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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 776 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (525 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (91 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (525 journals)

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Journal Cover Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.715]   [H-I: 69]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Changes in body weight and fatness of sows during reproductive activity
           depending on LEPR and MC4R genes polymorphism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna Piórkowska
      The use of genetic markers in selection of maternal breed gilts for reduced feed intake and fatness of pigs, may impact on their reproductive performance in subsequent breeding. The objective of the study was to analyse changes, over three consecutive lactations, in condition (body weight and fatness) and reproductive performance of Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) sows of known genotype at leptin receptor (LEPR) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) loci. The study involved 58 PLW and 65 PL gilts. Gilts and subsequently sows were monitored for body weight (BW) and backfat thickness (P2) over three reproductive cycles, and their litters were analysed for the number and body weight of the piglets. A total of 168 litters of PLW pigs and 186 litters of PL pigs were evaluated. It is concluded that over the three reproductive cycles, PLW sows exhibited higher weight gains and lower fatness compared to PL sows. The interaction between LEPR and MC4R genes had a significant effect on changes in body weight of the gilts, subsequently on changes in the condition of sows (BW and P2) during consecutive reproductive cycles, and on the average weight of piglets born. Heterozygous sows of LEPR AB /MC4R AG genotype were characterized during that time by the highest weight gains and backfat thickness at P2, and their the piglets born had low birth weight. Over the three reproductive cycles, sows of LEPR AA /MC4R GG and LEPR AB /MC4R GG genotypes produced piglets with significantly higher birth weight compared to sows of LEPR AB /MC4R AG , LEPR BB /MC4R AA and LEPR BB /MC4R GG genotypes.


      PubDate: 2016-08-24T19:54:11Z
       
  • Effect of crude glycerine in supplement on the intake, rumen fermentation,
           and microbial profile of Nellore steers grazing tropical grass
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Elias San Vito, Juliana D. Messana, Pablo S. Castagnino, Yury T. Granja-Salcedo, Erick E. Dallantonia, Telma T. Berchielli
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine (CG) inclusion in feed supplement (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280g/kg DM basis of supplement) on the forage intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation parameters, kinetics of fibre degradation, and rumen microbial profile of Nellore steers grazing on tropical grass. Ten ruminally cannulated Nellore steers [490kg ± 47 body weight (BW)] were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Steers were individually supplemented at the rate of 300g/100kg of BW. Inclusion of CG in the supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) dry matter intake, apparent total tract digestibility, ruminal pH (P = 0.784) or total ruminal VFA (P = 0.291), but linearly decreased the NH3-N concentration (P = 0.021). The inclusion of CG in the supplement linearly increased (P < 0.001) the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate; linearly decreased the acetate (P = 0.007) concentration, thus reducing the acetate to propionate ratio (P < 0.001); and did not affect the molar proportions of propionate and isobutyrate. Inclusion of GC had a quadratic effect (P = 0.010) on the in situ potential degradable fraction of NDF and rate of fibre degradation (P = 0.006). Addition of CG linearly decreased the number of protozoa of the genera Entodinium (P = 0.015) and Isotricha (P = 0.058) and the relative proportions of Ruminococcus albus (P = 0.047) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in the rumen (P = 0.036), but did not affect Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.420) or the methanogens (P = 0.150). The inclusion of CG in the supplement up to 280g/kg DM altered ruminal fermentation and negatively affected in situ fibre degradation and the gram-positive cellulolytic bacterial population, but did not affect intake and apparent total tract digestibility for Nellore steers grazing tropical grass.


      PubDate: 2016-08-19T16:30:18Z
       
  • Comparison of muscle characteristics and underpinning mechanisms between
           Texel and Ujumqin sheep aged from day 70 to 135 of gestation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Li Li, Hongwei Su, Caihong Wei, Hangxing Ren, Lingyang Xu, Fuping Zhao, Li Zhang, Linjie Wang, Tao Zhong, Hongping Zhang, Wenzhong Liu, Lixin Du
      Though muscle characteristics in the second half of gestation closely relate to quantity and quality of postnatal muscle, far fewer studies have examined breed differences in prenatal sheep muscle. This study seeks to better understand anatomic prenatal muscle differences and its underpinning mechanisms between two contrasting sheep breeds. A total of 38 sheep fetuses, including 20 Texel with pronounced muscularity and 18 Ujumqin, an indigenous fat-tailed sheep characterized by their hardiness, fetuses aged at up to five time-points from embryonic day (E) 70 to 135 of gestation were sacrificed and their organs and muscles dissected at 12 anatomical locations from the right side of each animal. Whole Texel fetuses weighed more especially at E70 and E85 (both 1.7-fold, P<0.001) with heavier internal organs (P<0.05), than age-matched Ujumqin fetuses. Texel fetuses also contained more muscle, including aggregate-excised muscles (70% before E100, P<0.001) and muscle proportion (~0.5%, P<0.05), larger (~20%) and more total muscle fibers, greater muscle size (20% loin muscle area, P=0.008), and a lower proportion of type I muscle fibers (Texel, 18.85%; Ujumqin, 25.23%) at most anatomical locations. Notably, in Texel fetuses from E70 to E85, sharply decreased myofiber number and significantly augmented fiber size were accompanied by the molecular events resembled those in myoblast fusing of Ujumqin sheep (E85-E100), which indicate this period (E70-E85) is pivotal for Texel myoblast fusing. Altogether, these results suggest that comparing with obese animal, the muscular superiority in lean breed largely establishes at middle gestation, although they share the similar regulatory gene network. The present study provides a novel insight into mammalian myogenesis.


      PubDate: 2016-08-19T16:30:18Z
       
  • Predicting water intake of lactating riverine buffaloes under tropical
           climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Amit Sharma, S.S. Kundu, Hujaz Tariq, M.S. Mahesh, Shital Gautam, Sunil Singh
      The present investigation was carried out with the aim of determining water requirements of lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) under summer [August-September, 2014 with maximum ambient temperature (Tmax): 32.7 ± 0.7°C, relative humidity (RH): 92.4 ± 1.7%] and winter (December, 2014 with Tmax: 15.1 ± 0.9°C, RH: 98.6 ± 1.4%) seasons of tropical climate. Data on daily drinking water intake (DWI) were collected from 18 lactating Murrah buffaloes during summer [Average body weight (BW): 637 ± 8kg and milk yield (MY): 9.5 ± 0.2kg/d] and winter (BW: 626 ± 10kg and MY: 9.3 ± 0.2kg/d) seasons, separately. All animals were fed total mixed ration (TMR, 13.4% crude protein and 9.6 MJ/kg metabolisable energy) prepared from green maize forage, compounded concentrate mixture and wheat straw in 55:40:05 proportion (on dry basis). Daily DWI, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and MY were recorded along with environmental variables. The results revealed that DWI and total water intake (TWI, L/d) of lactating buffaloes were higher (P < 0.05) by 56.7 and 16.2% in summer than winter, whereas feed water intake (FWI, L/d) was higher (P < 0.05) by 13.2% in winter than summer. Furthermore, the prediction equation indicated that, for each unit increase in MY, DMI, Tmax and DM% of TMR, DWI (L/d) of lactating buffaloes was increased by 0.99, 1.44, 0.56 and 0.80 units, respectively. Whereas, unit increase in FWI (L/kg) caused 0.22 units decrease in DWI of lactating buffaloes. It was concluded that drinking water requirements of lactating Murrah buffaloes were influenced by the type of feed offered, DMI, level of milk production as well as environmental variables and therefore, it is recommended that the above equation can be used to predict water requirements of dairy buffaloes more robustly under tropical rearing systems.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T16:10:30Z
       
  • Combining revealed and stated preferences to define goat breeding
           objectives in Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Tatek Woldu, André Markemann, Christoph Reiber, Girma T. Kassie, Anne Valle Zárate
      In order to design a sound community-based genetic improvement program, identifying breeding objective traits and their relative importance is a prerequisite. The study aims to identify goat breeding objectives in three production systems of Ethiopia based on revealed and stated preference information. Market transaction surveys as well as choice experiments (CE) were conducted in three production systems of Ethiopia. Relationships between goats’ attributes and prices were estimated by hedonic modeling, while economic values of traits included in the CE were estimated by conditional logit (CL) model. Part worth value of a trait which indicates the relative importance of a trait was calculated based on the implicit prices farmers were willing to pay (WTP) for an improvement of a trait. The hedonic regression results showed that body weight was a consistent determinant of goat price in all observed markets. While, attributes such as body condition, age and season had heterogeneous effect on market prices of goats. The CL analysis indicated that farmers living in harsh environments valued functional traits such as disease resistance more than performance traits. Based on revealed preferences and choice models, alternative breeding options, which are in line with farmers’ trait preferences and market demands, were suggested. The suggested alternative trait combinations and their economic values could be used as an input for optimization of the breeding schemes after considering heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
       
  • A genome-wide scan of copy number variants using high-density SNPs in
           Brown Swiss dairy cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R.T.M.M. Prinsen, M.G. Strillacci, F. Schiavini, E. Santus, A. Rossoni, V. Maurer, A. Bieber, B. Gredler, M. Dolezal, A. Bagnato
      Detecting genetic variation such as Copy Number Variants (CNVs) in cattle provides the opportunity to study their association with quantitative traits. CNVs are DNA sequences of 50bp up to several Mb long, which can vary in copy number in comparison with a reference genome. The aim of this study was to investigate CNVs in 1,410 samples of the Brown Swiss cattle breed using Illumina Bovine HD SNP chip information, which includes 777,962 SNPs. After stringent quality control, CNVs were called with the Golden Helix SVS 8.3.1 (SVS) and PennCNV software and were summarized to CNV regions (CNVRs) at a population level (i.e. overlapping CNVs), using BEDTools. Additionally, common CNVRs between the two software were set as consensus regions. Genes within consensus CNVRs were annotated with a GO analysis using the DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7. In order to validate these results, quantitative PCRs were executed on 15 selected CNVRs. The SVS software identified 25,030 CNVs summarized to 398 CNVRs, which comprised 30 gains, 344 losses and 24 complex CNVRs (i.e. containing both losses and gains), covering 3.92% of the bovine genome. The PennCNV software identified 6,2341 CNVs summarized to 5,578 CNVRs, which comprised 2,638 gains, 2,404 losses and 537 complex CNVRs, covering 7.68% of the bovine genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 1,244bp to 1,381,355bp. A total of 563 consensus CNVRs were found covering 2.29% of the UMD 3.1 bovine genome assembly. Of these, 24 were gains, 300 were losses and 239 were complex CNVRs. A total of 775 official gene IDs were annotated in the consensus CNVRs. Among the 537 genes with functional information, the GO and pathway analysis was reported for those who clustered with a p-value < 0.05. The quantitative PCRs successfully validated 14 (93.33%) of the selected CNVRs. The result of this study is the first comprehensive genomic analysis of the Brown Swiss breed based on the Illumina Bovine HD SNP chip on such a large number of animals that enriches the CNV map in the bovine genome. These findings also provide valuable information for further CNV studies. Finally, the results of the CNVR map delivers new information for functional, health and productive traits considered in selection programs of the Brown Swiss breed.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
       
  • Effects of oregano essential oil or quercetin supplementation on body
           weight loss, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant status
           in finishing pigs under transport stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yi Zou, Quanhang Xiang, Jun Wang, Hongkui Wei, Jian Peng
      This study compared the effects of dietary oregano essential oil (OEO), quercetin or vitamin E (vit E), on the live body weight loss, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant status of pigs after transportation. A total of 340 finishing pigs (Large White×Landrace) with an initial body weight of 74kg (±4.0kg) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (five replicate pens per treatment, 17 pigs per pen). Pigs consumed the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200mg vit E /kg (positive control), 25mg OEO /kg or 25mg quercetin /kg for 4 weeks. After this period, 144 pigs (36 pigs per treatment) were transported for 5h before slaughter. Compared with the control group, the OEO or quercetin groups had a higher average daily gain (P<0.05), and the OEO group also had a lower feed intake/gain (P<0.05). The live body weight loss was less in the OEO group after 5h transportation (P<0.05) than in the control group. The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher in the OEO group after 5h of transportation (P<0.05) than in the control group. After slaughter, the pH value at 45-min postmortem and Opto-star value (meat color) at 24-h postmortem increased in the vit E, OEO or quercetin groups (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The vit E or quercetin groups also exhibited higher 24-h postmortem pH values (P<0.05) than the control group. The Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of pigs from the OEO or quercetin groups produced lower 24-h drip loss values (P<0.05) than that of pigs from the control group. Compared with the control group, the OEO or quercetin groups had reduced levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) in serum, muscle and liver (P<0.05), while the vit E group had reduced levels in serum only (P<0.05). The OEO or quercetin groups also had increased levels of Gpx (glutathione peroxidase) and T-SOD (total superoxide dismutase) activity in serum and liver compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conversely, there were no differences between the vit E and control groups in Gpx or T-SOD activities. In conclusion, supplementation with dietary OEO or quercetin may be superior to supplementation with dietary vit E in alleviating the negative effects of transportation on pigs by improving the pigs’ antioxidant status.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
       
  • A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency
           in early lactation and improved milk yield
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Trine Friis Pedersen, Thomas Sønderby Bruun, Takele Feyera, Uffe Krogh Larsen, Peter Kappel Theil
      The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according to their individual requirements for maintenance and milk production. Thus, a basal diet was formulated and supplied to meet the energy requirement for maintenance and a lactation supplement was formulated to meet the dynamic requirement of nutrients for milk production. Sows and piglets were weighed and feed intake was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk of lactation. In lactation wk 4 sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime produced less milk (13.0kg/d) than the sows fed the 2-diet regime (14.9kg/d). Piglet weight gain was numerically higher (P = 0.11) throughout the lactation period for sows fed the 2-diet regime. Dietary regime had no effect on milk composition of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P = 0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P = 0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached a positive or zero balance in late lactation. For the 2-diet feeding regime sows’ N and Lys balance was positive throughout lactation, and N loss was higher for sows fed the 2-diet feeding regime. The concentration of urea in plasma was lower for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime. In conclusion, feeding lactating sows with the 2-diet feeding regime throughout lactation improved sows’ MY and mean piglet weight as lactation progressed, and weight loss was reduced in early lactation. By feeding sows with the 2-diet feeding regime it was also possible to reduce nutrient deficiency throughout lactation.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
       
  • Impacts of cow body condition score during gestation on weaning
           performance of the offspring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R.S. Marques, R.F. Cooke, M.C. Rodrigues, P. Moriel, D.W. Bohnert
      This experiment evaluated the impacts of cow body condition score (BCS) during gestation on productive parameters of the offspring. Three hundred multiparous, lactating, non-pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were assigned to a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) protocol using semen from a single sire (d 0). Forty days after AI, cows were evaluated for pregnancy status via transrectal ultrasonography and BCS, and 100 pregnant cows (543 ± 6kg of BW, 6.6 ± 0.3yr of age, 4.83 ± 0.06 of BCS, and 115 ± 2 d postpartum) were selected for the experiment. Within these 100 cows, 20 cows had BCS ≥ 5.50 but ≤ 6.50 and were classified as adequate BCS (5.85 ± 0.06; HBCS). The remaining cows had BCS ≤ 4.75 (4.52 ± 0.03), and were divided into 4 groups (20 cows/group): LBCS (4.60 ± 0.07), BCSG1 (4.43 ± 0.07), BCSG2 (4.63 ± 0.07), and BCSG3 (4.63 ± 0.07). The HBCS and LBCS cows were managed to maintain their initial BCS throughout gestation. The BCSG1, BCSG2, and BCSG3 cows were managed to gain 1.50 BCS during the first, second, and third trimester of gestation, respectively, and maintain the resultant BCS until calving. Cow BCS was assessed again on d 102, 182, and 265. During the calving season (d 272 to 291), calf body weight (BW) was recorded within 3h after birth. Only cows that met the BCS maintenance (within 0.50 of BCS change) and change (≥ 1.25 and ≤ 1.75 of BCS increase within the trimester) criteria were maintained in the experiment (HBCS, n = 14; LBCS, n = 14; BCSG1, n = 14; BCSG2, n = 15, BCSG3, n = 15). On d 344, cow milk production was estimated by the weigh-suckle-weigh method, and calves were weaned on d 475. No differences were detected (P ≥ 0.42) for calving rate, calf birth BW, and cow milk production. Weaning rate and calf age at weaning were also similar among BCS groups (P ≥ 0.15). However, calf weaning BW was greater (P ≤0.05) for BCSG2 and BCSG3 cows (265 and 262kg, respectively; SEM = 4) compared with HBCS and LBCS cows (248 and 249kg, respectively; SEM = 4), and similar (P ≥ 0.20) among all other comparisons. These results suggest that offspring weaning BW is directly influenced by BCS gain of beef cows during the second and third trimesters of gestation.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
       
  • Ruminal bacterial community changes during adaptation of goats to fresh
           alfalfa forage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Diego Javier Grilli, Jakub Mrázek, Kateřina Fliegerová, Jan Kopečný, Sebastian Paez Lama, María Esperanza Cerón Cucchi, Miguel Angel Sosa, Graciela Nora Arenas
      Using culture-independent molecular approaches, we studied the bacterial population changes in the rumen of goats abruptly converted from alfalfa hay to fresh alfalfa diet. Administration of fresh forage with significantly increased soluble nitrogen and soluble protein nitrogen resulted in frothy bloat. Changes of the bacterial composition of rumen were monitored using DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA gene amplicons and quantitative PCR method. As the diet changed, the bacterial population of Bacteroidetes and γ-Proteobacteria decreased, even if animals have not shown signs of frothy bloat. The most severely bloated animals showed an increase of Bacteroidetes phylum. Lactobacillus/Streptococcus group belonging to Firmicutes phylum decreased in response to transferring the animals from hay to a fresh forage-based diet, and did not achieve the values observed at the beginning of the experiment. In summary, changes in the diet and subsequent frothy bloat occurrence produce long-lasting changes in the structure of the microbial community and may be associated with a specific bacterial population belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
       
  • 3048Dietary supplementation of tannic acid modulates nitrogen excretion
           pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents of beef cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kai Yang, Chen Wei, Guangyong Zhao, Zhiwei Xu, Shixin Lin
      The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of tannic acid (TA) on nitrogen (N) excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents of beef cattle. Four adult Simmental male cattle (initial BW 376.0 ± 9.0kg) were used as experimental animals. Four levels of TA, i.e. 0, 6.5, 13.0, or 26.0g/kg dry matter (DM), were added to a basal ration consisted of concentrate mixture and corn silage in a 4 × 4 Latin square design as experimental treatments, respectively. Each experimental period consisted of a 12-day adaptation phase followed by a 3-day sampling phase. The results showed that supplementing TA did not affect the N retention, but shifted the N excretion from urine to faeces, regulated the urinary N components by decreasing urea and increasing hippuric acid.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
       
  • Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and/or probiotic Enterococcus faecium as a
           feed supplement for piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): E. Hanczakowska, M. Świątkiewicz, M. Natonek Wiśniewska, K. Okoń
      The effect of supplements of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and/or probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on piglet performance, intestine structure, and microbiology was estimated on 271 piglets (24 litters) of Polish Landrace. Piglets were allocated to three groups with eight litters in each, kept in group pens, and fed the standard feed mixture (negative control, group I). The same mixture supplemented with 0.3% of caprylic (octanoic—C8) or 0.3% of capric (decanoic—C10) acids was given to groups II and III, respectively. In each group, half the animals received Cylactin® added in the amount of 0.35 × 109 CFU per kg feed. The feed and water were available ad libitum. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of life. At 60 days of life, 6 piglets from each subgroup were slaughtered and their intestines were investigated. Digesta from digestive tract was removed and the length and weight of particular parts of intestines were measured. The structure of the ileum mucosal epithelium was examined. Acidity of digesta and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content of chyme from jejunum and cecum were analyzed. Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens counts in these parts of intestines were also estimated. Capric acid improved piglet body weight gain after the 28th day of life. Probiotic lowered the weight gain from 28th to 56th day but increased it later. There was no difference in feed intake, and feed utilization was improved only by probiotic in the last period of the experiment. Probiotic increased pH in the small intestine and colon and significantly increased the amount of acetic acid in cecum. Capric acid reduced the total length of the intestines. Probiotic had no effect on intestines’ mass and length, but it increased villi width and crypt depth in the epithelium of small intestine. MCFA had no effect on these qualities. Both supplements had strong antibacterial activity: acids against E. coli and probiotic against C. perfringens.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
       
  • Bacteriophages as a promising anti-pathogenic option in creep-feed for
           suckling piglets: Targeted to control Clostridium spp. and coliforms
           faecal shedding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.H. Lee, A.R. Hosseindoust, J.S. Kim, Y.H. Choi, J.H. Lee, I.K. Kwon, B.J. Chae
      A total of 28 crossbred sows in their third parity were allotted to one of four treatments. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the response of suckling pigs and sows to two levels of supplemental bacteriophages (0 and 1.0g/kg bacteriophages), in sows diet (SF) and suckling piglets diet (CF). The supplementation of bacteriophages in suckling piglet's diet showed increase on the number of total weaned piglets, BW at weaning and ADG of piglets. Bacteriophages in sows diet decreased faecal Clostridium spp. shedding at d 14. The number of coliforms in sows received bacteriophages was significantly lower at the end of experiment. There were reductions in population of Clostridium spp., and coliforms shedding in the feces at d 14 and d 21 of samplings with the inclusion of bacteriophages in the diet of suckling piglets. Bacteriophages in piglet's diet increased faecal Lactobacillus spp. at d 14. There was no SF×CF interaction effect for all the parameters. This study shows the benefit of targeted bacteriophages in creep feed against Clostridium spp. and coliforms of suckling piglets.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190




      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
       
  • Genotype Environment interactions for milk production traits in Holstein
           and crossbred Holstein-Zebu cattle populations estimated by a character
           state multibreed model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Alberto Menéndez-Buxadera, Alejandro Palacios, José Luis Espinosa, Danilo Guerra
      A total of 478555 lactation records from 203825 cows calving from January 1984 to December 2003 were used to quantify the importance of the genotype-environment interaction (GxE) on milk production in a large population of Holstein and Holstein-Zebu crossbred animals under Cuban tropical conditions. These cows were distributed in a total of 1288 herds, daughters of 1565 Holstein (H) sires and 831 Holstein crossbred sires (HZ) with female Zebu (Z). Due to the dramatic political crisis in eastern countries at the end of the 1980s, all economical activities in Cuba were affected, and particularly the resources available for the dairy sector were marginalize; therefore two contrasted environmental periods of time were created: the first one was the calving from 1984 to 1990 and the second from 1991 to 2003. This division was made to estimate the magnitude of the GxE. Data were analyzed with different character state multi-breed sire models. Accordingly to the genetic correlation between the same traits across the time periods, the GxE was negative and highly significant but with more intensity in H sires with regard to HZ sires. A very important genetic variation was found in plasticity and a group of robust or generalist sires were identified showing a very good performance in the two time-period environmental conditions. The importance of the use of a Character State Multi-breed Model and the plasticity concept for breeding programs in the tropics are highly suggested.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
       
  • Accessing marker effects and heritability estimates from genome prediction
           by Bayesian regularized neural networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Leonardo Siqueira Glória, Cosme Damião Cruz, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira, Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Otávio H.G.B. Dias de Siqueira, Fabyano Fonseca e Silva
      Recently, there is an increasing interest on semi- and non-parametric methods for genome-enabled prediction, among which the Bayesian regularized artificial neural networks (BRANN) stand. We aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of BRANN and to exploit SNP effects and heritability estimates using two different approaches (relative importance-RI, and relative contribution-RC). Additionally, we aimed also to compare BRANN with the traditional RR-BLUP and BLASSO by using simulated datasets. The simplest BRANN (net1), RR-BLUP and BLASSO methods outperformed other more parameterized BRANN (net2, net3, … net6) in terms of predictive ability. For both simulated traits (Y1 and Y2) the net1 provided the best h2 estimates (0.33 for both, being the true h2=0.35), whereas RR-BLUP (0.18 and 0.22 for Y1 and Y2, respectively) and BLASSO (0.20 and 0.26 for Y1 and Y2, respectively) underestimated h2. The marker effects estimated from net1 (using RI and RC approaches) and RR-BLUP were similar, but the shrinkage strength was remarkable for BLASSO on both traits. For Y1, the correlation between the true fifty QTL effects and the effects estimated for the SNPs located in the same QTL positions were 0.61, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.55, for RI, RC, RR-BLUP and BLASSO; and for Y2, these correlations were 0.81, 0.81, 0.81 and 0.71, respectively. In summary, we believe that estimates of SNP effects are promising quantitative tools to bring discussions on chromosome regions contributing most effectively to the phenotype expression when using ANN for genomic predictions.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
       
  • Validating behavioral sampling techniques for lame sows administered
           flunixin meglumine and meloxicam
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Laura Whalin, Monique Pairis-Garcia, Kathryn Proudfoot, Kenneth Stalder, Anna Johnson
      Lameness poses a welfare challenge for pigs as it is associated with pain. Monitoring changes in behavior is a useful tool for recognizing illnesses in animals, including lameness. Lame sows spend more time lying down compared to non-lame animals, but there is currently no practical way of recording these changes in behavior. The objectives of this study were to determine if scan sampling could detect behavioral changes in sows induced lame, and detect changes in behavior associated with pain mitigation in sows induced lame. Lameness was induced in 12 multiparous, crossbred sows using a chemical synovitis model. Standing, sitting and lying behaviors were evaluated using continuous sampling, as well as 5, 10 and 15min scans (‘scan sampling’) for 12h/d (0600-1800) over a 5-day period. Three pain control treatments were evaluated: flunixin meglumine, meloxicam, and sterile saline administered approximately 28 and 52h after lameness induction. No differences were found in lying and standing behavior in saline treated sows for all sampling methods (P = 0.99). Regardless of sampling method, standing time decreased in the days following lameness induction compared to the day before induction (P < 0.01). After treatment with flunixin meglumine, sows increased their standing behavior, but this change was only detected using the continuous sampling method (P < 0.04). All sampling methods were able to detect standing behavior changes among sows treated with meloxicam (P < 0.01). Results suggest that scan samples of 15min or less are effective in detecting most behavioral deviations in sows treated with meloxicam or not treated at all.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
       
  • The effect of dietary supplementation of the broiler chicken diet with
           Boswellia serrata resin on growth performance, digestibility, and
           gastrointestinal characteristics, morphology, and microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): B. Kiczorowska, A.R.M. Al-Yasiry, W. Samolińska, A. Marek, E. Pyzik
      The study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation of the broiler chicken diet with Boswellia serrata resin (BSR) on growth performance, dry matter, organic matter, and energy digestibility as well as gastrointestinal characteristics, morphology, and microbiota. A total of 200 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to 4 treatments with 5 replicate cages of 10 broiler chickens per cage (5 females and 5 males). The experiment lasted 6 wk, and broiler chickens were fed diets containing 0 (control), 3 (BSR3), 4 (BSR4), or 5% Boswellia serrata resin (BSR5). There was no effect of the treatments on growth performance. The proportion of the proventriculus in the metabolic weight was lower with a quadratic pattern (P < 0.05) in the broiler chickens fed the diets containing BSR compared to those fed the control diet. In addition, broiler chickens fed the BSR3 and BSR4 diets had greater digestibility of dry matter and organic matter (control vs. BSR diets and quadratic, P < 0.05). The jejunum was shorter (P < 0.05) in broiler chickens fed the diets supplemented with BSR (control vs. BSR diets and quadratic, P < 0.05). The duodenum of chickens receiving BSR diets, a decrease in the depth of crypts and an increase in the villus:crypt were observed (quadratic, P < 0.05). In broiler chickens fed the BSR diets, a decrease in the count of Escherichia coli and an increase in the count of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus was observed (control vs. BSR diets and quadratic, P < 0.05). A decreased count of Clostridium spp. strains was noted as well (control vs. BSR diets and linear, P < 0.05). The resin of Boswellia serrata can be considered as a good feed additive, which can have positive effects on intestinal microbiota and the gastrointestinal tract morphology of broiler chickens.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
       
  • PREPARTUM BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATIONS LINKED TO SUBSEQUENT CYCLICITY IN
           HIGH-PRODUCING DAIRY COWS IN A NON-INDUSTRIAL AREA
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Irina Garcia-Ispierto, Irene López-Helguera, José Antonio Ramos, Sonia Marin, Encarna Companys, Jaume Puy, Josep Galceran, Fabio De Rensis, Fernando López-Gatius
      This study sought to identify the possible presence of lead (Pb) in blood and if detected to examine the relationship between blood Pb concentrations during the transition period and subsequent reproductive performance in high-producing dairy cows reared in a non-industrial area. Forty seven multiparous dairy cows were examined and/or sampled on Days 251-257 of gestation (visit 1,V1), the day of calving (V2) and on Days 8-14 (V3), 15-21 (V4), 22-28 (V5), 29-35 (V6), 36-42 (V7) and 50-56 (V8) postpartum. A mean level of 130 ± 17 ppm (± SD) of Pb was detected in feed samples. Blood samples were collected for Pb determination from V1 to V5 and lead was present in all collected blood samples. One unit increase in blood Pb concentration in the V1 sample led to a 0.3-fold reduction (P= 0.02) in the likelihood of a cow being cyclic. Mean blood Pb concentrations were 0.97 ± 0.11 and 2.6 ± 0.1 μg/L for cyclic (n=24) and non-cyclic (n=23) cows, respectively. Cows with a body condition score (BCS) loss of ≥ 0.75 units between V1 and V4 (n=24) showed higher Pb concentrations throughout the study period than the remaining cows (n=23; P < 0.001). In conclusion, blood Pb levels were detected in all cows. Prepartum blood Pb concentrations were negatively related to subsequent cyclicity. Cows with higher Pb levels experienced a greater BCS loss during the transition period. Routine blood Pb tests could indicate a higher risk of anoestrus in cows with higher Pb concentrations.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
       
  • Estimation of genetic parameters for teat number and reproduction and
           production traits from different data sources for Czech dam breeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Emil Krupa, Eliška Žáková, Zuzana Krupová, Monika Michaličková
      Genetic parameters for total number of teats (TNT), total number of piglets born (TNB), number of weaned piglets (NW), lean meat content, and average daily gain were estimated for the populations of Czech Large White and Czech Landrace pig breeds. TNT was defined as sum of all measurable teats without taking into account of between teats and was counted during the identification of piglets up to 10 days after birth. Two main resources of data for TNT were analyzed: (1) TNT recorded only for breeding pigs in the national performance testing scheme (animals with at least 14 teats in total) as the pre-selected performance data set (PT; 94,500 animals); and (2) TNT recorded in nucleus and multiplier farms (F). In this data set (40,160 animals), whole litter information, including negatively selected piglets, was considered. Only 6.7% of animals from farmers’ data set showed optimal production in the performance test. The average number of piglets evaluated in the PT and F data sets per litter was 2.7 and 9.4, respectively. The TNT was analyzed using single-trait and five-trait animal models by using production and reproduction data to determine heritability and genetic correlations between TNT and production and reproduction traits. As expected, the farmers’ data set was characterized by higher variability of TNT than the performance data set. The estimated heritability for TNT ranged from 0.28 to 0.30 (regarding the data and models used). The genetic correlations of TNT with production and reproduction traits were negligible and varied from −0.096 to 0.080 depending on the datasets and models used. A very high significant genetic correlation (0.782 and 0.793) was found between TNB and NW. Our hypothesis of impact of raw data inclusion on estimated genetic parameters for the trait TNT was rejected. Our findings suggested no significant differences for the estimated heritabilities of TNT among the analyzed datasets and models. The breeding values for TNT can be estimated by using single as well as multi-trait animal models, because no genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits were found.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
       
  • Antioxidant effects of a propolis extract and vitamin E in blood and milk
           of dairy cows fed diet containing flaxseed oil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Nadine Woruby Santos, Emerson H. Yoshimura, Erica Machado, Paula T. Matumoto-Pintro, Paula F. Montanher, Jesuí V. Visentainer, Geraldo T. dos Santos, Lucia M. Zeoula
      The diets of dairy cattle were supplemented with phenolic compounds from propolis extract to determine the potential benefits on milk quality. The use of these compounds along with vitamin E may reduce the oxidation levels in blood and milk of cows fed polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to assess the fatty acid composition of milk, the antioxidant quality of milk and blood lipoperoxidation of dairy cows whose diet was supplemented with flaxseed oil containing a propolis-based product (PBP) with or without vitamin E. Four Holstein cows, averaging 584 ± 50kg of body weight and 90 ± 40 days in milk, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four periods and four diets: control diet; diet with flaxseed oil, 25g/kg of dry matter (DM); diet containing flaxseed oil + PBP, 1.2g/kg DM; diet containing flaxseed oil + PBP + vitamin E, 375 IU/kg DM. Diets containing PBP and PBP combined to vitamin E did not affect the DM intake and chemical composition of milk. The addition of PBP and vitamin E in diets increased the concentrations of fatty acids trans9-18:1, cis9,trans11-18:2 and the total CLA content in milk. The total polyphenol concentration in milk was elevated by PBP and PBP in combination with vitamin E. PBP enhanced the antioxidant activity of milk by increasing the reducing power, but the antioxidants did not preserve milk fat from oxidation. Supplementing the cow diet with PBP reduced the time to reach the maximum rate of oxidation in blood during copper-induced oxidation. Under the studied conditions, PBP and vitamin E supplementation resulted in improvements in the fat quality of milk, the oxidative properties of milk and the blood resistance to oxidation.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:37Z
       
  • Effects of supplementation of manganese with or without phytase on growth
           performance, carcass traits, muscle and tibia composition, and immunity in
           broiler chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Ghosh, G.P. Mandal, A. Roy, A.K. Patra
      An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Mn and phytase supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and immunity in broiler chickens. A total of 350 1-d-old unsexed broiler chickens (Vencobb 400 breed) were randomly allotted to 7 dietary treatments (5 replicate pens of 10 chicks per pen) in a 1 + 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 concentrations of supplemental Mn and with or without phytase addition. The control diet represented a basal diet with no supplemental Mn and phytase. The basal diet was supplemented with Mn at 50, 75, and 100mg/kg diet and microbial phytase was added at a dose of 500 FTU/kg. Average daily gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar among the treatments. During the starter, grower, and finisher periods, 5, 7.5, and 17.5% of the broiler chickens, respectively, developed leg abnormalities in the control diet, which were not observed in the treatment groups. The serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, Ca, and P were not affected by supplemental Mn and phytase or their interaction. Antibody titer against Newcastle virus disease vaccine on 16 d and 32 d of the feeding trial (10 d after vaccination) were increased (P < 0.05) by Mn or phytase supplementation, but the antibody titer was not affected by the Mn and phytase interaction. Carcass traits such as hot carcass weight, eviscerated carcass weight, dressing percentage, breast, leg, frame, and giblet were not altered by Mn or phytase or both supplementation. Abdominal fat content was decreased (P < 0.05) by high concentrations of Mn supplementation (75 and 100mg/kg), but not by phytase addition. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, and fat) in thigh and breast muscle, and total ash, Ca, and P concentrations in tibia at 42 d were similar among the dietary treatments. Thus, supplementation of Mn at 75 to 100mg/kg to a basal corn-soybean diet could be beneficial for improving immunity and decreasing fat deposition, and phytase supplementation could also improve immunity measures in broiler chickens.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:37Z
       
  • Multi-trait animal model estimation of genetic parameters for morphometric
           measurements in the Murgese horse breed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Grazia Bramante, Anna Maria Cito, Elena Ciani, Elisa Pieragostini
      The Murgese is a baroque-type horse breed from Southern Italy that is currently experiencing growing interest both at local and international level. The aim of the present work was to investigate the morphological evolution of withers height (WH), chest girth (CG) and cannon bone circumference (CBC) over the last four decades by using linear regression analysis, and to use a multiple-trait animal model with fixed effects (herd, sex, birth year) to estimate genetic parameters for the above traits in the Murgese horse population. A significant increase of WH (only in males), and decrease of CG and CBC over the considered period was observed, though no remarkable trend in genetic gain was observed for the above traits. Hereditability estimates were 0.27 (WH), 0.31 (CG) and 0.24 (CBC). Genetic correlations ranged 0.641 (CG x WH) to 0.709 (CG x CBC). The obtained results suggest that phenotypic selection has not had so far a large impact on the Murgese morphology, whose evolution over the last four decades seems more likely attributable to improvement in management practices. According with the obtained heritability estimates and the favourable genetic correlations, there is ground for the application of quantitative genetic selection for the considered morphometric traits.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:05:53Z
       
  • Influence of raw material on the occurrence of tail-biting in undocked
           pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Christina Veit, Imke Traulsen, Mario Hasler, Karl-Heinz Tölle, Onno Burfeind, Elisabeth grosse Beilage, Joachim Krieter
      The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of raw material provision on tail-biting outbreaks in long-tailed pigs. Two different substrates, dried corn silage (SG, n = 245) and alfalfa hay (AG, n = 245) were provided for the pigs twice per day from the second week of life until the end of rearing. The control of long-tailed pigs (CG, n = 231) were kept without the provision of additional raw material. Each tail was scored regarding tail lesions/tail losses once per week with a four-point score (0 = no damage/original length, 3 = severe damage/total loss). Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of rearing. The effect of week after weaning, the batch and the interaction between treatment group and batch had highly significant influences on tail lesions (p < 0.001). The main concentration of behavioural disorder took place in the rearing phase. Tail-biting started on average two to three weeks after weaning, followed by tail losses one to two weeks later. The effect of batch had a highly significant influence on tail losses at the end of rearing (p < 0.001). The number of tail losses decreased with the number of batches and ranged from 98.6% in batch one to 8.5% in batch ten. This can be explained by enhanced and more precise animal observation by stable staff and points out the learning process in the course of the study. At the end of rearing, piglets of all batches had lost their tails to the greatest extent in CGs (48.7%), followed by AGs (45.2%) and SGs (41.3%). There was no clear trend in total weight gain regarding the level of tail lesions and tail losses. Corn silage stayed attractive for the piglets during the whole observation period, whereas the acceptance of the alfalfa hay decreased towards the end of rearing. The daytime, the interaction between batch and day after weaning, as well as the interaction between treatment group and day after weaning had highly significant influences on the overall activity behaviour during rearing (p < 0.001). To summarise, the rearing of long-tailed pigs requires intensive animal observation and direct intervention in case of tail-biting outbreaks. A provision of raw material on the floor of the piglet nest (suckling period) and in a piglet bowl (rearing period) from the second week of life until the end of rearing cannot prevent tail-biting during rearing, but reduces the occurrence of the behavioural disorder in long-tailed pigs.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Comparison of gamma - irradiation and enzyme supplementation to eliminate
           antinutritional factors in rice bran in broiler chicken diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Khosravi, B. Dastar, M. Aalami, P. Shawrang, O. Ashayerizadeh
      A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation and enzyme supplementation of crude rice bran in broiler chicken diet and their effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal microbial population, and blood profile in broiler chickens. A total of 144 one - day - old Ross 308 broiler chickens were weighed and assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates (floor pen) of 12 broiler chickens per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet formulated to contain 15% crude rice bran (with or without enzyme supplementation) and the diet containing 15% gamma-irradiated rice bran. The chemical changes of crude and gamma-irradiated rice bran were determined before feeding experiment. At the end of the experiment (d 42), growth performance, ileum microflora, and blood profile in broiler chickens were determined. Proximate composition of rice bran was not affected by gamma irradiation, but the contents of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor decreased (up to 98%) (P < 0.05). The use of gamma-irradiated rice bran improved (P < 0.05) the body weight gain than crude rice bran. Moreover, broiler chickens on gamma-irradiated rice bran treatment had greater (14.9%) body weight gain compared to the enzyme supplementation. Although, none of the treatments had a major effect on the carcass percentage, the breast percentage (22.4%) increased (P < 0.05) because of the enzyme supplementation compared to those (18.5%) of broiler chickens on crude rice bran diet. The relative weight of liver and abdominal fat pad decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding of gamma - irradiated rice bran than the enzyme supplemented diet. Lower numbers (P < 0.05) of salmonella were found in the ileum of broiler chickens fed gamma-irradiated rice bran when compared to the use of the enzyme supplemented diet. Blood profile was not affected by the treatments. The results indicated that gamma irradiation could be a more effective method to reduce the content of antinutritional factors in crude rice bran than enzyme supplementation and improve growth performance and health of broiler chickens.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Core body temperature does not cool down with skin surface temperature
           during recovery at room temperature after acute heat stress exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Sapkota, A. Herr, J.S. Johnson, D.C. Lay
      Identifying new methods of assessing livestock welfare is a growing area of research. Non-invasive methods such as infrared thermography are valuable for quick and accurate observations and could be utilized to monitor the thermal status of swine without direct contact. The study objective was to determine if infrared thermography could be used as a non-invasive, hands-off approach to accurately monitor the welfare of swine by comparing changes in skin surface temperature (SST), core body temperature (CBT), behavior, and heart rate during acute heat stress (AHS) and subsequent recovery in thermoneutral (TN) conditions. In eight replications, 16 pigs (n = 8 barrows and 8 gilts) were subjected to AHS (39.3 ± 0.1°C) for 30 min followed by TN (20.6 ± 0.1°C) for 30 min. The SST, CBT, heart rate, and behavioral data were recorded throughout the entire experiment. During pre-treatment, ear base SST was greater (P < 0.01; 35.6 ± 0.3°C) than all other locations. The SST at all locations increased (P < 0.01) linearly with duration of AHS exposure. During TN, maximum CBT was greater (P < 0.01; 40.6 ± 0.1°C) compared to during AHS (40.3 ± 0.1°C). Pigs spent more time standing during AHS (P < 0.01) and tended (P = 0.10) to lie more during TN; however, heart rate (141 ± 2.3 beats per minute) was not affected by treatment or duration. In summary, rapid TN exposure after an AHS challenge reduces SST; however, CBT was actually increased and this may have implications towards reduced activity and increased organ damage.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype block structure in Limousin,
           Simmental and native Polish Red cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. Jasielczuk, A. Gurgul, T. Szmatoła, T. Ząbek, K. Pawlina, E. Semik, M. Bugno-Poniewierska
      The aim of this study was to characterize in detail linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and haplotype block structures in genomes of commercial Limousin (LM, n=201) and Simmental (SM, n=106) cattle and refer this data to the characteristics found in native unselected Polish Red (PR, n=299) cattle. A panel of 40,158 (LM), 40,117 (SM) and 42,118 (PR) high quality SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers from Illumina BovineSNP50 v2 BeadChip were utilized for the LD analysis based on the pairwise r2 statistic of SNPs at a distance up to 5Mb. The lower average r2 of 0.27 was observed in RP cattle at a short distance up to 25kb when compared to two other studied breeds (0.3 in both LM and SM). The minimum average values of r2 (0.01) were observed at the distances of 1500–3000kb in LM and 3000–5000kb in SM. In PR cattle LD persisted similarly as in SM cattle and the minimum average values of r2 (0.02) were observed at a distance of 3000–5000kb. The effects of minor allelic frequency threshold on the extent of LD was also evaluated by applying three different minimum MAF levels (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2). A total of 828 (LM), 667 (SM) and 761 (PR) haplotype block structures spanning 89,781kb (LM), 72,582kb (SM) and 70,647kb (PR) of the genome were detected. In total, 7.92% (LM), 6.43% (SM) and 6.52% (PR) of all SNPs formed blocks with a range of 2–15 SNPs per block in LM and SM breeds and 2–16 SNPs per block in PR cattle. Mean block lengths were slightly lower in RP cattle than in two other breeds and were estimated as 108.4±99kb, 108.8±97kb and 92.8±87 for LM, SM and PR respectively. For all studied breeds chromosome 1 showed the longest haplotype block structures in the genome, having 66 blocks spanning 8,120kb in LM, 57 blocks spanning 6,754kb in SM and 59 blocks spanning 5,920kb in PR. The results showed slightly faster LD decay in Polish Red cattle (especially at short distances) than in two other breeds and shorter haplotype block structures which may result from population demographic history, overall genetic diversity as well as extensive breeding applied in this breed.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing
           dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Katariina Manni, Marketta Rinne, Arto Huuskonen
      The objective of this experiment was to examine effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage, with digestible organic matter of 703g/kg dry matter (DM). The feeding experiment comprised of a total of 33 bulls (17 Holstein and 16 Nordic Red) with an initial mean live weight of 230kg and age of 200 days and a slaughter age of 566 days. During the feeding experiment the bulls were fed ad libitum either grass silage alone (GS) or a total mixed ration where contained rolled barley grain was added. Barley concentrations were either 300g/kg DM during the whole experiment (SC) or 600g/kg DM during only the early (DC) or late (IC) half of the growing period. When barley proportion was doubled in the diet during the early part of the growing period, it had no effect on the total DMI (SC vs. DC). Including barley in the diet during the late part of growing period increased barley intake by 30% (P< 0.05) compared to the other treatments where barley was given. Silage DM intake decreased on average by 27% (P< 0.05) when barley was included in the diet over the whole growing period (GS vs. others). Including barley in the diet during the late part of growing period increased LWG over the total growing period by 17% (P< 0.05) compared to the silage only treatment (IC vs. GS). When barley was included in the diet during the early part of the growing period, carcass fat score decreased by 20% (P< 0.05) compared to the treatment where barley was included in the diet during the late part of the growing period (DC vs. IC). Although good quality grass silage as a sole feed could support moderate to high levels of performance of growing cattle, including barley to the diet further improved the performance of animals. The present study demonstrated the ability of growing bulls to adapt to different feeding regimes without major effects on performance. This gives flexibility into choosing feeding strategies based on feed availability and prices resulting in potential benefits in the economy of beef production.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Expression of nerve growth factor in skin tissues and its effect on the
           proliferation of outer root sheath cells in cashmere goats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): W. Ma, H.X. Yang, L.M. Sun, H.Z. Jiang, C.Q. Wang, H. Tian, G.S Zhang
      Nerve growth factor (NGF) is widely expressed in the nervous system and best understood for its neuronal function. The present study was designed to describe the characteristics of hair follicles and the expression pattern of NGF and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkA), in the skin of Liaoning cashmere goats during hair follicle cycling. Results of hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that there was a high ratio of secondary to primary follicles, with more active secondary follicles during anagen phase than other phases. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot showed that both NGF and TrkA mRNA and protein levels were persistently detected in the skin tissue during hair follicle cycling. Furthermore, NGF and TrkA mRNA and protein levels during anagen were significantly higher than that during catagen. Using immunohistochemistry, the especially high immunoreactivities of TrkA in the outer root sheath (ORS) and NGF in the internal root sheath (IRS) and ORS were observed during anagen of hair follicles. Meanwhile, NGF and TrkA immunoreactivities were also observed in the epidermis of cashmere goats at similar expression levels as hair follicles. ORS cells were isolated from secondary follicle, and NGF treatment experiments were also studied. Result show that 20ng/mL or 100ng/mL NGF could significantly promote the proliferation of ORS cells in vitro, but the promotion could be blocked by the addition of 20ng/mL K252a, the inhibitor of TrkA. The present study indicates that NGF might be involved in the reconstruction and growth of hair follicles through TrkA tyrosine kinase dependent pathways.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Use of different rooting materials to improve hygiene and to lower ammonia
           emissions within the outdoor concrete area in organic growing finishing
           pig production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Anne-Charlotte Olsson, Jos Botermans, Mats Andersson, Knut-Håkan Jeppsson, Christer Bergsten
      In organic pig production, pigs are often provided with concrete areas outdoors. These outdoor areas are frequently used for urination and defecation by the pigs, which results in high nitrogen emissions. This is inconsistent with the goal of organic farming to minimise the environmental impact of agricultural production.Introduction of a well-designed rooting yard with an optimal rooting material could possibly be a way to improve the conditions in the outdoor area. In an earlier study, we tested different designs of rooting yards.In the present study, we compared outdoor areas without enrichment (Reference, R) with outdoor areas with rooting yards filled with one of three different kinds of rooting material: wood shavings (W), peat (P) or peat + a small amount of pelleted feed (PF). In total, three batches (batch 1: Dec-April (winter/spring); batch 2:May-Sept (summer); batch 3: Oct-Jan (autumn/winter), in a research facility with eight pens of 16 pigs each, were studied. Data on performance and activity, hygiene and ammonia emissions in the outdoor area were used for the evaluation. No significant differences in performance were seen between treatments.The pigs found the rooting yards with rooting material outdoors attractive and pigs with rooting material outdoors tended to be outdoors more often than pigs in the reference pen. However, the differences were generally not significant, due to large variations. Hygiene outdoors was significantly better in the pens with rooting yards and rooting material than in the reference pen, but there were no significant differences depending on whether the rooting yards were filled with wood shavings,peat or peat with feed pellets. However, while the visual hygiene evaluations showed positive results for all rooting materials tested, the ammonia measurements did not show matching results. Instead, the ammonia emissions from the outdoor area were higher in pens with wood shavings in the rooting yards than in the reference pen. Thus introduction of a rooting yard with rooting material in the outdoor area in organic pig production can have positive results in terms of improved hygiene and reduced ammonia emissions if the rooting material consists of peat.Addition of small amounts of feed pellets in the peat, to make the rooting material more attractive to the pigs, did not give any great positive effect.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Variation of TMR Particle Size and Physical Characteristics in Commercial
           Iranian Holstein Dairies and Effects on Eating Behaviour, Chewing
           Activity, and Milk Production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Esmaieli, M. Khorvash, G.R. Ghorbani, S.M. Nasrollahi, M. Saebi
      Evidence is limited on the effect of physical form of total mixed rations (TMR) on management of group-housed dairy cows in commercial dairy herds. The objective of this study was to consider the variation of TMR particle size (PS) and physical characteristics in commercial dairies and its effects on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production. Fifteen dairy herds, feeding TMR, were each studied for 7 consecutive days. In each herd, a group of multiparous (3.5 ± 0.8 parity; mean ± SD), high producing cows (47 ± 4kg milk/d) in mid-lactation (109 ± 12 DIM) was studied. Herds were visited for 7 consecutive days for sampling fresh and refusal feed from the test group to assess particle size distribution, dry matter, and chemical composition. Chewing activity and milk production were monitored for the group. The 15 herds were divided to 3 classes according to geometric mean particle size of TMR: short, medium, and coarse, with average lengths of 4.6, 5.4, and 6.7 mm respectively. The classes were significantly different in geometric mean particle length (GMPL) and physically effective neutral detergent fibre1.18 (peNDF1.18) (P<0.01), but physically effective neutral detergent fibre8 (peNDF8) was similar between medium and coarse classes. Amount of TMR retained on the 19-mm sieve of Penn State Particle Separator was highest for dairy farms with medium GMPL (P<0.01). Diurnal changes in particle size of refusals and chewing activity were similar among classes; the only difference observed was that daily rumination activity in the medium class tended to be greater than for the short and coarse classes (P=0.10). Milk fat percentage and yield as well as fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) were higher in the classes with medium and coarse TMR PS (P<0.01). Although GMPL and peNDF1.18 of TMR were correlated (P<0.05) only with milk F:P (r = 0.53 and 0.64, respectively), peNDF8 was correlated (P<0.05) with both milk F:P (r = 0.56) and chewing activity (r = 0.60). The 19-mm TMR fraction was the only variable that correlated (P<0.05) with milk fat percentage (r = 0.51) along with a tendency to be correlated (P=0.09) with chewing time. Interestingly, grain percentage of TMR was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with both milk F:P (r = −0.58) and chewing time (r = −0.68). In conclusion, commercial dairy farms considered in this study had a high variation in TMR PS, and peNDF8 and the 19-mm fraction of the Penn State Particle Separator were good indicators for predicting bio-physical responses of cows.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Planimetric measurement as a method for scientific assessment of space
           requirements of young suckling piglets in the creep area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Michaela Fels, Marie Danièle Sange, Nicole Kemper
      In recent years, litter sizes of pigs have continuously increased. In modern pig production, litters with up to 15 or even more piglets born alive are no longer an exception. However, the size of heated creep areas, in which the piglets can retire to rest, has not yet been adapted to the increasing number of piglets per litter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the space requirements of piglets lying in a creep area in order to assess whether common sizes of creep areas are still sufficient to accommodate all piglets of a litter. Thus, the exact floor space that suckling piglets of different weight classes occupied due to their physical size and shape was measured automatically using the colour contrast planimetric method “KobaPlan”. A total number of 234 images of piglets from 0.5kg to 6kg was taken from top view in a special planimetric box. In the digital photo, the number of animal associated pixels was counted by the “KobaPlan” software and compared to a reference area. Thus, the area covered by the individual piglet was calculated. Thereby, it was possible to determine the space the piglets dissipated in lateral and ventral recumbent positions up to the age of three weeks. The results revealed that the space requirements of piglets increased linearly with their weights, independent of lying position. The mean floor space covered by piglets weighing 0.5 to 1.5kg lying on their bellies was 249±42cm², and piglets lying in lateral position covered 275±33cm². Piglets weighing 3.0 to 4.5kg covered more space than lower weight classes in ventral (554±68cm²) and lateral positions (502±41cm²). Piglets in the heaviest weight class (4.5-6.0kg) required 633 ± 52cm2 when lying in a lateral position. Assuming that all piglets were lying in lateral recumbency, for a litter size of 12 piglets weighing up to 6.0kg, a space requirement of 0.76m2 was calculated. For 14 piglets, an area of 0.9m2, and for 16 piglets 1.01m2 is needed. Bearing in mind that litter sizes are growing, a creep area of approximately 0.9m2 is recommended for piglets up to three weeks of age based on a space requirement of 0.06m2 per piglet.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Effects of zinc glycine chelate on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics, bone quality, and mineral content in bone of broiler
           chicken
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Małgorzata Kwiecień, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna Milczarek, Ewa Tomaszewska, Jan Matras
      A total of 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were used to investigate the effects of dietary Zn-Gly (zinc glycine chelate) supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, bone quality, and mineral content in bones. All broilers were randomly assigned to five treatment groups, each of which was replicated five times (10 birds in each cage). 5 groups were formed: control negative - CN (corn-wheat and soybean meal control diet with no supplementation of Zn), control positive – CP (CN + 100mg of Zn as oxide/kg of diet), and 3 groups with Zn-Gly supplementation at three doses: 25, 50, or 100mg·kg−1 (CN + 25, 50, or 100mg of Zn as glycine chelate/kg of diet). The experimental diets were fed to chicks for over 6 weeks. In the study, a positive trend to gain body weight and the weight of breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles was observed when organic Zn was introduced, in particular at a dose of 50 and 25mg. The addition of Zn, regardless of its source, had an effect on the increase (P < 0.05) in the intake of feed. A considerable increase in values such as cross-sectional area (A), second moment of inertia (Ix), and mean relative wall thickness (MRWT) was found both in the femur and in the tibia in the group supplemented with 50mg Zn-Gly. The use of Zn-Gly improved the quality of the tibia and femur and their strength parameters, perhaps due to the increased deposition of Ca and P in bones. The addition of Zn-Gly increased (P < 0.05) the accumulation of Zn in bones. In conclusion, these results suggest that the supplementation of Zn-Gly in amounts lower than recommended has no negative effect on the production performance of Ross broiler chickens, which in turn suggests that such an amount of Zn is sufficient to ensure the optimum body weight and positive production performance and is the condition of correct ossification and mineralisation of the bone tissue.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Selection index for meat and milk traits of buffaloes in Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Divier A. Agudelo-Gómez, Jorge H. Agudelo-Trujillo, Mario F. Cerón-Muñoz
      Genetic parameters and breeding values from unitrait, multitrait, and reduced principal component models for weaning weight, yearling weight, weight at 18 months, weight at two years, age at first calving, milk yield, and maternal genetic effects for weaning weight and yearling weight were estimated for dual purpose buffaloes in Colombia. With those values we constructed selection indices (SI) and estimated genetic progress obtained through mating-modeling under various selection criteria and weighted values for each trait. Comparison of SI was performed using duality diagrams in principal components of breeding values obtained by pseudo-simulation of mating with animals selected with the constructed SIs. The index constructed with the first principal component of the reduced range model led to improved meat, milk yield, and age at first calving.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Effects of chito-oligosaccharide on intestinal mucosal amino acid profiles
           and alkaline phosphatase activities, and serum biochemical variables in
           weaned piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): H.S. Yang, X. Xiong, J.Z. Li, Y.L. Yin
      The present experiment was conducted to determine the effects of chito-oligosaccharide (COS) on intestinal mucosal amino acid profiles and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and serum biochemical variables in weaned piglets. A total of 24 piglets (BW = 7.82 ± 0.21kg) were weaned at 25 d of age and were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of two treatments consisting of a basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 30mg/kg COS for a 14-d period. Each treatment was assigned to 6 pens (2 piglets/pen) and 6 piglets (3 males and 3 females) were randomly selected from each treatment (1 pigs/pen) for blood and tissue sampling. Dietary supplementation with COS increased (P < 0.05) serum IgG and urea nitrogen contents, and tended to increase (P < 0.10) serum calcium. The ileal mucosal ALP activity in piglets fed with COS diet were greater (P < 0.05) than that in CON piglets. Dietary supplementation with COS increased (P < 0.05) the contents of Asn and Cys, and tended to increase (P < 0.10) the contents of Asp and Orn in the small intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets. Moreover, the contents of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) in caecal and colonic digesta of weaned piglets were affected (P < 0.05) by dietary COS supplementation. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between dietary COS and intestinal section for mucosal AA contents and digesta SCFA contents in weaned piglets. In conclusion, the results of the present experiment suggest that dietary supplementation with COS affects intestine and immune functions of weaned piglets.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides on growth
           performance, ileal microbial counts, and jejunal morphology in broiler
           chicks exposed to aflatoxins
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): E. Jahanian, A.H. Mahdavi, S. Asgary, R. Jahanian
      The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) on growth performance, ileal microbial population, and jejunal morphology in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks. A total of 336 seven-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 7 experimental treatments with 4 replicates of 12 chicks each. Experimental treatments consisted of a control group (unchallenged group), and a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments, including 2 aflatoxin levels (0.5 and 2ppm) and 3 supplemental MOS levels (0, 1, and 2g/kg). Broiler chicks were challenged with a mix of aflatoxins during 7–28 d of age. Results showed that increasing aflatoxin level resulted in a marked decrease (P<0.01) in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and subsequent average daily gain (ADG); consequently it impaired (P<0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Dietary MOS supplementation increased ADFI (P<0.01) and ADG (P<0.001) in aflatoxin-challenged chicks, resulted in the improvements in FCR values. The retarded ADG was ameliorated by inclusion of 2g/kg of MOS into the diet of aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks. Although incremental levels of aflatoxin decreased (P<0.05) carcass yield, dietary supplementation of MOS up to 2g/kg resulted in an increase in carcass yield. Contamination with 2ppm aflatoxin resulted in increases (P<0.001) in ileal enumerations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, and total negative bacteria at both 28 and 42 d of age. Although the lowest bacterial count was assigned to the control (unchallenged) group, supplemental MOS decreased ileal bacterial populations in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks. Dietary supplementation of 2g/kg of MOS was more effective (P<0.05) in depression of ileal microbial counts in broiler chicks challenged with 0.5ppm aflatoxin. Incremental levels of aflatoxin resulted in considerable (P<0.001) decreases in villi height, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi absorptive area, and apparent villi absorptive area. Moreover, dietary aflatoxin contamination increased crypt depth, goblet cell counts, and lymphoid follicular diameter. These changes, however, were partly modulated by dietary MOS supplementation up to 2g/kg. The present results indicated that although aflatoxicosis reduced growth performance, dietary inclusion of MOS ameliorated the retarded growth via suppressing ileal pathogenic bacteria and enhancing absorptive surface area in broiler chicks.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • A new approach for applied nutritional models: computing parameters of
           dynamic mechanistic growth models using genome-wide prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mateus Castelani Freua, Miguel Henrique de Almeida. Santana, José. Bento Sterman Ferraz
      Nutritional models have long been used as decision support tools by the livestock industry. Despite the advance of genomic prediction, these two disciplines have evolved separately. Because model parameters are responsible to describe between-animal variability, we propose an integration of nutritional models with genomics by means of such parameters. Two dynamic mechanistic models of cattle growth were used: Cornell Cattle Value Discovery System (CVDS) and Davis Growth Model (DGM). We estimated SNP marker effects for their parameters and also for observed phenotypes. Then, we compared what would be the best prediction scenario – model simulation with parameters computed from genomic data or genomic prediction directly on higher phenotypes. We found that genomic prediction on dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) are still a better approach than using CVDS for predictions. Dry matter required (DMR), a CVDS-predicted value for DMI had higher correlation (r = 0.253) with observed DMI than results from genomic prediction (r = 0.07). DGM had better predictive ability (r = 0.38) than genomic prediction on ADG (r = 0.098). This is also the case for whole-body protein (r = 0.496) and fat at slaughter (r = 0.505) whose predictions were better with DGM than genomic prediction performed on the observed traits (r = 0.194 and r = 0.183, respectively). When contrasting simulations with genomically predicted parameters to those with regularly computed ones, CVDS showed moderate correlation and low bias between simulations of DMR (r = 0.966; b = 0.9%) and ADG (r = 0.645; b = 5.5%). Although further model development is necessary, the DGM with subject-specific parameters computed from genotypic data was a better option for predicting phenotypes than genomic prediction alone. In addition, simulations with genomically and regularly computed parameters match at a reasonable extend. This is the main argument to call attention from the research community that our approach may pave the way for the development of a new generation of applied nutritional models, especially towards individual-based simulations with subject-specific parameters computed from genomic information.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Relationship between the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, phospholipase
           D inoculation and the fertility characteristics of crossbred Boer bucks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Zaid Khudhur Mahmood, Zurin-Azlin Mohd Jin, Faez Firduas Jesse, Abdul Aziz Saharee, Jasni Sabri, Rosnina Yusoff, Abd Wahid Haron
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and phospholipase D (PLD) on buck's fertility, specifically, testosterone concentration, scrotal circumference and semen quality. Crossbred Boer goats (n=13) aged 12-14 months were divided into three groups. The first group (n=3) was inoculated with one ml sterile phosphate buffer saline subcutaneously into subaxillary area as the control. The second group (n=5) was inoculated with live C. pseudotuberculosis 1×109 cfu subcutaneously into subaxillary area. The third group (n=5) was inoculated with PLD one ml/ 20kg BW intravenously into jugular vein. Blood collection was done twice a week over a period of three months for testosterone analyses. Semen was collected using electro-ejaculator once every two weeks whilst scrotal circumference was measured once every three weeks. Semen volume, semen pH and sperm progressive motility, concentration, live/dead percentage and morphology were evaluated. Bucks were euthanized three months’ post inoculation and histopathological examination of the testicles and epididymis was performed. The results showed seven folds’ significant decrease (P<0.05) in testosterone concentration in both C. pseudotuberculosis and PLD inoculated groups compared to the control. Semen volume, percentage of dead/live and abnormal sperm morphology showed significant increase (P<0.05) in both inoculated groups compared to the control. The following sperm defects were observed; tapered sperm, decapitated and knobbed head, thickened midpiece, distal and proximal droplet, sterilizing tail and folded tail. Scrotal circumference, semen pH, semen wave pattern, sperm motility and concentration showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in both inoculated groups compared to the control. The testicles showed varied degrees of degeneration and necrosis with shrunken seminferous tubules. In conclusion, testosterone concentration, scrotal circumference and semen quality were negatively affected in both inoculated groups. Moreover, percentages of live/dead and abnormal sperm morphology were also increased. The results suggest that both C. pseudotuberculosis and PLD had detrimental effects on buck's fertility.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Genetic analyses of mothering ability in sows using field-recorded
           observations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Patrick Stratz, Annik Just, Hans Faber, Jörn Bennewitz
      The improvement of the postpartum survival rate of piglets is important for pig breeding nowadays. For the improvement, breeding for good mothering abilities of sows offer a promising strategy. The aim of the following study was to estimate genetic parameters for mothering ability traits recorded on an five-point ordinal scale (1=”best” to 5=”worst”). Information of 48028 litters and 15688 sows belonging to different lines and crosses was available. Genetic parameters were estimated by applying a linear mixed- and a threshold model. Pairwise bivariate analyses were conducted for the linear mixed model (LMM) in order to calculate correlations. The estimates for the heritability (repeatability) using the LMM are between 0.02 and 0.07 (0.05 and 0.09). With the threshold model the heritability (repeatability) estimates are between 0.05 and 0.15 (0.08 and 0.17). The difference between repeatability and heritability points to a huge impact of the permanent environment. The threshold model seems to be more suitable for analysing the data. The heritability estimated for group - and nursing behaviour with the threshold model was highest (0.15 and 0.10). All the correlations were positive and the genetic correlations were in accordance with the phenotypic correlation. The genetic correlation for piglet vitality and estrus behaviour was zero. The highest genetic correlations were estimated between nursing – (group behaviour) and litter balance and piglet weaning weight. For nursing behaviour and piglet weaning weight the genetic correlation was 0.86. Accelerating genetic gain for good mothering abilities of sows will be possible. Especially nursing - and group behaviour seem to be promising traits. For the implementation in breeding programs, clearly defined traits are required and correlations between mothering ability and common production traits (e.g. daily weight gain) should be investigated.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Genetic parameters of cryptorchidism and testis size in Friesian colts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Anouk Schurink, Adrianne de Jong, Hans R. de Nooij, Ids Hellinga, Bart J. Ducro
      In males with cryptorchidism, one or both testes do not descend into the scrotum thereby affecting among other things fertility. Testis size has been suggested to contribute to cryptorchidism. Therefore, the aim of our study was to estimate genetic parameters of cryptorchidism and testis size in Friesian colts. Data on cryptorchidism (0/1, n = 1,327) and testis size (cm, n = 868 with size of both testes estimated) in Friesian colts of 1 to 7 months-of-age were gathered by a veterinarian during inspections from 2009 to 2012. Heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using ASReml4 including age of the colt (in months), location, year and month of inspection as fixed effects. Prevalence of cryptorchidism was 14.2%. Most affected colts (88.3%) were unilateral, while 11.7% were bilateral cases. Of the unilateral cases, significantly fewer colts had a left retained testis (35.5%) compared to a right retained testis (64.5%). Heritability of cryptorchidism was 0.13 (SE = 0.06) and increased slightly when only cases of 4 months and older were considered. Based on literature and our findings we advise not to inspect colts at a very young age. Mean testis size significantly differed between left (3.47cm) and right testis (3.19cm). Heritability of left testis size (0.12±0.07) was lower compared to heritability of right testis size (0.31±0.10), where genetic correlation between left and right testis size was 0.87 (SE = 0.12). The genetic correlation between left testis size and cryptorchidism was −0.94 (SE = 0.15) and between right testis size and cryptorchidism was −0.64 (SE = 0.23). At the age of the investigated Friesian colts, cryptorchidism genetically coincides with smaller testis size. The development of the left and right testis might differ, which could be hereditary in nature. More precise phenotyping, like recording position and size (and side) of the retained testis and age of the stallion, might contribute additionally to disentangling the genetic background of equine cryptorchidism and identifying the gene(s) affecting this disorder. For now, the continuation of the data recording as described in our study will enable the studbook to estimate breeding values and thereby select against cryptorchidism.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T10:08:41Z
       
  • Growth and reproduction genomic-polygenic and polygenic parameters and
           prediction trends as Brahman fraction increases in an Angus-Brahman
           multibreed population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.A. Elzo, R. Mateescu, M.G. Thomas, D.D. Johnson, C.A. Martinez, D.O. Rae, J.G. Wasdin, M.D. Driver, J.D. Driver
      The objectives of this research were to estimate genomic-polygenic and polygenic parameters and to evaluate prediction trends as Brahman fraction increased from 0% to 100% in a subtropical multibreed Angus-Brahman (MAB) population for four growth and reproduction traits using single-step genomic-polygenic (GPM) and polygenic models (PM). Traits were 365-d yearling weight (YW), yearling reproductive tract score (RTS), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI). Numbers of phenotypic records were 1,758 for YW, 381 for RTS, 1,385 for AFC, and 985 for FCI. The pedigree file had 6,869 calves, sires, and dams, and genotype file contained 115,711 actual and imputed GGPHD150k SNP markers from 1,547 animals. The 4-trait GPM and PM included contemporary group, age of dam (YW only), sex of calf (YW only), direct heterosis, maternal heterosis (YW only) as fixed effects, and animal and residual as random effects. Genetic parameters were estimated using REML procedures and computed using AIREMLF90. Heritabilities were slightly higher for GPM than PM (0.47 vs. 0.45 for YW, 0.31 vs. 0.30 for RTS, 0.14 vs. 0.12 for AFC, and 0.31 vs. 0.29 for FCI). Genetic correlations were positive between YW and RTS (GPM: 0.55; PM: 0.60), negative between RTS and AFC (GPM: −0.22; PM: −0.55) and between AFC and FCI (GPM: −0.68; PM: −0.67), and near zero for all other trait pairs. The similarity between GPM and PM heritabilities and genetic correlations indicated that the 115,711 GGPHD150k SNP markers added little additional information to that contained in the pedigree. Regression coefficients of breed group EBV means on Brahman fraction were negative (P = 0.0005) for YW, RTS, and FCI, and positive (P < 0.0001) for AFC as Brahman fraction increased. This indicated that heifers with higher Brahman percentages tended to be lighter and less mature as yearlings, older at first calving, and have shorter FCI than heifers with higher Angus percentages under the subtropical environmental conditions of the MAB population. Regression coefficients of individual animal EBV on Brahman fraction showed similar trends, although absolute values were smaller. However, there was a high degree of variation in EBV values within breed groups. Consequently, animals with high, medium, and low EBV existed across all Brahman percentages, thus allowing the selection of replacement animals of all Brahman percentages based on a common set of objectives.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T09:15:12Z
       
  • Genetic trend estimates for milk yield production and fertility traits of
           the Girolando cattle in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ali William Canaza-Cayo, Jaime Araújo Cobuci, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Robledo de Almeida Torres, Marta Fonseca Martins, Darlene dos Santos Daltro, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva
      Annual genetic trends and selection differentials for 305-d milk yield (305MY), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI) were estimated by four selection paths [sires of bulls (SB), dams of bulls (DB), sires of cows (SC), and dams of cows (DC)] for Girolando dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 12,739 lactation records were obtained from the Brazilian Girolando Breeders Association with cows calving in the period from 2000 to 2011. Two periods were involved: the first, from 1979 to 1996, corresponding to the formation and expansion of the herd, and second, from 1997 to 2007, characterized by the implementation of the breeding program of the Girolando breed. The whole period from 1979 to 2007 was also considered. The Wombat program was used to fit an animal model for the analyses. Estimated breeding values were extracted to calculate genetic trends for the four selection paths. Greater significant estimates of annual genetic changes for 305MY were obtained for the SC and SB paths, being both during the second period. The greatest annual genetic change estimates for 305MY were 43.06 and 101.97 milk/yr for SC and DB, respectively, during the second period. A favorable genetic response was found for the SB and SC paths for AFC, averaging −4.24 (second period) and −0.32day/year, respectively. For FCI, this effect was from 0.04 to 0.18 range for all paths. When all selection paths were combined, estimated annual genetic changes for 305MY and AFC were 7.40 milk/yr and −0.13day/yr. Therefore, the results of this study showed that a well-designed genetic program has a positive impact on 305MY and AFC and a little or without impact on FCI in Girolando cattle over a 28-yr period.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • APPLICATION OF GENOMIC DATA TO ASSIST A COMMUNITY-BASED BREEDING PROGRAM:
           A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF COAT COLOR GENETICS IN MORADA NOVA SHEEP
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Maria Malane Magalhães Muniz, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano, Concepta McManus, Lillian Cristina Gomes Cavalcanti, Débora Andrea Evangelista Façanha, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite, Olivardo Facó, Samuel Rezende Paiva
      The Brazilian Sheep Breeders´ Association recognizes two varieties of the Morada Nova hair breed, white and red. However, the black variety and / or animals with a pigmented nose has frequently been disqualified from genealogical records. Previous studies suggest that this genetic group might be similar to the red variety. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a Genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions related to hair color and confirm the position of black relative to other Morada Nova varieties. After quality controls, 48 animals were genotyped for 45.982 SNPs using the OvineSNP50k BeadChip. Estimated Fst values between white and red animals, white and black, and red and black were 10.78% (p<0.00001), 9.23% (p<0.00001), and 2.93% (p<0.00001), respectively. The comparison between white and red (n=30) versus black (n= 18) animals revealed 10 highly significant SNPs, most located in a 6.8Mb window in Oar14 which contains the MC1R gene. Differences between black and red coats are the result of the expression of different alleles of the same gene without directly affecting productive/reproductive characteristics. These two varieties showed low genetic variation, insufficient to define them as different groups, and to increase the breeding herd, the animals with black hair and/or pigmentation of the nose should be used breeding purposes. The results of this study contribute to the discussion of the importance in reconciling conservation, traditional breed standards and breeding of farm animals.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Excess of dietary benzoic acid supplementation leads to growth
           retardation, hematological abnormality and organ injury of piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yan Shu, Bing Yu, Jun He, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Zhengcai Yuan, Daiwen Chen, Xiangbing Mao
      Benzoic acid has been widely used in feed industry as an organic acidifier and preservative. However, it is unknown whether excessive benzoic acid in diets would have a potential risk on pigs. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of benzoic acid that was used in diets of piglets. A total of 120 weaned pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with initial average BW of 8.16 ± 0.09kg (28 ± 1 d of age) were randomly allotted to four groups receiving diets supplementing 0%, 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.0% benzoic acid for 56 d. Supplementing 0.5% benzoic acid in the diet had no negative effects on the growth of piglets, and increased antioxidant enzyme (CAT and GSH-Px) activities in the liver (P < 0.05). Dietary 2.5% benzoic acid supplementation decreased ADFI and ADG of pigs from 1 to 28 d (P < 0.05), reduced the white blood cell and globulin on d 56 (P < 0.05), and resulted in spleen injury on d 28 and d 56. In addition, besides impairing growth performance of pigs during the whole experiment (P < 0.05), supplementing 5.0% benzoic acid in the diet increased the relative liver weight on d 56 (P < 0.05), enhanced the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase of pigs on d 28 (P < 0.05), and led to liver injury. Moreover, dietary 5.0% benzoic acid supplementation also decreased the red cell pressure product, red blood cell volume and increased red cell distribution width-SD/CV on d 28 (P < 0.05), and resulted in the serious spleen damage. When compared with pigs fed by the diet supplemented 0.5% benzoic acid, pigs fed the diets containing 2.5% or 5.0% benzoic acid would have higher benzoic acid residues in the liver and kidneys on d 28 and d 56 (P < 0.05). These results suggested that dietary 0.5% benzoic acid supplementation had the beneficial effects on piglets, but supplementing excessive (2.5% and 5.0%) benzoic acid in the diets could lead to growth retardation, hematological abnormality and the injury of some organs (liver and spleen).


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • A comparison of microbial profiles of different regions of the equine
           hindgut
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): K. Fliegerova, E. Mura, J. Mrázek, G. Moniello
      The microbial profiles of the luminal content of five hindgut segments of one healthy horse were compared with rectal sample to elucidate the effect of anatomical region on bacterial and archaeal community structure and to evaluate the use of faeces as a representative model of large intestine. The qualitative and quantitative changes of the microbial community composition of caecum, right ventral colon, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, right dorsal colon and faeces were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR using universal primers amplifying the V3 region of 16S rDNA. DGGE fingerprints revealed extensive bacterial as well as archaeal diversity in all studied samples and reflected shifts in the community structure among the caecum, the different segments of the colon and the faeces. Archaeal DGGE pattern of the caecum differed from all the other parts of the hindgut. Microbial profile similarities were found between the left and the right dorsal colon and between the left ventral colon and the faeces. The excised DGGE bands were related to uncultured bacteria and methanogens, the dominant archaeal bands of caecum and faeces were related to Methanocorpusculum sp. Diversity indices indicated the higher diversity for bacteria than for archaea and the dominance of some methanogenic species. The real-time PCR revealed the differences in the microbial quantitative composition of each segment, showing the highest number of total bacteria and archaea in the right ventral colon. The analyses of bacterial and archaeal composition along the one equine hindgut indicate that the faecal sample is similar to that of the left ventral colon, but does not represent the microbial community of the caecum and other parts of the colon.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Milk production and milk fatty acids in dairy cows fed crushed rapeseed or
           rapeseed oil
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): A. Hoffmann, S. Görlich, H. Steingass, H. Terry, M. Schollenberger, K. Hartung, R. Mosenthin
      The effect of crushed full fat rapeseed or its free oil on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition was assed using three groups of mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows, assigned to a randomized 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a control (CTL, ether extract 2.3% of dry matter, DM) and two experimental treatments (ether extract 4.2% of DM) supplemented with the same amount of fat either supplied as 4.9% of DM crushed full fat rapeseed, RCor2.2% of DM free rapeseed oil RO. Both experimental treatments increased DM intake (P<0.005) and daily milk yield (P<0.001). Milk fat and protein concentration was decreased in the supplemented diets (p<0.001). A reduced (p<0.001) yield of saturated fatty acids (FA) and an increased yield of long chain and unsaturated FA (p<0.001 for mono unsaturated FA and p<0.05 for poly unsaturated FA) in milk fat was observed for both experimental treatments. The results confirmed a reduced de novo synthesis and an increased carry-over of dietary FA upon feeding dairy cow diets supplemented with long chain and unsaturated FA. The lower degree of saturation in milk fat from cows fed RC compared to RO indicates a partial protection of the crushed rapeseed against ruminal hydrogenation.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Rumen microbial protein flow and plasma amino acid concentrations in early
           lactation multiparity Holstein cows fed commercial rations, and some
           relationships with dietary nutrients
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): N. Swanepoel, P.H. Robinson, L.J. Erasmus
      Common contemporary diet formulation methods involve factorial or empirical models which simulate ruminal fermentation and post ruminal absorption to predict nutrient supply and needs. However, due to their inability to encompass all animal factors that affect digestion and absorption, metabolic models inadequately predict microbial protein (MCP) synthesis in the rumen and passage of nutrients such as protein and amino acids (AA) to the small intestine. Practical and simple on-farm methods to obtain “real time” values directly from cows are required to establish normal ranges of MCP flow from the rumen and plasma AA concentrations on commercial dairy farms. Urine purine derivative (PD) output, an index of MCP supply to the intestine when analyzed in spot urine samples, can accurately predict MCP flow from the rumen under farm conditions. Blood sampling from the tail vein is easily performed on commercial dairy farms and concentrations of free AA in these plasma samples, representative of intestinally absorbed AA, can be used as an index to predict limiting AA. A group of 20 commercial dairy farms, milking 2677±372 cows either 2 or 3 times a day were selected and one of their early lactation pens holding 255±20 cows were used to represent the range of nutritional strategies and rations fed to California dairy cows. On the day of sampling, one load of early lactation total mixed ration (TMR) was sampled and 20 pre-selected cows were body condition scored (BCS). Directly after scoring, the 4 cows with the highest, and the 4 cows with the lowest BCS values were removed to collect 12 tail vein blood samples from the group with average BCS scores. Spot urine samples were collected from all voluntarily urinating cows (retaining 6–12 samples/pen to match the characteristics of the cows pre-selected for BCS scoring and blood sampling). Most rations contained alfalfa hay, corn silage, almond hulls, corn dried distillers grains, corn grain, cottonseed, canola meal (solvent) and a mineral premix. Selected cow groups produced 45±1.2kg milk/day at 73±0.5 days in milk with a BCS of 2.6±0.04 at 2.8 lactations. There were no correlations between MCP and milk production, but MCP flow from the rumen was correlated to organic matter and neutral detergent fiber content of the TMR (P<0.01 and P=0.03 respectively). Plasma AA concentrations were correlated with rumen undegradable crude protein (CP) and starch content of the TMR, with many inter-correlations among AA, but no plasma AA concentration was correlated to milk production. Results show that 8 urine samples and 6 blood samples/group provided accurate representation of the group. This study documents ranges of MCP flowing from the rumen (1703±54.6g CP/day), and plasma AA levels (with low variation within AA), in early lactation multiparity Holstein cows fed a range of contemporary dairy rations with multiple ingredient profile combinations. Since farms selected were well managed operations with cow groups selected to represent averages in early lactation, this data can be used as a benchmark for high, low and mean levels of MCP flow, and plasma AA concentrations, as well as provide real time evaluation of rations to identify possible rumen microbial growth and/or absorbable AA issues in commercial dairy cows.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Estimation of linkage disequilibrium levels and haplotype block structure
           in Chinese Simmental and Wagyu beef cattle using high-density genotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Hong Niu, Bo Zhu, Peng Guo, Wengang Zhang, Jinglong Xue, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Huijiang Gao, Xue Gao, Lingyang Xu, Junya Li
      With the advance of high-throughput genotyping technologies, it is possible to estimate the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype block structure at genome wide level in farm animals. Understanding LD characteristics and haplotype blocks can provide useful information to guide genome wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS). In this study, we investigated the LD pattern and haplotype block structure in two beef cattle populations (Chinese Simmental and Wagyu) using the BovineHD BeadChip. We found the average LD measured by r 2 in Chinese Wagyu was higher than that in Simmental. We observed LD decayed more slowly on the X chromosome than autosomes for both populations. The persistence of LD phase varied from 0.96 at a distance of <2.5kb to 0.51 at a distance from 400kb to 500kb. The estimated ancestral effective population sizes (N e ) in Chin e se Simmental and Wagyu 5 years ago were approximately 74 and 23, respectively. Moreover, we detected 50,475 (991.1Mb, 69.3%) haplotype blocks shared by two populations, 18,440 (238.9Mb, 16.7%) unique blocks in Chinese Simmental and 15,417 (199.8Mb, 14%) in Wagyu. Our study revealed that the r 2 dropped below 0.2 at distances of 34kb and 40kb in Chinese Simmental and Wagyu, which indicated that the implementation of GS for both populations require at least 77,941 and 66,250 markers, respectively. The pattern of LD mirrored the slightly different selection histories for Chinese Simmental and Wagyu, and our result suggested the shared haplotype blocks may offer valuable insights for the implementation of genome wide association and genomic selection studies based on multi-population.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Optimizing the gain of social genetic effect under the control of
           inbreeding using genetic algorithm
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Pingxian Wu, Yanzhi Jiang, Li Zhu, Xuewei Li, Guoqing Tang
      Social interactions among animals are widely existed in livestock population. However, some studies showed that the selection of social genetic effect leaded to extra increase of inbreeding. In this study, two optimization methods (SBLUP+GA1, SBLUP+GA2) based on genetic algorithm were used to obtain the optimal genetic contributions of seedstocks and maximize the average genetic gains of direct and social genetic component while minimizing the inbreeding. In SBLUP+GA1, only the contributions of sires were optimized. In SBLUP+GA2, the contributions of sires and dams were optimized together. The results showed SBLUP+GA1 and SBLUP+GA2 resulted in 18.52% and 25.93% lower inbreeding rate than common social genetic effect selection based on BLUP method (SBLUP) under base parameters, respectively. Under that situation, the average gains for direct, social and total genetic effect component in SBLUP+GA1 were actually improved 3.59%, 10.02% and 4.32% relative to SBLUP, respectively. In SBLUP+GA2, they were 1.28%, 10.00% and 2.02%, respectively. SBLUP+GA2 resulted in lower inbreeding rate, but, obtained slightly less genetic gain than SBLUP+GA1.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • An association analysis between a missense polymorphism at the pig PCSK9
           gene and serum lipid and meat quality traits in Duroc pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Wojciech Chański, Rayner González-Prendes, Anna Castelló, Jordi Jordana, Arianna Manunza, Raquel Quintanilla, Marcel Amills
      A genome-wide association analysis in a Duroc pig population allowed us detecting a genomic region on pig chromosome 6 (141–147Mb) that was associated with serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TRIG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations. This region contains the proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene (SSC6, 145Mb), which has a key role in the regulation of CD36, LDL receptor and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor levels. In the current work, we have genotyped by pyrosequencing a missense PCSK9 c.1222G>A mutation (E408K) in 273 Duroc pigs. The performance of an association analysis with the GEMMA software did not reveal any association between PCSK9 genotype and serum lipid concentrations, evidencing that this polymorphism is not the causal mutation of the CHOL, TRIG, and LDL SSC6 QTL. However, we detected an association, that was highly significant at the nominal level, between PCSK9 genotype and palmitelaidic content at the gluteus medius muscle (P-value = 0.008). There is evidence that PCSK9 induces the degradation of CD36, a key long-chain fatty acid transporter, and that it may decrease the uptake of palmitate. However, the E408K polymorphism analysed in the current work is not predicted to be deleterious, suggesting that the associations found are probably due to the linkage of this polymorphism with a causal mutation yet to be found.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
 
 
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