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Journal Cover   Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
  [SJR: 0.928]   [H-I: 40]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0968-5243 - ISSN (Online) 1352-8661
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • An L1-norm phase constraint for half-Fourier compressed sensing in 3D MR
    • Abstract: Objective In most half-Fourier imaging methods, explicit phase replacement is used. In combination with parallel imaging, or compressed sensing, half-Fourier reconstruction is usually performed in a separate step. The purpose of this paper is to report that integration of half-Fourier reconstruction into iterative reconstruction minimizes reconstruction errors. Materials and methods The L1-norm phase constraint for half-Fourier imaging proposed in this work is compared with the L2-norm variant of the same algorithm, with several typical half-Fourier reconstruction methods. Half-Fourier imaging with the proposed phase constraint can be seamlessly combined with parallel imaging and compressed sensing to achieve high acceleration factors. Results In simulations and in in-vivo experiments half-Fourier imaging with the proposed L1-norm phase constraint enables superior performance both reconstruction of image details and with regard to robustness against phase estimation errors. Conclusion The performance and feasibility of half-Fourier imaging with the proposed L1-norm phase constraint is reported. Its seamless combination with parallel imaging and compressed sensing enables use of greater acceleration in 3D MR imaging.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
  • Monoplanar gradient system for imaging with nonlinear gradients
    • Abstract: Object In this paper we present a monoplanar gradient system capable of imaging a volume comparable with that covered by linear gradient systems. Such a system has been designed and implemented. Materials and methods Building such a system was made possible by relaxing the constraint of global linearity and replacing it with a requirement for local orthogonality. A framework was derived for optimization of local orthogonality within the physical boundaries and geometric constraints. Spatial encoding of magnetic fields was optimized for their local orthogonality over a large field of view. Results A coil design consisting of straight wire segments was optimized, implemented, and integrated into a 3T human scanner to show the feasibility of this approach. Initial MR images are shown and further applications of the derived optimization method and the nonlinear planar gradient system are discussed. Conclusion Encoding fields generated by the prototype encoding system were shown to be locally orthogonal and able to encode a cylindrical volume sufficient for some abdomen imaging applications for humans.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17
  • Motion correction of multi-contrast images applied to T 1 and T 2
           quantification in cardiac MRI
    • Abstract: Object The ability to manipulate image contrast and thus to obtain complementary information is one of the main advantages of MRI. Motion consistency within the whole data set is a key point in the context of multi contrast imaging. In cardiac and abdominal MRI, the acquisition strategy uses multiple breath-holds and often relies on acceleration methods that inherently suffer from a signal-to-noise ratio loss. The aim of this work is to propose a free-breathing multi-contrast acquisition and reconstruction workflow to improve image quality and the subsequent data analysis. Materials and methods We extended a previously proposed motion-compensated image reconstruction method for multi-contrast imaging. Shared information throughout the imaging protocol is now exploited by the image reconstruction in the form of an additional constraint based on image gradient sparsity. This constraint helps to minimize the amount of data needed for efficient non-rigid motion correction. T1 and T2 weighted images were reconstructed from free-breathing acquisitions in 4 healthy volunteers and in a phantom. The impact of multi-contrast motion correction was evaluated in a phantom in terms of precision and accuracy of T1 and T2 quantification. Results In the phantom, the proposed method achieved an accuracy of 97.5 % on the quantified parameters against 88.0 % before motion correction. In volunteers, motion inconsistency in T1 and T2 quantification were noticeably reduced within 5 min of free-breathing acquisition. Conclusion An efficient, free-breathing, multi-contrast imaging method has been demonstrated that does not require prior assumptions about contrast and that is applicable to a wide range of examinations.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Measuring short-term liver metabolism non-invasively: postprandial and
           post-exercise 1 H and 31 P MR spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Object The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a standardized fat rich meal and subsequent exercise on liver fat content by 1H MRS and on liver adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content by 31P MRS in healthy subjects. Materials and methods Hepatic 1H and proton decoupled 31P MRS were performed on nine healthy subjects on a clinical 3.0 T MR imager three times during a day: after (1) an overnight fast, (2) a following standardized fat rich meal and (3) a subsequent exercise session. Blood parameters were followed during the day to serve as a reference to MRS. Results Liver fat content increased gradually over the day (p = 0.0001) with an overall increase of 30 %. Also γ-NTP changed significantly over the day (p = 0.005). γ-NTP/tP decreased by 9 % (p = 0.019, post hoc) from the postprandial to the post-exercise state. Conclusion Our study shows that in vivo MRS can depict short lived physiological changes; entering of fat into liver cells and consumption of ATP during exercise can be measured non-invasively in healthy subjects. The physiological state may have an impact on fat and energy metabolite levels. Hepatic 1H and 31P MRS studies should be performed under standardized conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Data quality in fMRI and simultaneous EEG–fMRI
    • Abstract: Object To evaluate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)–fMRI data quality in an organization using several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. Materials and methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements were carried out twice with a uniform gel phantom on five different MRI systems with field strengths of 1.5 and 3.0 T. Several image quality parameters were measured with automatic analysis software. For simultaneous EEG–fMRI, data quality was evaluated on 3.0 T systems, and the phantom results were compared to data on human volunteers. Results The fMRI quality parameters measured with different MRI systems were on an acceptable level. The presence of the EEG equipment caused superficial artifacts on the phantom image. The typical artifact depth was 15 mm, and no artifacts were observed in the brain area in the images of volunteers. Average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction in the phantom measurements was 15 %, a reduction of SNR similar to that observed in the human data. We also detected minor changes in the noise of the EEG signal during the phantom measurement. Conclusion The phantom proved valuable in the successful evaluation of the data quality of fMRI and EEG–fMRI. The results fell within acceptable limits. This study demonstrated a repeatable method to measure and follow up on the data quality of simultaneous EEG–fMRI.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Transparent thin shield for radio frequency transmit coils
    • Abstract: Objective To identify a shielding material compatible with optical head-motion tracking for prospective motion correction and which minimizes radio frequency (RF) radiation losses at 7 T without sacrificing line-of-sight to an imaging target. Materials and methods We evaluated a polyamide mesh coated with silver. The thickness of the coating was approximated from the composition ratio provided by the material vendor and validated by an estimate derived from electrical conductivity and light transmission measurements. The performance of the shield is compared to a split-copper shield in the context of a four-channel transmit-only loop array. Results The mesh contains less than a skin-depth of silver coating (300 MHz) and attenuates light by 15 %. Elements of the array vary less in the presence of the mesh shield as compared to the split-copper shield indicating that the array behaves more symmetrically with the mesh shield. No degradation of transmit efficiency was observed for the mesh as compared to the split-copper shield. Conclusion We present a shield compatible with future integration of camera-based motion-tracking systems. Based on transmit performance and eddy-current evaluations the mesh shield is appropriate for use at 7 T.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Erratum to: Quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction in the Philips
           Ingenuity TF whole-body PET/MR system: a direct comparison with
           transmission-based attenuation correction
    • PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Multi-parametric (ADC/PWI/T2-w) image fusion approach for accurate
           semi-automatic segmentation of tumorous regions in glioblastoma multiforme
    • Abstract: Object Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumor is heterogeneous in nature, so its quantification depends on how to accurately segment different parts of the tumor, i.e. viable tumor, edema and necrosis. This procedure becomes more effective when metabolic and functional information, provided by physiological magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modalities, like diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted-imaging (PWI), is incorporated with the anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this preliminary tumor quantification work, the idea is to characterize different regions of GBM tumors in an MRI-based semi-automatic multi-parametric approach to achieve more accurate characterization of pathogenic regions. Materials and methods For this purpose, three MR sequences, namely T2-weighted imaging (anatomical MR imaging), PWI and DWI of thirteen GBM patients, were acquired. To enhance the delineation of the boundaries of each pathogenic region (peri-tumoral edema, viable tumor and necrosis), the spatial fuzzy C-means algorithm is combined with the region growing method. Results The results show that exploiting the multi-parametric approach along with the proposed semi-automatic segmentation method can differentiate various tumorous regions with over 80 % sensitivity, specificity and dice score. Conclusion The proposed MRI-based multi-parametric segmentation approach has the potential to accurately segment tumorous regions, leading to an efficient design of the pre-surgical treatment planning.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Fast and accurate localization of multiple RF markers for tracking in
           MRI-guided interventions
    • Abstract: Object A new method for 3D localization of N fiducial markers from 1D projections is presented and analysed. It applies to semi-active markers and active markers using a single receiver channel. Materials and methods The novel algorithm computes candidate points using peaks in three optimally selected projections and removes fictitious points by verifying detected peaks in additional projections. Computational complexity was significantly reduced by avoiding cluster analysis, while higher accuracy was achieved by using optimal projections and by applying Gaussian interpolation in peak detection. Computational time, accuracy and robustness were analysed through Monte Carlo simulations and experiments. The method was employed in a prototype MRI guided prostate biopsy system and used in preclinical experiments. Results The computational time for 6 markers was better than 2 ms, an improvement of up to 100 times, compared to the method by Flask et al. (J Magn Reson Imaging 14(5):617–627, 2001). Experimental maximum localization error was lower than 0.3 mm; standard deviation was 0.06 mm. Targeting error was about 1 mm. Tracking update rate was about 10 Hz. Conclusion The proposed method is particularly suitable in systems requiring any of the following: high frame rate, tracking of three or more markers, data filtering or interleaving.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Hemi-spectrum substitution after water signal fitting (HESWAF): an
           improvement of the modulus post-processing of MR spectra
    • Abstract: Objective In a previous study, we have shown that modulus post-processing is a simple and efficient tool to both phase correct and frequency align magnetic resonance (MR) spectra automatically. Furthermore, this technique also eliminates sidebands and phase distortions. The advantages of the modulus technique have been illustrated in several applications to brain proton MR spectroscopy. Two possible drawbacks have also been pointed out. The first one is the theoretical decrease in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by a factor up to √2 when comparing the spectrum obtained after modulus versus conventional post-processing. The second pitfall results from the symmetrization of the spectrum induced by modulus post-processing, since any resonance or artifact located at the left of the water resonance is duplicated at the right of the water resonance, thus contaminating the region of the spectrum containing the resonances of interest. Herein, we propose a strategy in order to eliminate these two limitations. Materials and methods Concerning the SNR issue, two complementary approaches are presented here. The first is based on the application of modulus post-processing before spatial apodization, and the second consists in substituting the left half of the spectrum by the fit of the water resonance before applying modulus post-processing. The symmetrization induced by modulus post-processing then combines the right half of the original spectrum containing the resonances of interest with the left half of the water fit, free of noise and artifacts. Consequently, the SNR is improved when compared to modulus post-processing alone. As a bonus, any artifact or resonance present in the left half of the original spectrum is removed. This solves the second limitation. Results After validation of the technique on simulations, we demonstrated that this improvement of the modulus technique is significantly advantageous for both in vitro and in vivo applications. Conclusion By improving the SNR of the spectra and eliminating eventual contaminations, the new strategies proposed here confer an additional competitive advantage to the modulus post-processing technique.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Fast water concentration mapping to normalize 1 H MR spectroscopic imaging
    • Abstract: Object To propose a fast and robust acquisition and post-processing pipeline that is time-compatible with clinical explorations to obtain a proton density (ρ) map used as a reference for metabolic map normalization. This allows inter-subject and inter-group comparisons of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data and longitudinal follow-up for single subjects. Materials and methods A multi-echo T 2 * mapping sequence, the XEP sequence for B 1 + -mapping and Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T 1—an optimized variable flip angle method for T 1 mapping used for both B 1 − -mapping and M 0 calculation—were used to determine correction factors leading to quantitative water proton density maps at 3T. Normalized metabolite maps were obtained on a phantom and nine healthy volunteers. To show the potential use of this technique at the individual level, we also explored one patient with low-grade glioma. Results Accurate ρ maps were obtained both on phantom and volunteers. After signal normalization with the generated ρ maps, metabolic concentrations determined by the present method differed from theory by <7 % in the phantom and were in agreement with data from the literature for the healthy controls. Using these normalized metabolic values, it was possible to demonstrate in the patient with brain glioma, metabolic abnormalities in normalized N-acetyl aspartate, choline and creatine levels; illustrating the potential for direct use of this technique in clinical studies. Conclusion The proposed combination of sequences provides a robust ρ map that can be used to normalize metabolic maps in clinical MRSI studies.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Highly undersampled peripheral Time-of-Flight magnetic resonance
           angiography: optimized data acquisition and iterative image reconstruction
    • Abstract: Object The aim of this study was to investigate the acceleration of peripheral Time-of-Flight magnetic resonance angiography using Compressed Sensing and parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while preserving image quality and vascular contrast. Materials and methods An analytical sampling pattern is proposed that combines aspects of parallel MRI and Compressed Sensing. It is used in combination with a dedicated Split Bregman algorithm. This approach is compared with current state-of-the-art patterns and reconstruction algorithms. Results The acquisition time was reduced from 30 to 2.5 min in a study using ten volunteer data sets, while showing improved sharpness, better contrast and higher accuracy compared to state-of-the-art techniques. Conclusion This study showed the benefits of the proposed dedicated analytical sampling pattern and Split Bregman algorithm for optimizing the Compressed Sensing reconstruction of highly accelerated peripheral Time-of-Flight data.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
  • Reproducibility of pharmacological ASL using sequences from different
           vendors: implications for multicenter drug studies
    • Abstract: Object The current study assesses the multicenter feasibility of pharmacological arterial spin labeling (ASL) by comparing a caffeine-induced relative cerebral blood flow decrease (%CBF↓) measured with two pseudo-continuous ASL sequences as provided by two major vendors. Materials and methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers were scanned twice with both a 3D spiral (GE) and a 2D EPI (Philips) sequence. The inter-session reproducibility was evaluated by comparisons of the mean and within-subject coefficient of variability (wsCV) of the %CBF↓, both for the total cerebral gray matter and on a voxel level. Results The %CBF↓ was larger when measured with the 3D spiral sequence (23.9 ± 5.9 %) than when measured with the 2D EPI sequence (19.2 ± 5.6 %) on a total gray matter level (p = 0.02), and on a voxel level in the posterior watershed area (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the gray matter wsCV of the 3D spiral (57.3 %) and 2D EPI sequence (66.7 %, p = 0.3), whereas on a voxel level, the wsCV was visibly different between the sequences. Conclusion The observed differences between ASL sequences of both vendors can be explained by differences in the employed readout modules. These differences may seriously hamper multicenter pharmacological ASL, which strongly encourages standardization of ASL implementations.
      PubDate: 2015-01-15
  • Incorporation of image data from a previous examination in 3D serial MR
    • Abstract: Object We aimed to demonstrate that follow-up scans in longitudinal examinations can be significantly accelerated by using images from previous scans as priors for constrained reconstruction. Materials and methods In this work, we propose a method for incorporating a prior image to improve the reconstruction of a new acquisition with considerable k-space undersampling, which contains a two-level registration scheme with non-parametric transformation, an adaptive synthesis procedure, and a constrained reconstruction with weighted total variation constraint. The performance of the method is evaluated using simulations, as well as results from volunteer and patient examinations. Results In vivo experiments with both volunteers and patients show that incorporating a prior image into the constrained reconstruction produces many fewer reconstruction errors compared to the conventional reconstruction using only the highly undersampled k-space data. Conclusion The redundant information in the prior image can be efficiently adopted to improve the reconstruction quality of the new acquisition. When maintaining the image quality, higher acceleration can be achieved with the incorporation of the prior image.
      PubDate: 2015-01-09
  • The separation of Gln and Glu in STEAM: a comparison study using short and
           long TEs/TMs at 3 and 7 T
    • Abstract: Objectives This study aimed to determine the optimal echo time (TE) and mixing time (TM) for in vivo glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) separation in stimulated-echo acquisition mode at 3 and 7 T. We applied a short TE/TM (20/10 ms) for a high signal-to-noise-ratio and a field-specific long TE/TM (3 T: 72/6 ms; 7 T: 74/68 ms) for optimal Gln and Glu separation of the Carbon-4 proton resonances. Materials and methods Corresponding Gln and Glu spectra were simulated using VeSPA software, and measured in a phantom and human brains at 3 and 7 T. Results Higher spectral separation for Gln and Glu was achieved at 7 than 3 T. At 7 T, short TE/TM provided comparable spectral separation and in vitro Gln and Glu quantification compared to long TE/TM. Moreover, it showed greater reliability in in vivo Gln and Glu detection and separation than long TE/TM, with significantly lower Cramer–Rao lower bounds (Gln: 14.9 vs. 75.8; Glu: 3.8 vs. 6.5) and correlation between Gln and Glu (p = 0.004). Conclusion Based on the optimal separation for Gln and Glu, a short TE/TM at 7 T is proposed for future in vivo Gln and Glu acquisition.
      PubDate: 2015-01-08
  • Comparing velocity and fluid shear stress in a stenotic phantom with
           steady flow: phase-contrast MRI, particle image velocimetry and
           computational fluid dynamics
    • Abstract: Object This study aims to validate phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) measurements of a steady flow through a severe stenotic phantom using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Materials and methods The study was performed in an axisymmetric 87 % area stenosis model using an inlet Reynolds number (Re) of 160, corresponding to a jet Re of 444. Velocity patterns and estimated fluid shear stresses from three modalities were analyzed and compared qualitatively and quantitatively. Results Visual analysis via contour subtraction and Bland–Altman plots showed good agreement for flow velocities and less agreement for maximum shear stress (MSS). The Pearson’s coefficients of correlation between PC-MRI and PIV were 0.97 for the velocity field and 0.82 for the MSS. The corresponding parameters between PC-MRI and CFD were 0.96 and 0.84, respectively. Conclusion Findings indicate that PC-MRI can be implemented to estimate velocity flow fields and MSS; however, this method is not sufficiently accurate to quantify the MSS at regions of high shear rate.
      PubDate: 2014-12-12
  • Measurement reproducibility of magnetic resonance imaging-based finite
           element analysis of proximal femur microarchitecture for in vivo
           assessment of bone strength
    • Abstract: Introduction Osteoporosis is a disease of weak bone. Our goal was to determine the measurement reproducibility of magnetic resonance assessment of proximal femur strength. Methods This study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. We obtained images of proximal femur microarchitecture by scanning 12 subjects three times within 1 week at 3T using a high-resolution 3-D FLASH sequence. We applied finite element analysis to compute proximal femur stiffness and femoral neck elastic modulus. Results Within-day and between-day root-mean-square coefficients of variation and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 3.5 to 6.6 % and 0.96 to 0.98, respectively. Conclusion The measurement reproducibility of magnetic resonance assessment of proximal femur strength is suitable for clinical studies of disease progression or treatment response related to osteoporosis bone-strengthening interventions.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09
  • IVIM analysis of brain tumors: an investigation of the relaxation effects
           of CSF, blood, and tumor tissue on the estimated perfusion fraction
    • Abstract: Object We sought to investigate the dependence of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-related perfusion fraction (f) estimates on the transverse relaxation of brain tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), attempting to overcome the influence of CSF on conventional f maps. Materials and methods Eighteen patients with gliomas underwent DWI with 14 b-values (0–1,300 s/mm2) and two distinct echo times (TEs). Regions of interest representing tumour and normal brain tissue were analysed by calculating the f values for both TEs. A mask for pixels with relevant CSF partial volume was subsequently created. The f values were tested for significant differences. Results We found statistically significant differences between the two TEs in the f values for cortical and juxtacortical structures and non-enhancing areas of the tumour /oedema. Normal white matter and gadolinium-enhancing tumour tissue appeared insensitive to TE variation. In all tissue types examined, the masking of voxels with considerable CSF content was able to overcome issues of erroneous f estimation and calculation of f values insensitive to TE changes was feasible. Conclusion Due to the complex interaction in the relaxation rates of CSF, blood, and tumour tissue, the estimation of f values is affected by the choice of TE. Only f values in normal white matter and tumour tissue—which largely comprise blood voxels with minor CSF partial volume—may be clinically applicable in the present form of IVIM-based DWI analysis. Going a step further, and after removing voxels with heavily TE-susceptible f values, we were able to obtain accurate and TE-independent f values in contrast-enhancing tumour tissue, white matter, and grey matter, which were essentially consistent with those reported in the literature.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
  • Simple recipe for accurate T 2 quantification with multi spin-echo
    • Abstract: Objective The quantification of magnetic resonance relaxation parameters T 1 and T 2 have the potential for improved disease detection and classification over standard clinical weighted imaging. Performing a mono-exponential fit on multi spin-echo (MSE) data provides quantitative T 2 values in a clinically acceptable scan-time. However, due to technical imperfections of refocusing pulses, stimulated echo contributions to the signals lead to significant deviations in the resulting T 2 values. In this work, a simple auto-calibrating correction procedure is presented, allowing the accurate estimation of T 2 from MSE acquisitions. Materials and methods Correction factors for T 2 values obtained from MSE acquisitions with a mono-exponential fit are derived from simulations following the extended phase graph formulation. A closed formula is given for the calculation of the required correction factors directly from the measured data itself. Results Simulations and phantom experiments show high accuracy of corrected T 2 values for a wide range of clinically relevant T 2 values and for different nominal refocusing flip angles. In addition, corrected T 2 maps of the human brain are presented. Conclusion A simple recipe is provided to correct T 2 values obtained from MSE acquisitions via a mono-exponential fit for the influence of stimulated echoes. Since all required parameters are extracted from the data themselves, no additional acquisitions are required.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Endometrial cancer: diagnostic value of quantitative measurements of
           microvascular changes with DCE-MR imaging
    • Abstract: Object To assess the diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) perfusion-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection, characterization and grading of endometrial cancer, using histopathological analysis as the standard of reference. Materials and methods Eighty patients with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma who underwent MRI (1.5 T magnet) of the pelvis for staging purposes were enrolled in the study. Each MR examination consisted of multiplanar T2 and T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences and T1-weighted gradient echo sequences before, during and after the administration of contrast medium. For each patient colour perfusion maps were derived from the dynamic sequences using a dedicated workstation. On the maps a region of interest was manually drawn both on normal myometrium and on the endometrial lesion. Then the following perfusion parameters were automatically calculated: relative enhancement (RE, %), maximum enhancement (ME, %), maximum relative enhancement (MRE, %) and time to peak (TTP, s). Results All patients underwent total hysterectomy. Histopathological analysis documented: G1 tumour in 21 patients, G2 tumour in 44 patients, G3 tumour in 14 patients and one squamous cell carcinoma. The following mean value perfusion parameters, with corresponding mean standard deviation, were obtained for endometrial cancer: RE (%) = 59.3 ± 36.3; ME (%) = 862.7 ± 475.9; MRE (%) = 75.3 ± 37.6 and TTP (s) = 164.7 ± 78. RE, ME and MRE were lower in tumour lesions than in normal myometrium (p < 0.001) and significantly higher values (p < 0.001) of perfusion parameters were obtained for G1 (well-differentiated) tumours as compared to those in G2 and G3 (moderately and poorly differentiated) lesions. Conclusion DCE perfusion-MRI can provide quantitative information on tissue vascularity, which may be of help in detecting endometrial cancer and in the assessment of tumour grading.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
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