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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 262 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (9 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (59 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (194 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (194 journals)            First | 1 2     

International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Food Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Distribution Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista Ceres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SeaFood Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Food Sciences     Open Access  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ubisi Mail     Full-text available via subscription  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover   Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 27]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
  • The Molecular Mechanisms of Apoptosis Induced by Allium flavum L.
           and Synergistic Effects with New‐Synthesized Pd(II) Complex on Colon
           Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Milena Milutinović; Milan Stanković, Danijela Cvetković, Vuk Maksimović, Biljana Šmit, Radoslav Pavlović, Snežana Marković
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Considering that induction of apoptosis is one of the main strategies in cancer therapy, the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxic effects of Allium flavum L. on colon cancer cell lines were investigated and applied in single and co‐treatments with new‐synthesized Pd(II) complex. The analysis of chemical composition identified caffeic acid glycosides as the most dominant phenolics in A. flavum extract. In all investigated extracts, A. flavum showed cytotoxic effects on colon cancer cells (IC50 = 1.64–84 μg/mL) but not on healthy cells. Combinations of plant extracts with Pd(II) complex caused lower IC50 values and better proapoptotic activity. Pd(II) complex induced high percentage of necrosis in a single treatment, but in the combination with plant extracts it had better proapoptotic and lower necrotic activity. Treatments and co‐treatments induced higher O2− production and influenced apoptosis biomarkers, leading to Fas protein overexpression and activation of caspases 8 and 9. Practical Applications In view of the achieved anticancer properties, insufficiently investigated Allium flavum L. is a promising candidate for developing new anticancer compounds and deserves further research and scientific validation. This study has great impact on investigation of new anticancer substances from natural source, focuses on the importance of using plants as the source of medicinal drugs, contributes to the development of the appropriate therapy and gives contribution in both scientific and practical means. Because of its synergistic actions with the newly synthesized chemical anticancer agent and ability to reduce side effects (thus reducing necrotic activity of Pd[II] complex), A. flavum can be used as a dietary food supplement or supplement to chemotherapy perhaps in combination with currently used chemotherapeutics or in some strategies in cancer therapy. This finding is also important from a nutritional point of view because this extracts contain significant amounts of bioactive constituents, which provide health benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:49:16.606927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12123
       
  • Hepatoprotective Effect of Lentinus edodes Mycelia Fermented Formulation
           against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Rats
    • Authors: Won‐Seok Chung; Jing‐Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Jong‐Min Park, Sun‐Ok Park, Sang‐Jong Lee, Songhee Jeon, Hojun Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The hepatoprotective effects of fermented black rice bran extracts (FF1 and FF2: black rice bran fermented by Lentinus edodes derived from mycelium supplemented with soybean or Hovenia dulcis) and their associated mechanisms were evaluated. In an in vitro experiment, FFs caused significant amelioration of the metabolic function of rat hepatocytes treated with NH4Cl. In addition, administration of FFs to rats with chronic liver injury induced by 12‐week continual alcohol consumption resulted in significant restoration of body weight shrinkage, notable attenuation of excessive aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and endotoxin in serum, malondialdehyde in liver and the lactulose/mannitol ratio in urine. Furthermore, FF1 or FF2 also caused significant downregulation of gene expression of several critical inflammatory mediators (interleukin‐6, tumor necrosis factor‐alpha, cyclooxygenase‐2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase). Histopathological findings also indicated that FFs reduced inflammation, necrosis and fatty infiltration in liver tissue. Taken together, FFs exert hepatoprotective effects through anti‐inflammatory and anti‐lipid peroxidative properties and regulation of intestinal permeability. Practical Applications In this study, mycelia fermentation was utilized as a feasible strategy for enhancing the hepatotherapeutic effect of black rice and herbs. The findings demonstrated that Hovenia dulcis exerts a synergistic protective effect on an alcoholic liver disease animal model and could provide a new effective potential approach to alleviate alcoholic liver diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:43:25.313996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12124
       
  • Identification of β‐Glucosidase Activity of Lactobacillus
           Plantarum CRNB22 in Kimchi and Its Potential to Convert Ginsenoside
           Rb1 from Panax Ginseng
    • Authors: Gereltuya Renchinkhand; Young W. Park, Soo‐Hyun Cho, Gyu‐Yong Song, Hyoung Churl Bae, Sol‐Ji Choi, Myoung Soo Nam
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study involved isolating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that exhibit β‐glucosidase activity from kimchi and examining the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme on saponin. Of the 28 types of LAB found in Korean kimchi that 6 strains exhibited positive β‐glucosidase activity based on the esculin iron agar test, only CRNB22 strain was able to hydrolyze ginsenoside Rb1. The crude enzyme from this kimchi LAB strain showed strong ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rg3 and Rg5. This isolated strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum via an API 50 kit and 16S rDNA analysis (99.9% homology) and was therefore named Lactobacillus plantarum CRNB22. The optimum incubation conditions for L. plantarum CRNB22 were found to be 40C at pH 7.0 in de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe (MRS) broth. L. plantarum CRNB22 was further identified to be a hetero‐fermentative bacterium, producing mostly oxalic and lactic acids after 72 h of incubation in 10% reconstituted skim milk. Practical Applications Fermentation of Panax ginseng can yield many compounds converted from ginsenoside that have various biological functions compared with nonfermented ginseng. These compounds are widely consumed in Korea and Asian countries in the form of extracts, alcohols, candy, fermented liquids and pharmacological products. This present study has shown that a kimchi lactic acid bacteria strain has a strong ability to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rg3 and Rg5, and the strain can be used to manufacture yogurts, beverages, cosmetics and other products that are supplemented with ginsenosides. It is expected that the demonstration of health‐promoting functional properties of ginsenoside Rg3 and Rg5 would enhance the growth of the ginseng food industry.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T20:43:09.656762-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12116
       
  • Phytochemical Profiling and Assessment of Low‐Density Lipoprotein
           Oxidation, Foam Cell‐Preventing Ability and Antioxidant Activity of
           Commercial Products of Emblica officinalis Fruit
    • Authors: Sinjitha S. Nambiar; Nandini Prasad Shetty
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Emblica officinalis, a medicinal fruit, despite its versatility in preventing diseases, lacks widespread consumption owing to its astringent taste. Hence, it is commercially modified into various products to increase its consumption. This study compares antioxidant activity and atherosclerotic foam cell‐prevention ability of popular commercial products of E. officinalis with that of unmodified fruit juice. The antioxidant activity of the capsule product was similar to pure juice, followed by sweetened fruit product. The capsule product showed the highest low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation prevention (87%) next only to natural juice (91.15%). Capsule had the highest ability to prevent uptake of oxidized LDL in macrophages, equaling pure juice. Capsule had the highest phenolic content similar to pure juice. Phenolic compounds contributed 93% of the total antioxidant activity. High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis of capsule and natural juice showed similar phenolic and flavonoid profiles indicating that capsule product could reproduce the beneficial effects of natural fruit with none of its astringent taste. Practical Application Emblica officinalis fruit is known for its versatility in curing diseases, but it has an astringent taste which is altered in commercially modified products to ensure widespread consumption. The health benefits of these products, however, are not well known. The study was conducted to detect the antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid compound content in these various processed foods. This could help generate consumer awareness on the nutritional benefits of these products as compared with the fruit in its natural form.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T02:02:20.615061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12122
       
  • Gastroprotective Effects of Methanolic Extract of Sterculia
           nobilis Smith Seeds in Reserpine‐Induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice
           
    • Authors: Jia‐Le Song; Peng Sun, Rui Wang, Xin Zhao
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract from Sterculia nobilis Smith seeds (SSME) on reserpine (25 mg/kg)‐induced gastric ulcer using an Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse animal model. Gastric juice secretion, total acidity of gastric juice, serum neuropeptides, including motilin (MTL), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SS) levels, as well as gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. SSME effectively reduced reserpine‐induced gastric juice secretion and decreased the total acidity in gastric juice. In addition, SSME reduced the serum levels of MTL and SP, and increased VIP and SS levels in serum. It also resulted in an increase in SOD and a reduction of MDA levels in gastric tissue. Results from the present study suggest that SSME has a gastroprotective effect on reserpine‐induced gastric ulcer in mice by reducing gastric juice secretion, modulating serum neuropeptide levels, increasing the gastric SOD activity and attenuating the gastric MDA generation. Practical Applications The Sterculia nobilis Smith seed has been traditionally consumed as a fruit in South China, Vietnam, India and Indonesia. It has been demonstrated to exhibit numerous beneficial functions such as regulation of gastrointestinal function and improving eyesight.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T01:57:13.643214-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12125
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: i - i
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T01:38:08.830277-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12073
       
  • Central Composite Design Applied to Optimize the Hydroalcoholic Extraction
           of Bilberry (Vaccinium Myrtillus L.) Fruits
    • Authors: Violeta Nour; Ion Trandafir, Sina Cosmulescu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The present study optimized the hydroalcoholic extraction conditions to maximize the anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bilberry extracts. Optimal conditions with regard to ethanol concentration (X1: 8.17–91.83% v/v), extraction time (X2: 8.27–41.73 days) and solid‐to‐liquid ratio (X3: 0.38–1.22, w/v) were identified using central composite design combined with response surface methodology. The results showed a good fit with the proposed second‐order polynomial models for all responses (R2 > 0.964). Among the three extraction parameters, ethanol concentration had the main impact on the extraction efficiency for all responses. The optimum extraction conditions that maximized total anthocyanin content are ethanol concentration 91.83%, solid‐to‐liquid ratio 1.22 and extraction time 23.5 days, whereas maximum total phenolic content under the same conditions is reached after 28 days of extraction. Tristimulus colorimetry was used to evaluate color properties of bilberry extracts, and correlations were assessed between CIELab indices, anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Practical Applications Bilberries possess high antioxidant potential due to their richness in phenolics, especially anthocyanins, which occur not only in the skin but throughout the red fruit flesh. These compounds can be efficiently extracted with ethanol or aqueous‐based ethanol solutions in order to obtain bilberry liqueur, a noble, full of color and flavor drink, with potential health benefits. In this study, optimum conditions for the hydroalcoholic extraction of bilberries were determined. Alcohol concentration, extraction time and solid‐to‐liquid ratio were the extraction parameters investigated in order to optimize the total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bilberry extract. Optimal operating conditions to maximize the efficiency of the extraction can be used in handcrafted or industrial application.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T00:18:17.97455-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12119
       
  • Comparison of Chemical Composition, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant
           Activity of Three Olive‐Waste Cakes
    • Authors: E. Uribe; A. Pasten, R. Lemus‐Mondaca, A. Vega‐Gálvez, I. Quispe‐Fuentes, J. Ortiz, K. Di Scala
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical composition, phenolic, tocopherol, flavonoid, flavanol, dietary fiber and β‐carotene contents, as well as the antioxidant activity of three olive‐waste cakes from varieties Picual, Frantoio and Arbequina. Frantoio presented the highest dietary fiber content and Arbequina showed the highest β‐carotene content. Results indicated that total phenolic content followed the sequence (Frantoio > Picual > Arbequina). Picual presented the highest free phenolic and flavonoid contents (3499.11 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g dry weight (DW) and 1331.45 mg CTE/100 g DW, respectively) showing the highest antioxidant capacity. The identified free phenolic compounds of the three varieties were gallic acid, 3‐hydroxytyrosol, rutin hydrate, tyrosol and p‐coumaric acids. The α‐tocopherol was the predominant for the three varieties. Practical Aplications Olive oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value‐added ingredients for various industrial applications. Therefore, the information here reported may stimulate engineers to re‐evaluate these wastes, with the possibility to recover significant amounts of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity and dietary fiber in order to produce food additives in the scenario of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T00:15:51.935325-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12120
       
  • Rosmarinic Acid Levels, Phenolic Contents, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial
           Activities of the Extracts from Salvia verbenaca L. Obtained with
           Different Solvents and Procedures
    • Authors: Milica Kostić; Bojan Zlatković, Bojana Miladinović, Slavoljub Živanović, Tatjana Mihajilov‐Krstev, Dragana Pavlović, Dušanka Kitić
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The present paper investigated the quantities of total polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives, rosmarinic acid and thujone, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in 12 Salvia verbenaca L. extracts. The sample, prepared with 80% methanol using ultrasound extraction (UE) contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (236.44 ± 12.80 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, 190.27 ± 9.89 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g), tannins (187.81 ± 12.93 mg CE/g, 148.95 ± 10.00 mg GAE/g) and hydroxycinnamic derivatives (13.52 ± 0.24%), and was superior in the antimicrobial activity test. The highest amount of total flavonoids (10.55 ± 0.44 μg of rutin/mg) was quantified in the ethanolic extract prepared using UE. The extract made with 80% ethanol using UE had the highest rosmarinic acid level (94.00 ± 1.58 μg/mg) and was the most active in the β‐carotene/linoleic acid system. The 80% methanolic extract made by maceration was the most active in 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl assay. Thujone was absent from all extracts. Practical Applications The use of plants and products derived from plants has increased in the food industry in the past decade because of the comforts and advantages they provide when used as natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. The genus Salvia L. has been proven to be a relevant source of powerful natural antioxidant agents and preservatives used in food and medical products for centuries. The results indicate that Salvia verbenaca extracts are rich in polyphenolics, particularly in rosmarinic acid. The alcoholic extracts exerted significant levels of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities; therefore, the extracts of S. verbenaca could be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents for food preservation. In addition, thujone, a neurotoxic monoterpene commonly present in Salvia species, was absent from all samples, which would allow extracts to be orally applicable. As an outcome of the proposed beneficial effects, S. verbenaca extracts could be used in functional foods and dietary supplements.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:58:34.657974-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12121
       
  • Impact of Chicory‐Supplemented Diet on HMG‐CoA Reductase,
           Acetyl‐CoA Carboxylase, Visfatin and Anti‐Oxidant Status in
           Triton WR‐1339‐Induced Hyperlipidemia
    • Authors: Walaa A. Keshk; Saad A. Noeman
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of chicory (Cichorium intybus Linn.) against hyperlipidemia and its subsequent effect in rats. Sixty male albino rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups. Hyperlipidemia was induced via intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR‐1339 at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight three times a week for 2 weeks. Chicory‐supplemented diet (10 g/100 g diet) was given for 4 weeks to group II and group IV. Chicory caused significant improvement in lipid profile and decreased the liver and heart acetyl‐CoA carboxylase activity, atherogenic indices, hepatic 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG‐CoA) reductase mRNA level and visfatin level. Meanwhile, significant increase in paraoxonase‐1, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was recorded. In conclusion, chicory has the potential role of being hypolipidemic, anti‐lipotoxic, anti‐oxidant and anti‐atherogenic factor. Practical Applications Herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia are relatively cheap and locally available. The results showed that chicory (Cichorium intybus) has the potential of being hypolipidemic, anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and decreased the atherogenic risk indices and anti‐steatotic. Thus, it may represent a new source of natural food supplement aimed at preventing dyslipidemic risk for atherosclerosis, cardiac and hepatic steatosis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:52:50.935384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12115
       
  • Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of Haliotis discus hannai Ino on
           Dextran Sulfate Sodium‐Induced Colitis in Mice
    • Authors: Trishna Debnath; Mohammad Al Mijan, Da Hye Kim, Jeong Eun Jo, Young Ock Kim, Jeong Jun Lee, Han Jong Pyo, Beong Ou Lim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, an ethanol extract (HDE1) and a fermented extract (HDE2) of Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Pacific abalone) were administered to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‐induced colitis. Both extracts were administered at 50 mg/kg and evaluated for their anti‐inflammatory effects. Histological evaluations indicated that HDE1 effectively suppressed colonic tissue damage in mice with DSS‐induced colitis. In addition, the expression levels of immune‐related cytokines and transcription factors such as interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription‐1 (pSTAT1), interleukin‐4 (IL‐4), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription‐6 (pSTAT6) and Gata3 were also downregulated by both extracts. These results indicated that both HDE1 and HDE2 suppressed inflammatory cytokines and mediators. However, histological examinations clearly suggested that HDE1 had greater efficacy in attenuating colonic tissue damage by DSS than HDE2. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential anti‐inflammatory agent for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Practical Applications Pacific abalone is an important marine food source in many Asian countries. The health benefits of Pacific abalone have been demonstrated in a number of studies. This study investigated the anti‐inflammatory effects of Pacific abalone extracts in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis. An ethanol extract (HDE1) of Pacific abalone potently suppressed the mucosal tissue damage and crypt loss in the colons of mice exposed to DSS. In addition, inflammatory cytokines and mediators were effectively suppressed by HDE1. Therefore, HDE1 may be a potential therapy for ulcerative colitis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:37:45.24747-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12118
       
  • Wild Edible Mushrooms as a Natural Source of Phenolics and Antioxidants
    • Authors: Oktay Yildiz; Zehra Can, Abdul Qayoom Laghari, Hüseyin Şahin, Meltem Malkoç
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic contents, antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of four edible mushroom species, Ganoderma lucidum, Morchella esculenta, Lentinula edodes and Hericium erinaceus. Extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. Total phenolic contents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu's reagent and the results were calculated using gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl free radical‐scavenging antioxidant activities were also measured and Trolox was used as positive control. Phenolic composition was determined using high‐performance liquid chromatography and comparisons with standards. Total phenolic contents were highest in G. lucidum (26.40 mg GAE/g), followed by M. esculenta, L. edodes and H. erinaceus. The same trend was observed in individual phenolic composition and antioxidant activities, these also were higher in G. lucidum compared with the other species. Practical Applications Mushrooms are becoming increasingly important as a foodstuff and also in medicine because of their phenolic and antioxidant contents. The edible mushrooms investigated in this study are used as food and food flavoring because of their pleasant taste and aroma. They are also used for medicinal purposes in Turkey and across the world. All four edible mushrooms were determined to be very rich in natural antioxidants. The profile of the phenolic composition of these Turkish edible mushrooms is presented in this study. Our research shows that these mushrooms have very high antioxidant capacities and may assist the treatment of some diseases, if used for alternative medicines.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29T04:07:35.537096-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12107
       
  • R. oryzae Cellulases: A New Approach to Degrading Lignocellulosic
           Material
    • Authors: Larine Kupski; Maria Augusta Carvalho Silvello, Milena Ramos Vaz Fontes, Tiago Silva Lima, Helen Treichel, Eliana Badiale Furlong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: During the fermentative processes with Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560 and Trichoderma reesei QM 9414, the effects of rice hull and moisture content on the endoglucanase and total cellulase activities were investigated by response surface methodology, employing a central composite rotatable design. The nutrient solution and bioreactor design were also studied. In tray bioreactors maximum cellulase activity was achieved with 82.5% of rice hull and 17.5% of rice bran, with an initial moisture content of 30% for Rhizopus, while 100% of rice hull with an initial moisture content of 50% was used for Trichoderma in Erlenmeyer bioreactors. The results obtained for Rhizopus were 91% higher for endoglucanase when compared with Trichoderma, confirming the potential of the newly isolated R. oryzae CCT 7560 for cellulase production. In addition, this provided an economical and environmentally viable destination for one of the biggest wastes resulting from the rice industry, the rice hull. Practical Applications Most cellulases related in the literature are obtained from fermentative processes employing genetically modified microorganisms during extensive time to achieve maximum activity. The microorganism studied in this work (Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560) exhibited rapid enzymatic production indicating its use to obtain digestible carbohydrates from agribusiness waste in a quick and safe way.
      PubDate: 2015-01-26T05:40:01.908174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12097
       
  • Improvement of Laccase Production and its Characterization by Mutagenesis
    • Authors: W. Du; C. Sun, J. Liang, Y. Han, J. Yu, Z. Liang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, laccase production was enhanced using mutant Shiraia sp. The Shiraia sp. GZS1 strain was mutated using ultraviolet irradiation, followed by screening of strains that were resistant to certain stressors. The mutant GZ11K2 was selected and used for further studies. 2,2′‐Azino‐bis(3‐ethylben‐zothiazoline‐6‐sulfonate) was used as substrate for both wild and mutant laccases at optimal pH (4.0). The mutant laccase exhibited a broader active pH range. The mutant laccase also showed a higher optimal catalytic temperature, more active under alkaline conditions, and higher temperature range than the wild one. The mutant strains produced higher yield of laccase than the wild strain even at high salinity of 3 g/L NaCl. Both laccases were mildly inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.5 mM), ethanol (50%) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 mM), and almost completely inhibited by NaN3 (20 μM) and DTT (1 mM), stable in the presence of metal ions except Ag+ and Hg2+. Practical Applications Laccase is extensively used in various applications, such as pulp delignification, decoloration, biopolymer modification, biotransformation and food dechlorination. A newly isolated laccase‐producing strain Shiraia sp. GZS1 and a genetically stable mutant GZ11K2 were established with 1.82 times laccase activity compared with that of the wild strain. The mutant Shiraia sp. GZ11K2 laccase was active over a wider pH and temperature ranges and more stable than the wild strain under neutral and alkaline conditions. The laccase from the mutant GZ11K2 with higher laccase productivity and enhanced enzyme properties can be used in biotechnological and industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T03:10:21.019708-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12111
       
  • Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Jipicao Yam
    • Authors: Rui Li; Ning Li, Zhaosheng Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Wenzhi Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from Jipicao yam grown in China, and its characteristic was studied. Among the various substrates employed, the Vmax/Km ratio indicated that PPO had the best affinity to catechol and the worst affinity to p‐hydroxyphenylalanine. The optimum pH for this enzyme was 6.8, and the optimum temperature was 30C. When the temperature was lower than 60C, PPO was relatively stable. Fe3+ and Mg2+ improved the activity, while Ca2+, K+, Ba2+ and Mn2+ ions could significantly inhibit the activity. NaHSO3, Vc, L‐cysteine, phytic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid‐2Na had different inhibiting effects on the activity of PPO, and the former three were strong inhibitors of PPO activities. Practical Applications Our paper studied the properties of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from Jipicao yam, including optimum temperature, optimum pH, thermal stability, substrate specificity and the effect of metal ions and inhibitors so as to select a reasonable method to restrain the activity of PPO, then providing a theoretical basis for inhibiting enzymatic browning that occurred during the process of manufacturing and storage to improve the nutritional value and exterior quality.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T20:37:46.876309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12117
       
  • Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential of Blueberry Extracts
           Against Key Enzymes Relevant for Hyperglycemia
    • Authors: Araya Pranprawit; Julian A. Heyes, Abdul L. Molan, Marlena C. Kruger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Aqueous extracts of Highbush blueberries grown in New Zealand were investigated for their total phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and potential to contribute to the dietary management of type II diabetes. There were significant differences (P 
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T20:19:22.661789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12094
       
  • Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Gelatinolytic Protease
           from Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens H11
    • Authors: Samart Sai‐Ut; Soottawat Benjakul, Punnanee Sumpavapol, Hideki Kishimura
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Extracellular gelatinolytic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H11 was purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S‐200 and ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl‐cellulose with 35% yield and 14‐fold increase in purity. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 21 kDa. The optimum gelatinolytic activities of purified enzyme toward porcine gelatin were 50C and pH 8.0. The inhibitor study revealed that the purified enzyme was a metallo‐serine protease and activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+ but resistant to Triton X‐100 and methanol at a concentration of 10% (v/v). Among all gelatins, that from unicorn leatherjacket fish skin was the most preferred for hydrolysis by the purified enzyme, in comparison with porcine and tilapia counterparts. Thus, the enzyme from B. amyloliquefaciens H11 could be used as a potential protease for production of gelatin hydrolysate. Practical Applications Extracellular protease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H11 plays a specific catalytic role in the hydrolysis of gelatin and can be used for production of gelatin hydrolysate with bioactivities. It can also be a potential alternative for commercial protease in conversion of marine processing by‐products to generate high value‐added products.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T19:51:57.442834-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12114
       
  • Effect of pH and Temperature on Antioxidant Levels of Tomato Wine
    • Authors: John Owusu; Haile Ma, Zhenbin Wang, Newlove Akowuah Afoakwah, Cunshan Zhou, Agnes Amissah
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Tomato wine antioxidant properties were studied. The wine was produced using tomato musts of different pH levels, which was fermented at 15 and 20C using Saccharomyces bayanus, 818. The wines produced with musts of pH levels 4.11, 3.40 and 3.20 were designated as C (Control), A and B, respectively. The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of the tomato wines was higher (P 
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T01:40:23.160643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12113
       
  • Antioxidant and Free Radical‐Scavenging Potential of Essential Oil
           from Enteromorpha linza L. Prepared by Microwave‐Assisted
           Hydrodistillation
    • Authors: Jayanta Kumar Patra; Sung Hong Kim, Kwang‐Hyun Baek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The seaweed Enteromorpha linza has long been used as a food source rich in natural bioactive compounds in various regions of the world. In the present study, the essential oil from E. linza, extracted by microwave‐assisted hydrodistillation, was analyzed for its chemical composition and was evaluated for its free radical‐scavenging and antioxidant potential. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed the presence of 24 compounds in the seaweed essential oil (SEO), among which hexadecanoic acid (47.32%), nonadecadiene (18.19%) and azetidine (2.84%) are of medicinal importance. SEO exhibited strong hydroxyl radical‐scavenging and superoxide scavenging activity of 91.37 and 53.50%, respectively, at 500 μg/mL. SEO also exhibited strong reducing power (0.90) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70.53% at 500 μg/mL. Based on the high antioxidant activities of compounds in SEO, it can be used as a food additive, preservative and dietary supplement to control the deleterious effects of oxidative stress with increased nutritional values. Practical Applications Extensive investigations of free radicals and reactive oxygen species have revealed that these components have adverse effect on biomolecules that cause damage to macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates, as well as various food products. Seaweeds are a favorable food source that serves as an effective resource for essential oil, which could be an alternative source of natural antioxidants, used as food additives or in food preservation. In this study, SEO from E. linza extracted by microwave‐assisted hydrodistillation exhibited significantly high antioxidant and radical‐scavenging potential, as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings confirm that SEO from E. linza can be used by food industries as an additive, preservative or dietary supplement and as a nutraceutical to control the harmful effects of oxidative stress on food.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T01:40:10.13346-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12110
       
  • Production of a Milk‐Clotting Enzyme by Glutinous Rice Fermentation
           and Partial Characterization of the Enzyme
    • Authors: Xiao Zhao; Ji Wang, Zhe Zheng, Aimei Zhao, Zhennai Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fermentation parameters affecting a milk‐clotting enzyme (MCE) production by glutinous rice fermentation were evaluated using selected rice starters called Jiuqu. The MCE was produced under the following conditions: rice inoculation starter at 3%, fermentation time of 5 days, temperature at 30C, initial rice medium pH of 5.0, rice concentration of 70% and rotation speed of 120 rpm. The enzyme preparation obtained by 70% ethanol precipitation of the culture supernatant had milk‐clotting activity (MCA) of 6,160 Su/g and a C/P ratio (the ratio between MCA and proteolytic activity) of 10.81 at a recovery rate of 44.82%. The molecular mass of the MCE was 39.7 kDa. MCE production was optimal at 35C and a pH of 5.4. The presence of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Al3+ stimulated enzyme activity. The Km and Vmax values were 22.90 g/L and 21.11 mL/s, respectively, with skim milk as the substrate. Practical Applications In the last two decades, different sources of milk‐clotting enzymes (MCEs) have been explored to meet the increasing demand for cheese production worldwide. This study describes a MCE isolated by ethanol fractionation from glutinous rice wine fermented by Jiuqu. The MCE, with a relatively high C/P ratio, is potentially applicable as a coagulant in cheese making. The property of thermal instability of the enzyme is advantageous as it would be inactivated during curd scalding (at about 50C), thus formation of bitter‐taste peptides caused by residual proteolytic activity of the enzyme during cheese ripening could be prevented. In addition, the optimal temperature (35C) of the MCE is within the range of temperature (30–35C) generally used during milk coagulation processes. Therefore, the results suggest that a MCE that could have potential application in cheese production may be obtained by glutinous rice fermentation under the conditions of this study.
      PubDate: 2015-01-15T03:16:51.973019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12108
       
  • Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Distribution and Antioxidant Capacity in Skin,
           Pulp and Fruit Extracts of Plum Cultivars
    • Authors: S. Cosmulescu; I. Trandafir, V. Nour, M. Botu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Total phenolic, total flavonoid distribution and antioxidant activity in skin, pulp and fruit extracts of 12 plum cultivars were investigated. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. The total phenolic content in skin was 4.5 times higher than that in pulp and 3.2 times higher than that in the whole fruit. The total flavonoid content in skin was 18.7 times higher than that in pulp and 9.6 times higher than that in the whole fruit. As the trend observed for antioxidant activity, a positive relationship (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.83–0.92) was presented between total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. The results confirm that plum is a good source of natural phenolic antioxidants. Practical Applications The present study indicated that plum can contribute to the dietary intake of antioxidants, depending on cultivars and fruit parts. It is among the few studies investigating the distribution of total phenolic, total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity in the skin, pulp and fruit of plum cultivars. It was observed that the highest values of total phenolic and flavonoid content were obtained from skin extracts. The study highlighted that phenolics and flavonoids in plums may play an important role as radical‐scavenging agents that could be used for a healthy human life. This fact may open new perspectives for plum – besides its traditional uses – to be used in assuring a wholesome diet and a healthy life.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:15:00.91825-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12112
       
  • Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanolic Extract of BAU Kul
           (Ziziphus mauritiana), an Improved Variety of Fruit from Bangladesh
    • Authors: E. M. Tanvir; Rizwana Afroz, Nurul Karim, Md. Abdul Mottalib, Md. Ibrahim Hossain, Md. Asiful Islam, Siew Hua Gan, Md. Ibrahim Khalil
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BAU Kul (Ziziphus mauritiana) is a new and improved variety of plum fruit from Bangladesh. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant potency and antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of BAU Kul using Soxhlet extraction followed by complete evaporation of residual methanol. BAU Kul is a very good source of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and tannins. The reducing sugar and protein content of BAU Kul were 1.68 and 0.81% by weight, respectively. BAU Kul was very active in 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐ picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (527.28 ± 9.2 [μM Fe (II)]/100 g), thus confirming its high antioxidant potential. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well‐diffusion method. BAU Kul was most toxic to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed (in order) by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli and Chromobacterium violaceum. In conclusion, BAU Kul is a nutritious fruit that provides good antioxidant and antibacterial activities (in particular toward P. aeruginosa) and a cheap source of vitamins. Practical Applications BAU Kul is a new and sweet seasonal fruit which is very popular to the consumers of Bangladesh. This fruit can be a good source of nutrients as well as the antioxidants applicable in different types of diseases caused by oxidative stresses. BAU Kul can also be used as traditional medicine for different types for infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T06:14:47.746701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12109
       
  • Vasorelaxant and Anti‐Inflammatory Activities of the Methylene
           Chloride Fraction of Foeniculum vulgare Fruit Extract
    • Authors: C.O. Tettey; I. Yang, A. Ocloo, H.M. Shin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study investigated the vasorelaxant and anti‐inflammatory activities of the methylene chloride fraction of crude methanolic Foeniculum vulgare fruit extract (FV). The vasorelaxant activity was examined on isolated rat aortic ring preparations precontracted with phenylephrine where as the anti‐inflammatory activity was examined in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. FV attenuated the vasoconstriction of precontracted aortic strips in a dose‐dependent manner. This effect was found to be endothelium‐dependent and through the nitric oxide (NO)‐3′,5′‐cyclic monophosphate pathway. In the anti‐inflammatory assays, FV reduced NO release by inhibiting inducible NO synthase protein and mRNA and also suppressed cyclooxygenase‐2 expression. It decreased the lipopolysaccharide‐induced secretions of tumor necrosis factor‐α, interleukin (IL)‐1β and IL‐6 and significantly reduced the phosphorylation of c‐Jun amino‐terminal kinases (JNK1) and extracellular signal‐regulated kinase‐1 (ERK1/2). Our results demonstrate that the methylene chloride fraction of the crude methanolic FV possesses potent vasorelaxant and anti‐inflammatory activities. Practical Applications Foeniculum vulgare mill is used traditionally for treatment of a good number of diseases. This study revealed that the methylene chloride fraction of the extract possesses significant vasorelaxant activity and also showed significant anti‐inflammatory activity. Therefore, it stands as a promising candidate for further studies in the synthesis of vasorelaxant and anti‐inflammatory drugs after identification of biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06T05:24:30.692735-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12105
       
  • The Ethanol Precipitate of Ulva rigida Protects HeLa Cells from Hydrogen
           Peroxide‐Induced Apoptosis
    • Authors: Sana Mezghani; Prudence N'Guessan, Alice Carrier, Mohamed Amri
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Ulva rigida exhibits antioxidant activity that protects against oxidative stress. In the present investigation, we conducted experiments in HeLa cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and found that the U. rigida ethanolic precipitate inhibited H2O2 apoptosis. This precipitate prevented the H2O2 stress‐induced decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). P21 Bax expression was decreased in H2O2‐treated cells compared with untreated cells. Conversely, p21 Bax was consistently detected in cells that were co‐treated with H2O2 and the U. rigida ethanolic precipitate. Bcl‐xL expression increased in cells co‐treated with H2O2 and the U. rigida ethanolic precipitate compared with H2O2‐treated cells. Based on the obtained results, H2O2‐induced apoptosis was inhibited by the U. rigida ethanol precipitate early in the apoptotic process through the upregulation of Bcl‐xL, the prevention of full‐length Bax cleavage molecule and the subsequent inhibition of MMP loss, which is a crucial step in the apoptotic cascade. Practical Applications Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies has suggested that oxidative stress plays a major role in aging and pathogenesis. Currently, the search for safe and efficacious medicinal plants that possess antioxidant activity has attracted particular interest. In this context, this is the first report on the antioxidant activity of Ulva rigida in a cell line: U. rigida protected the cells from oxidative stress‐induced apoptosis. The U. rigida ethanol precipitate inhibited apoptosis via the upregulation of Bcl‐xL, the prevention of full‐length Bax cleavage to its short and potent form, and the subsequent inhibition of the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Herein, we report the mechanism by which U. rigida protects against oxidative stress‐induced apoptosis. This may provide knowledge to enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies using U. rigida compounds to treat diseases that are attributed to oxidative disorders.
      PubDate: 2014-12-30T04:17:37.581066-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12106
       
  • Evaluation of Antiobesity Effect of Mangiferin in
           Adipogenesis‐Induced Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Assessing
           Adipogenic Genes
    • Authors: P. Subash‐Babu; Ali A. Alshatwi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We aimed to examine the anti‐adipogenic effects of mangiferin (xanthone glucoside) and its related mechanism. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium, after 60% confluence adipocyte differentiation was induced. Differentiation‐induced hMSCs were cultured in the presence and absence of 10, 20 and 40 μmol of mangiferin from day 0 to day 10. Adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation were significantly decreased in 40 μmol mangiferin‐treated groups when compared with the reference drugs (quercetin‐ and orlistat‐treated groups). Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we studied the mRNA expression levels of resistin, adipocyte fatty acid‐binding protein 2 (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR‐γ) and tumor necrosis factor‐α, in hMSCs undergoing adipocyte differentiation; treatment with mangiferin attenuated the expression of those adipogenic genes and decreased adipocyte differentiation. Mangiferin significantly inhibited hMSCs to preadipocyte differentiation within the first 2 days of treatment, indicating that the anti‐adipogenic effects of mangiferin are achieved through the inhibition of differentiation and maturation. Practical Applications It is well known that various plant derived compounds presents antiobesity effect. However still there is lack of drugs for the arrest or inhibition of adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal stem cell precursors. hMSCs treated with adipocyte differentiation medium along with mangiferin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and maturation, via suppressing lipid accumulation. Mangiferin treatment resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in GPDH and triglyceride levels as well as an increase in LDH activity and attenuated lipid accumulation compared with untreated differentiating preadipocytes. This effect was demonstrated by the observed down‐regulation of adipogenesis related genes after hMSCs underwent induced adipocyte differentiation.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:42:15.328258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12101
       
  • Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activity of Pleurotus eryngii Extract
    • Authors: Zhaohui Xue; Lijuan Zhai, Wancong Yu, Hua Wang, Xiaohong Kou, Lvyang Peng, Dongmei Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii), also known as the king oyster mushroom, contains many bioactive substances, including polysaccharides, lipids, peptides, sterols and triterpenoids. The aim of this study was to explore the antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of P. eryngii extract. The fresh P. eryngii material was extracted with MeOH (methanol) and then partitioned with EtOAc (ethyl acetate). The study showed that the P. eryngii EtOAc extract (EAe) not only has antitumor effects by in vitro and in vivo methods but also significantly increases some immune activities. In addition, histopathological observations showed that EAe‐treated mice exhibited much lower cancerization throughout the liver and lung. EAe can also promote antioxidant activity, which may regulate the body's antioxidant capacity and activate the antitumor mechanism. Practical Applications Our study revealed the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of Pleurotus eryngii extract, and identified the key components of the P. eryngii extract with HPLC‐MS. These findings explain the antitumor activity of P. eryngii, which is very useful for developing the potential antitumor drugs for clinical application.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:41:25.33621-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12096
       
  • Evaluation of Alliin, Saccharide Contents and Antioxidant Activities of
           Black Garlic during Thermal Processing
    • Authors: Zesheng Zhang; Mengmeng Lei, Rui Liu, Yunfeng Gao, Mengying Xu, Min Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the alliin, saccharides, antioxidant and some other physicochemical changes of black garlic during the thermal processing steps. The contents of alliin and polysaccharides decreased significantly after 10 days of heat treatment, whereas the content of reducing sugars increased correspondingly. The 57.14% of fructose, 6.78% of glucose and 7.62% of sucrose were mainly saccharides in black garlic to answer for its sweet taste. The color value of black garlic increased over time, whereas the pH decreased continually from 6.25 to 4.25 after heating at 70–80C for 10 days, which contributed a characteristic black appearance and a sour taste mouthfeel. The antioxidant activities, including 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrilhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power activities, increased gradually during thermal processing. Practical Applications Black garlic has been used as foods and herbal remedies mainly in Japan, Korea and China, which has a wide range of health benefits, significantly antioxidant properties. Various physicochemical changes have been found to take place during thermal processing of garlic, including alliin, allicin, saccharides, pH, color and antioxidant activities. This is the first study to investigate the changes in the molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides and the monosaccharide composition of black garlic. These changes in saccharide contents and composition could be utilized as quality factors for the production of black garlic. Therefore, the results may have some useful practical implications at both the food technology and nutritional level.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T03:37:00.923845-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12102
       
  • Edible Brown Alga Ecklonia cava Derived Phlorotannin‐Induced
           Anti‐Adipogenic Activity in Vitro
    • Authors: Chang‐Suk Kong; Haejin Kim, Youngwan Seo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The present study performed the bioactivity‐monitored isolation of anti‐adipogenic phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava as a part of the ongoing research to develop antiobesity nutraceuticals from natural origin. Extracts were partitioned into n‐hexane, 85% aqueous MeOH, n‐BuOH and water fractions. Their adipogenic activities were examined by measuring glycerol release level and adipogenic‐related gene expression in differentiating 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes. Among them, n‐BuOH fractions significantly increased glycerol secretion and reduced the regulation of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α (C/EBPα), as well as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Further separation from n‐BuOH fraction led to the isolation of phlorotannins, triphlorethol‐A, eckol and dieckol. Phlorotannins increased the glycerol secretion and reduced the glucose consumption levels of 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the phlorotannins reduced the expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and differentiation‐dependent factor 1/sterol regulatory element‐binding protein 1c, as well as downstream genes such as fatty acid binding protein‐4, fatty acid transport protein‐1, fatty acid synthase, Leptin and acyl‐CoA synthetase 1. In addition, phlorotannins increased the mRNA expression of hormone‐sensitive lipase while suppressing perilipin and TNFα expressions. Practical Applications Brown alga, Ecklonia cava, is one of the most common edible algae in East Asian countries and widely consumed throughout Korea and Japan because of its nutritional importance along with its medicinal value. Constituents of E. cava, especially phenolic compounds, are considered to possess several bioactivities against various complications and diseases. In this regard, this study provides valuable insights concerning the antiobesity potential of E. cava and effective ingredients. Results indicate that the isolated phlorotannins act as antiobesity agents and suggest possible mechanisms of action. Following this study, a better utilization of E. cava via proper extraction of antiobesity constituents will pave the way for future nutraceuticals with antiobesity value.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T04:44:44.956434-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12093
       
  • Ester Synthesis in Aqueous Media by Lipase: Alcoholysis, Esterification
           and Substrate Hydrophobicity
    • Authors: Jingcan Sun; Shao‐Quan Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Lipases are versatile biocatalysts commonly used for flavor ester synthesis in media with low‐water activity. This research studied the mechanism of ester synthesis by lipase Palatase in coconut cream and phosphate buffer with alcohols and fatty acids. When ethanol was added as the alcohol substrate, hydrolysis of triglycerides dominated over synthesis of esters. When fusel alcohols (fusel oil) were used as the alcohol substrate, ester synthesis dominated over lipid hydrolysis. However, there was no visible pattern of fatty acid production and then reutilization in relation to ester synthesis in either case. Higher consumption of octanoic acid was obtained than that of butyric acid in both coconut cream and buffer systems spiked with the same alcohol. This indicated the preferential utilization of more hydrophobic substrates for esterification by lipase in aqueous media. These results suggest that the lipase Palatase‐catalyzed ester synthesis in aqueous media was mainly hydrophobicity‐dependent esterification. Practical Applications Esters are important flavor compounds that are applied in food products. The effects of substrate hydrophobicity and reaction environment on the catalytic behavior of a lipase during ester synthesis in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil were investigated. Useful information was obtained on the in situ generation of esters in food materials. This study has implications for lipase‐catalyzed synthesis of flavor esters in other aqueous food matrices.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T02:15:53.888236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12104
       
 
 
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