial effects of radish sprout (RS) on male reproductive dysfunction in BPA‐exposed rats. The study enhances the understanding of the mechanisms by which the antioxidants in RS ethanolic extracts protect sperm against oxidative stress, and provides a basis for the development of food supplements from RS, a widely consumed food ingredient with few side effects.
      PubDate: 2016-01-20T03:27:02.803143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12245
       
  • Optimization of Ultrasonic‐Assisted Extraction of Quercetin and
           Cyanidin from Pyracantha Coccinea and Their Scavenging Effect on Free
           Radicals
    • Abstract: The response surface method was used to optimize the quercetin and cyanidin content experimental parameters for the ultrasonic‐assisted extraction of phenolics from Pyracantha coccinea. The optimal conditions were an extraction time of 97 and 93 min, ethanol concentration of 71 and 79% (v/v), HCl concentration of 1.55 and 1.52 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio of 12.2 and 12.6 mL/g for determining the quercetin and cyanidin contents, respectively. The predicted quercetin and cyanidin contents were 2.30 and 4.01 mg/g, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted at the 95% confidence level, which indicates the response surface method was suitable for optimizing the ultrasound‐assisted extraction of phenolics from P. coccinea. The scavenging effects of cyanidin and quercetin in P. coccinea extract, which extracted at optimum conditions, on free radicals were investigated using the Fenton oxidation. It was also demonstrated that cyanidin had more effective free radical scavenging activity than quercetin. Practical Applications The phenolic compounds differ in polarity, acidity, number of both hydroxyl groups and aromatic rings, concentration and matrix complexity, specific extractions techniques must be designed and optimized for each phenolic compound. Response surface methods have been used widely to produce and optimize different industrially important biotechnological and biochemical products. A central composite design was used to optimize the parameters for P. coccinea extractions based on the quercetin and cyanidin content. The study results indicate the ultrasonic‐assisted extraction is an economical and efficient method for extracting quercetin and cyanidin from P. coccinea. The free radical scavenging effects of the two phenolic compounds investigated in this study. They act as free scavengers and inhibit free radical production. This study indicates P. coccinea can be considered a good source of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T23:51:15.15398-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12236
       
  • Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Properties of Widely Consumed Date
           Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Fruit Varieties in Algerian Oases
    • Authors: Safia Ali Haimoud; Rachida Allem, Abdelaziz Merouane
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to estimate the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities of methanolic extracts of date palm fruits grown in Algeria. Four in vitro methods were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (AA), namely β‐carotene‐linoleic acid system, phosphomolybdenum method, 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Ferric‐Reducing Antioxidant Power assay. The anti‐inflammatory activity was carried out using carrageenan‐induced edema model. The extracts were found to be a rich source of polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The methanolic extract of Ali Ourached cultivar showed the highest AA for the four methods cited previously (76.85%, 90.25 μmol of ascorbic acid/g of extract, 206 µg/mL and 56.04 μmol Fe (II) ∕ 100 g DW, respectively). Anti‐inflammatory findings revealed noticeable reduction of paw volume ranging from 35.64 to 67.56% as a response to oral administration of 250 mg/kg dose of methanolic extracts. This study constitutes an endeavor for understanding the bioactive phytochemical variability in date palm fruit cultivars and corresponding antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Practical Applications In this study, the biological potentials of methanolic extracts of date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were evaluated. The date cultivars could potentially be considered as a functional food and could be useful as a good source of natural antioxidant compounds with possible applications to reduce oxidative stress and treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies. The results suggest that date palm fruits contain potent antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties that can find application in food science, food technology and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T03:39:12.80382-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12227
       
  • Purification, Identification and Characterization of Aspartic Proteases of
           Chicken Intestine
    • Authors: S.N. Jamdar; P. Harikumar
      Abstract: Chicken intestine, an underutilized by‐product of poultry industry is a rich source of tissue proteases, especially aspartic proteases. Two of the major aspartic proteases of the tissue were purified from lysosomal and post lysosomal fractions and identified by N‐terminal amino acid sequencing as cathepsin D and pepsin, respectively. The enzymes differed in their molecular and biochemical properties like molecular weight, optimum conditions for protein degradation and stability in different conditions of pH and temperature. Both enzymes were completely inhibited by pepstatin. The kinetic constant, Km for chicken intestinal pepsin and cathepsin D (for haemoglobin substrate) were estimated to be 6.45 μM and 22.7 μM, respectively. The interaction of both enzymes with different food proteins suggests pepsin could be used in applications demanding extensive hydrolysis of proteins, while cathepsin D could be used in those needing controlled degradation of proteins. Practical Applications Chicken intestine is a by‐product of poultry industry. The tissue could serve as a major source of proteases especially aspartic proteases, which can be used as an alternative for proteases currently used in food industries. Aspartic proteases (pepsin and cathepsin D) from this tissue can be recovered and used for preparation of protein hydrolysates in a more economical way. Furthermore, the byproduct can be exploited to increase revenues for poultry processors.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T23:36:40.451656-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12237
       
  • Role of Lys5 Residue in β‐Strand I of the Sweet‐Tasting
           Protein Brazzein
    • Abstract: To identify critical residues responsible for sweetness in brazzein and elucidate the interaction mechanisms of brazzein with the sweet taste receptor, three mutants of Lys5 residue in N‐terminal β‐strand I of brazzein were constructed by site‐directed mutagenesis. Mutations of Lys to Asp or Glu at position 5 of brazzein significantly decreased its sweetness, while mutation of Lys5 to Arg resulted in a molecule with slightly decreased sweetness to des‐pE1M‐brazzein. From these results, it is suggested that the positive charge of Lys5 in β‐strand I of brazzein is essential for its function and necessary for structural integrity. Practical Applications Brazzein is a sweet‐tasting protein which has been isolated from the fruit of the West African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon and is 500 to 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose. Brazzein is attractive as a candidate sweetener for control of obesity, because of its potential sweetness, sugar‐like taste and good stability. The present study offers information on the precise interaction mechanism of brazzein with human sweet taste receptor responsible for the sweetness of brazzein, and can be of great value in future design of sweeter brazzein variants.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T23:36:17.766739-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12231
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 131 - 131
      PubDate: 2016-04-18T00:04:23.084469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12193
       
  • Erratum
    • Pages: 260 - 260
      PubDate: 2016-04-18T00:04:25.289524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12277
       
  • The Protective Role of Tomato Powder in the Toxicity, Fatty Infiltration
           and Necrosis Induced by Oxidized Tallow in Rabbits
    • Authors: Alam Zeb; Iftikharul Haq
      Abstract: Tomato powder (TP) was used against the toxicity produced by thermally oxidized tallow (OT) in rabbits. Male rabbits were fed TP, OT alone or in combination. Serum biochemical markers, hematology and liver pathology were investigated. It was found that TP was rich in lycopene, β‐carotene and phenolic compounds. Rabbits fed OT elevated the serum biochemical markers (total cholesterol, LDL, TG and ALT), which was reduced to normal ranges by the administration of TP. TP alone had significant positive effects on the HDL‐cholesterol and LDL‐cholesterol, but had no significant effects on hematological parameters. OT produced fatty liver, necrosis and in some cases, hepatitis in the rabbit liver. Supplementation of TP reduced the severity of fat generation, and restored the normal architecture of the liver. In conclusion, TP was protective against oxidative stress and consequent toxic effects, fatty infiltration and necrosis caused by thermally OT in rabbits. Practical Applications Tallow is widely used in food preparations. During thermal treatment, it is oxidized with the formation of oxidized compounds producing off‐flavor in foods, which on ingestion causes several adverse effects. Tomato is one of the major components of food preparation and this report, which shows the ameliorative effects of tomato powder against the oxidative stress produced in animals provides an opportunity for controlling the toxicity produced by the oxidized tallow (OT) in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:20:16.267763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12234
       
  • Phytosynthesis and Antileishmanial Activity of Gold Nanoparticles by
           Maytenus Royleanus
    • Authors: Aftab Ahmad; Fatima Syed, Muhammad Imran, Arif Ullah Khan, Kamran Tahir, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Qipeng Yuan
      Abstract: In this report, we present a simple and green approach to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with efficient antileishmanial activity. Phytochemicals from the aqueous extract Maytenus royleanus stem were used to reduce and stabilize the gold ions into metallic nanoparticles. UV‐Vis spectroscopy was employed to detect the characteristic surface plasmon resonance pattern of AuNPs (550 nm). X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X‐ray studies were carried out to determine the crystalline nature and elemental composition of AuNPs. The surface functionalities of nanoparticles were identified with Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD and transmission electron microscopy revealed that AuNPs were mostly hexagonal in shape with an approximate particle size of 30 nm. Significant antileishmanial activity was shown by AuNPs. AuNPs inhibited the parasite growth by 75% after 72 h of incubation. The findings of this study indicate that these nanoparticles could be an alternative, safe, and effective source of antileishmanial agents. Practical Applications Maytenus royleanus is widely used in folk medicine for various types of ailments however; this specie has not been analyzed for various biological activities. Furthermore, no report is available on the synthesis and biological activities of gold nanoparticles from Maytenus roylenus. Metal nanoparticles are extensively used in products such as detergents, soaps, shampoos, cosmetic products, toothpaste and pharmaceutical and medical area. The assessment of the antioxidant properties and leishmanicidal activity of gold nanoparticles from M. royleanus may give an insight into its applications in drug development.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:19:53.90718-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12232
       
  • Phytochemical Characterization of Dioscorea Alata Leaf and Stem By
           Silylation Followed by GC‐MS Analysis
    • Authors: Priyankar Dey; Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
      Abstract: Dioscorea alata L. (family Dioscoreaceae) is a popular food and nutritional supplement in various parts of the world. It is also used for the treatment of diverse ailments in Indian and Chinese ethnopharmacological practices. Recent pharmacognostic studies have demonstrated potent immunomodulatory activities of D. alata extracts. However, the basic phytochemical constituents remained mostly unknown. Therefore, the present study was performed to identify the major phytochemical constituents present in D. alata leaf and stem. The plant materials were initially derived to comparatively volatile and non‐polar state using silylation method. The samples were then analysed using gas chromatography coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. Compound identification were performed by mass fragment comparison. The results revealed the presence of several bioactive constituents which could be attributed to the nutritional value and potent bioactivities of D. alata. Practical Applications D. alata is a nutritious food and its consumption is associated with treatment of various diseases in traditional medicinal systems. The present study, reveals the identity of the bioactive phytochemicals present in the leaf and stem of D. alata. The individual bioactivities of the phytocompounds identified could be correlated with the pharmacological properties of D. alata.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:19:31.670394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12235
       
  • A Study on Biological Activity of the Polyphenol Fraction from Fruits of
           Rosa Rugosa Thunb
    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the biological activity of Rosa rugosa Thunb. extracts in the four versions: methanolic (ME), diethyl ether (EE), ethyl acetate (EA) and water (WE). We studied the antioxidant activity of the extracts in relation to phospholipid membranes, their association constants with the membrane, and antiradical and anti‐inflammatory activity. Percentage of their liposomal encapsulation was also assessed. R. rugosa ME and EA extracts were observed to decrease peroxidation of PC liposomes (UVC‐induced) to similar levels (ME) or lower (EA) compared with the activity of Rosa canina L. The other two extracts (EE and WE) of R. rugosa showed significantly lower antioxidant activity than extracts of R. canina. R. rugosa quenched DPPH• and inhibited COX activity. R. rugosa EA has the highest association constant, whereas the association constants of EE, ME, and WE are approximately 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller. EA extract also showed the highest percentage of encapsulation in liposomal carriers. Practical Applications Literature reports attest to the healing properties of extract of R. canina (Litozin, AXELLUS, Denmark). Our studies have demonstrated that extracts of R. rugosa have strong antioxidant (in relation to UV‐induced oxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes) and antiradical (in relation to DPPH•) properties, indicating a potential use of these extracts as natural antioxidants, e.g., in the food, pharmaceutical and beauty industry, in particular for protecting peroxidation sensitive components such as unsaturated fatty acids. The ability of R. rugosa extract (the EA version) to strongly inhibit oxidation of arachidonic acid, induced by COX‐1 and COX‐2, indicates a possibility of application of this extract in prevention and/or elimination of arthritis. The determined high level of encapsulation of R. rugosa EA extract in liposomal carriers may increase the bioavailability of the extract supplied to the body in the form of liposomal nanocapsules and thus be instrumental in effective treatment of inflammatory conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:18:49.710245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12228
       
  • DNA Damage Inhibition Properties of Sundarban Honey and its Phenolic
           Composition
    • Authors: Rizwana Afroz; E.M. Tanvir, Sudip Paul, Nikhil Chandra Bhoumik, Siew Hua Gan, MD. Ibrahim Khalil
      Abstract: Abstract Sundarban honey is one of the most renowned and popular types of honey from Bangladesh. This study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potentials of Sundarban honey. The estimated polyphenol, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and protein contents in the investigated honey were found to be 593.96 ± 13.71 mg GAEs/kg, 50.00 ± 0.00 mg CEs/kg, 117.04 ± 1.05 mg/kg, 60.58 ± 3.23 g/100 g and 6.43 ± 0.12 mg/g, respectively. Some phenolics including gallic acid, pyrogallol, vanillic acid and trans‐Cinnamic acid, as well as three flavonoids, naringin, rutin and quercetin, were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Sundarban honey was found to possess protective activity against hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation‐induced damage to pBR322. The DNA protection activity of honey corresponded to its antioxidant potential and exhibited dose‐dependent effects. Practical Application Sundarban honey, a wild multifloral honey produced by Apis dorsata bees is one of the most renowned types of honey from Bangladesh and confers protection against oxidative stress‐induced liver and kidney damage. This honey can a be very good source of natural antioxidant which particularly contains some phenolic compounds including gallic, vanillic and trans‐Cinnamic acids as well as three flavonoids (naringin, rutin and quercetin). Sundarban honey can protect against oxidative DNA damage and consecutive illness.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T02:18:28.618127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12240
       
  • Black Rice (Oryza Sativa, Heukmi) Extracts Stimulate Osteogenesis but
           Inhibit Adipogenesis in Mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 Cells
    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of BREs named Heukmi on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. BREs stimulate osteogenesis, enhancing the mRNA expression of runt‐related transcription factor 2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), increasing ALP protein expression and cellular enzyme activity, thus elevating intracellular calcium deposition. BREs also suppressed adipogenesis by downregulating peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ, C/EBPδ and C/EBPα, major regulators in adipogenesis. In cells stimulated with BREs, the rate of fatty acid synthesis was significantly decreased, while there was no effect on the rate of fatty acid oxidation, resulting in reduced intracellular lipid accumulation. This reciprocal regulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis by BREs correlated with the regulation of Wnt signaling pathway. BREs enhanced the expression of genes in Wnt signaling pathway, including Wnt3a and β‐catenin. Together, these results suggest that BREs may enhance osteogenic differentiation and suppress adipogenic differentiation via Wnt signaling. Practical Applications Black rice (Oryza sativa, Heukmi) is a colored rice strain with several known biological effects including anti‐obesogenic activity. Black rice extract regulates cell differentiation thus suppresses adipogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of black rice extract on the differentiation of MSCs. In MSCs, the suppression of adipogenesis could promote osteogenic differentiation program and facilitates bone formation. The present study attempts to shed some light on the questions whether black rice extract induces osteogenesis in MSCs with suppression of adipogenesis. The results of the study could be a basis for further research on this precious rice strain and also to promote its consumption on a large scale.
      PubDate: 2015-12-18T02:44:42.653948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12210
       
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of the Flowers of Prunus persica var.
           davidiana
    • Abstract: The crude methanolic Prunus persica var. davidiana (P. persica var. davidiana) flower extract was subsequently fractionated versus hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and butanol and their potential in vitro anti‐inflammatory effects investigated. The hexane and methylene chloride extracts were withdrawn from the study because they were toxic. The methanolic, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts significantly suppressed the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced nitric oxide (NO) production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expressions. mRNA and protein levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)‐2 were also significantly inhibited by all three extracts relative to the LPS‐treated group. However, only the ethyl acetate fraction reduced prostaglandin E (PGE)2 levels appreciably. All three extracts significantly suppressed interleukin (IL)‐1β protein expression but had no effect on the LPS‐induced TNF‐α and IL‐6 protein levels. The mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α, IL‐1β and IL‐6 were also significantly suppressed, except for the ethyl acetate fraction, which had no appreciable effect on IL‐6 mRNA. Moreover, the LPS‐induced phosphorylations of c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase (JNK)‐1 and extracellular signal‐regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were significantly suppressed by the three extracts, whereas the butanol fraction had no effect on p‐P38 expression. The results of this study demonstrate that the crude methanolic extract (M) of P. persica flowers and the ethyl acetate (E) and butanol (B) fractions possess significant anti‐inflammatory activities and have potential as leads for the discovery of anti‐inflammatory phytocompounds. Practical Applications Inflammation is implicated in a good number of diseases. Chronic and uncontrolled inflammation results in several malignancies, necessitating the need for adequate treatment. The present study exhibits the in vitro efficacy of fractionated P. persica flower extracts against inflammation. The result of this study should be applied in the extraction of leads and further development of inflammatory drugs of natural origin to obviate the noxious effect of current synthetic pharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: 2015-12-08T04:20:37.896178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12206
       
  • In Silico Assessment of the Potential of Patatin as a Precursor of
           Bioactive Peptides
    • Authors: Yu Fu; Wei Wu, Minpeng Zhu, Zhigang Xiao
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate patatin, a major storage protein in potato tuber, as a precursor of bioactive peptides based on in silico approaches. In silico proteolysis of patatin using 16 proteases released numerous bioactive peptides exhibiting antioxidant, angiotensin‐I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)‐IV inhibitory, glucose uptake, neuropeptide inhibitory and ion flow‐regulating capacities. Chymotrypsin C released the most bioactive sequences from patatin compared with other proteases. In addition, the results of PeptideRanker demonstrated that a number of di‐ and tripeptides derived from patatin possessed great potential as bioactive peptides. Practical Applications Patatin is a major protein in potato fruit juice, which is regarded as a by‐product of potato starch industry. Effective conversion of patatin into high value‐added ingredients will significantly improve its potential for food application and elevate its commercial value. This study provides a theoretical basis for development of patatin as a high value‐added and biofunctional ingredient in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-12-02T02:45:18.399737-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12213
       
  • Effects of a Natural Extract of Aronia melanocarpa Berry on Endothelial
           Cell Nitric Oxide Production
    • Abstract: The effects of acute and chronic treatment with Aronia extracts on nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in bovine coronary artery endothelial cells were investigated. Acute time course and concentration–response experiments were performed to determine the time and concentration at which Aronia induced maximal NO synthesis and eNOS phosphorylation. The findings indicate that relatively low concentrations (0.1 μg/mL) of Aronia extract significantly induced NO synthesis and eNOS phosphorylation after 10 min of treatment. Increased sensitivity of eNOS and a significant increase in NO synthesis resulted from longer term stimulation with Aronia (48 h) and an acute re‐treatment of the cells (10 min). Practical Applications These in vitro results may be translated into potential future clinical applications where Aronia extracts may be used for prevention and coadjuvant treatment of cardiovascular diseases via increases in endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and related improvements in vascular functions. Given the dose–response effect of Aronia extract in vitro and metabolism of polyphenols that occurs in humans, dose–response studies would be necessary to define the optimal daily amount to be consumed.
      PubDate: 2015-12-02T02:36:36.845894-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12226
       
  • Physio‐Chemical Changes During Repeated Frying of Cooked Oil: A
           Review
    • Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak; Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru, Keasvan Radha Krishnan
      Abstract: Today, fried foods are very famous everywhere around the world and it can be observed by the increasing number of fast food restaurants in the last few decades. Deep frying of foods at high temperature enhances the sensorial properties which include the unique fried flavor, golden brown color and crispy texture. Chemical reactions like oxidation, polymerization, hydrolysis, etc., take place in the food system, which ultimately alters the physical and chemical properties of fat. Consequently, so many by‐products such as free fatty acids, alcohols, cyclic compounds, dimers and polymers are produced. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the physical and chemical changes during deep fat frying to monitor the quality of fried foods. In this review, we constituted the previous studies on the changes in fats during frying and methods used to analyze the quality of fried oil, in order to explore the areas which require further research. Practical Applications Deep frying is the most common and one of the oldest methods of food preparation worldwide. To reduce the expenses, the oil tends to be used repeatedly for frying. Repeated use of this oil has become a common practice due to low level of awareness among the public about the bad effect of this practice. Nowadays, the consumption of deep‐fried food has gained popularity which may cause increased risk of obesity. When heated repeatedly, changes in physical appearance of the oil will occur such as increased viscosity and darkening in color, which may alter the fatty acid composition of the oil. In this review, we have investigated the detail mechanism of decay of oil and parameters to be measured to know the quality and safety of oil.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27T01:36:48.247783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12215
       
  • The Influence of Hot Water and Calcium Chloride on the Changes in Cell
           Wall Composition and the Activities of Cell Wall Hydrolases during Storage
           in Agaricus bisporus
    • Authors: Y. Karakurt; D. Toka
      Abstract: Mushrooms show significant losses in firmness due mainly to the changes in cell walls after harvest. This study was performed to determine the effects of CaCl2 and hot water dips on the changes in firmness, cell wall composition and hydrolase activities of mushrooms during storage. Mushrooms were treated with various concentrations of CaCl2 and hot water at various degrees and stored for 12 days at 10C. The results showed that the firmness of mushrooms decreased significantly and their cell walls have undergone significant changes during 12 days storage period after harvest. Polysaccharide content decreased significantly during storage. This decrease was mainly due to the decrease in the strong alkaline‐soluble polysaccharides. Xyloglucanase and beta glucanase activities increased significantly during storage, possibly contributing significantly to the polysaccharide losses. CaCl2 and hot water treatments significantly reduced the changes in cell wall components and cell wall hydrolase activities. The results suggest that CaCl2 and hot water treatments could be used to reduce the changes in firmness and cell walls after harvest and extend the shelf life of mushroom. Practical Applications Mushrooms show rapid deterioration after harvest due mainly to changes in cell walls and have a very short shelf life. This significantly reduces their marketing period. The results demonstrate that both hot water and CaCl2 significantly delay cell wall degradation and prolong the shelf life of mushrooms. The results of the study have the potential to be used to decide on what treatments should be used to extend the shelf life and marketing period of mushrooms.
      PubDate: 2015-11-27T01:35:22.263693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12219
       
  • Bioconversion of Platycodon Grandiflorum Saponins by the Platycodin
           D‐Converting Microorganism, Yeast Cyberlindnera Fabianii
    • Abstract: This study sought to identify a new strain of microorganism from a natural source, nuruk, for use in the production of platycodin D (PD) from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG). A non‐Saccharomyces yeast capable of producing PD was isolated from nuruk and identified as Cyberlindnera fabianii. The enzyme responsible for PD production was traced with partially purified crude enzyme extracts (CEE) from yeast C. fabianii 48. The best enzyme fraction responsible for production of PD was the >100 kDa CEE. In addition, the bioconversion pathway for production of PD by the >100 kDa CEE with PD, platycodin D2 (PD2) and platycodin D3 (PD3) substrates was investigated. The >100 kDa CEE was able to degrade PD3 to PD and had no effect on PD and PD2. Practical Applications Platycodin D, the most superior saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), has been reported to have numerous biological effects including prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia, obesity, inflammation and cancer. This study will contribute to future research in drug development, health benefits and applications by searching for potent fermenting microorganisms and developing an improved bioprocess for use in large‐scale production of value‐added PG saponins.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23T03:12:24.679618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12217
       
  • Phytochemical Constituents and the Effect of Processing on Antioxidant
           Properties of Seeds of an Underutilized Wild Legume
           Bauhinia Petersiana
    • Authors: Cathrine Katayi Chidewe; Pride Chirukamare, Loveness Kuziva Nyanga, Cuthbert Johnson Zvidzai, Kudakwashe Chitindingu
      Abstract: Phytochemical constituents and effect of processing on antioxidant activity of the seeds of Bauhinia petersiana were investigated. Phytochemical screening of raw seeds was done on ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of the raw and processed seeds were determined using in vitro tests involving inhibition of DPPH (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl), hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardenolides, proteins, terpenoids, carbohydrates and anthraquinones were variedly distributed in different extracts of the seeds. The raw, boiled and roasted seeds contained similar amounts of total phenolics and tannins, however, flavonoids were higher in the roasted seeds. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of raw and processed seeds was similar to that of ascorbic acid, catechin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Reducing power increased when samples were roasted. Superoxide and H2O2 scavenging activity of raw and processed seeds were similar to that of ascorbic acid. Practical Applications The ground roasted seeds of Bauhinia petersiana have, since time immemorial, been used as a coffee substitute by communities in Zimbabwe. Our research findings indicate that roasting of the seeds of B. petersiana resulted in increased antioxidant potential through in vitro model. These results mean that the seeds of B. petersiana could be a useful source of natural antioxidant if utilized as roasted ground coffee, compared to the raw or boiled seeds. The analyzed seeds also contained a range of phytochemicals including terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, amino acids, saponins, alkaloids and phenolic compounds; hence, it would be a useful natural source of various phytochemicals that have health benefits. These research findings would be useful in promoting commercial production of coffee or other products from the wild coffee bean.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:22:04.4446-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12221
       
  • The Influence of Natural Astaxanthin on the Formulation and Storage of
           Marinated Chicken Steaks
    • Abstract: The present study reports on the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp processing by‐products using corn oil. Its antioxidant activities at different concentrations were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging (IC50 = 6.3 μg/mL), reducing power, β‐carotene bleaching (IC50 = 20.4 μg/mL) and total antioxidant capacity assays. Interestingly, astaxanthin extract showed strong antioxidant activity. The astaxanthin from shrimp by‐products was added to marinated chicken steaks as a natural antioxidant, and samples were stored for 7 days at 4C. Our results show that with 10 mg of astaxanthin/kg of chicken steaks, lipid oxidation during storage was minimal and microbiological quality was preserved. These results were further confirmed by histological and sensory analyses. Overall, the results indicated that the addition of natural astaxanthin can minimize lipid oxidation and improve microbiological stability during the formulation and storage of marinated chicken steaks. Practical Applications Shrimp waste is one of the important sources of natural astaxanthin. This carotenoid was reported to be a potent antioxidant and has a variety of biological activities. So, the natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp by‐products can be considered a promising candidate for application as a natural antioxidant agent for use in chicken meat formulations to control and retard lipid oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:03:57.093353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12224
       
  • Effect of Citrus paradisi and Ocimum sanctum Infusions on Blood Pressure
           Regulation and Its Association with Renal Alterations in Obese Rats
    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Citrus paradisi and Ocimum sanctum infusions in obese rats, and its association with renal alterations. Both herbal infusions decreased blood pressure. The effect of O. sanctum was related to improved renal vascular remodeling, renin and angiotensinogen gene downregulation, as well as reduced renal triglyceride accumulation, and lipid and protein oxidation. Hibiscus sabdariffa showed similar results, which was used for comparison purposes due to its antihypertensive properties. Conversely, C. paradisi exerted a slight effect on these renal alterations, suggesting that its antihypertensive activity may be related to other mechanisms. The hypotensive effects of O. sanctum and C. paradisi may be related to their epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin content, respectively. Furthermore, new phytochemicals were identified in the infusions, such as hederagenin and oleanolic acid β‐D‐glucuronopyranosyl, choline, trigonelline and sitsirikine. The results suggest that these infusions might be used as adjuvant treatments for obesity‐related hypertension. Practical Applications Ocimum sanctum leaves and flowers and Citrus paradisi fruit are widely recommended in the traditional medicine due to their hypotensive properties. In this study, we evaluated the antihypertensive potential of infusions elaborated with these herbal materials, which are inexpensive beverages of easy preparation. The findings of this study demonstrate that O. sanctum and C. paradisi infusions decrease blood pressure. Therefore, these herbs could be used as functional ingredients in the elaboration of beverages, providing a new therapeutic approach for obesity‐related hypertension.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:03:24.274373-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12216
       
  • Optimization Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and
           Inhibitory Activities of Angiotensin I‐Converting Enzyme (ACE),
           α‐Glucosidase and α‐Amylase from Mentha
           Spicata L
    • Abstract: Ideal extraction conditions were estimated based on the maximum phenolic content, antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity of angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE), α‐glucosidase and α‐amylase enzymes from Mentha spicata L. The optimum extraction conditions for phenolic compounds with maximum ACE inhibitory activity occurred in a mixture of acetone and water (1:1) at 40C for 6 h. The optimal extraction conditions for phenolic compounds with maximum α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity were obtained in a mixture of methanol, acetone and water extraction (1:1:1) and in a mixture of methanol and distilled water (1:1) at 50C for 8 h. The major free phenolic compound extracted with the various extraction solvents, times and temperatures was rutin. The predominant bound phenolic compounds were caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, which did not exist as free phenolic compounds. Practical Applications This study suggested the optimum extraction conditions of phenolic compounds with maximum capacity of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties recommended to be used in food industry as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical herbal extract.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:02:40.500828-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12222
       
  • Effect of pH during Extraction on the Antioxidant and Antiglycated
           Activities of Polysaccharides from Opuntia Ficus Indica
    • Authors: Mohamed Aymen Chaouch; Jawhar Hafsa, Christophe Rihouey, Didier Le Cerf, Hatem Majdoub
      Abstract: The extraction of carbohydrates from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes at different pH was carried out by ultrasound followed by ethanol precipitation and dialysis. The extraction yields ranged from 4.6 to 24.5%. The highest content in galacturonic acid was observed for the acidic extract (37.4%). On high‐performance size exclusion chromatography, the average molecular weight of all extracts ranged from 7,500,000 to 9,610,000 g/mol. The antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides was tested by three assays (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazil radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and Linoleic acid peroxidation). The glucose‐induced advanced glycation end‐product (AGE) formation of all extracts was also carried out using in vitro galactose–bovine serum albumin assay. Results showed that the acidic extract exhibited even better antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of AGE formation. Practical Applications Plant extracts containing polysaccharides are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin and epithelium wounds and of mucous membrane irritation. In this case, polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, which is a plant native to South America and cultivated in dry regions as an important nutrient and food source, also are used in traditional medicine for their antiulcer and wound‐healing effects. Thus, Opuntia ficus indica cladodes could be a natural candidate for research of herbal complement to the treatment of many diseases. The results found in this study reveal that the extraction under acidic conditions may enhance the antioxidant and antiglycated potential of polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T01:41:54.088071-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12220
       
  • Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Cytoprotective Effect of Soybean Milk
           Fermented with Lactobacillus Fermentum Zhao
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity and protective effects of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum Zhao (FSM‐FLZ) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‐induced porcine renal proximal tubule LLC‐PK1 cells. FSM‐FLZ was effective against DPPH and ●OH radical in a concentration‐dependent manner. FSM‐FLZ treatment significantly increased cell viability and reduced the H2O2‐induced oxidative injury in LLC‐PK1 cells. In addition, FSM‐FLZ dose‐dependently decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lipid peroxidation, and increased the activities and mRNA expressions of endogenous catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes. This study demonstrated that FSM‐FLZ is a free radical scavenger and protects against H2O2‐induced oxidative injury in LLC‐PK1 cells through reducing intracellular ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity. Practical Applications Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a well‐known probiotic and showed antimicrobial, antitumor, reduction of serum cholesterol and immune‐modulation activity. Lactobacillus fermentum ZHAO is a newly discovered LAB; it was isolated from Yak yoghurt. It was used to ferment soybean milk and the antioxidation effects of soybean milk were determined. L. fermentum ZHAO fermented soybean milk could be used as a new functional food.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16T03:18:31.258881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12223
       
  • Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Composite Shark Catfish
           (Pangasius pangasius) Skin Collagen Films Integrated with Chitosan and
           Calcium Salts
    • Authors: Jeevithan Elango; Jeya Shakila Robinson, Jeyasekaran Geevaretnam, Emmanuel J. Rupia, Varatharajakumar Arumugam, Sukumar Durairaj, Wu Wenhui
      Abstract: Collagen, collagen–chitosan (C1), collagen–calcium acetate (C2) and collagen–chitosan–calcium acetate (C3) films were prepared from shark catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin, and were investigated for their mechanical and functional properties. Collagen was characterized as type I and contained three identical chains. C3 film had higher tensile strength (10.4 MPa) and Young's modulus (570 MPa). Composite films had low swelling rates and solubility and lasted for 6 days before complete biodegradation. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested that the interactions of collagen with chitosan and calcium salts affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple helical structure. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph of collagen films depicted the formation of spindle‐like structures with chitosan, granules with calcium acetate salts and porous structures in C3 films. Therefore, it was concluded that the collagen films had better mechanical, functional and in‐vitro biodegradation properties by the addition of calcium and chitosan. These results demonstrate the potential application of composite collagen films from shark catfish skin in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Practical Applications To reuse fish‐processing waste for biomedical materials, multicomposite collagen films were prepared from shark catfish skin and examined for their physicofunctional and mechanical properties. The purified collagen was combined with calcium and chitosan to improve the film properties. These results suggest that collagen films had better mechanical, in‐vitro biodegradation and functional properties by the addition of calcium and chitosan. Accordingly, the prepared multicomposite fish collagen films could be suitable materials in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries as alternatives to mammalian collagen films.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16T03:17:08.730878-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12214
       
  • Enhanced in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides From
           Enteromorpha Prolifera by Enzymatic Degradation
    • Abstract: In order to improve the antioxidant activity of polysaccharide derived from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP), PEP was hydrolyzed to relatively low molecular weight polysaccharides in the presence of either pectinase or gluco‐amylase. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the hydrolysis conditions based on the polysaccharide degradation rate. Optimum hydrolysis for pectinase was found to be: enzyme concentration 9.36 U/mL, reaction temperature 56C and pH 4.45; for gluco‐amylase, the optimum conditions were: enzyme concentration 14.20 U/mL, reaction temperature 49C and pH 4.48. The enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharide obtained under optimal conditions were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by determining their ability to scavenge 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The results indicate that the enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharide exhibited stronger free radical scavenging ability than nondegraded polysaccharide, while pectinase hydrolyzed polysaccharide was found to possess superior radical scavenging ability to that of gluco‐amylase hydrolyzed polysaccharide. Practical Applications In order to fully utilize polysaccharide resources, an effective method to improve the antioxidant activity of Enteromorpha prolifera was established by enzymatic degradation. The hydrolysates obtained by this method may be used as ingredients of functional foods due to their antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T23:27:42.186411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12218
       
  • Phenolic Profile, Organic Acids and Antioxidant Activity of Frozen Pulp
           and Juice of the Jambolan (Syzygium Cumini)
    • Abstract: Phenolic compounds belonging to the families of flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic acids and t‐resveratrol (quantified by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and fluorescence detection), organic acids and in vitro antioxidant activity were determined for the frozen pulp and juice of jambolan (also known as black plum). The main organic acids were malic and lactic. The concentration of total phenolics and monomeric anthocyanins are similar to those of other foods considered as sources of these compounds in the human diet. The flavonoids present were procyanidin B1 and catechin, and the main monoglucoside anthocyanin present was cyanidin 3‐glucoside, representing 11% of total monomeric anthocyanins of the products. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were the main phenolic acids. The antioxidant activities of jambolan products were considered acceptable as compared to other potentially antioxidant foods. The bioactive compounds contributed significantly to the total antioxidant activity of the jambolan products. It was noted that procyanidin B1 was the main antioxidant compound present. Practical Applications Several studies on the bioactive compounds of jambolan (also known as black plum) have been reported, but few of them describe the properties of products derived from this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of processed jambolan products in terms of a number of phenolic groups and organic acids to provide new information relevant to the development of potential antioxidant foods. The black plum is a perishable fruit with only one annual harvest, which hinders its consumption in the fresh state. This paper proposes two types of processed foods based on this fruit for use in fruit processing plants.
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T06:00:40.719767-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12209
       
  • Screening of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa Plant for
           α‐Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
    • Authors: E. Sabina; I.S.M. Zaidul, Kashif Ghafoor, J.M. Jaffri, F. Sahena, E.E. Babiker, V. Perumal, M. Hamed, M. Amid, A. Khatib
      Abstract: Phaleria macrocarpa is an herbal plant used in Malaysia to enhance vitality. The aim of this study was to screen the α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of different parts (fruit flesh, leaves and stem) of P. macrocarpa. Methanol (polar) and n‐hexane (nonpolar) extracts, obtained by room temperature solvent extraction, were evaluated for in vitro α‐glucosidase activity inhibition. The compounds were identified by using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) according to their similarity index of >70%, which might be responsible for α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity. The methanol extract of the fruit flesh had the highest yield (25.6 ± 0.5%), whereas the n‐hexane extract of the stem is more effective against α‐glucosidase activity (IC50 0.8 ± 0.1 μg/mL). The fruit flesh (IC501.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL) and leaves (IC501.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL) had also well effectively. The identified metabolites are predominantly phenolics, carbohydrates, triterpenes and organic acids, such as D‐fructose, squalene, α‐linolenic acid and α‐D‐glucopyranoside. In‐depth chemical profiling using GC‐MS was performed for the first time for this plant to assess the likely compounds present in the extract that could be associated with anti‐hyperglycemic activity. Of the three parts tested, every part indicates the potential α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity and hexane extract of stem showed more inhibitory activity among all extracts. Thus, P. macrocarpa can attenuate hyperglycemia by potently inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, making it a viable plant as a source of natural compounds for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Practical Application P. macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. belongs to the Thymelaeaceae family, which is known as “Mahkota Dewa” is one of the well‐known traditional herbs in South Asian countries. Every part of this plant has been reported to be used as a traditional medicine for diabetic treatment for many years. In the present study, the ability of this plant to inhibit carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α‐glucosidase) was explored. All extracts tested exhibited the content to inhibit yeast α‐glucosidase enzymes in vitro, and these beneficial effects appear to be due to some bioactive compounds in P. macrocarpa. Our preliminary investigation gives a principle for further animal and clinical studies of a possible use of P. macrocarpa for the management of diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2015-11-08T20:52:32.450114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12212
       
  • Subacute Effects of Standardized Fumaria Vaillantii Lois. Ethanol Extract
           on Trace Element Levels, Biochemical and Histopathological Parameters in
           Experimental Liver Toxicity
    • Abstract: In this study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extracts of Fumaria vaillantii Lois. was investigated against CCl4‐induced toxicity in rats. F. vaillantii (500 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and tissue malondialdehyde levels, and a significant increase in the reduced glutathione and catalase levels, compared with the CCl4 group. These findings were approved by histopathological observations. Additionally, a significant decrease was found in liver Cu levels (18.5%) of the extract‐treated group (500 mg/kg), while an increase in liver Zn (16.2%) levels was observed compared with the CCl4 group. These changes in liver Zn and Cu levels caused by F. vaillantii extract may contribute to its positive effects on liver toxicity. Phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extract were examined and the extract was standardized by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection on the basis of rutin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids as markers. Practical Applications Fumaria species have been used both as food and traditional medicine. In some Mediterranean countries, the leaves of the plant are cooked or eaten as salad. In Turkey, they are also being drunk as herbal tea, eaten as salad and roasted. The results suggested that F. vaillantii ethanol extract standardized by rutin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids had a significant protective effect against CCl4‐induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, F. vaillantii can be consumed safely and because of its beneficial effect on liver toxicity, its standardized ethanol extract can be used in the preparation of herbal medicines or food supplements in pharmaceutical and food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T00:39:27.466856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12208
       
  • Effects of Chard (Beta Vulgaris L. Var. Cicla) on Cardiac Damage in
           Valproic Acid–Induced Toxicity
    • Pages: 132 - 139
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chard on valproic acid (VPA)‐induced cardiac damage. Female Sprague‐Dawley rats were grouped as control, chard given control (100 mg/kg/day, by gavage), VPA (500 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) and chard given VPA (100 mg/kg/day chard by gavage, 500 mg/kg/day VPA, intraperitoneally). The aqueous extracts of chard leaves were given 1 h prior to administration of VPA for 7 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total sialic acid (SA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity significantly increased in the VPA group compared with the control group (P 
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:19:28.193289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12202
       
  • Purification and Characterization of Trypsin Inhibitor from Yellowfin Tuna
           (Thunnus Albacores) Roe
    • Authors: Sappasith Klomklao; Soottawat Benjakul, Hideki Kishimura, Kazufumi Osako, Benjamin K. Simpson
      Pages: 140 - 147
      Abstract: Trypsin inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from the roe of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) by heat treatment at 60C for 10 min, followed by column chromatographies on Sephacryl S‐200, Sephadex G‐50 and DEAE‐cellulose. The trypsin inhibitor was purified 11.29‐fold with a yield of 46.02%. Yellowfin tuna trypsin inhibitor migrated as a single band using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified trypsin inhibitor had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa when analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. No inhibitory activity was obtained under reducing condition of β‐mercaptoethanol. Maximal activity was recorded at pH 7.0 and 50C. The purified inhibitor was stable in the temperature range of 20–60C for 10 min and in the pH range of 5–8. NaCl concentration up to 3% did not significantly affect the inhibitory activity of purified trypsin inhibitor. However, the activity decreased when trypsin inhibitor was incubated with metal ions (Cu+, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) at ambient temperature for 30 min. Practical Applications Trypsin inhibitor from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) roe, the by‐products of tuna processing, can be purified. The yellowfin tuna trypsin inhibitor is a salt‐stable peptide and could be useful for food applications, especially surimi.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:19:48.581684-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12204
       
  • Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity and In Vitro Growth
           Inhibition of Struvite Crystals by Ipomoea Eriocarpa Leaf Extracts
    • Authors: Moonjit Das; Himaja Malipeddi, N. Arunai Nambiraj, Reshma Rajan
      Pages: 148 - 160
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the total phenol, flavonoid, terpenoid and sterol contents and the antioxidant properties of water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Ipomoea eriocarpa. The antioxidant activity of the three extracts was studied using 2,2‐diphenyl‐dipicrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide methods. The in vitro growth inhibition of struvite crystals was also investigated in the presence of three extracts. Struvite crystals were grown using the single diffusion gel growth technique. The crystals were characterized using powder X‐ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric with differential thermal analysis. The ethanol extract showed the highest phenolic, flavonoid and terpenoid contents and possessed better antioxidant properties compared with the water and chloroform extracts. Furthermore, the ethanol extract was the only one that showed growth‐inhibition properties. The inhibition of crystal growth by different concentrations of the leaf extract of I. eriocarpa was promising and rapid, indicating that the plant can potentially prevent and cure struvite‐based urolithiasis. Practical Applications Ipomoea eriocarpa is traditionally used as a vegetable in India. The seeds are nutritious and a good source of carbohydrates and proteins. From the present studies, it can be concluded that regular consumption of this plant can provide a good source of natural antioxidants to the body. Therapeutic doses of the ethanol extract can inhibit or reduce the size of struvite‐based kidney stones and could help in the passage of stones through the urinary tube. Thus, the plant can potentially prevent as well as cure struvite‐based urolithiasis.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T03:03:55.626486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12205
       
  • Anti‐Glycation of Active Compounds Purified from Graptopetalum
           Paraguayense
    • Pages: 161 - 169
      Abstract: Graptopetalum paraguayense was shown to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti‐hepatocellular carcinoma activities in a recent study. In this work, fractions of the G. paraguayense aqueous solution were extracted using n‐hexane, ethyl acetate (EF) and n‐butanol, and its antioxidative and anti‐glycative activities were evaluated. The EF extract exhibited the highest antioxidative activity, potently inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reduced glycation‐induced protein oxidation. Additionally, the EF extract protected Hep G2 cells against AGE‐induced DNA damage. Five major components were isolated and identified in the EF fraction by semi‐preparative high‐performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance: gallic acid, isoquercitrin‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate), astragalin‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate), isoquercitrin‐2‐acetyl‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate) and astragalin‐2‐acetyl‐6‐(3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutarate). G. paraguayense exhibited antioxidant and anti‐glycation activities, likely because of the presence of gallic acid. The findings indicate the potential for using G. paraguayense for development of novel treatments for diabetes. Practical Applications Herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia are relatively cheap and locally available. The results indicated that the extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense may be developed as functional foods for antidiabetic treatment mediated by attenuations of advanced glycation end product oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08T22:31:31.06651-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12203
       
  • Exogenous Application of Oxalic Acid Delays Pericarp Browning and Maintain
           Fruit Quality of Litchi cv. “Gola”
    • Authors: Muhammad Shafique; Ahmad Sattar Khan, Aman Ullah Malik, Muhammad Shahid
      Pages: 170 - 179
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of oxalic acid on pericarp browning, biochemical quality, antioxidative and enzymatic changes in litchi cv. “Gola” fruit under extended cold storage, which has not been studied extensively. Postharvest application of 2 mM oxalic acid reduced fruit weight loss and delayed pericarp browning by maintaining higher anthocyanin contents, as compared with control. Activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes in litchi peel as well as pulp tissues were reduced in fruit treated with 2 mM oxalic acid during 28 days of cold storage. Activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and level of total phenolic contents and total antioxidants in litchi peel as well as pulp tissues were significantly higher in 2 mM oxalic acid‐treated fruit. In conclusion, postharvest application of 2 mM oxalic acid significantly delayed pericarp browning and maintained better quality of litchi cv. “Gola” fruit during cold storage. Practical Applications Pericarp browning of litchi fruit is associated with postharvest oxidative stress, which deteriorates its quality, long‐term storability and commercial value. Postharvest application of oxalic acid has been found to be a useful strategy to overcome the issue of pericarp browning and enhance antioxidative potential of litchi under low temperature storage; thereby, applicable to commercial supply chains for domestic and export markets. Furthermore, this study may facilitate in understanding the changes in antioxidative potential and enzymatic activities during cold storage with gradual browning in pulp as well as peel tissues of litchi.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T21:55:19.095624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12207
       
  • Potential Protective Effect of Cold‐Pressed Coriandrum Sativum Oil
           Against Carbon Tetrachloride‐Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    • Pages: 190 - 200
      Abstract: The protective effect of cold‐pressed coriander (Coriandrum sativum) oil (CO) against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was studied. CO is characterized by its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with two doses of CO (100 and 200 mg/kg) with administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg, CCl4 in olive oil) for 8 weeks. Liver biochemical parameters were determined in animals treated with CO. The results clearly demonstrated that CO augments the antioxidants' defense mechanism against CCl4‐induced toxicity and provides evidence that CO may have a therapeutic role in free radical–mediated diseases. Treatment with CO significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, kidney function indicators, protein profile, lipid profile and antioxidant markers of CCl4‐induced liver injury rats. The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the CO supplements as the hepatic malondialdehyde levels were lowered, whereas reduced glutathione levels were elevated. The hepatoprotective impact of CO was also supported by histopathological studies of liver tissue. Histopathological examination showed that CO reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis in CCl4‐treated rats. The results indicate the potentiality of CO to act as natural antioxidant by preventing the peroxidative damage caused by CCl4. Practical Applications Biologically active natural compounds are of interest for pharmaceutical industry in the prevention of different diseases caused by lipid peroxidative damage (i.e., ischemia, coronary atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and carcinogenesis). In the present study, the capability of cold‐pressed Coriandrum sativum oil (CO) to protect against CCl4‐induced hepatotoxicity was investigated. The study suggested that CO has potent hepatoprotective activity in CCl4‐induced liver injury in rats. CO possesses antioxidant potential and inhibits the deleterious effect of free radicals generated by CCl4. CO is rich in tocols, phenolic compounds and other bioactive constituents, which might be responsible for the protective effects. These observations provide biochemical data supporting the potential clinical use of CO in the treatment of some hepatic disorders. The results suggest that the ability of CO to ameliorate CCl4‐induced liver injury is associated with its antioxidant and radical‐scavenging characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T00:39:08.7935-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12211
       
 
 
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