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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 832 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (586 journals)

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Journal Cover Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 81]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Prospecting genes associated with navel length, coat and scrotal
           circumference traits in Canchim cattle
    • Authors: Andrea Renata da Silva Romero; Fabiane Siqueira; Gustavo Garcia Santiago; Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano; Maury Dorta de Souza Júnior; Roberto Augusto de Almeida Torres Júnior; André Vieira do Nascimento; Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
      Pages: 33 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Andrea Renata da Silva Romero, Fabiane Siqueira, Gustavo Garcia Santiago, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano, Maury Dorta de Souza Júnior, Roberto Augusto de Almeida Torres Júnior, André Vieira do Nascimento, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
      The aim of this work was to identify genomic regions and genes in association with the navel length, coat and scrotal circumference traits of Canchim breed of cattle, using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Imputed data from single nucleotide polymorphism type markers were used, with accuracy greater than 95%. The analyses of genome-wide association were conducted by the Bayes B method, implemented in the GenSel program. Non-overlapping windows that explained at least 0.19% of the additive genetic variance were considered as significant, this value corresponds five times the expected for 1 Mb size windows. GWAS indicated 31 regions in association with navel length, one coat region, and four SC-related regions. In these regions, 4 quantitative loci (QTLs) related to navel length and 5 with SC were identified, as for the coat, the QTLs detected did not present previously described relation with this trait. Among the candidate genes in the associated regions, 7 genes were cited in previous studies, with biological functions related to navel length, one for coat and three for SC. The candidate genes TMEM176A and TMEM176AB, which are orthologous in humans, are in association with navel's trait and compose the Androgen Induced 1 cluster. The identification of genes and QTLs, with a function related to the studied traits, previously described in the literature, reinforces the evidence that the found regions are associated with navel length, coat and SC. This information may contribute to the understanding of the genetic architecture involved with of these traits, to guiding genetic validation studies, gene introgression and contribute to include information concerning molecular markers in genetic evaluation of animal improvement programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • The effect of a commercial feed additive on the immune-metabolic axis,
           liver function and predicted carcass quality in purebred Angus steers
    • Authors: S.A. Armstrong; D.J. McLean; G. Bobe
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): S.A. Armstrong, D.J. McLean, G. Bobe
      To determine the effect of the commercial feed additive OmniGen-AF® on immune, physiological, and carcass ultrasound variables in steers during backgrounding, transition, and finishing phases, nine purebred Angus half-sibling steers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Control (n = 4) and OmniGen-AF (OG; n = 5). Cattle were offered 0 (Control) or 56 g daily of OG throughout a 28-d backgrounding period (limit-fed a predominantly forage diet), a 14-d transition period, and a 56-d finishing period on a high concentrate diet (104 days total). During the three feeding periods, whole blood and serum was collected to evaluate markers of immune function and physiology, respectively. Across basal diet phases, OG supplementation increased serum chloride (P = 0.02) and haptoglobin (P = 0.03) concentrations and decreased serum NEFA (P = 0.001) concentrations. At the end of the high-concentrate finishing period, OG supplementation vs. Control attenuated the decrease in serum paraoxonase and the increase in AST concentrations, a marker of liver cell necrosis. Carcass prediction measurements, collected in 30-day intervals during the finishing phase, indicated lower predicted numerical yield grades (P = 0.03) due to higher REA (P = 0.009) and a tendency for less 12th rib fat (P = 0.06) in Control vs. OG steers. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, and predicted quality grades did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, OG may act on the immune-metabolic axis across the three studied basal diet phases to support healthier livers and improved predicted yield grades in Angus steers by decreasing fat deposition and increasing REA.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Effects of feeding systems on rumen environment, degradability and passage
           kinetics in Ankole × Friesian crossbred steers
    • Authors: Denis Asizua; Denis Mpairwe; Fred Kabi; David Mutetikka; Felix Budara Bareeba; Torben Hvelplund; Martin Riis Weisbjerg; Jørgen Madsen
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Denis Asizua, Denis Mpairwe, Fred Kabi, David Mutetikka, Felix Budara Bareeba, Torben Hvelplund, Martin Riis Weisbjerg, Jørgen Madsen
      Natural pastures constitute a large proportion of the feed resource base for meat and milk production in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is increasing use of agro-industrial by-products, especially those that are cereal-based as supplementary feedstuff to grazing animals and in diets under semi-intensive and intensive production systems. This study evaluated the influence of feeding systems on rumen environment, degradability and passage kinetics. Six Ankole x Friesian F1 crossbred steers weighing 339 ± 29 kg (about two years of age), each fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (ns = 2). Two steers were allocated per period to one of three feeding systems i.e. (1) sole grazing (control), (2) control plus concentrate supplement (composition g/kg DM: 375 maize bran, 559 brewer's spent grain, 62.5 molasses and 3.75 NaCl), and (3) feedlot systems where steers were fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising g/kg DM: 200 maize stover, 300 maize bran, 447 brewers’ spent grain, 50 molasses and 3 NaCl. Data was collected on rumen pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Rumen pH was lowest (P < 0.001) at feedlot (5.3) but highest (P < 0.001) under sole grazing (6.2). Rumen NH3-N ranged between 62.8 and 120 mg/l and was higher (P < 0.001) in sole grazing than in grazing but supplemented steers and those at the feedlot. Total VFA concentration for sole grazing steers (124 mmol/Mol) was higher (P < 0.05) than values observed under feedlot (102 mmol/Mol) while grazing but supplemented steers showed an intermediate value (108 mmol/Mol), not differing significantly from the two other systems. Molar proportion of acetate was higher (P < 0.001) in grazing steers compared to values for either grazing but supplemented or those under feedlot while the reverse was true for propionate. The degradation characteristics of DM, CP and NDF were generally higher in sole grazing steers. Although, in most cases, the influence of feeding system on degradability was dependent on the type of feedstuff, feeding systems did not influence total mean retention time. The high extent of DM, CP and fiber degradation in grazing steers compared to supplemented and feedlot steers demonstrates that forage diversity under grazing positively influences degradability. However, attention to the nature and fermentation characteristics of proteins and carbohydrate sources and how they modify rumen environment in different production systems is needed to improve utilization of supplements and TMR.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Risk factors for pre-slaughter mortality in fattening and breeding rabbits
    • Authors: Claudia Caucci; Guido Di Martino; Katia Capello; Matteo Mazzucato; Angela Trocino; Gerolamo Xiccato; Nadia Lago; Michele Brichese; Lebana Bonfanti
      Pages: 55 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Claudia Caucci, Guido Di Martino, Katia Capello, Matteo Mazzucato, Angela Trocino, Gerolamo Xiccato, Nadia Lago, Michele Brichese, Lebana Bonfanti
      Pre-slaughter transportation of rabbits under commercial conditions may influence their mortality, routinely recorded at the slaughterhouse as DOA (‘dead-on-arrival’ rate). The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for DOA, including batch size (number of rabbits loaded), season, stocking density, and transport and lairage duration. A retrospective analysis of 6411 fattening rabbit and 450 breeding rabbit batches transported in a 3-year period to a major abattoir of Northeast Italy was performed. At least one dead animal was recorded in 62% of fattening batches and 14% of breeding batches. Average DOA was 0.08% for fattening rabbits, but in transports with at least one dead rabbit the average DOA was 0.13%. For fattening rabbits, significantly increased DOAs were observed in batches with < 1201 or > 3508 rabbits, mainly during the summer, and at a stocking density higher than 29.3 kg/crate. The highest number of batches at high stocking density was found in winter (61% of all batches). Batches with high stocking density showed a higher DOA even in winter, suggesting that the reduction of space availability does not protect against low temperatures. Regarding travel duration, transports longer than 3 h increased significantly DOA by ≈ 40% compared to transports shorter than 1 h. A lairage longer than 7 h doubled the DOA compared to a lairage shorter than 2 h. The interaction between travel and lairage duration showed that a journey shorter than 1 h can significantly reduce DOA associated with a long lairage. For breeding rabbits, the average DOA in batches with at least one dead rabbit (n = 65), was 1.79%; no significant association with variables was detected.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Reproductive performance, offspring characteristics, and injury scores
           according to the housing system of gestating gilts
    • Authors: Evandro César Pereira Cunha; Tila de Alcantara Menezes; Mari Lourdes Bernardi; Ana Paula Gonçalves Mellagi; Rafael da Rosa Ulguim; Ivo Wentz; Fernando Pandolfo Bortolozzo
      Pages: 59 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Evandro César Pereira Cunha, Tila de Alcantara Menezes, Mari Lourdes Bernardi, Ana Paula Gonçalves Mellagi, Rafael da Rosa Ulguim, Ivo Wentz, Fernando Pandolfo Bortolozzo
      The time of mixing is a key factor that influences the success of group housing system for gestating swine females. This study compared the effects of three gestation housing systems for gilts on body injuries, locomotion problems, farrowing rate and litter characteristics. The gilts were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments: STALL = gilts housed in individual stalls throughout gestation; PEN7 = gilts group-housed in pens at 7 d after breeding, and PEN30 = gilts group-housed in pens at 30 d after breeding. Farrowing rate was different (P = 0.04) between STALL and PEN7 (89.7% and 83.2%, respectively) whereas an intermediate farrowing rate was observed in PEN30 (84.9%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy maintenance from 28 d to 55 d after AI or from 28 d till farrowing and, as well, the parameters such as the total number of piglets born, born alive, birth weight, the coefficient of variation of birth weight within the litter, and the proportion of piglets weighing less than 1000 g also remained unchanged. The gilts in the STALL group had greater weight and gained more weight up to 107 d of gestation compared to those in PEN7 and PEN30 groups (P < 0.001). A greater chance of increased injury score for skin and claws was observed at 3, 12, and 23 d after housing in PEN7 and PEN30 than in STALL. At 107 d of gestation, PEN7 and PEN30 groups had greater odds for skin injuries, claw lesions, and lameness compared to STALL (P < 0.001). There was no increase in the chance of lameness in STALL but PEN7 and PEN30 groups had greater odds (122.2 and 76.4, respectively) of lameness (P < 0.001) at the end (4.9%, 39.2%, and 26.7%) than at the onset of gestation (3.1%, 0.5%, and 0.5% for STALL, PEN7, and PEN30, respectively). The culling rate as manifested by locomotor problems was found to be greater in PEN7 group than in PEN30 and STALL groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, mixing gestating gilts at 7 d after breeding compromised farrowing rate; however, mixing gilts on day 30 post-breeding did not impair reproductive performance or litter characteristics. Regardless of the mixing time (7 or 30 d after breeding), more sow injuries (skin lesions and lameness) were observed in the ESF system compared to the individual housing in stalls.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of two herbal essential oils, probiotic, and
           mannan-oligosaccharides on egg production, hatchability, serum
           metabolites, intestinal morphology, and microbiota activity of quail
           breeders
    • Authors: M. Hajiaghapour; V. Rezaeipour
      Pages: 93 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): M. Hajiaghapour, V. Rezaeipour
      The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 essential oils, including ajwain essential oil (AEO; Trachyspermum ammi L.) and dill essential oil (DEO; Anethum graveolens L.), compared with probiotic (Pro) and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) on the productive performance, egg traits, serum metabolites, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in quail breeders. A total of 250 female and 50 male Japanese breeder quails at age of 8 wk were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 5 replicate cages per treatment and 10 females and 2 males per cage. The experimental diets were a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with Pro (150 mg/kg), MOS (2 g/kg), AEO (250 mg/kg), and DEO (250 mg/kg). During the 10-wk experiment period, productive performance and egg quality were recorded. At the end of the experiment, serum biochemical metabolites, intestinal morphometric indices, and microbiota counts were determined. The dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, egg mass, daily production, feed intake, chick's weight, and hatchability in quail breeders. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved in quail breeders fed dietary AEO supplement (P < 0.05). Feeding diets containing DEO and AEO resulted in a decrease in blood serum concentration of cholesterol at the end of the experiment (P < 0.05). The quail breeders fed the diet with AEO had a greater number of Lactobacilli in the ileo-cecal region (P < 0.05). The dietary AEO, Pro, and MOS increased villus width and height in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the AEO supplementation had a positive effect on the FCR and microbiota counts of breeder quails. In addition, supplementation of MOS, Pro, and AEO in quail breeder diet improved the intestinal morphology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Urea nitrogen induces changes in rumen microbial and host metabolic
           profiles in dairy cows
    • Authors: D. Jin; S.G. Zhao; N. Zheng; D.P. Bu; Y. Beckers; J.Q. Wang
      Pages: 104 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Jin, S.G. Zhao, N. Zheng, D.P. Bu, Y. Beckers, J.Q. Wang
      Urea has been used in diets of cattle as a non-protein nitrogen source. It is hydrolyzed to ammonia, which can be used for microbial protein synthesis. Use of metabolomics methodologies to study the rumen microbial and host blood metabolic profiles induced by urea nitrogen has not been previously characterized. The objective of this study was to identify changes in rumen microbial and plasma metabolite profiles in dairy cows after urea supplementation using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based untargeted quantitative metabolomic approach. Six dairy cows with rumen fistulas were randomly assigned to two groups used in a two period cross-over trial and each experimental period lasted 21 days. All the cows were fed the same total mixed rations, but were intraruminally supplemented with 180g urea per cow daily or not during the experimental period. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of variance. Differences in rumen and plasma metabolite concentrations in cows from the two groups were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis and identified by searching against related databases. Concentrations of valine, aspartate, glutamate, and uracil in the rumen, and urea and pyroglutamate in the plasma, were higher (P < 0.05) in the urea-supplemented group than in the control group. Metabolic pathway analysis of the affected metabolites revealed that pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, beta-alanine metabolism, valine, leucine, and isoleucine metabolism in the rumen, and urea and glutathione metabolism in the plasma were significantly increased by urea nitrogen. The levels of aspartate and glutamate in the rumen correlated strongly (P < 0.01) with the level of urea in plasma. These findings provided novel information to aid understanding of the metabolic pathways affected by urea nitrogen in dairy cows, and could potentially help to guide efforts directed at improving the efficiency of urea utilization in the rumen.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of Enterococcus faecium on growth
           performance, intestinal morphology, and selected microbial populations of
           piglets
    • Authors: Y.H. Xie; C.Y. Zhang; L.X. Wang; Q.H. Shang; G.G. Zhang; W.R. Yang
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Y.H. Xie, C.Y. Zhang, L.X. Wang, Q.H. Shang, G.G. Zhang, W.R. Yang
      The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of E. faecium on growth performance and intestinal health of 35- to 70-d-old piglets. Two hundred fifty-five 35-d-old crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) piglets were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 3 replicates of 17 pigs per pen. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (8mg flavomycin and 90mg arsanilic acid/kg), and basal diet supplemented with E. faecium preparation (2 × 1010 cfu E. faecium/g) at the dose of 100, 300, and 500mg/kg diet. The average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain to feed ratio (G:F), and diarrhea index were determined during the entire experimental period. At the end of the experiment, 6 pigs from each treatment (2 per pen) were euthanized, and the gastrointestinal pH, small intestine morphological traits, and selected intestinal microbiota populations were determined. The ADG and ADFI tended to be improved with the increasing doses of supplemented E. faecium or the added antibiotics (P = 0.053 and 0.072, respectively), while G:F was linearly or quadratically improved (P<0.05) and the diarrhea index was linearly or quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) as E. faecium supplemented increased. Furthermore, the pH in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and cecum decreased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically as E. faecium supplemented increased. The villus height and villus-to-crypt ratio (V:C) of jejunum were increased (P <0.05) in piglets receiving E. faecium preparation in diet than those fed the basal diet and antibiotic supplemented treatments. Supplementation with E. faecium in basal diet increased (P <0.05) the counts of Lactobacillus spp. in comparison with that of control treatment or antibiotic treatment, while tended to decrease the populations of E. coli and aerobes in small intestine relative to those in control treatment. Thus, inclusion of E. faecium preparation in basal diet could improve G:F and reduce the piglets’ diarrhea index. These effects might be ascribed to the improvement of intestinal health condition, including the improved gut internal acid environment (pH values), increased beneficial selected microbial populations, and better intestinal morphology. Considering all the determined variables, the optimum dietary E. faecium concentration preparation seemed to be about 500mg/kg in piglet's diet.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Investigating the role of stocking rate and prolificacy potential on
           profitability of grass based sheep production systems
    • Authors: A. Bohan; L. Shalloo; P. Creighton; E. Earle; T.M. Boland; N. McHugh
      Pages: 118 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Bohan, L. Shalloo, P. Creighton, E. Earle, T.M. Boland, N. Mchugh
      The objective of this study was to simulate and compare the profitability of a grass based sheep production system under three stocking rates and two prolificacy rates. Analysis was conducted using the Teagasc Lamb Production Model (TLPM), a stochastic budgetary simulation model of a sheep farm. Experimental data from the Teagasc Athenry Research Demonstration Flock was used to parameterise the model at three stocking rates (10, 12 and 14 ewes/ha) and two prolificacy potentials (1.5 and 1.8 lambs weaned per ewe joined to the ram). The TLPM assessed the performance of the key factors affecting profitability and was also used to evaluate the spread in profitability associated with some stochastic variables included in the analysis. The number of lambs weaned per hectare increased with stocking rate and prolificacy potential from 16 lambs/ha to 27 lambs/ha resulting in carcass weight produced per hectare ranging from 272kg/ha to 474kg/ha. Increasing stocking rates resulted in lower individual lamb performance from grass and milk, thereby increasing the proportion of lambs which required concentrate for finishing, which resulted in higher input costs on a per animal basis. As the number of lambs weaned per hectare increased, net profit increased from €361/ha to €802/ha. Across all stocking rates, increasing weaning rate from 1.5 to 1.8 lambs weaned per ewe joined increased net profit, on average, by €336/ha. Increasing stocking rate, at 1.5 lambs weaned per ewe joined, increased net profit on average by €15/ha while increasing stocking rate, at 1.8 lambs weaned per ewe joined increased net profit on average by €87/ha. Risk analysis showed that across all stocking rates the high prolificacy scenarios achieved greater profits across the variation in input variables. Results from this study indicate that lambs weaned per hectare linked with grass growth and utilisations are the key drivers of profitability on Irish grass based sheep production systems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • The effect of dairy cow breed on milk production, cow traffic and milking
           characteristics in a pasture-based automatic milking system
    • Authors: J. Shortall; C. Foley; R.D. Sleator; B. O’Brien
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 209
      Author(s): J. Shortall, C. Foley, R.D. Sleator, B. O’Brien
      Despite the increasing frequency of integrated automatic milking (AM) and pasture-based systems, there is limited knowledge available on the suitability of different dairy cow breeds to these systems. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to establish the performance of three breeds in a pasture-based AM system with respect to milk production, cow traffic and milking characteristics. The breeds examined were Holstein Friesian (HF), Jersey x HF (JEX) and Norwegian Red x HF (NRX), all of which have been previously identified as being compatible with conventional milking pasture-based systems. The experiment was conducted in mid-lactation and variables measured included milking frequency, -interval, -outcome and -characteristics, milk yield/milking and per day, wait time/visit and per day, return time/visit and the daily distribution of milking events. Data were statistically analysed using least squares means mixed procedure models, while the proportion of different milking events were analysed using the logistics procedure. While there were no significant differences between breeds for milking frequency, or milk production, significant differences did exist for proportion of successful and failed milkings events, with NRX cows recording the highest and lowest proportions, respectively. JEX also recorded a significantly shorter dead time/quarter at 17.6s/milking compared to the HF and NRX breeds at 28.5 and 27.7s/milking, respectively. Significant differences also existed with regard to cow traffic, with the NRX breed returning from pasture more quickly and waiting a shorter time both per visit and per day in the pre-milking yard. The distribution of milking events differed between the breeds examined, with the JEX cows recording less milkings in the hour after the pre-selection gate changes of 0000h and 1600h. JEX also recorded a significantly greater proportion of milkings than the NRX and HF cows during the hours at which the lowest proportion of total milking events were recorded (0400–0600h). For the optimisation of the AM system it is important to have an even distribution of milkings throughout the day. Based on the evidence from the current experiment, this may be best achieved by a mixed breed herd rather than a single breed herd. However, the performance of the examined breeds should also be analysed in the context of the whole AM farm system, over an entire lactation, taking into consideration the range of variables that contribute to a profitable farm system.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2018)
       
  • Dietary arginine supplementation enhances the growth performance and
           immune status of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Y.Q. Xu; Y.W. Guo; B.L. Shi; S.M. Yan; X.Y. Guo
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 209
      Author(s): Y.Q. Xu, Y.W. Guo, B.L. Shi, S.M. Yan, X.Y. Guo
      This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Arg on growth performance and immunity in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old broiler chickens were divided into 5 treatments with 6 cages and 10 chickens per cage. The broiler chickens in the 5 treatments were fed with the basal diet (Arg-deficient diet, 8.6% Arg in diet from 0 to 21 d and 6.8% Arg in diet from 21 to 42 d) supplemented with 0%, 0.45%, 0.90%, 1.35%, and 1.80% Arg, respectively. The effects of dietary Arg on performance and immune status were assessed. The results showed that, with increasing of dietary Arg content, body weight was increased quadratically on d 21 (P < 0.01) and 42 (P < 0.01). The daily weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed conversion (P < 0.05) were improved quadratically during the entire period. In addition, with increasing of dietary Arg content, serum concentrations of growth hormone (P < 0.01), insulin-like growth factors-1 (P < 0.01), insulin (P < 0.01), IgA (P < 0.01), and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), as well as thymus weight (P < 0.05) of broiler chickens, were improved quadratically on d 21; and lymphocyte proliferation (P < 0.01), the antibody titers to newcastle disease (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.01), and serum IgM concentration (P < 0.05) were increased linearly or quadratically on d 42. The results indicated that incorporating Arg in excess of the 1994 NRC requirement improves the growth and immunity of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2018)
       
  • Expression of progesterone receptor and progesterone-induced blocking
           factor in the spleen during early pregnancy in ewes
    • Authors: Ling Yang; Runqing Guo; Xiaolei Yao; Jinkun Yan; Ying Bai; Leying Zhang
      Pages: 14 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 209
      Author(s): Ling Yang, Runqing Guo, Xiaolei Yao, Jinkun Yan, Ying Bai, Leying Zhang
      The spleen plays a key role in immune regulation. Progesterone (P4) exhibits different immunological effects through binding to different types of receptor. In the present study, splenic samples were obtained at day 16 of non-pregnancy and days 13, 16, and 25 of pregnancy to study the expression of P4 receptor (PGR) and P4-induced blocking factor (PIBF) in ewes through quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. Our results showed that the relative expression levels of PGR and PIBF mRNA increased from day 13–16 in pregnant ewes, but decreased from day 16–25, and the 26kDa isoform of PGR and the 22kDa variant of PIBF were down-regulated in the spleens at day 25 of pregnancy compared with expression at day 16 of the oestrous cycle and days 13 and 16 of pregnancy. The immunohistochemistry test results confirmed that PGR and PIBF proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of cells in the capsule, trabeculae and splenic cords. This paper reports for the first time that the 26kDa isoform of PGR and the 22kDa variant of PIBF were down-regulated during early pregnancy, which may be essential for normal pregnancy in ewes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2018)
       
  • Effects of abomasal supplementation of quercetin on performance,
           inflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase genes expression in
           goats fed a high-grain diet
    • Authors: C. Guo; H. Li; D. Sun; J. Liu; S. Mao
      Pages: 20 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 209
      Author(s): C. Guo, H. Li, D. Sun, J. Liu, S. Mao
      Ten abomasally fistulated male goats fed twice daily at a constant rate of 4% of body weight were used to investigate the effects of abomasal supplementation of quercetin on rumen fermentation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the rumen epithelium, liver and hoof tissues, and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes in hoof tissues. The goats were placed in individual pens (1.2 × 1.2m) with free access to water and randomly divided to two groups: one group fed an high grain diet (HG) without quercetin (control, n = 5) and the other group fed HG and treated with quercetin (treatment, n = 5) for 4 weeks. Results showed that abomasal supplementation of quercetin increased the average daily feed intake (P < 0.001) and body weight (P < 0.01). The concentration of free lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (P < 0.05) in rumen fluid was higher in goats supplemented with quercetin compared with the control group. Quercetin supplementation did not affect the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ in the ruminal epithelial tissue (P > 0.05). Quercetin supplementation decreased the IL-1β mRNA expression (P < 0.05) and increased IL-10 mRNA expression (P < 0.05) in the liver tissues. Quercetin supplementation downregulated the mRNA expression of IL-1β (P < 0.01) and tended to downregulate the TNF-α mRNA expression (P > 0.05) in the hoof. Quercetin supplementation also lowered the mRNA expression levels of MMP-2 (P < 0.05) and MMP-9 (P < 0.01) in the hoof tissue. In conclusion, abomasal supplementation of quercetin improved the performance, decreased the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines in the liver and hoof tissues, and reduced the risk of laminitis in goats.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2018)
       
  • Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake,
           milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation
    • Authors: Charlotte Gaillard; Martin Tang Sørensen; Mogens Vestergaard; Martin Riis Weisbjerg; Mette Krogh Larsen; Henrik Martinussen; Ulla Kidmose; Jakob Sehested
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 209
      Author(s): Charlotte Gaillard, Martin Tang Sørensen, Mogens Vestergaard, Martin Riis Weisbjerg, Mette Krogh Larsen, Henrik Martinussen, Ulla Kidmose, Jakob Sehested
      The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1kg from Gly12 to Gly18. Concentrate intake at the automated milking unit tended to decrease by half a kg from Gly0 to Gly6. Milk yield decreased linearly with increasing proportions of glycerol in the diet while fat and protein contents in milk increased. This resulted in a quadratic effect of dietary glycerol level on ECM yield, with maximum yield with Gly6 and the lowest yield with Gly18. Protein and lactose yields decreased linearly with increasing proportions of glycerol in the diet. With increasing glycerol proportion in the diet, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid proportions in milk decreased linearly, while most of the short and medium chain FFA proportions in milk increased. To conclude, glycerol, as an energy feed, can substitute barley up to 18% of dietary DM for dairy cows in mid or late lactation without affecting milk quality. However, including more than 12% dietary glycerol might decrease ECM yield.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2018)
       
  • Effect of diet complexity, multi-enzyme complexes, essential oils, and
           benzoic acid on weanling pigs
    • Authors: Y. Wang; L.I. Chiba; C. Huang; I.M. Torres; L. Wang; E.G. Welles
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 209
      Author(s): Y. Wang, L.I. Chiba, C. Huang, I.M. Torres, L. Wang, E.G. Welles
      The study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing a simple corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet with multi-enzyme complexes, essential oils, and benzoic acid on growth performance, serum metabolite profile, serum cytokines, and intestinal microbiota in weanling pigs. Forty-eight gilts and 48 castrated males weaned at 3 to 4 wk of age (initial body weight, 7.96 ± 0.89kg) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 3 gilt and 3 castrated male pens per treatment and 4 gilts or 4 castrated males per pen. A complex diet containing palatable and digestible ingredients was formulated (1.30g standardized ileal digestible Lys/kg) to serve as the positive control (POS) diet. A simple corn-SBM, negative control (NEG) diet was formulated to be isolysinic to the POS diet, and the NEG diet was supplemented with multi-enzyme complexes (ENZ) or multi-enzyme complexes, essential oils, and benzoic acid (ALL). All diets were formulated to meet or exceed the 2012 NRC nutrient requirements of pigs weighing 7 to 25kg. During the fourth week, blood samples were collected to determine serum metabolite profile and cytokines, and fecal samples were collected for the enumeration of bacteria. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the 4-wk study. From d 0 to 7 and 7 to 14, pigs fed the POS diet had greater feed and Lys intake (P < 0.05) and weight gain (P < 0.05) than those fed the NEG and ALL diets, but there were no differences in those response criteria between pigs fed the POS and ENZ diets. Weight gain of pigs fed the ENZ diet was 17% greater than those fed the NEG diet during the second week (P < 0.05), but it increased only numerically (16%) during the first week. Overall (d 0 to 28), pigs fed the POS diet consumed more feed, Lys, and digestible energy (DE; P < 0.05) and had greater weight gain (P < 0.05) than those fed the other diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on the efficiency of feed, Lys, or DE utilization for weight gain during the study. Serum total protein in pigs fed the ENZ and ALL diets was greater (P < 0.05) than those fed the POS and NEG diets. Pigs fed the ENZ diet had greater serum albumin (P < 0.05) than those fed the NEG diet. Serum globulin and urea N were lower (P < 0.05) and albumin to globulin ratio, glucose, and cholesterol were greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the POS diet than those fed the other diets. Dietary treatments had no clear effect on serum cytokines or fecal microbiota. Pigs fed the POS diet grew faster and had lower serum urea N and globulin and greater serum glucose and cholesterol than those fed the other diets. Although supplementation of the NEG diet with multi-enzyme complexes seemed to have beneficial effect on growth performance during the first 2 wk of the study, supplementation of the NEG diet with various feed additives had no clear effects. Further research is needed to explore further the possibility of using a simple corn-SBM diet for weanling pigs by supplementation with multi-enzyme complexes, essential oils, and benzoic acid.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2018)
       
  • Productive and economic performance of endemic N’Dama cattle in southern
           Mali compared to Fulani Zebu and their crossbreds
    • Authors: Sékou Amadou Traoré; Christoph Reiber; Anne Valle Zárate
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 209
      Author(s): Sékou Amadou Traoré, Christoph Reiber, Anne Valle Zárate
      In recent decades, there has been a rapid shift in livestock breeds used in developing countries, leading to a loss of local genetic resources. The introduction of high-performing livestock breeds might, however, offer opportunities to improve the income of poor livestock keepers. In southern Mali, where cattle play an important role in farmers’ livelihoods, the endemic trypanotolerant N’Dama cattle breed is increasingly being crossbred with the improved Fulani Zebu breed. Thus, the N’Dama cattle face serious threats of genetic erosion, despite their adaptive attributes. This study aims to evaluate and compare the productive and economic performance of endemic N’Dama, Fulani Zebu and their crossbreds in southern Mali in order to assess the comparative advantages of these breed groups for farmers. Data collection methods comprised of interviews with 34, 31, 34 and 61 households keeping N’Dama, crossbreds, Fulani Zebu and mixed herds respectively, and a cow progeny history and body condition scoring (BCS) (n = 770). Data were analyzed using linear mixed models and a non-parametric test. Results on cow individual performances showed a higher body condition for N’Dama compared to Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle, while cow milk offtake was higher for Fulani Zebu herds. Calving and offtake rates were higher for the Fulani Zebu and crossbred herds. The gross margin/cattle and the benefit-cost ratio were highest in the Fulani Zebu herds, followed by the crossbred herds, whereas the net benefit/cattle, including non-market benefits, such as traction, manure, insurance and home consumption, was similar between the herd categories. The N’Dama cattle remain a valuable breed for subsistence-oriented crop-livestock farmers for whom non-market benefits from cattle play a considerable role. Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle were the most favorable options for market-oriented local and settled transhumant farmers, given their higher price and increased profitability.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2018)
       
  • Colostral immunoglobulin concentration and milk production of ewes fed
           salt tolerant forages as alternatives to berseem hay
    • Authors: A.S. Morsy; M.M. Eissa; M.M. Anwer; H. Ghobashy; S.M.A. Sallam; Y.A. Soltan; A.M. Saber; E.A. El-Wakeel; W.M. Sadik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.S. Morsy, M.M. Eissa, M.M. Anwer, H. Ghobashy, S.M.A. Sallam, Y.A. Soltan, A.M. Saber, E.A. El-Wakeel, W.M. Sadik
      Feeding transition ewes on salt tolerant forages was proposed to enhance the immune response and milk production. Forty pregnant Barki ewes were assigned to four experimental diets (n=10 each): i.e. control [40% berseem hay (Trifolium alexandrinum) and 60% concentrate mix] or salt tolerant forage diets [40% either cassava (Manihot esculenta), acacia (Acacia saligna) or atriplex (Atriplex nummularia) and 60% concentrate mix)] for a period of 4 weeks before the expected lambing date until 8 weeks of lactation. Feeding with cassava resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) overall means of IgG and IgM in colostrum and lamb serum compared to other diets throughout the first 24h after birth. Both cassava and control groups showed similar ewe serum glucose concentration, while cassava enhanced (P < 0.05) the milk protein and yield compared to control. Lambs raised by cassava group had the highest (P < 0.05) daily gain compared to other groups. In conclusion, our results suggested that the bioactive components of salt tolerant forages may enhance the immune response and milk production during early lactation period.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.012
       
  • Teat number parameters in Italian Large White pigs: Phenotypic analysis
           and association with vertnin (VRTN) gene allele variants
    • Authors: Stefania Dall'Olio; Anisa Ribani; Giulia Moscatelli; Paolo Zambonelli; Maurizio Gallo; Leonardo Nanni Costa; Luca Fontanesi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Stefania Dall'Olio, Anisa Ribani, Giulia Moscatelli, Paolo Zambonelli, Maurizio Gallo, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Luca Fontanesi
      Teat number (TN) is a major determinant of the mothering ability of sows that in turn influences their reproductive efficiency. Even if the total number of teats is routinely recorded in many pig breeding programmes, its individual side count is not commonly recorded and just few investigations have evaluated the bilateral symmetry of this morphological trait. Several studies in pigs have identified genes or genomic regions affecting teat traits. For example, polymorphisms in the vertnin (VRTN) gene have been associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae and with TN in a few pig breeds. In this study, we evaluated the phenotypic variability of traits related to teat count including number of teats on the left (LTN) and right (RTN) side, TN, maximum number of teats between the two sides (MAX) and teat asymmetry traits (signed and absolute difference between RTN and LTN) in 793 Italian Large White heavy pigs. Furthermore, we genotyped these pigs for the AB554652:g.20311_20312ins291 VRTN gene polymorphism and evaluated its effect on the recorded teat parameters. This polymorphism was significantly associated (P<0.0001) with all investigated traits, except the asymmetry traits. The estimated additive effects were 0.35 for TN, 0.19 for RTN, 0.16 for LTN and 0.17 for MAX, with a favourable effect of the mutated Q allele (the allele derived by the inserted 291bp fragment). Selection for the VRTN Q allele could expedite the genetic progress for teat number and thus might be important to improve reproduction performances of the Italian Large White heavy pig breed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.020
       
  • An evaluation of metabolizable energy content of main feed ingredients for
           growing pigs when adding dietary lysophospholipids
    • Authors: M.J. Kim; A.R. Hosseindoust; Y.H. Choi; A. Kumar; S.M. Jeon; S.H. Lee; B.Y. Jung; B.J. Chae
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.J. Kim, A.R. Hosseindoust, Y.H. Choi, A. Kumar, S.M. Jeon, S.H. Lee, B.Y. Jung, B.J. Chae
      The present study was conducted to test whether the dietary supplementation of lysophospholipids (LPL) affects digestible energy (DE) content of feed ingredients, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance of growing pigs. In Exp. I, 8 growing pigs were alternatively used for 8 dietary treatments including 4 feed ingredients (corn, soybean meal, distiller's dried grains with solubles, and animal fat), and 2 LPL concentrations (0 and 0.1%) in 6 periods to determine DE and metabolizable energy (ME) content. In Exp. Ⅱ, 200 growing pigs were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of body weight with 2 concentrations of fat (high and low) and 2 concentrations of LPL (0 and 0.1%). The experimental diets were fed for 42 d in 2 phases. In Exp. I, gross energy (GE) digestibility, feed DE, and ME were increased in animal fat when LPL were added to the diet. In Exp. II, the pigs fed LPL showed greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of EE, GE, crude protein (CP), and DM In phase II. Pigs fed a high-fat diet had greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of EE, and GE. Gross energy retention was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the high-fat diet compared with those fed the low-fat diet in phase II. During phase I, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs fed the high-fat diet was greater (P < 0.05) than that for pigs fed the low-energy diet. During the second phase, ADG was increased in LPL and high-fat diets (P < 0.05). The overall results showed that pigs fed the LPL or high-fat treatments had greater ADG and feed to gain ratio (F/G). Considering the 2 experiments, it can be concluded that LPL increase the ME of animal fat and improves ADG and F/G in pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.014
       
  • Exploring the association between polymorphisms at 3’UTR SLC11A1 gene
           microsatellites and resistance to tuberculosis: A case-control study in
           Bos taurus dairy cattle
    • Authors: Flavia C. Hasenauer; Sergio G. Garbaccio; Maria E. Caffaro; Carlos Garro; Pablo Huertas; Mario A. Poli; Carlos A. Rossetti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Flavia C. Hasenauer, Sergio G. Garbaccio, Maria E. Caffaro, Carlos Garro, Pablo Huertas, Mario A. Poli, Carlos A. Rossetti
      Bovine tuberculosis is a contagious infectious disease that causes significant economic impact in dairy and meat farms throughout the world. Multiple factors, including host genome, determine the outcome of the infection. Several studies have associated polymorphisms at the two microsatellites (Ms) -Ms1 and Ms2- at the 3´unstranslated (UTR) region of the SLC11A1 bovine gene with innate resistance or susceptibility to some facultative intracellular bacterial infections, such as Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Today, the few studies that investigated the association of those polymorphisms with innate resistance or susceptibility to tuberculosis in cattle, have shown opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role, if any, of the Ms1 and/or Ms2 polymorphisms at the 3´UTR of the SLC11A1 gene in Mycobacterium bovis infection phenotypes in Bos taurus dairy cattle. Jersey (n=149) and Holstein (n=427) cattle under risk of natural M. bovis infection were classified like controls (n=326) and cases (n=250) based on the response to caudal fold tuberculin skin test. Cattle population was genotyped by capillary electrophoresis based on polymorphisms in Ms1 and Ms2 at the 3´UTR SLC11A1 gene. The results presented here showed a lack of association (p > 0.05) between polymorphisms at the 3´UTR SLC11A1 gene and the response to tuberculin skin test in dairy Bos taurus cattle. Further studies are necessary to establish robustly genes or genome regions determining the innate R/S phenotype to Mycobacterium bovis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.012
       
  • Effects of modified montmorillonite adsorbent on performance, egg quality,
           serum biochemistry, oxidation status, and immune response of laying hens
           in late production
    • Authors: X.Y. Qu; J.F. Chen; C.Q. He; F. Chi; S.L. Johnston
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): X.Y. Qu, J.F. Chen, C.Q. He, F. Chi, S.L. Johnston
      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with calcium montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) on layers’ oxidation status, immune response, serum biochemistry, performance, and egg quality. A total of four hundred-eighty 75-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 12 hens in each replicate. The hens were fed the basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, or 1.2g Ca-MMT/kg for 70 d. The Ca-MMT supplementation linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05) increased yolk index, serum total superoxide dismutase activity, and interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G concentrations at d 35, and shell thickness, and serum and liver glutathione peroxidase activity at d 70. With increasing supplementation of Ca-MMT in the basal diet, serum activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased both linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05) at d 35, and alanine aminotransferas activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration decreased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05) at d 70. The evidence indicates that increasing Ca-MMT concentration improved certain quality measurements, and partially enhancing hens’ antioxidant capability and immune function.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.021
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms within rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
           fatty acids binding protein 4 (FABP4) are associated with meat quality
           traits
    • Authors: Ł. Migdał; K. Kozioł; S. Pałka; W. Migdał; A. Otwinowska-Mindur; M. Kmiecik; A. Migdał; D. Maj; J. Bieniek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ł. Migdał, K. Kozioł, S. Pałka, W. Migdał, A. Otwinowska-Mindur, M. Kmiecik, A. Migdał, D. Maj, J. Bieniek
      Fatty acids binding protein 4 (FABP4; a-FABP) belongs to a family of proteins interacting with fatty acids and influencing lipid metabolism. Thus it may play an important role in rabbit fatness traits. The work was aimed at identifying SNPs within the rabbit FABP4, and their association with fatness traits. Panel of 20 animals’ DNA with varying content of intramuscular fat were sequenced. Alignment of the sequences obtained revealed seven polymorphic sites within the rabbit FABP4: four silent (g.97156738G>A/ rs880004109; g.97156696A>G/ rs880004111; g.97156168G>A/ rs88000411 and g.97156084G>A/ rs880004114), two located in introns - g.97156187A>C/ rs880004112 and g.97156025G>A/ rs880004115, and one missense mutation g.97156692C>A/ rs880004110 (D77Y). A pool of data from 320 F2 crossbreds Belgian Giant Grey x New Zealand White rabbits was used for association analysis. The Bonferroni adjustment was applied for correction for multiple testing. Statistical analysis showed association for g.97156025G>A for L⁎45 (P= 0.0001) and L⁎24 (P= 0.0001) values after slaughter of m. longissimus lumborum. Moreover correlations between analyzed traits were calculated. We conclude that SNPs within the rabbit FABP4 gene are associated with fatness and meat traits and therefore they have potential use in breeding programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.018
       
  • Effects of chito-oligosaccharide supplementation with low or medium
           molecular weight and high degree of deacetylation on growth performance,
           nutrient digestibility and small intestinal morphology in weaned pigs
    • Authors: Boonrit Thongsong; Sureerat Suthongsa; Rath Pichyangkura; Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Boonrit Thongsong, Sureerat Suthongsa, Rath Pichyangkura, Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong
      Chito-oligosaccharide (COS) supplementation in nursery diets has been found to improve piglets’ performance. However, little is known on which COS characteristics are responsible for its effect. The present study was designed to further study how COS characteristics: molecular weight (MW) and degree of deacetylation (DD); affect the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and small intestinal modifications in weaning pigs. For this purpose, 48 weanling pigs were divided into 4 groups (12 animals per group) and received either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 150mg/kg of COS which differed in MW and DD: 8kDa and ~90% DD (8kDa~90%), 65kDa and ~80% DD (65kDa~80%), and 65kDa and ~90% DD (65kDa~90%). The experiment lasted 56 days. There were treatment effects on pigs’ body weight gain (BWG), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), digestibility of crude protein, fat and calcium, small intestinal morphology and crypt cell proliferation (P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the study, pigs supplemented with 8kDa~90% COS showed significantly enhanced BWG, ADG, and ADFI when compared to those supplemented with 65kDa~80% COS (P < 0.05, respectively). The enhanced growth performances in pigs supplemented with 8kDa~90% COS was supported by an increase in ADFI (P < 0.05), and improved ileal digestibility of crude protein and crude fat (P < 0.01, respectively). Pigs supplemented with 8kDa~90% COS also had increased absorption capacity as indicated by elongated villus height and increased villus height to crypt depth ratio of the small intestinal segments (P < 0.05, respectively), and more active cell division as indicated by increased Ki-67 marker at jejunal crypt cells (P < 0.05) on day 28 and 56 of the experiment. These data suggest that 8kDa~90% might be the most effective form of COS to improve feed intake, and promote nutrient digestibility and absorption when supplemented at 150mg/kg in the diet.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.011
       
  • The effect of citric acid acidification of drinking water on growth
           performance, cecal pH, and cecal microflora of meat duck
    • Authors: H. Liao; X.P. Wu; K.Y. Zhang; X.M. Ding; S.P. Bai; J.P. Wang; Q.F. Zeng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): H. Liao, X.P. Wu, K.Y. Zhang, X.M. Ding, S.P. Bai, J.P. Wang, Q.F. Zeng
      Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of acidification of drinking water with citric acid (CA) on growth performance, cecal pH, and cecal microflora of meat ducks. Preparing tap water containing 5 concentrations of CA (0, 0.021, 0.034, 0.068, and 0.449%) to lower pH of the solutions from 7.80 (tap water) to 5.45, 4.45, 3.50, and 2.56 was assessed, respectively. A total of 120 1-d-old ducks in Exp. 1, and another 120 15-d-old ducks in Exp. 2 were randomly allocated to 5 drinking water treatments with 6 replicate cages of 4 ducks, respectively. The experimental period was from 1 to 14 d of age in Exp. 1, and was from 15 to 35 d of age in Exp. 2. In both experiments, drinking water administration of incremental concentrations of CA linearly and quadratically reduced (P < 0.05) water intake of ducks. Feed intake and daily weight gain of ducks in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05), while feed intake in Exp.2 linearly increased (P < 0.05), and the absolute quantitative level of E. coli (d 35, Exp.2) in the cecum of ducks quadratically decreased (P < 0.05) as supplementation of drinking water with CA increased. Data obtained from Exp. 1 indicated that ducks from 1 to 14 d of age should not be given acidified drinking water; however, acidified drinking water with 0.068% CA (pH 3.50) can be supplied to ducks from 15 to 35 d of age based on data from Exp. 2.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.010
       
  • Estimation of the metabolic rate by assessing carbon-13 turnover in
           broiler tissues using the stable isotope technique
    • Authors: V.C. Pelícia; P.C. Araujo; F.G. Luiggi; A.C. Stradiotti; J.C. Denadai; J.R. Sartori; P.D.G. Pacheco; L.C. Dornelas; E.T. Silva; C.R. Souza-Kruliski; G.E.M. Pimenta; C. Ducatti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): V.C. Pelícia, P.C. Araujo, F.G. Luiggi, A.C. Stradiotti, J.C. Denadai, J.R. Sartori, P.D.G. Pacheco, L.C. Dornelas, E.T. Silva, C.R. Souza-Kruliski, G.E.M. Pimenta, C. Ducatti
      The aim of this study was to estimate the metabolic rate of broiler tissues by assessing carbon turnover in different growth phases by using the stable isotope technique and by evaluating the natural changes in Carbon-13 (13C) between C3 and C4 cycle plants. Six-hundred 1-day-old broiler chicks were divided into six groups and subjected to dietary changes containing different isotopic values at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days of age. Birds of Group 1 received diets composed predominantly of C3 cycle plants shortly after accommodation, while birds of other groups remained predominantly fed with C4 diet. The diet of Group 2 was mainly replaced by C3 diet on the 7th day of age. Group 3 started to receive C3 diet on the 14th day of age, whereas the diet of Group 4 was replaced on the 21st, Group 5 on the 28th. In Group 6, the substitution occurred on the 35th day of age. Samples of the pectoral muscle, keel, tibia, legs muscle, intestinal mucosa, blood, plasma, and feathers were collected. Carbon isotope ratios were determined by mass-spectrometry of isotope ratios. To measure the speed of carbon substitution after a set interval (turnover), a time exponential function was employed and obtained by exponential equations of the first order calculated with Minitab® 16 software. The carbon half-life varied from 1.78 to 8.20 days for the pectoral muscle, from 1.91 to 12.24 days for the keel, from 2.32 to 10.71 days for the tibia, from 1.87 to 9.43 days for the leg muscle, from 0.8 to 1.58 days for the intestinal mucosa, from 0.64 to 1.71 days for the plasma, from 2.61 to 11.07 days for blood, and from 1.84 to 28.41 days for the feathers during the total growth phase. With the exception of tibia and blood, all other tissues presented a high metabolic rate in the first week of the broilers’ life. The metabolic rate of tissues is faster in younger animals, and the metabolism slows down as the broilers get older. The metabolic rates in the pectoral muscle, keel, tibia, and feathers decreased with age, whereas those of the plasma and intestinal mucosa were high in all evaluated periods; thus, these tissues can be used to study traceability of feed at all stages of the broilers’ life.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.019
       
  • Litter size of Danish crossbred sows increased without changes in sow body
           dimensions over a thirteen year period
    • Authors: S.E. Nielsen; A.R. Kristensen; V.Aa. Moustsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.E. Nielsen, A.R. Kristensen, V.Aa. Moustsen
      The purpose of this study was to investigate if body dimensions of Danish crossbred sows (Yorkshire x Landrace) had increased compared to a previous Danish study from 2004. In addition, and as an expected potential benefit of increased body dimensions, a potential correlation between body dimensions and litter size was also investigated. Depth, width, length and height were measured from 405 Danish crossbred sows in 10 different herds, classified in groups of parity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and ≥ 7. By Linear Mixed-Effects Models with depth, width, length and height in turn as response variable and parity and herd as explanatory variables, estimated means, 5th and 95th percentiles, minimum and maximum observation were recorded. Furthermore, a weighted index for litter size (denoted as the “litter size potential”) was used as response variable with depth, width, length, height and parity as explanatory variables in an additive linear model. The factors were removed individually and in combination to test the effect. Mean depth, width, length and height were estimated to 66, 43, 192 and 90 cm, respectively, for full grown sows (parity ≥ 5). Sows’ body dimensions were not found to have increased since 2004. The result of this study did not find significant (P < 0.05) effect of sow dimensions on litter size.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.015
       
  • Meta-analysis of the relationships between reproduction, milk yield and
           body condition score in dairy cows
    • Authors: Nicolas Bedere; Erwan Cutullic; Luc Delaby; Florence Garcia-Launay; Catherine Disenhaus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Nicolas Bedere, Erwan Cutullic, Luc Delaby, Florence Garcia-Launay, Catherine Disenhaus
      The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between each step of the reproductive process (cyclicity, estrus, and fertility) and both milk production and body reserves management. The database included 102 studies and 300 treatments collected on electronic databases. Coding for each type of experimental factor enabled within and between experiment variation to be distinguished, and to select subsets of experiments with common objectives in order to avoid inappropriate aggregation of results across studies with very different objectives. Finally, the models were based on limited numbers of experiments (from 14 to 30 treatments originating from 7 to 15 distinct experiments) because (i) only data coded for diet and genetic factors were analyzed, separately (studies on other factors such as milking frequency and parity were too scarce); (ii) a minimum of variation of the explanatory variable was set to enable the quantification of the relationship; (iii) few studies reported comparable reproductive, production and body reserves traits. The results of the meta-analyses showed that the commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) was not associated with milk yield and that the relationship between C-LA and body condition score (BCS) at calving was quadratic (with an optimal BCS at calving around 3.10 on a 0–5 scale). Although the interval from calving to first observed estrus (COE1) is partly composed of C-LA, it was not associated with BCS. For each additional 1kg of milk yield produced at both peak and over the initial 14 weeks of lactation, COE1 was delayed by 1.1 days. The conception rate to first insemination (CRAI1) was reduced by 2.0% (of inseminated cows) and by 2.2% for each additional 1kg of milk yield at peak and at service respectively. Moreover, CRAI1 was increased by 38.2% and 22.0% for each additional 1 score of BCS at service and at nadir (i.e. lowest BCS) respectively. Finally, risk of pregnancy (PR) was not associated with milk yield. However, PR was increased by 42.8% (of cows) and 16.8% for each additional unit of BCS at calving and at nadir, respectively. This meta-analysis showed that postpartum cyclicity of dairy cows was mainly associated with BCS at calving, whereas estrus expression was mainly associated with milk yield and fertility with both BCS and milk yield. Genetic and nutritional strategies that target a BCS of 3.10 and limit both BCS loss and peak milk yield could be an effective way to improve reproduction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.017
       
  • Milk yield and urinary-nitrogen excretion of dairy cows grazing forb
           pasture mixtures designed to reduce nitrogen leaching
    • Authors: R.H. Bryant; B. Welten; D. Costall; P.R. Shorten; G.R. Edwards
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R.H. Bryant, B. Welten, D. Costall, P.R. Shorten, G.R. Edwards
      The effect of including a mixture of forbs in a standard perennial ryegrass-white clover pasture, with or without Italian ryegrass was investigated in a two-period grazing study comparing urinary nitrogen (N) excretion and milk yield of dairy cows in late lactation. Forty-eight mixed age, Holstein Friesian x Jersey cows were assigned to replicated, balanced, groups of six and offered one of four pasture treatments. Pasture types were either a perennial ryegrass-based pasture (PRG) with white clover or a forb-containing mixed pasture (MIX) including perennial ryegrass, white clover, chicory, plantain and lucerne. A second factor was the inclusion of Italian ryegrass (PRG+I and MIX+I). During Period I, ten cows in each of the MIX and PRG treatments were fitted with urine sensors to measure urine N parameters (urination frequency, volume and N concentration). During Period II, milk yield was measured from cows on all four pasture types. In both the ryegrass and forb pasture types, legume content exceeded 30% of the DM and in forb pastures chicory and plantain accounted for over 30% of the DM. Italian ryegrass in the MIX+I and PRG+I was respectively 5 and 15% of the DM. Digestibility and crude protein was similar for all pasture types, but fibre content was lower for forb pastures. During Period I, there was no effect of pasture type on the amount of N per urination event (averaged 13gN/event) and daily urine-N excreted (190gN/cow/day). However, pasture type affected the diurnal pattern in urine-N excretion with MIX pastures having a lower urine N loading per event during the day and higher urine N loading at night compared with PRG pastures. During Period II, milk yield was greater for forb compared with ryegrass pasture types (1.66 vs 1.50kg MS/cow/d). There was no effect of Italian ryegrass on milk yield due to low botanical content. This study demonstrated that forb containing pastures altered the diurnal pattern in urine-N excretion and offers opportunities to mitigate N leaching from grazed pastures whilst supporting high milk production in late lactation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.009
       
  • A genome-wide association study of reproductive traits in a Yorkshire pig
           population
    • Authors: Md. Rasel Uzzaman; Jong-Eun Park; Kyung-Tai Lee; Eun-Seok Cho; Bong-Hwan Choi; Tae-Hun Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Md. Rasel Uzzaman, Jong-Eun Park, Kyung-Tai Lee, Eun-Seok Cho, Bong-Hwan Choi, Tae-Hun Kim
      Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been extensively utilized to identify economically important trait loci in livestock animals. We performed a GWAS on Yorkshire sows for reproduction traits (the number of piglets born alive;NBA, the total number of piglets born;TNB, the weight shortfall number, the total number of suckling piglets, and the number of pigs weaned). A total of 1061 sows were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Principal component analysis revealed no significant population stratification. We identified a total of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which only one reached the Bonferroni level of significance (P < 2.33E-07) and the remaining fourteen SNPs were suggestive of association for the reproductive traits of interest (P < 5E-05). The heritability estimates obtained by all SNPs were 0.11 ± 0.04, 0.14 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.05, 0.14 ± 0.05, and 0.02 ± 0.03 for NBA, TNB, weight shortfall number, total number of suckling piglets, and number of pigs weaned, respectively. The two most significant SNPs, rs81465399 (P = 8.05E-08) and rs80991683 (P = 1.55E-06) on SSC17, were associated with weight shortfall number. In addition, SNP rs81356596 (P = 1.20E-05) on SSC2 was associated with the total number of suckling piglets. Another two SNPs, rs81454514 (P = 1.07E-05) and rs81454465 (P = 1.56E-05) on SSC15 and associated with NBA, were located near the reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) region of both the NBA and TNB traits. The heritability estimate for the number of pigs weaned was the lowest among all five pig reproductive traits in our analysis. Overall, we found a number of significant SNPs, some of them belonging to an uncharacterized locus, LOC102165882, along with two important genes, ACSL3 and CD59, with various physiological functions relevant to reproduction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.005
       
  • BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS REDUCES MILK YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURN
    • Authors: J.L. Gonçalves; C. Kamphuis; C.M.M.R. Martins; J.R. Barreiro; T. Tomazi; A.H. Gameiro; H. Hogeveen; M.V. dos Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.L. Gonçalves, C. Kamphuis, C.M.M.R. Martins, J.R. Barreiro, T. Tomazi, A.H. Gameiro, H. Hogeveen, M.V. dos Santos
      The effect of different pathogens was studied by evaluating the contralateral (healthy and infected) mammary quarters of 146 lactating cows. The impact of SM on economic return (quarter milk yield × milk price) was determined by applying milk payment estimates on milk collected from healthy vs. infected glands. Cows were considered infected when they had at least 2 out of 3 weekly composite SCC results > 200×103 cells/mL and a microbiological culture (MC) positive result from composite foremilk samples, collected in the third week of sampling. Infected cows were evaluated a second time within 15 days and had milk yield measured at the quarter level and foremilk samples collected by aseptic technique for analysis of MC, milk composition and SCC. Of the 611-composite milk samples, 397 (65%) were culture-negative, and 214 (35%) were culture-positive and the most frequent isolated bacteria were Corynebacterium spp. (7.9%), coagulase negative staphylococci (5.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.3%), Streptococcus uberis (4.6%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.9%), other environmental streptococci (2.4%), Gram-negative isolates (2.4%), Enterococcus spp. (1.4%) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.7%). A total of 55 pairs of healthy contralateral quarters (control) were compared, and no difference was observed between them when evaluating SCC, milk yield, fat and protein concentration and economic return. A total of 124 pairs of healthy had lower SCC (274.9×103 cells/mL) than infected contralateral quarters (SCC of 1,038.5×103 cells/mL). At the quarter level, IMI caused by minor pathogens had no effect on SCC, milk yield and economic return. Subclinical mastitis caused by contagious and environmental pathogens increased SCC and decreased milk yield when compared with healthy contralateral quarters. Moreover, quarters infected by contagious pathogens had increased concentrations of milk protein and fat when compared with healthy contralateral quarters. Therefore, the milk economic return was lower in quarters with SM caused by environmental pathogens (US$ 0.18/quarter.milking) and contagious (US$ 0.22/quarter.milking) when compared with healthy contralateral quarters. The milk losses ranged from 0.07kg/quarter.milking to 1.4kg/quarter.milking and the economic losses ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.4/quarter.milking according to the pathogen causing SM.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.016
       
  • Effect of live yeast supplementation on gastric ecosystem in horses fed a
           high-starch diet
    • Authors: Samy Julliand; Agathe Martin; Véronique Julliand
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Samy Julliand, Agathe Martin, Véronique Julliand
      Starch/grain intake has been reported to be at risk for equine gastric lesions of the squamous mucosa (Equine Squamous Gastric Disease – ESGD). Exposition to VFAs and lactic acid, end-products of the fermentation occurring in the gastric ecosystem, can cause ESGD. As in the hindgut, supplementing yeast to high starch/grain diet could increase lactate-utilizing bacteria and thus limit the production of lactic acid and eventually the acidity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc47) supplementation on gastric ecosystem in horses fed high-starch diet. Six horses were assigned in a 3*3 Latin square design with three supplement treatments: 10.109 (dose 1) or 10.1010 (dose 10) cfu of zootechnical additive Sc47 per day or a control. Each experimental period lasted 21 days and was separated from the next one by a wash-out period of 21 days. During experimental periods, horses received a 70:30 ratio hay:barley (2.3kg DMI / 100kg BW / day) and 50g per day of the additive. Gastric content samples were collected on day 18 of each experimental period 3h and a half after morning barley meal to measure: pH, bacterial populations (total anaerobic, amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria), and fermentation products (VFAs and lactic acid). The observation of the stomach with the video-endoscope did not reveal any alteration of the squamous gastric mucosa. Total anaerobic bacteria and amylolytic concentrations were lower with Sc47 dose 10 compared to placebo (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). With dose 10 of Sc47, lactate-utilizing bacteria concentrations decreased compare to Sc47 dose 1 (P = 0.03) and placebo (P = 0.004). No treatment effect was observed on total VFAs and lactic acid concentrations. Butyric and valeric acids concentrations showed higher concentration with Sc47 dose 1 compared to other treatments during period 1. Although, the pHs were numerically less acidic with live yeast, they were not significantly modified by the treatment. Globally, there was a dose effect of Sc47 on bacteria concentrations which all decreased or tended to decrease when the level of yeast increased in the diet. Further investigation is required to know whether live yeast supplementation could be part of the strategy to reduce gastric fermentation of starch and thereby help reducing the risk of ESGD.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.007
       
  • Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide
           challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae fermentation product
    • Authors: Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez; Jeffery A. Carroll; Paul R. Broadway; Benjamin E. Bass; Jason W. Frank
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeffery A. Carroll, Paul R. Broadway, Benjamin E. Bass, Jason W. Frank
      This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the acute phase response (APR) following an lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2kg BW) were obtained and transported to a nursery facility. Pigs were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were weighed upon arrival and assigned to 1 of 2 treatment diets (n = 10 pigs/treatment) for 18 d: 1) non-medicated starter diet (Control); 2) Control diet + Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (XPC; 2kg/MT; Diamond V Original XPC™). Pigs were anesthetized on d 7 and 14 for insertion of an intraperitoneal (IP) temperature recording device and jugular catheter, respectively. On d 15, pigs were challenged i.v. with LPS (25µg/kg BW). Blood samples were collected at 0.5-h (serum) and 1-h (complete blood cell counts) intervals from −2 to 8h and at 24h relative to LPS challenge at 0h. There was a treatment effect (P ≤ 0.002) for serum TNF-α and IL-6 such that concentrations were greater in XPC-supplemented pigs than Control pigs (116.5 ± 5.0 vs. 90.9 ± 5.2pg/mL TNF-α; 188.3 ± 13.4 vs. 133.4 ± 11.7pg/mL IL-6; respectively) following LPS challenge. Administration of LPS increased IP temperature (P < 0.01), however, there was no effect of treatment (P = 0.12). Thus, feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs increased the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to an LPS challenge.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, meat quality,
           and immune response of male broiler chickens: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mariana A. Pompeu; Luigi F.L. Cavalcanti; Fabio L.B. Toral
      Pages: 5 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): Mariana A. Pompeu, Luigi F.L. Cavalcanti, Fabio L.B. Toral
      The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and immune response of male broiler chickens was studied using a meta-analysis. The database was consisted of 51 scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals. The dependent variables for meta-analysis included final body weight, average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, vitamin E concentration in the muscle, tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration, lipid peroxidation value, post mortem pH, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and total immunoglobulins. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the data. Vitamin E supplementation did not influence growth performance, as the estimated slopes were not different from zero, with P-values equal to 0.92 for final body weight, 0.81 for average daily gain, 0.31 for daily feed intake, and 0.83 for feed conversion ratio. Dietary vitamin E supplementation increased the vitamin E content in the muscle (P = 0.001), did not change the polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration, and decreased the lipid peroxidation (P = 0.01). The immune response was improved, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was constant, and the total immunoglobulins were increased (P = 0.037) by dietary vitamin E supplementation. With regard to broiler chicken performance, there seemed to be no relationship between dietary vitamin E supplementation and growth performance. There is ample indication that meat quality and immune response could be improved by dietary vitamin E supplementation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, digestive enzymes and urinary
           purine derivatives in yaks and Qaidam cattle offered forage-concentrate
           diets differing in nitrogen concentration
    • Authors: J.W. Zhou; H. Liu; C.L. Zhong; A.A. Degen; G. Yang; Y. Zhang; J.L. Qian; W.W. Wang; L.Z. Hao; Q. Qiu; Z.H. Shang; X.S. Guo; L.M. Ding; R.J. Long
      Pages: 14 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): J.W. Zhou, H. Liu, C.L. Zhong, A.A. Degen, G. Yang, Y. Zhang, J.L. Qian, W.W. Wang, L.Z. Hao, Q. Qiu, Z.H. Shang, X.S. Guo, L.M. Ding, R.J. Long
      Yaks (Bos grunniens) and Qaidam yellow cattle (Bos taurus) are indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and graze natural pasture all year. Yaks are raised at higher elevations than cattle and are not offered supplementary feed whereas cattle receive supplementary feed and are sheltered at night during winters. We hypothesized that the species differ in metabolism of energy and nitrogen (N) and predicted that the differences would favour yaks to the harsh conditions of the plateau. To test our prediction, we examined nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, digestive enzymes and urinary purine derivatives (PD) in yaks and cattle offered forage-concentrate diets differing in N concentration. Four castrated yaks and 4 castrated cattle of similar ages (2.5 years) and body weights (200kg) were used in two concurrent 4×4 Latin square designs. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between yaks and cattle in apparent digestibilities of dietary nutrients, concentrations of ruminal N components and activities of digestive enzymes (P > 0.05). Crude protein and acid detergent fiber digestibilities increased linearly (P < 0.001) while neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increased dietary N intake for both species. Ruminal concentration of total VFA was greater in yaks than in cattle across diets (P < 0.05), but pH was similar between species (P > 0.05), and both variables were not affected by dietary N content (P > 0.05). As dietary N increased, ruminal concentrations of ammonia, urea and amino acids increased linearly (all P < 0.001), peptides tended to increase (P < 0.10), but soluble protein remained constant (P > 0.10) for both species. The activity of carboxymethylcellulase decreased linearly (P < 0.01) while activities of deaminase and urease increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increased dietary N. Urinary PD and components did not differ between species (P > 0.10); however, the PD nitrogen index (PNI) was greater in yaks than in cattle for the lowest N diets (linear dietary N × species, P < 0.01). With an increase in dietary N, urinary total PD, allantoin and uric acid increased linearly (P < 0.001), as did microbial N synthesis (P < 0.001), whereas PNI decreased linearly (P < 0.001). In addition, microbial N production was greater in yaks than in cattle (P < 0.05). We concluded that energy and nitrogen metabolism were more efficient in yaks than in Qaidam cattle, which enable yaks to better cope with the harsh foraging conditions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of genetic parameters for cow age at last calving under
           different censorship criteria
    • Authors: S.B. Ramos; S.L. Caetano; G.J.M. Rosa; R.P. Savegnago; E.L. Kern; P.A. Bernardes; R.B. Lôbo; D.P. Munari
      Pages: 40 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): S.B. Ramos, S.L. Caetano, G.J.M. Rosa, R.P. Savegnago, E.L. Kern, P.A. Bernardes, R.B. Lôbo, D.P. Munari
      Cow longevity measured by age at last calving was evaluated using a censorship criterion that consisted of the difference between the dates of age at last calving and the last calving on the farm. If this difference was greater than certain value, the cow failed, indicating that it should be discarded. Otherwise, the cow was censored indicating the possibility of future calving. The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and breeding values of bulls for longevity considering three different censorship criteria, 16, 26 and 36 months, using Weibull proportional hazard sire model. The 16-month criterion was proposed because it is the estimated average interval between births in Nellore. The 26-month criterion was proposed because it is an average value between 16 and 36 months. Lastly, the 36-month criterion was considered a long time interval for the cow have a new calving. The Spearman correlation test was used to compare the rankings of the bulls regarding the estimates of breeding values for longevity considering the different censorship criteria. The records of 21996 Nellore cows were used. The cows were the daughters of 2113 bulls from 13 farms that participate in the Nellore breeding program of the National Association of Breeders and Researchers (ANCP). Age at first calving was considered a fixed effect while the random effect was the contemporary group (season, year of birth, and herd) and sire. Heritability estimates for cow age at last calving were 0.1020, 0.1002 and 0.0871 for the 16, 26 and 36-month censorship criteria, respectively. The Spearman correlation estimates of sires’ rankings were −0.2124, 0.1348 and 0.1211 (P > 0.05) for the censorship criteria of 16–26 months, 16–36 months, and 26 and 36 months, respectively. Despite of the little genetic variance to age at last calving, this values were higher than those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the selected bulls varies depending on the criteria adopted. The Weibull proportional hazard sire model predicted the highest reliabilities for the 16-month criterion, compared to other censorship criteria studied, which can lead to increasing of reproductive and productive efficiency of cows in the herd, since the lower open days of cows and higher number of calves per cow in her productive life.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Genetic parameters and trends for traits of the Hereford and Braford
           breeds in Brazil
    • Authors: B.B.M. Teixeira; M.D. MacNeil; R.F. da Costa; N.J.L. Dionello; M.J. Yokoo; F.F. Cardoso
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): B.B.M. Teixeira, M.D. MacNeil, R.F. da Costa, N.J.L. Dionello, M.J. Yokoo, F.F. Cardoso
      The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends of Hereford and Braford breeds for growth traits and visual scores. Data consisting of records for 205-day weight (W205), 550-day weight (W550), 345-day post weaning gain (PWG345), scrotal circumference at 550 days (SC), and muscling (MUS) and frame (FRA) scores also recorded at 550 days of age came from the PampaPlus genetic evaluation system. A series of animal models were fit to the data using Bayesian inference with uninformative priors. Genetic variance for W205 was partitioned into direct (W205d) and maternal (W205m) components. Posterior means of heritability estimates and 95% support intervals (2.5% ≤ h2 ≤ 97.5%) for W205d, W205m, W550, PWG345, SC, MUS, and FRA were 0,12 ≤ 0.13 ≤ 0,14; 0.08 ≤ 0,09 ≤ 0.11; 0.13 ≤ 0.16 ≤ 0.19; 0.04 ≤ 0.10 ≤ 0.18; 0.05 ≤ 0.15 ≤ 0.32; 0.10 ≤ 0.19 ≤ 0.29 and 0.06 ≤ 0.11 ≤ 0.20, respectively. Genetic correlations with W205d were positive for W550 (0.72 ≤ 0.82 ≤ 0.90), MUS (0.25 ≤ 0.53 ≤ 0.74) and FRA 0.29 ≤ 0.59 ≤ 0.80 and negative for W205m (− 0.63 ≤ − 0.57 ≤ − 0.50). The genetic correlation of PWG345 and W550 was also positive and large (0.59 ≤ 0.76 ≤ 0.88). Genetic correlations of MUS and FRA with each other (0.30 ≤ 0.53 ≤ 0.73) and with PWG (0.08 ≤ 0.33 ≤ 0.55 and 0.20 ≤ 0.44 ≤ 0.64) and W550 (0.10 ≤ 0.39 ≤ 0.63 and 0.07 ≤ 0.38 ≤ 0.64) were all positive. Use of performance information in selection decisions is supported by positive genetic trends for direct effects on W205d, PWG345, W550, MUS and FRA. However, the genetic trends were less than the expected gains that would result from use of a recommended selection index, suggesting that the index is not the only criterion currently used in the selection by Pampaplus breeders. It may be concluded that breeders favored larger, more rapidly growing, and more muscular animals in their selection decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Application of natural wax markers in equine nutrition studies – current
           state, limitations and perspectives
    • Authors: Martin Bachmann; Johannes Hepp; Michael Zech; Michael Bulang; Annette Zeyner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Martin Bachmann, Johannes Hepp, Michael Zech, Michael Bulang, Annette Zeyner
      The basis of a successful assessment of the nutritive value of feeds and an animal's supply with dietary energy and nutrients is having sufficient knowledge on key indicators such as feed intake, diet composition, digestibility and the kinetics of gut passage. In horses and other equids, the determination of such indicators is impractical outside controlled conditions, particularly in pasture-based husbandry. Natural wax components such as n-alkanes, alkenes, primary alcohols and fatty acids might be beneficial estimators, but their application is limited in practice. This review provides a concise view into the application of plant wax components, especially alkanes and their external counterparts, in equine nutrition studies. Recent methodological developments and the current state of knowledge are summarized as an interim conclusion. Methodological limitations still hamper an easy application of the method, and some perspectives for future methodological research are discussed. Conclusively, little information is available on feed plant concentrations and variations of primary alcohols, fatty acids and alkenes, and their natural carbon isotope (13C/12C) ratios. Moreover, the magnitude and the (in)consistency of faecal recovery of these markers is barely described. Methodological research should continue focusing on an effective application of plant markers. In horses, especially plant marker-based methods for the estimation of diet composition and passage kinetics will require much more consideration.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.010
       
  • Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by lactic acid bacteria and hydrated sodium
           calcium aluminosilicate in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Ning Liu; Jinquan Wang; Qingqing Deng; Kuntao Gu; Jianping Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ning Liu, Jinquan Wang, Qingqing Deng, Kuntao Gu, Jianping Wang
      Aflatoxin contamination is very common in feedstuffs across the world and finding an ideal detoxifier is urgent because of the toxic action on animals and negative effects on foods, humans, and the environment. To thoroughly eliminate the toxin, a detoxification method has changed from physical to biological. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) on detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by assessing growth performance, digestibility, immune function, and AFB1 residues in tissues and excreta of broiler chickens from d 0 to 21. A total of 480 female broiler chicks on d 0 were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 cages of 20 chicks each for diets: positive control (PC, undetectable AFB1), negative control (NC, PC + 40µg AFB1/kg), LAB (NC + 1.5 × 1010 cfu LAB/kg), and HSCAS (NC + 3.0g HSCAS/kg). Results showed that the NC treatment reduced (P < 0.05) average daily gain and feed efficiency, and LAB or HSCAS supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the growth performance of broiler chickens, and the effect of LAB was greater than HSCAS. The LAB and HSCAS increased (P < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, and digestible energy by 4.0 to 15.0%, and improved (P < 0.05) immune function by modulating the relative weights of immune organs, lymphocyte percentages, and immunoglobulin contents. Additionally, residual AFB1 in serum and organs in LAB treatment was lower (P < 0.05) than HSCAS. The results indicate that LAB and HSCAS can detoxify AFB1 in the diet of broiler chickens, and LAB is more effective than HSCAS in partial biodegradation of AFB1.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.005
       
  • Meat and fat quality traits of grazing steers supplemented with corn grain
           and increasing amounts of flaxseed
    • Authors: M.M. Della Rosa; L.B. Pouzo; E. Pavan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.M. Della Rosa, L.B. Pouzo, E. Pavan
      To evaluate the effect of corn and flaxseed supplementation at finishing on longissimus thoracis color and shear-force and on subcutaneous fat color, forty-eight angus steers were assigned to four dietary treatments (DIET): no-supplement, supplemented with 0.7% live weight (LW) of cracked corn grain plus 0.0%, 0.125% and 0.25% LW of whole flaxseed in two finishing trials (Trial-1, early spring and Trial-2, late spring). None of the evaluated variables were affected by DIET in either trial, nor in a combined statistical analysis of the pooled data. The lack of DIET effect observed on muscle color and shear-force, are in agreement with the similar longissimus muscle pH@45min, temp@45min, pH@24h, and glycogen content at slaughter observed between DIET. Lack of shear force difference between supplementation treatments is in agreement with their similar muscle sarcomere length, total and soluble collagen content and proportion of intact troponin-T. Subcutaneous fat color was also similar between supplementation treatments. Corn or flaxseed supplementation of steers grazing a high-quality pasture did not improve meat or subcutaneous fat color and meat shear force.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.004
       
  • Impacts of using a precision livestock system targeted approach in
           mountain sheep flocks
    • Authors: Claire Morgan-Davies; Nicola Lambe; Harriet Wishart; Tony Waterhouse; Fiona Kenyon; Dave McBean; Davy McCracken
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Claire Morgan-Davies, Nicola Lambe, Harriet Wishart, Tony Waterhouse, Fiona Kenyon, Dave McBean, Davy McCracken
      Although mountain sheep systems suffer from climatic and environmental handicaps that constrain productivity and economic viability, they have an important economic role, maintain habitats and species of high nature conservation value and support the provision of a range of ecosystem services of benefit to society. Using Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) in extensive mountain sheep systems could bring benefits for animal performance, economical performance and labour. This paper presents results from a 3 year experiment where PLF principles were implemented on an extensive mountain sheep farm and an assessment made of whether or not such an approach could benefit more marginal sheep systems. A 900 ewe flock (600 Scottish Blackface ewes, 300 Lleyn ewes) was divided equally into two separate systems, one where the flock was managed conventionally (CON) at group level, and the other where the individuals in the flock were subjected to a PLF management protocol where electronic weighing, recording and drafting equipment were used, linked to the electronic identification (EID) tags of the animals. Two main management strategies were compared and contrasted; one relating to winter feeding of the pregnant ewes, the other relating to anthelmintic treatment of lambs during the summer. Yearly labour profiles were created by measuring the time spent doing individual tasks associated with the two management systems. Net margins (£/ewe) were calculated for the two systems. Additionally, the yearly labour profiles were scaled-up using commercial data to quantify potential labour savings on more traditionally managed mountain farms if PLF principles were adopted. Analyses indicated that the two different management systems did not result in any significant difference in terms of ewe weights, mid-pregnancy scanning figures, ewe and lamb mortality rates, or lamb weight post-weaning. However, the proportion of lambs needing anthelmintic treatment was significantly reduced by 40% between the CON and the PLF, resulting in a reduction of 46% in the amount of anthelmintic used. Over a whole year, the total amount of labour required in the PLF management system was reduced by 36%. Across the 3 years, the net margin for the two systems showed an average difference of £3/ewe higher in the PLF. For a more traditional farm embracing a PLF approach, analyses suggested labour reduction of 19%, equating to £1.60/ewe savings. This study shows that it is beneficial for farmers to consider managing a mountain ewe flock at an individual rather than at flock or batch level using PLF technology.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.002
       
  • New genes involved in the Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis in
           commercial broilers
    • Authors: Bruna Petry; Igor Ricardo Savoldi; Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli; Ediane Paludo; Jane de Oliveira Peixoto; Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch; Diego de Córdova Cucco; Mônica Corrêa Ledur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Bruna Petry, Igor Ricardo Savoldi, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli, Ediane Paludo, Jane de Oliveira Peixoto, Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch, Diego de Córdova Cucco, Mônica Corrêa Ledur
      Locomotor problems have a great economic impact on world poultry production, because difficulty of locomotion leads to a decrease in animal performance and an increase in partial or total carcass condemnation. In addition, locomotor problems greatly affect the chicken welfare. Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) or Femoral Head Necrosis (FHN) is responsible for altering the bone tissue degenerating the cartilage and femoral epiphysis. Despite its not well known etiology, it is believed that this disorder causes a decrease in tissue vascularization, interfering with blood flow and affecting the angiogenesis processes, predisposing broilers to bone problems. Genetic factors associated to rapid growth rate of the modern broilers are pointed out as predisposing chickens to BCO. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of 13 functional candidate genes in femur samples of normal and BCO-affected commercial broilers at 35 days of age to clarify the genetic mechanisms involved in the BCO in chickens. From the 13 genes studied, 10 were differentially expressed (DE) between groups: ADIPOQ, PRRX1, ANGPTL5, GFRA2, SFRP5, COL14A1, ABI3BP, ANGPTL7, COL8A1 and SLC30A10, which were downregulated in broilers affected by BCO, except for the SLC30A10, which was upregulated in the affected chickens. Although their functions are not well established in chickens, these genes participate in important biological processes in mammals, such as osteogenesis, formation of connective tissue and collagen production, and general bone development. The genes expression pattern, their functions and interactions, altogether, pointed out those DE genes as strong candidates to be involved with BCO in broiler chickens. The DE genes evaluated in this study might contribute to tissue necrosis, which could lead to the development of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in chickens. Those should be further investigated aiming to reduce this bone anomaly in broilers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.003
       
  • Changes in the vaginal microbiota in ewes after insertion of intravaginal
           sponges at different stages of the oestrous cycle
    • Authors: Jorgelina Manes; María A. Fiorentino; Silvina San Martino; Rodolfo Ungerfeld
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jorgelina Manes, María A. Fiorentino, Silvina San Martino, Rodolfo Ungerfeld
      The aims of this study were to determine if the ewe’ vaginal bacterial load differs according to the stage of the oestrous cycle; and thus, if the stage of the oestrous cycle when intravaginal sponges (IS) used for oestrous synchronisation are inserted influences the vaginal bacterial biota present at sponge withdrawal. During the breeding season, 45 Texel ewes were detected in oestrus and randomly allocated to one of three treatments of 15 ewes each according to the stage of the oestrous cycle when the IS were inserted. Intravaginal sponges were inserted: the day of oestrus (GOes), or 2 (GMet) or 8 (GDie) days after oestrus. Samples for bacterial analysis were collected the day of IS insertion (Day 0), at sponge withdrawal (Day 12), 24h (Day 13) and 48h (Day 14) after sponge withdrawal. Vaginal bacteria amount increased at sponge withdrawal in all treatment (p<0.0001). The number of different types of colonies was greater in GMet group than in GDie at sponge insertion (p<0.05), without difference with GOes. At sponge insertion, the presence of Staphylococcus spp. was greater in GMet than in GOe and GDi (p<0.05); the presence of Trueperella pyogenes and Haemophilus somni was greater after sponge withdrawal than before sponge insertion (p<0.001), but without difference between days 12, 13 and 14. Overall, we concluded that in ewes the normal vaginal bacterial load differs according to the stage of the oestrous cycle. The continuous presence of the IS homogenised the vaginal bacterial microbiota at withdrawal, with only slight and transient differences observed on day 13.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.023
       
 
 
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