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Journal Cover Control Engineering Practice
  [SJR: 1.245]   [H-I: 67]   [40 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0967-0661
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Virtual shaft: Synchronized motion control for real time testing of
           automotive powertrains
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): J. Andert, S. Klein, R. Savelsberg, S. Pischinger, K. Hameyer
      The complexity of automobile powertrains continues to rise, leading to increased development time and effort. Synchronous testing with spatially distributed test benches allows improvements by front-loading of the validation phase. Nevertheless, virtualization of the mechanical interaction of shaft connections is required. A virtual shaft algorithm (VSA) is investigated for synchronized motion control in separate test benches. The behavior of a rigid mechanical shaft is analyzed and modeled. The mechanical shaft is substituted by two electrical motors and a superimposed VSA controller. This virtual shaft is established between two test benches for a combustion engine and a mechanical transmission. Control algorithms for synchronized motion control, known from web machines and force feedback, are analyzed. A controller layout with separate torque and speed controllers is implemented and analyzed through transfer function mathematics. The controllers are parametrized analytically for different gears. The effect of communication delay on the VSA is analyzed by simulation. The open clutch situation is handled by deactivation of the torque feedback. Validation on real test benches shows small deviations for torque and speed. Further work will focus on the necessity of system knowledge for controller layout and on the transient behavior during shifting.


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T08:07:39Z
       
  • Active disturbance rejection control for voltage stabilization in
           open-cathode fuel cells through temperature regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Nima Lotfi, Hesam Zomorodi, Robert G. Landers
      Temperature regulation is an important control challenge in open-cathode fuel cell systems. In this paper, a feedback controller, combined with a novel output-injection observer, is designed and implemented for fuel cell stack temperature control. The first functionality of the observer is to smooth the noisy temperature measurements. To this end, the observer gain is calculated based on Kalman filter theory which, in turn, results in a robust temperature estimation despite temperature model uncertainties and measurement noise. Furthermore, the observer is capable of estimating the output voltage model uncertainties. It is shown that temperature control not only ensures the fuel cell temperature reference is properly tracked, but, along with the uncertainty estimator, can also be used to stabilize the output voltage. Voltage regulation is of great importance for open-cathode fuel cells, which typically suffer from gradual voltage decay over time due to their dead-end anode operation. Moreover, voltage control ensures predictable and fixed fuel cell output voltages for given current values, even in the presence of disturbances. The observer stability is proved using Lyapunov theory, and the observer's effectiveness in combination with the controller is validated experimentally. The results show promising controller performances in regulating fuel cell temperature and voltage in the presence of model uncertainties and disturbances.


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T08:07:39Z
       
  • Feedforward based transient control in solid oxide fuel cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Omid Madani, Tuhin Das
      In SOFCs, transient control of fuel utilization is achievable via input-shaping. In this paper, the approach is generalized to a feedforward control problem for second-order LTI systems with two inputs and one output. One is a measurable, time-varying, exogenous input and the other is a control input. The problem studied is exact tracking of a constant reference using the plant's DC gain vector. The problem considers plant models that can be divided into known and unknown parts, and where feedback is unavailable. Although SOFCs have nonlinear dynamics, the linear abstraction nevertheless helps predict the observed effectiveness of input-shaping.


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T08:07:39Z
       
  • Efficient nonparametric identification for high-precision motion systems:
           A practical comparison based on a medical X-ray system
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Rick van der Maas, Annemiek van der Maas, Johan Dries, Bram de Jager
      The need for accurate knowledge of complex dynamical behavior for high-performance mechatronic systems led to the development of a vast amount of nonparametric system identification approaches over the recent years. The aim of this paper is to compare several proposed methods based on experiments on a physical complex mechanical system to bridge the gap between identification theory and practical applications in industry where basic identification approaches are often the norm. Typical practical implications such as operation under closed-loop control, multivariable coupled behavior and nonlinear effects are included in the analysis. Finally, a possible approach for fast and reliable identification is illustrated based on measurement results of an interventional medical X-ray system.


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T08:07:39Z
       
  • Application of model-based LPV actuator fault estimation for an industrial
           benchmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Lejun Chen, Ron Patton, Philippe Goupil
      To bridge the gap between model-based fault diagnosis theory and industrial practice, a linear parameter varying H − / H ∞ fault estimation approach is applied to a high fidelity nonlinear aircraft benchmark. The aim is to show how the fault estimation can provide robust early warning of actuator fault detection scenarios that can lead to abnormal aircraft flight configurations. The fault estimator state space solution is parameterised a priori using parameter-independent design freedom. Following this only constant free matrices are determined and the resulting affine linear parameter varying estimator has low computational load. The evaluation uses parametric simulation via an industry standard Monte Carlo campaign supported by a functional engineering simulator. The simulations are carried out in the presence of aerodynamic database uncertainties and measurement errors covering a wide range of the flight envelope.


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T08:07:39Z
       
  • Contents list continued
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55




      PubDate: 2016-08-20T08:03:12Z
       
  • Contents list
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55




      PubDate: 2016-08-20T08:03:12Z
       
  • Attenuating diagonal decoupling with robustness for velocity-varying 4WS
           vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Mingxing Li, Yingmin Jia, Fumitoshi Matsuno
      A control strategy with four controllers is presented to overcome the dilemma of enhancing the robustness or decoupling for four-wheel-steering (4WS) vehicles with uncertainties and disturbances. Influences of steering system, uncertainties and disturbances on the traction system are attenuated by the first controller such that traction and steering systems are controlled separately. Robustness of the steering system is ensured by the second controller. Attenuating diagonal decoupling (ADD) is established by the remaining two controllers: coupling caused by uncertainties is rejected and diagonal decoupling is obtained. Simulations show that decoupling with better robustness is obtained.


      PubDate: 2016-08-20T08:03:12Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55




      PubDate: 2016-08-20T08:03:12Z
       
  • Model-based real-time thermal fault diagnosis of Lithium-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Satadru Dey, Zoleikha Abdollahi Biron, Sagar Tatipamula, Nabarun Das, Sara Mohon, Beshah Ayalew, Pierluigi Pisu
      Ensuring safety and reliability is a critical objective of advanced Battery Management Systems (BMSs) for Li-ion batteries. In order to achieve this objective, advanced BMS must implement diagnostic algorithms that are capable of diagnosing several battery faults. One set of such critical faults in Li-ion batteries are thermal faults which can be potentially catastrophic. In this paper, a diagnostic algorithm is presented that diagnoses thermal faults in Lithium-ion batteries. The algorithm is based on a two-state thermal model describing the dynamics of the surface and the core temperature of a battery cell. The residual signals for fault detection are generated by nonlinear observers with measured surface temperature and a reconstructed core temperature feedback. Furthermore, an adaptive threshold generator is designed to suppress the effect of modelling uncertainties. The residuals are then compared with these adaptive thresholds to evaluate the occurrence of faults. Simulation and experimental studies are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.


      PubDate: 2016-08-16T07:55:17Z
       
  • Energy shaping control of an inverted flexible pendulum fixed to a cart
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Prasanna S. Gandhi, Pablo Borja, Romeo Ortega
      Control of compliant mechanical systems is increasingly being researched for several applications including flexible link robots and ultra-precision positioning systems. The control problem in these systems is challenging, especially with gravity coupling and large deformations, because of inherent underactuation and the combination of lumped and distributed parameters of a nonlinear system. In this paper we consider an ultra-flexible inverted pendulum on a cart and propose a new nonlinear energy shaping controller to keep the pendulum at the upward position with the cart stopped at a desired location. The design is based on a model, obtained via the constrained Lagrange formulation, which previously has been validated experimentally. The controller design consists of a partial feedback linearization step followed by a standard PID controller acting on two passive outputs. Boundedness of all signals and (local) asymptotic stability of the desired equilibrium is theoretically established. Simulations and experimental evidence assess the performance of the proposed controller.


      PubDate: 2016-08-12T07:46:45Z
       
  • Design and real-time implementation of perturbation observer based
           sliding-mode control for VSC-HVDC systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): B. Yang, Y.Y. Sang, K. Shi, Wei Yao, L. Jiang, T. Yu
      This paper develops a perturbation observer based sliding-mode control (POSMC) scheme for voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) systems. The combinatorial effect of nonlinearities, parameter uncertainties, unmodelled dynamics and time-varying external disturbances is aggregated into a perturbation, which is estimated online by a sliding-mode state and perturbation observer. POSMC does not require an accurate system model and only one state measurement is needed. Moreover, a significant robustness can be provided through the real-time compensation of the perturbation. Four case studies are carried out on the VSC-HVDC system, such as active and reactive power tracking, AC bus fault, system parameter uncertainties, and weak AC grid connection. Simulation results verify its advantages over vector control and feedback linearization sliding-mode control. Then a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test is undertaken to validate the implementation feasibility of the proposed approach.


      PubDate: 2016-08-12T07:46:45Z
       
  • Analytical results for the multi-objective design of model-predictive
           control
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 56
      Author(s): Vincent Bachtiar, Chris Manzie, William H. Moase, Eric C. Kerrigan
      In model-predictive control (MPC), achieving the best closed-loop performance under a given computational capacity is the underlying design consideration. This paper analyzes the MPC tuning problem with control performance and required computational capacity as competing design objectives. The proposed multi-objective design of MPC (MOD-MPC) approach extends current methods that treat control performance and the computational capacity separately – often with the latter as a fixed constraint – which requires the implementation hardware to be known a priori. The proposed approach focuses on the tuning of structural MPC parameters, namely sampling time and prediction horizon length, to produce a set of optimal choices available to the practitioner. The posed design problem is then analyzed to reveal key properties, including smoothness of the design objectives and parameter bounds, and establish certain validated guarantees. Founded on these properties, necessary and sufficient conditions for an effective and efficient optimizer are presented, leading to a specialized multi-objective optimizer for the MOD-MPC being proposed. Finally, two real-world control problems are used to illustrate the results of the tuning approach and importance of the developed conditions for an effective optimizer of the MOD-MPC problem.


      PubDate: 2016-08-12T07:46:45Z
       
  • Controllability of rectifiers and three point hysteresis line current
           control
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Omar F. Ruiz, Angelica Mendoza-Torres, Irwin A. Diaz-Diaz, Ilse Cervantes, Nancy Visairo, Ciro Nunez, Ernesto Barcenas
      This paper analyzes the stability and switching controllability properties of a single-phase PWM rectifier and its relationship with parameter uncertainty. Based on this analysis, a switching control strategy is proposed that has as objectives (i) to achieve input current tracking and low current THD (total harmonic distortion) as well as (ii) to regulate the output voltage in spite of perturbations. The proposed control does not require a PWM generation step design. Numerical simulations and experimental tests in a 1kW prototype demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller and illustrate the limits of system's controllability.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights fx1

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T07:40:03Z
       
  • Reliable fault-tolerant model predictive control of drinking water
           transport networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Deneb Robles, Vicenç Puig, Carlos Ocampo-Martinez, Luis E. Garza-Castañón
      This paper proposes a reliable fault-tolerant model predictive control applied to drinking water transport networks. After a fault has occurred, the predictive controller should be redesigned to cope with the fault effect. Before starting to apply the fault-tolerant control strategy, it should be evaluated whether the predictive controller will be able to continue operating after the fault appearance. This is done by means of a structural analysis to determine loss of controllability after the fault complemented with feasibility analysis of the optimization problem related to the predictive controller design, so as to consider the fault effect in actuator constraints. Moreover, by evaluating the admissibility of the different actuator-fault configurations, critical actuators regarding fault tolerance can be identified considering structural, feasibility, performance and reliability analyses. On the other hand, the proposed approach allows a degradation analysis of the system to be performed. As a result of these analyses, the predictive controller design can be modified by adapting constraints such that the best achievable performance with some pre-established level of reliability will be achieved. The proposed approach is tested on the Barcelona drinking water transport network.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T07:01:46Z
       
  • Avoiding local minima in the potential field method using input-to-state
           stability
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): M. Guerra, D. Efimov, G. Zheng, W. Perruquetti
      Supported by a novel field definition and recent control theory results, a new method to avoid local minima is proposed. It is formally shown that the system has an attracting equilibrium at the target point, repelling equilibriums in the obstacle centers and saddle points on the borders. Those unstable equilibriums are avoided capitalizing on the established Input-to-State Stability (ISS) property of this multistable system. The proposed modification of the PF method is shown to be effective by simulation for a two variable integrator and then applied to a unicycle-like wheeled mobile robots which is subject to additive input disturbances.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T08:14:03Z
       
  • Alarm management practices in natural gas processing plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Vinícius Barroso Soares, José Carlos Pinto, Maurício Bezerra de Souza
      In industrial data sets, groups of variables often move together. Monitoring all these variables may result in many nuisance alarms. However, it is possible to take advantage of redundant information to design and reduce the size of alarm sets. The present work reports the application of an alarm management protocol based on alarm priorization to three large Natural Gas Processing Plants, during a three year period, and also investigates the use of different correlation analyses techniques as tools to assist in the further reduction of the number of alarms. The results show that the adopted practices enable the reduction of alarms.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T08:14:03Z
       
  • FPGA-based optimal robust minimal-order controller structure of a DC–DC
           converter with Pareto front solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Uroš Sadek, Andrej Sarjaš, Amor Chowdhury, Rajko Svečko
      This paper presents multi-objective optimization-based robust controller design of a DC–DC boost converter, controlled with FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The main aim of the proposed design technique is to obtain a fixed and low-order robust controller which is reliable and easy to implement on a low-cost real-time digital system. The improved proposed control design method with direct closed-loop pole position assessment using metric L 2 , is based on robust optimal regional closed-loop pole assignment technique. The optimal solution has been obtained using multi-objective Pareto front search genetic algorithm. This paper also presents simulated and practical experimental results with implemented optimized robust controller on FPGA, controlling the DC–DC boost converter. For the sake of comparison with the proposed controller design method, an additional auto-tuned PID controller has been designed along with robust controllers based on mixed sensitivity loop-shaping method.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T08:14:03Z
       
  • Leak localization in water distribution networks using a mixed
           model-based/data-driven approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Adrià Soldevila, Joaquim Blesa, Sebastian Tornil-Sin, Eric Duviella, Rosa M. Fernandez-Canti, Vicenç Puig
      This paper proposes a new method for leak localization in water distribution networks (WDNs). In a first stage, residuals are obtained by comparing pressure measurements with the estimations provided by a WDN model. In a second stage, a classifier is applied to the residuals with the aim of determining the leak location. The classifier is trained with data generated by simulation of the WDN under different leak scenarios and uncertainty conditions. The proposed method is tested both by using synthetic and experimental data with real WDNs of different sizes. The comparison with the current existing approaches shows a performance improvement.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T08:14:03Z
       
  • Reducing impact of network induced perturbations in remote control systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Michał Morawski, Przemysław Ignaciuk
      The practical realization of remote control systems enforces handling network-induced effects: information transfer and processing delay, delay variability, packet loss and reordering, etc. The paper presents a comparative study of algorithmic methods that assist the control law in achieving higher regulation quality by reducing the detrimental impact of network-related uncertainties. Three popular families of methods, encompassing dynamic delay compensators, multiple control loops, and adjustable sampling rate, are investigated in a common experimental framework that involves a benchmark plant – structurally unstable inverted pendulum-on-a-cart system – and commonly available modules and communication technologies. The method performance in relation to computational footprint and network load is discussed. For the delay with well-established trend of variation the dynamic compensator proves the most efficient option, while more sophisticated methods, involving the exchange of multiple pieces of information, are required under burst packet loss and in stochastic settings with aggravated randomness.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:06:40Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54




      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:06:40Z
       
  • Adaptive feedback linearizing control of linear induction motor
           considering the end-effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Francesco Alonge, Maurizio Cirrincione, Filippo D'Ippolito, Marcello Pucci, Antonino Sferlazza
      This paper proposes an input–output feedback linearization techniques for linear induction motors, taking into consideration the dynamic end-effects. As a main original content, this work proposes a new control law based on the on-line estimation of the induced-part time constant. The estimation law is obtained thanks to a Lyapunov based analysis and thus the stability of the entire control system, including the estimation algorithm, is intrinsically guaranteed. Moreover, with such an approach even the on-line variation of the induced-part time constant with the speed is retrieved, thus improving the behavior of previously developed approaches where such a variation vs. speed is considered a priori known. The proposed control technique, integrating the on-line induced-part time constant estimation, is tested by means of simulations and experiments carried out on a suitably developed test set-up.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:06:40Z
       
  • Online oscillation detection in the presence of signal intermittency
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Lei Xie, Xun Lang, Alexander Horch, Yuxi Yang
      A novel online detector for multiple oscillations in process industry is proposed. This article is motivated by the fact that it is still an open problem to design a real-time monitor which is suitable for detecting multiple oscillations with signal intermittency and non-linear/non-stationary properties. The proposed approach of Intrinsic Time-scale Decomposition (ITD) with Robust Zero crossing intervals Clustering (ITD-RZC) (i) provides an experimental statistic to remove noisy zero-crossings intervals (ZCIs), (ii) develops a novel adaptive robust K-means ZCI clustering which enables the reconstructed Proper Rotation Component (PRC) to encapsulate the sporadic oscillation and (iii) proposes an effective online-cluster-updating mechanism for real-time intermittent oscillations detection. ITD-RZC approach is computationally efficient and capable of preserving nonlinear features of the process variables which facilitates subsequent oscillation diagnosis. Simulation examples and industrial cases study are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed online oscillation detector.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:06:40Z
       
  • Estimation of insulin sensitivity in diabetic Göttingen Minipigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Berno J.E. Misgeld, Philipp G. Tenbrock, Katrin Lunze, Johannes W. Dietrich, Steffen Leonhardt
      In patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, insulin sensitivity is a parameter which strongly affects insulin therapy. Due to its time-dependent variation, this parameter can improve the strategy for automatic closed-loop blood glucose control. The aim of this work is to estimate the insulin sensitivity of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus based on measured blood glucose concentrations. For this, an Extended Kalman Filter is used, based on a simplified version of the well-known Sorensen model. The compartment model of Sorensen was adapted to the glucose metabolic behaviour in diabetic Göttingen Minipigs by means of experimental data and reduced by neglecting unobservable state variables. Here, the Extended Kalman Filter is designed for simultaneous state and parameter estimation of insulin sensitivity using the insulin infusion rate and the meal size as input signals, and measurements of blood glucose concentration as output signal. The performance of the Extended Kalman Filter was tested in in silico studies using the minipig model, and is analysed by comparing the output signal of the filter with measurement data from the animal trials.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:06:40Z
       
  • A fault-tolerant approach to the control of a battery assembly system
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Paweł Majdzik, Anna Akielaszek-Witczak, Lothar Seybold, Ralf Stetter, Beata Mrugalska
      The paper concerns fault-tolerant control of a real battery assembly system which is under a pilot implementation at RAFI GmbH Company (one of the leading electronic manufacturing service providers in Germany). The proposed framework is based on an interval analysis approach, which along with max-plus algebra, allows describing uncertain discrete event system such as the production one being considered in this paper. Having a mathematical system description, a model predictive control-based fault tolerant strategy is developed which can cope with both processing, transportation and mobile robot faults. In particular, it enables tolerating (up to some degree) the influence of these faults on the overall system performance. As a result, a novel robust predictive fault-tolerant strategy is developed that is applied to the advanced battery assembly system. The final part of the paper shows the implementation and experimental validation of the proposed strategy. The proposed approach is tested against single as well as simultaneous faults concerning processing, transportation and mobile robots.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:06:40Z
       
  • Robust data reconciliation of combustion variables in multi-fuel fired
           industrial boilers
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Timo Korpela, Olli Suominen, Yrjö Majanne, Ville Laukkanen, Pentti Lautala
      This paper introduces an application of simultaneous nonlinear data reconciliation and gross error detection for power plants utilizing a complex but computationally light first principle combustion model. Element and energy balances and robust techniques introduce nonlinearity and the consequent optimization problem is solved using nonlinear optimization. Data reconciliation improves estimation of process variables and enables improved sensor quality control and identification of process anomalies. The approach was applied to an industrial 200MWth fluidized bed boiler combusting wood, peat, bark, and slurry. The results indicate that the approach is valid and is able to perform in various process conditions. As the combustion model is generic, the method is applicable in any boiler environment.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T08:06:40Z
       
  • Control-oriented modeling and analysis of direct energy balance in
           coal-fired boiler-turbine unit
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Li Sun, Donghai Li, Kwang Y. Lee, Yali Xue
      Direct energy balance (DEB) coordinated control scheme is widely used by field engineers in coal-fired power plants while attracting little attention in the academic community. This paper aims to derive a mathematical model that is suitable for DEB research. To balance the model’s fidelity and simplicity, the power plant is divided into three transformation modules and, using conservation laws, a dynamic model is developed to describe each module. Within reasonable assumptions, numerous module equations are combined to yield a 6th-order nonlinear model. Time constants of the model are identified based on Pareto optimization. Model accuracy is confirmed using field measurements from a 300 MW coal-fired power plant. Based on the linearized model, the merits of the DEB control structure are analyzed. It is confirmed that the DEB control is sufficient to fulfill the fundamental goals of power plant regulation. An illustration of performance improvement is given by introducing gain scheduling techniques to the DEB structure. The proposed model can provide groundwork for future development of advanced control algorithms under the DEB structure.


      PubDate: 2016-07-18T07:51:24Z
       
  • Multi-objective voltage and frequency regulation in autonomous microgrids
           using Pareto-based Big Bang-Big Crunch algorithm
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Amir Eisapour Moarref, Mostafa Sedighizadeh, Masoud Esmaili
      Voltage and frequency regulation is one of the most vital issues in autonomous microgrids to ensure an acceptable electric power quality supply to customers. In this paper, a real-time control structure including power, voltage, and current control loops is proposed for microgrid inverters to restore voltage and frequency of the system after the initiation and load changes. The Proportional-Integral (PI) gains of the voltage controller are optimized in a real-time basis after a perturbation in the microgrid to have a fast and smooth response and a more stable system. The current controller produces Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation command signals to be fed into the three-leg inverter. The multi-objective optimization problem has objective functions of voltage overshoot/undershoot, rise time, settling time, and Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE). The modified Multi-Objective Hybrid Big Bang-Bing Crunch (MOHBB-BC) algorithm is employed as one of efficient evolutionary algorithms in order to solve the optimization problem. The MOHBB-BC method obtains a set of Pareto optimal solutions; a fuzzy decision maker is used to pick up the most preferred Pareto solution as the final solution of the problem. Results from testing the control strategy on a case study are discussed and compared with previous works; according to them, the proposed method is able to obtain dynamic PI regulator gains to have a more appropriate response.


      PubDate: 2016-07-18T07:51:24Z
       
  • Nonlinear robust observer design using an invariant manifold approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Irfan Ullah Khan, David Wagg, Neil D. Sims
      This paper presents a method to design a reduced order observer using an invariant manifold approach. The main advantages of this method are that it enables a systematic design approach, and (unlike most nonlinear observer design methods), it can be generalized over a larger class of nonlinear systems. The method uses specific mapping functions in a way that minimizes the error dynamics close to zero. Another important aspect is the robustness property which is due to the manifold attractivity: an important feature when an observer is used in a closed loop control system. A two degree-of-freedom system is used as an example. The observer design is validated using numerical simulation. Then experimental validation is carried out using hardware-in-the-loop testing. The proposed observer is then compared with a very well known nonlinear observer based on the off-line solution of the Riccati equation for systems with Lipschitz type nonlinearity. In all cases, the performance of the proposed observer is shown to be very high.


      PubDate: 2016-07-18T07:51:24Z
       
  • Robust tuning for machine-directional predictive control of MIMO
           paper-making processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Ning He, Dawei Shi, Michael Forbes, Johan Backström, Tongwen Chen
      This paper solves the controller tuning problem of machine-directional predictive control for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) paper-making processes represented as superposition of first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) components with uncertain model parameters. A user-friendly multi-variable tuning problem is formulated based on user-specified time domain specifications and then simplified based on the structure of the closed-loop system. Based on the simplified tuning problem and a proposed performance evaluation technique, a fast multi-variable tuning technique is developed by ignoring the constraints of the MPC. In addition, a technique to predict the computation time of the tuning algorithm is proposed. The efficiency of the proposed method is verified through Honeywell real time simulator platform with a MIMO paper-making process obtained from real data from an industrial site.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T20:33:11Z
       
  • An experimental investigation of additional actuators on a submarine
           diesel generator
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Timothy Broomhead, Chris Manzie, Peter Hield, Michael Brear
      Additional actuators and active generator load control have been suggested to improve performance on submarine diesel generators. Until recently, a lack of systematic control design has limited the ability to thoroughly investigate their potential. In this paper, model predictive control is used to produce near-optimal actuator commands for an experimental diesel generator on a test bed capable of producing representative submarine operating conditions. The performance with different actuator subsets is compared against an existing speed governor control architecture over a range of operating conditions. It is demonstrated that a minimum of two actuators may substantially improve generator performance. The study also investigates how model predictive control, when combined with additional actuators, can be used to enforce appropriate operational constraints that may lead to better longevity of the generator.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T20:33:11Z
       
  • Regulation of lactic acid concentration in its bioproduction from wheat
           flour
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Karen Gonzalez, Sihem Tebbani, Filipa Lopes, Aurore Thorigné, Sébastien Givry, Didier Dumur, Dominique Pareau
      Lactic acid is an important molecule for biopolymer production that can be obtained by biological processes. This work deals with the control of the lactic acid concentration in its production bioprocess using wheat flour as substrate. An adaptive control strategy for the simultaneous saccharification, proteins hydrolysis and fermentation (SSPHF) continuous process of lactic acid production is proposed in order to regulate the lactic acid concentration to the target value. The latter is determined so that the lactic acid productivity is maximized. The control strategy effectiveness and robustness are illustrated by means of experimental results.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T20:33:11Z
       
  • A local alignment approach to similarity analysis of industrial alarm
           flood sequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 55
      Author(s): Wenkai Hu, Jiandong Wang, Tongwen Chen
      Similar alarm sequence alignment algorithms have been used to find similar alarm floods in the historical database for the prediction and prevention of alarm floods. However, the existing modified Smith–Waterman (SW) algorithm has a high computation complexity, preventing its online applications within a tolerable computation time period. This paper proposes a new local alignment algorithm, based on the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The novelty of the proposed algorithm is three-fold. First, a priority-based similarity scoring strategy makes the proposed algorithm more sensitive to alarms having higher alarm priorities. Second, a set-based pre-matching mechanism avoids unnecessary computations by excluding all irrelevant alarm floods and alarm tags. Third, the seeding and extending steps of the conventional BLAST are adapted for alarm floods, which reduce the searching space significantly. Owing to the novelties, the proposed algorithm is much faster in computation and provides a higher alignment accuracy than the SW algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by industrial case studies based on the historical alarm floods from an oil conversion plant.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T20:33:11Z
       
  • A systematic approach for robust repetitive controller design
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Jeferson V. Flores, Luis Fernando A. Pereira, Guilherme Bonan, Daniel F. Coutinho, João Manoel Gomes da Silva
      In this paper, a methodology for the synthesis of repetitive controllers to ensure periodic reference tracking and harmonic disturbance rejection is cast in a robust control framework. Specifically, the Lyapunov–Krasovskii theory is applied to derive LMI-based conditions for designing a state feedback control law with guaranteed stability and performance properties for system parameter variations. Practical experiments in commercial uninterruptible power supplies – UPS are considered to illustrate and discuss some practical implementation aspects of the proposed method.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T20:33:11Z
       
  • Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified
           waste heat recovery system
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Emanuel Feru, Nikolce Murgovski, Bram de Jager, Frank Willems
      This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO 2 – NO x trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel consumption, AdBlue dosage, and active particulate filter regeneration, while satisfying the tailpipe emission constraints. For comparison purposes, the proposed control strategy is applied to different powertrain configurations: with and without waste heat recovery (WHR) system and a WHR system equipped with a battery for energy storage. The potential of each studied configuration is evaluated over the World Harmonized Transient Cycle for cold-start and hot-start conditions. In comparison to the existing Euro VI engine without WHR system, it is shown in simulations that the optimal IPC strategy with an electrified WHR system and battery provides an additional 3.5% CO2 emission reduction and 19% particulate matter reduction, while satisfying the NO x emission constraint.


      PubDate: 2016-06-17T18:00:49Z
       
  • Petri-net-based robust supervisory control of automated manufacturing
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Hao Yue, Keyi Xing, Hesuan Hu, Weimin Wu, Hongye Su
      Supervisory control that ensures deadlock-free and nonblocking operation has been an active research area of manufacturing engineering. So far, most of deadlock control policies in the existing literature assume that allocated resources are reliable. Additionally, a large number of methods are for systems of simple sequential processes with resources (S3PRs), where a part uses only one copy of one resource at each processing step. In contrast, we investigate the automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) that can be modeled by a class of Petri nets, namely S*PUR. S*PUR is a generalization of the S*PR Petri net model, while S*PR is a superclass of S3PR. This work addresses the robust supervision for deadlock avoidance in S*PUR. Specifically, we take into account unreliable resources that may break down while working or being in idle, and the considered AMSs allow the use of multiple copies of different resources per operation stage. Our objective is to control the system so that: 1) when there are breakdowns, the system can continue producing parts of some types whose production does not need any failed resources; and 2) given the correction of all faults, it is possible to complete all the on-going part instances remaining in the system. We illustrate the characteristics of a desired supervisor through several examples, define the corresponding properties of robustness, and develop a control policy that satisfies such properties.


      PubDate: 2016-06-17T18:00:49Z
       
  • Disturbance rejection of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Ping Dai, Sébastien Cauet, Patrick Coirault
      This paper contributes an active control strategy to reject disturbances in hybrid energy source systems applied in hybrid electric vehicles. The disturbances include persistent disturbances introduced by engine torque ripples compensation, and transient disturbances caused by transient load power demands. The disturbance rejection is achieved via singular perturbation theory. The original system is a Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) system, and the controller is designed based on interconnection and damping assignment. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the disturbance rejection control.


      PubDate: 2016-06-17T18:00:49Z
       
  • Performance assessment of thermal power plant load control system based on
           covariance index
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Wang Yinsong, Li Shizhe, Tian Jingyu, Zhao Zheng
      This paper proposes a novel method of performance assessment for load control system of thermal power unit. Load control system is the most important multivariable control system. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate the performance of it. The performance evaluation index system based on covariance is defined, and the performance evaluation rules are given. In MATLAB, the double input and double output object model of the load control system is established, and the dynamic characteristics of the load control system are analyzed under the BF and TF mode. The simulation data, which is based on the parameters retuning, is used as the “benchmark data”, and the simulation data of different controllers are collected as “monitoring data”. For most of the time, the thermal power plant is under the coordinated control mode, and the principle and strategy of the two coordinated control are analyzed, and the engineering realization scheme is given. Operation data in different time periods of two different thermal power plants was acquisition and preprocessing respectively. The principle of selecting “benchmark data” is the minimum of pressure parameter. Two data segments were selected as “benchmark data”, performance assessment and analysis was carried on the data from other time periods. The results show that the validity and reliability of the method based on the evaluation index. In short, the data of the simulation and the load control system of power plant are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Vehicle sideslip estimator using load sensing bearings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Anil Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, Matteo Corno, Edward Holweg
      This paper investigates the potential of load based vehicle sideslip estimation. Different techniques to measure tyre forces have been presented over the years; so far no technique has made it to the market. This paper considers a new technology based on load sensing bearings, which provides tyre force measurements. Based on the features of the sensor, a vehicle sideslip angle estimator is designed, analyzed and tested. The paper shows that direct tyre force sensing has mainly two advantages over traditional model-based estimators: primarily, it avoids the use of tyre models, which are heavily affected by uncertainties and modeling errors and secondarily, providing measurements on the road plane, it is less prone to errors introduced by roll and pitch dynamics. Extensive simulation tests along with a detailed analysis of experimental tests performed on an instrumented vehicle prove that the load based estimation outperforms the kinematic model-based benchmark yielding a root mean square error of 0.15°.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Plasma q-profile control in tokamaks using a damping assignment
           passivity-based approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Ngoc Minh Trang Vu, Rémy Nouailletas, Laurent Lefèvre, Federico Felici
      The IDA-PBC based on PCH model for tokamak q-profile is investigated. Two scenarios are carried out. The first one is the resistive diffusion model for the magnetic poloidal flux. The second one is extended with the thermal diffusion. A feedforward control is used to ensure the compatibility with the actuator physical ability. An IDA-PBC feedback is proposed to improve the system stabilization and convergence speed. The controllers are validated in the simulation using RAPTOR code and tested in TCV, the result is analyzed and the followed discussion proposed the required improvement for the next experiments.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Unknown-input observer design for motorcycle lateral dynamics: TS approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Mohammed El-Habib Dabladji, Dalil Ichalal, Hichem Arioui, Saïd Mammar
      In this paper, a nonlinear observer is designed in order to estimate the lateral dynamics of motorcycles. A nonlinear model of motorcycle's lateral dynamics is considered and is transformed in a Takagi-Sugeno (TS) exact form. An unknown input (UI) nonlinear observer is then designed in order to reconstruct the state variables whatever the forward velocity variations. The observer convergence study is based on the Lyapunov theory. The boundedness of the state estimation error is guaranteed thanks to the Input to State Stability (ISS) property. The observer has been tested on a nonlinear multibody model.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Digital memory look-up based implementation of sliding mode control for
           dc–dc converters
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Bibaswan Banerjee, Ramchandra M. Kotecha, Wayne W. Weaver
      Switched power electronic converters involve different control actions for different system events. A local control strategy may be developed which reacts only to some local information available to each component without any communication between the different system components located far away in real time. The purpose of this paper is to present a low cost memory based control strategy in a dc–dc boost converter. The control employed in this work is based on a sliding-mode hysteretic control strategy where the sliding manifold is derived a priori and stored as a look-up table in digital memory hardware. The proposed control implementation strategy is low cost and offers a robust dynamic response that is used to mitigate many disturbances in the system.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Nonlinear system identification—Application for industrial
           hydro-static drive-line
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Julian Stoev, Johan Schoukens
      The goal of the paper is to describe the added value and complexities of nonlinear system identification applied to a large scale industrial test setup. The additional important insights provided by the frequency domain nonlinear approach are significant and for such systems the nonlinear system identification is important, for example to estimate the noise and non-linearities levels, which can indicate mechanical and configuration issues. It is not the goal to provide a final full-scale model, but to explore what is the applicability of the nonlinear system identification theories for a complex multi-physical non-academic test-case.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Control strategies for automatic generation control over MTDC grids
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Paul Mc Namara, Ronan Meere, Terence O'Donnell, Seán McLoone
      Increasingly in power systems, there is a trend towards the sharing of reserves and integration of markets over wide areas in order to enable increased penetration of renewable sources in interconnected power systems. In this paper, a number of simple PI and gain based Model Predictive Control algorithms are proposed for Automatic Generation Control in AC areas connected to Multi-Terminal Direct Current grids. The paper discusses how this approach improves the sharing of secondary reserves and could assist in achieving EU energy targets for 2030 and beyond.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Real-time optimization of an industrial steam-methane reformer under
           distributed sensing
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Ankur Kumar, Michael Baldea, Thomas F. Edgar
      Industrial hydrogen production takes place in large-scale steam methane reformer (SMR) units, whose energy efficiency depends on the interior spatial temperature distribution. In this paper, a control-relevant empirical reduced-order SMR model is presented that predicts the furnace temperature distribution based on fuel input to a group of burners. The model is calibrated using distributed temperature measurements from an array of infrared cameras. The model is employed to optimize in real-time the temperature distribution and increase the energy efficiency in an industrial furnace. Experimental results confirm that the proposed framework has excellent performance.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Distributed identification and control of spatially interconnected systems
           with application to an actuated beam
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Qin Liu, Herbert Werner
      This paper presents a case study on modelling and control of spatially interconnected systems. Considered is a vibration control problem, with experimental results on a flexible beam that is equipped with an array of piezo sensors and actuators. The sensor–actuator array induces a spatial discretization of the beam into an array of interconnected subsystems. Models are experimentally identified that have the structure of spatially interconnected systems. Based on the identified models, distributed control schemes are designed by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem that has the size of a single subsystem. Modelling and control is considered for both spatially invariant and spatially varying systems; in the latter case the system is represented as linear parameter-varying (LPV) system that is scheduled not over time but over space. Simulation and experimental closed-loop results demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the underlying framework.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Modeling and optimization method featuring multiple operating modes for
           improving carbon efficiency of iron ore sintering process
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Xin Chen, Xiaoxia Chen, Min Wu, Jinhua She
      Iron ore sintering is one of the most energy-consuming processes in steelmaking. Since its main source of energy is the combustion of carbon, it is important to improve the carbon efficiency to save energy and to reduce undesired emissions. A modeling and optimization method based on the characteristics of the sintering process has been developed to do that. It features multiple operating modes and employs the comprehensive carbon ratio (CCR) as a measure of carbon efficiency. The method has two parts. The first part is the modeling of multiple operating modes of the sintering process. K-means clustering is used to identify the operating modes; and for each mode, a predictive model is built that contains two submodels, one for predicting the state parameters and one for predicting the CCR. The submodels are built using back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). An analysis of material and energy flow, and correlation analyses of process data and the CCR, are used to determine the most appropriate inputs for the submodels. The second part of the method is optimization based on a determination of the optimal operating mode. The problem of how to reduce the CCR is formulated as a two-step optimization problem, and particle swarm optimization is used to solve it. Finally, verification of the modeling and optimization method based on actual process data shows that it improves the carbon efficiency of iron ore sintering.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Day-ahead economic optimization of energy use in an olive mill
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Pablo Báez-González, Alejandro J. del Real, Miguel A. Ridao Carlini, Carlos Bordons
      This article presents an economic case study on biomass and power dispatch focused on the olive oil extraction industry. A method is proposed to minimize the energy cost associated to olive oil production. This is realized through load shaping and optimal selection of the destination of subproducts and wastes. The mill and the loads linked to the extraction process are modeled using the energy hub concept, and an Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC) based power and biomass dispatcher is introduced. The control strategy has been simulated over different scenarios to validate the optimization scheme.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • Canonical variate analysis for performance degradation under faulty
           conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): C. Ruiz-Cárcel, L. Lao, Y. Cao, D. Mba
      Condition monitoring of industrial processes can minimize maintenance and operating costs while increasing the process safety and enhancing the quality of the product. In order to achieve these goals it is necessary not only to detect and diagnose process faults, but also to react to them by scheduling the maintenance and production according to the condition of the process. The objective of this investigation is to test the capabilities of canonical variate analysis (CVA) to estimate performance degradation and predict the behavior of a system affected by faults. Process data was acquired from a large-scale experimental multiphase flow facility operated under changing operational conditions where process faults were seeded. The results suggest that CVA can be used effectively to evaluate how faults affect the process variables in comparison to normal operation. The method also predicted future process behavior after the appearance of faults, modeling the system using data collected during the early stages of degradation.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
  • An adaptive sliding mode observer for lithium-ion battery state of charge
           and state of health estimation in electric vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 54
      Author(s): Jiani Du, Zhitao Liu, Youyi Wang, Changyun Wen
      As the demand for electric vehicle (EV)'s remaining operation range and power supply life, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) estimation are important in battery management system (BMS). In this paper, a proposed adaptive observer based on sliding mode method is used to estimate SOC and SOH of the Li-ion battery. An equivalent circuit model with two resistor and capacitor (RC) networks is established, and the model equations in specific structure with uncertainties are given and analyzed. The proposed adaptive sliding mode observer is applied to estimate SOC and SOH based on the established battery model with uncertainties, and it can avoid the chattering effects and improve the estimation performance. The experiment and simulation estimation results show that the proposed adaptive sliding mode observer has good performance and robustness on battery SOC and SOH estimation.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T05:04:24Z
       
 
 
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