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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 669 journals)
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Journal Cover Livestock Science
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2566 journals]   [SJR: 0.728]   [H-I: 63]
  • Effects of replacing soybean meal with dried rumen digesta on feed intake,
           digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentation and nitrogen use efficiency
           in Thai cattle fed on rice straw
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Cherdthong , M. Wanapat , A. Saenkamsorn , N. Waraphila , W. Khota , D. Rakwongrit , N. Anantasook , P. Gunun
      This study assessed the feed intake, nutrient intake, apparent digestibility of nutrient, rumen fermentation and nitrogen utilization of beef cattle fed with different soybean meal (SBM) replacement levels with dried rumen digesta (DRD) at 0, 33, 67 and 100%. Four 1.5-year-old Thai native beef cattle steers with initial body weight (BW±SD) of 92.1±4.59kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. All animals were fed rice straw ad libitum while additional concentrate was fed at 0.5% BW daily. Replacement of DRD for SBM were not altered (P>0.05) on total DM intake while the intake of rice straw of the 100% DRD diet was higher than that of the other diets, and it significantly increased with increase in the replacement level of SBM with DRD (P<0.05). Intakes of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), digestible organic matter intake, digestible organic matter fermented in the rumen and metabolizable energy showed no difference when compared to those on the control diet (P>0.05). The experimental diets has no effect (P>0.05) on the apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP and ADF while aNDF digestibility increased with an increase of DRD in the diet and was highest when inclusion of 100% DRD. No differences (P>0.05) were found in ammonia nitrogen concentration, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and VFAs profiles in the rumen fluid of cattle fed with DRD when compared to those on control diet. Similarly, N use efficiencies were not altered with level of DRD in the diet. Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of SBM by DRD as feed ingredient in cattle diets up to 100% dietary level resulted in improved rice straw intake and aNDF digestibility in beef cattle, without affecting the rumen fermentation or nitrogen use efficiency.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T03:26:09Z
       
  • Computational approach to utilisation of mitochondrial DNA in the
           verification of complex pedigree errors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mato Čačić , Vlatka Cubric Curik , Strahil Ristov , Ino Curik
      Mitochondrial DNA information can be used to verify pedigree concordance of both close and remote relatives along maternal lines. Different haplotypes in the same maternal line point out to an error in the pedigree. This has been used in several studies as the indication of the accuracy of the pedigree data. In all of these studies the collation of the haplotype data has been performed manually. With large pedigrees this is a tedious work prone to mistakes. We present the computational approach to this task based on the algorithm that systematically traces non-concordance among all sequenced individuals through maternal pedigree. Based on the number of found errors, we have introduced several numerical descriptors of pedigree quality. We demonstrate the functionality of our program with the analysis of a small example taken from a long and complex Lipizzan horse pedigree.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T03:26:09Z
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage on growth performance
           and cecal bacterial populations in broiler chickens raised in different
           housing systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.H. Kim , J.W. Kim , B.B. Lee , G.I. Lee , J.H. Lee , G.-B. Kim , D.Y. Kil
      This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary bacteriophage (BP) on growth performance and cecal bacterial populations in broiler chickens raised in different housing systems. A total of 1,170 1-d-old broiler chickens were housed in either battery cages (120 birds) or conventional floor pens (1,050 birds). Within each housing system, birds were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 5 replicates. Dietary treatments included basal diets (negative control; NC), basal diets with 0.025 g/kg avilamycin (positive control; PC), and basal diets with 0.5g/kg BP mixture (BP5). The mixture of the individual BP targeting at Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Derby, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens was used in this experiment. Diets were fed to birds for d 35. The effects of housing systems, dietary treatments, and their interactions were analyzed. No interactions for all measurements were observed, and thus, the main effects were presented. During overall experiment, birds raised in battery cages had greater (P<0.01) BW gain (BWG), feed intake, and less (P<0.01) feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those raised in floor pens. Greater BWG was observed (P<0.05) for PC treatment than for NC treatment, but those for BP5 treatment had intermediate values between other treatment groups. The FCR was less (P<0.05) for PC and BP5 treatment groups than for NC treatment, but there was no difference between PC treatment and BP5 treatment. For cecal bacterial populations, birds raised in battery cages had less (P<0.05) DNA copy numbers for Clostridium perfringens, but greater (P<0.05) DNA copy numbers for Escherichia coli than those raised in floor pens. The BP5 treatment had less (P<0.05) DNA copy numbers for Clostridium perfringens compared with NC treatment. In conclusion, dietary BP improves growth performance of broiler chickens and decreases targeted pathogenic bacteria populations, especially for Clostridium perfringens in the gastrointestinal tract. This positive effect is likely independent of housing systems.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T03:26:09Z
       
  • Barley does not change threonine requirement in growing pigs fed a
           barley-casein-based diet compared to a casein-based diet, as determined by
           the indicator amino acid oxidation method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.B. Myrie , R.F. Bertolo , S. Moehn , R.O. Ball
      Ileal threonine (Thr) losses increase when young pigs are fed high fiber ingredients such as barley. Barley contains several anti-nutritive factors, e.g., insoluble fibers, which stimulate the secretion of intestinal mucin, a Thr-rich glycoprotein. We hypothesized that because the gut utilizes the majority of dietary Thr, primarily for mucin synthesis, an increase in mucin secretion and ileal losses of Thr will increase the whole body Thr requirement. The objective of this experiment was to compare the Thr requirement of pigs fed a barley-casein diet to a casein diet, using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Six barrows were fed diets containing 12% casein or 50% barley/6% casein at 50g /kg body weight/d. After a 7-d adaptation on the 0.35g Thr/kg body weight casein-based diet, pigs were fed casein diets with each of seven Thr levels (0.21 to 0.54g Thr/kg body weight in a random order) for 2 days with phenylalanine oxidation measured at the end of each period. After a 10-d adaptation to the barley-based diet, the same protocol was followed for barley-based diets with seven Thr levels in the same pigs. Using two-phase linear regression crossover analysis to determine breakpoints in individual pigs, the requirement on casein diet was 0.355±0.014g Thr/kg body weight/day, and 0.397±0.038g Thr/kg body weight/day on barley diets. Overall there was no difference (P>0.05) in Thr requirement between diets.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T03:26:09Z
       
  • Growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of Mubende and
           MubendexBoer crossbred goats under different feeding regimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Asizua , D. Mpairwe , F. Kabi , D. Mutetikka , K. Kamatara , T. Hvelplund , M.R. Weisbjerg , S.K. Mugasi , J. Madsen
      A surge in the demand for goats’ meat both locally and internationally has prompted many goat farmers in Uganda to venture into commercial goat production. However, goat production is highly challenged by breed characteristics and extreme fluctuations in feed quantity and quality. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing grazing Mubende goats and their crossbreds (Mubende x Boer) with concentrates on growth, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. A 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement was used to randomly allocate 96 pure Mubende and Mubende x Boer castrates (mean±SE; 31.3±2.2kg initial weight) aged between 9 and 15 months, to three feeding regimes. The feeding regimes included (i) sole grazing (SGZ) as control, (ii) control+concentrate containing molasses (MCM) and (iii) control+concentrate without molasses (MCC). Concentrate dry matter intake was higher (P<0.001) in the crossbreds regardless of concentrate type, however, inclusion of molasses resulted in lower concentrate intake. The Mubende goats were more efficient in utilising concentrate with molasses while the crossbreds utilised concentrate without molasses more efficiently. Average daily gain (ADG) was higher (P<0.001) in the crossbreds and in the supplemented groups. Slaughter weight, empty body weight and hot carcass weight were also higher (P<0.001) in the crossbreds than the pure Mubende. Supplementation reduced gut fill (P<0.001) and increased (P<0.001) hot carcass weight and dressing percentage in both genotypes. Proportion of non-carcass components as percentage of empty body weight did not vary between genotypes but supplementation reduced (P<0.01) proportion of skin with hocks and empty stomach. Kidney fat, omental fat and scrotal fat increased (P<0.001) with supplementation. Therefore, crossbreeding together with supplementation of grazing can considerably improve goat meat production, however, caution should be taken on the level of concentrate supplement offered as tendency for absolute substitution of concentrate for grass/browse by goats was observed in this study.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T03:26:09Z
       
  • Effects of β-mannanase supplementation on growth performance,
           nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen utilization of Korean native goat
           (Capra hircus coreanae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jung-Jin Lee , Jakyeom Seo , Jae Keun Jung , Junsung Lee , Jae-Hwan Lee , Seongwon Seo
      The use of agricultural by-products possessing high β-mannan content as an animal feed ingredient has become increasingly important in achieving cost-effective agriculture. Recent studies showed improvement in growth performance from a diet containing high β-mannan concentrations by the addition of β-mannanase in monogastric animals. Few studies, however, have been conducted to examine the value of β-mannanase supplementation in ruminant diets. In the present study, the effects of β-mannanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen (N) utilization were investigated in growing Korean native goats (Capra hircus coreanae). Twelve Korean native goats (13±1.9kg) were divided into three groups and randomly allocated into one of the following treatments: (1) control (CON), (2) 0.1% β-mannanase supplementation (TRT1), or (3) 0.3% β-mannanase supplementation (TRT2) in a concentrate mix based on dry matter (DM). Diets composed of 40% of tall fescue hay and 60% of each concentrate mix were formulated to meet the National Research Council requirements for indigenous goats. No difference was observed among treatments in terms of DM intake and highest DM and organic matter digestibility (P<0.05) were observed in goats fed CON. However, β-mannanase supplementation significantly increased the average daily gain (P<0.05) and improved feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) as well as N retention (P<0.05). The N intake (P<0.05) and biological value (P<0.10) increased linearly by increasing the dosage of supplementation of β-mannnase. No difference was observed between the two levels of β-mannanase supplementation. In conclusion, β-mannanase supplementation may promote growth and feed efficiency in ruminant animals receiving feedstuffs with high β-mannan concentrations.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T03:08:41Z
       
  • Effect of rotationally grazing perennial ryegrass white clover or
           perennial ryegrass only swards on dairy cow feeding behaviour, rumen
           characteristics and sward depletion patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Enriquez-Hidalgo , D. Hennessy , T. Gilliland , M. Egan , J.F. Mee , E. Lewis
      The effect of sward type, grass only (GO) or grass white clover (GWc), on lactating dairy cow feeding behaviour, herbage depletion rate and rumen function was investigated in rotationally strip-grazed swards at a daily herbage allowance of 17kg dry matter (DM)/cow/day, in two experiments. In 2011, eight rumen-cannulated cows were blocked into two groups and allocated to each sward type for a 14-d period in a change-over design (2 sward types×2 periods) on three occasions: late spring, summer, and autumn. Feeding behaviour, rumen pH and rumen volatile fatty acids and ammonia contents were measured. Following a continuous design, in 2012 feeding behaviour and herbage depletion rate measurements were undertaken at similar times to those in 2011 over 2 to 3 weeks in late spring, summer and autumn. Twenty-six (spring) and 36 (summer and autumn) cows were used. Grazing sward height (GSH) was measured five times/d. The percentage of grazed vegetative units, and the extended tiller height, free leaf lamina, tiller DM weight and tiller leaf DM weight of perennial ryegrass (ryegrass) tillers were estimated four times/d. During late spring, summer and autumn, sward white clover content (DM basis) was 7.5, 8.8 and 30.9%, respectively, in 2011, and 18.0, 29.7 and 30.6%, respectively, in 2012. In 2011 cows had similar grazing times on both sward types. Cows on GWc spent less time ruminating than cows on GO. Cows had similar total volatile fatty acids on both swards but the isoacids and D-lactic acid percentages, ammonia content and rumen pH were higher in autumn for cows grazing GWc. In 2012, cows on GWc grazed for longer in late spring, ruminated for less time in summer and for less time at night in autumn compared to cows grazing the GO sward. Both sward types had similar post grazing sward heights and sward height depletion rates, except during morning grazing in autumn, when GWc had a greater sward height depletion rate. A similar percentage of grazed ryegrass tillers was observed between sward types, but the percentage of ryegrass grazed was greater than the percentage of white clover grazed in the GWc swards. The ryegrass tillers in the GWc swards were smaller than those in the GO swards but had similar depletion rates. The GWc swards influenced cow feeding behaviour and rumen characteristics with increased effect in autumn because of an increase in white clover content and a decrease in ryegrass quality.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T03:08:41Z
       
  • Defining farmer typology to analyze the current state and development
           prospects of livestock breeds: The Avileña-Negra Ibérica beef
           cattle breed as a case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Martín-Collado , K. Soini , A. Mäki-Tanila , M.A. Toro , C. Díaz
      We developed a general farmer socioeconomic typology to help in analysing the herd dynamics and farmers’ decision making and in designing strategies for the development of local animal breeds. The typology was built on few measurable socioeconomic factors that are often used as indicators of the economic and cultural capital of farmers. We used a sample of 85 farmers of the Spanish Avileña-Negra Ibérica (ANI) local cattle breed to illustrate and test the procedure. The farmer types were defined by a hierarchical cluster analysis with a set of canonical variables derived from five socioeconomic factors: formal educational level and age of a farmer, year since the farmer started keeping the ANI breed, percentage of the total household income covered by the farm and percentage of the total farm land owned by the farmer. Five farmer types were determined based on the formal educational level of a farmer and on the percentage of the total household income covered by the farm: (1) Land owners, medium educated; (2) Owners of part of the farm land, low educated; (3) Owners of part of the farm land, high educated; (4) Landless farmers, medium educated; and (5) Landless farmers, low educated. The farmer types were found to be linked to several other attributes used in summarising farm profiles. The farmer types also differed in how farmers make farm management decisions about herd size and breed composition, breeding aims and collaborative activities with other farmers. In addition, the farmer types had a variable dependency on subsidy payments suggesting that the changes in subsidy programme will lead to a redistribution of farmers across the types. We conclude that typologies based on farmers’ cultural and economic capital, could be a useful tool to foresee farmers’ decision-making concerning the on-farm breed development


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T03:08:41Z
       
  • Adaptation to Himalayan High altitude pasture sites by yaks and different
           types of hybrids of yaks with cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.R. Barsila , M. Kreuzer , N.R. Devkota , L. Ding , S. Marquardt
      Yaks are well adapted to the harsh climate and hypoxia occurring under high altitude grazing conditions of the Himalayan Mountains. However, it is unclear to which degree different types of hybrids of yaks and cattle, common in the Himalaya, tolerate these conditions and how they perform and behave under these circumstances. Six multiparous females, each of yaks (Bos grunniens) and two hybrid types (B. taurus (♂)×B. grunniens (♀) (Dimjos) and B. grunniens (♂)×B. indicus (♀) (Urangs)) were investigated at a high (4700m, August) and a medium altitude pasture site (3050m, October). After 1 week of adaptation, at both pasture sites milk yield and composition, body weight, metabolic traits and movement behaviour were measured during 6 days and analysed for effects of pasture site, genotype and interaction. Blood haemoglobin was high in yaks, intermediate in Dimjos and low in Urangs. At the high altitude pasture site, yaks had the lowest and Urangs had the highest blood lactate concentrations. These differences disappeared at the medium altitude site. Heart rate was higher and heart rate variability smaller at the high altitude site. Respiration rate was highest in the evening and rectal temperature in the morning in all groups at the high altitude site, being highest in yaks. At the high altitude site, the animals spent overall more time (min/24h) standing (931) and less time lying (333) than at the medium altitude site (608 and 603, respectively), with the least altitude differences found in the yaks. Yield of energy-corrected milk (kg/day) was highest in Dimjos (2.7 vs. 1.9 and 1.9 in yaks and Urangs, respectively) and declined from high (3.1) to medium altitude site (1.3); this probably influenced by stage of lactation and forage quality. The same trend was found for milk fat and protein yields. Yak milk had the highest fat content, especially at the medium altitude site. Results showed that both hybrid types were less tolerant to the conditions at the high altitude pasture site than yaks. Among hybrids, Dimjos were superior to Urangs in their tolerance of the particular pasture conditions, and also showed a better performance than the Urangs at both pasture sites.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T03:08:41Z
       
  • Effects of supplemental dietary sodium bicarbonate on performance of
           lactating Holstein cows during the summer season in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L.B. Correa , M.A. Zanetti , A. Saran Netto , G.R. Del Claro , F.A. Paiva , P.G.M.A. Martins
      Our objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on DMI, milk production, and DMI:milk production ratio (feed efficiency) in cows after peak lactation. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were allotted to a 4×4 replicated Latin square, for 72 days during the summer season. Four diets with different sodium bicarbonate concentrations were formulated to have+150,+250,+400, and+500meq/kg (DM-basis) DCAD levels. The measured DCAD values were+155,+289,+410, and+491meq/kg, respectively. Increasing DCAD resulted in greater (P<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production. There was no difference in feed efficiency among treatments. Due to increased DMI and milk production, a beneficial effect of cationic diets was observed after peak lactation. Because increasing DCAD concentration resulted in a linear increase in DMI and milk production, studies with greater DCAD concentrations will be required to determine the optimal DCAD for maximum DMI and milk production, during the summer season.


      PubDate: 2014-09-14T03:00:52Z
       
  • Effect of reduced crude protein on ammonia, methane, and chemical Odorants
           emitted from pig houses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Michael J. Hansen , Jan V. Nørgaard , Anders Peter S. Adamsen , Hanne D. Poulsen
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of reduced crude protein level in finisher diets on ammonia, methane, and chemical odorants emitted from pig houses. Over a period of 44 days, pigs in two similar houses with 32 pigs (55–100kg) in each were fed either a low-protein or a standard protein diet containing 136 or 159g crude protein kg−1, respectively. The diets were formulated to be isoenergetic (8.1MJ net energy kg−1 as fed) and were supplemented with indispensable amino acids to fulfill amino acid recommendations. A photo acoustic gas monitor was used to measure ammonia and methane during the whole experimental period, and Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to measure chemical odorants during the last 11 days. The results demonstrated that the crude protein level could be reduced by supplementing indispensable amino acids without impairing growth, feed utilization, and meat percentage. Reduced crude protein level lowered the ammonia emission, whereas no significant effect was seen on the methane emission and the total odor activity value based on chemical odorants. In conclusion, reduced crude protein level is an effective method to reduce ammonia emitted from pig houses. However, more research is needed to investigate how optimization of the amino acids content can influence the emission of individual chemical odorants. Furthermore, PTR-MS was demonstrated to be a suitable method for estimating the effect of a given feeding strategy on the emission of chemical odorants.


      PubDate: 2014-09-14T03:00:52Z
       
  • Interaction between genotype and geographical region for milk production
           traits of Iranian Holstein dairy cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mehdi Bohlouli , Jalil Shodja , Sadegh Alijani , Nasrollah Pirany
      In order to investigate the presence of genotype by environment (G×E) interactions, first lactation milk production records of Iranian Holstein cows were used. The data were collected by the National Animal Breeding Center of Iran, Karaj. The records were classified by herds in cold, semi-cold, moderate or warm regions based on climatic data of weather stations. The edited data that were collected between 2004 and 2010, included 618343, 472597 and 243792 test day records for milk, fat and protein yields, respectively. Variance components were estimated using Bayesian's Gibbs sampling method in a Random Regression Model (RRM). For all traits, after examining models according to DIC, better fitting RRM was the model with heterogeneous residual variances. Genetic parameters estimates for milk production traits were different in the four regions. The highest genetic variances were obtained for cold climate regions; and the highest residual variances across the lactation were obtained for warm climate. Genetic variances and heritability estimates revealed unequal genetic expression of Holstein genes under different climates. Generally, for fat and protein yields, the genetic correlation between different regions was lower than that for milk yield, especially for genetic correlations of protein yield between cold and warm regions (ranged from 0.22 to 0.48). The lower correlations between warm and other regions, especially at the beginning and the end of lactation, showed that a trait in different environments was genetically different traits. For milk and fat yields, the high genetic correlations for 305-d yield (>0.84) between cold, semi-cold and moderate regions indicated a few rank changes of animals over these climates. The results indicated that superior sires in one of regions have their genetic expression for yield limited under other climate conditions and indicated the existence of G×E interaction which may have several implications for the genetic improvement of Holstein cows in Iran.


      PubDate: 2014-09-09T02:31:52Z
       
  • Evaluation of adrenocorticotropin regulated glucocorticoid synthesis
           pathway in adrenal of different Breeds of Pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Li-na Wang , Xue-ling Chen , Xiang-guang Li , Gang Shu , Hui-chao Yan , Xiu-qi Wang
      Variation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported in numerous species and has been implicated in the differences of adrenal response to ACTH observed between different pig breeds; however, few studies have been conducted in indigenous Chinese pig breeds. The present study, we have investigated ACTH regulated adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis pathway in five breeds of pig: four indigenous Chinese pig breeds (Bama, Huanjiang, Lantang and Ningxiang) and an alien breed (Landrace) which were under same conditions. As a result, the ACTH concentrations were significantly greater than others in Lantang and significantly lesser than others in Bama, and they were also significantly lesser in Ningxiang than in Landrace. On the contrary, the cortisol concentrations in Lantang were significantly lesser than those in Bama. According to the opposite pattern on serum concentrations of ACTH and cortisol, Bama, Lantang and Landrace were chosen for further research. The protein contents of MC2R and StAR in adrenal were significantly lesser in Lantang than in Landrace, and the MC2R levels of Bama were also significantly greater than those of Lantang. The StAR protein levels in Bama were greater than those in Lantang as well, and this difference approached significance. Compared with Landrace, the number of mRNA transcripts for StAR, POMC and PC1 in Lantang were significantly lesser than in Landrace. These results indicate Lantang exhibited lower cortisol synthesis capacity under a relatively greater serum ACTH concentration, while Bama and Landrace exhibited just the opposite. These results at least reveals ACTH regulated glucocorticoid synthesis pathway in adrenal of different breeds of pigs, which can provided reference data for further breeding work.


      PubDate: 2014-09-09T02:31:52Z
       
  • Effect of the reduction of the crude protein content of diets supplemented
           with essential amino acids on the performance of piglets weighing 6 to 15
           kilograms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.B. Toledo , A.C. Furlan , P.C. Pozza , L.M. Piano , P.L.O. Carvalho , L.M. Peñuela-Sierra , L.M.D. Huepa
      Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of the reduction of the crude protein content of diets supplemented with amino acids on piglets weighing 6 to 15kg. In the performance experiment (Experiment I), 120 piglets weaned at 21 days of age with initial live weights of 5.95±0.33kg were distributed into five treatment groups. This grouping followed a randomized block design with eight repetitions and three animals per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of five different diets, in which the crude protein content were reduced from 21.0 to 15.0% (21.0%, 19.5%, 18.0%, 16.5%, and 15.0% CP); the amino acid requirements of the diet were met by adding L-lysine, DL-methionine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-valine, and L-isoleucine. No differences were found in the variables associated with performance among animals from different treatment groups. Therefore, any of the investigated crude protein levels can effectively be used in piglet diets supplemented with synthetic amino acids. The essential/non-essential amino acid ratio (EAA: NEAA) increased with the reduction of the crude protein content, and the best ratio (53:47) was achieved with the diet with 15% of protein. Urea concentrations decreased linearly with protein reduction (Experiment I). To assess the nitrogen balance (Experiment II), 20 crossbred male castrated piglets from a commercial lineage, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned in two blocks, in which each block had two replicates (4 replicates per treatment). The average live weight of the piglets was 10.79±2.19kg. The animals were housed in metal cages and were distributed into five treatment groups following a randomized block design with four repetitions; the experimental unit consisted of one piglet. The nitrogen excretion and blood and urine urea concentrations decreased linearly (P<0.05) with the reduction of crude protein in the diets, resulting in reduced nitrogen excretion into the environment.


      PubDate: 2014-09-09T02:31:52Z
       
  • Increasing the digestible energy intake under a restriction strategy
           improves the feed conversion ratio of the growing rabbit without
           negatively impacting the health status
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Knudsen , S. Combes , C. Briens , G. Coutelet , J. Duperray , G. Rebours , J-M. Salaun , A. Travel , D. Weissman , T. Gidenne
      Post-weaning feed restriction strategies have proved to reduce mortality and morbidity, but result in decreased growth and lower slaughter yield. To compensate for those deleterious effects without negatively impacting the health parameters, we have studied the possibility of increasing the dietary energy level of the feed. Four treatments differing in dietary digestible energy content (“low” energy content, LE=9.08MJ/kg vs “high” energy content, HE=10.13MJ/kg), and feeding level (ad libitum or restricted at 75%) were formed in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Animals were fed the experimental diets from weaning (32–36 days of age) to slaughter age (70–74 days of age), and feed restriction was applied from weaning to 63–64 days of age. Digestive efficiency was assessed during feed restriction and after one week of ad libitum feeding in 48 animals housed in individual cages. A performance experiment was carried out in four different sites involving a total of 1888 animals housed in collective cages, including carcass and meat quality measurements in 400 animals. Feed restriction and the HE diet improved the faecal digestibility of organic matter (+0.04 and +0.06 respectively; P<0.001), crude protein (+0.05 and +0.05; P<0.001) and NDF (+0.06 and +0.07; P<0.001). When returning to an ad libitum feeding, no effect of the previous feeding level was observed while the effect of the diet was similar to that observed during feed restriction. Restricted feeding reduced the growth by 7% during the whole fattening period (P<0.001), and the slaughter yield by 1.1% (P<0.001). It improved the feed conversion ratio by 9% (P<0.001), while the HE diet improved it by 11% (P<0.001). A 25% reduction in feed intake reduced the health risk index (HRi) in both good and poor health conditions (2.7% vs 7.1%, P<0.01 and 36.2% vs 44.3%, P<0.05 respectively). The use of a high energy diet increased the morbidity (4.6% vs 2.5%, P<0.05) in good health conditions and had the opposite effect in poor health conditions (17.5% vs 22.4%). Calculations of the gross margin confirmed the economic advantage of feed restriction in growing rabbits (+0.06€/kg), while the use of a restricted fed high energy diet was profitable only when mortality and morbidity was low.


      PubDate: 2014-09-09T02:31:52Z
       
  • Adding crude glycerin to nursery pig diet: Effect on nutrient
           digestibility, metabolic status, intestinal morphology and intestinal
           cytokine expression
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): L. Oliveira , J. Madrid , G. Ramis , S. Martínez , J. Orengo , C. Villodre , L. Valera , M.J. López , F.J. Pallarés , J.J. Quereda , L. Mendonça , F. Hernández
      The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude glycerin (Gly) added to nursery pig diet on nutrient digestibility, the digestive and metabolic status, intestinal morphology and intestinal cytokine expression. A total of 18 male piglets (weaned at 23 days) were used. There were three dietary treatments that differed in the inclusion level of Gly (0, 9 and 18%). On day 14 of the experiment, the animals were weighed and plasma samples were collected before slaughtering. In addition urine, digesta content and intestinal tissues were sampled post mortem. No differences were observed among the tested diets as regards the coefficients of apparent ileal digestibility of DM and CP. The concentration of lactic acid decreased linearly (P<0.05) in the jejunum and ileum segments as the level of Gly increased, although the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the cecum and colon were not affected. The plasma concentrations of glucose, fructosamine and IGF-1 were not affected. However, urinary glycerol concentrations increased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of Gly. In general, there were no differences in villus height, crypt depth, villus/crypt ratio or number of lymphocytes in the intestinal segments between the different treatments. Nevertheless, the control treatment produced a higher level of goblet cells in the ileum than either of the Gly treatments (P<0.01), while in the jejunum, the number of IgA-secreting cells in the 9% Gly group was higher (P<0.01) than in the control group. There were no differences among the experimental treatments concerning the gene expression of IL-10, IL-12 p40 and TNF-α. Gene expressions of TGF-β, IL-12 p35, IFN-γ and IFN-α were remained unaffected or increased, depending on the intestinal segment and level of Gly addition. In conclusion, the inclusion of Gly at 9 and 18% to the nursery pig diet did not affect nutrient digestibility or plasma metabolites but increased the levels of urinary glycerol, suggesting that metabolic pathways of glycerol utilization became saturated when high levels of Gly are used. In addition, the intestinal cell structure and intestinal cytokine expression might be affected when Gly is included in the feed.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Effects of dietary energy density and apparent ileal digestible
           lysine:digestible energy ratio on growth performance, meat quality, and
           peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene
           expression of muscle and adipose tissues in Landrace×Rongchang
           crossbred pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): Tiande Zou , Xiangbing Mao , Bing Yu , Jun He , Ping Zheng , Jie Yu , Daiwen Chen
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary digestible energy (DE) density (13.0 or 14.5MJ/kg) and apparent ileal digestible lysine:energy (Lys:DE) ratio (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6g/MJ) on growth performance, meat quality, and PPARγ gene expression of muscle and adipose tissues in Landrace×Rongchang crossbred pigs. One hundred and eight (71.22±0.04kg body weight) crossbred (Landrace×Rongchang) castrated male pigs were blocked by BW and allotted to 36 pens (three pigs per pen), and pens were randomly assigned within blocks to one of six dietary treatments arranged in a 2×3 factorial design, with two DE levels (13.0 or 14.5MJ/kg) and three Lys:DE ratios (0.40, 0.50, or 0.60g/MJ). Over the 46-d trial, dietary energy density had no effect on average daily gain (ADG) (P=0.48), however, pigs fed high-energy diets had decreasing average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the ratio of feed intake and gain (F/G) (P<0.05). Feeding of the diet with the highest Lys:DE ratio resulted in increased F/G (P<0.05) compared with other experimental diets. Increasing energy density increased hot carcass, dressing percentage and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P<0.05). Furthermore, IMF content decreased with increasing Lys:DE ratio (P<0.05). An energy density×Lys:DE ratio interaction on slaughter weight and shearing force was observed (P<0.05). In addition, pigs fed 14.5MJ/kg had decreasing IMF content as Lys:DE ratio increased (linear and quadratic, P<0.05), but increasing muscle pH45 min (linear, P<0.05). There was a quadratic effect on shearing force (P<0.05) as Lys:DE ratio increased for pigs fed 13.0MJ/kg. Increasing dietary DE enhanced the expression of PPARγ (P<0.05) in muscle tissues, whereas the mRNA levels of PPARγ decreased (P<0.05) as Lys:DE ratio increased. The results of this study indicated that a reasonably reduced Lys:DE ratio diet increased intramuscular fat deposition and improved pork tenderness. This could be partly related to the increased gene expression of PPARγ in muscle tissues.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Influence of Acacia tortilis leaf meal-based diets on growth performance
           of pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): M. Khanyile , S.P. Ndou , M. Chimonyo
      The objectives of the study were to assess nutritive value of Acacia leaf meals and to determine the optimum inclusion level of Acacia tortilis leaf meal in finishing pigs. Five dominant leguminous leaf meals namely, Acacia tortilis, Acacia robusta, Acacia nilotica, Acacia nigrescens and Acacia xanthophloea, were individually hand-harvested and analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Although the crude protein content of A. xanthophloea and A. tortilis were similar, the latter was incorporated into the experimental diets as it had the lowest water holding capacity, swelling capacity and moderate levels of condensed tannins. A. tortilis was also the most abundant in the locality. Thirty finishing male F1 hybrid (Landrace×Large White) pigs with an initial weight of 60.6 (s.d.=0.94)kg were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250g/kg DM inclusion levels of A. tortilis leaf meal. Each diet was offered ad libitum to five pigs in individual pens for 21 days. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio was measured every week. There was an increase in both ADFI and ADG (P<0.001) as A. tortilis leaf meal increased, before they started to decrease. An increase in A. tortilis leaf meal levels in the diets caused a quadratic decrease (P<0.01) in the G:F ratio. The change of ADFI, ADG and G:F ratio during each week of successive feeding decreased (P<0.05) with incremental levels of A. tortilis in the diets. Using piecewise regression (broken-stick analyses), it was observed that A. tortilis leaf meal can be included up to 129g/kg DM in finishing pig feeds, without negatively affecting G:F ratio. The ability with which pigs utilize leaf meal-based diets improves with duration of exposure to such diets.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Effects of antimicrobial peptides in nursery diets on growth performance
           of pigs reared on five different farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): X. Xiong , H.S. Yang , L. Li , Y.F. Wang , R.L. Huang , F.N. Li , S.P. Wang , W. Qiu
      The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and survival rate of weaned pigs reared at 5 commercial farms (Farms A–E). Pigs (Farm A, n=486, genotype=Yorkshire (Y)×Landrace (L), weaning age=28±3d; Farm B, n=360, genotype=Y×L×Duroc (D), weaning age=30±2d; Farm C, n=558, genotype=Y×L×D, weaning age=30±2d; Farm D, n=828, genotype=Y×L×D, weaning age=32±3d; Farm E, n=576, genotype=Y, weaning age=24±3d) were blocked (within farm) by body weight (BW) and sex and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) a basal diet (control); (2) 2.0g/kg of AMPs (AMPs-2) and (3) 3.0g/kg of AMPs (AMPs-3). The AMPs used in the present study were a mixture of lactoferrin, cecropin, defensin, and plectasin. Each treatment group consisted of 6 replicates per farm. Each replicate consisted of 2 pens of 13–14 pigs, 2 pens of 10 pigs, 3 pens of 10–11 pigs, 4 pens of 11–12 pigs and 3 pens of 10–11 pigs on Farms A, B, C, D, and E respectively. Dietary supplementation with AMPs enhanced (linear, P<0.05; quadratic, P<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) of weaned pigs on all 5 farms. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (quadratic, P<0.05) by dietary supplementation with AMPs. The feed conversion rate (G:F) was also enhanced (linear, P<0.05) when AMPs were included in the diets of weaned pigs on commercial farms. The diarrhea incidence of AMPs-supplemented pigs was less (P<0.001) than that in control pigs. The survival rate of pigs fed AMPs-supplemented diet was higher (P<0.01) than that of control pigs. The present results indicated that AMPs had beneficial effects on growth performance, reduced the incidence of diarrhea, and increased the survival rate of weaned pigs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Genetic analysis of pig survival up to commercial weight in a crossbred
           population
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): M. Dufrasne , I. Misztal , S. Tsuruta , N. Gengler , K.A. Gray
      Records from 99,384 crossbred pigs from Duroc sires and Large White×Landrace dams were used to estimate genetic parameters for survival traits at different stages of the fattening period, and their relations with final weight. Traits analyzed were preweaning mortality (PWM), culling between weaning and harvesting (C all), culling during the farrowing period (C far), in the nursery site (C nur), during the finishing phase (C fin), and hot carcass weight (HCW). Because of the binary nature of PWM and culling traits, threshold-linear models were used: Model 1, including PWM, C all, and HCW; Model 2, including PWM, C far, C nur, C fin, and HCW. Both models included sex and parity number as fixed effects for all traits. Contemporary groups were considered as fixed effect for HCW and as random effects for the binary traits. Random effects were sire additive genetic, common litter, and residual effects for all traits and models. Heritability estimates were 0.03 for PWM, and 0.15 for HCW with both models, 0.06 for C all with Model 1, and 0.06 for C far, 0.14 for C nur, and 0.10 for C fin with Model 2. Litter variance explained a large part of the total variance and its influence declined slightly with age. For Model 1, genetic correlations were −0.36 between PWM and C all, −0.02 between PWM and HCW, and −0.25 between C all and HCW; correlations for litter effect were −0.15 between PWM and C all, −0.19 between PWM and HCW, and −0.21 between C all and HCW. For Model 2, genetic correlations were all positive between PWM and culling traits, except between PWM and C nur (−0.61). Genetic correlations between HCW and the other traits were moderate and negative to null. Correlations for common litter effect were all negative between traits, except between C far and C fin, and between C nur and C fin. Heritability of PWM and culling traits increased with age period. Therefore, selection for survival after weaning may be more efficient. The low genetic correlations between PWM and culling traits suggest that different genes influence pre and postweaning mortality. The HCW was not correlated with the other traits. However, relationships are not strongly unfavorable, therefore selection for survival and high final weight is possible.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Visceral organ mass, cellularity indexes and expression of genes encoding
           for mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins in pure and crossbred mature
           beef cows grazing different forage allowances of native pastures
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): A. Casal , M. Veyga , A.L. Astessiano , A.C. Espasandin , A.I. Trujillo , P. Soca , M. Carriquiry
      Visceral tissues impact on the partitioning of metabolizable energy between maintenance and production. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term effects of two herbage allowances of native pastures on mass, composition and expression of mitochondrial respiratory protein encoding genes on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organs and liver in pure (Angus and Hereford, PU) and crossbred (reciprocal F1, CR) beef cows. Mature beef cows (n=32) were used in a complete randomized block design with a factorial arrangement of herbage allowance (2.5 vs. 4kg DM/d; LO vs. HI) and cow genotype (PU vs. CR). The experiment was conducted during three years and at the end of the third year, cows were slaughtered at 190±10d postpartum, and GIT organs and liver were dissected, weighed, and samples collected and immediately frozen. Reticulum–rumen (P=0.02) and total intestine (P=0.02) absolute mass (kg) was greater in HI than LO cows and greater in CR than PU cows, and liver (P<0.01) mass were greater in HI than LO cows. Abomasum protein content was greater (P<0.01), while omasum protein content tended (P=0.10) to be greater for HI-PU than LO-PU cows. The reticulum–rumen and abomasum lipid contents tended to be less (P<0.10) in HI than LO cows. Except for the large intestine and liver, concentration of DNA and protein:DNA ratio did not differ in GIT viscera of different cow groups. The protein:DNA ratio of the large intestine was greater (P=0.03) in HI-CR than LO-CR cows, while the hepatic protein:DNA ratio was less (P=0.04) in HI-CR than LO-CR cows while not differing of HI-PU and LO-PU cows that presented intermediate values. The small intestine expression of NDUFB8 and COX5B mRNA were greater (P<0.05) and NDUFS4 mRNA tended (P=0.06) to be greater in HI than LO cows. The expression of UQCRC1 mRNA was greater (P=0.04) and SDHA mRNA tended to be greater (P=0.08) in CR than PU cows. Hepatic NDUFB8, NDUFS4 and COX5B mRNA was greater (P<0.05) in LO-CR than HI-CR and LO-PU cows being intermediate in HI-PU cows. The CYC1 mRNA was greater (P=0.05) in LO than HI cows. These results suggest that CR cows would have greater plasticity in order to adapt their visceral mass and gene expression to sparse environments.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Milk production and composition, and body measurements of dairy cows
           receiving intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B-12 in
           commercial dairy herds
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): M. Duplessis , C.L. Girard , D.E. Santschi , D.M. Lefebvre , D. Pellerin
      The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a supplementation in folic acid and vitamin B-12 given before calving and in early lactation on milk production and components within the first 60 days in milk (DIM) as well as the 305-d yield, and on indicators of energy balance for dairy cows in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 dairy cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. From February to December 2010, every 2mo and within each herd, cows were assigned, according to parity, predicted 305-d milk production, and calving interval to receive weekly intramuscular injections (5mL) of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (Control) or (2) 320mg of folic acid+10mg of vitamin B-12 (Vitamins). Treatments began 21d (SD 8) before the expected calving date and lasted until 60 (SD 4) DIM. For the first 60DIM, average milk yield was 35.0kg/d and was not affected by treatment. On average, milk fat concentration was decreased in early lactation for cows in the vitamin group as compared with control, from 42.1 to 40.3g/kg whereas milk protein concentration was increased by the supplement, from 30.9 to 31.5g/kg. Milk lactose and milk urea nitrogen concentrations were unaffected by treatment. No treatment effect was found on 305-d milk and protein yields. The vitamin supplement reduced 305-d milk fat yield in primiparous cows as compared with controls whereas no treatment effect was observed for multiparous cows. As indicators of energy balance, the fat:protein ratio was decreased by 0.06 and body condition score losses after calving tended to be smaller for cows in the vitamin group as compared with control. The decrease of the fat:protein ratio by the vitamin supplement was greater in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows. Cows receiving the vitamin supplement lost less body weight (estimated by heart girth circumference) during the first 60DIM than control cows. Estimated body weight losses of 22.8 and 30.3kg were recorded for vitamin and control cows, respectively. The observed reduction in estimated body weight loss coupled with a reduction of the fat:protein ratio without effect on milk yield suggest that supplementary folic acid and vitamin B-12 could have an effect on energy partitioning in early lactation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Net zinc requirements of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): S.K. Ji , G.S. Xu , Q.Y. Diao , C.G. Jiang , K.D. Deng , Y. Tu , N.F. Zhang
      Comparative slaughter trials were conducted to determine the net zinc (Zn) requirements for Dorper crossbred ram lambs and ewe lambs. Thirty-five Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs [20kg body weight (BW)] of each gender were subjected to the same slaughter procedures: seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20kg BW as the baseline group for measuring the initial body composition; another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28kg BW; the remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into three groups containing seven sheep each and subjected to the same diet either ad libitum or at 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake. The three groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35kg of BW. Finally, the body Zn contents were determined. The net Zn requirements for maintenance were 97 and 165μg/kg BW for Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs and ewe lambs, respectively, and the requirements for growth decreased from 23.4 to 23.2mg/kg BW gain for ram lambs and from 23.8 to 22.1mg/kg BW gain for ewe lambs as their BW increased from 20 to 35kg. These findings were similar to those reported by most nutritional systems, except that the maintenance requirements for ewe lambs were greater than the previously published values.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Rumen development and blood metabolites of Criollo kids under two
           different rearing systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): S. Paez Lama , D. Grilli , V. Egea , M. Fucili , L. Allegretti , J.C. Guevara
      This study compared rumen development and blood metabolite concentrations of Criollo kids under two different rearing systems. Forty goat kids were reared by their dams, suckling goat milk from birth until weaning at 45 (TR, traditional rearing system, n=20) or 30 days of age (AR, alternative rearing system, n=20). Goat kids in the AR group were offered a solid starter diet ad libitum from birth until 45 days of age and a growing diet (80% alfalfa hay and 20% ground corn) from 30 to 90 days of age. The TR group was fed a growing diet (without starter diet) between 30 and 90 days of age. Blood samples were analyzed for serum concentration of glucose, total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), <beta>-hydroxybutyrate (<beta>HB), and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Five kids from each group were slaughtered at 21, 45, 70 and 90 days of age to determine rumen variables. AR kids consumed 32.7 % less goat milk than TR kids throughout the trial. Body weight of AR kids at 45–60 days of age was lower than the traditional market weight. Rumen weight (as % of body weight) was higher (P<0.01) in AR kids than in TR kids at 21 and 45 days of age. Furthermore, rumen weight (as % of weight of all compartments) was higher in AR kids compared to TR kids at 21, 45 and 70 days of age. Rumen papillae of AR kids tended (P<0.10) to be longer than those of TR kids at 21 and 45 days of age. Blood glucose concentration decreased with increasing age of kids, indicating a shift from glucose to short-chain fatty acids as primary energy source. Serum <beta>HB and BUN concentrations at 30 and 45 days of age were higher (P<0.05) in AR kids than in TR kids. The higher serum concentrations of BUN and <beta>HB were attributed to early development of rumen microbial fermentation activity and to greater metabolic development of the rumen epithelium of AR kids compared to TR kids. In conclusion, the alternative rearing system improves the physical and metabolic development of the rumen and promotes the transition of kids from pre-ruminant to ruminant. In dry periods with shortage of forage, the alternative rearing system could be used, but these goat kids should be reared above the traditional age to enable them to achieve an appropriate weight for marketing.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Effect of feeding microwave irradiated sorghum grain on nutrient
           utilization, rumen fermentation and serum metabolites in sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): F. Parnian Khajehdizaj , A. Taghizadeh , B. Baghbanzadeh Nobari
      Two series of in vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted in order to investigate microwave irradiation (900W, 2450MHz frequency) on sorghum grain. Also, quantitative color analysis of untreated and microwaved irradiated sorghum grain, L ⁎ , a ⁎ and b ⁎ color parameters (CIE) and total color differences (ΔE ⁎) were investigated. The color analysis revealed an increase (linear effect, P<0.001) in total color differences which is dominated by L ⁎ , a ⁎ and b ⁎ variations. In the first experiment, in vitro gas production kinetic and crude protein digestibility of triplicate untreated and microwave irradiated sorghum grain for 3, 5 and 7min have been studied through using a completely random design. In the second experiment, to investigate effects of microwave irradiation on apparent nutrient digestibility and serum metabolites, three treatments including untreated and microwave irradiated sorghum grain (3 and 5min) have been supplemented with alfalfa hay (in ratio of 60:40) and fed to twelve adult Ghezel×Arkhar-merino crossbred male sheep (35.9±6.38kg body weight) on the basis of a completely random design with four replicates for 21 days. Results indicate that microwave processing increased linearly cumulative gas production up to 24h post incubation (P<0.01) and decreased the lag time significantly (P<0.001). in vitro digestibility of crude protein was significantly decreased (P<0.001) compared with untreated sorghum as microwave irradiation time increased up to 7min. Results of in vivo experiment revealed that there were no effects of microwave irradiation, neither on apparent digestibility of crude protein, nor on neutral detergent fiber, nor on acid detergent fiber, whereas its dry matter, organic matter and starch apparent digestibility were increased linearly (P<0.01) by irradiation for 5min. Compared with diet including untreated sorghum grain, significantly higher (P<0.05) concentration of total volatile fatty acids (mM) in rumen fluid were observed by diets containing microwave treated sorghum grain for 3 and 5min with no difference between these treatments. Moreover, ammonia nitrogen was decreased linearly (P<0.01) as microwave irradiation time increased up to 5min. Serum metabolites were not affected by feeding microwave irradiated sorghum grain while they were within the normal physiological range in all treatments. Microwave irradiation of sorghum grain for 5min could improve ruminal escape of protein, in vitro kinetics gas, NH4–N concentration and apparent starch digestibility which are important for animal production and also food production.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • The beneficial effect of Enterococcus faecium on the in vitro ruminal
           fermentation rate and extent of three typical total mixed rations in
           northern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): D.G. Pang , H.J. Yang , B.B. Cao , T.T. Wu , J.Q. Wang
      in vitro batch cultures were performed to determine the effect of Enterococcus faecium at inclusion levels of 0 (Control), 1.33, 2.67, 4, 5.33 and 6.67×106 CFU/mL in culture fluids consisted of 25mL filtrated rumen fluid and 50mL buffer solution on rumen degradability, kinetics of gas production, and fermentation characteristics of 3 typical total mixed rations in northern China with different forage and/or concentrate ingredients (MF, a ration with a mixed forage combination of corn silage and alfalfa hay; CSA, a ration with a single forage of corn stalks and same concentrate in MF; CSB, a ration with same forage in CSA but concentrate ingredients different from MF and CSB). After 72h incubation, in vitro dry matter disappearance and cumulative gas production were greater in MF than CSA and CSB (P<0.001), and the fermentation characteristics varied depending on the ration incubated. Regardless of what type of ration was incubated, the in vitro dry matter disappearance, cumulative gas production, asymptotic gas production, and maximum gas production rate values were all greater in the E. faecium addition group than the control (P<0.010) and increased linearly with the augmentation of the E. faecium addition level (P<0.001). In comparison with the control, E. faecium addition slightly decreased pH, but did not alter ammonia N concentration. Microbial crude protein and total volatile fatty acid concentrations in the culture fluids were increased by the E. faecium addition (P<0.001), and molar acetate and butyrate proportions were decreased (P<0.001), but molar propionate and valerate proportions were increased (P<0.001). Methane production estimated by volatile fatty acids was decreased by E. faecium addition and fermentation efficiency was greater in the E. faecium addition in comparison with the control (P<0.001). In summary, rumen fermentation characteristics differed depending on forage ingredient and nutrient density in the rations; the E. faecium addition increased the in vitro rumen dry matter degradability and sped up the fermentation process, resulting in a remarkable increase in total VFA production (from 14.0 to 25.7%). E. faecium addition level of at least 2.67×106 CFU/mL exhibited high potential for stimulating the growth of rumen microbes to increase the glucogenic propionate energy supply for host ruminants.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Comparison of purine bases and 15N for quantifying microbial nitrogen
           yield using three marker systems and different sampling sites in zebu
           cross breed bulls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): P.P. Rotta , S.C. Valadares Filho , L.F. Costa e Silva , E. Detmann , F.A.C. Villadiego , T.E. Engle , R.F.D. Valadares , B.C. Silva , M.V. C. Pacheco , D. Zanetti
      The present experiment was designed to evaluate the use of microbial markers (MM), sampling sites (SS), and marker systems (MS) to estimate microbial nitrogen (MN) synthesis in bulls and to develop equations to correct MN estimates when only one of the aforementioned techniques was utilized. The MM systems evaluated were (1) purine bases (PB) and (2) 15N labeling. The SS evaluated were: (1) reticulum, (2) omasum, and (3) abomasum, and the single, double and triple MS were evaluated. Eight crossbred (Holstein×Zebu) bulls (353±36.9kg of BW; 24±1mol) with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were utilized in this experiment. The following experimental diets were used: (1) 60% corn silage+40% concentrate, (2) 40% corn silage+60% concentrate, (3) 60% fresh sugarcane+40% concentrate, and (4) 40% fresh sugarcane+60% concentrate. Four experimental periods lasting 16d each were completed with 10d for adaptation to the experimental diet and 6d for sampling. Bulls were randomly distributed into two 4×4 Latin squares balanced for residual effects. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design using PROC MIXED. Interactions were observed (P<0.05) in MN, microbial crude protein/total digestible nutrients (MCP/TDN), microbial nitrogen/rumen fermented organic matter (MN/RFOM), microbial nitrogen/rumen truly fermented organic matter (MN/RTFOM), and microbial dry matter/rumen fermented total carbohydrates (MDM/RFTCHO) between SS and MM. For PB, the greatest (P<0.01) values of MN were observed for the digesta sampled in the reticulum and abomasum. In contrast, for 15N, the greatest (P<0.01) values were observed for digesta sampled in the omasum and abomasum. Microbial nitrogen yield was only different (P<0.05) when using reticulum and 15N from those estimated using abomasum and 15N. Thus, the equation developed to correct MN value was: MN (g/d)=27.93±2.46+0.99±0.09×reticulum 15N. The triple MS exhibited the greatest (P<0.01) value of MN compared to the single and double MS. No interactions (P>0.05) were observed between MS and MM or SS; thus, the equation established to correct MN value used only the MS. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there is no difference using 15N to estimate MN yield if omasum or abomasum are used. Therefore, the omasum can be used as an accurate SS to predict MN. The triple MS presented higher values than the single and double MS. Thus, if single or double MS is used the value must be corrected by the equation obtained using the triple MS.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Evidence of association of a BTA20 region peaked in ISL1 with puberty in
           Angus bulls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): María Elena Fernández , Juan Pedro Lirón , Alberto Prando , Andrés Rogberg-Muñoz , Pilar Peral-García , Andrés Baldo , Guillermo Giovambattista
      In bovine, there are significant differences among and within breeds in the time when bulls reach puberty. Reported data indicate that age at puberty has a strong genetic component and is a multigenic trait. However, despite significant advancements in the field, the gene network controlling puberty is very complex, containing a host of genes that exert their effect on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, and several aspects of regulation of the HPG axis are yet to be fully elucidated. The objective of this work was to identify new genes associated with age at puberty. Angus males (N=276) were weighted and scrotal circumference measured every month. When first bull calves reached 26cm of scrotal circumference, sperm quality was added to the monthly measurements for the next three months. Based on sperm quality, two groups corresponding to the top and bottom 6.5% of the phenotypic distribution curve were selected to perform a genome-wide association study using a selective DNA approach, to be used as an exploratory analysis. Based on the results of this preliminary study, five SNPs located within BTA3, 20 and 24 associated regions were genotyped in the 276 bulls using pyrosequencing methods. This analysis allowed us to confirm the association of a BTA20 region with age at puberty estimated at C 50 million. The associated SNP explained 1.69% of the genetic variance of age at puberty at C 50 million. The associated region contained within and nearby positional candidate genes (ISL1, PELO, FST, SPZ1) that may be involved in spermatogenesis. Our results should encourage further investigation to confirm the role of these genes in order to increase our knowledge on genetic control of bovine puberty.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Effect of restricted time at pasture and indoor supplementation on
           ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and weight gain of growing lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): X.Q. Zhang , H.L. Luo , X.Y. Hou , W.B. Badgery , Y.J. Zhang , C. Jiang
      Herbage intake and production performance of animals are likely to vary between different levels of time grazing pasture because of related changes in foraging behaviour. The effect of restricting pasture access on ingesting behaviour and performance of growing lambs is poorly understood. Thirty-two castrated male Ujumuqin lambs were randomly assigned to the following four treatments: (i) 2-h access to pasture (2H), (ii) 4-h access to pasture (4H), (iii) 8-h access to pasture (8H), and (iv) 12-h access to pasture (12H; control). The lambs began to access pasture at 6:00h and were removed at 8:00h, 10:00h, 14:00h and 18:00h for 2H, 4H, 8H and 12H treatments, respectively. All lambs off the pasture were housed and separately fed supplements of concentrate and grass hay. The results showed that ingestive behaviour of lambs was significantly affected by restricting access to pasture. When time at pasture reduced from 12 to 2h, the proportion of time grazing pasture increased (P<0.001), as did the pasture intake rate (P<0.001), but the proportion of time resting and standing and walking distance decreased (P<0.001). Significant linear relationship was found between supplement and pasture intakes. On average, total feed intake and metabolisable energy intake were unaffected by restricting pasture access, but in July weight gain of lambs clearly increased with less time at pasture. Grazing lambs with supplementation have a good ability to adapt to the restricted grazing schedules through varying their ingestive behaviour. Overall, the results indicate shorter grazing times and higher supplementation in July, with longer grazing times and lower supplementation through August and September is the most efficient to maintain higher lamb growth rates.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Chemotactic responses of the rumen bacterial community towards the
           daidzein flavonoid
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): Mónica M. Galicia-Jiménez , Rafael Rojas-Herrera , Carlos Sandoval-Castro , Silvia E. Murialdo , Héctor Magaña-Sevilla
      Chemotaxis is a mechanism which involves bacterial mobilization to find nutrients or escape from harmful environments. Although ruminal fermentation processes and its by-products are well-known, rumen bacterial chemotaxis has received no attention. Daidzein is one of the common metabolites in plants and has chemotactic effects on soil bacteria that colonize the plants. There are several tests to assess bacterial chemotaxis, but none focused on anaerobic microorganisms as rumen bacteria. We standardized a chemotaxis assay for rumen bacteria by modifying a well-known aerobic capillary method by combining it with technology commonly used for measuring in vitro gas production. Parallel assays were included for studying daidzein isoflavone as a possible attractant and the effect of different chemoattractants (sterile rumen fluid, cellulose and daidzein) on ruminal bacterial consortium was tested. Daidzein showed 3 phylotypes (phylotypes 1, 3 and 4); phylotype 3 was also present in the rumen fluid and cellulose, phylotype 1 (present only in daidzein) was identified as a microorganism closely related to Ruminococcus albus 7. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying rumen microbial fermentation can lead to a proper manipulation in order to create probiotic cultures for cattle, which could act beneficially on the intestinal flora of the individual.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Utilisation of high- and low-roughage diets by a local and an exotic breed
           of sheep: intake, growth and digestive efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): M.J. Gomes , C.M. Guedes , S.R. Silva , J.M.T. Azevedo , A. Dias-da-Silva
      In the context of sustainable agriculture, there is renewed interest in livestock breeds considered well adapted to harsh environments. Churra da Terra Quente (CTQ), the most important sheep breed raised in the Northeast region of Portugal, are considered to be well adapted to their environment which is characterised by marked fluctuations in feed quality and abundance. However, supporting such a claim is difficult because of large gaps in our knowledge, including the importance of the stage of maturity in influencing the efficiency of using different resources. A study was conducted to determine whether feed intake, digestion and growth differed between CTQ and the Ile-de-France (IF) exotic breed at the same stage of maturity, under two contrasting diets. Twenty female lambs of each of the CTQ and IF breeds, 102±3 and 121±4 days old respectively, with 20.7±1.4 and 33.6±1.1kg of body weight (BW), corresponding to proportionally 0.45 of estimated mature BW (MBW), were allocated randomly within breed to a high- or a low-roughage diet (hay:concentrate feed proportions of 75:25 and 30:70; HR and LR, respectively) and fed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI) and growth were measured from proportionally 0.45–0.65 of MBW. Then, digestibility was measured in 5 animals per diet and breed. DMI was higher (P<0.001) in the IF breed (1132 vs. 797g/day), but when scaled by MBW no differences (P>0.1) were observed between breeds. A breed × diet interaction (P<0.01) was observed: on the HR diet, CTQ had higher DMI than IF, the opposite being observed with diet LR (P<0.001). The IF animals grew faster (167 vs. 92g/day; P<0.001), but needed more time to achieve 0.65 MBW (111 vs. 95 days; P=0.025). However, similar feed efficiency (P=0.880) was found between breeds and the differences in growth and time taken to mature were explained by the MBW of the breeds. Digestibility of organic matter (OM) measured in IF animals was 2.7 and 0.8 percent units higher for diets HR and LR, respectively, but breeds did not differ in neutral detergent fibre or energy digestibility. No differences between breeds were observed in the efficiency of microbial-N flow, rumen pH or in the molar proportions of acetate, propionate or butyrate. However, IF animals had higher rumen ammonia-N (P=0.026) and total volatile fatty acids (P=0.022) concentrations, irrespective of the diet. Data of the current experiment suggest that CTQ has a higher capacity to ingest fibre-rich diets, but not to digest fibre.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Adding evidence for a role of the SLITRK gene family in the pathogenesis
           of left displacement of the abomasum in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): Stefano Biffani , Nicola Morandi , Valentina Locatelli , Davide Pravettoni , Antonio Boccardo , Alessandra Stella , Ezequiel Luís Nicolazzi , Filippo Biscarini
      Left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a frequent disease in Holstein-Friesian cattle with a big economic impact in dairy farms. LDA is a multi-factorial disease and genetics is known to play a role (low to moderate estimated heritability). It is therefore of interest to look for genetic polymorphisms associated with LDA in order to find involved genes and clarify the pathogenesis of the condition. In a population of 62 Italian Holstein-Friesian cows, LDA cases and SNP genotypes were recorded, and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. A genetic signal of association with LDA was detected on BTA 12, within the sequence of the SLITRK5 gene. This gene is involved in neurological activities such as axonogenesis and synaptic transmission, and this may be related with abomasal hypomotility and atony, which are considered the primary causes of LDA. The results of this research suggest a role for the SLITRK5 gene, and more generally for all nearby genes of the SLITRK family, in the pathogenesis of LDA in dairy cattle. The involvement of the SLITRK gene family may lead to novel approaches for the prevention, diagnosis and therapy of LDA, and could also be used in enhanced selection schemes for healthier animals.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • PRNP polymorphisms in Tunisian sheep breeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): S. Kdidi , M.H. Yahyaoui , M. Conte , B. Chiappini , G. Zaccaria , M. Ben Sassi , A. Ben Ammar El Gaaied , T. Khorchani , G. Vaccari
      In this study, genetic variation of ovine prion protein in Tunisian sheep breeds was analysed. Sequencing of the entire coding sequence of prion protein gene (PRNP) was performed in a total of 201 samples belonging to four breeds (Barbarin, Western Thin Tail, Sicilo Sarde and Black Thibar). Five haplotypes (ARQ, ARR, ARH, AHQ and VRQ) and 10 genotypes were observed based on codons 136, 154 and 171, with different frequencies among the investigated breeds. The ARQ, ARR and ARH haplotypes were present in all breeds, the VRQ haplotype was observed at low frequencies in Barbarin and Western Thin Tail breeds. The ARQ and ARR haplotypes were the most common with frequencies ranging from 33.4% to 47.8% and from 26.5% to 46.5% respectively, in the different breeds. Moreover, 12 additional non-synonymous (Q101R, M112T, G127S/V, M137T, L141F, H143R, N146S, R151G, Y172D, N176K and H180Y) as well as 2 synonymous polymorphisms at codons 231 and 237 were found in the PRNP gene. Among them, the R151G polymorphism has never been described in sheep. Moreover an insertion of an octarepeat in the ARQ haplotype has been observed. These results represent the first survey on PRNP variability in Tunisian sheep and may serve as basis for the development of breeding programme to increase scrapie resistance in national sheep breeds.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Genetic effects on first antler growth in relation to live-weight of red
           deer farmed in New Zealand
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): J.F. Ward , G.W. Asher , J.A. Archer , G.B. Nicoll , K.G. Dodds , N.R. Cox
      Deer farmed in New Zealand for venison production are a composite of Cervus elaphus subspecies. Venison production systems target supply of yearling males for slaughter at live-weights of ≥95kg between 8 and 12 months of age when first antler development is occurring. If the antlers exceed 110mm they must be removed before the animal can be transported for slaughter which adds handling and costs which some producers consider unnecessary. We hypothesised that there are associations between live-weight and first antler development that are heritable and it would be possible to select sires on the basis of delayed antler development relative to live-weight of their progeny. Antler and live-weight measurements were recorded on 1033 male progeny from three elite recorded red deer breeding herds, DNA pedigree tested as sired by 106 different stags. Spline models were fitted to the antler length and live-weight data over time. Day-of-the-year was read off these splines to define traits of live-weight when antler length reached 50mm (WA50) or 80mm (WA80), and antler length when live-weight reached 95kg (AW95). The predicted traits were analysed using a single-trait animal model incorporating the extended pedigree of the animals involved to calculate three estimated breeding values (EBVs) WA50, WA80 and AW95. The three antler traits had high heritability estimates of 0.67–0.81 with standard errors of 0.10, and were moderately-highly correlated with weaning and yearling live-weight traits. The phenotypic standard deviation of WA80 of 8.35kg or 8.6% of the mean predicted live-weight and a genetic standard deviation or 6.86kg indicated good variation within the population, providing scope for genetically improving the current New Zealand breeding herd for delayed antler growth relative to live-weight. Such selection could reduce the number of rising yearling males requiring velvet antler removal prior to slaughter.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Genomic characterization of the Przewalski׳s horse inhabiting
           Mongolian steppe by whole genome re-sequencing
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): Kyoung-Tag Do , Hong-Sik Kong , Joon-Ho Lee , Hak-Kyo Lee , Byung-Wook Cho , Heui-Soo Kim , Kung Ahn , Kyung-Do Park
      The Przewalski׳s horse is a rare and endangered species and the last existing wild horses. Therefore, its genetic characterization is important to facilitate the systematic preservation and promotion of its gene pool. Karyotypes of chromosomes confirmed that the two tested horses were indeed Przewalski׳s horses (2n=66). Their genome was characterized using whole-genome re-sequencing and a comprehensive list of genetic variants including SNPs and INDELs was developed. We found a total number of 5,879,868 SNPs in the male and 6,040,778 SNPs in the female. Homozygous variations were more abundant than heterozygous variations, probably caused by inbreeding during the restoration process of species from only 13 horses. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information such as additional sequence information for equine researchers and can help to figure out how the horse genome was changed by domestication in recent years.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Genetic parameter estimates for feed efficiency and dry matter intake and
           their association with growth and carcass traits in Nellore cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): M.H.A. Santana , G.A. Oliveira Junior , R.C. Gomes , S.L. Silva , P.R. Leme , T.R. Stella , E.C. Mattos , P. Rossi Junior , F.S. Baldi , J.P. Eler , J.B.S. Ferraz
      This study estimated genetic parameters and (co)variance components for dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion rate (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), residual body weight gain (RWG) and residual intake and body weight gain (RIG) in Nellore cattle. We also estimated the genetic and phenotypic correlations between these traits with growth and carcass traits. We used data on feed efficiency of 1038 Nellore males (Bos indicus), being 147 castrated and 891 young bulls. The animals were progenies of 176 sires and 779 dams, composing a relationship matrix of 3521 animals. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by GIBBS2F90 software, using the Bayesian approach. The heritability estimates for DMI, RFI and RIG were 0.40, 0.38 and 0.54, respectively. The genetic correlations between all feed efficiency and carcass traits were low. The traits analyzed showed enough genetic variability and heritability, thus the inclusion of feed efficiency in animal breeding programs of Nellore cattle is feasible. The RIG showed higher heritability and a selection for feed efficiency does not have a negative effect on carcass traits.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Genetic diversity and matrilineal genetic signature of native Ethiopian
           donkeys (Equus asinus) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence
           polymorphism
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): E. Kefena , T. Dessie , A. Tegegne , A. Beja-Pereira , M. Yusuf Kurtu , S. Rosenbom , J.L. Han
      We investigated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphism of six morphologically diverse domestic donkey (Equus asinus) populations in Ethiopia. These populations include: Abyssinian (AB), Afar (AF), Hararghe (HR), Ogaden (OG), Omo (OM) and Sinnar (SI). Genetic relationships and other diversity parameters were inferred from 39 randomly selected mtDNA D-loop partial sequences, characterized by 29 polymorphic sites defining 19 distinct haplotypes. Moreover, haplotype and nucleotide diversity in Ethiopian donkey populations were 0.903±0.032 and 0.020±0.003, respectively. A network analysis produced moderate star-like patterns suggesting past population demographic and spatial expansion. Population subdivision estimates demonstrated that Sinnar donkeys were considerably divergent from the other donkey populations. To trace the matrilineal genetic origin of Ethiopian donkeys, we retrieved 221 previously published domestic donkeys’ mtDNA D-loop sequences from the GenBank (146 from Chinese and 75 from worldwide domestic donkeys). The haplogroup derived from the Ethiopian sources formed the center of the network from which most of the worldwide domestic donkey populations emerged. This suggests that Ethiopia could be one of the centers of diversities for domestic donkeys in the Horn of Africa. The present study also overrides some previous reports that claimed donkeys were solely an Egyptian domesticate.
      Highlights • Ethiopia owns one of the morphologically diverse donkey populations in the world. • Donkeys that descended from two commonly known wild asses co-exist in Ethiopia. • Ethiopia is one of the hotspots for domestic donkey domestication in NE Africa. • Our present study uncovered that donkeys were not solely an Egyptian domesticate.

      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Genetic diversity analysis of the thyroglobulin gene promoter in buffalo
           and other bovines
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): P.K. Dubey , S. Goyal , A.K. Yadav , B.R. Sahoo , N. Kumari , S.K. Mishra , S.K. Niranjan , R. Arora , M. Mukesh , R.S. Kataria
      In total 937bp of the thyroglobulin (TG) gene, including promoter, exon1 and partial intron1 were characterized and compared across four livestock species, cattle, buffalo, yak and mithun. Identity was more than 98% and transcription factor binding sites analysis revealed the presence of variable numbers of potential binding sites in cattle, riverine buffalo, swamp buffalo, yak and mithun. The putative TTF-1 binding sites appeared to be conserved across all the investigated species except for a single C>T variation observed in TG promoter of Indicus cattle. A total of 15 polymorphic sites were observed in cattle and 8 in buffalo, out of which 2 were already reported in cattle and 4 polymorphic sites were common among cattle and buffaloes. The Principal component analysis results based on identified SNPs, revealed a close relationship between Crossbred and Indian Tharparkar breed of cattle as well as between Murrah and Banni breeds of buffalo. Analysis of the previously reported SNP, PsuI (g.−422C>T) marker (378C>T in our studies), associated with low marbling trait of meat in cattle, revealed an average frequency of 95% for the favourable C allele in Indian cattle, while it was fixed in the Indian swamp and riverine buffalo breeds. The study indicates, identification of genetic variation in the promoter region that could potentially affect the TG expression however, the association of the T allele with the fat deposition in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds needs to be verified.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene polymorphism and skin
           differential expression related to coat color in Mongolian horse
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): Bei Li , Xiao-long He , Yi-ping Zhao , Qi-nan Zhao , Unierhu , Dong-yi Bai , Dugarjaviin Manglai
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association among the polymorphism of the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene, differential expression in the skin, and coat color in Mongolian horses. The polymorphisms of TYRP1 in five groups of Mongolian horse, Sanhe horse and thoroughbreds were genotyped using PCR-SSCP. The relative gene expression level of TYRP1 in the skin tissues among different coat color Mongolian horses was determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The association of the TYRP1 polymorphisms with coat color was analyzed. A missense mutation (C189T) in exon 2 of TYRP1 was detected in the Mongolian horse, resulting in two genotypes: CC and CT. The TT genotype was not observed in these Mongolian horses. Allele C was found to be the predominant allele in black, bay, and chestnut horses. The results showed the TYRP1 gene polymorphism to be closely associated with dark coat color (P=2.3×10−6). The expression level of the TYRP1 gene was the highest in the chestnut skin tissues and the lowest in the gray skin tissues of Mongolian horses. These results suggest that the allele and expression of the TYRP1 gene are associated with coat color and colored coat formation in Mongolian horses. This is the first report of the association of the TYRP1 gene polymorphism with coat color in the Mongolian horse.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Predicting breeding values for milk yield of Guzerá (Bos indicus)
           cows using random regression models
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): D.J.A. Santos , M.G.C.D. Peixoto , R.R. Aspilcueta Borquis , J.C.C. Panetto , L. El Faro , H. Tonhati
      Given the importance of Guzerá breeding programs for milk production in the tropics, the objective of this study was to compare alternative random regression models for estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values. Test-day milk yields records (TDR) were collected monthly, in a maximum of 10 measurements. The database included 20,524 records of first lactation from 2816 Guzerá cows. TDR data were analyzed by random regression models (RRM) considering additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects as random and the effects of contemporary group (CG), calving age as a covariate (linear and quadratic effects) and mean lactation curve as fixed. The genetic additive and permanent environmental effects were modeled by RRM using Wilmink, Ali and Schaeffer and cubic B-spline functions as well as Legendre polynomials. Residual variances were considered as heterogeneous classes, grouped differently according to the model used. Multi-trait analysis using finite-dimensional models (FDM) for test-day milk records (TDR) and a single-trait model for 305-days milk yields (default) using the restricted maximum likelihood method were also carried out as further comparisons. Through the statistical criteria adopted, the best RRM was the one that used the cubic B-spline function with five random regression coefficients for the genetic additive and permanent environmental effects. However, the models using the Ali and Schaeffer function or Legendre polynomials with second and fifth order for, respectively, the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects can be adopted, as little variation was observed in the genetic parameter estimates compared to those estimated by models using the B-spline function. Therefore, due to the lower complexity in the (co)variance estimations, the model using Legendre polynomials represented the best option for the genetic evaluation of the Guzerá lactation records. An increase of 3.6% in the accuracy of the estimated breeding values was verified when using RRM. The ranks of animals were very close whatever the RRM for the data set used to predict breeding values. Considering P305, results indicated only small to medium difference in the animals׳ ranking based on breeding values predicted by the conventional model or by RRM. Therefore, the sum of all the RRM-predicted breeding values along the lactation period (RRM305) can be used as a selection criterion for 305-day milk production.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • The genetic relationships between conformation assessment of gilts and sow
           production and longevity
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): T. Aasmundstad , D. Olsen , E. Sehested , O. Vangen
      The longevity of sows is important for both the production economy and animal welfare. This study suggests that a selection for several conformation traits scored on gilts by utilizing phenotypic records from nucleus herds can contribute to a better longevity in sows. The aim of our study was to investigate the heritabilities and genetic correlations between conformation traits measured on unselected gilts, piglet production and longevity of the sows in the Norwegian Landrace population in order to contribute new knowledge on the relationship between conformation and longevity traits. For this study, eight phenotypes from a total of 78,000 gilts and sows were utilized; the traits were hind and front leg quality, motorics, hind leg standing under, the sum of the individual piglet weighed at 21 days in the first two litters (LWT), the total number of piglets born in the first two litters, the ability to stay in production for two parities (STAY) and the maximum parity number before culling (MAXL). The data for STAY and MAXL was analysed with two different models, both with and without correcting for breeding value (EBV) at culling. The latter is correcting for the fact that in nucleus herds sows are culled due to low EBVs. Our study found low to moderate heritabilities (0.05≤h 2≤0.24) for all traits and substantial genetic correlations between most of the conformation traits (0.28≤r 2≤0.66). The heritability of STAY and MAXL became significantly greater when including a correction for EBV at culling, and the genetic correlation between STAY and front leg quality became significant (r g =−0.12). This indicates that if the data from nucleus herds are used, a correction for EBV will improve the estimates. The results from our study show that there is not a strong genetic relationship between the conformation traits of the gilts and longevity. The inclusion of front and hind leg quality as traits in the breeding goal can contribute to increased longevity, although the results of such an indirect selection to longevity would be slow. Selection for improved conformation can counteract an undesired development in longevity.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Accounting for heterogeneity of phenotypic variance in Iranian Holstein
           test-day milk yield records
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): H. Aliloo , S.R. Miraie-Ashtiani , M. Moradi Shahrbabak , J.I. Urioste , M. Sadeghi
      First lactation milk yield data consisting of 1,576,102 test-day records for 221,862 Iranian Holstein cows having lactations between 1983 and 2008 were used to study the existence and effect of heterogeneity of variance (HOV) on estimated breeding values and the performance of random regression models (RRMs) with different orders of fit. A pre-correction method based on phenotypic variance, assuming equal heritability for different levels of herd-test date classes and a genetic correlation of one between them, was used to correct for HOV. RRMs with Legendre polynomial functions were used to analyze adjusted and unadjusted records. Some re-ranking of animals occurred from the adjustment, but the correction method only had slight effects on the overall ranking and rank correlations of animals. Data correction had considerable effects on top animals, such that 10% and 17% of top sires and dams, respectively, were replaced from the list of top 1% animals when compared to the homogeneous variance scenario. Application of the adjustment method resulted in slightly higher heritabilities, which may be due to the more accurate estimation of additive genetic effects when HOV is considered. An index consisting of different comparison criteria was used to investigate the effect of HOV on fitting orders of Legendre polynomials and to compare RRMs. In general, the rank of models was improved by increasing the order of fit, but models with smaller orders of fit and correction for HOV performed better than models with higher orders of fit without correction for variance heterogeneity. The results of this research indicate that the accuracy of estimated breeding values may be increased and the genetic progress of the herds could be affected by accounting for HOV as part of genetic evaluations in Iran.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167




      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Pedigree analysis of a highly fragmented population, the Lidia cattle
           breed
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): O. Cortés , N. Sevane , J.A. Baro , J. Cañón
      The aim of the study was to analyze the pedigree information of the Lidia bovine breed based on animals registered in the Herdbook and belonging to those lineages recognized as conforming to the official breed standard. Pedigree records of 272,574 animals belonging to 83 herds classified in 30 lineages were used. The average number of equivalent generations known was 4.5 (varying among lineages from 4 in Braganza to 5.2 in Baltasar Iban). The generation interval (7.5 years) was longer than that estimated in other cattle breeds. The effective size was less than 50 and consequently the estimated increase in inbreeding per generation was greater than 1% in all the lineages analyzed. The increase in inbreeding level expected for the next 50 years varied from 7.4% in Braganza to 31.3% in Diego Garrido. The ratios among the effective number of founders, the effective number of ancestors and the effective number of founder genomes was considered evidence that genetic drift explained most of the loss of genetic variability in the Lidia bovine breed due to the reduced effective population sizes of the lineages, more than bottlenecks did, as they have been less dramatic. The lineage allele loss due to the genetic drift and the effect of inbreeding are the major concerns in managing the genetic diversity of the Lidia bovine breed. The analysis of pedigree information still remains as the main useful resource to establish genetic diversity conservation guidelines in the Lidia bovine breed. Minimizing inbreeding increase within lineages in the sub-divided Lidia breed must be the major concern in managing the genetic diversity of this breed.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Effects of different levels of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) on
           performance, intestinal microbial colonization, jejunal morphology, and
           immunocompetence of laying hens fed different n-6 to n-3 ratios
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): V. Taheri Gandomani , A.H. Mahdavi , H.R. Rahmani , A. Riasi , E. Jahanian
      The current study was carried out to assess the effects of different levels of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) powder on performance, intestinal microbial colonization, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of laying hens receiving diets with different ratios of n-6 to n-3. A total of 160 laying hens, 43 weeks of age, were assigned to 8 experimental diets with 5 cages of 4 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of two ratios of n-6 to n-3 (16.71 and 2.35) and three levels of clove bud (0, 0.2 and 0.4%) in a 2×3 factorial arrangement alongside a group receiving a high vitamin E content (200mg/kg) in each n-6 to n-3 ratio, as the positive control, fed during a 70-d feeding trial. The in vitro study indicated that clove essential oil exhibited more than 10-fold higher antioxidant activity to inhibit 2-2-diphenyl-1- picric hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical than vitamin E (P<0.05). Dietary inclusion of clove bud powder noticeably decreased (P<0.0001) the heterophile to lymphocyte ratio. A decline in n-6 to n-3 ratio and a rise in clove bud powder content increased the secondary antibody titer against sheep red blood cell (P<0.05; P<0.01) as well as Newcastle virus (P<0.01; P<0.001). Furthermore, supplementation of fish oil and clove bud powder, either alone (P<0.01; P<0.05) or combined (P<0.01; P<0.001), markedly decreased the ileal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enumerations. Feeding clove bud, especially the 2% level, led to increase in villus height (P<0.05), villus height to crypt depth ratio (P<0.05), the number of lamina propria lymphatic follicles (LLF, P<0.001) but to decrease in crypt depth (P=0.08) and goblet cells (P<0.0001). Moreover, a decremental ratio of n-6 to n-3 (P<0.001) and an incremental level of clove bud (P<0.05) resulted in increased relative weight of spleen. Eggshell strength was improved as a result of increasing the clove bud content (P<0.001) during the trial. Furthermore, a decline in the n-6 to n-3 ratio significantly increased (P<0.05) egg production both during the first 35-d and over the whole trial period. Similarly, increasing the clove bud content led to increase (P<0.05) in egg production and egg weight as well as improve (P<0.05) in the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that the interactive effects of clove bud bioactive components and the highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) may improve the performance of laying hens by fortifying mucosal and systemic immune functions as well as health indices of intestinal absorptive area.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Effects of alfalfa saponin extract on growth performance and some
           antioxidant indices of weaned piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): Y.H. Shi , J. Wang , R. Guo , C.Z. Wang , X.B. Yan , B. Xu , D.Q. Zhang
      The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE) on growth performance and some antioxidant indices in weaned piglets. A total of 96 piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Large white) with 7.5±0.9kg mean body weight weaned at 28d of age were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (4 replicate pen per treatment with 3 gilts and 3 castrated males per pen). Diets containing 0, 5, 10, and 15g ASE/kg were fed to piglets for 30d. There was a linear improvement in finial body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake (P=0.029, 0.003, and 0.042, respectively) as the level of ASE in pig diets increased. Glutathione peroxidase activity in serum, liver, and muscle of weaned pigs increased linearly (P=0.004, 0.047, and 0.053, respectively) as the level of ASE in pig diets increased. Superoxide dismutase activity in serum, liver, spleen, and muscle increased linearly (P=0.009, 0.006, 0.010, and 0.016, respectively). Serum catalase (CAT) activity increased quadratically (P=0.038), while kidney and muscle CAT activity increased linearly (P=0.051 and 0.052, respectively). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum, liver, spleen, and muscle decreased linearly (P=0.032, 0.011, 0.008, and 0.007, respectively) as the level of ASE in pig diets increased. These findings indicated that dietary inclusion of ASE up to 15g/kg could increase activity of some antioxidant enzymes in weaned piglets, as well as promote their growth.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • The bilateral parotidomegaly (hypertrophy) induced by acorn consumption in
           pigs is dependent on individual׳s age but not on intake duration
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 167
      Author(s): M.G. Cappai , P. Wolf , C. Dimauro , W. Pinna , J. Kamphues
      Polyphenolic compounds, namely dietary tannins, are biologically active substances capable to induce an increased proline rich proteins (PRPs) content in the salivary secretions of the parotid gland, in different animal species and in man. In general terms, a pulsed increased secretion of salivary PRPs could be observed mainly in browsing animal species and to a lesser extent in grazers, which rely on an evolutionary adaptation to cope with seasonal feeding stuffs, varying in tannin content. Therefore, PRPs secretion might appear to be a first line of defense from severe intoxications, which can occur in animals incapable to code for tannin binding proteins (TBP) in the saliva. Pigs appeared to be tolerant to high intake of raw acorns, known to be rich in hydrolysable tannins. The parotid gland (PG) response to an experimental acorn combined diet (50% inclusion of raw shredded acorns in the diet, as fed, high in hydrolysable tannins: 25g tannic acid equivalents TAE/kg dry matter in the diet) offered to pigs (growing vs. finishing pigs) was studied and compared to the morphometry and functional activity of the PG in pigs fed on a control conventional diet (0% acorns in the diet). A total of 32 cross-bred pigs were involved in two feeding trials (1 vs. 4 weeks of experimental feeding) and divided into groups according to the experimental diets (0% vs. 50% acorns included in the diet). The bilateral parotidomegaly (hypertrophy of the parotid gland) occurred constantly and significantly (p<0.01) in the totality of pigs fed with the acorn combined diets, displaying different extents of hypertrophy, according to the age of the pigs: growers, 2–3 folds of the control PG vs. finishers, 1.30–1.40 folds of the respective control PG, either after an exposure of 1 or 4 weeks. No statistic significance could be pointed out after 1 week vs. 4 weeks of experimental feeding, testing on a tannin concentration of 25g TAE/kg DM from acorns in the diet offered, either to growers and to finishers. The morphometry and functionality of the PG is more strongly stimulated in the growing pigs than observed in the finishing pigs, independently of the duration of consumption of the acorn combined diet, rich in hydrolysable tannins.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T02:27:09Z
       
  • Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E
           supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Novoa-Garrido , L. Aanensen , V. Lind , H.J.S. Larsen , S.K. Jensen , E. Govasmark , H. Steinshamn
      It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant and vitamin E source is synthetic all-rac-α-tocopheryl acteate. The objective of the present study was to compare potential vitamin E and immune stimulant sources with synthetic vitamin E regarding bioactivity associated with immunological parameters in order to identify alternatives to synthetic vitamin E for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α- tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546g Ascophylum nodosum/kg), natural vitamin E (NatE: 562.5mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), synthetic vitamin E (SyntE: 1125mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), or no extra seaweed or vitamin E (control). The supplements were fed at an isoenergetic daily rate, on average 144g DM/ewe for SW and 114g DM/ewe for the three other treatments, from mating until start grazing season (200 days). It was assumed that 0.5mg RRR- α-tocopheryl acetate was equal to 1IU=1mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. The planned supplementation in the SyntE and NatE treatments were 140IU vitamin E/ewe daily, and the daily supplemental rate was on average for the whole experimental period 20, 146, 121 and 4IU in SW, SyntE, NatE and C treatments, respectively. The ewes and their newborn lambs were monitored throughout the entire indoor feeding period. Supplementing pregnant ewes with natural vitamin E had a positive effect on immunity against Mycobacterium sp. in the lambs, whereas supplementing ewes with seaweed interfered with the passive immunity of the offspring resulting in a mortality rate of 35%, compared with 10% in C, 5.6% in NatE and 0% in SyntE. The adaptive immunity of the lambs was not affected by seaweed supplementation. In the ewes, it seemed that supplementation with either seaweed, natural vitamin E or synthetic vitamin E had no beneficial health effects, and serum IgG concentrations were reduced in the seaweed treatment group.


      PubDate: 2014-06-07T15:00:14Z
       
  • Characterization of dairy cattle germplasm used in Mexico with national
           genetic evaluations in importing and exporting countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Rodolfo Ramírez-Valverde , Rafael Núñez-Domínguez , Ana L. Palacios-Jiménez , Juan S. Jiménez-Carrasco
      The objective of this study was to characterize and compare predicted transmitted abilities of Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle used in Mexico (MX), and those obtained in the United States (US) and Canada (CA). The database used in this study came from imported American and Canadian Brown Swiss and Jersey germplasm to MX. Currently, these animals are registered in MX and have national genetic evaluations in importing and exporting countries. Means and trends over time of predicted transmitted abilities (PTA) and their reliabilities were computed and compared for the origins of animal groups. Adjusted genetic correlations (r g ) between PTAs in paired countries were estimated. The results indicate that importation of germplasm has occurred mainly during the 1990s, and some animals from the exporting countries should not be used in the importing country, if the main selection objective is milk yield. Most Mexican breeders are importing genetic resources below genetic base means (negative PTA values), not only in their countries of origin but also in the importing country, and this suggests that they might not be acquiring genetic material based on the PTA of milk yield or any other genetically evaluated trait. The r g of animals with evaluations in MX and the US ranged between 0.40 and 0.70; however, for Jersey animals evaluated in MX and CA the r g was slightly higher than 0.8, suggesting fewer germplasm problems of genotype-by-country interaction and therefore, a lower risk to use those animals in the importing country. Using only the importation of germplasm as a strategy to achieve sustainable genetic progress in the importing country is probably not a good alternative, and there is a need for a local selection program of their dairy cattle populations.


      PubDate: 2014-06-07T15:00:14Z
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with benzoic acid on intestinal
           morphological structure and microflor in weaned piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2014
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): H. Diao , P. Zheng , B. Yu , J He , X.B. Mao , J. Yu , D.W. Chen
      A total of 72 weaned pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an average BW of 6.03±0.78kg (24d of age) were used in a 42-d trial to explore the potential mechanisms of dietary benzoic acid on gut health in weaned pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to two groups with six replications per group and fed with a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with 5000mg/kg benzoic acid (benzoic acid).The results showed that benzoic acid supplementation decreased the pH values of the digesta in the colon on 14th day and in the ileum and cecum on 42nd day of pigs (P<0.05). The number of Bifidobacterium in ileum and Bacillus in cecum of pigs fed benzoic acid diet were greater than pigs fed the control diet on 14th day (P<0.05), the number of Escherichia coli in ileum and cecum on 42nd day were decreased in pigs fed benzoic acid diet (P<0.05), the number of Enterococci in ileum were decreased on 14th and 42nd day in pigs fed benzoic acid diet (P<0.05). When compared with control, benzoic acid increased the content of propionic acid and total VFA in cecum on 14th day (P<0.05), decreased the concentrations of NH3-N in cecum on 14th day and 42nd day (P<0.05). The villous height in duodenum and ileum on 14th day were greater in pigs fed benzoic acid diet(P<0.05), benzoic acid increased villous height in ileum on 42nd day (P<0.05), decreased crypt depth in duodenum on 14th day (P<0.05), and increased the villous height:crypt depth ratio in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on 14th day and 42nd day (P<0.05). In conclusion, diet supplemented with 5000mg/kg benzoic acid can improve the gut health of piglets through decreasing the digesta pH values, maintaining the balance of microflora and promoting the development of intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.


      PubDate: 2014-06-07T15:00:14Z
       
 
 
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