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FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (223 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Hybrid Journal  
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Review of Agricultural and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Ceres     Open Access  
Revista Ciências Exatas e Naturais : RECEN     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
TECA : Tecnologia i Ciència dels Aliments     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theory and Practice of Meat Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Vitae     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Food Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.424]   [H-I: 32]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-8884 - ISSN (Online) 1745-4514
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Understanding the nature of bitter-taste di- and tripeptides derived from
           food proteins based on chemometric analysis
    • Authors: Anna Iwaniak; Monika Hrynkiewicz, Justyna Bucholska, Piotr Minkiewicz, Małgorzata Darewicz
      Abstract: Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were constructed to explain the bitter taste of di- and tripeptides based on their chemical nature (structure). Sequences (51 di- and 51 tripeptides) were derived from the BIOPEP-UWM database of sensory peptides and amino acids. The measure of their bitterness was Rcaf., that is, bitterness relative to that of 1 mM caffeine solution (Rcaf. = 1.0). The variables were the indices describing properties of a single residue forming a peptide structure taken from ProtScale and Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. MLR was made for two separate data sets by use of Statistica 13.1.We found that the presence of branched side residues or ring in a di- or tripeptide sequence (as in L, I, V, Y, F) affected its bitterness. Another variable affecting the bitter taste of di- and tripeptides was the hydrophobicity of amino acids. Using the commonly available statistical tools as well as chemical information reflecting the nature of peptides may be helpful in understanding the structure-taste relationship in food peptides.Practical applicationsOur approach takes account of bioinformatic and cheminformatic techniques of data mining to analyze structure-bitterness of di- and tripeptides derived from food protein sources. Data on bitter peptides available in databases of biological and chemical information can be useful in creating models which help understanding the relationship between the role of structural properties of a molecule (e.g., peptide) and its function (e.g., taste). The bitterness of a peptide resulting from the presence of specific residues in its sequence, which represent different physicochemical properties may contribute to extending the knowledge about their taste-forming role in food systems. Such knowledge may be useful in designing food products with improved properties like taste which can be either enhanced or masked (considered as unwanted when thinking about the sensory value of foods). Our research strategy is universal and can also be applied to study structure-function relationships of peptides with other activities.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T19:10:34.005644-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12500
  • Anticholinesterase activity and phenolic profile of two medicinal plants
           (Quassia undulata and Senecio abyssinicus) used in managing cognitive
           dysfunction in Nigeria
    • Authors: Veronica O. Odubanjo; Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I. Oyeleye, Stephen A. Adefegha
      Abstract: Quassia undulata (QU) and Senecio abyssinicus (SA) leaves are known in folklore in the management of cognitive disorder in Nigeria. However, there is dearth of information about their mechanism of actions. In this study, the effect of QU and SA aqueous extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesteras (BChE) activities were determined as well as their antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents. The result showed that both extracts inhibited AChE and BChE activities and also exhibited antioxidant effect, however, extract from SA had the highest effect compared to that of QU. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic, ellagic, caffeic, quercetin, rutin, and catechin. The inhibition of AChE and BChE activities, and antioxidant capacity of QU and SA could be among the mechanism of actions regarding their use in folklore for the management of cognitive dysfunction. These could therefore be linked to their richness in phenolic compounds, as SA extract exhibited higher effects.Practical applicationsMany plants have been used traditionally in the treatment of various disorders owing to their bioactivity. The outcome of this research provides biochemical information to the folkloric use of Quassia undulate and Senecio abyssinicus in the management of neurodegenerative disorder, and also to the pharmacologist with an option to synthesize drugs with little or no side effects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T18:58:59.017867-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12497
  • Structural and functional characterization of legume seed ferritin
    • Authors: Folashade A. Gesinde; Maryann Chinonye Udechukwu, Rotimi E. Aluko
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to produce legume seed ferritin concentrates, which were then evaluated for structural properties and susceptibility to gastrointestinal proteases. Five legume seeds, namely red lentil (RL), chickpea (CP), green lentil whole (GLW), moon dal washed (MDW), and yellow split peas (YSP) were subjected to aqueous extraction followed by MgCl2 + sodium citrate-induced precipitation of iron-binding proteins. Ferritin concentrate gross yield was highest for CP (19.1 ± 2.6%) followed by RL (17.6 ± 1.4%), YSP (14.8 ± 1.4%), and GLW (12.9 ± 4.3%), while MDW (9.7 ± 3.3%) was lowest. Iron content of the ferritins ranged from 30–45 mg/100 g in comparison to 5–17 mg/100 g in the seed flour. During simulated gastrointestinal digestion, most of the iron was released by pepsin digestion. We conclude that these iron-enriched protein concentrates are potential ingredients to formulate functional foods and nutraceuticals against iron deficiency anemia.Practical applicationsIron deficiency anemia (IDA) continues to be a global problem that can inflict severe damages to human health. The current and most common therapeutic approach to IDA treatment involves the use of inorganic iron supplements. However, the low level of inorganic iron absorption creates serious side-effects such as constipation and high oxidative stress that could lead to degenerative diseases. Organic iron in the form of plant ferritins provides a more absorbable alternative to inorganic iron. However, phytoferritins are present in very small quantities, which make the use of pure forms mostly impracticable. In this work, the preparation of crude phytoferritin concentrates was achieved in addition to their structural and functional characterization that demonstrates potential utility in IDA treatment. The crude ferritin concentrates can be used to formulate functional foods and nutraceuticals as therapies for IDA management.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T21:40:50.351381-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12498
  • Lutein suppresses hyperglycemia-induced premature senescence of retinal
           pigment epithelial cells by upregulating SIRT1
    • Authors: Jung Seok Hwang; Sung Gu Han, Chi-Ho Lee, Han Geuk Seo
      Abstract: Hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, by affecting cellular redox state. In this study, we investigated the effects of lutein on hyperglycemia-induced premature senescence in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In ARPE-19 cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line derived from human RPE, lutein treatment significantly inhibited high glucose-triggered premature senescence and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Notably, lutein treatment increased SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that lutein exerted its beneficial effects in these cells by upregulating SIRT1 expression. Resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, mimicked the inhibitory effects of lutein on high glucose-induced premature senescence and ROS generation, whereas sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of SIRT1, blocked these effects of lutein. Collectively, these observations indicate that lutein interferes with hyperglycemia-induced RPE senescence by modulating SIRT1 signaling.Practical applicationsLutein, a xanthophyll carotenoid present in green leafy vegetables and eggs, has been consumed as a dietary supplement to improve eye health. Lutein exhibited anti-senescent properties by suppressing ROS generation through SIRT1 upregulation in RPE cells exposed to hyperglycemia mimicking diabetic conditions. Thus, we propose that lutein could be applied to therapeutic interventions aimed at treating hyperglycemia-induced retinal disorders.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T21:35:40.269759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12495
  • Solubilization of keratins and functional properties of their isolates and
    • Authors: Izabela Sinkiewicz; Hanna Staroszczyk, Agata Śliwińska
      Abstract: The keratinous wastes of the textile industry and poultry slaughterhouses may be used as sources of soluble keratins or hydrolysates. This review presents methods for processing raw keratin-based materials into bioproducts with functional and bioactive properties suitable for biomedical, cosmetic, food, and agricultural applications. Soluble keratin can be obtained by thermal treatment in some organic solvents, reduction, or oxidation of the disulfide bonds. Recent studies have shown that keratins contain amino acid sequences with high biological activities such as antioxidant, angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory, and antimicrobial. Peptides containing these sequences may find numerous applications as value-added products in the food industry. More research devoted to development of methods for conversion of animal by-products to novel products is needed. Further technological investigations to create large-scale production methods are also necessary.Practical applicationsThe keratinous wastes represent a problematic by-product to the wool textile industry and poultry slaughterhouses due to the large volumes and their high pollutant load. They are usually incinerated or used for low value purposes such as fertilizers. This review focuses on the trends of application of keratin recovered from animal by-products. Biomaterials for regenerative medicine, cosmetic formulations, and biodegradable food packaging can be obtained as a result of keratin self-assembly. Several peptide sequences released by hydrolysis as bioactive peptides should be studied further for their in vivo antihypertensive, and antidiabetic effects, as well as functional ingredients in foods.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T21:35:35.76142-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12494
  • The effect of Perilla frutescens leaf on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced
           initiation of colon carcinogenesis in rats
    • Authors: Chakkrit Khanaree; Komsak Pintha, Payungsak Tantipaiboonwong, Maitree Suttajit, Teera Chewonarin
      Abstract: In this study, the chemopreventive properties of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PLE) on rat colon carcinogenesis were investigated during initiation and postinitiation stages. Rats were fed orally by 50 and 500 mg/kg bw of PLE continuously from 1 week before subcutaneously injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) until the end of experiment. PLE administration reduced the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) number in DMH-treated rats through the inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) and bacterial β-glucuronidase activity in the colonic lumen. These events led to the reduction of DNA methylation in colonic epithelial cells. For the postinitiation model, rats were injected (s.c.) with DMH, followed by PLE administration until the end of experiment. PLE administration also reduced the ACF number in DMH-induced rats, resulting from apoptosis induction and reduction of proliferation in colon crypt cells. These studies demonstrated that perilla leaf could inhibit ACF formation and progression in DMH-initiated colon carcinogenesis in rats.Practical applicationsThis study revealed the inhibitory effect of PLE on chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Altogether, our data supported that PLE acts as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer. Thus, PLE might be developed as food supplement or functional tea for colon cancer prevention.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T07:30:37.322455-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12493
  • Protective effect of a rosmarinic acid–rich extract from cold-pressed
           Perilla frutescens seed flour on oxidative hepatotoxicity in vitro and in
    • Authors: Yajie Zhang; Xigang Mei, Qi Zhang, Manna Li, Xingwang Wu, Chao Ma
      Abstract: Abundant phenolic compounds, including rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeic acid, and their derivatives, are present in cold-pressed Perilla frutescens seed flour (CP-PFSF) after oil extraction. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the major phenolic components of CP-PFSF were assessed and compared. RA showed the highest antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. An RA-rich extract was prepared and its hepatoprotective effects were assessed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, treatment with RA-rich extract markedly reduced H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, significantly prevented H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion, inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3, which are involved in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. In vivo, oral administration of RA-rich extract significantly reduced the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and hepatocyte degeneration and neutrophilic infiltration induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). Therefore, an RA-rich extract from CP-PFSF showed potential protective effects against oxidative hepatic damage.Practical applicationsPerilla (Perilla frutescens) seed is extensively cold pressed for extraction of cooking oils. However, abundant phenolic compounds still exist in the cold-pressed Perilla seed flour (CP-PFSF), which was usually considered useless after oil extraction. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the major phenolic components from CP-PFSF, including rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeic acid (CA), and their derivatives, were assessed and compared. RA showed the highest antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Then, an RA-rich extract was prepared and its hepatoprotective effects were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that RA-rich extract of CP-PFSF showed potential hepatoprotective activities, which would broaden our knowledge about the bioactivities of phenolic components in CP-PFSF, and facilitate the development of CP-PFSF as candidate functional dietary supplements in food industries.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T07:28:08.42792-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12492
  • Genus Hylocereus: Beneficial phytochemicals, nutritional importance, and
           biological relevance—A review
    • Authors: Sabrin Ragab Mohamed Ibrahim; Gamal Abdallah Mohamed, Amgad Ibrahim Mansour Khedr, Mohamed Fathalla Zayed, Amal Abd-Elmoneim Soliman El-Kholy
      Abstract: The genus Hylocereus (family Cactaceae) includes about 16 species. Now its reputation is spreading everywhere in the world due to its fruit (pitaya or pitahaya or dragon fruit), which is one of the most popular and widely used functional foods in the world. The fruit is a wealthy provenance of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fiber. The ethno-pharmacological history of this genus indicated that it possesses antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, hepato-protective, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, and wound healing activities. Furthermore, it has been used for the treatment of cough, asthma, hyperactivity, tuberculosis, bronchitis, mumps, diabetes, and cervical lymph node tuberculosis. Different chemical constituents have been reported from this genus as betalains, flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids, triterpenes, sterols, fatty acids, etc. The current review focuses on the uses, botanical characterization, chemical constituents, nutritional importance, biological activities, and safety of Hylocereus species. Also, biosynthetic pathways of betalains have been discussed.Practical applicationsPitaya fruit is one of the most known fruit that is commercially grown in different countries of the world for its nutritional advantages. It has acquired a wide acceptance for its pharmacological actions against a variety of ailments. The present review revealed that pitaya contains various bioactive phytoconstituents which might participate directly or indirectly in their highlighted biological effects. Therefore, these compounds can be taken into account as favorable candidates for the development of effective and novel pharmaceutical leads. Deep phytochemical studies of pitaya fruit and its pharmacological effects, especially the mechanism of action of its constituents to clarify the relation between traditional uses and pharmacological activities will obviously be the focus of further research.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T07:27:11.20838-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12491
  • In vitro therapeutic properties of different fractions of Phaseolus
           vulgaris seeds as affected by the distribution of phytochemicals
    • Authors: Usha Rani Telikicherla; Mahadeva Naika, Anilakumar Kandangath Raghavan, Sashikala Vadakkoot Balakrishnan
      Abstract: This study was framed to evaluate the distribution of phytochemicals in the different fractions (hulls and cotyledons) in comparison with whole seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris and its effect on in vitro therapeutic properties. The study revealed that higher concentration of phenolics (48.576 mg GAE/g), saponins (1.152 mg Soya saponin/g), tannins (36.963 mg catechin eq/g), and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) (8.34 g/100 g) were present in the hulls fraction, while cotyledons had higher content of B-vitamins and total carbohydrates. The hulls showed almost 90% contribution to the antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and antidiabetic property of the legume seeds, which is reflective of its rich polyphenolic and raffinose content. Thus, hulls from P. vulgaris may be a good source of phytonutrients for use as a vehicle for food enrichment.Practical applicationsContribution of individual fractions to the overall therapeutic property of the legume.Rich phytocomposition of hulls—as potential source of phytonutrient for food enrichment.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T22:25:38.018617-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12485
  • Involvement of bacterial quorum sensing signals in spoilage potential of
           Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii isolated from fermented surimi
    • Authors: Dandan Zhao; Fei Lyu, Shulai Liu, Jianyou Zhang, Yuting Ding, Wenxuan Chen, Xuxia Zhou
      Abstract: This study characterized the spoilage potential of the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-producing strain, Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii, isolated from fermented surimi, and investigated the effects of exogenous AHLs on its spoilage characteristics. The strain showed a strong ability of producing total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and putrescine, and four types of AHLs, including N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-heptanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C7-HSL), and N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), were identified from the supernatant by LC–MS/MS. Concentrations of AHLs reached the maximum value as the cells entered stationary phase contents and then decreased rapidly with the increasing pH. C8-HSL was found to be dominant with contents of 1,536.33 ng/mL and exogenous C8-HSL was most effective in promoting bacterial growth, biofilm formation, swimming motility, production of TVB-N and putrescine, and relative genes expression. The results indicated the involvement of AHL-based quorum sensing system in the regulation of spoilage potential of Aeromonas spp.Practical applicationsThe results of the present study found that Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii was capable of producing four types of AHLs, which were considered to be involved in the regulation of spoilage potential of the strain. This would enrich the understanding of quorum sensing system in Aeromonas and give clue for new strategy of controlling food spoilage in food industry.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T20:20:34.714494-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12487
  • Reactivity of peptides within the food matrix
    • Authors: Jean Paul Kamdem; Apollinaire Tsopmo
      Abstract: Numerous biological activities have been reported for peptides or peptide-rich fractions from hydrolyzed food proteins. Some of the properties of peptides include antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, antihypertensive, and immune system modulation. To evaluate the efficacy of peptides in vivo, foods have been used as carrier vehicles. However, there are many molecules in foods that can react or interact with peptides, thereby reducing the bioavailability or bioactivity of these peptides. The Schiff base reactions of peptides with reducing sugars are well established. Peptides can also react with oxidized lipids or reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites such as quinones in foods, can react as well with amine or thiol groups of peptides. All these reactions affect the concentration of peptides. This review summarizes and discusses some of the implication of those reactions on the availability of bioactive peptides within the food matrix.Practical applicationsBioactive peptides possess specific effects on foods like preventing oxidative rancidity. In human, they may lower blood pressure or reduce inflammation. The knowledge on the type of reactions these peptides may encountered when foods are used as transport vehicles is essential. This will prevent variability in intake and ensure proper dosage and reproducible results.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T20:15:42.247795-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12489
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid suppresses TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of TLRs
           by targeting TBK1
    • Authors: Hyeon-Myeong Shin; Hyun-Jin Shim, Ah-Yeon Kim, Yoo Jung Lee, Hyeonjeong Nam, Hyung-Sun Youn
      Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce an innate immune system. In general, there are two main pathways in TLRs: the myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent and toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dependent pathways. In this study, it has been investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and arachidic acid (ACA), a saturated fatty acid (SFA), can modulate the TLR signaling pathways. EPA suppressed the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and the expression of Interferon gamma-induced protein (IP-10) induced by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) or TLR4 agonists by targeting TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1); however, ACA did not. These results demonstrate that EPA inhibits the TRIF-dependent signaling in the TLR3 and TLR4 pathways. The results raise the possibility that certain dietary PUFAs can modulate TLR-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression and can alter the susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases.Practical applicationEicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a bioactive lipid that modulates inflammation and immunity. TLRs play a central role as initiators of the innate immune responses. EPA regulates TRIF-dependent pathways of TLRs by targeting TBK1. EPA may be a useful strategy to understand the mechanism of antiinflammatory activities.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T20:15:38.868935-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12490
  • The nutritional supplement FFD-002 attenuates streptozotocin-induced
           diabetes and decelerates diabetes-related tissue injury
    • Authors: B. Pavan Kumar; Mohammed Azeemuddin, Raghavendra P. Rao, Mohamed Rafiq, B. K. Ashok, A. H. M. Thippeswamy, M. Jagadeesh, Prashant Verma, Suryakanth D. Anturlikar, Mohammed Azher, S. J. Prashanth, Paramesh Rangesh
      Abstract: A nutritional supplement FFD-002 composed of micronutrients, macronutrients, and herbal actives was formulated with ingredients known for therapeutic effect in diabetes management. The study evaluated the effect of supplementing FFD-002 on diabetes and related complications. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by administering a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/Kg bodyweight, intraperitoneal) and rats were supplemented with either 2.5 g/kg or 5 g/kg of FFD-002 (p.o [per oral] once daily) for 90 days. Supplementation of FFD-002 to diabetic rats resulted in improved fasting glucose levels and marked decrease in diabetes-induced nephropathy and retinopathy. Cell-based experimental results indicated that FFD-002 treatment increased fat oxidation in muscle cells and stimulated the secretion of GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1) in intestinal cells. These studies showed that FFD-002, formulated by combining modern nutritional concepts with phytomedicine, could be beneficial in the management of diabetes.Practical applicationsDiabetes mellitus is a complex disease involving dysregulation at different physiological levels. Physical exercise and dietary control are proposed as key measures for maintaining as well as prevention of diabetes mellitus. Nutritional supplementation of a right caloric value with components that positively influence glucose homeostasis, fat metabolism, and weight management is an effective strategy to complement pharmacological intervention and management of diabetes. The nutritional supplement FFD-002 holds promise as a potential nutritional therapy for diabetes management.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T20:22:43.158142-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12486
  • Collagen peptides derived from the triple helical region of sturgeon
           collagen improve glucose tolerance in normal mice
    • Authors: Yukiho Sasaoka; Hideki Kishimura, Shinji Adachi, Yasuaki Takagi
      Abstract: We prepared collagen peptides (SCP) from sturgeon by-products: the skin, fin, and bone. The materials were pretreated and hydrolyzed by papain. Finally, we obtained 85.1 g of dried SCP powder from 864 g (wet weight) of the materials. In oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with ICR mice, blood glucose levels of SCP group were significantly lower than those of control group. Then, we fractionated SCP by Sephadex column chromatography and all fractions showed hypoglycemic effect. Further, we separated each peptide in the fractions by reversed-phase HPLC. Most of the peptides in these peaks consisted of Gly-X-Y (X and Y are optional amino acid residues) repetitive sequences which are common to the triple helical region of the collagen molecules. Moreover, many peptides contained Pro and Ala residues, which promises to serve as a DPP-IV inhibitor. Altogether, these results suggest the hypoglycemic effect of SCP may be caused by these structural properties.Practical applicationsWhile sturgeon is famous and highly valuable for its salted egg “caviar” and meat, other parts such as skin, fin, and bone, that is, by-products are not fully utilized in seafood industry. In this study, we focused on whole utilization of a sturgeon and prepared collagen peptides (SCP) from sturgeon by-products. The yield of SCP was approximately 100 g SCP/kg wet by-products. In animal experiments, SCP showed hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, the effect is probably caused by Gly-X-Y repetitive sequences derived from the triple helical region of a collagen molecule. The mechanism might be related to DPP-IV inhibitory activity. SCP was white, odorless, and easily soluble in water and it could be advantages in using SCP as an ingredient for functional foods preventing Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The by-products of sturgeon will be a new fishery resource which could be used as a material for collagen peptides providing the hypoglycemic effect.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T20:22:38.896979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12478
  • Characteristics of three typical Chinese highland barley varieties:
           Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities
    • Authors: Yingbin Shen; Churan Hu, Hui Zhang, Hao Jiang
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of three highland barley varieties. The free, bound, and total phenolic content of highland barley, respectively ranged from 44.52 to 178.37 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g dry weight (D. W.), 121.69–302.55 mg GAE/100 g D. W., and 166.21–480.92 mg GAE/100 g D. W. Besides, the free, bound, and total flavonoid content, respectively, ranged from 15.71 to 35.18 mg rutin equivalents (RE)/100 g D. W., 39.37–86.93 mg RE/100 g D. W., and 59.13–102.64 mg RE/100 g D. W. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging abilities, oxygen radical absorbance capacities, ferric reducing antioxidant power values, and cellular antioxidant activities of the bound extractions of highland barley were higher than those of the free extractions. However, the free polyphenol extracts had stronger inhibitory effects on HepG2 cell proliferation than the bound extracts.Practical applicationsHighland barley is a principal food crop that is widely cultivated in the west and southwest regions of China. Highland barley is usually rich in phenolic compounds, however, the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activities of highland barley were underestimated because the bound phytochemical fraction was not included in the analysis. In this study, three highland barleys from different region of China were used to analysis the free and bound total phenolics and total flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activities.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T20:31:12.445565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12488
  • Sialoglycoprotein isolated from Carassius auratus eggs promotes osteoblast
           differentiation via targeting the p38 mitogen-activated protein
           kinase-dependent Wnt/β-catenin and BMP2/Smads pathways
    • Authors: Lei Mao; Na Wang, Meiling Wang, Guanghua Xia, Zhe Yu, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue
      Abstract: In the current study, sialoglycoprotein isolated from eggs of Carassius auratus promoted MC3T3-E1 cells proliferation and differentiation, as assessed by MTT, mineralized nodule formation in vitro, as well as new osteoid formation in neonatal mouse calvarias ex vivo. Further research revealed that Ca-SGP facilitated osteogenesis via activating BMP2/Smads, Wnt/β-catenin, and p38MAPK signaling pathways. What is more, p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 down-regulated related mRNA and protein expression of BMP2/Smads and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, suggesting that p38MAPK pathway might be important for activation of BMP2/Smads and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in Ca-SGP-induced osteoblastic differentiation. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that Ca-SGP promotes osteoblasts differentiation via activating p38MAPK-dependent BMP2/Smads and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, which may provide basis for the use of Ca-SGP as a potential agent to treat bone loss-associated diseases such as osteoporosis.Practical applicationCarassius auratus eggs are one of the major by-products during fish processing and contain sialoglycoprotein which plays an important role in biological functions. However, they have not been high-value utilized. This study demonstrated that Sialoglycoprotein isolated from eggs of C. auratus (Ca-SGP) promoted MC3T3-E1 cells proliferation, differentiation and mineralized nodule formation in vitro, as well as neonatal mouse calvarias formation ex vivo, which may provide basis for a novel application of C. auratus eggs as a functional food used to accelerate bone formation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T21:27:34.536092-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12465
  • Antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective potential of Dracocephalum
           rupestre Hance extract against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Kunming mice
    • Authors: Chang-San Zhu; Kun Liu, Jun-Li Wang, Jian-Fei Li, Ming-Fei Liu, Na Hao, Yu-Xing Lin, Ze-Feng Xiao
      Abstract: The current study evaluated antioxidant activity of Dracocephalum rupestre Hance, characterized by the polyphenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from D. rupestre and investigated the protective mechanisms of EAF in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. EAF showed the largest antioxidant capacity as demonstrated by DPPH, ABTS, OH, and FRAP assays (p ≤ .05). Using LC–MS, two polyphenolics, for example, rosmarinic acid, and eriodictyol were identified in EAF. Total phenol content of D. rupestre was correlated significantly with FRAP value (r = .999, p ≤ .001). The results also showed that EAF decreased serum ALT and AST activities compared with model group, as well as the histological findings. In addition, EAF remarkably decreased MDA and LDH levels in liver. This is the first time to reveal the hepatoprotective effect of EAF from D. rupestre, which may be developed as a new drug for treatment of liver injury in future.Practical applicationsDracocephalum rupestre Hance is known as Chinese herbal medicine with pharmacological functions of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and has been mainly used in the treatment of damp-heat, headache, fever, jaundice, hepatitis, liver toxicity, and other diseases. In order to detect the potential application of this plant, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of D. rupestre were investigated. It was found that the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from D. rupestre displayed strong antioxidant activity. We also demonstrate that EAF could lessen CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Also, rosmarinic acid may play an important role in the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect for EAF.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T21:17:03.453446-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12484
  • Bioactivity-guided isolation of kaempferol as the antidiabetic principle
           from Cucumis sativus L. fruits
    • Authors: Oluwayemisi B. Ibitoye; Judith N. Uwazie, Taofeek O. Ajiboye
      Abstract: This study was aimed at isolating the antidiabetic principle of Cucumis sativus fruit using in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic model. Antidiabetic activity was monitored using in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and in vivo alloxan-induced diabetic rats models. The active principle was isolated using column chromatography and identified with high performance liquid chromatography. The extract and chromatographic fraction B from C. sativus fruit lowered blood glucose of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 652.43 and 540.42 μg/mL, respectively. Similarly, Fraction B inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 51.24 and 29.37 μg/mL, respectively. Fraction B also reversed altered lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of diabetic rats. HPLC fingerprint revealed that the Fraction B was kaempferol. Data obtained from this study showed that kaempferol isolated from C. sativus is responsible for its α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose lowering, antidyslipidemic, and antioxidant activities.Practical applicationsConsumption of cooked or fresh Cucumis sativus L. fruits could help in the management of diabetes and reduction of postprandial glucose. Furthermore, the fruit extracts could be developed into phytoceutical supplements for managing diabetes and its associated complications including dyslipidemia and oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T21:01:32.878828-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12479
  • Inhibitory effects of tropical almond leaf extract on xanthine oxidase,
           pancreatic lipase, and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme, in vitro
    • Authors: Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi; Samson Olalekan Agboola, Aline Augusti Boligon
      Abstract: Inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), pancreatic lipase (PL) and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) is an important therapeutic approach for treating hyperuricemia, obesity, and hypertension, respectively. Hence, in this study, polyphenolics-rich extract of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) leaf was evaluated for its XO, PL, and ACE inhibitory ability. In addition, the free radicals (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical [DPPH*] and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) [ABTS*+]) scavenging effects, and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) profile of the phenolic constituents of the extract were determined. The extract effectively inhibited XO (IC50: 24.75 ± 2.11 μg/mL), PL (IC50: 10.82 ± 1.02 μg/mL), and ACE (IC50: 14.98 ± 1.06 μg/mL) in a pattern that was dose-dependent. The extract strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid were the predominant phenolic compounds in the extract as determined by HPLC-DAD. By inhibiting XO, PL, and ACE, tropical almond leaf polyphenolics-rich extract may be useful for retarding uric acid, fatty acids, and angiotensin II formation, indicating an important strategy for treating hyperuricemia, obesity, and hypertension, respectively.Practical applicationsReducing the levels of uric acid, fatty acids, and angiotensin II through the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), pancreatic lipase (PL), and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), is an important pharmacological approach for managing hyperuricemia, obesity, and hypertension, respectively. This study showed the effectiveness of tropical almond leaf polyphenolics-rich extract as a common natural inhibitor of XO, PL, and ACE. Tropical almond leaf may, therefore, be beneficial for the management of hyperuricemia, obesity, and hypertension.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T20:51:13.973908-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12481
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-12-04T18:08:15.355844-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12330
  • Enzymatic preparation and antioxidant activity of the phloridzin oxidation
    • Authors: Benguo Liu; Jiangwei Liu, Chunling Zhang, Jiechao Liu, Zhonggao Jiao
      Abstract: During apple processing, phloridzin, the main flavonoid in apples, can be oxidized to the yellow pigment, which contributes to the color of apple juice and ciders. However, there was no report about the bioactivities of this yellow pigment. In this study, the oxidation of phloridzin catalyzed by tyrosinase from mushroom was investigated. The main oxidation product with bright yellow color was purified and identified as the phloridzin oxidation product j (POPj) based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy. In the chemical and cellular system, POPj exhibited the higher peroxyl radical-scavenging activity than phloridzin. Our results suggested that POPj was a kind of potential food yellow pigment with antioxidant activity, which partly explained health-promoting functions of apple juices and ciders.Practical applicationsIn view of the potential toxicity of the artificial food yellow pigment, the need for natural and safe yellow pigment is increasing. In this study, the enzymatic preparation of the yellow pigment derived from phloridzin was investigated. Its antioxidant activity was first reported. This study can prompt the application of this new yellow pigment in food industry.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T19:25:24.370947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12475
  • The medicinal herb Spatholobus suberectus with promising in vitro
           antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials and its phytochemical
           characterization by RP-HPLC analysis
    • Authors: Md. Mohibbullah; Ye Jin Lee, Hyun-Jin Park, Sung Kew Kim, Jin-Sook Kang, Andre Kim, Yong-Ki Hong, Jae-Suk Choi
      Abstract: The hot-water extract of Spatholobus suberectus (SWE) was investigated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, and a simple reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was used for phytochemical study of the SWE. SWE dose-dependently scavenged free radicals, showed no cytotoxicity even for LPS-induced macrophage cells, reduced the production of nitric oxide caused by LPS in culture, and decreased protein expression of iNOS and COX-II in cells co-treated with LPS. For phytochemical analysis, SWE showed a greater phenolic content, which was 177.6 mg/g. Using RP-HPLC analysis, its major phenolic compound, gallic acid, was identified and quantified to be 108.43 mg/g of SWE. These results indicate that gallic acid-rich SWE offers a potential therapeutic alternative to the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases.Practical applicationsThe study demonstrates the systematic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of SWE and their molecular mechanisms in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. The hot-water extract of Spatholobus suberectus contained the highest amount of phenolics especially gallic acid, which is safe for human consumption, and could be used to develop functional foods or nutraceuticals for preventing the inflammatory related disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T19:20:26.225698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12480
  • Structure-informed detection and quantification of peptides in food and
           biological fluids
    • Authors: Dominic Agyei; Sharadwata Pan, Caleb Acquah, Alaa El-Din Ahmed Bekhit, Michael K. Danquah
      Abstract: Peptides with biological properties, that is, bioactive peptides, are a class of biomolecules whose health-promoting properties are increasingly being exploited in food and health products. However, research on targeted techniques for the detection and quantification of these peptides is still in its infancy. Such information is needed in order to enhance the biological and chemometric characterization of peptides and their subsequent application in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries. In this review, the role of classic techniques such as electrophoretic, chromatographic, and peptide mass spectrometry in the structure-informed detection and quantitation of bioactive peptides are discussed. Prospects for the use of aptamers in the characterization of bioactive peptides are also discussed.Practical applicationsAlthough bioactive peptides have huge potential applications in the functional foods and health area, there are limited techniques in enhancing throughput detection, quantification, and characterization of these peptides. This review discusses state-of-the-art techniques relevant in complementing bioactive detection and profiling irrespective of the small number of amino acid units. Insights into challenges, possible remedies and prevailing areas requiring thorough research in the extant literature for food chemists and biotechnologists are also presented.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T19:15:27.041653-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12482
  • Efficacy of fermented goat milk on blood pressure in prehypertensive
           adults: A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial
    • Authors: Tsong-Ming Lu; Hui-Fang Chiu, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Oksana Golovinskaia, Chin-Kun Wang
      Abstract: This randomized, double-blind trial was aimed to investigate the hypotensive efficacy of fermented goat milk (FGM) in prehypertensive volunteers. Fifty prehypertensive subjects were chosen and separated into two groups as experimental (consumed six tablets of FGM; 7.5 g) or placebo (every day) for 8-week with 2 weeks of follow-up. Anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and various hormones were assessed during the initial (before intervention), 8th week (after intervention), and 10th week (follow-up period). Administration with FGM for 8 weeks showed no substantial changes were noted in any of the anthropometric parameters or lipid profile. Whereas, the BP, angiotensin II (AT-II), and aldosterone levels were significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T19:10:30.280888-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12474
  • Modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses by arabinoxylans
    • Authors: Abdulmannan Fadel; Andrew Plunkett, Weili Li, Vivian Elewosi Tessu Gyamfi, Rosemarie Roma Nyaranga, Fatma Fadel, Suaad Dakak, Yazan Ranneh, Yasser Salmon, Jason J Ashworth
      Abstract: Humans are exposed to harmful pathogens and a wide range of noxious substances every day. The immune system reacts to, and destroys, these pathogens and harmful substances. The immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immunity, which liaise to protect the host and maintain health. Foods, especially cereals, have been reported to modulate the immune response. Arabinoxylans are nonstarch polysaccharides that have been shown to possess immune-modulatory activities. This review article discusses the fundamentals of the immune system and provides an overview of the immunomodulatory potential of arabinoxylans in conjunction with their structural characteristics and proposed similarities with lipopolysaccharides.Practical applicationsUnderstanding how the immune system works is of vital importance to prevent unnecessary or excessive inflammatory responses. Consumption of arabinoxylans has been shown to possess immunomodulatory potential. However, their mechanism of action has not been elucidated. Arabinoxylans share some similarities with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a molecule that induces substantial and sometimes excessive immune responses such as fever following infection by pathogens. Thus, we propose that arabinoxylans might possibly act on the same receptor as LPS. Competition between dietary-derived arabinoxylans and LPS at a shared receptor would then have the potential to inhibit or attenuate excessive LPS-induced inflammatory responses that are typical of infection/fever. In the absence of infection and consequently no competition at the LPS receptor, consumption of dietary arabinoxylans may protect against the risk of infection by moderately activating the receptor and heightening natural (background) levels of immunity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T19:00:23.765075-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12473
  • HPLC analysis of six iridoid glycosides from Cymbaria dahurica L. and
           their structural elucidation
    • Authors: Qinghu Wang; Yinping Bao, Junsheng Hao, Jingjing Han
      Abstract: Studies on ethanol extract from Cymbaria dahurica L. (C. dahurica) resulted in isolation and identification of a new iridoid glycoside together with five known compounds. Moreover, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six iridoid glycosides in C. dahurica. The separation by gradient elution was performed on Inertsil ODS-SP column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) at 30°C with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase, and monitored by absorbance at 210 nm. The recovery of the method is from 95.0 to 98.0%, and linearity (r > .9994) was obtained for six compounds. A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values less than 2.6%) were also achieved. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of six compounds in six samples.Practical applicationsThe aerial parts of Cymbaria dahurica has been used as foods and herbal remedies in Inner Mongolia of China, which has a wide range of health benefits, significantly antioxidant properties. In previous phytochemical studies, non-glycosidic iridoids and flavonoids were isolated. Iridoids are a class of secondary metabolites with the significant pharmacological activities including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural compounds diversity in C. dahurica is of great importance to evaluate their biological activities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T18:55:23.824432-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12470
  • Influence of maceration time on phenolic compounds and antioxidant
           activity of the Syrah must and wine
    • Authors: Natália Manzatti Machado Alencar; Cinthia Baú Betim Cazarin, Luiz Cláudio Corrêa, Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior, Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Jorge Herman Behrens
      Abstract: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the maceration time up to 30 days on the phenolic compounds, monomeric anthocyanins, color intensity, and antioxidant activity (FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC) of both must and Syrah wine produced in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil. Up to the 15th day, the maceration process promoted an increase in phenolic compounds, while the major extraction of anthocyanins occurred up to the 20th days. The results showed the concentration of total phenolic compounds stabilized in 20th days until the end of maceration and it was higher in comparison with the concentration found at the beginning. Consequently, prolonging the maceration time to 20 days not only improved the phenolic compounds profile but also the antioxidant activity of the tropical Syrah wine.Practical applicationsThe maceration process in winemaking is an important step aimed at extracting and increasing the concentration of phenolic compounds and, as a consequence, the antioxidant activity of the wine improves as well. In practical terms, this process takes about 5 days to complete in wineries, although this paper demonstrates that higher maceration times, up to 20 days, have improve the concentration of phenolic compounds in tropical wines produced with Syrah vines and such improvement has a great impact not only in the sensory properties but in antioxidant properties of the beverage, which may be positively seen by the consumer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T18:45:23.4668-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12471
  • Investigating the antioxidant potential of licorice extracts obtained
           through different extraction modes
    • Authors: Muhammad Sohail; Allah Rakha, Masood Sadiq Butt, Muhammad Asghar
      Abstract: In the current study, antioxidant potential of licorice extracts was determined through different assays. For optimum recovery of bioactive components, three solvents (ethanol, methanol, and ethyl acetate) were employed at different ratios with water (25:75, 50:50, and 75:25) and supercritical fluid extracts (SFE) were obtained at varying pressures (3,500, 4,500, and 5,500 psi). Results exhibited that the extraction of antioxidant compounds from licorice increased with increasing solvent concentration. Among solvent extracts, 75% ethanolic extract showed highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TF), and antioxidant activity. The supercritical CO2 extract obtained at 5,500 psi pressure exhibited highest values for TPC, TF, and antioxidant capacity. It was evident from HPLC analysis that the highest recovery of major bioactive components (glycyrrhizin and glabridin) was obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction at elevated pressures.Practical applicationsLicorice is a rich source of biologically active components with history of medicinal use. The current study provides an approach to maximize the recovery of desired components from licorice that can be used in different formulations with antioxidant potential.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T03:10:58.999767-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12466
  • Antioxidant activities and HepG2 cells growth inhibitory capacity of whole
           plant ethanol extracts (Eclipta alba Hassk and Mesona procumbens Hemsl)
    • Authors: Quang-Ung Le; Horng-Liang Lay, Ming-Chang Wu
      Abstract: This study investigated in vitro antioxidant and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells growth inhibitory effect of Eclipta alba Hassk (EH) and Mesona procumbens Hemsl (MH). Extracts from ethanol 50% (E50) were chosen for the assays. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and the antioxidant activities including ABTS+ and DPPH radical-scavenging system were determined. The identification of phenolic compounds was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that higher levels of DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging activity were detected from the EH extract with IC50 of 41.91 ± 0.08 and 75.49 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. The rate of DPPH radical-scavenging activity was significantly influenced by the reaction time. The 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rosmarinic acid were the identified compounds in the EH. The 7-hydroxycoumarin, ferulic acid, and rutin being new compounds and two known compounds were identified in the MH. Lactate dehydrogenase released in medium was also evaluated. Extracts of the EH and MH stimulated the apoptotic factors bcl-2, bax, caspase-3, caspase-9 in HepG2. Overall, the EH extract was higher in total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant potential and more effective in inhibiting cancer cell growth.Practical applicationsThe EH has been widely used for the treatment of sore throat, hair disorders, skin diseases, urinary tract infections, hematuria, and other diseases in traditional oriental medicine. Recently, in Vietnam the EH has also been used to successfully cure leukemia cancer. The MH is consumed as both a herbal drink and jelly-type dessert and it was used for antipyretic, heat-relieving, and lowering blood pressure. Both may be beneficial for the treatment of liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis, infectious hepatitis (liver inflammation due to a viral infection). This research revealed that the EH and MH may be good sources of potential phenolic phytochemicals that act as natural antioxidants and liver cancer cell growth inhibitor.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T21:20:39.010597-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12454
  • Dietary ginger and turmeric rhizomes prevent oxidative stress and restore
           delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in L-NAME treated rats
    • Authors: Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi; Ganiyu Oboh, Gustavo Roberto Thomé, Vera Maria Morsch, Thauan Faccin Lopes, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger
      Abstract: The inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity has been implicated in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thereby depleting antioxidant status. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in L-NAME treated rats. Animals were treated with dietary turmeric or ginger (4%) before induction with nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor (L-NAME, 40 mg/kg/day). The results revealed that ginger and turmeric rhizomes caused a significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T21:15:49.271852-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12472
  • Myoglobin from common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L.): Purification and
           primary structure characterization
    • Authors: Antonella M. A. Di Giuseppe; Rosita Russo, Sara Ragucci, Nicola Landi, Camilla Rega, Angela Chambery, Antimo Di Maro
      Abstract: Myoglobin (Mb) is a monomeric hemoprotein involved in dioxygen storage and transport in skeletal muscles and heart. Mb, containing the heme pigment, is present in large amount in meat, thus influencing meat color and consumer choice. Here, the primary structure of Mb isolated from muscle of Phasianus colchicus L. was determined by using a comparative peptide mapping approach based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This strategy allowed the determination of common pheasant Mb primary sequence, which resulted identical to the chicken Mb, as also confirmed by intact molecular mass determination by ESI/Q-TOF mass spectrometry. Indeed, the accurate molecular mass (17,290.50 Da) of common pheasant Mb was found to be in good agreement with that of chicken Mb (17,290.86 Da). Finally, the 3D model of common pheasant Mb was predicted by homology modeling. Overall, in this study we confirmed that chicken, turkey and common pheasant, belonging to the Galliformes order, share the same Mb sequence.Practical applicationsConsidering the economic importance of game meat consumption, our result may be interesting for meat industry, providing useful information for the determination of species-specific differences in color and color stability compared to other poultry species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T21:10:44.177813-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12477
  • Carotenoprotein from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) shells
           extracted using trypsin from albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) spleen:
           Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems
    • Authors: Tanchanok Poonsin; Benjamin K. Simpson, Soottawat Benjakul, Wonnop Visessanguan, Asami Yoshida, Sappasith Klomklao
      Abstract: Antioxidative activities of carotenoprotein from Pacific white shrimp shells extracted by trypsin from albacore tuna spleen were investigated. Carotenoprotein exhibited increased DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelating activity, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities as concentration increased up to 5 mg/mL (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T20:10:30.643444-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12462
  • Tucumã oil (Astrocaryum vulgare) ameliorates hepatic antioxidant defense
           system in alloxan-induced diabetic mice
    • Authors: Matheus D. Baldissera; Carine F. Souza, Thirssa H. Grando, Michele R. Sagrillo, Luciana F. Cossetin, Aleksandro S. da Silva, Lenita M. Stefani, Silvia G. Monteiro
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with Astrocaryum vulgare oil (tucumã oil), a hypoglycemic natural compound, was able to reduce hepatic oxidative stress of diabetic mice. An increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as glutathione reductase (GSH) levels were observed in diabetic/water group. Treatment with tucumã oil prevented lipid peroxidation and inhibition of CAT and SOD activities in diabetic mice. The tucumã oil treatment may provide effective protection against lipid oxidative damage in the liver tissue of diabetic mice, since it improved the enzymatic antioxidant defense system. Therefore, the tucumã oil can be an important coadjutant in the treatment of diabetes, contributing to the prevention and reduction of oxidative damage.Practical applicationsRecently, it was demonstrated that tucumã oil exerts potent antihyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The oil improved the pancreatic oxidant/antioxidant status, playing an essential role in the hypoglycemic effect. The results showed that tucumã oil can reduce oxidative stress in liver tissue, and consequently, prevent the hepatic alterations caused by high glucose levels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T21:51:32.50539-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12468
  • Inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Ramulus mori on adipogenic
           differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and their antioxidant activity
    • Authors: Seonwook Hwang; Jeong-Keun Kim, In-Ho Kim, Young-Hee Lim
      Abstract: Ramulus mori is known as a medical herb for improving health. The antioxidant and anti-obesity effects of an ethanolic extract of R. mori containing oxyresveratrol (ERM) were investigated. The antioxidant activity of ERM was determined by in vitro chemical- and cell-based methods. ERM showed high antioxidant activities. In particular, ERM showed a high scavenging activity for peroxyl radicals in both chemical- and cell-based assays. To investigate the inhibitory effect of ERM on adipogenic differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with ERM (20, 30, and 40 μg/mL) for 8 days during induction of differentiation. ERM significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and decreased expression levels of adipogenic genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). ERM also induced G0/G1 phase arrest in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). The results suggest that ERM possesses anti-adipogenic activity and antioxidant property.Practical applicationsRamulus mori, a branch of Morus alba L., has been used as a traditional herb tea in Asia and is approved as a food source in South Korea, indicating it is safe. An ethanolic extract of R. mori containing oxyresveratrol (ERM) significantly suppresses lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibits adipogenesis. ERM shows a strong antioxidative activity. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation, which leads to lipid accumulation in obesity. Obesity is one of metabolic disorders and a major risk factor for various chronic diseases. Additionally, antioxidants can protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Therefore, ERM could be developed as a health functional food to prevent obesity and many diseases caused by oxidative damage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T21:50:59.644319-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12469
  • Selenium biofortification of Pleurotus species and its effect on yield,
           phytochemical profiles, and protein chemistry of fruiting bodies
    • Authors: Gagandeep Kaur; Anu Kalia, Harpreet S Sodhi
      Abstract: Selenium is considered an essential component of a balanced diet due to its antioncogenic and antioxidative properties. Highly popular edible mushrooms belonging to the genus Pleurotus (Oyster mushrooms) were biologically fortified with selenium by exploiting their saprophytic ability. Selenium-rich wheat straw, generally wasted or burned by farmers, was used for cultivation of three species of Pleurotus: P. florida, P. ostreatus, and P. sajor-caju. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy of harvested fruiting bodies exhibited over a 100-fold increase in bio-accumulation of selenium compared to control samples. P. florida preferred selenium-rich substrate over the normal straw as exhibited by increased yield on selenium-rich straw. Total protein content and antioxidant profiles of Se-rich mushroom extracts also improved significantly. Vibrational Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis confirmed alteration of flexibility and unfolding of proteins extracted from Se-rich fruit bodies compared to the control, indicating bond formations between selenium and amino acids. The extracts and proteins from selenium enriched as well as control Pleurotus species also showed inhibitory potential towards common pathogens.Practical applicationsThe Se-rich wheat straw can be a useful though underutilized substrate for cultivation of Se-biofortified oyster mushrooms besides enhancing their protein content. The oyster mushrooms cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw vary in their Se-accumulation potentials. Thus, greater health benefits can be obtained by choosing specific Se-rich oyster mushroom species. The Se-proline can be one of the alternate Se-species besides Se-cysteine and Se-methionine. Se-biofortification of oyster mushrooms is feasible by cultivation on Se-rich agricultural waste such as wheat straw which otherwise is burnt by the farmers resulting in air pollution.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T21:36:06.026788-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12467
  • Functionality of porcine skin hydrolysates produced by hydrothermal
           processing for liposomal delivery system
    • Authors: Dasol Choi; Sang-Gi Min, Yeon-Ji Jo
      Abstract: Porcine skin proteins were hydrolyzed using hydrothermal processing (HTP) and fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration (UF) into peptides with different molecular weights (1–10 kDa). The porcine skin hydrolysates (PSHs) were analyzed for their antioxidant, antiaging, and skin permeation properties. Additionally, the PSHs were incorporated into liposomes with different charges to maintain and/or enhance their beneficial effect. The results showed that both HTP and UF-II (1–3 kDa) had significantly high antioxidant and antiaging effects and good skin permeability. Based on the results for PSH-loaded liposomes, the best carrier for incorporating PSHs was a positively charged liposome that had been prepared using positively charged lipid. PSH loaded with positively charged liposomes (PSH/LIP-P) had the following droplet properties: 71.11 nm, 0.208 PDI (polydispersity index), and 38.37 mV. PSH/LIP-P also had an incorporation efficiency of 70.72%, and the liposomes maintained their physical droplet stability during storage.Practical applicationsThe findings of this study highlighted porcine skin hydrolysates (PSH) produced by hydrothermal processing and membrane ultrafiltration with high antioxidant and antiaging effects and good skin permeability. PSH-loaded liposome capsules maintained a small size and high incorporation efficiency for PSH. The PSHs and PSH-loaded liposomes could be tested further for their in vivo functionality as nutraceutical or cosmeceutical ingredients. Hence, the finding could be useful information for developing potential commercial products in the food, cosmetics, and related industries.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T21:32:48.36697-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12464
  • Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potential of raw, boiled, and sprouted mung
           beans (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) in rats
    • Authors: Ruvini Liyanage; Chathuranga Kiramage, Rizliya Visvanathan, Chathuni Jayathilake, Pabodha Weththasinghe, Ruksheela Bangamuwage, Barana Chaminda Jayawardana, Janak Vidanarachchi
      Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potential of raw, boiled, and sprouted mung beans in rats. Oven dried mung bean powders; raw, sprouted, and boiled were included at 30% level in the diet of seven weeks old male Wistar rats maintained for 5 weeks on high (0.5%) cholesterol diet in comparison with control diet. Low serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T21:05:38.295971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12457
  • Chemical characterization and functional properties of selected leafy
           vegetables for innovative mixed salads
    • Authors: Cintia A. Mazzucotelli; Gustavo A. González-Aguilar, Mónica A. Villegas-Ochoa, Abraham J. Domínguez-Avila, María R. Ansorena, Karina C. Di Scala
      Abstract: The content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of nine vegetables of conventional and unconventional utilization in salad mixtures were studied. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged between 39.6–148.5 mg GAE/100g FW and 76.3–217.4 mg QE/100g FW, respectively. Ascorbic acid content ranged between 16.4 and 198.8 mg AAE/100g FW. Antioxidant capacity was assessed using DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods; values were in the range of 48.9–245.8 mg TE/100g FW, 67.7–335.8 mg TE/100g FW, and 104.86–833.9 mg TE/100g FW, respectively. Red cabbage, beet greens, parsley, and rocket exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities. Catechin was the most abundant phenolic compound identified in the free fraction, and p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and caffeic acid in the hydrolyzed fraction. Results suggested that the presence of these phenolics could be of great importance in preventing some chronic and degenerative diseases when regularly consumed. Nonconventional vegetables showed high antioxidant properties, therefore, it is important to promote their consumption.Practical applicationsNot all vegetables have the same phenolic composition, and not all phenolics have the same antioxidant capacity. Knowledge of the bioactive content and antioxidant capacity profile in each vegetable could be of interest to consumers and the food industry for selecting the more suitable leaves to make salad mixtures with high nutritional and functional values. These compounds can prevent some chronic-degenerative diseases related to oxidative stress, so it is important introduce them regularly into the diet. Moreover, the evaluation of nontraditional vegetables is intended to bring consumers toward a new source of bioactive compounds, prompting their consumption, and providing added value to certain plant parts that are sometimes considered as waste products.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T21:30:52.848063-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12461
  • Effect of dihydromyricetin on proline metabolism of Vibrio
           parahaemolyticus: Inhibitory mechanism and interaction with molecular
           docking simulation
    • Authors: Lijun Ding; Sijie Xiao, Dan Liu, Wencong Pang
      Abstract: Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is a principle bioactive component of the wild plant Ampelopsis grossedentata and possesses multiple pharmacological effects. However, the mechanism of its biological activity has not received much attention. In this study, the inhibitory mechanism of DMY was explored. Experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of DMY on the proline metabolism of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by measurements of proline contents and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. With DMY treatment, an increase in proline content and decrease in PDH activity were observed. Furthermore, molecular docking studies were used to confirm interaction mechanism of DMY with PDH. The results shown that DMY can interact with primary amino acid residues located within the active hydrophobic pockets of PDH, leading to decrease of PDH activity. The normal metabolism of proline was interfered by DMY, resulting in molecular damage and even death of V. parahaemolyticus cells.Practical applicationsThe antimicrobial mechanism of dihydromyricetin (DMY) on Vibrio parahaemolyticus at the molecular level is reported for the first time in this study. The molecular docking simulation provided supportive data for DMY-induced inhibition by allowing us to predict the binding site in the active site pocket of proline dehydrogenase. The data can be useful for future studies that involve evaluation of antibacterial mechanism of natural antimicrobial agents against foodborne pathogens and provide an insight into the structural and antibacterial properties of phenolic compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T21:21:04.097317-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12463
  • Antioxidant and gastroprotective actions of butanol fraction of Zingiber
           officinale against diclofenac sodium-induced gastric damage in rats
    • Authors: Wassila Saiah; Hanane Halzoune, Rabah Djaziri, Khadidja Tabani, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir, Naima Omari
      Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and antiulcer activities of flavonoid-rich fractions of Zingiber officinale extract. The fractions, obtained by solvents of increasing polarities, were subjected to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The fraction which possessed the highest antioxidant activity was used to assess gastroprotective action against diclofenac sodium induced gastric ulcer in rats. Chromatographic profiling was carried out using LC-ESI-MS analysis. The butanol fraction (BF) showed the strongest antioxidant potential and the results of the in vivo study revealed that BF at 100 mg/kg protected against gastric lesions. At the same dose, BF prevented diclofenac sodium-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and depletion of catalase (CAT) activity as well as glutathione (GSH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contents. LC-ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of 12 phenolic compounds. BF exerted antiulcer action which could be linked to the presence of phenolic compounds.Practical applicationsZingiber officinale has been widely consumed as a spice and used in folk medicine for treatment of gastric disorders. This is the first report evaluating the pharmacological effects of the butanol extract of ginger for the prevention of gastric ulcer. The results showed that the extract affords better gastroprotective activity against diclofenac sodium-induced gastric ulcer in rats by reducing oxidative stress. Information provided in this study will be beneficial for developing applications of ginger in food biotechnology as functional and nutraceutical ingredient.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T21:15:51.285225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12456
  • Purification and partial characterization of antilisterial bacteriocin
           produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus KJBC11 from Idli batter fermented with
           Piper betle leaves
    • Authors: Vishwanathan Sadishkumar; Kadirvelu Jeevaratnam
      Abstract: Bacteriocins are natural antimicrobial agents mainly act against closely related bacteria and at times unrelated organisms including various food spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have been widely used for food preservation because of their safety nature. In this study, bacteriocin from Pediococcus pentosaceus KJBC11 was purified with the recovery of 15%, using cell adsorption-desorption technique, gel permeation chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and reversed phase HPLC successively. Molecular weight of bacteriocin KJBC11 was determined to be 4.5 kDa using Tricine SDS-PAGE. The bacteriocin KJBC11 showed strong inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Bacteriocin KJBC11 activity was not altered when treated with amylase, lipase, and trypsin but inactivated by protease and proteinase enzyme treatment. It was heat stable (100°C, 1 hr) and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity within the pH 3–7. Its mode of action was bactericidal in nature as revealed against Listeria monocytogenes showing leakage of internal contents out of the cell. Bacteriocin KJBC11 could belong to Class IIa-pediocin like bacteriocins based on its characteristics as well as the presence of pediocin gene in the genome of the isolate KJBC11.Practical applicationsStudies on Lactic Acid Bacteria and bacteriocin have attracted increasing attention for a long time, due to their established role in food fermentation and preservation. The antimicrobial properties of bacteriocin became a trademark approach to achieve food safety and to counter the menace of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This study revealed a potent bacteriocin with wide range of antibacterial activity against various foodborne and clinically important pathogens to have potential application in food preservation and biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T21:10:37.587518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12460
  • Effect of fruit canopy positions on the properties of apricot (Prunus
           armeniaca L.) varieties
    • Authors: Ihsan Karabulut; Tugca Bilenler, Kubra Sislioglu, Incilay Gokbulut, Ferda Seyhan, Ibrahim Sani Ozdemir, Bulent Ozturk
      Abstract: Effect of fruit position in the tree on properties of two commercially important apricot varieties (Hacıhaliloğlu and Kabaaşı) was investigated. Principal component analysis separated apricots based on their variety and canopy position. Hacıhaliloğlu variety was distinguished from Kabaaşı variety by its higher pH, weight, dry matter (DM), soluble solid, citric acid, and catechin content. Major features which contribute to variation of the canopy position were β-carotene, malic acid, catechin, ascorbic acid, soluble solid content, DM, malic acid, and neochlorogenic acid. Fruits located on the top of the tree were richer in phenolic compounds and exhibited higher degree of antioxidant activity measured by 2.2′-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) method than those located on the bottom of the tree. Except for chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, all other forms of phenolic compounds were higher in concentration in the fruits located on the top of the canopy especially for the Hacıhaliloğlu variety.Practical applicationsThe results of this study may be of interest for apricot breeders as it provides important information about cultivar specific canopy effect on fruit quality. Furthermore, the results can be used by apricot producers for canopy management and pruning strategies to create of homogenous microclimate in the fruit canopy which would limit quality variation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T18:26:26.027126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12458
  • Features of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides from
           dietary proteins
    • Authors: Alice B. Nongonierma; Richard J. FitzGerald
      Abstract: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is involved in incretin hormone processing and therefore plays a key role in glycemic regulation. This review summarizes the latest developments in food protein-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. The in silico approaches currently used to develop targeted strategies for the enzymatic release of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides from food proteins are outlined. The features within the primary sequences of potent DPP-IV inhibitory di-, tri-, and larger peptides, having half maximal inhibitory activity (IC50) 
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T23:43:09.646041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12451
  • Effects of gamma-irradiated soybean pod extract on oxidative stress,
           cancer cell viability, and tyrosinase inhibition
    • Authors: Ji Hae Lee; Koan Sik Woo, Jae-Kyung Kim, Mijung Kim, Byong Won Lee, Eunyeong Sim, Yong-Hee Jeon, Choon-Ki Lee, Hyun-Joo Kim
      Abstract: Soybean pods contain abundant dietary fiber and phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds. However, few bioactivity studies have been conducted using soybean pods, while soybean leaves, and seeds have been well characterized. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological properties of soybean pod extract (SPE) was investigated. SPE was irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy, and the phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activity were investigated. The total phenolic compounds were increased and total flavonoids were decreased as the irradiation dose increased. Antioxidant activity, which was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays, improved as the irradiation dose increased. In addition, cancer cell viability, and tyrosinase activity were reduced by gamma irradiation. These results show that soybean pods can be utilized as functional food materials after gamma irradiation.Practical applicationsGamma irradiation modified the chemical composition of soybean pod extract (SPE). Such irradiation improved the antioxidant, anti-pigmentation, and anti-carcinogenesis effects compared to those of control SPE. Therefore, this material, previously considered a byproduct of soybean processing, can be used as a functional food to prevent such disorders as oxidative damage, cancer, and hyperpigmentation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T23:43:06.617968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12459
  • Biological evaluation and quantitative analysis of antioxidant compounds
           in pulps of the Amazonian fruits bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.), ingá
    • Authors: Flávio A. de Freitas; Rafael C. Araújo, Elzalina R. Soares, Rita C. S. Nunomura, Felipe M. A. da Silva, Sarah R. S. da Silva, Antonia Q. L. de Souza, Afonso D. L. de Souza, Francisco Franco-Montalbán, Leonard D. R. Acho, Emerson S. Lima, Giovana A. Bataglion, Hector H. F. Koolen
      Abstract: Bacuri, ingá, and uchi are Amazon fruits consumed specially in the North region of Brazil. Due to their large consumption and the lack of knowledge regarding its chemical composition, these fruits were studied in relation to their Antioxidant chemical constitution. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.86 ± 0.47 to 33.38 ± 1.51 mg GAE/100 g, and the total flavonoid content ranged from 1.75 ± 0.22 to 19.44 ± 0.87 mg QUERE/100 g, where the contents showed a significant correlation with DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays. Thus, UHPLC-MS/MS was applied do quantify selected compounds, been citric acid the most abundant for all fruits. Furthermore, samples were screened for their α-glycosidase and lipase inhibitory effects, in addition to their antimicrobial potentials. Bacuri showed the highest antioxidant and α-glycosidase inhibitory capacity (IC50 15.20 μg/mL), whereas uchi and its main metabolite bergenin displayed moderate antimicrobial activities. The results shed light into the potentials of Amazonian fruit sources.Practical applicationsPlant phenolics are essential components of functional foods, due to their antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities, which are directly linked to several diseases prevention. This is the first study about the quantification of antioxidant compounds in the Amazonian fruits: bacuri, ingá, and uchi. Although they are quite consumed in the North region of Brazil, there are no bio-products made from them. This study aimed to elucidate the knowledge about the chemical composition and potentialities within these fruits with the practical purpose of highlighting them to future commercial applications. In addition, once we indicate their capabilities, we contribute with local populations in respect to the production of such fruits, which still is a family activity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:41:07.272064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12455
  • Seed extracts from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) and Moringa oleifera
           (Drumstick tree) inhibits enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction and
           metal-induced oxidative damage in rats' penile tissues
    • Authors: Veronica O. Odubanjo; Tosin A. Olasehinde, Sunday I. Oyeleye, Ganiyu Oboh, Aline A. Boligon
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of nutmeg and drumstick seed extracts on enzymes (phosphodiesterase-5′ [PDE-5′], arginase, acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity [ACE]) linked to erectile dysfunction (ED) and metal-induced oxidative damage in penile homogenate in vitro. The chemical constituents of the extracts were quantified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nutmeg had higher levels of ellagic acid (35.42 mg/g), rutin (91.07 mg/g), quercitrin (35.83 mg/g), quercetin (41.16 mg/g), and kaempferol (36.81 mg/g) compared to drumstick. The in vitro biochemical analysis revealed that nutmeg exhibited stronger inhibitory effects on PDE-5′, arginase, AChE, and ACE activities, as well as Fe2+-induced oxidative damage in penile homogenate compared to drumstick seed, and could be linked to their phenolic constituents. These findings demonstrate that the studied seeds could be explored as an alternative remedy for the management of ED. However, the seed of nutmeg was more effective than drum stick.Practical applicationsNutmeg and Drumstick seeds are commonly consumed medicinal seeds and are a potential source of polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity. They are used as functional foods and could serve as an alternative therapy for the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). This study provides useful information for the first time on phenolic composition and therapeutic potentials of nutmeg and drumstick seeds for the management and treatment of ED.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:26:09.18756-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12452
  • Effect of vitamin A biofortification on the nutritional composition of
           cassava flour (gari) and evaluation of its glycemic index in healthy
    • Authors: Olarewaju M. Oluba; Ajoke B. Oredokun-Lache, Adewale A. Odutuga
      Abstract: The nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of cassava flour (gari) processed from white (TMS 30572) and vitamin A-biofortified yellow (TMS 07/0593) cassava cultivars were evaluated using standard methods. In addition, the glycemic index (GI) of eba (local food made from the two gari samples) was also evaluated. The yellow gari had significantly higher crude fiber and sugar but lower starch contents compared to the white gari. Similarly, β-carotene (7.34 µg/g) and total carotenoids (13.10 µg/g) levels were significantly higher in yellow gari compared to white gari with 4.97 µg/g and 8.75 µg/g β-carotene and total carotenoids levels, respectively. Eba from yellow gari eba showed a significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T22:35:28.279732-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12450
  • Characterization of liver oils from three species of sharks collected in
           Tunisian coasts: In vitro digestibility by pancreatic lipase
    • Authors: Neila Achouri; Nabil Smichi, Nadia Kharrat, Fatma Rmili, Youssef Gargouri, Nabil Miled, Ahmed Fendri
      Abstract: The increase in world fish lipid request has made necessary the search for new fish species rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that could be used as raw material for oil production. In this study, liver oils from the deep-sea sharks Mustelus mustelus, Squalus acanthias, and Rhinobatos cemiculus were extracted and analyzed to describe their lipids characteristics. Lipid contents of shark livers ranged from 64.245 to 69.57%. Among minerals, potassium and sodium were the most abundant while unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) were dominant exceeding 55% of the total FAs. Omega-3 PUFA (ω-3 PUFA) profiles exhibited a dominance of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study suggests that shark livers, actually considered as waste, may be an attractive source of ω-3 PUFAs and a good source of carotenoids and phenolic compounds.Practical applicationsThe production of EPA and DHA concentrates from residual sources of marine oils has unexplored potential of use in food industry and oil-based nutraceutical production for obtaining health benefits can be achieved. The economic activities of fish residues can reduce inappropriate excessive fishing, reducing imports of fish oils while contributing to the ecosystem balance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T21:35:25.768794-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12453
  • Phenethyl isothiocyanate decreases thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced
           inflammatory reactions in mast cells
    • Authors: Na-Ra Han; Phil-Dong Moon, Ka-Jung Ryu, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
      Abstract: Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of PEITC on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-induced inflammatory responses are uncertain. This study evaluates pharmacological activities of PEITC on inflammatory reactions in TSLP-stimulated mast cells. Human mast cell line HMC-1 was treated with PEITC (0.04, 0.4, and 4 µM) and subjected to inflammation by TSLP. Our results showed that PEITC significantly attenuated IL-13 and TNF-α levels increased by TSLP in HMC-1. PEITC significantly decreased TSLP-promoted HMC-1 proliferation and Ki67 mRNA expression. Protein levels of MDM2 and pSTAT6 increased by TSLP were significantly suppressed by PEITC in HMC-1. In addition, PEITC significantly enhanced protein levels of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase and p53 decreased by TSLP. Based on the effects of PEITC on inflammation and proliferation in this study, it is possible that PEITC is a potential candidate to treat mast cells-mediated inflammatory disorders.Practical applicationsThis report provides strong evidence that Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) which is a dietary constituent derived from cruciferous vegetables, may be considered an alternative agent for treatment of mast cells-mediated inflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T21:30:39.315949-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12449
  • Nutritional composition, antidiabetic and antilipidemic potentials of
           flour blends made from unripe plantain, soybean cake, and rice bran
    • Authors: Folasade D. Odebode; Oluchi T. Ekeleme, Oluwole S. Ijarotimi, Sunday A. Malomo, Atinuke O. Idowu, Adebanjo A. Badejo, Isaac A. Adebayo, Tayo N. Fagbemi
      Abstract: Life style and diet are the major causes of the astronomic increase in the number of people living with diabetes mellitus in the developing countries. With the cost of treatments beyond the reach of many, this study aims at using cheap and locally available materials—unripe plantain, rice bran, and soybean cake, to develop functional dough meals and assess their potential for the management of the disease. After preliminary testing, three different blends were selected for high protein and crude fiber contents and used for further analyses. The essential amino acid (40.2–41.5%) of the formulated diets surpasses the 39% recommended for ideal protein food. The dough meals lowered blood glucose by ∼76% in diabetic rats while stabilizing the lipid profiles of the animals to normal physiological range. Sensory evaluation showed wide acceptance among consumers and highly recommended for the rural poor living with burden of the disease.Practical applicationsThe use of easily accessible and cheap food material will be an effective tool in managing the burden of diabetes ravaging many in the developing countries. The combination of plantain, soybean cake, and rice bran was able to produce functional dough with good nutritional composition, pasting properties, and antidiabetic potential; lowering serum glucose of diabetic rats by more than 70%. Thus, the developed functional dough will be a promising diet that can be recommended for patients with low income suffering from diabetes, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T03:05:20.220921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12447
  • Apple phlorizin supplementation attenuates oxidative stress in hamsters
           fed a high-fat diet
    • Authors: Hao Wang; Zhenou Sun, Rizwan-Ur Rehman, Tingting Shen, Sania Riaz, Xiang Li, ErBing Hua, Jiang Zhao
      Abstract: Phlorizin from apple peel has been used as a nutrient for more than 100 years. The present study investigated the effects of phlorizin on the antioxidant capacity and the antioxidative mechanisms in hamsters fed high-fat diet supplemented with phlorizin (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%). Results showed that phlorizin increased the antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the malondialdehyde content in plasma, liver, heart, and kidney that might arise from the higher mRNA levels of CuZn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-like (Nrf2), and the protein expression of Mn-SOD (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T02:55:22.16682-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12445
  • Fermentation of soybean hull by Monascus pilosus and elucidation of its
           related molecular mechanism involved in the inhibition of lipid
           accumulation. An in sílico and in vitro approach
    • Authors: Shakina Yesmin Simu; Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Sangchul Lee, Sungeun Ahn, Hyun Koo Lee, Van-An Hoang, Deok-Chun Yang
      Abstract: Soybean fermentation had been done over the years in order to increase its nutritional value. In order to that, our present study was focused on the fermentation of soybean hull (SH) by Monascus pilosus KCCM 60084 to enhance the secondary metabolite monacolin K and produce isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein (phytoestrogens). These isoflavones have effect on reducing cholesterol level, anticancer, and anti-osteophorosis. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenesis effect of fermented soybean hull (FSH) and nonfermented soybean hull (NFSH) was investigated by evaluating the molecular signaling at in vitro level (on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte) as well as by the in sílico study. Results found that FSH had effect on the reduction of lipid accumulation without exerting any cytotoxicity compared with NFSH at cellular level at 100 µg/mL. In addition, we noticed that it significantly downregulated the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional genes including jak2, STAT3, CEBPα, PPARγ, CEBPβ, and aP2 at same concentration as well as suppressed the protein expression p-STAT3, PPARγ, CEBPα, and aP2. Also, molecular docking studies show that monacolin K, daidzein, and genistein interact with PPARγ reducing lipid accumulation highly than NFSH. We hypothesized that the newly produced isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein and the high amount of secondary metabolite monacolin K conjointly work on reducing lipid accumulation in adipocyte mature cells.Practical applicationsSoybean product had been used as a food along to functional food for its nutritional value. During the processing of this product the soybean hull (SH) is removed and discarded, since the used is high being a constant problem for soybean processing industries. In this study, we found a possible use for this SH which include its fermentation by Monascus pilosus KCCM 60084. This process gives as a result the transformation of SH metabolite and Isoflavones content increasing the possible uses of SH as a functional food or supplement since exhibits lower toxicity than nonfermented SH. In addition, SH in vitro effect was enhanced after fermentation suggesting a possible a possible preventive or therapeutic use for obesity. The results in this study, not only give us a new process option for soybean hull, but also shown that this fermentation increase its anti-lipogenic effect.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T02:50:26.914588-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12442
  • The physicochemical characterization, equilibrium, and kinetics of heavy
           metal ions adsorption from aqueous solution by arrowhead plant (Sagittaria
           trifolia L.) stalk
    • Authors: Di Zhang; Chengtao Wang, Qihang Bao, Jie Zheng, Di Deng, Yuqing Duan, Lingqin Shen
      Abstract: The arrowhead plant stalk (APS) has been investigated as a novel biosorbent for removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) ions from aqueous solution. The surface physicochemical properties favorable for metals adsorption were systematically characterized. The Langmuir isotherm fitted well with Cd(II) and Pb(II) adsorption process onto APS while Dubinin–Radushkevich model best described Cr(III) sorption. The maximal adsorption capacities of APS for Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) were up to 38.2, 97.1, and 23.5 mg·g−1, respectively. The adsorption kinetic data of individual metal fitted the pseudo-second order model best. The adsorption of Cd(II) was exothermic, whereas the Pb(II) and Cr(III) underwent endothermic reaction. Overall, this investigation indicated, for the first time, APS is a potentially efficient biosorbent applied in Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) adsorption. It is also helpful for further utilizing the abundant quantity of APS which were abandoned in dietary arrowhead processing.Practical applicationsThe growing food industry around world generates large quantity of by-products. The high value-added utilization of food processing by-products is one of the most important area in food industry. An attempt was made in present study to use the food by-product, arrowhead plant stalk (APS), as a novel biosorbent for removing Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) ions. In present study, it was evidenced that the adsorption capacities of APS for Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) were obviously higher than those of most reported agricultural by-products. This finding is significant for sustainable utilization of food crop arrowhead plant and elimination of environmental issues arising from the abandoned arrowhead plant stalk.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T02:35:47.184054-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12448
  • Study on utilizing solid food industry waste with brewers' spent grain and
           potato pulp as possible peroxidase sources
    • Authors: Katarzyna Kurnik; Maciej Krzyżyński, Krzysztof Treder, Andrzej Tretyn, Jarosław Tyburski
      Abstract: This study found that extracts containing ionically bound proteins, isolated from potato pulp and brewers' spent grain, were characterized by high peroxidase activities. The kinetic parameters, namely Km and Vmax values, were typical for plant peroxidases. Seven peroxidase isoenzymes in potato pulp and two isoenzymes in brewers' spent grain were obtained from their respective ionically bound fractions. Peroxidases from both potato pulp and brewers' spent grain displayed high storage stability, over a 90-day-long storage period, if stored at −20°C with glycerol added to a concentration of 50% or as unsupplemented extracts at 4°C. Peroxidase activity was present in the covalently bound fraction of potato pulp, whereas it was absent in the respective fraction of brewers' spent grain. Covalently bound peroxidases from potato pulp displayed high activity, but low stability. Peroxidases extracted from brewers' spent grain and potato pulp, followed the ping-pong mechanism and the sequence mechanism, respectively.Practical applicationsPlant peroxidases are widely applicable in various fields of biotechnology and diagnostics. These enzymes are used for biosensor and glucometer construction and in conjugation with antibodies for the purpose of enzyme immunoassays. Using waste products as a peroxidase source provides a cost-friendly alternative to commercially available horseradish peroxidase and gives an opportunity to recycle waste from the food industry—processed plant biomass. Here, the properties of peroxidases from food waste products, namely potato pulp and brewers' spent grain are analyzed. The extracts were characterized by high storage stability and high enzymatic activity, which are two key traits necessary for the practical use of enzyme preparations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T01:05:28.164905-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12446
  • Characterization of an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase produced by
           Aspergillus niveus during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of cassava husk
    • Authors: Maysa Lima Parente Fernandes; João Atílio Jorge, Luis Henrique Souza Guimarães
      Abstract: β-d-Fructofuranosidases are biotechnologically important enzymes produced by various organisms. Here, Aspergillus niveus produced an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase during SSF of cassava husk. This enzyme was purified 8.5-fold (recovery of 5.2%). A 37-kDa protein band was observed after 8% SDS-PAGE. Native molecular mass is 91.2 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH of activity were 55°C and 4.5, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 50°C for 1 hr, and 80% of its activity was retained after 1 hr at pH 8.0. The enzymatic activity was improved by Mn2+, was resistant to most solvents, and was inhibited by Triton X-100 and Tween 20. Km and Vmax with sucrose were 22.98 mM and 120.48 U/mg of protein, respectively. With Mn2+, these values were 16.31 mM and 0.30 U/mg of protein. The enzyme did not hydrolyze inulin and for this reason can be considered a true invertase. Thus, A. niveus β-d-fructofuranosidase holds promise for invert sugar production.Practical applicationsβ-d-Fructofuranosidase is an enzyme that can be applied to different industrial sectors, especially food and beverage industries. It is responsible for the hydrolysis of sucrose and yields an equimolar mixture of D-glucose and D-fructose, named as inverted sugar syrup, with broad applications in the confectionery industry. The Aspergillus niveus enzyme hydrolyzed only sucrose here and can be considered a true invertase, showing its potential for application to invert sugar production. Besides, the use of cassava husk for enzyme production means an interesting utilization route of this agroindustrial residue. Thus, characterization of this enzyme is an important step for identification of its potential for practical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T22:00:55.813459-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12443
  • Butein inhibits adipocyte differentiation by modulating the AMPK pathway
           in 3T3-L1 cells
    • Authors: Yongrae Lim; Jeehye Sung, Jinwoo Yang, Heon Sang Jeong, Junsoo Lee
      Abstract: Butein (3,4,2ʹ,4ʹ-tetrahydroxychalcone), a chalcone derivative, has been reported to exhibit various biological effects. However, the inhibitory effects of butein on adipocyte differentiation mediated via the adenosine 5ʹ-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway have not been investigated. This study elucidated the effects of butein treatment on adipogenesis regulated by the AMPK pathway using the 3T3-L1 cells. Butein inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating the early phase events of adipogenesis, and suppressed the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and their downstream target genes. Furthermore, AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were significantly phosphorylated upon butein treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. The anti-adipogenic effects of butein were mediated by the activation of AMPK which was confirmed by using compound C, a highly specific inhibitor of AMPK. Butein also modulated enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism such as ACC, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase (GPAT)-1.Practical applicationsButein decreased lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation mediated via the AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Based on these findings, it is suggested that butein may possess therapeutic potential for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T21:10:48.197007-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12441
  • Lipoxygenase activity associated to fruit ripening and senescence in
           chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. cv. “virens levis”)
    • Authors: Oscar Andrés Del Ángel-Coronel; Elizabeth León-García, Gilber Vela-Gutiérrez, José Orlando Rojas-Reyes, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Lim, Hugo Sergio García
      Abstract: Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme activity and their putative isoforms were investigated during postharvest life in chayote fruit (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. cv. “virens levis”). Possible associations of LOX with fruit quality parameters are discussed. Five LOX isoforms were identified (SeLOX-1 to −5) displaying different activity patterns during ripening and senescence as well as in roots, stems, and leaves. The probable role of SeLOX-5 as a specific isoform linked to senescence was examined. The highest relative activity of LOX was registered in fruit tissue, followed by leaves, stem, and roots. Correlations were found between LOX and fruit composition variables such as the contents of linoleic (LA) and linolenic (LNA) acids, weight loss, CO2 and ethylene production rates. LOX activity, and LA and LNA concentration decreased from Day 1 to Days 13–17, when early seed germination events became visible, indicating a transition stage between late fruit ripening and early senescence characterized by a deteriorative process.Practical applicationsDetrimental effects on fruit composition variables such as dehydration, weight loss, wilting, and sprouting symptoms, have been reported as the main causes that reduce the commercial quality and shelf life in chayote fruit and prevent their export to distant markets. To the best of our knowledge, the association of lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes to non-climacteric fruit ripening—like chayote—or their loss of commercial quality during prolonged shelf life has not yet been described. This is the first study that explores the role of chayote LOX activity in fruit, identifies various specific LOX isoforms associated to ripening or to the senescence process and provides new evidence that supports the hypothesis that putative LOX isoforms might be related to several postharvest detrimental effects on chayote fruit. This information could be useful to food processors or packers to pursue better profitability and consumer satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T20:15:42.861163-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12438
  • Hepatoprotective effect of Cassia obtusifolia seed extract and
           constituents against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide
           in human hepatic HepG2 cells
    • Authors: Md Yousof Ali; Susoma Jannat, Hyun Ah Jung, Byung-Sun Min, Pradeep Paudel, Jae Sue Choi
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of different soluble fractions of methanolic derived Cassia obtusifolia seeds extract (COE) and its active components in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Among the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most active hepatoprotective fraction. From the active EtOAc fraction, six anthraquinones (alaternin, emodin, aloe emodin, 2-hydroxyemodin 1-methyl ether, chryso-obtusin-2-O-β-d-glucoside, and questin) and one naphthopyrone glycoside (cassiaside) were isolated. The cytotoxic effect in 200 µM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells was inhibited by COE and their bioactive compounds. The protective effect of COE in 200 µM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells may be associated with positive regulation of glutathione (GSH) and decreased in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation of their bioactive compounds. The increased ROS and decreased GSH levels observed in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells were ameliorated by pretreatment with cassiaside, alaternin, and aloe emodin, indicating that the hepatoprotective effects of these major constituents are mediated by induction of cellular defense against oxidative stress. Overall, COE displayed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which may most likely be because of active compounds like cassiaside, alaternin, and aloe emodin in COE, which leads to maintenance of the normal redox status of cells.Practical applicationsThe dried and roasted seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are commonly consumed as brew tea and medicinal foods in Korea. The seeds have multiple therapeutic actions related to the treatment of liver disease, dementia, diabetes, eye inflammation, photophobia and lacrimation, dysentery, headache, as well as dizziness. The present study demonstrates the hepatoprotective effect through prevention of oxidative stress, suggesting that C. obtusifolia and its constituents may have beneficial effects in preventing hepatic diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T22:20:54.715915-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12439
  • Effect of fermented legume seeds on some key enzymes relevant to erectile
           dysfunction in vitro
    • Authors: Adedayo O. Ademiluyi; Opeyemi B. Ogunsuyi, Adeniyi A. Adebayo, Ganiyu Oboh
      Abstract: Studies have established correlation between consumption of fermented leguminous food products and lower incidences of chronic diseases. Hence, this study investigated the effect of some fermented legumes (soybean, locust bean, and bambara groundnut) on key enzymes implicated in erectile dysfunction (ED). The aqueous extracts of the fermented legumes were prepared (1:10 wt/vol) and their effects on arginase, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and ecto-5ʹ nucleotidase activities were determined in vitro. The results revealed that all the extracts inhibited arginase, PDE-5, and AChE activities in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. However, soybean extract had the highest arginase (IC50 = 5.95 µg/mL) and AChE (IC50 = 4.86 µg/mL) inhibitory effect, whereas locust bean extract had the highest PDE-5 inhibitory effect (IC50 = 4.91 µg/mL). In addition, all extracts exhibited stimulatory effect on ecto-5ʹ nucleotidase activity. The observed effects of the extracts on these enzymes suggest their possible involvement in the management of ED.Practical applicationsData generated in this study reveal the effectiveness of some fermented legume seeds (bambara groundnut, locust bean, and soybean) in modulating the activities of some enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction. In addition, these fermented legume seeds could serve as functional food in the management of erectile dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T22:10:39.639458-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12437
  • Structural characteristics of phycobiliproteins from red alga Mazzaella
    • Authors: Yumi Kitade; Yoshikatsu Miyabe, Yohei Yamamoto, Hirohumi Takeda, Takeshi Shimizu, Hajime Yasui, Hideki Kishimura
      Abstract: We determined the primary structures of phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC), and allophycocyanin (APC) from red alga Mazzaella japonica. The phycobiliproteins consist of α- and β-subunits like other red algae. M. japonica phycobiliproteins all conserved Cys residues for chromophore attachment site. The amino acid sequences of M. japonica phycobiliproteins showed considerably high identities with those of other red algae (81–100%). In addition, the sequences (YRD, LDY, LRY, VY, LF, and FY), which were angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from other algae were detected in the primary structures of M. japonica phycobiliproteins. Then, we prepared the protein hydrolysates from M. japonica and measured its ACE inhibitory activity. Consequently, M. japonica protein hydrolysates indicated considerably high ACE inhibitory activity.Practical applicationsM. japonica is an abundant resource in Japan, which contains a lot of phycobiliproteins. Then, M. japonica protein hydrolysates strongly inhibited the activity of ACE. Therefore, it has the potential to be an ingredient of functional food.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T22:05:31.719636-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12436
  • Antioxidant effects and bioavailability evaluation of propolis extract and
           its content of pure polyphenols
    • Authors: Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi; Pierre Van Antwerpen, Ibaa Chikh Alard, Jean Nève, Nadia Djennas, Ali Riazi, Jalal Soubhye
      Abstract: Propolis is a resinous mixture which honey bees collect from buds and bark of some trees. It contains several antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids. This paper describes the antioxidant capacity of propolis extracts and pure polyphenols in vivo. Several biological parameters were measured after promoting oxidative stress. All the homeostasis changes and liver, kidney, and lung damage were restored by propolis extract. Propolis extracts directly modulated lipid peroxidation where LDL level decreased from 1.3 to 0.8 g/L after giving propolis, illustrating the antioxidant contribution of propolis. Finally, orally administered pure antioxidant compounds such as caffeic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol at the doses corresponding to in vitro antioxidant capacity of the propolis extract did not restore the physiological parameters. Bioavailability study demonstrated that the isolated polyphenols have lower absorption (plasma Cmax of polyphenols = 15–20 µg/mL) than the complex extract of propolis (plasma Cmax of polyphenols = 40–50 µg/mL).Practical applicationsExtracts of propolis showed significant reduction of oxidative damages from oxidative stress. The complexity of propolis has an antioxidant capacity more than its isolated polyphenols. Monitoring the concentrations of the compounds in serum after orally administering of propolis and isolated polyphenols demonstrated that these antioxidant compounds have higher bioavailability when applied as crude extracts. These results make the propolis extracts a promising antioxidant which could be used as a food supplement.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T21:55:40.623649-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12434
  • The role of omega-3 fatty acids in skeletal muscle anabolism, strength,
           and function in healthy and diseased states
    • Authors: Ifeanyi D. Nwachukwu; Trevor M. Kouritzin, Rotimi E. Aluko, Semone B. Myrie
      Abstract: Omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) have become increasingly successful and important components of diet regimens used for improving and/or maintaining muscle mass, strength, and functional ability, especially in older adults, for certain illnesses or during traumatic injury. Using data from human, cell culture and animal model-based studies, various investigators suggest that LCn-3PUFAs are extremely potent in either directly stimulating muscle protein anabolism or reducing muscle and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, a few others report that such benefits from LCn-3PUFAs are at best minimal. In recognition of the growing importance of LCn-3PUFAs in nutritional strategies aimed at maintaining adequate muscle mass, strength, and function during various circumstances, this work provides an examination of available data, reviews certain limitations of available studies on this theme, and suggests areas of focus for future research.Practical applicationsAs the largest tissue in the body, skeletal muscle metabolism has a substantial impact on an individual's overall health, thus dietary strategies are critical to help optimize its metabolic functions. This review will contribute toward increasing awareness of the growing efforts and strategies to incorporate LCn-3PUFAs in diet regimens and supplements used to counteract diminishing muscle mass, strength, and function due to sarcopenia and other muscle impairment conditions such as cancers, traumatic injury, and infection (sepsis). More research is needed in this area to address issues such as the minimum dose of LCn-3PUFAs supplementation required to maintain and/or increase muscle protein synthesis or lean body mass, and what ratio of administered LCn-3PUFAs is absorbed into the blood.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:40:27.848271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12435
  • Sichuan pepper attenuates H2O2-induced apoptosis via antioxidant activity
           and up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in primary rat
    • Authors: Huan Zhang; Xuelin Zhou, Marcus Ho-Yin Wong, Ka-Yi Man, Wing-Kwan Pin, John Hok-Keung Yeung, Yiu-Wa Kwan, George Pak-Heng Leung, Pui-Man Hoi, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Chi-On Chan, Daniel Kam-Wah Mok, Peter Hoi-Fu Yu, Shun-Wan Chan
      Abstract: Sichuan pepper, a well-known traditional Chinese spice, is popularly used in Chinese cuisine. In this study, the antioxidant activities of Sichuan pepper water extract (SP) were evaluated both chemically [in 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) assay] and biologically [in 2,2′-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH)-induced haemolysis assay]. The protective effect of SP against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in primary Sprague Dawley rat hepatocytes was investigated by using cell viability assay, nuclear staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and flow cytometry. It was found to possess high total phenolic content as assessed by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The antiapoptotic effect of SP may be mediated, in part, by significantly inhibiting intracellular ROS generation and depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential. SP was also found to enhance the cellular antioxidant defense system through up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression. SP is an effective antioxidant that can be consumed regularly as a functional food for the prevention of oxidative stress-related liver diseases.Practical applicationsThe present study demonstrated that Sichuan pepper water extract (SP) could enhance the cellular antioxidant ability in hepatocytes. SP is an effective antioxidant that can be consumed regularly as a functional food for the prevention of oxidative stress-related liver diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:35:36.415322-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12403
  • Attenuation of STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy by Cucurbita pepo L. seed
           extract characterized by GCMS
    • Authors: Navpreet Kaur; Lalit Kishore, Randhir Singh
      Abstract: The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of petroleum ether and hydro-alcoholic extract of Cucurbita pepo (CPE and CHE) in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy. GC-MS analysis of CPE revealed the presence of different fatty acids, heterocyclic compounds, and so on. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) for the development of diabetic nephropathy. After 30 days of STZ-administration, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of CPE and CHE were administered for 45 days. CPE and CHE significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels, and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AGEs and albumin in urine, respectively. The results indicated that via amelioration oxidative stress and formation of AGEs, C. pepo produced significant nephroprotective effect in STZ- induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.Practical applicationsDN is a syndrome mainly characterized as increase in excretion of urine albumin, urea, uric acid, and creatinine; glomerular lesions and reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetics. Fruit and seeds of Cucurbita pepo have significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity. C. pepo possesses antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antiglycation activity and thus, exhibits a protective action in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, further work is necessary to elucidate in detail the mechanism of action of C. pepo at the cellular and molecular levels.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T02:03:41.05371-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12420
  • Phenolic acids alleviate high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced metabolic
           disorders in rats
    • Authors: Xiaoxuan Guo; Ou Wang, Yong Wang, Kai Wang, Baoping Ji, Feng Zhou
      Abstract: Phenolic acids are naturally occurring compounds with meritorious physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the ameliorative effects of six common phenolic acids on diet-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) in rats. SD rats were fed with high-fat and high-fructose diet supplemented with equimolar concentration of individual phenolic acids for 13 weeks. Results showed that different phenolic acids ameliorated MS through different ways. Compared with other phenolic acids, caffeic acid exerted more comprehensive effect in alleviating MS, with significant effects in attenuating hyperlipidemia, elevating glucose tolerance, improving antioxidant status, and normalizing hepatic functions. Ellagic acid exhibited good performance in hypolipidemia, anti-inflammation, and reducing visceral fat. Gallic acid and ρ-coumaric acid showed marked effects in regulating liver steatosis, while chlorogenic acid exhibited potential hepatic protective and anti-inflammatory abilities. These results will benefit the application of these phenolic acids in the development of functional food for MS population.Practical applicationsThe high morbidity of metabolic syndrome (MS) has driven people to seek for natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. Different phenolic acids were shown to ameliorate MS through different ways, which provides experimental basis for developing combinations or formulas of phenolic acids with more comprehensive effects. Conversely, caffeic acid showed relatively better effects in attenuating features of metabolic disorders, and was suggested for the future development of functional foods for the population with MS.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T01:59:01.035202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12419
  • Effects of water extractable phytochemicals of mahogany (Swietenia
           macrophylla) and axlewood (Anogeissus leiocarpus) stem bark on some
           enzymes implicated in erectile dysfunction and type-2 diabetes
    • Authors: Ganiyu Oboh; Adeniyi A. Adebayo, Ayokunle O. Ademosun
      Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Swietenia macrophylla (SM) and Anogeissus leiocarpus (AL) extracts on enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction (phosphodiesterase-5 and arginase) and type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), assess their antioxidant potential and characterize their phenolic constituents. The results revealed that extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with AL having higher α-amylase inhibitory properties (IC50 = 223.41 µg/mL) than SM (IC50 = 293.90 µg/mL). Also, the extracts inhibited both phosphodiesterase-5 and arginase in dose-dependent manner in vitro; nevertheless, AL showed higher inhibition [phosphodiesterase-5 (IC50 = 174.19 µg/mL); arginase (38.01 µg/mL)] than SM [phosphodiesterase-5 (IC50 = 470.66 µg/mL); arginase (54.25 µg/mL)]. In addition, the extracts possess antioxidant properties and HPLC analysis of phenolic constituents revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, ellagic acid, and quercetin. However, the results suggest that AL and SM could offer a therapeutic source of erectogenic and anti-diabetic agents.Practical applicationsThe data generated in this study suggest that axlewood stem and mahogany stem bark could be useful in the management of diabetes and erectile dysfunction. In addition, isolation and identification of active components of these plants could represent a novel nutraceutical with erectogenic and anti-diabetic potential that has therapeutic effectiveness in the management of male impotence and diabetes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T01:49:22.356923-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12430
  • Transglucosylation of ascorbic acid to ascorbic acid 2-glucoside by a
           truncated version of α-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger
    • Authors: Zhenjun Li; Hongjuan Han, Bo Wang, Jianjie Gao, Bo Zhu, Rihe Peng, Quanhong Yao
      Abstract: A truncated version of α-glucosidase gene (AglA) from Aspergillus niger, named as AglA-t in this study, was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the enzyme was purified and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that AglA was most close to the α-glucosidase from Aureobasidium pullulans. In our research, we found that AglA-t could promote the formation of 2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) under optimized conditions. The major product was detected by high performance liquid chromatography, and confirmed to be by LC-MS analysis. The optimum pH and temperature for the transglucosylation reaction were 6.0°C and 40°C, respectively. The yield of AA-2G was significantly enhanced by metal ions Fe3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, and Al3+, and organic solvent isopropanol.Practical applicationsHere, we described the biochemical properties of recombinant enzyme AglA-t which was used to promote AA-2G production. The high yield of AglA-t in Pichia pastoris makes it potentially useful for large-scale industrial application. Meanwhile, the chemically stable AA-2G, enzymatic product of AglA-t, could be applied to a wide range of fields due to its antioxidative ability, iron absorption, and carnitine synthesis. AA-2G plays an important role in maintaining skin elasticity and repairing damaged skin. Therefore, AA-2G could be used as a primary skin care ingredient in commercial cosmetics. In addition, AA-2G has great potential in human food and medical industries. In the animal husbandry and aquaculture fields, AA-2G is also widely added to forage as an important nutrition component. Taken together, the characterization of AglA-t in our research provides an alternative way for mass production of AA-2G which could be used for a variety of commercial applications.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:06:19.823825-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12432
  • In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic activity studies on
           standardized extracts of two Bidens species
    • Authors: Ulku G. Icoz; Nilufer Orhan, Levent Altun, Mustafa Aslan
      Abstract: Aim of this study is to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant profile of standardized ethanol extracts of Bidens cernua L. var. radiata and B. frondosa L. Acute hypoglycemic activity of extracts were investigated on normoglycemic, glucose loaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Sub-acute antidiabetic effect was investigated during the 8 days experiment. Both the extracts exhibited promising and significant hypoglycaemic effect in all tested in vivo models. Acute antidiabetic effect of B. cernua and B. frondosa were found as 40% and 42% at 500 mg/kg dose, respectively. α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity of the extracts were also determined and both of the extracts inhibited α-glucosidase enzyme strongly (64.29–75.22% at 2 mg/mL). Conversely, in vitro antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of extracts were measured. The extracts were standardized by RP-HPLC-DAD on the basis of cynaroside and chlorogenic acid as markers.Practical applicationsBidens species have been used both as food and traditional medicine. In some countries, young leaves of Bidens species are added to salads, soups, and young shoot tips are used to make a tea. Our results revealed that Bidens species standardized by cynaroside and chlorogenic acid had a significant effect on regulation of blood glucose levels. It can be concluded that the tested Bidens species, that were found to be rich in flavonoid and phenolic compounds, might be beneficial for diabetic patients.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:56:32.500382-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12429
  • Effect of abiotic elicitation on the quality and antioxidant potential of
           lettuce and endive during storage
    • Authors: Urszula Złotek
      Abstract: Changes in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities, total phenolic compounds (TPC), vitamin C content, antioxidant activity, as well as overall visual quality and color parameters occurring during 4 days of storage were evaluated in lettuce and endive elicited with jasmonic acid (JA) and arachidonic acid (AA). The content of ascorbic acid in elicited with 100 µM AA2 and jasmonic acid (1 µM—JA1 and 100 µM –JA2) lettuce leaves at the end of the storage was significantly higher than in the control. Surprisingly, the TPC content in control (not elicited) and elicited endive leaves was generally higher at the end of storage time. Additionally, AA1- and JA2-elicited lettuce and JA2-elicited endive stored for 4 days had statistically significantly better scores of overall acceptability in comparison to the control. Thus, the research undertaken in this article has shown that elicited vegetables can be used for production ready-to-eat salads.Practical applicationsElicitation is a method of improving plant immunity and the health of plant food by inducing secondary metabolism. However, many secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds or plant defense enzymes induced by elicitation, can shape the quality and suitability of plant food storage. This study confirms the ability of elicitation to increase the health of leafy vegetables, but focused mainly on the possibility of using elicited vegetables in production of ready-to-use salads. The results obtained allow us to state that leafy vegetables (lettuce and endive) elicited with arachidonic acid and jasmonic acid may provide valuable material for the production of ready-to-eat salads because they are characterized by similar storage ability with simultaneous higher pro-health quality.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:51:22.56798-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12428
  • Anticancer activity in vitro and biological safety evaluation in vivo of
           Sika deer antler protein
    • Authors: Huihai Yang; Lulu Wang, Hang Sun, Xiaofeng He, Jing Zhang, Fangfang Liu
      Abstract: This study evaluated the antitumor activity in vitro and biological safety in vivo of Sika deer antler protein (SDAPR). MTT and plate cloning assays were used for anti-proliferation assessment of prostate cancer cells (PC-3M) while flow cytometry and western blot were used for apoptosis analysis. In addition, biological safety of SDAPR was evaluated by acute oral toxicity test, bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm aberration experiment. The results showed that SDAPR could suppress proliferation capacity and induce apoptosis on PC-3M cells. No adverse effects were observed in Kunming mice following acute oral gavage with SDAPR at a dose of 8 g/kg body weight. The negative results obtained in bone marrow micronucleus test and sperm malformation assay demonstrated that SDAPR had no obvious toxicity to cause mutagenicity. In conclusion, SDAPR exerts anti-tumor effect with high biological safety, which suggested that it could be used as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for human health.Practical applicationsIt demonstrates that Sika deer antler protein has anticancer effects and high biological safety on prostate cancer cells. In addition, this paper provides scientific basis for treating tumors with Sika deer antler.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T00:15:29.276432-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12421
  • Short-term phlorizin treatment attenuates adipose tissue inflammation
           without alerting obesity in high-fat diet fed mice
    • Authors: Yuan Tian; Ling Gao, Yan Guo, Yancheng Xu
      Abstract: Phlorizin is a member of the chalcone class of organic compounds that was originally extracted from apples. The aim of the study was to investigate the attenuation effect of phlorizin on adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat diet fed obese mice. The results showed that 0.02% phlorizin dietary treatment in high fat diet fed mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced concentration of serum and adipose tissue pro-inflammation cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-1β without altering body fat and serum lipid levels. Phlorizin inhibited inflammation related pathways: c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathways, down-regulated the protein expression of macrophage maker F4/80 and M1 macrophage marker CD11c, up-regulated the protein expression of M2 macrophage marker CD206 in adipose tissue. This research provides novel insight into the treatment effect of phlorizin in obesity related inflammation.Practical applicationsPhlorizin, a member of the chalcone class of organic compounds especially abundant in apples has been used in human medicine for long because of its extensive bioactivities, such as anti-diabetes and antioxidation. This study demonstrated that phlorizin inhibited adipose tissue inflammatory response in HFD-fed obese mice via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and IKK-β/NFκB pathways, reduction of macrophage infiltration and regulation of M1/M2 macrophage polarization. Phlorizin can be a practical bioactive compound on attenuating obesity related inflammation and metabolic disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T22:30:33.052094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12407
  • Impact of grape dehydration process on the phenolic composition of wines
           during bottle ageing
    • Authors: Carolina P. Panceri; Marilde T. Bordignon-Luiz
      Abstract: The effect of grapes dehydration on, phenolic profile was evaluated in wines during bottle ageing. Wines produced with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes, dehydrated in different percentages (30 and 40%) under controlled conditions, were analyzed by spectrophotometric and chromatographic assays during 22 months of storage. The phenolic profile of the wines and their evolution during bottle ageing was different according to the grape variety and the percentage of dehydration applied. An increase in the concentration of phenolic acids (gallic, protocateic, coumaric) and flavonols (quercetin, campferol, and myricetin) was observed in all samples during bottle ageing, along with a reduction of anthocyanin (delphinidin, malvidin, peonidine, and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavanols (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin). Main changes in the phenolic composition of all wines occurred during the 10th and 13th month, but the changes in wines produced from dried grapes were softer than control wines, indicating that dehydration process improve the wine phenolic stability and permit long periods of ageing for this kind of wines.Practical applicationsDifferent wine regions utilize the grape dehydration to produce differentiated and high value-added wines. This study provides an overview on the effect of grape dehydration process under controlled conditions on wine phenolic evolution during bottle ageing. The results provide relevant information about the storage time required for this kind of wine to improve its commercialization and consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T22:05:39.380687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12417
  • Bioactive peptides derived from bovine and porcine co-products: A review
    • Authors: Tomas Lafarga; Carlos Álvarez, Maria Hayes
      Abstract: The use of meat processing co-products to recover economically valuable food ingredients, with health-promoting properties represents an opportunity to enhance the economic performance of the meat industry and to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. This paper discusses the potential of meat processing co-products for use as substrates for bioactive peptide generation with varied bioactivities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertensive properties. Moreover, the current state-of-art of meat-derived bioactive peptides is reviewed with a focus on peptides with proven in vivo bioactivities.Practical applicationsMeat processing co-products represent a problem for meat processors due to the large volumes generated and its high pollutant load. These co-products are usually used for low-value purposes. However, co-products such as blood or lung can be used as resources for the generation of bioactive peptides with health-promoting properties which could be used as ingredients in the functional foods industry.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T21:26:17.037411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12418
  • Beneficial effect of catechin and epicatechin on cognitive impairment and
    • Authors: Qing-Han Gao; Qian Cai, Yanna Fan
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effects of catechin and epicatechin on the cognitive deficits and oxidative damage of mice at extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50 Hz, 200 µT, 30 days). The results showed 90 mg/kg catechin and epicatechin treatment could keep proper body weight compared with ELF-EMF group. Water maze test indicated learning and memory abilities of ELF-EMF group deteriorated significantly compared with control group, but ELF-EMF + (catechin and epicatechin) 90 group improved learning and memory abilities compared with ELF-EMF group. Malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) increased remarkably, while catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities decreased significantly in ELF-EMF group. Catechin and epicatechin (90 mg/kg) administration decreased MDA and NO levels and significantly increased CAT and SOD activities. The results suggested catechin and epicatechin can be beneficial for learning and memory impair and reducing oxidative stress under ELF-EMF exposure through scavenging free radicals and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.Practical applicationsConsiderable public and scientific concern was raised when researches have shown the impact of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on cognition, nervous system function and brain activity. Catechin and epicatechin are widely distributed in tea, fruits and vegetables. This study highlights that catechin and epicatechin can attenuate these abnormal oxidative damage and related learning and memory deficits induced by ELF-EMF exposure. Knowledge generated in this study will be beneficial in developing catechin and epicatechin as the candidates for treating the neurological and neurodegenerative disorders induced by ELF-EMF exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T21:15:41.580044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12416
  • The interaction effect and mechanism between tea polyphenols and
           intestinal microbiota: Role in human health
    • Authors: Mei Cheng; Xin Zhang, Xiao-Jing Guo, Zu-Fang Wu, Pei-Fang Weng
      Abstract: Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown various biological activities. However, for the low bioavailability, only small parts of TP are directly absorbed by the small intestine, the majority are thought to remain in the intestinal tract. The unabsorbed parts are metabolized to a variety of derivative products of different structures by intestinal flora, which may accumulate to exert physiological effects. Meanwhile, recent studies have demonstrated that TP may modulate intestinal bacterial diversity and richness, contributing to the improvements of host health. In this review, current information about the microbial degradation metabolites obtained from TP and their formation pathways were assembled. Additionally, in order to understand the two-way phenolic-microbiota interaction, the modulation of gut microbiota by TP was also discussed. In particular, the health benefits of TP may be attributed to their bioactive metabolites and the modulatory effect of human intestinal microbiota.Practical applicationsThe human gut has been viewed as a bioreactor, which is the main place for the interaction of TP and gut microbiota. TP and their bacterial metabolites may accumulate to exert significant effects on intestinal microenvironment by modulating intestinal bacterial in addition to their direct beneficial effect. The health effects of TP between different people have been shown as the result of individual variability in intestinal microbial ecology. Furthermore, a better understanding of TP and intestinal microbiota will allow us to better evaluate the contribution of the microbial metabolites of TP to the improvements of host health.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T01:45:23.597365-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12415
  • Variation of chemical constituents, antioxidant activity, and endogenous
           plant hormones throughout different ripening stages of highbush blueberry
           (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars produced in centre of Portugal
    • Authors: Alfredo Aires; Rosa Carvalho, Manuela Matos, Valdemar Carnide, Ana Paula Silva, Berta Gonçalves
      Abstract: Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) cultivars produced in Centre of Portugal were evaluated during three different ripening stages. The amount of phenolic compounds, organic acids, vitamin C, and sugars were determined by HPLC-DAD-UV/Vis. The content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, pigments, and endogenous hormones were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant capacities were determined by DPPH, CUPRAC, and lipid peroxidation methods. In all cultivars, the glucose and the citric acid were the predominant sugar and organic acid, respectively, whilst the delphinidin-3-O-galactoside was the main anthocyanin identified. The average content of each attribute varied significantly (0.01 
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T01:40:42.923757-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12414
  • Bioavailability of iron and zinc as affected by phytic acid content in
           rice grain
    • Authors: Awadhesh Kumar; Milan Kumar Lal, Subhra Sashi Kar, Lopamudra Nayak, Umakanta Ngangkham, Sanghamitra Samantaray, Sri Gopal Sharma
      Abstract: Phytic acid (PA) is considered as an anti-nutritional factor (ANF) present in cereals and legumes and bind to cationic minerals including iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), thus reducing their bioavailability in both ruminants and nonruminants. The present study was aimed at finding the impact of PA on bioavailability of Fe and Zn. Six rice cultivars with contrasting PA were evaluated for total phosphorus (P), PA, Fe, and Zn in brown and processed rice. A significant correlation of PA of brown rice with PA of milled rice (r = .69) was observed. PA and Zn content were negatively correlated (r = −.55) in brown rice while no significant correlation was found between PA and Zn in milled rice. The rice cultivar Bindli, with lowest PA (0.82 g/100 g) was found to exhibit high Zn bioavailability, while PB267, with highest PA (2.62 g/100 g) showed low Zn and Fe bioavailability.Practical applicationsRice is staple food for millions of people, especially the Asians. Fe and Zn are essential micronutrients required for human growth and development, but the rice grain is deficient in Fe and has only moderate amounts of Zn. The bioavailability of these minerals are impaired by PA which chelates and bind cationic minerals in both ruminants and nonruminants. Screening of rice genotypes with low PA and high minerals bioavailability may be suitable for people suffering from micronutrient malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T01:30:24.133906-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12413
  • Protective effects of Stachys sieboldii MIQ extract in SK-N-SH cells and
           its memory ameliorative effect in mice
    • Authors: Ravichandran Vijaya Abinaya; Mina Kim, Seung-Je Lee, Eun-seon jeong, Youn-Soo Cha
      Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the potential effect of Stachys sieboldii MIQ (SS) against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in SK-N-SH cells and memory enhancement in ICR mice using the passive avoidance test. The effect of SS in cell proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation assay with dosages of SS from 0 to 2 mg/mL. SS partially antagonized the effect of 150 μM H2O2 on cell proliferation. In vivo study, SS (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 4 weeks. SS led to a significantly longer step-through latency time compared to control mice. Memory enhancing effect of SS (500 mg/kg) was also observed in amnesia model, SS escalate the fear memory (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T23:35:36.212954-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12411
  • Biocalcium powder from precooked skipjack tuna bone: Production and its
    • Authors: Soottawat Benjakul; Sulaiman Mad-Ali, Theeraphol Senphan, Pornsatit Sookchoo
      Abstract: Biocalcium (BC) powder from the bones of precooked skipjack tuna was produced and characterized, compared to calcined bone (CB) powder. Higher calcium (40.35%) and phosphorous (15.28%) contents were found in the CB powder, compared to BC powder (26.91 and 12.63%, respectively). Nevertheless, similar Ca/P ratio was observed (1.62–1.65). Mean particle sizes of both powders were 17.07–20.29 µm. BC powder had higher b* (yellowness) with slightly lower L* (lightness) values than the CB counterpart (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T21:15:38.691134-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12412
  • Effects of yeast strain on anthocyanin, color, and antioxidant activity of
           mulberry wines
    • Authors: Shujing Liu; Caie Wu, Gongjian Fan, Tingting Li, Ruifeng Ying, Yun Miao
      Abstract: In this study, the effects of yeast strains on anthocyanin, color, and antioxidant activity of mulberry wines were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate differences among the five mulberry wines. Results showed that yeast strains have a significant effect on anthocyanin, color, and antioxidant activity of mulberry wines. The total phenol content in mulberry wines were 145.42–197.65 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 mL. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (C3R) were two major anthocyanins in mulberry wine. The C3G contents ranged from 3.56 to 7.69 mg/100 mL, while C3R ranged from 4.28 to 8.38 mg/100 mL. Total phenol content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity in mulberry wine fermented by yeast SY were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T21:11:02.899239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12409
  • Phosphorylated peptides from Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) improve
           fracture healing in mice with ovariectomy induced osteoporosis
    • Authors: Fei Wang; Xiaohong Wang, Kai Wang, Lihua Han, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue
      Abstract: Open tibial fracture surgery was performed on ovariectomized mice to investigate the effect of phosphorylated peptides from Antarctic Krill (PP-AKP) on osteoporotic fracture healing. Dynamic histological analysis on days 11, 24, and 35 postsurgery showed that PP-AKP promoted hypertrophy and mineralization of cartilage callus, formation of new bone tissue, and remodeling of boney callus. Biomechanical property tests on day 35 postsurgery demonstrated that PP-AKP significantly improved callus stiffness. Real-time PCR analysis showed that on day 11 postsurgery, PP-AKP significantly decreased mRNA expression of aggrecan and collagen type X (Col10a), and increased vascular endothelial growth factor level, suggesting that it promoted chondrocytes hypertrophy and vascular invasion. On day 24 postsurgery, PP-AKP significantly decreased matrix metalloproteinase 13 expression, and increased expression of collagen type I and bone gla protein, suggesting that it promoted cartilage matrix degradation and new bone formation.Practical applicationsAs a novel food material, Antarctic Krill possesses an enormous biomass (0.65–1 billion tons) and utilization potential. It has the largest amount of protein among reported organisms worldwide with better biological value than other animal proteins. This study demonstrated that phosphorylated peptides from Antarctic Krill could promote osteoporotic fracture healing on ovariectomized mice by facilitating endochondral ossification, which may provide theoretical basis for use of Antarctic Krill protein as bone protective functional food in future.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T21:06:02.674788-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12408
  • Analysis of volatile compounds as quality indicators for Fuji apples after
           cold storage
    • Authors: Jangho Lee; Hae Won Jang, Moon Cheol Jeong, SeungRan Yoo, Jaeho Ha
      Abstract: Changes in the volatile components in Fuji apples were investigated by the analysis of intact apples using headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to assess their quality during long-term storage at 4°C (3, 6, and 9 months). Three alcohols and 28 esters were identified, and the feeding of precursor alcohols (e.g., butanol, hexanol, and 2-methylbutanol) resulted in significantly increased amounts of eight esters. Among these esters, the peak area ratios (PARs) of butyl acetate, butyl butanoate, butyl 2-methylbutanotate, or 2-methylbutyl acetate to the eight esters were highly correlated with those of their precursor alcohols to the total alcohol content (R2 ≥ .9253). In addition, the PAR of precursor alcohols to the total alcohol content, as well as the PAR of these esters to the eight esters, significantly increased during storage at 4°C (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T01:11:39.596215-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12410
  • Chemical composition and biological properties of aromatic compounds in
           honey: An overview
    • Authors: Mohammad Mijanur Rahman; Md. Nur Alam, Nusrat Fatima, Hussain Md. Shahjalal, Siew Hua Gan, Md. Ibrahim Khalil
      Abstract: The aromatic volatile organic compounds present in honey is important since they contribute toward organoleptic characteristics, identity, and quality of honey. A good number of scientific data and information from some literatures corroborate bioactivity with toxicity of volatile organic compounds present in honey. Nevertheless, systematic scientific study of honey aromatic compounds is an overlooked issue unlike investigation on other bioactive compounds of honey. Reports on comprehensive profiling of honey aromatic compound, bioactivity screening, toxicological evaluation, medicinal values for a particular disease condition as well as database development could be some of the future research scope with honey aromatic compounds. In this article, reports on aromatic compound in honey and their implications in terms of physiochemical characteristics, origin tracking, quality, physiological, and toxicological effects are compiled. It is hoped that this article exhort the scientific community to conduct more rational scientific studies on honey aromatic compounds which is not well-explored in depth.Practical applicationsHoney containing active compounds like volatile aromatic compounds contributes to the aroma profile of honey whereas the composition and quality of honey depends appreciably with their botanical and geographical derivation. It is evident that differential properties were found in honey from different origin varying aromatic compound composition. As a result, priority can be given in making inquiries to the aromatic compound in the context of contemporary medicinal research of honey. In addition, aromatic honey possesses both the health reimbursements and unwanted toxicological effects. Although, it is reported that as a novel food honey exerts some stunning biological effects, its constituents may undergo various notorious metabolic conversion that would be life threatening.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T23:50:27.869698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12405
  • Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of minimax and Williams 82 soybeans
           grown under two different conditions
    • Authors: K. M. Maria John; Farooq Khan, Davanand L. Luthria, Benjamin Matthews, Wesley M. Garrett, Savithiry Natarajan
      Abstract: MiniMax was developed as a model soybean for research because of its small stature, limited planting space, and rapid generation time. In the present study, the proteins, isoflavones, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were compared between dwarf (MiniMax) and commercially cultivated (Williams 82) soybean genotypes under two growing conditions (greenhouse and field). The protein profile of the soybean extracts by 2D-PAGE showed at least 16 of 716 spots that were differently expressed in MiniMax and Williams 82. These spots were primarily six proteins namely, seed biotin, β-conglycinin, glycinin, seed-maturation protein, glutathione-S-transferase, and sucrose binding protein. In both genotypes, higher content of isoflavone aglycones was observed in greenhouse grown samples as compared to the field grown samples. However, only field grown Willams 82 had higher levels of FAMEs as compared to other three groups. This study shows that both growing conditions and cultivars significantly influence the compositional content of metabolites.Practical applicationsThe global demand of soybean and its products has increased due to its high protein and isoflavones content. Researchers are actively developing new genotypes with improved yields, greater drought and disease tolerance, and reduced growth time. MiniMax, a dwarf genotype of soybean showed early flowering, seed setting, and maturation traits due to its multiple dwarfing genes. This characteristic feature enables researchers to study effects of various treatments on soybean in a shorter period with multiple replications in a single growing season.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T23:45:27.008872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12404
  • Bioactivity of bovine lung hydrolysates prepared using papain, pepsin, and
    • Authors: Siobhan M. O'Sullivan; Tomas Lafarga, Maria Hayes, Nora M. O'Brien
      Abstract: Bovine lung tissue was hydrolyzed using three different proteases, papain, pepsin, or Alcalase, to generate hydrolysates. Hydrolysates showed little antioxidant activity in noncellular or cellular assays. The anti-inflammatory activity of hydrolysates was assessed in RAW264.7 macrophages and Jurkat T cells. Treatment with the Alcalase hydrolysate significantly decreased the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in a dose dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells. Nitric oxide production also significantly decreased following treatment with this hydrolysate. The papain hydrolysate decreased IL-6, IL-1β, and NO production in RAW264.7 cells and IL-2 production in Jurkat T cells. However, the decrease was likely due to cytotoxicity of this hydrolysate toward these cell lines. The pepsin hydrolysate had no effect on cytokine production in RAW264.7 cells and only slightly decreased IL-2 production in Jurkat T cells.Practical applicationsMeat production generates large amounts of protein rich co-products, which are often discarded as waste or sold as low value animal feeds. The enzymatic hydrolysis of these protein co-products may produce hydrolysates that are capable of reducing oxidation or inflammation. Novel hydrolysates were generated from the hydrolysis of bovine lung and results from this study indicate that the hydrolysis of bovine lung using the commercially available protease Alcalase may have potential as an anti-inflammatory agent.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T02:45:39.167685-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12406
  • Antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase inhibition, and phytochemical
           fingerprints of Anoectochilus roxburghii formula tea residues with
    • Authors: Xing Xie; Zong-Cai Tu, Lu Zhang, Yi Zhao, Hui Wang, Zhen-Xing Wang, Nan-Hai Zhang, Bi-Zhen Zhong
      Abstract: This study assessed the phytochemical composition, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase inhibition of Anoectochilus roxburghii formula tea (ARFT) residue by comparing with that of ARFT infusion and ARFT extract. ARFT residue extract showed the maximum total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total condensed tannins content, with the values of 146.70 GAE mg/g E, 58.50 QE mg/g E, and 312.08 mg CE/g E, respectively, while ARFT infusion exhibited the lowest values. The strongest ABTS+· scavenging ability and α-glucosidase inhibition were also found in ARFT residue extract, but the best DPPH· scavenging ability was observed on the 95% ethanol extract of ARFT. Totally, 29 compounds were tentatively identified from the ARFT residue extract by using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS, including 2 organic acids, 17 flavonoids, 4 fatty acids, 5 saponins, and 1 sugar. The results indicated that ARFT residue can be a promising source of natural antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors.Practical applicationsAnoectochilus roxburghii formula tea (ARFT) is a popular health-promoting tea in China, but research on the bio-activities and functional constitution of ARFT and its residues is not available. This study suggested promising antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition of ARFT residue and revealed the presence of 29 major phytochemical compounds, which indicated that ARFT residue can be a potential resource of natural antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:05:37.920546-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12402
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