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Journal Cover Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
  [SJR: 0.787]   [H-I: 46]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0968-5243 - ISSN (Online) 1352-8661
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • ESMRMB 2017, 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Barcelona, ES, October
           19–October 21: Abstracts, Thursday
    • Pages: 1 - 152
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0632-1
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. S1 (2017)
  • ESMRMB 2017, 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Barcelona, ES, October
           19–October 21: Abstracts, Friday
    • Pages: 153 - 341
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0633-0
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. S1 (2017)
  • ESMRMB 2017, 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Barcelona, ES, October
           19–October 21: Abstracts, Saturday
    • Pages: 343 - 499
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0634-z
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. S1 (2017)
  • ESMRMB 2017, 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Barcelona, ES, October
           19–October 21: Electronic Posters / Paper Posters / Clinical Review
           Posters / Software Exhibits
    • Pages: 501 - 692
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0635-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. S1 (2017)
  • ESMRMB 2017, 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Barcelona, ES, October
           19–October 21: Author Index
    • Pages: 693 - 707
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0636-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. S1 (2017)
  • Assessment of pharmacokinetics for microvessel proliferation by DCE-MRI
           for early detection of physeal bone bridge formation in an animal model
    • Authors: Bernhard Neumayer; Eva Amerstorfer; Clemens Diwoky; Richard A. Lindtner; Elisabeth Wadl; Eva Scheurer; Annelie-Martina Weinberg; Rudolf Stollberger
      Pages: 417 - 427
      Abstract: Objectives Bone bridge formation occurs after physeal lesions and can lead to growth arrest if not reversed. Previous investigations on the underlying mechanisms of this formation used histological methods. Therefore, this study aimed to apply a minimally invasive method using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Materials and methods Changes in functional parameters related to the microvessel system were assessed in a longitudinal study of a cohort of an animal model applying a reference region model. The development of morphology of the injured physis was investigated with 3D high-resolution MRI. To acquire complementary information for MRI-related findings qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical data were acquired for a second cohort of the animal model. Results The evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters showed a first rise of the transfer coefficient 7 days post-lesion and a maximum 42 days after operation. The analysis of the complementary data showed a connection of the first rise to microvessel proliferation while the maximum value was linked to bone remodeling. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI provides information on a proliferation of microvessels during the healing process as a sign for bone bridge formation. Thereby, DCE-MRI could identify details, which up to now required analyses of highly invasive methods.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0615-2
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2017)
  • Fitting interrelated datasets: metabolite diffusion and general lineshapes
    • Authors: Victor Adalid; André Döring; Sreenath Pruthviraj Kyathanahally; Christine Sandra Bolliger; Chris Boesch; Roland Kreis
      Pages: 429 - 448
      Abstract: Objective Simultaneous modeling of true 2-D spectroscopy data, or more generally, interrelated spectral datasets has been described previously and is useful for quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications. In this study, a combined method of reference-lineshape enhanced model fitting and two-dimensional prior-knowledge fitting for the case of diffusion weighted MR spectroscopy is presented. Materials and methods Time-dependent field distortions determined from a water reference are applied to the spectral bases used in linear-combination modeling of interrelated spectra. This was implemented together with a simultaneous spectral and diffusion model fitting in the previously described Fitting Tool for Arrays of Interrelated Datasets (FiTAID), where prior knowledge conditions and restraints can be enforced in two dimensions. Results The benefit in terms of increased accuracy and precision of parameters is illustrated with examples from Monte Carlo simulations, in vitro and in vivo human brain scans for one- and two-dimensional datasets from 2-D separation, inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted spectroscopy (DWS). For DWS, it was found that acquisitions could be substantially shortened. Conclusion It is shown that inclusion of a measured lineshape into modeling of interrelated MR spectra is beneficial and can be combined also with simultaneous spectral and diffusion modeling.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0618-z
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2017)
  • Measurement of vertebral bone marrow proton density fat fraction in
           children using quantitative water–fat MRI
    • Authors: Stefan Ruschke; Amber Pokorney; Thomas Baum; Holger Eggers; Jeffrey H. Miller; Houchun H. Hu; Dimitrios C. Karampinos
      Pages: 449 - 460
      Abstract: Objectives To investigate the feasibility of employing a 3D time-interleaved multi-echo gradient-echo (TIMGRE) sequence to measure the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in the vertebral bone marrow (VBM) of children and to examine cross-sectional changes with age and intra-individual variations from the lumbar to the cervical region in the first two decades of life. Materials and methods Quantitative water–fat imaging of the spine was performed in 93 patients (49 girls; 44 boys; age median 4.5 years; range 0.1–17.6 years). For data acquisition, a six-echo 3D TIMGRE sequence was used with phase correction and complex-based water–fat separation. Additionally, single-voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) was performed in the L4 vertebrae of 37 patients. VBM was manually segmented in the midsagittal slice of each vertebra. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were calculated between averaged lumbar, thoracic and cervical bone marrow PDFF and age with adjustments for sex, height, weight, and body mass index percentile. Results Measured VBM PDFF correlated strongly between imaging and MRS (R 2 = 0.92, slope = 0.94, intercept = −0.72%). Lumbar, thoracic and cervical VBM PDFF correlated significantly (all p < 0.001) with the natural logarithm of age. Differences between female and male patients were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion VBM development in children showed a sex-independent cross-sectional increase of PDFF correlating with the natural logarithm of age and an intra-individual decrease of PDFF from the lumbar to the cervical region in all age groups. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using a 3D TIMGRE sequence for PDFF assessment in VBM of children.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0617-0
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2017)
  • Quantitative effects of acquisition duration and temporal resolution on
           the measurement accuracy of prostate dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data: a
           phantom study
    • Authors: Silvin Paul Knight; Jacinta Elizabeth Browne; James Frances Mary Meaney; Andrew John Fagan
      Pages: 461 - 471
      Abstract: Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the temporal resolution (T res) and acquisition duration (AD) on the measurement accuracy of contrast concentration–time curves (CTCs), and derived phenomenological and pharmacokinetic parameter values, in a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI experiment using a novel phantom test device. Materials and methods ‘Ground truth’ CTCs were established using a highly precise optical imaging system. These precisely known CTCs were produced in an anthropomorphic environment, which mimicked the male pelvic region, and presented to the MRI scanner for measurement. The T res was varied in the range [2–24.4 s] and the AD in the range [30–600 s], and the effects on the measurement accuracy were quantified. Results For wash-in parameter measurements, large underestimation errors (up to 40%) were found using T res values ≥16.3 s; however, the measured wash-out rate did not vary greatly across all T res values tested. Errors in derived K trans and v e values were below 14 and 12% for acquisitions with {T res ≤ 8.1 s, AD ≥ 360 s} and {T res ≤ 16.3 s, AD ≥ 360 s}, respectively, but increased dramatically outside these ranges. Conclusions Errors in measured wash-in, wash-out, K trans, and v e parameters were minimised using T res ≤ 8.1 s and AD ≥ 360 s, with large errors recorded outside of this range.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0619-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2017)
  • Correction of parallel transmission using concurrent RF and gradient field
    • Authors: Mustafa Çavuşoğlu; Benjamin Emanuel Dietrich; David Otto Brunner; Markus Weiger; Klaas Paul Pruessmann
      Pages: 473 - 488
      Abstract: Objectives The accuracy and precision of the parallel RF excitations are highly dependent on the spatial and temporal fidelity of the magnetic fields involved in spin excitation. The consistency between the nominal and effective fields is typically limited by the imperfections of the employed hardware existing both in the gradient system and the RF chain. In this work, we experimentally presented highly improved spatially tailored parallel excitations by turning the native hardware accuracy challenge into a measurement and control problem using an advanced field camera technology to fully correct parallel RF transmission experiment. Materials and methods An array of NMR field probes is used to measure the multiple channel RF pulses and gradient waveforms recording the high power RF pulses simultaneously with low frequency gradient fields on equal time basis. The recorded waveforms were integrated in RF pulse design for gradient trajectory correction, time imperfection compensation and introduction of iterative RF pre-emphasis. Results Superior excitation accuracy was achieved. Two major applications were presented at 7 Tesla including multi-dimensional tailored RF pulses for spatially selective excitation and slice-selective spoke pulses for \(B_{1}^{ + }\) mitigation. Conclusion Comprehensive field monitoring is a highly effective means of correcting for the field deviations during parallel transmit pulse design.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0620-5
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2017)
  • Validation of an active shape model-based semi-automated segmentation
           algorithm for the analysis of thigh muscle and adipose tissue
           cross-sectional areas
    • Authors: Jana Kemnitz; Felix Eckstein; Adam G. Culvenor; Anja Ruhdorfer; Torben Dannhauer; Susanne Ring-Dimitriou; Alexandra M. Sänger; Wolfgang Wirth
      Pages: 489 - 503
      Abstract: Objective To validate a semi-automated method for thigh muscle and adipose tissue cross-sectional area (CSA) segmentation from MRI. Materials and methods An active shape model (ASM) was trained using 113 MRI CSAs from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and combined with an active contour model and thresholding-based post-processing steps. This method was applied to 20 other MRIs from the OAI and to baseline and follow-up MRIs from a 12-week lower-limb strengthening or endurance training intervention (n = 35 females). The agreement of semi-automated vs. previous manual segmentation was assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient and Bland-Altman analyses. Longitudinal changes observed in the training intervention were compared between semi-automated and manual segmentations. Results High agreement was observed between manual and semi-automated segmentations for subcutaneous fat, quadriceps and hamstring CSAs. With strength training, both the semi-automated and manual segmentation method detected a significant reduction in adipose tissue CSA and a significant gain in quadriceps, hamstring and adductor CSAs. With endurance training, a significant reduction in adipose tissue CSAs was observed with both methods. Conclusion The semi-automated approach showed high agreement with manual segmentation of thigh muscle and adipose tissue CSAs and showed longitudinal training effects similar to that observed using manual segmentation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0622-3
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2017)
  • Quantitative pulsed CEST-MRI at a clinical 3T MRI system
    • Authors: Julia Stabinska; Tom Cronenberg; Hans-Jörg Wittsack; Rotem Shlomo Lanzman; Anja Müller-Lutz
      Pages: 505 - 516
      Abstract: Objectives The goal of this study was to quantify CEST related parameters such as chemical exchange rate and fractional concentration of exchanging protons at a clinical 3T scanner. For this purpose, two CEST quantification approaches—the AREX metric (for ‘apparent exchange dependent relaxation’), and the AREX-based Ω-plot method were used. In addition, two different pulsed RF irradiation schemes, using Gaussian-shaped and spin-lock pulses, were compared. Materials and methods Numerical simulations as well as MRI measurements in phantoms were performed. For simulations, the Bloch–McConnell equations were solved using a two-pool exchange model. MR experiments were performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner using a cylindrical phantom filled with creatine solution at different pH values and different concentrations. Results The validity of the Ω-plot method and the AREX approach using spin-lock preparation for determination of the quantitative CEST parameters was demonstrated. Especially promising results were achieved for the Ω-plot method when the spin-lock preparation was employed. Conclusion Pulsed CEST at 3T could be used to quantify parameters such as exchange rate constants and concentrations of protons exchanging with free water. In the future this technique might be used to estimate the exchange rates and concentrations of biochemical substances in human tissues in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0625-0
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2017)
  • Increased hepatic fatty acid polyunsaturation precedes ectopic lipid
           deposition in the liver in adaptation to high-fat diets in mice
    • Authors: Ana Francisca Soares; João M. N. Duarte; Rolf Gruetter
      Abstract: Objective We monitored hepatic lipid content (HLC) and fatty acid (FA) composition in the context of enhanced lipid handling induced by a metabolic high-fat diet (HFD) challenge and fasting. Materials and methods Mice received a control diet (10% of kilocalories from fat, N = 14) or an HFD (45% or 60% of kilocalories from fat, N = 10 and N = 16, respectively) for 26 weeks. A subset of five mice receiving an HFD (60% of kilocalories from fat) were switched to the control diet for the final 7 weeks. At nine time points, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in vivo at 14.1 T, interleaved with glucose tolerance tests. Results Glucose intolerance promptly developed with the HFD, followed by a progressive increase of fasting insulin level, simultaneously with that of HLC. These metabolic defects were normalized by dietary reversal. HFD feeding immediately increased polyunsaturation of hepatic FA, before lipid accumulation. Fasting-induced changes in hepatic lipids (increased HLC and FA polyunsaturation, decreased FA monounsaturation) in control-diet-fed mice were not completely reproduced in HFD-fed mice, not even after dietary reversal. Conclusion A similar adaptation of hepatic lipids to both fasting and an HFD suggests common mechanisms of lipid trafficking from adipose tissue to the liver. Altered hepatic lipid handling with fasting indicates imperfect metabolic recovery from HFD exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0654-8
  • 2D and 3D texture analysis to differentiate brain metastases on MR images:
           proceed with caution
    • Authors: Monika Béresová; Andrés Larroza; Estanislao Arana; József Varga; László Balkay; David Moratal
      Abstract: Objective To find structural differences between brain metastases of lung and breast cancer, computing their heterogeneity parameters by means of both 2D and 3D texture analysis (TA). Materials and methods Patients with 58 brain metastases from breast (26) and lung cancer (32) were examined by MR imaging. Brain lesions were manually delineated by 2D ROIs on the slices of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CET1) images, and local binary patterns (LBP) maps were created from each region. Histogram-based (minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, and variance), and co-occurrence matrix-based (contrast, correlation, energy, entropy, and homogeneity) 2D, weighted average of the 2D slices, and true 3D TA were obtained on the CET1 images and LBP maps. Results For LBP maps and 2D TA contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity were identified as statistically different heterogeneity parameters (SDHPs) between lung and breast metastasis. The weighted 3D TA identified entropy as an additional SDHP. Only two texture indexes (TI) were significantly different with true 3D TA: entropy and energy. All these TIs discriminated between the two tumor types significantly by ROC analysis. For the CET1 images there was no SDHP at all by 3D TA. Conclusion Our results indicate that the used textural analysis methods may help with discriminating between brain metastases of different primary tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0653-9
  • Improving fMRI in signal drop-out regions at 7 T by using tailored
           radio-frequency pulses: application to the ventral occipito-temporal
    • Authors: Catarina Rua; Stephen J. Wastling; Mauro Costagli; Mark R. Symms; Laura Biagi; Mirco Cosottini; Alberto Del Guerra; Michela Tosetti; Gareth J. Barker
      Abstract: Objective Signal drop-off occurs in echo-planar imaging in inferior brain areas due to field gradients from susceptibility differences between air and tissue. Tailored-RF pulses based on a hyperbolic secant (HS) have been shown to partially recover signal at 3 T, but have not been tested at higher fields. Materials and methods The aim of this study was to compare the performance of an optimized tailored-RF gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (TRF GRE-EPI) sequence with standard GRE-EPI at 7 T, in a passive viewing of faces or objects fMRI paradigm in healthy subjects. Results Increased temporal-SNR (tSNR) was observed in the middle and inferior temporal lobes and orbitofrontal cortex of all subjects scanned, but elsewhere tSNR decreased relative to the standard acquisition. In the TRF GRE-EPI, increased functional signal was observed in the fusiform, lateral occipital cortex, and occipital pole, regions known to be part of the visual pathway involved in face-object perception. Conclusion This work highlights the potential of TRF approaches at 7 T. Paired with a reversed-gradient distortion correction to compensate for in-plane susceptibility gradients, it provides an improved acquisition strategy for future neurocognitive studies at ultra-high field imaging in areas suffering from static magnetic field inhomogeneities.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0652-x
  • Automated reference-free detection of motion artifacts in magnetic
           resonance images
    • Authors: Thomas Küstner; Annika Liebgott; Lukas Mauch; Petros Martirosian; Fabian Bamberg; Konstantin Nikolaou; Bin Yang; Fritz Schick; Sergios Gatidis
      Abstract: Objectives Our objectives were to provide an automated method for spatially resolved detection and quantification of motion artifacts in MR images of the head and abdomen as well as a quality control of the trained architecture. Materials and methods T1-weighted MR images of the head and the upper abdomen were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers under rest and under motion. Images were divided into overlapping patches of different sizes achieving spatial separation. Using these patches as input data, a convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained to derive probability maps for the presence of motion artifacts. A deep visualization offers a human-interpretable quality control of the trained CNN. Results were visually assessed on probability maps and as classification accuracy on a per-patch, per-slice and per-volunteer basis. Results On visual assessment, a clear difference of probability maps was observed between data sets with and without motion. The overall accuracy of motion detection on a per-patch/per-volunteer basis reached 97%/100% in the head and 75%/100% in the abdomen, respectively. Conclusion Automated detection of motion artifacts in MRI is feasible with good accuracy in the head and abdomen. The proposed method provides quantification and localization of artifacts as well as a visualization of the learned content. It may be extended to other anatomic areas and used for quality assurance of MR images.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0650-z
  • In vitro evaluation of flow patterns and turbulent kinetic energy in
           trans-catheter aortic valve prostheses
    • Authors: Daniel Giese; Kilian Weiss; Bettina Baeßler; Navid Madershahian; Yeong-Hoon Choi; David Maintz; Alexander C. Bunck
      Abstract: Objectives The objective of the current work was to evaluate flow and turbulent kinetic energy in different transcatheter aortic valve implants using highly undersampled time-resolved multi-point 3-directional phase-contrast measurements (4D Flow MRI) in an in vitro setup. Materials and methods A pulsatile flow setup was used with a compliant tubing mimicking a stiff left ventricular outflow tract and ascending aorta. Five different implants were measured using a highly undersampled multi-point 4D Flow MRI sequence. Velocities and turbulent kinetic energy values were analysed and compared. Results Strong variations of turbulent kinetic energy distributions between the valves were observed. Maximum turbulent kinetic energy values ranged from 100 to over 500 J/m3 while through-plane velocities were similar between all valves. Conclusion Highly accelerated 4D Flow MRI for the measurement of velocities and turbulent kinetic energy values allowed for the assessment of hemodynamic parameters in five different implant models. The presented setup, measurement protocol and analysis methods provides an efficient approach to compare different valve implants and could aid future novel valve designs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0651-y
  • State-of-the-art review: stress T1 mapping—technical considerations,
           pitfalls and emerging clinical applications
    • Authors: Stefan K. Piechnik; Stefan Neubauer; Vanessa M. Ferreira
      Abstract: Abstract In vivo mapping of the myocardial T1 relaxation time has recently attained wide clinical validation of its potential utility. In this review, we address the basic principles of the T1 mapping techniques, with particular attention to the emerging application of vasodilatory stress agents to interrogate the myocardial microvascular compartment, and differences between commonly used T1 mapping methods when applied in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0649-5
  • A novel framework for evaluating the image accuracy of dynamic MRI and the
           application on accelerated breast DCE MRI
    • Abstract: Objective To develop a novel framework for evaluating the accuracy of quantitative analysis on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with a specific combination of imaging technique, scanning parameters, and scanner and software performance and to test this framework with breast DCE MRI with Time-resolved angiography WIth Stochastic Trajectories (TWIST). Materials and methods Realistic breast tumor phantoms were 3D printed as cavities and filled with solutions of MR contrast agent. Full k-space raw data of individual tumor phantoms and a uniform background phantom were acquired. DCE raw data were simulated by sorting the raw data according to TWIST view order and scaling the raw data according to the enhancement based on pharmaco-kinetic (PK) models. The measured spatial and temporal characteristics from the images reconstructed using the scanner software were compared with the original PK model (ground truth). Results Images could be reconstructed using the manufacturer’s platform with the modified ‘raw data.’ Compared with the ‘ground truth,’ the RMS error in all images was <10% in most cases. With increasing view-sharing acceleration, the error of the initial uptake slope decreased while the error of peak enhancement increased. Deviations of PK parameters varied with the type of enhancement. Conclusion A new framework has been developed and tested to more realistically evaluate the quantitative measurement errors caused by a combination of the imaging technique, parameters and scanner and software performance in DCE-MRI.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0648-6
  • Spectroscopic sampling of the left side of long-TE spin echoes: a free
    • Authors: Robert V. Mulkern; Mukund Balasubramanian
      Abstract: Objective Use of spectroscopically-acquired spin echoes typically involves Fourier transformation of the right side of the echo while largely neglecting the left side. For sufficiently long echo times, the left side may have enough spectral resolution to offer some utility. Since the acquisition of this side is “free”, we deemed it worthy of attention and investigated the spectral properties and information content of this data. Materials and methods Theoretical expressions for left- and right-side spectra were derived assuming Lorentzian frequency distributions. For left-side spectra, three regimes were identified based upon the relative magnitudes of reversible and irreversible transverse relaxation rates, R 2′ and R 2, respectively. Point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) data from muscle, fat deposit and bone marrow were acquired at 1.5 T to test aspects of the theoretical expressions. Results For muscle water or methylene marrow resonances, left-side signals were substantially or moderately larger than right-side signals but were similar in magnitude for muscle choline and creatine resonances. Left- versus right-side spectral-peak amplitude ratios depend sensitively on the relative values of R 2 and R 2′ , which can be estimated given this ratio and a right-side linewidth measurement. Conclusion Left-side spectra can be used to augment signal-to-noise and to estimate spectral R 2 and R 2′ values under some circumstances.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0647-7
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