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Journal Cover Control Engineering Practice     [SJR: 1.522]   [H-I: 59]
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0967-0661
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2584 journals]
  • A novel intelligent controller for combating stiction in pneumatic control
           valves
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Puneet Mishra , Vineet Kumar , K.P.S. Rana
      Pneumatic control valve introduces limit cycles in process variables due to stiction nonlinearity. In this paper a novel stiction combating intelligent controller (SCIC) based on fuzzy logic has been proposed. The proposed technique reduces the complexity of the overall control scheme as it does not require any additional compensator. The SCIC controller is a variable gain fuzzy Proportional Integral (PI) controller making use of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) scheme. The performance of the SCIC controller has been investigated and compared with conventional PI controller on a laboratory scale flow process. SCIC controller outperformed PI controller and provided promising performance with lesser aggressive stem movement.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Modified observer backstepping controller for a dynamic positioning system
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): H.M. Morishita , C.E.S. Souza
      A procedure for attenuating the control law of a vessel dynamic positioning system, based on the observer backstepping methodology, is proposed. The motivation is the appearance of an undesirable on–off behavior on the signal sent to the actuators when their saturation is considered and the control law is dependent on estimated state variables. Two gain matrices associated with the error variables are introduced to achieve the desired attenuation. Stability is proven through Lyapunov stability analysis. Numerical simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed controller to render the control law compatible with the limitations of the actuators.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Formal representation of GRAFCET to automatically generate control code
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Frank Schumacher , Alexander Fay
      Within the engineering of control code, model-based approaches become more and more important. Basically GRAFCET serves as a suitable modeling language but lacks an exhaustive formal representation of its structure and dynamic behavior since current approaches only consider subclasses of GRAFCET. Within this article the authors depict a systematic approach for an exhaustive formal model of GRAFCET, specifically by taking enclosing steps, forcing orders and time constraints into account. Based on this formal model of GRAFCET a method together with a tool framework are presented allowing for the automatic generation of control code.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Active vibration isolation feedback control for Coriolis Mass-Flow Meters
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): L. van de Ridder , M.A. Beijen , W.B.J. Hakvoort , J. van Dijk , J.C. Lötters , A. de Boer
      Active Vibration Isolation Control (AVIC) can be used to reduce the transmissibility of external vibrations to internal vibrations. In this paper a proposal is made for integrating AVIC in a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM). Acceleration feedback, virtual mass and virtual skyhook damping are added to a passively suspended CMFM, resulting in a lowered suspension frequency. In addition, position feedback of the internal deformation is used to damp the internal mode. The controller design is based on a simplified model and is validated on an experimental setup. Results show that the sensitivity to external vibrations is reduced by 40dB for the RMS measurement error.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • 2-DOF skew control of boom cranes including state estimation and reference
           trajectory generation
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Ulf Schaper , Christina Dittrich , Eckhard Arnold , Klaus Schneider , Oliver Sawodny
      In small and midsize harbors, boom cranes are used for multiple applications. These include bulk cargo handling and container transloading. For container handling, a spreader is attached to the crane hook. While grabbing a container with the spreader, both the position and the orientation of the spreader and the container must match. The spreader orientation is usually referred-to as skew angle. Other synonyms are yaw angle or spreader heading. The skew angle is controlled using a hook-mounted rotator motor. Since wind, impact, and uneven load distribution can cause skew vibrations, active skew control is desirable for facilitating crane operation, improving positioning accuracy, and increasing turnover. Different skewing device designs are used for different types of cranes. This contribution presents the skew dynamics on a boom crane along with an actuator model and a sensor configuration. Subsequently a two-degrees of freedom control concept (2-DOF) is derived which comprises a state observer for the skew dynamics, a reference trajectory generator, and a feedback control law. The control system is implemented on a Liebherr mobile harbor crane and its effectiveness is validated with multiple test drives.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Simultaneous compensation of hysteresis and creep in a single
           piezoelectric actuator by open-loop control for quasi-static space active
           optics applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Xuan Wang , Valérie Pommier-Budinger , Aurélien Reysset , Yves Gourinat
      Owing to their excellent properties piezoelectric actuators are studied as embedded elements for the quasi-statically active shape control of spatial optical mirrors. However, unwanted nonlinear effects in piezoelectric actuators, i.e., hysteresis and creep, severely limit their performance. This paper aims at developing a control methodology to compensate hysteresis and creep in a piezoelectric actuator simultaneously for quasi-static space active applications. In the methodology developed, hysteresis and creep behaviors are successively compensated by open-loop control. First, a derivative Preisach model is proposed to accurately portray the hysteresis while requiring relatively few measurements and describing the detachment between major and minor loops. The inverse derivative Preisach model is derived and inserted in open-loop to achieve hysteresis compensation. Then, the creep in the hysteresis compensated piezoelectric actuator is described by the use of a nonlinear viscoelastic model and a low pass filter is suggested to eliminate the effect of the inverse derivative Preisach model on the step reference input. To invert the creep model, the concept of “input relaxation” is implemented and an inverse multiplicative structure allows identifying the parameters of the inverse model while circumventing the difficulty of a mathematical computation. Finally, by cascading the low pass filter, the inverse model of creep and the inverse derivative Preisach model one after the other with the single piezoelectric actuator, the simultaneous compensation of hysteresis and creep is achieved. Experimental results show that in the case of step-like reference signals the hysteresis and the creep in a piezoelectric actuator can be significantly reduced at the same time. It implies that the developed methodology is effective and feasible in space active optics applications for which quasi-static distortions need to be compensated.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Parallel implementations of the fast gradient method for high-speed MPC
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Helfried Peyrl , Alessandro Zanarini , Thomas Besselmann , Junyi Liu , Marc-Alexandre Boéchat
      The potential of the fast gradient method for solving linear quadratic model predictive control (MPC) problems in the sub-millisecond range was only recently recognised by Richter et al. This paper aims to push the execution-time limit even further by exploiting the computational power offered by parallel computing architectures. In particular, scalable and adaptive implementations of gradient-based optimisation methods are presented for both multi-core CPUs and field programmable gate arrays. The proposed parallel implementations broaden the applicability of MPC to problems that were considered out-of-reach till recent years.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Controller designs for bilateral teleoperation with input saturation
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Seung-Ju Lee , Hyo-Sung Ahn
      Input saturation raises a stability issue in a bilateral teleoperation system when a master robot whose motion is induced by a human operator moves fast in abnormal situation and a slave robot cannot follow the motion command due to the input saturation. In this paper, we conduct rigorous stability analyses of the teleoperation system under the input saturation. We first extend analysis of teleoperation scheme proposed in Chopra and Spong (2004) to a case of the input saturation, in which analysis is valid for a local operation region whose size is dependent on the input capacity. We further develop a new control scheme that guarantees the stability for a global operation region. Therefore, the proposed control scheme can deal with extreme cases, e.g., the speed of motion of the master robot can be substantially greater than the actuator capability of the slave robot. Simulations and experiments are subsequently conducted to verify the effectiveness of the analyses.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Optimal control of a half-circular compliant legged monopod
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Yasemin Ozkan Aydin , Afsar Saranli , Yigit Yazicioglu , Uluc Saranli , Kemal Leblebicioğlu
      This paper investigates an optimal control strategy for the dynamic locomotion of a simplified planar compliant half-circular legged monopod model. We first present a novel planar leg model which incorporates rolling kinematics and a new compliance model, motivated by the use of similar leg designs on existing platforms. Two locomotion tasks, moving at a prescribed horizontal velocity and a one-shot jump to maximum possible height or length, are then investigated within this model. The designs of two high-level optimal controllers for these tasks are then described to investigate the performance and stability of resulting behaviors, based on the optimization of trajectory parameters for a closed-loop low-level Proportional-Derivative controller at the hip. Our results show that with these optimized parameters the robot can achieve stable locomotion at a desired horizontal velocity and can successfully jump over and across a specified height and length. Finally, the composition of objective functions capturing multiple criteria is also investigated for the one-shot jump task.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board / Funding body / agreements policies
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33




      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Estimation-based ILC applied to a parallel kinematic robot
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 33
      Author(s): Johanna Wallén Axehill , Isolde Dressler , Svante Gunnarsson , Anders Robertsson , Mikael Norrlöf
      Estimation-based iterative learning control (ILC) is applied to a parallel kinematic manipulator known as the Gantry–Tau parallel robot. The system represents a control problem where measurements of the controlled variables are not available. The main idea is to use estimates of the controlled variables in the ILC algorithm, and in the paper this approach is evaluated experimentally on the Gantry–Tau robot. The experimental results show that an ILC algorithm using estimates of the tool position gives a considerable improvement of the control performance. The tool position estimate is obtained by fusing measurements of the actuator angular positions with measurements of the tool path acceleration using a complementary filter.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • OBC - Autogenerate contents and barcode
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34




      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Input–output feedback linearizing control of linear induction motor
           taking into consideration the end-effects. Part I: Theoretical analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
      Source:Control Engineering Practice
      Author(s): Francesco Alonge , Maurizio Cirrincione , Marcello Pucci , Antonino Sferlazza
      This first part of a paper, divided into two parts, deals with the theoretical formulation of the input–output feedback linearization (FL) control technique as to be applied to linear induction motors (LIMs). Linear induction motors, differently from rotating induction motors (RIMs), present other strong non-linearities caused by the so-called dynamic end effects, leading to a space-vector model with time-varying inductance and resistance terms and an additional braking force term. This paper, starting from a dynamic model of the LIM taking into consideration its dynamic end effects, previously developed by the same authors, defines a feedback linearization (FL) technique suited for LIMs, since it inherently considers its end effects. It further emphasizes the role of the LIM dynamic end effects in the LIM control formulation, highlighting the differences with respect to the corresponding technique for RIMs. It describes the control design criteria, taking also into consideration the constraints on the control and controlled variables, arising from the application of such control technique in a real scenario. The second part of this paper describes the set of tests, both in numerical simulations and experiments, performed to assess the correctness of the proposed control technique.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Cooperative vehicle path generation during merging using model predictive
           control with real-time optimization
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): Wenjing Cao , Masakazu Mukai , Taketoshi Kawabe , Hikaru Nishira , Noriaki Fujiki
      This paper proposed a cooperative merging path generation method for vehicles to merge smoothly on the motorway using a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme which optimizes the motions of the relevant vehicles simultaneously. The cooperative merging is a merging in where the most relevant vehicle in the main lane would accelerate or decelerate slightly to let the merging vehicle merge in easily. The proposed path generation algorithm can generate the merging path ensuring the merging vehicle can access the whole acceleration area, and do not exceed it. We have introduced a state variable to the optimization problem by which the merging point for the merging vehicle is optimized. The simulation results showed that the cooperative merging path can be successfully generated under some typical traffic situations without re-adjustment of the optimization parameters.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Optimal adaptive scheduling and control of beer membrane filtration
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): L.G. van Willigenburg , H.M. Vollebregt , R.G.M. van der Sman
      An adaptive optimal scheduling and controller design is presented that attempts to improve the performance of beer membrane filtration over the ones currently obtained by operators. The research was performed as part of a large European research project called EU Cafe with the aim to investigate the potential of advanced modelling and control to improve the production and quality of food. Significant improvements are demonstrated in this paper through simulation experiments. Optimal scheduling and control comprises a mixed integer non-linear programming problem (MINLP). By making some suitable assumptions that are approximately satisfied in practice, we manage to significantly simplify the problem by turning it into an ordinary non-linear programming problem (NLP) for which solution methods are readily available. The adaptive part of our scheduler and controller performs model parameter adaptations. These are also obtained by solving associated NLP problems. During cleaning stages in between membrane filtrations enough time is available to solve the NLP problems. This allows for real-time implementation.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Modelling, simulation and identification of an engine air path
           electromechanical actuator
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): Athmane Kebairi , Mohamed Becherif , Mohammed El Bagdouri
      This paper deals with the modelling and the identification of an electromechanical Diesel engine actuator. The studied Bosch GPA-S actuator is designed for swirl/tumble flaps to control the air amount entering into the cylinder. This study aims to design a complete simulator that reproduces, with sufficient accuracy, the actuator dynamics taking into account the effects of the friction phenomenon. Hence, an overview of the actuator structure and its operation principle is first given. Then, its mathematical model as well as the nonlinearity, related to its behaviour, is discussed. Next, three identification procedures, which allow estimating both the system parameters and the friction model coefficients, are introduced. Finally, simulation results, using MATLAB, and experimental results, using LabVIEW, are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Optimal maintenance planning for sustainable energy efficiency lighting
           retrofit projects by a control system approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 37
      Author(s): Xianming Ye , Xiaohua Xia , Lijun Zhang , Bing Zhu
      The energy savings achieved by implementing energy efficiency (EE) lighting retrofit projects are sometimes not sustainable and vanish rapidly given that lamp population decays as time goes by if without proper maintenance activities. Scope of maintenance activities refers to replacements of failed lamps due to nonrepairable lamp burnouts. Full replacements of all the failed lamps during each maintenance interval contribute to a tight project budget due to the expense for the lamp failure inspections, as well as the procurement and installation of new lamps. Since neither “no maintenance” nor “full maintenance” is preferable to the EE lighting project developers (PDs), we propose to design an optimal maintenance plan that optimises the number of replacements of the failed lamps, such that the EE lighting project achieves sustainable performance in terms of energy savings whereas the PDs obtain their maximum benefits in the sense of cost–benefit ratio. This optimal maintenance planning (OMP) problem is aptly formulated as an optimal control problem under control system framework, and solved by a model predictive control (MPC) approach. An optimal maintenance plan for an EE lighting retrofit project is designed as a case study to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system approach.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Dissipatively actuated manipulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): W.J. Wolfslag , M.C. Plooij , W. Caarls , S. van Weperen , G.A.D. Lopes
      This paper addresses the design of control systems whose actuation can only dissipate energy. Such systems provide intrinsic safety, and can be used in scenarios where energy is supplied by external entities and point-stabilization is possible with only energy dissipation. Three control synthesis methods are proposed that range from model-based to a learning approach and their validity is demonstrated on a passively controlled manipulator performing a positioning task. These three methods are the Zero Control Velocity Field, Monte-Carlo Tree Search and Reinforcement Learning. The simulation results are corroborated by experiments on a physical two link manipulator.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Event-triggered variable horizon Supervisory Predictive control of hybrid
           power plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): Jean-Yves Dieulot , Fréderic Colas , Lamine Chalal , Geneviève Dauphin-Tanguy
      The supervision of a hybrid power plant, including solar panels, a gas microturbine and a storage unit operating under varying solar power profiles is considered. The Economic Supervisory Predictive controller assigns the power references to the controlled subsystems of the hybrid cell using a financial criterion. A prediction of the renewable sources power is embedded into the supervisor. Results deteriorate when the solar power is unsteady, owing to the inaccuracy of the predictions for a long-range horizon of 10s. The receding horizon is switched between an upper and a lower value according to the amplitude of the solar power trend. Theoretical results show the relevance of horizon switching, according to a tradeoff between performance and prediction accuracy. Experimental results, obtained in a Hardware In the Loop (HIL) framework, show the relevance of the variable horizon approach. Power amplifiers allow us to simulate virtual components, such as a gas microturbine, and to blend their powers with that of real devices (storage unit, real solar panels). In this case, fuel savings, reaching 15%, obtained under unsteady operating conditions lead to a better overall performance of the hybrid cell. The overall savings obtained in the experiments amount to 12%.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Development of misfire detection algorithm using quantitative FDI
           performance analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): Daniel Jung , Lars Eriksson , Erik Frisk , Mattias Krysander
      A model-based misfire detection algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is able to detect misfires and identify the failing cylinder during different conditions, such as cylinder-to-cylinder variations, cold starts, and different engine behavior in different operating points. Also, a method is proposed for automatic tuning of the algorithm based on training data. The misfire detection algorithm is evaluated using data from several vehicles on the road and the results show that a low misclassification rate is achieved even during difficult conditions.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Design of an adaptive predictive control strategy for crude oil
           atmospheric distillation process
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): Angelo Raimondi , Antonio Favela-Contreras , Francisco Beltrán-Carbajal , Alejandro Piñón-Rubio , Jose Luis de la Peña-Elizondo
      Improving performance and reducing the process operational costs represent a priority for the oil refinement industry. The challenge is given by high energy utilization and strict productivity specifications. Automatic control plays an essential role by providing theoretical and practical tools to overcome these challenges. This paper details the design of an Adaptive Predictive (AP) control strategy for an atmospheric distillation process. The strategy uses AP controllers to face the non-linear and time-varying process dynamics and was defined using classical interaction analysis tools such as the Relative Gain Array (RGA). The AP control strategy was simulated using ADEX and MATLAB simulation environments. The process was simulated using an Aspen Dynamic model. The controller performance is evaluated on a simulator of a crude oil atmospheric distillation process operating in a PEMEX refinery. The simulation results are also compared against a PID-based control strategy, showing an improvement of operational stability.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Experimental investigation of stochastic parafoil guidance using a
           graphics processing unit
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Nathan Slegers , Andrew Brown , Jonathan Rogers
      Control of autonomous systems subject to stochastic uncertainty is a challenging task. In guided airdrop applications, random wind disturbances play a crucial role in determining landing accuracy and terrain avoidance. This paper describes a stochastic parafoil guidance system which couples uncertainty propagation with optimal control to protect against wind and parameter uncertainty in the presence of impact area obstacles. The algorithm uses real-time Monte Carlo simulation performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to evaluate robustness of candidate trajectories in terms of delivery accuracy, obstacle avoidance, and other considerations. Building upon prior theoretical developments, this paper explores performance of the stochastic guidance law compared to standard deterministic guidance schemes, particularly with respect to obstacle avoidance. Flight test results are presented comparing the proposed stochastic guidance algorithm with a standard deterministic one. Through a comprehensive set of simulation results, key implementation aspects of the stochastic algorithm are explored including tradeoffs between the number of candidate trajectories considered, algorithm runtime, and overall guidance performance. Overall, simulation and flight test results demonstrate that the stochastic guidance scheme provides a more robust approach to obstacle avoidance while largely maintaining delivery accuracy.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Mooring system diagnosis and structural reliability control for position
           moored vessels
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Shaoji Fang , Mogens Blanke , Bernt J. Leira
      Early diagnosis and fault-tolerant control are essential for safe operation of floating platforms where mooring systems maintain vessel position and must withstand environmental loads. This paper considers two critical faults, line breakage and loss of a buoyancy element and employs vector statistical change detection for timely diagnosis of faults. Diagnosis design is scrutinised and a procedure is proposed based on specified false alarm probability and estimation of the distribution of the test statistics on which change detection is based. A structural reliability index is applied for monitoring the safety level of each mooring line and a set-point chasing algorithm accommodates the effects of line failure, as an integral part of the reliability-based set-point chasing control algorithm. The feasibility of the diagnosis and of the fault-tolerant control strategy is verified in model basin tests.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • LFT modelling and identification of anaerobic digestion
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Alessandro Della Bona , Gianni Ferretti , Elena Ficara , Francesca Malpei
      In this paper, a reduced order model of anaerobic digestion is first proposed, with the main goal to develop an efficient tool for process monitoring and control. Then, in order to perform parameter estimation, the model has been rewritten in a linear fractional transformation (LFT) formulation, using a symbolic tool originally developed for linear models and modified for the processing of nonlinear models. Two different test cases have been considered. In a first case, the data used for parameter identification have been generated by simulating the well known and more complex ADM1 model, considering waste activated sludge as substrate. In a second case, experimental data were collected on a laboratory scale equipment, operated in a semi-batch experiment, performing the anaerobic digestion of ultra-filtered cheese-whey.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Controller design and experimental validation of a very low frequency
           high-voltage test system
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 37
      Author(s): W. Kemmetmüller , S. Eberharter , A. Kugi
      This paper presents the design of a quasi optimal controller for a new type of very low frequency (VLF) high-voltage test system for on-site cable tests. The test system is based on the differential resonance technology (DRT), which allows a light weight and compact construction. The high requirements regarding quality and accuracy of VLF test voltages can only be achieved with a suitable control concept. In this work, a two degrees-of-freedom control strategy comprising a feedforward and a feedback control in combination with an estimator for the unknown cable capacitance is proposed. The controller design is based on an envelope model which describes the (nonlinear) envelope dynamics of the occurring amplitude modulated signals. The feasibility of the proposed control strategy is verified by a number of measurements on a prototype system for cable tests up to 200kVrms. The measurement results show that the generated test voltage has a total harmonic distortion (THD) of less than 0.1%, which is significantly better than the requirements of sinusoidal VLF test voltages. Moreover, the control strategy has the ability to cover a wide range of cable capacitances, desired amplitudes of the output voltage and desired test frequencies.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Computation of transfer function data from frequency response data with
           application to data-based root-locus
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 37
      Author(s): R. Hoogendijk , M.J.G. van de Molengraft , A.J. den Hamer , G.Z. Angelis , M. Steinbuch
      This paper describes the computation and use of transfer function data (TFD) computed from frequency response data of a system. TFD can be regarded as a sampled, data-based representation of the transfer function. TFD can be computed from frequency response data for stable, lightly damped systems using a Cauchy integral. Computational accuracy and complexity are extensively discussed. As a use-case of TFD it is shown that a root-locus can be computed in a data-based way, using only frequency response data of a system. Experiments on a benchmark motion system demonstrate the use of TFD in minimizing the settling time.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Precise piston trajectory control for a free piston engine
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): Ke Li , Chen Zhang , Zongxuan Sun
      A free piston engine removes the mechanical constraint on the piston motion by eliminating the crankshaft. The extra degree of freedom offers many advantages for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Nevertheless, stability and robustness of the engine operation has been affected in the meantime. To ensure smooth engine operation, an active motion controller, which utilizes robust repetitive control, was developed previously to regulate the piston motion of a hydraulic free piston engine to track pre-defined trajectories. However, the long piston stroke length, high operating frequency and system nonlinearity impose challenges to precise piston motion control. Therefore, feedforward controllers are investigated in this paper to complement the repetitive control to further improve the tracking performance. The first feedforward design involves the inversion of a linear plant model that describes the dynamics of the engine operation, and the second design is based on the flatness approach, which involves the inversion of a nonlinear model of the system. The two feedforward controllers are designed and implemented on the free piston engine. The experimental and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control under various operating conditions and reference piston trajectories.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Model predictive control of voltage profiles in MV networks with
           distributed generation
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): M. Farina , A. Guagliardi , F. Mariani , C. Sandroni , R. Scattolini
      The presence of distributed generators in Medium Voltage (MV) networks can produce local voltage increase, with inversion of power flows, and emergence of dangerous inverse currents. For this reason, the control of the voltage profile is becoming of paramount importance. However, the design of a dynamic controller is problematic due to the multivariable and large scale nature of the problem, and to the difficulty to derive a reliable model of the system. In this paper, we first identify a MIMO impulse response model of the system, through a suitable identification phase, where a detailed industrial reference simulator of the network is used. Then we propose and design an MPC-based algorithm for control of the network, used at the intermediate level of a three-layer hierarchical structure. At the upper level a static Optimal Power Flow (OPF) computes the required voltage profiles to be transmitted to the MPC level, while at the lower level local Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR), one for each Distributed Generator (DG), track the reactive power reference values computed by MPC. The proposed method allows to cope with constraints on the voltage profiles and/or on the reactive power flows along the network. If these constraints cannot be satisfied by acting on the available DGs, the algorithm acts on the On-Load Tap Changing (OLTC) transformer. A radial rural network with two feeders, eight DGs, and thirty-one loads is used as case study. The model of the network is implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory®, while the control algorithm runs in MATLAB®. A number of simulation results is reported to witness the main characteristics and limitations of the proposed approach.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Iterative motion feedforward tuning: A data-driven approach based on
           instrumental variable identification
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 37
      Author(s): Frank Boeren , Tom Oomen , Maarten Steinbuch
      Feedforward control can significantly enhance the performance of motion systems through compensation of known disturbances. This paper aims to develop a new procedure to tune a feedforward controller based on measured data obtained in finite time tasks. Hereto, a suitable feedforward parametrization is introduced that provides good extrapolation properties for a class of reference signals. Next, connections with closed-loop system identification are established. In particular, instrumental variables, which have been proven very useful in closed-loop system identification, are selected to tune the feedforward controller. These instrumental variables closely resemble traditional engineering tuning practice. In contrast to pre-existing approaches, the feedforward controller can be updated after each task, irrespective of noise acting on the system. Experimental results confirm the practical relevance of the proposed method.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • OBC - Autogenerate contents and barcode
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35




      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board / Funding body / agreements policies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34




      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Lateral control of autonomous vehicles based on fuzzy logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 34
      Author(s): Xinyu Wang , Mengyin Fu , Hongbin Ma , Yi Yang
      Autonomous vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the research community and industry. This paper addresses a problem in designing lateral control law and develops a strategy to determine the given speed of autonomous vehicles. An improved method for calculating the lateral offset and heading angle error is proposed to reduce the impact of reference path data noise. Multiple fuzzy inference engines are used to design the steering controller and determine the given driving speed, including the forward and backward directions. The stability condition is given to guide the design of fuzzy inference engines. Satisfactory simulation and experimental results have been obtained from different reference paths.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Standalone DC microgrids as complementarity dynamical systems: Modeling
           and applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): Arash M. Dizqah , Alireza Maheri , Krishna Busawon , Peter Fritzson
      It is well known that, due to bimodal operation as well as existent discontinuous differential states of batteries, standalone microgrids belong to the class of hybrid dynamical systems of non-Filippov type. In this work, however, standalone microgrids are presented as complementarity systems (CSs) of the Filippov type which is then used to develop a multivariable nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC)-based load tracking strategy as well as Modelica models for long-term simulation purposes. The developed load tracker strategy is a multi-source maximum power point tracker (MPPT) that also regulates the DC bus voltage at its nominal value with the maximum of ±2.0% error despite substantial demand and supply variations.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Study of limit cycle in antagonistically coupled magneto-rheological
           actuators
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): Peyman Yadmellat , Mehrdad R. Kermani
      In this paper, the presence of limit cycles in the behaviour of antagonistically coupled magneto-rheological (MR) actuators is investigated. The actuator considered in this paper offers high torque-to-mass and torque-to-inertia ratios, for inherent safe actuation. While the antagonistic arrangement is beneficial in improving the actuator performance and eliminating backlash, it may result in limit cycles when the actuator operates in a position control loop. The occurrence of a limit cycle depends on the parameters of the actuator as well as the controller. An in-depth analysis is carried out in this paper to establish a connection between the system parameters and the limit cycle occurrence. Moreover, sufficient conditions for avoiding limit cycles are derived specifically for a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. Simulations and experimental results validate the analysis and provide insights into conditions under which limit cycles are observed in the operation of antagonistic MR actuators.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Multivariable maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic
           micro-converters using extremum seeking
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): Azad Ghaffari , Sridhar Seshagiri , Miroslav Krstić
      It is well-known that distributed architectures such as micro-converters and micro-inverters for photovoltaic (PV) systems can recover between 10% and 30% of annual performance loss or more that is caused by partial shading and/or module mismatch. In this work, we present a novel multivariable gradient-based extremum-seeking (ES) design to extract maximum power from an arbitrary micro-converter configuration of PV modules, that includes cascade and parallel connections. Conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) schemes for micro-converters (where each PV module is coupled to its own DC/DC converter) employ a distributed control, with one peak seeking scheme per each PV module, thereby requiring one control loop and two sensors per module (one each for current and voltage). By contrast, the scheme that we present employs a single control loop with just two sensors, one for the overall array output current and the other one for the DC bus voltage. This multivariable design provides more flexibility in tuning the parameters of the controller, and also takes into account interactions between PV modules. The computational effort of our design is not higher than that of the conventional scheme, and simulation and experimental results show that our proposed design outperforms the conventional one. Thus, our proposed design offers two benefits: (i) the balance-of-system (BOS) cost reduction as a result of the lower number of sensors, and (ii) improved performance, both contributing towards reduced average cost/watt, and enhancing the economic viability of solar.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Robust constrained stabilization of boost DC–DC converters through
           bifurcation analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): C. Yfoulis , D. Giaouris , F. Stergiopoulos , C. Ziogou , S. Voutetakis , S. Papadopoulou
      This paper proposes a new methodology for designing robust affine state-feedback control laws, so that wide-range safe and efficient operation of switched-mode DC–DC boost converters is guaranteed. Several undesirable nonlinear phenomena such as unstable attractors and subharmonic oscillations are avoided through bifurcation analysis based on the bilinear averaged model of the converter. The control design procedure also relies on constrained stabilization principles and the generation of safety domains using piecewise linear Lyapunov functions, so that robustness to supply voltage and output load variations is ensured, while input saturation is avoided and additional state constraints are also respected. The technique has been numerically and experimentally validated.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Modeling and speed control design of an ethanol engine for variable speed
           gensets
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): Jonas Roberto Tibola , Thompson Diórdinis Metzka Lanzanova , Mario Eduardo Santos Martins , Hilton Abílio Gründling , Humberto Pinheiro
      This paper presents the development of a discrete dynamic mean value engine model (MVEM) suitable for the design of speed controllers of ethanol fueled internal combustion engines (ICE), to be used in variable speed gensets. Two MVEMs are developed for the ICE: the Time Based model and the Crank Based model. The speed controller design is held through the discretization and linearization of the Crank Based MVEM. This model is used due to the advantages over the time based MVEM especially with respect to the transport delay which becomes constant. Two approaches for the ICE speed control are investigated: (i) a single loop gain-scheduled proportional integral (PI) controller and (ii) a dual loop control based on an internal gain-scheduled Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) feedback loop and an outer loop composed of a gain-scheduled PI controller. The control design is developed in the frequency domain and its stability is ensured by the phase and gain margins. In addition, an integral anti-windup and a feed forward action are also proposed to improve the behavior during control law saturation, improve transient responses and disturbance rejection capability. Experimental results on a 50kW generator set are provided to validate the controllers and to demonstrate the performance of the system.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Non-diagonal H∞ weighting function design: Exploiting
           spatio-temporal deformations in precision motion control
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): Frank Boeren , Robbert van Herpen , Tom Oomen , Marc van de Wal , Maarten Steinbuch
      Model-based control design requires a careful specification of performance and robustness requirements. In typical norm-based control designs, performance and robustness requirements are specified in a scalar optimization criterion, even for complex multivariable systems. This paper aims to develop a novel approach for the formulation of this optimization criterion for multivariable motion systems that exhibit spatio-temporal deformations. To achieve this, characteristics of the underlying system are exploited to design multivariable weighting functions. In contrast to pre-existing approaches, which typically lead to diagonal weighting functions, the proposed approach enables the design of non-diagonal weighting functions. Extensive experimental results confirm that the proposed procedure can significantly improve the performance of an industrial motion system compared to earlier approaches.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Long baseline navigation with clock offset estimation and discrete-time
           measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): Pedro Batista
      This paper proposes a novel one-way-travel-time long baseline filtering system that includes the estimation of the clocks’ offset, which is assumed constant. Considering discrete-time pseudo-range measurements, in addition to the data provided by a Doppler velocity log and an attitude and heading reference system, an augmented system is derived that can be regarded as linear for observability and observer design purposes. Its observability is discussed and a Kalman filter provides the estimation solution, with globally exponentially stable (GES) error dynamics. Simulation results are presented to evaluate the proposed solution, which is also compared with the EKF, including Monte Carlo runs.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Experimental evaluation of two complementary decentralized event-based
           control methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): M. Sigurani , C. Stöcker , L. Grüne , J. Lunze
      Event-based control aims at reducing the feedback communication effort among the sensors, controllers and actuators in control loops to time instants at which the feedback of information is necessary to meet a desired control performance. This paper presents a new method for the decentralized event-based control of physically interconnected systems and shows its experimental evaluation. The novel method is based on two complementary approaches, called the global and the local approach, which jointly ensure the ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system. The global approach steers the state of each subsystem into a target region, whereas the local approach keeps the state in this set in spite of exogenous disturbances and the effect of the interconnections to other subsystems. This event-based control method is applied to a continuous flow process to show its practical implementation and to evaluate the analytical results on the basis of experiments.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Estimating the frequency response of a system in the presence of an
           integrator
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): W.D. Widanage , N. Omar , J. Schoukens , J. Van Mierlo
      A system with an integrator is one which does not have a steady-state gain at zero frequency. An example is a battery; when subjected to a constant charge or discharge current the voltage will continuously increase or decrease until the cell reaches its maximum/minimum cut-off voltage and not reach a steady-state value. Frequency response estimation techniques that minimises leakage errors lead to significant errors at low frequencies of the response. This paper develops and presents a technique whereby the low frequency errors are eliminated. The technique is applied over the frequencies of interest, except DC frequency, and gives better results over windowing and a local polynomial frequency response estimation method. As such, an accurate low frequency response and noise power spectrum can now be obtained which in turn can be used for estimating accurate parametric models.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Rapid, robust, distributed evaluation and control of train scheduling on a
           single line track
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35
      Author(s): Chiara Bersani , Siqi Qiu , Roberto Sacile , Mohamed Sallak , Walter Schön
      The technology for controlling the distance between two trains is shifting from traditional fixed red, yellow and green signals on the infrastructure track circuits towards more and more dynamic systems, which are based on moving blocks, where the distance is computed according to real-time positioning, and the control of the distance is computed on-line. This is the case, for example, in the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), which proposes three different levels, from 1 to 3. This paper addresses the time-honoured problem of scheduling trains on a single track, in the light of recent results in robust team decision theory. The control model can be used in two modes: as a decision support tool for train dispatchers to evaluate the distance between trains in the current schedule, and as a planning tool to evaluate the effects of timetable changes. The main contribution of the paper is the application of a recent result in robust team decision theory to control noncritical train distances in moving blocks, such as in ERTMS Level 3. The case study is related to real data from an ERTMS simulation and controller software tool.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board / Funding body / agreements policies
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 35




      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Nonlinear model predictive energy management controller with load and
           cycle prediction for non-road HEV
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Johannes Unger , Martin Kozek , Stefan Jakubek
      The energy management system (EMS) in hybrid electric vehicles is used to control the battery׳s state of charge, while the efficiency of the powertrain is subject to maximization. Due to the nonlinearities of hybrid powertrains, achieving an optimal control performance amounts to a nonlinear optimization problem to be solved in the EMS in real time. Finding an optimal solution is challenging, since controller complexity and real time capability are in general conflicting objectives. In this paper, a real time capable model predictive control concept is proposed that considers nonlinearities of the electrical system and complies with the constraints of the system. Additionally, novel data based methodologies to predict the future load demand are introduced. A short term load prediction based on Bayesian inference and a cycle detection based on correlation analysis are proposed to improve the controller performance as well as to take advantage of the full capabilities of the electrical system. A stability analysis and the implementation of the EMS on a real testbed show the feasibility of the concept. Fuel consumption and raw exhaust emissions are significantly reduced by the proposed concept, while phlegmatisation and downspeeding strategies are considered without limiting the performance of the powertrain.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Observer-based backstepping control of a 6-dof parallel hydraulic
           manipulator
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Sung-Hua Chen , Li-Chen Fu
      In this paper, a backstepping control strategy is proposed to control the 6-dof parallel hydraulic manipulator (Stewart platform) while incorporating an observer-based forward kinematics solver. Different from conventional control methods, the proposed control considers not only the platform dynamics but also the dynamics of the hydraulic actuator. One feature of this work is employing the observer-based forward kinematics solution to achieve the posture tracking goal successfully only with the measurement of actuators lengths. When designing the controller of hydraulic actuators, the friction compensation is applied to improve the performance. The stability of the whole system is thoroughly proved to ensure convergence of the control errors. Simulations and experimental results are presented to validate the hereby proposed results.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Stable recursive canonical variate state space modeling for time-varying
           processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Liangliang Shang , Jianchang Liu , Kamuran Turksoy , Quan Min Shao , Ali Cinar
      An adaptive recursive process modeling approach is developed to improve the accuracy of modeling time-varying processes. We adopt the exponential weighted moving average approach to update the covariance and cross-covariance of past and future observation vectors. Forgetting factors are adjusted in the recursive modeling process based on the residual of model outputs. To ensure the stability of the identified model, we introduce a constrained nonlinear optimization approach and propose a stable recursive canonical variate state space modeling (SRCVSS) method. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated with an open-loop numerical example and simulation with the closed-loop data from a continuous stirred tank heater (CSTH) system. The results indicate that the accuracy of proposed SRCVSS modeling method is higher than that of state space modeling with traditional canonical variate analysis.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Robust distributed attitude synchronization of multiple three-DOF
           experimental helicopters
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Bo Zhu , Hugh Hong-Tao Liu , Zhan Li
      Multiple experimental three-degrees-of-freedom (three-DOF) helicopters that are equipped with active disturbance systems constitute an attractive platform to validate robust control strategies. In this paper, a distributed synchronization controller is developed for such a platform, where each helicopter is subjected to unknown model uncertainties and external disturbances, and the desired trajectories are generated online, communicated through a network and not accessible by all helicopters. The controller is composed of a continuous tracker and a continuous uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE). The tracker makes the nominal closed-loop system globally asymptotically stable, and the UDE output is used to reject total uncertainties. The conditions that ensure zero-error tracking for each helicopter are identified; for the case with nonzero error, explicit relationship inequalities between the involved design parameters and the ultimate bound of error are revealed. Experimental results of four cases demonstrate improved tracking and synchronization accuracy of using the UDE with small parameters.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Supervisory controller for reduction of wind turbine loads in curtailed
           operation
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Vedrana Spudić , Mate Jelavić , Mato Baotić
      There are situations in which wind turbines must curtail their power, i.e. produce less power than is available from the wind. In such cases the wind turbine power can be increased or decreased if required. This gives an opportunity to strike a balance between varying power production and reducing wind turbine structural loading. To that end, a supervisory controller is designed that issues power references to the wind turbine and can be easily installed on already operational wind turbines. The wind turbine with a supervisory controller produces the required mean power, while reducing wind turbine loads by adding power variations. The extensive, realistic simulations are done to evaluate the influence of the proposed controller on the fatigue loads, extreme loads and the overall wind turbine operation. The results indicate that a significant reduction of fatigue loads can be achieved, which can increase the operating life of the structure. Furthermore, the proposed supervisory controller can be utilized as the main building block of a wind farm controller, which meets the grid code requirements and can be easily installed on very large wind farms due to minimal requirements on the farm-wide communication.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Control strategy of a dual induction motor: Anti-slip control application
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Tahar Achour , Mustapha Debbou , Maria Pietrzak-David
      The paper deals with a Dual Induction Motor control. A control strategy based on the Average Differential Control (ADC) is developed and adapted to work as an anti-slip control in a railway traction system. In addition to cancel the behaviour deviation between the motors supplied by a single inverter in case of an adhesion loss (or an unbalanced load), the proposed control strategy permits an action on the torque control to cancel the differential torque between the two motors. The control strategy is validated on a laboratory test bench with a Mechanical Railway Traction Load Emulator.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
  • Double-model adaptive fault detection and diagnosis applied to real flight
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 36
      Author(s): Peng Lu , Laurens Van Eykeren , Erik-Jan van Kampen , Coen de Visser , Qiping Chu
      The existing multiple model-based estimation algorithms for Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) require the design of a model set, which contains a number of models matching different fault scenarios. To cope with partial faults or simultaneous faults, the model set can be even larger. A large model set makes the computational load intensive and can lead to performance deterioration of the algorithms. In this paper, a novel Double-Model Adaptive Estimation (DMAE) approach for output FDD is proposed, which reduces the number of models to only two, even for the FDD of partial and simultaneous output faults. Two Selective-Reinitialization (SR) algorithms are proposed which can both guarantee the FDD performance of the DMAE. The performance is tested using a simulated aircraft model with the objective of Air Data Sensors (ADS) FDD. Another contribution is that the ADS FDD using real flight data is addressed. Issues related to the FDD using real flight test data are identified. The proposed approaches are validated using real flight data of the Cessna Citation II aircraft, which verified their effectiveness in practice.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:18:30Z
       
 
 
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