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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 785 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (553 journals)

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Journal Cover Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 81]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Effect of enzymatically hydrolyzed scallop visceral protein powder used as
           a replacement of fish meal on the growth performance, immune responses,
           intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens
    • Authors: R.E. Xing; H.Y. Yang; X.Q. Wang; H.H. Yu; S. Liu; X.L. Chen; P.C. Li
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): R.E. Xing, H.Y. Yang, X.Q. Wang, H.H. Yu, S. Liu, X.L. Chen, P.C. Li
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using dietary supplemental enzymatically hydrolyzed scallop visceral protein (EHSVP) and scallop visceral protein (SV) to replace fishmeal with regard to the growth performance, carcass characteristics, immune response, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 300 1-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 5 cages per treatment and 10 broiler chickens per cage. The broiler chickens received a basal diet supplemented with 3% fishmeal or different concentrations of EHSVP (1%, 2%, and 3%) and SV (2% and 3%) treatments until d 42. Broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation exhibited a greater average daily weight gain (P < 0.05) and lower feed conversion ratio. The carcass yield, eviscerated yield, and leg muscle yield of broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation were increased (P < 0.05) and the abdominal fat rate was decreased compared with broiler chickens fed fishmeal diet (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation were increased the activities of digestive enzymes (P < 0.05); moreover, it inhibited colonization of E. coli and Salmonella pathogenic bacteria and increased the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05). For EHSVP and SV supplementation, especially 2% EHSVP, the length of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum as well as the weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa immune organs were increased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 2% EHSVP supplementation increased the villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio and decreased the crypt depth (P < 0.05), thereby improving intestinal development. In conclusion, as a fishmeal replacement, EHSVP supplementation can significantly improve growth performance, carcass characteristics, and weight of immune organs as well as promote the development of the small intestine. At the same time, supplementation can also significantly improve gut health and the intestinal microbial environment in broiler chickens. A diet with EHSVP supplementation is more effective in improving the growth performance, carcass characteristics, immune response, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens than SV. Therefore, fishmeal can be partially replaced by EHSVP.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate increases hatching weight, growth
           performance, and muscle growth but has no effect on meat quality in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: M.M. Zhao; D.Q. Gong; T. Gao; L. Zhang; J.L. Li; P.A. Lv; L.L. Yu; F. Gao; G.H. Zhou
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.M. Zhao, D.Q. Gong, T. Gao, L. Zhang, J.L. Li, P.A. Lv, L.L. Yu, F. Gao, G.H. Zhou
      To investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on growth performance, muscle growth, and meat quality of broiler chickens, 960 eggs were randomly allocated into 3 treatments: (1) non-injected control, (2) saline treatment injected with 0.6mL 0.75% physiological saline, and (3) CrPyr treatment injected with 0.6mL 0.75% physiological saline containing 12mg CrPyr/egg on 17.5d of incubation. After hatching, 120 male chickens per treatment were selected and randomly assigned to 8 cages for a 42-d feeding trial. The selected chickens had body weight close to the average of their pooled group. No difference in hatchability was observed among treatments, whereas the hatching weight, body weight gain, and feed intake in CrPyr treatment were greater than those of the control and saline treatments (P<0.05). The broiler chickens in CrPyr treatment gained greater total and relative weight, myofiber diameter, and cross-sectional area of pectoral muscle on 21 and 42d (P<0.05). However, there were no differences on the concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine in pectoral muscle of broiler chickens on 21 and 42d, as well as the meat quality among treatments. In conclusion, IOF of CrPyr improved the hatching weight, growth performance, and pectoral muscle weight of broiler chickens. Nevertheless, IOF of CrPyr did not affect the meat quality of pectoral muscle of broiler chickens on 42 d post-hatch.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Maternal genetic diversity and phylogeography of native Arabian goats
    • Authors: Nasser Ali Al-Araimi; Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat; Osman Mahgoub Gaafar; Raquel Vasconcelos; Agusto Luzuriaga-Neira; Mohamed Osman Eisa; Nadir Amir; Mohammed Hocine Benaissa; Abdulbari Abbas Alfaris; Riyadh Saleh Aljumaah; Sayed M. Elnakhla; Mohamed M.I. Salem; Ibrahim A. Ishag; Mohammed El Khasmi; Albano Beja-Pereira
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 206
      Author(s): Nasser Ali Al-Araimi, Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Osman Mahgoub Gaafar, Raquel Vasconcelos, Agusto Luzuriaga-Neira, Mohamed Osman Eisa, Nadir Amir, Mohammed Hocine Benaissa, Abdulbari Abbas Alfaris, Riyadh Saleh Aljumaah, Sayed M. Elnakhla, Mohamed M.I. Salem, Ibrahim A. Ishag, Mohammed El Khasmi, Albano Beja-Pereira
      The ability to adapt to harsh environments and thrive with minimal food and water input, places goats among the most popular livestock species in Arab countries. However, little is known about the historical and contemporary genetics of most Arabian goat breeds and populations. In this study, we genetically analyzed 617 individuals (126 from this study and 491 from published sources) representing 18 Arabian goat populations by evaluating variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop). Our data were also combined and compared with those from 339 Asian, African, European and Canarian populations. We found 186 different polymorphic sites, which allowed us to identify 453 different haplotypes belonging to three maternal haplogroups: A, B and G. Haplogroup A is the most represented among Arabian goats and highly widespread among Arab countries, whereas B group is rare. Haplogroup G is the second most frequent haplogroup and also the most diverse among Arabian goats. Measurements of nucleotide and haplotype diversity and the mean number of pairwise differences in the 18 populations yielded values of 0.025, 0.998 and 10.586, respectively. These results show that the diversity of native Arabian goat populations is high and similar to that of populations at the center of origin. Based on estimated population structures, comparison of pairwise F ST and AMOVA values between Arabian populations indicated low genetic differentiation. In addition, median-joining network analysis results provide very little evidence of a previous connection between Arabian goats and regions of historical Arab influence were once installed (Iberian Peninsula and Southern Europe). Finally, the same thin evidence was also found between extant Arabian and Canarian goats, which might have partially originated due to commercial trade or during the migratory movements of ancient humans.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T13:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Responses of broilers to the near-continuous lighting, constant 16-h
           lighting, and constant 16-h lighting with a 2-h night interruption
    • Authors: Y.Y. Sun; Y.L. Li; D.L. Li; C. Chen; H. Bai; F.G. Xue; J.L. Chen
      Pages: 135 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 206
      Author(s): Y.Y. Sun, Y.L. Li, D.L. Li, C. Chen, H. Bai, F.G. Xue, J.L. Chen
      Manipulation of lighting regimens is an effective way to improve the broiler production. The growing health and welfare concern for the livestock animals has raised new requirements for lighting management. In the present study, the overall responses including growth, carcass composition characteristics, health and welfare, and behavior of broilers to 3 lighting regimens (near-continuous lighting (23h light (L):1h darkness (D)), constant 16-h lighting (16L:8D), and constant 16-h lighting with a 2-h night interruption (16L:2D:2L:4D) were estimated, aiming at providing an optimal regimen required for both good welfare and production. A total of 360day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) obtained from a commercial hatchery were used. The chicks were randomly divided into 3 treatments, which were replicated for 4 times. The 3 lighting regimens aforementioned were initiated on d 8 and ended on d 42. For the whole study period (d 0–42), the feed conversion ratios of broilers under 16L:8D and 16L:2D:2L:4D did not differ, while the broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D had higher feed intake and BW gain (P < 0.05). The broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D had similar feed intake as those under 23L:1D, while the BW gain was higher (P < 0.05) and the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05). Slaughtered on d 42, the breast muscle yield of broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D was similar to those under 23L:1D, but higher than those under 16L:8D (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat weight of broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D was similar to those under 23L:1D, but lower than those under 16L:8D (P < 0.05). The eyeball weight and size of broilers under 16L:2D:2L:4D were smaller than those under 23L:1D (P < 0.05). As a contributor of feeling of well-being, the serum serotonin level did not differ for the broiler chickens from the 3 lighting regimens. The serum melatonin of broilers under the 16L:8D was higher than other 2 regimens (P < 0.05). Behavior observation on d 30 indicated that the broiler chickens under the 23L:1D regimen spent more time feeding than those under 16L:8D, but exhibited comfort behaviors less extensively than other 2 regimens (P < 0.05). It was concluded from this study that the 16L:2D:2L:4D regimen improved the growth, feed efficiency, carcass composition characteristics, ocular and leg health and welfare of male Cobb broilers due to the dark period and a 2-h night interruption.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • In vivo effects of GnRH on expression of interleukin 1 (IL-1) system
           members in bovine preovulatory follicles and the influence of IL-1β on
           cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured in vitro
    • Authors: A.W.B. Silva; J.R.S. Passos; A.M.P. Dau; M.P. De Cesaro; J.G. Ferst; J. Tonellotto dos Santos; F.T.G. Bezerra; J.J.N. Costa; L.R.F.M. Paulino; M.A.M. Donato; C.A. Peixoto; P.B.D. Gonçalves; J.R.V. Silva
      Pages: 166 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 206
      Author(s): A.W.B. Silva, J.R.S. Passos, A.M.P. Dau, M.P. De Cesaro, J.G. Ferst, J. Tonellotto dos Santos, F.T.G. Bezerra, J.J.N. Costa, L.R.F.M. Paulino, M.A.M. Donato, C.A. Peixoto, P.B.D. Gonçalves, J.R.V. Silva
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of in vivo GnRH treatment on mRNA expression of IL-1β system in bovine granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles and to analyze the in vitro effect of gonadotropins on the IL-1β system gene expression in cumulus cells. Moreover, the additive effect of IL-1β on cumulus expansion, gene expression and ultrastructural integrity of COCs cultured in vitro was evaluated. In vivo studies in granulosa cells demonstrated that IL-1RA mRNA levels were increased after 24h of GnRH treatment. Similarly, the presence of gonadotropins increased the levels of mRNAs for IL-1R1 and IL-1RA in cumulus cells after 24h of culture in vitro. The presence of IL-1β in culture medium did not influence cumulus expansion, but it increased the expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-1RA, HAS2 and iNOS after COC culture. In addition, the ultrastructure of COCs cultured in vitro in the presence of IL-1β was maintained. In conclusion, IL-1RA mRNA is upregulated in granulosa cells at later stages of the ovulatory process in cattle. In cumulus cells, mRNA expression of IL-1RI and IL-1RA is induced by gonadotropins and IL-1β maintains the ultrastructure of COC cultured in vitro.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Different sources of calcium for starter pig diets
    • Authors: A.L.A. Santana; P.L. de O. Carvalho; N.T.E. de Oliveira; A.C. Gonçalves Junior; A.P. Gazola; D.E. de S. e Castro; S.T. Carvalho; A. da C. Oliveira
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 206
      Author(s): A.L.A. Santana, P.L. de O. Carvalho, N.T.E. de Oliveira, A.C. Gonçalves Junior, A.P. Gazola, D.E. de S. e Castro, S.T. Carvalho, A. da C. Oliveira
      The study was conducted to determine the true Ca absorption coefficients and growth performance of piglets fed diets containing different sources of Ca. In the metabolism study, 30 piglets uncastrated, with initial weight averages of 20.52 ± 1.84kg, were assigned to 5 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet was formulated to meet the piglets nutritional requirements, except to Ca (0.09%), and was supplemented with different source of Ca (limestone, monodicalcium phosphate, calcined bone meal, and oyster meal) to provide 0.64% total Ca. A low-Ca diet (0.018%) and 6 additional piglets were used to estimate the endogenous Ca excretion in the feces. Total feces and urine were collected to determine the apparent and true absorption of Ca. After the adaptation period (7 d), the excreted feces were collected twice daily, weighed, stored in plastic bags in freezer (−18°C) until the end of the collection period (5 d). The volume of the urine collected for 24h was measured and a 20% aliquot was stored in glass containers in refrigerator (3°C) until the end of the collection period (5 d). Experimental diets, feces and urine were analyzed for Ca. To determine the effect of different Ca sources on the growth performance, 160 piglets were assigned, to 2 sexes (males intact and females) and 4 sources of Ca (the same ones used in the metabolism study), in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement and randomized complete block design with 4 pens per treatment and 5 intact males or 5 females per pen. At the end of the study (22 d), blood samples were collected of the all piglets and 5 piglets per treatment were selected randomly regardless of sex to collect samples of organs. All samples were stored at −18°C. Response criteria were: weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, Ca deposition in organs, bone strength, weight and size of the third metatarsal bone, and serum in Ca. The sources of Ca and direct or indirect collection method did not affect the absorption coefficients. There was no interaction among the sources of Ca and sex of the piglets for the performance variables. The piglets growth performance was similar among treatments. Calcined bone meal and oyster meal resulted in a greater content of mineral matter in the kidney (P = 0.013). The bone meal resulted in a greater Ca concentration in the piglets hearts (P < 0.001). The sources are equally effective as a source of Ca for young piglets.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Detection of pig genome regions determining production traits using an
           information theory approach
    • Authors: Alicja Borowska; Henry Reyer; Klaus Wimmers; Patrick F. Varley; Tomasz Szwaczkowski
      Pages: 31 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 205
      Author(s): Alicja Borowska, Henry Reyer, Klaus Wimmers, Patrick F. Varley, Tomasz Szwaczkowski
      The objectives of the study were to detect the SNPs associated with pig production traits and estimate interactions between the most informative pairs of SNPs using entropy analysis. 1296 pigs were genotyped and phenotyped. The following traits were recorded: backfat, days to 110kg, feed conversion ratio, percent lean meat and terminal line index for Maxgro™. After validation of the genotypic data, 50 951 SNPs were considered for further analysis. Entropy and conditional entropy for each SNP were estimated. Mutual information for most informative SNPs was performed to estimate an interaction between pairs of SNPs. Generally, the majority of loci showed relatively small contributions to the traits. The largest number of SNPs with high conditional entropy coefficients was identified on chromosome 1. The most important SNPs and pairs of them for all traits were mainly located on chromosomes: 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16 and 17. High mutual information was estimated for SNPs located nearby. Many of the most prominent SNPs are localised within candidate genes affecting pig production traits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
       
  • Relationship between semen quality and meat quality traits in Belgian
           Piétrain boars
    • Authors: Ioannis Arsenakis; Ruth Appeltant; Steven Sarrazin; Tom Rijsselaere; Ann Van Soom; Dominiek Maes
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 205
      Author(s): Ioannis Arsenakis, Ruth Appeltant, Steven Sarrazin, Tom Rijsselaere, Ann Van Soom, Dominiek Maes
      The main objective of this study was to assess the semen quality of Piétrain boars originating from Belgian AI centers and to correlate these results with their meat quality traits. Freshly diluted semen doses from 140 boars originating from 10 artificial insemination (AI) centers were used and stored for five days at 17°C. Motility was assessed daily using a computer assisted semen analyzer (Hamilton-Thorne), while morphology and concentration were assessed on the day of semen collection (Day 0) by eosin-nigrosin staining and the Bürker counting chamber, respectively. These data were correlated with the lean meat percentage, loin eye depth and backfat thickness using linear mixed models taking into account the clustering of boars within each AI center and the daily measurements for each semen dose. The mean values (± SD) on Day 0 were: motility 79.7 ± 8.2%, live sperm 91.5 ± 4.3%, live normal sperm 83.6 ± 7.4%, and concentration 29.0 ± 10.6 (×106 sperm/mL). The average five-day motility across all AI centers was 77.7 ± 8.9%. None of the assessed semen quality traits were associated with lean meat percentage. Motility and progressive motility on Day 0 were positively associated with backfat thickness (P < 0.05), while no overall negative associations were elucidated between the latter semen quality traits and loin eye depth. The percentages of live and normal live sperm were not correlated with backfat thickness nor loin eye depth. To conclude, selection of terminal Belgian Piétrain boars for reduced backfat thickness might negatively influence semen motility, whereas selection for increased lean meat percentage and loin eye depth would not necessarily compromise semen quality traits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
       
  • Undernutrition pre- and post-mating affects serum levels of glucose,
           cholesterol and progesterone, but not the reproductive efficiency of
           crossbred hair ewes synchronized for estrus
    • Authors: U. Macías-Cruz; R. Vicente-Pérez; A. Correa-Calderón; M. Mellado; C.A. Meza-Herrera; L. Avendaño-Reyes
      Pages: 64 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 205
      Author(s): U. Macías-Cruz, R. Vicente-Pérez, A. Correa-Calderón, M. Mellado, C.A. Meza-Herrera, L. Avendaño-Reyes
      The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional restriction pre- and post-mating on serum concentrations of some metabolites and progesterone after the conception, as well as on the reproductive performance of crossbred hair ewes subjected to a synchronization of estrus (progesterone plus 200 IU of PMSG) and natural mating during the reproductive season. At d 30 before mating, 48 Katahdin x Pelibuey multiparous ewes (Body weight [BW] = 50.3 ± 0.5kg, body condition score [BCS] = 3.0 ± 0.06 units) were assigned, under a randomized complete block design, to one of four dietary treatments (n = 12): 1) control (no nutritional restriction [NR]), 2) NR pre-mating (30 d, NRPRE), 3) NR post-mating (50 d, NRPOS) and 4) NR in both periods (80 d, TNR). All ewes were fed the same diet but NR ewes were fed only 60% of the nourishment offered to control. Compared to the other treatments, BW and BCS at mating were higher (P < 0.01) in control and NRPOS ewes, but at 50 d post-mating were higher (P < 0.01) in control and NRPRE ewes. At lambing, TNR ewes had the lowest (P = 0.03) BW and BCS, while serum concentrations of triglyceride, total protein and urea were unaffected (P ≥ 0.13) by the treatments. Also, lower glucose (P = 0.03) and higher (P = 0.02) cholesterol in serum were observed in NRPOS ewes than ewes of the other treatments. Progesterone concentrations were similar (P ≥ 0.39) among treatments until d 8 post-mating, and then (d 10–20) were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in NRPOS and TNR ewes than in NRPRE ewes. Estrus behavior, pregnancy, abortion rate, gestation length, fertility, fecundity and prolificacy were unaffected (P ≥ 0.40) by treatments. In conclusion, NR around mating alters serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and progesterone in the early gestation, but not the reproductive efficiency of crossbred hair ewes synchronized with progesterone and PMSG. Results indicate the high ability of crossbred hair ewes to prioritize their reproductive capacity under malnutrition scenarios during the breeding season.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:05:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of alternative breeding plans for two indigenous cattle breeds
           of Ethiopia
    • Authors: Ayele Mandefro; Gemeda Duguma; Tadele Mirkena; Hailu Dadi
      Pages: 122 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 205
      Author(s): Ayele Mandefro, Gemeda Duguma, Tadele Mirkena, Hailu Dadi
      Different breeding strategies targeting two indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia (Borana and Horro) were evaluated with the objective of developing appropriate breeding programs that would maximize production and productivity of the breeds maintained on pastures using a deterministic approach. Borana was evaluated for beef, milk and both for beef and milk (dual purpose) while Horro was evaluated for milk and dual purposes. Two units, breeding unit and production unit, consisting of six selection groups were defined for both breeds. Selection criteria used were yearling weight, milk yield, age at first calving, calving interval and calf survival to yearling for dual purpose program and milk yield, age at first calving, calving interval and calf survival to yearling for milk production program. In addition, yearling weight, age at first calving, calving interval and calf survival to yearling were used to improve beef production in Borana breed. Three different levels of breeding bull selection proportions (5%, 10%, and 15%) were used. For all goal traits investigated, more genetic gains were obtained from bull selection groups than the cow selection groups. The bull selection groups also had the shortest generation interval compared to the cow groups (4.07 vs. 6.42 years). From the estimated annual genetic gains for the individual goal traits, all traits had favorable genetic gains except age at first calving. Genetic gains per year were highest for milk yield followed by live weight. Genetic gains were near zero for the other traits. Nearly comparable annual genetic gains were estimated for both Borana and Horro cattle breeds assumed for milk improvement program under different selection proportions. Estimated genetic improvements of about 291.96, 268.63 and 252.73l of milk were simulated for Borana in 5%, 10% and 15% breeding bull selection proportion. The corresponding improvements for Horro were 291.55, 268.31 and 252.43l. However, gains were higher in Borana when the two cattle breeds are assumed for dual purpose program (85.92–98.64 for Borana Vs 78.14–90.26 for Horro). Estimated genetic improvements for live weight ranged from 38.96 to 45.11kg for Borana and 34.17–39.46kg for Horro when both cattle breeds investigated for dual purpose program. In the current study information is lacking on economic values for each goal trait. Thus, further works are warranted. Except for age at first calving, the genetic gain per year in yearling weight, milk yield, calving interval and survival to yearling obtained from the different options are satisfactory and can result in reasonable genetic improvements of these cattle breeds.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
       
  • Impact of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone on gelatinase expression
           and steroidogenesis in the newly formed corpus luteum in sows
    • Authors: Zhuang Qian; Huaisen Zhu; Yingjun Lv; Honglin Liu; Endong Bao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Zhuang Qian, Huaisen Zhu, Yingjun Lv, Honglin Liu, Endong Bao
      The development and sustained function of the corpus luteum (CL) after ovulation are important for embryo implantation and early pregnancy maintenance in mammals. Sows raised in commercial group-housing systems are vulnerable to stress and have elevated blood cortisol levels; therefore, it is pivotal to study the influence of increased cortisol levels in circulation on the reproduction of sows. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether stress induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration before estrus affected either the development or the functions of the newly formed CL in sows. The results showed that the gene expression levels of the P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) proteins of newly formed CLs were lower in the ACTH-treated sows than in the controls, whereas the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). Moreover, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)164 gene expression levels were significantly lower in the ACTH group than in the controls (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that ACTH-induced stress impairs vascularization, and affects the steroidogenesis of newly developed CLs in sows.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.012
       
  • Genetic and Phenotypic Parameters for Feed Efficiency in Indigenous
           Chicken in Kenya
    • Authors: Sophie Miyumo; Chrilukovian B. Wasike; Alexander K. Kahi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sophie Miyumo, Chrilukovian B. Wasike, Alexander K. Kahi
      This study aims to determine the genetic and phenotypic parameters of net feed efficiency (NFE) traits namely Residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG), and residual intake and gain (RIG) along the growth curve of indigenous chicken in Kenya. Feed intake and body weight data was collected on 107 experimental birds on a daily and weekly basis, respectively from 77 days to 140 days of age. Random regression sire model was used for analysis, fitting Legendre polynomials as basis function. Sex, hatch group and interaction between sex and cluster constituted fixed effects in the model while additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted as random variables. A heteroscedastic residual variance was modelled by grouping the test period into nine classes. The orders of polynomial fit for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects in the model were 4 and 5; 3 and 4; and 5 and 5; for RFI, RG and RIG, respectively. The additive genetic variances for RFI and RG were higher at the beginning of the trajectory but declined as the test period progressed while their respective phenotypic and permanent environment variances increased with age. Consequently, moderate (0.34) and high (0.77) heritability estimates for RFI and RG, respectively, were observed during the early test period and thereafter decreased to 0.03 for RFI and 0.01 for RG. Additive genetic variance for RIG increased across the test period while phenotypic and permanent environment variances declined. This resulted in high estimates of heritability and permanent environmental variance as a proportion of phenotypic variance of 0.69 and 0.98, respectively, at the extremes of the trajectory. At mid-point of test period, low estimates of heritability and permanent environmental variance as a proportion of phenotypic variance of 0.13 and 0.19, respectively were observed. The heritability estimates indicate possible selective breeding for NFE given the moderate estimates (0.23 to 0.34) for RFI, moderate to high estimates (0.30 to 0.77) for RG and high estimates (0.49 to 0.98) for RIG. However, caution has to be taken when selecting for RG and RIG given the extreme heritability estimates resulting from statistical and biological factors. Genetic correlations were high to moderate and positive (0.99 to 0.32) between records at early and mid-ages (77 to 105 days), but high and negative (−0.99 to −0.45) between early (77 days) and late ages (112 to 140 days). Selection for NFE at growth inflection point (77 days) would result in a favourable correlated response at point of maximum growth (105 days) but would be associated with unfavourable response at point of asymptotic growth (140 days) as birds are approaching sexual maturity. Given the high standard errors for the genetic parameters estimates in this study, there is need for further analyses prior to selection for feed efficiency indigenous chicken.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.011
       
  • Effects of gel-embedded embryos on developmental competence of separated
           bovine blastomeres
    • Authors: Theesit Juanpanich; Tayita Suttirojpattana; Yuanyuan Liang; Osamu Dochi; Rangsun Parnpai; Kei Imai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Theesit Juanpanich, Tayita Suttirojpattana, Yuanyuan Liang, Osamu Dochi, Rangsun Parnpai, Kei Imai
      This study aimed to examine how gel embedding compared with the Well-of-Well (WOW) system when culturing bovine separated blastomeres, in terms of developmental competence rates and blastocyst quality. We first optimized the gel-embedding method via culturing intact zygotes in either 1% agarose or 1% calcium alginate gel. Gel-embedded groups and control did not differ in development rates, but the 1% calcium alginate group was selected for subsequent experiments due to higher blastocyst recovery. The separated embryo group had higher potential for blastocyst production than the intact embryo group. Among separated blastomeres (2- and 8-cell), WOW and 1% calcium alginate did not differ in blastocyst formation rate, except between the 2-cell alginate and WOW groups, with the latter exhibiting the highest rate of blastocyst formation. Within the WOW system, the separated 2-cell embryo resulted in significantly higher rates of OPU (ovum pick-up)-derived blastocysts than the intact 2-cell embryo; however, the latter had more total cells than the former. In conclusion, the 1% calcium alginate gel can support cell growth of separated 2- and 8-cell bovine embryos during blastomere aggregation. Moreover, the gel-embedded technique is a suitable replacement for WOW in producing blastocysts from bovine separated blastomeres.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.010
       
  • Copy number variation regions in Nellore cattle: evidences of environment
           adaptation
    • Authors: Marcos Vinicius Antunes de Lemos; Mariana Piatto Berton; Gregório Miguel Ferreira de Camargo; Elisa Peripolli; Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira Silva; Bianca Ferreira Olivieri; Aline S M Cesar; Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira; Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque; Henrique Nunes de Oliveira; Humberto Tonhati; Fernando Baldi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Marcos Vinicius Antunes de Lemos, Mariana Piatto Berton, Gregório Miguel Ferreira de Camargo, Elisa Peripolli, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira Silva, Bianca Ferreira Olivieri, Aline S M Cesar, Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira, Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Humberto Tonhati, Fernando Baldi
      The aim of the present study was to analyze the distribution of CNV regions (CNVRs) as well as to address hypothesis about the natural/artificial selection process in Nellore cattle. A total of 399,361 CNVs were identified, using the PennCNV algorithm, in 3,794 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus) genotyped with the Bovine HD BeadChip array. The default quality control was applied and 2,902 samples and 195,873 CNVs remained. The medium CNV length size was 54,744bp with a maximum of 8,700,00bp and a minimum of 3,000bp. The CNVRs were generated by overlapping the 195,873 identified CNVs using the CNVRuler program. There was a higher incidence of CNVRs on BTA19 (24.26%), BTA23 (18.68%), and BTA25 (18.05%). The chromosomes that showed a lower incidence of CNVR were BTA29 (1.63%), BTA13 (9.72%), and BTA8 (9.72%). According to the type, 38.5%, 28.5% and 33.0% of the CNVRs were characterized as insertion, deletion and mixed (insertion and deletion in the same region), respectively. The 9,805 CNVR estimated in the present study covered approximately 13.05% of the cattle genome (UMD_3.1, 2,649,685,063bp) and overlapped with 5,495 genes. These genes have functions described as involved in biological processes that might be related to the environmental adaptation of the subspecies to tropical areas, such as regulation of vasodilatation, immune system response, hair follicle morphogenesis, among others. This study confirms the existence of large structural variations in the Nellore cattle genome and contributes to understanding the differences between cattle subspecies. Besides, it can also work as a guideline for future studies in which structural variations are present.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.008
       
  • Flow cytometry sex sorting affects bull sperm longevity and compromises
           their capacity to bind to oviductal cells
    • Authors: José Oliveira Carvalho; Roberto Sartori; Leandro Rodello; Gerson Barreto Mourão; Sony Dimas Bicudo; Margot A. Nunes Dode
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): José Oliveira Carvalho, Roberto Sartori, Leandro Rodello, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Sony Dimas Bicudo, Margot A. Nunes Dode
      This study assessed the effect of flow cytometry sexing on sperm longevity and the capacity of sperm to bind to oviductal cells. Each ejaculate from four bulls was divided into two fractions: the first was immediately frozen as non sexed sperm (NS) and the second was sexed originating X- and Y-bearing sperm. The fourth treatment had sex-sorted X and Y sperm (XY) combined. Sperm from each group was assessed for sperm characteristics after thawing, after washing and at 2, 4, 8 and 12h of incubation at 39°C in 5% CO2 in air. For the binding test, sperm were incubated in sp-TALP medium for 30min or 24h with oviductal explants. Percentages of motility (58.1 ± 4.3 and 35.2 ± 4.4), progressive motility (46.1 ± 6.1 and 25.7 ± 4.8), mitochondrial membrane potential (79.2 ± 8.3 and 69.0 ± 6.3), plasma membrane stability (77.4 ± 4.6 and 19.4 ± 4.2), and live sperm with intact acrosome (57.2 ± 8.5 and 31.3 ± 7.9) were higher in NS than in XY, respectively (P < 0.05). Those differences were maintained for up to 8h. The sexing process did not affect the sperm binding to the explants after 30min. However, after 24h, XY had less (6.7 ± 2.0) sperm bound to explants than NS (23.6 ± 7.2). In conclusion, even though XY was of lower quality than NS, the decreases in quality in both NS and XY groups were similar between groups during incubation. Moreover, the sex-sorting process affected the ability of sperm to remain bound to oviductal explants.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.005
       
  • Impact of breed on the rumen microbial community composition and methane
           emission of Holstein Friesian and Belgian Blue heifers
    • Authors: Thijs De Mulder; Nico Peiren; Leen Vandaele; Tom Ruttink; Sam De Campeneere; Tom Van de Wiele; Karen Goossens
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Thijs De Mulder, Nico Peiren, Leen Vandaele, Tom Ruttink, Sam De Campeneere, Tom Van de Wiele, Karen Goossens
      Intensive dairy and beef cattle farming contribute significantly to the emissions of greenhouse gases from Belgian agriculture. Two main breeds dominate the Belgian cattle livestock; Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle and double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) beef cattle. The aim of our study was to quantify and compare methane emissions of both breeds under conditions of equal diet composition, environment and physiological stage (using heifers of the same age). The methanogen and bacterial communities were thoroughly investigated using metabarcoding to correlate taxonomic compositions with breed and methane emission levels. HF heifers had significantly higher absolute enteric methane emissions as compared to DMBB heifers. Methane production was positively correlated to the dry matter intake (DMI). Due to the significantly higher DMI and energy intake of HF heifers, methane yield per DMI was not significantly different between breeds. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between the gross feed efficiency (GFE) of both breeds, but the DMBB heifers demonstrated significantly lower CH4:CO2 ratios (mole-to-mole ratio), suggesting a more efficient fermentation by the rumen microbial ecosystem. Although both breeds accommodated a common core of taxonomic groups, the bacterial communities also showed a breed specific composition due to differential abundance of specific species belonging to the main taxonomic groups and the presence of a few species of minor taxonomic groups that were significantly associated with one of both breeds. In contrast to the bacterial communities, the methanogen community was consistent and stable between breeds and at different sampling times. Our results suggest that breed related factors influence the bacterial community composition, while the variation in methane emission levels can be attributed mainly to the feed intake of the animals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.009
       
  • Liquid storage of ram semen for 96hours: effects on kinematic parameters,
           membranes and DNA integrity, and ROS production
    • Authors: L. Falchi; G. Galleri; M.T. Zedda; S. Pau; L. Bogliolo; F. Ariu; S. Ledda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L. Falchi, G. Galleri, M.T. Zedda, S. Pau, L. Bogliolo, F. Ariu, S. Ledda
      A complete assessment of morphological and functional characteristics of ram semen during refrigeration is necessary to optimize the process of semen manipulation and storage. The aim of this study was to describe changes in main predictive parameters of ram semen diluted in a commercial soy lecithin-based extender (OVIXcell), during long term liquid storage at 4°C. Ejaculates of 5 Sarda rams were collected, pooled and diluted in OVIXcell. Samples were cooled at 4°C and stored at this temperature until 96h. At 0–24-48–72-96h semen samples were analysed for the following parameters: motility [computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA)]; integrity of cytoplasm membrane and acrosome (PI/PSA staining); DNA fragmentation index [DFI(%); sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)]; levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2DCFDA staining). Effect of time of storage on main parameters and correlations among them were assessed respectively by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Primary and secondary motility parameters were significantly affected by time of storage (P<0.05) decreasing throughout 96h. Integrity of cytoplasm membranes was preserved for the first 24h and decreased by around 10% from 48 to 96h (P<0.05). No effects on acrosomes were observed (P>0.05). Long term storage did not affect the levels of DFI(%) (P>0.05) while ROS production significantly increased from 48 to 96h (P<0.05). Weak negative correlations were found among DFI(%), ROS, and kinematic parameters. In conclusion, long term liquid storage of ram semen at 4°C induces progressive detrimental effects on the main predictive quality parameters of sperm, especially from 24hours onwards, but does not compromise DNA integrity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.001
       
  • MicroRNA expression patterns in tail fat of different breeds of sheep
    • Authors: Yangyang Pan; Jiongjie Jing; Junxing Zhao; Xiali Jia; Liying Qiao; Lixia An; Baojun Li; Yuan Ma; Yingjiao Zhang; Wenzhong Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yangyang Pan, Jiongjie Jing, Junxing Zhao, Xiali Jia, Liying Qiao, Lixia An, Baojun Li, Yuan Ma, Yingjiao Zhang, Wenzhong Liu
      The objective of this study was to detect the expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) in two breeds of fat-tailed sheep (Guangling Large-tailed sheep and Small-tailed Han sheep), and discover the miRNAs that may play roles in lipid metabolism. Consequently, two small RNA libraries were constructed and high-throughput sequencing was used to identify the miRNAs expressed in the two libraries and to calculate the expression of miRNAs. Bioinformatics methods were used to predict target genes, which were subsequently analyzed using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Nine miRNAs (miR-10b, miR-29a, miR-30c, miR-155, miR-192, miR-206, novel-miR-102, novel-miR-36, and novel-miR-63) were chosen to verify the sequencing results by detecting their expressions in the two breeds using quantitative real-time PCR. A total of 113 and 131 conserved miRNAs in the two breeds were obtained, of which 40 miRNAs were differentially expressed. KEGG analysis showed that many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. By screening the unknown miRNAs using MIREAP, 208 and 215 novel miRNAs were obtained from the two libraries, of which 150 were significantly different. This study represents the comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in the tail fat of two breeds of sheep with different tail fat deposition using HiSeq analysis. We conclude that differentially expressed miRNAs may play roles in regulating adipose metabolism, and thus, may contribute to improving the meat quality and fat deposition in sheep.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.007
       
  • Supplementation of diets with omega-3 fatty acids from microalgae: effects
           on sow reproductive performance and metabolic parameters
    • Authors: C.J.M. Posser; L.M. Almeida; F. Moreira; I. Bianchi; B.G. Gasperin; T. Lucia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C.J.M. Posser, L.M. Almeida, F. Moreira, I. Bianchi, B.G. Gasperin, T. Lucia
      Supplementation of diets with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may benefit sow reproductive performance, but the efficiency of algae as a source of PUFA is still unknown. This study evaluated serum levels of metabolic markers and reproductive performance of sows supplemented with the heterotrophic microalgae Schizochytium sp. Sows (n = 596) were supplemented from the 85th day of gestation, during lactation and until the weaning-estrous interval (WEI). Microalgae were included at five levels: 0 (control); 3.5; 7.0; 14.0; and 28.0g/d. Blood samples were collected at the 85th day of gestation, at the 10th d of lactation and at the last day prior to weaning (WEI). Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin-like growth factor type-1 (IGF-1) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were evaluated. At the parity concurrent with the supplementation, no effects were observed on stillborn rates (P > 0.05), sows fed 28.0g/d farrowed heavier piglets than sows fed lower levels (P < 0.05), but the WEI for sows fed 7.0g/d was longer than for the control (P < 0.05). Serum levels of triglycerides were decreased during gestation, only for sows supplemented with 14.0 and 28.0g/d (P < 0.05). At the subsequent parity, there was no difference on stillborn rates and total litter size (P > 0.05). The highest tested concentration (28.0g/d) of Schizochytium sp. was associated with reduced serum levels of triglycerides during gestation and with increased piglet birth weight, but the supplementation generally did not benefit sow reproductive performance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.006
       
  • Bamboo vinegar powder supplementation improves the antioxidant ability of
           the liver in finishing pigs
    • Authors: Lihuai Yu; Zhong Peng; Li Dong; Shunan Wang; Luoyang Ding; Yongjiu Huo; Hongrong Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Lihuai Yu, Zhong Peng, Li Dong, Shunan Wang, Luoyang Ding, Yongjiu Huo, Hongrong Wang
      Bamboo vinegar, a natural liquid manufactured from bamboo, has been regarded as a potential antibiotic substitute in animal production. In this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanism of bamboo vinegar powder (BVP) on the antioxidant ability of pigs. A total of 40 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire healthy pigs (80.88 ± 0.82kg) were selected and randomly allocated into 5 different groups: control group (CG, fed with basal diets); antibiotic group (AG, fed with antibiotic-supplemented diets); 0.5% BVP group (0.5% BVG, fed 0.5% BVP-supplemented diets); 1.0% BVP group (1.0% BVG, fed with 1.0% BVP-supplemented diets) and 1.5% BVP group (1.5% BVG, fed with 1.5% BVP-supplemented diets). With the BVP-supplemented diets, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood increased (P<0.05), the activities of GSH-Px and catalase (CAT) in the liver also increased (P<0.05), the activity of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) increased both in the liver and blood (P<0.05), but the activity of iNOS in the liver and blood decreased (P<0.05). Moreover, the gene expressions of Nuclear related factor 2 (Nrf2), catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1(NQO1), heme oxygenase 1(HO1), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT) in the liver were also increased due to the addition of BVP (P<0.05). In conclusion, BVP supplementation improved the antioxidant ability of the liver in finishing pigs by increasing the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and decreasing the activity of oxidative stress enzymes. These changes may be due to the activation of the Nrf2-Are pathway.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.004
       
  • Pregnancy rate after fixed-time artificial insemination of suckled beef
           cows subjected to a cosynch protocol with either buserelin or hCG as
           ovulation inducing agent
    • Authors: Walter Schmitz; Michael Kramer; Georg Erhardt; Matthias Gauly; Marc-Antoine Driancourt; Wolfgang Holtz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Walter Schmitz, Michael Kramer, Georg Erhardt, Matthias Gauly, Marc-Antoine Driancourt, Wolfgang Holtz
      The aim of this study was to document the effectiveness of the implementation of a cosynch protocol and fixed time artificial insemination in suckled beef cows kept under range conditions in Germany. In addition, the suitability of hCG administration as an alternative to the GnRH analog buserelin (Receptal®, Intervet, Germany) as ovulation inducing agent was investigated. The 120 Simmental and 120 German Angus cows were randomly divided into four groups. Cows of Group 1 were subjected to the classical cosynch protocol, constituting administration of GnRH, followed, 7 days later, by prostaglandin F2α and, after 2 days, another GnRH administration and simultaneous AI. In cows of Group 2, hCG was administered instead of GnRH at the beginning of the protocol, in Group 3 at the end and in Group 4 at the beginning and at the end. Inseminations with frozen-thawed semen from Limousin, Charolais, Simmental and German Angus sires were carried out by the same skilled inseminator. Blood samples collected 11 days before and on days 0, 7 and 9 of the cosynch protocol were analyzed for progesterone concentration. The study extended over three consecutive years. Of the total of 489 inseminations, 53% resulted in pregnancies (Simmental: 60%; German Angus: 48%). When GnRH was administered at the beginning and at the end of the cosynch protocol (Group 1), pregnancy rate across breeds was 65% (Simmental: 61%; German Angus: 68%); likewise when hCG was substituted for GnRH at the end of the protocol (Group 2). Pregnancy rate across breeds reached 48% when hCG was given at the beginning (Group 3) and was lowest (37%) when hCG was given at the beginning and at the end. German Angus cows responded particularly poorly to hCG treatment. In cows that were cycling, as indicated by serum progesterone levels 11 and 0 days before treatment, pregnancy rate across breeds and treatments was highest (57%) if the cosynch protocol was initiated at a stage of the cycle when peripheral progesterone levels were on the rise. In non-cycling cows, representing only 13% of the herd, contrary to expectation pregnancy rate reached 65%. In conclusion, implementation of fixed-time artificial insemination in suckled beef cows kept under local range conditions led to satisfactory pregnancy results, especially if the cosynch protocol was initiated at a stage when progesterone levels were on the rise. Substitution of hCG for GnRH proved to be of no advantage; in fact, when administered at the beginning of the protocol it resulted in a detrimental effect on fertility.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.025
       
  • A comparison of the growth performance between cattle reared in
           conventional systems and in feral conditions
    • Authors: Sergio Nogales; Juan Calderón; Teresa Marta Lupi; Maria Cristina Bressan; Juan Vicente Delgado; María Esperanza Camacho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sergio Nogales, Juan Calderón, Teresa Marta Lupi, Maria Cristina Bressan, Juan Vicente Delgado, María Esperanza Camacho
      Feral and conventional growth performances were compared using Marismeña cattle as a model. Marismeña calves are commonly reared under feral conditions in one of the most important reserves of Europe (Doñana National Park, Spain). Data recording in these natural conditions faces compromises as animals are only handled once per year. This fact has to be saved to obtain efficient estimations for the biological growth curve of cattle reared under feral conditions. On the one hand, we assessed the inference of the theoretical influence of human management on cattle growth. On the other hand, we studied the fitness of the best growth curve, in both feral and conventional systems to use the physiological meaning of the parameters obtained from their study as selection criteria related to the adaptability of potential breeding males and females. Fitting of Brody's, von Bertalanffy, Verhulst, logistic, Gompertz and Richards’ models was tested as these models are the most representative ones for cattle growth. In general, Brody's and Richards’ models presented the best fitting values for the biological curve. According to the biological curve parameters, males and females presented asymptotic weights of 641.71kg and 403.55kg, respectively. As expected, the results of the commercial growth curve severely differed from those of the biological curve. The best fitting biological curve was not representative for cattle reared under commercial conditions. The logistic model was the best fitting one for feral females, Gompertz model for feral males, and Verhulst for intensive males and females, respectively. Seasonal oscillations in feeding may be responsible for the earlier achievement of the best performance in feral cattle (7 and 10 months for males and females, respectively), while such best performances were reached at 11 months in intensive calves, what becomes relevant for management and slaughtering decision-making. The study of the biological curve in Marismeña feral breed is very illustrative as this is the first time that feral cattle's growth is approached. Knowledge on the biological growth curve parameters could be used to interpret the strong relation between feral animals and their environment. This research could infer a model to quantify the effects of human management on livestock development, as feral resources offer unique opportunities to study domestic livestock without any human influence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.026
       
  • Dietary effects of plant extracts, based on verbascoside, lycopene and
           horseradish on several blood variables and plasma oxidative status in
           growing rabbits
    • Authors: D. Casamassima; M. Palazzo; F. Vizzarri; C. Costagliola; C. Corino; C.A. Di Costanzo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Casamassima, M. Palazzo, F. Vizzarri, C. Costagliola, C. Corino, C.A. Di Costanzo
      Oxidative stress can cause damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in several biological systems, leading to the functional and structural impairment of individual molecules that may be involved in various diseases. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary plant extract supplementation, based on Lippia citriodora, horseradish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lycopene (Solanum lycopersicum L.), on several blood parameters and plasma oxidative status in growing rabbits. The experiment lasted 80 days and was conducted on 160 weaned-rabbits, divided into four groups of 40 animals each, matched by age (38 ± 2 days) and body weight (1.49 ± 0.07kg). The control group (CON) received a weaning-fattening feed without any feed additives, while of the other three experimental groups, the first group received a supplement of plant extract based on Lippia citriodora, containing 5mg of verbascoside/kg feed (VB group), the second group received 5mg of lycopene/kg feed, tomato fruit extract (LIC group), and the third received 350mg of Raphanus sativus root extract/kg feed (RAF group). The feed additives, based on verbascoside (Lippia citriodora), horseradish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lycopene (Solanum lycopersicum L.) resulted in a marked decrease in blood content of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and bilirubin. In addition, only when verbascoside was supplemented, were improvements in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and AST enzyme levels observed. Plasma oxidative markers significantly improved for all three extract groups. There was a significant reduction in ROMs and TBARS values, as well as an increase in the content of retinol and alfa-tocopherol, confirming the strong antioxidant ability of the plant extracts used. A dietary supplementation with phyto-extracts, based on Lippia citriodora, horseradish and lycopene can thus be effectively used in rabbit feeding due to the positive effects observed on the blood parameters and plasma oxidative status, with possible beneficial effects on the welfare of livestock animals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.022
       
  • Supplementation with live yeasts and essential oils does not alter blood,
           fecal and digestible parameters in horses
    • Authors: Mayara Angela Faga Palagi; Kátia Feltre; Iaçanã Valente Ferreira Gonzaga; Regina de Lima Costa; Luiz Antonio Jorge de Moraes Filho; Júlio César de Carvalho Balieiro; Alexandre Augusto de Oliveira Gobesso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mayara Angela Faga Palagi, Kátia Feltre, Iaçanã Valente Ferreira Gonzaga, Regina de Lima Costa, Luiz Antonio Jorge de Moraes Filho, Júlio César de Carvalho Balieiro, Alexandre Augusto de Oliveira Gobesso
      The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of essential oils and live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SC) compound on fecal parameters, apparent digestibility of nutrients and blood parameters of horses. Eight geldings Mini-Horse breed (age 48±6 months and body weight 147±15kg) were used, randomly distributed in two Latin squares (2×2). The individual dry matter intake adopted was 1.75% of body weight. The experimental diet (concentrate:hay as 60:40) was divided into Control group (CO – without additives), live yeast S. cerevisiae group (SC – 2g/day addition), Essential Oils group (EO – 150mg/day addition) and Live Yeast + Essential Oils group (LE – both additives). Four periods of 23 days each, being 15 days of adaptation to the diet, 5 days of total collection of feces, and 3 days of washout were performed. Variance and orthogonal contrasts (CO vs others; SC and EO vs LE; EO vs SC) analysis using p<0.05 as a reference for significant values. The apparent digestibility of nutrients was evaluated through the total collection of feces of each animal by calculating the relationship between the ingested and the excreted nutrients. We were calculated the contents of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ethereal extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and starch. Lipids (triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and fractions of high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)) were evaluated into serum, which was obtained during the total collection of feces period. The glycemic and insulinemic responses were evaluated based on the area under the curve of glucose (AUC-G) and insulin (AUC-I). The microbial population (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Lactobacillus genus) and pH were evaluated in feces. The treatments did not influence (p>0.05) the apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, PB, EE, NDF, ADF and starch. No differences (p>0.05) in blood parameters CT, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL, AUC-G and AUC-I were observed. There was no effect (p>0.05) of treatments, time and treatment⁎time interaction in fecal pH of horses. No differences in the relative population of microorganisms (p>0.05) between treatments were observed. The use of essential oils and live yeasts (CNCM I-1077), allied or not, in equine diets does not alter blood, fecal and digestible parameters in horses.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.024
       
  • Short Communication: Milk fat response to calcium salts of palm or soybean
           in a normal or milk fat depression scenario in dairy ewes
    • Authors: M. Baldin; J. de Souza; E. Ticiani; E.C. Sandri; R. Dresch; F. Batistel; D.E. Oliveira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Baldin, J. de Souza, E. Ticiani, E.C. Sandri, R. Dresch, F. Batistel, D.E. Oliveira
      A limited number of studies in lactating sheep have compared milk fat responses to calcium salts (Ca-salts) differing in fatty acid (FA) composition and their interactions with different dietary conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ca-salts of palm or soybean FA on milk fat under Normal and CLA-induced milk fat depression (MFD) scenarios in lactating dairy ewes. Thirty-eight Lacaune and thirty-seven East Friesian multiparous ewes were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The main factor consisted of two diets designed to create two distinct scenarios: Normal and CLA-induced MFD (CLA-MFD, 30g/d of CLA 29.9% trans−10, cis−12 CLA as methyl ester). The subfactor was supplementation of Normal or CLA-MFD scenarios with 27g/d of Ca-salts of palm FA, or 30g/d of Ca-salts of soybean FA, resulting in four treatments: 1) Normal + Ca-Palm, 2) Normal + Ca-Soy, 3) CLA-MFD + Ca-Palm, and 4) CLA-MFD + Ca-Soy. Overall, the CLA-MFD scenario decreased milk fat concentration by 1.64 percentage units and decreased milk fat yield by 17.3g/d. Ewes that received Ca-Palm had overall 0.29 percent units higher milk fat concentration, and 13.4% greater milk fat concentration when fed the CLA-MFD diet. Ca-Soy increased trans−10 C18:1 (131.0%), trans-11 C18:1 (30.4%), and cis-9, trans-11 CLA (21.1%) in the CLA-MFD diet. In conclusion, supplementation with Ca-Palm resulted in overall greater milk fat concentration. In a MFD scenario, supplementation with Ca-Soy increased concentration of milk trans FA linked to altered rumen biohydrogenation and further aggravated MFD.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.018
       
  • Effect of floor cooling on late lactation sows under acute heat stress
    • Authors: F.A. Cabezón; A.P. Schinckel; J.N. Marchant-Forde; J.S. Johnson; R.M. Stwalley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): F.A. Cabezón, A.P. Schinckel, J.N. Marchant-Forde, J.S. Johnson, R.M. Stwalley
      The objective was to evaluate the effects of floor cooling on late lactation sows under severe summer heat stress. Ten multiparous sows were provided with a cooling pad built with an aluminum plate surface, high-density polyethylene base and copper pipes. Treatments were randomly allotted to sows to receive a constant cool water flow of 0.00 (CONTROL, n = 4), 0.25 (LOW, n = 2), 0.55 (MEDIUM, n = 2) or 0.85 (HIGH, n = 2) L/min for 100min. The cooling was initiated 1h after the room reached 35°C. Respiration rates (RR), vaginal temperature (VT) and skin temperature (ST, 15cm posterior to the ear) were recorded before the trial, prior to cooling, and 5 times (20min intervals) after the cooling phase began. Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded before the trial, prior to cooling and in the last 20min of cooling. Water flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures were recorded 5 times (20min intervals) to calculate heat removal after the cooling started. The procedure was repeated 8 times (2 times/d for 4 d), and treatments were randomly switched in each repetition. The mean room temperature and relative humidity during the trial were 35.1 ± 0.4°C and 68.4 ± 3.2%, respectively. Cooling treatments impacted RR, VT, ST and RT after 80min of cooling, where the mean RR's were 122, 76, 67 and 45 breaths/min for the CONTROL, LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH flow rate treatments, respectively (P < 0.001). After 80min of cooling, the mean VT, RT and ST were 40.1, 40.0 and 39.4°C, respectively for the CONTROL; 39.5, 39.5 and 39.0°C, respectively for the LOW; 39.4, 39.2 and 38.9°C, respectively for the MEDIUM; and 39.2, 39.0 and 38.6°C, respectively for the HIGH flow rate treatment (P < 0.001). Overall heat removal during the trial was 193, 321 and 365 W (SD=137) for the LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH flow rate treatments, respectively (P < 0.001). Cooling pads with LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH water flow rates reduced RR, RT and VT in lactating sows.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T13:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.017
       
  • Identification of SNP markers associated with milk and fat yields in
           multibreed dairy cattle using two genetic group structures
    • Authors: Thawee Laodim; Mauricio A. Elzo; Skorn Koonawootrittriron; Thanathip Suwanasopee; Danai Jattawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Thawee Laodim, Mauricio A. Elzo, Skorn Koonawootrittriron, Thanathip Suwanasopee, Danai Jattawa
      The objective of this research was to determine the correspondence between significant SNP for first-lactation 305-d milk and 305-d fat yields and associated genes from mixed models accounting for population structure using all additive relationships among animals and genetic groups constructed with either SNP genotypic information or with expected breed composition in the Thai multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset contained 2,410 MY and 912 FY from 2,410 first-lactation cows with complete pedigree information genotyped with GeneSeek Genomic Profiler 9K. SNP genotypes located in autosomes and the X chromosome, with call rates larger than 90%, minor allele frequencies (MAF) larger than 0.01, and P-values for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium tests larger than 0.00001 were used in the research. Significant SNP for MY and FY were identified using two mixed models that differed only in their definition of genetic groups. Model 1 (M1) defined genetic groups in terms of breed composition and model 2 (M2) in terms of SNP genotypic information. Fixed effects in M1 and M2 were contemporary group (herd-year-season), genetic group, heterosis, and calving age. Random effects were animal additive genetic and residual. Significant SNP markers were used to identify genes using R package Map2NCBI. Molecular function and biological processes of genes identified by significant SNP markers located inside or within 2,500 bp of these genes were obtained via program PANTHER. Both models yielded identically high correlations between number of significant SNP and number of genes per chromosome for MY (r = 0.97) and FY (r = 0.99). Over 60% of genes associated with MY and FY were involved in binding and catalytic activities. Similarly, over 50% of genes associated with MY and FY participated in cellular and metabolic processes. Larger numbers of significant SNP and genes were identified with M2 for MY and with M1 for FY. However, considering both traits, M1 identified more significant SNP and genes than M2 for MY and FY in this Thai multibreed dairy population. Genes associated with MY and FY were primarily involved in binding and catalytic activities as well as in cellular and metabolic processes. Genes identified to be important for MY and FY in the Thai multibreed population differed substantially from those identified in Bos taurus breeds in temperate environments indicating the need to continue to conduct studies with high-density genotyping chips that identify sets of genes relevant to MY and FY in populations of different breed composition under a variety of environmental conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T13:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.015
       
  • Identification of new loci for body weight traits in F2 chicken population
           using genome-wide association study
    • Authors: Hossein Emrani; Rasoul Vaez Torshizi; Ali Akbar Masoudi; Alireza Ehsani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Hossein Emrani, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi, Ali Akbar Masoudi, Alireza Ehsani
      Understanding the genetic control of growth traits is one of the most important breeding goals in poultry industry. In order to find genes and genomic regions affecting growth traits, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumnia 60K chicken SNP Beadchip in a chicken F2 resource population derived from the reciprocal cross between Arian fast-growing line and Orumieh indigenous slow-growing chicken. A total of 312 F2 birds in eight half sib families from five hatches were produced. Growth traits including body weight (BW) from birth to 12 weeks of age and average daily gain (ADG) were measured for all of the F2 chickens. The GWAS analysis for growth traits was performed using the generalized linear model (GLM) and compressed mixed linear model (cMLM). The results indicated that nine SNPs reached to 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P < 2.43E-6) and 12 were suggestively passed genome-wide significance (P < 4.8E-6) for BW and ADG traits. These nine SNPs were located nearby or in 10 candidate genes, including DIS3, BORA, UBE2H, CNOT10, SGOL1, ADGRB3, DTNB, SETD3, EFNA5 and SPINZ. Cell division, skeletal myogenesis, regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton organization and transcriptional activity are the main important biological process of these genes. This study indicates novel genes related with important processes that can open new insights to the genetic control of growth traits in broiler chickens. In addition, these SNPs are potential to be included in animal breeding programs assisted by molecular markers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T13:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.016
       
  • Embryo recovery results in Hispano-Arabe horse and Spanish donkey breeds
    • Authors: Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín; Guillermo Vizuete; Juan Jose Galisteo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín, Guillermo Vizuete, Juan Jose Galisteo
      This study was carried out as part of an embryo preservation program undertaken among Hispano-Arabe (H-a) mares and Spanish (Andalusian and Zamorano-Leones) jennies, both considered to be endangered breeds. Over the course of six years, 61 donor mares and 17 donor jennies were monitored and inseminated with chilled semen from 17 H-a stallions and six jackasses. A total of 199 uterine flushings (140 in mares and 59 in jennies) were carried out and the embryo recovery rate was recorded and the effect of various factors such as embryo quality and size, flushing effluent quality and individual effects were analyzed. The ovulation rate was significantly lower in donor mares (1.12) than in jennies (1.86) (p<0.001). Embryo recovery per flush was 35.0% and 40.7% in mares and jennies respectively (p>0.05), and it was influenced by photoperiod (p<0.05). Individual effects were also noted for different stallions and jackasses. The embryo size was significantly affected by day of flush (p<0.05) and embryo morphology (p<0.001). While the effect of a range of variables is described in this study, it is important to emphasize that the endangered nature of the breeds concerned makes it harder to obtain acceptable results in an embryo transfer program, because it is difficult to select the best animals (donors, recipients and stallions), and this may play a role in the results obtained. However, it is necessary to continue the research in this field in order to improve the tools needed to preserve the pool of genetic heritage and diversity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.011
       
  • Identification of artificial selection signatures in Caracu breed lines
           selected for milk production and meat production
    • Authors: Bárbara Machado Campos; Adriana Santana do Carmo; Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva; Lucas Lima Verardo; João José de Simoni Gouveia; Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado; Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Bárbara Machado Campos, Adriana Santana do Carmo, Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva, Lucas Lima Verardo, João José de Simoni Gouveia, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
      The identification of selection signatures allows a better comprehension of evolutionary processes, gene function and organization in the genome. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify and characterize genomic regions subject to selection, comparing two Caracu breed lines, one selected for milk (Caracu Caldeano) and other for meat production (Caracu). Animals were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine HD Genotyping BeadChip which included ~777K SNP. The identification of selection signatures was based on population differentiation (FST). Twenty-one genomic regions related to meat and milk production and adaptation characteristics were identified. The genes identified as candidate to be under selection in this study included those related to muscle growth and meat quality (TFCP2, KIAA1244, CDH23 and FAM186B), milk compounds synthesis (MUC19), reproductive metabolism (SLC39A11). Genes related to adaptative traits including resistance to metabolic diseases (C6), and epidermal development and resistance to high temperatures (KRT86) and KRT83) were also identified. The observed relevant genomic regions of Caracu and Caracu Caldeano differed, indicating that specific selection signatures of each line were successfully identified and may represent the consequence of adaptation to the local environment and type of animal production.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.014
       
  • Effects of melengestrol acetate supplementation after fixed-timed
           artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows
    • Authors: W.M. Costa Junior; R.F. Cooke; M.H.C. Pereira; J.L.M. Vasconcelos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): W.M. Costa Junior, R.F. Cooke, M.H.C. Pereira, J.L.M. Vasconcelos
      This experiment compared pregnancy rates in Bos indicus cows assigned to temporary calf weaning (TCW) or eCG administration during estrus synchronization, with or without melengestrol acetate (MGA) supplementation after artificial insemination (AI). A total of 3042 lactating, multiparous, non-pregnant Nelore cows were managed in 48 groups, and assigned to an estrus synchronization + fixed-time AI protocol (d −11 to 0, with AI on d 0). On d −11, groups were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 gonadotropic stimulus, which were either 48-h TCW from d −2 to AI (n = 9 groups, 604 cows) or 300 IU i.m. injection of eCG on d −2 (n = 39 groups, 2438 cows). On d 1, groups were assigned to receive, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, 1 of 3 MGA treatments: 0.5mg of MGA/cow from d 5 to 18 (M5to18; n = 16 groups, 1074 cows) or from d 13 to 18 (M13to18; n = 16 groups, 971 cows), or no MGA supplementation (CON; n = 16 groups, 997 cows). Estrus expression was evaluated by painting the tailhead of each cow on d −2, and evaluating the presence of tailhead paint at AI. Body condition score (BCS; 1 to 9 scale) was recorded at AI, and cows were classified as adequate (≥ 4.5) or inadequate (< 4.5) BCS. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 80 were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in M5to18 and M13to18 compared with CON cows (62.9, 62.9, and 55.3% on d 30, 58.1, 59.2, and 50.5% on d 80, respectively; SEM = 3.1), and similar (P ≥ 0.79) between M5to18 and M13to18 cows. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 80 were similar (P ≥ 0.17) between cows assigned to eCG and TCW (58.1 and 62.6% on d 30, 54.3 and 57.6% on d 80, respectively; SEM = 2.7). The MGA supplementation × gonadotropic stimulus interaction was not significant (P ≥ 0.41) whereas no interactions of main treatment effects with cow BCS and estrus expression were detected (P ≥ 0.21) for pregnancy outcomes. Hence, supplementing B indicus beef cows with MGA post-AI increased pregnancy rates compared with non-supplemented cows, and this outcome was independent of period and length of MGA supplementation, gonadotropic stimulus, cow BCS status, and estrus expression during the synchronization protocol.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.012
       
  • Genetic parameter estimates for temperament, heifer rebreeding, and
           stayability in Nellore cattle
    • Authors: T.S. Valente; O.D. Albito A.C. Carvalheiro Baldi L.G. Albuquerque M.J.R.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): T.S. Valente, O.D. Albito, A.C. Sant’Anna, R. Carvalheiro, F. Baldi, L.G. Albuquerque, M.J.R. Paranhos da Costa
      The aim of this study was to estimate heritability for five temperament and two reproductive traits in Nellore cattle and to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among them. Temperament was evaluated using the movement (MOV), tension (TEN) and crush (CS) scores (measured with animals inside the squeeze chute) as well as the flight speed (FS) and temperament score (TS). Reproductive traits included i) heifer rebreeding (HR), which evaluates heifers’ ability to become pregnant, given that they had calved once; and ii) stayability (STAY), which measures cows’ ability to calve at least 3 offspring before reaching 65 months of age. We used Bayesian inference and Gibbs sampling in a two-trait analysis to estimate genetic parameters applying a linear model for FS and threshold models for MOV, TEN, CS, TS, HR and STAY. The animal model included contemporary group as a fixed effect, direct additive genetic and residual effects as random effects, and animal age at yearling as a covariate (with linear and quadratic effects). Heritability estimates for MOV, TEN, CS, FS, TS, HR and STAY were 0.14 ± 0.04, 0.11 ± 0.03, 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.22 ± 0.02, 0.19 ± 0.04, 0.13 ± 0.02 and 0.13 ± 0.02, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates were low to moderate and the highest values (in magnitude) were −0.19 ± 0.21 (HR-CS), −0.21 ± 0.15 (STAY-TEN) and −0.24 ± 0.16 (STAY-CS), indicating that the selection to improve cattle temperament does not negatively affect HR and STAY. These results indicate that all traits had sufficient genetic variability to respond to direct selection; however, given the low estimated heritability, we expect to see only long-term genetic changes. Genetic correlations showed that there is no antagonism of temperament with fertility and longevity; however, we recommend including these traits as selection criteria in Nellore breeding programs to obtain satisfactory genetic changes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Effects of feeding sugar beets, ensiled with or without an additive, on
           the performance of dairy cows
    • Authors: Anne Louise; Frydendahl Hellwing Ulrike Messerschmidt Mogens Larsen Martin Riis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Ulrike Messerschmidt, Mogens Larsen, Martin Riis Weisbjerg
      The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional composition and quality of beet silages ensiled without (SBS–) and with silage additive (SBS+) and the effect on nutrient intake, milk yield, and milk composition when maize silage was replaced with SBS+ or SBS–. SBS– ferment heavily, and the main fermentation products are ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid. Adding a silage additive restricts fermentation and preserves most of the sugar in SBS+. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a multiple 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of two weeks adaptation and one week of measurements. The cows were fed either a control diet (DCON) or diets where two-third of the maize silage was replaced with SBS+ (DSBS+) or SBS– (DSBS–) on a dry matter (DM) basis, in a partial mixed ration (PMR). The cows had access to one milking robot, and were offered up to 3.0kg/day of concentrate in the milking robot. The concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and sucrose in SBS– were 90.7, 64.9, 29.9, and 1.4g/kg DM, corrected for evaporation losses, respectively. The concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and sucrose in SBS+ were 4.4, 2.5, 4.4, and 105g/kg DM, respectively. The intake of PMR did not differ between the three treatments. The intake of concentrate in the milking robot was lower for DSBS– and DSBS+ compared to DCON, due to fewer visits to the robot. Milk yield was lower but more concentrated for the two treatments with beet silages compared to DCON. The yield of energy corrected milk was 36.9kg and 36.3kg in DCON and DSBS–, respectively, which was higher than the 34.9kg in DSBS+. It is concluded that the milk production value of SBS– is comparable to maize silage, whereas SBS+ seemed to be lower. However, this may be partly due to fewer visits to the milking robot and thus less concentrate intake in DSBS+. The results show that sugar beets ensiled wet, without silage additive, is a promising feed for lactating cows.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • The use of near infrared spectroscopy to predict faecal indigestible and
           digestible fibre fractions in lactating dairy cattle
    • Authors: Federico Righi; Marica Simoni Giulio Visentin Carmen Manuelian Sarah Afro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Federico Righi, Marica Simoni, Giulio Visentin, Carmen L. Manuelian, Sarah Currò, Afro Quarantelli, Massimo De Marchi
      The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of faecal near infrared spectroscopy (FNIRS) to predict undigested neutral detergent fibre at 240h of fermentation (uNDF240) and other fibre fractions in lactating dairy cattle faeces. A total of 130 faecal samples (600g) were collected directly from the rectum of dairy cows randomly selected across the lactating groups of 6 herds located in northern Italy and fed grass/alfalfa hay forage based total mixed ration. Reference values were matched with FNIRS spectra. Prediction equations were developed for each trait using external validation. Our results showed that the calculated uNDF240 (DM basis) to ADL ratio in faeces averaged 2.84, ranging from 1.58 to 4.10. The similar ratio of acid detergent fibre (ADF) and uNDF240 to NDF (66–67%) indicated that potentially digestible NDF in faeces is mainly represented by hemicelluloses, whereas uNDF240 is mainly composed of lignin and cellulose. The coefficient of determination of external validation (R2 V) of uNDF240 was 0.59 when expressed as percentage of DM and 0.36 when expressed as percentage of NDF, and the corresponding ratio performance deviation of external validation (RPD) values in validation were 1.52 and 1.26, respectively. Values of R2 V ranged from 0.54 to 0.63 for fibre fractions and RPD in validation ranged from 1.45 (ADL, %DM) to 1.68 (ADF, %DM). Despite the low accuracy of the prediction models, this study contributes to the knowledge of the FNIRS application to uNDF240 and other fibre fractions in faeces. Further investigations with different diet composition should be addressed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Environmental impact of milk production across an intensification gradient
           in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Daniel Woldegebriel; Henk Udo Theo Viets Eugenie van der Harst
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Daniel Woldegebriel, Henk Udo, Theo Viets, Eugenie van der Harst, José Potting
      This paper quantifies environmental performances of milk production systems differing in degree of intensification in the Mekelle milkshed area, Ethiopia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to estimate Land Use (LU), Fossil Energy Use (FEU) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the cattle sub-system in 8 large-scale, 8 (peri-)urban and 8 rural farms. The large-scale farms owned considerably more and other types of cattle (35.0 cattle units (cu); mainly Friesians) than the (peri-)urban (6.3 cu; mainly crossbreds) and rural farms (4.1 cu; mainly local breeds). The milk production per average cow per year was much lower in rural farms (730kg) than in large-scale (2377kg) and (peri-)urban farms (1829kg). Milk was the main contributor to the economic benefits of the large-scale (90%) and (peri-)urban (80%) farms, whereas milk (sold and consumed at home) contributed only about 40% to the economic benefits in the multifunctional rural farms. The environmental impacts per cu, reflecting the absolute impacts of cattle keeping, were considerably higher in the large-scale and (peri-)urban farms than in the rural farms. LU and FEU were for the great majority caused by the land use for hay, straws and grasses, and harvesting, transport and processing of feeds, in particular wheat bran. On-farm emissions from enteric fermentation and manure storage were the main contributors to GWP. The impacts per kg milk did not differ significantly between the three systems. The LU per kg milk estimates (9.4, 11.2 and 8.8m2 in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively high compared to LCA studies of milk production in developed countries due to large amounts of low-quality forages and wheat bran fed, whereas the FEU values per kg milk (7.5, 11.1 and 6.6 MJ in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively low compared to studies of milk production systems in developed countries. The GWP estimates per kg milk (1.75, 2.25 and 2.22kg CO2-equivalents per kg milk in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were slightly higher than GWP values for the same types of farms in other developing countries, due to the relatively large amounts of low quality feeds fed. The quality of cattle management practices seems more important than the choice for a specific cattle keeping system in reducing environmental impacts of milk production.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Evaluation of methodologies for equine biometry
    • Authors: Rodrigues dos; Santos Guilherme Freiberger Fernanda Bottin Maisa Chiocca Aline
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Moisés Rodrigues dos Santos, Guilherme Freiberger, Fernanda Bottin, Maisa Chiocca, Aline Zampar, Diego de Córdova Cucco
      Equines have some peculiarities of zootechnical interests that differ from other species, mainly due to their motor capacity to perform work or sporting functions. For that reason, body dimensions and proportions are extremely important in horse selection and breeding, and morphological characteristics such as length, height, width and angular measurements may influence the quality of movement and physical structure of the animal. In this way, this work aimed to evaluate the biometric data of equines, obtained by the traditional method of body measurement and photogrammetry technique using ImageJ® software. In addition, the methods were correlated and the limitations and advantages of each one were shown. The effect of evaluators for both methods was verified to demonstrate the efficiency of the procedures. Three trained evaluators took body measurements, each performing four replications per horse. A total of 10,944 biometric measurements were taken on twenty-four adult horses. The data was collected from 19 biometric measurements, and photographic images were captured with the purpose of performing measurements in these same anatomical points through the software. The results of this work demonstrated that there is a very high correlation between biometric measurements and photogrammetry for four metric measurements with values between 0.90 and 0.95 and for six measures of high correlation (0.73 to 0.86). Angular measurements showed the largest differences, with correlations ranging from negligible to high (0.29 to 0.81). It was concluded that the ImageJ® software is an alternative that can be used to obtain equine morphological data, due to the easy execution of data collection, as well as the fact that the software is free. Thus, this strategy can be used mainly by breeders who seek to form a database with zoometric information that is essential for equine genetic improvement.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not work synergistically with exogenous
           enzymes to enhance feed utilization, ruminal fermentation and lactational
           performance of Nubian goats
    • Authors: A.E. Kholif; M.M. Abdo U.Y. Anele M.M. El-Sayed T.A. Morsy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.E. Kholif, M.M. Abdo, U.Y. Anele, M.M. El-Sayed, T.A. Morsy
      The present study assessed the effect of in-feed doses of an exogenous enzyme preparation and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production performance, nutrient utilization, ruminal and blood serum measurements in goats. Sixteen lactating Nubian does (35.1 ± 0.8kg) were utilized in a quadruplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design over a period of 88 days. Enzymes and/or yeast were included in a basal diet (control treatment) at doses of 4g exogenous enzyme (EZ treatment), 4g yeast (SC treatment), or 8g of their mixture at 1:1 w/w (EZSC treatment). The EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.01) feed intake, milk yield, energy corrected milk, milk component yields, and feed efficiency. In addition, the EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.01) concentrations of milk total solids, solids excluding fat, fat, and lactose compared with the control treatment. Greater (P<0.05) nutrient digestibility and diet's total digestible nutrients, digestible crude protein, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy for lactation were observed with feeding EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments. In addition, greater (P<0.001) ruminal pH, and concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids were observed with feeding EZ, SC, and EZSC diets. The SC and EZSC treatments decreased (P<0.05) ruminal ammonia-N compared with EZ and control treatments. The EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.001) concentrations of blood total proteins, albumin, globulin, and glucose. As a result, it is concluded that in-feed dose of exogenous enzymes or yeast at 4g/doe/d will enhance feed intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk yield and composition in lactating Nubian does. Mixing the exogenous enzyme with the yeast did not show any synergistic effect.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Genetic basis of Lipomatous Myopathy in Piedmontese beef cattle
    • Authors: Peletto M.G.; Strillacci M.T. Capucchio Biasibetti Modesto P.L. Acutis Bagnato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Peletto, M.G. Strillacci, M.T. Capucchio, E. Biasibetti, P. Modesto, P.L. Acutis, A. Bagnato
      In Piedmontese cattle breed, the sporadic detection of Lipomatous Myopathy (LM) has been reported. The phenotypic disease expression consists in degeneration and infiltration of the muscular tissue characterized by replacement of myofibers with adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of genetic loci associated with lipomatous myopathy in Piedmontese cattle breed through a genome wide association study based on a DNA pooling design. The samples used for the study were collected from a meat cutting plant, pairing cases and controls within farms. Samples of different muscles (diaphragm, superficial and deep pectoral, intercostal, sternocleidomastoid group and vastus lateralis) were histopathologically and enzymatically classified as cases and controls. DNA pools of cases and controls were constructed. Equal amounts of DNA were pooled from individuals for the constitution of 4 pools (2 independent biological replicates for cases and 2 for controls). Technical duplicates were also built and all pools genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip three time each, for a total of 24 chip array positions. SNPs positions were based on the UMB 3.1 bovine assembly. The B-allele frequencies (BAF) for each array replicate were used in a specific pipeline in R software to perform multiple marker tests after excluding the 5% of SNPs showing the highest BAF variability from the replicate arrays within tail, as well as the monomorphic SNPs. A total of 41 QTLRs were identified on the 29 bovine autosomes, and 4 on the X chromosome. A subset of the identified markers fall inside or nearby genes involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis and cell to cell adhesions. The biological role of these genes in the onset of lipomatous myopathy has been identified looking at the known functions of the encoded proteins on the GeneCards database. Gene networks have been identified using STRING.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Methane emissions from non-lactating pregnant dairy cows while grazing
    • Authors: Conrad Ferris; Haopeng Jiao Stephen Murray Alan Gordon Alistair Carson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Conrad P. Ferris, Haopeng Jiao, Stephen Murray, Alan W. Gordon, Alistair F. Carson
      There is little information on methane (CH4) emissions from non-lactating pregnant dairy cattle when grazing. To address this issue, enteric CH4 emissions were estimated from a total of 68 non-lactating pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle during three successive years (23, 22 and 23 cows in year 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Cows used in these studies ranged from 19 – 69 days prior to their actual calving date when measurements commenced. Methane emissions were measured using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technique over six consecutive 24-hour periods, with measurements commencing 28 August, 16 September and 15 September during years 1 – 3, respectively. Cows were given access to fresh grazing on the first and fourth day of the measurement period, but were not offered a concentrate supplement. Across the three years of the experiment mean CH4 emissions were 216g/cow/day and 25.2g/kg dry matter intake. Emission increased with increasing lactation number, from 200 (1st lactation) to 228 (>2nd lactation) g/day. Relationships between individual cow body weight and methane emissions (R2 = 0.17) and estimates of intakes for individual cows and CH4 emissions (R2 = 0.21) were poor.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Effects of dry whey powder alone or combined with calcium butyrate on
           productive performance, duodenal morphometry, nutrient digestibility, and
           ceca bacteria counts of broiler chickens
    • Authors: C. Pineda-Quiroga; R. Atxaerandio; R. Ruiz; A. García-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Pineda-Quiroga, R. Atxaerandio, R. Ruiz, A. García-Rodríguez
      Prebiotics and organic acids have been proposed as safe additives in poultry feeding to promote performance and health. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of supplementing corn-soybean diets of broiler chickens with dry whey powder (WP), fat-coated calcium butyrate (CaB), and a mixture of both on apparent ileal digestibility (AID), pH of gastrointestinal content at various segments, productive performance, duodenal histomorphometry, and ceca microbial counts. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 WP inclusion rates (0 and 60g/kg of diet) and 2 CaB rates (0 and 1g/kg of diet). One-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to floor pens and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. In Trial 1, 120 broiler chickens were allocated to 4 treatments with 3 pens per treatment and 10 broiler chickens per pen during 21 d. With the addition of WP, the AID of dry matter, crude protein, Ca, and P increased, and cecum pH decreased only when CaB was also added (CaB × WP, P < 0.046). In Trial 2, 1,200 broiler chickens were allocated to the 4 treatments with 10 pens per treatment and 30 broiler chickens per pen during 42 d. With the dietary supplementation of WP, average daily gain and feed intake of broiler chickens increased during starter, grower-finisher periods, and the entire feeding period only when CaB was also added (P < 0.047). However, with addition of WP, feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased in broiler chickens fed the diet without CaB, but it increased in those fed with CaB during the grower-finisher and entire feeding periods (P < 0.001). Duodenal histomorphometry measurements were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin stains, and cecal microbial counts were determined by selective culture media. With the addition of WP, villus height, villus height to crypt depth ratio, and villus surface area were increased only when CaB was also added (CaB × WP, P < 0.017), while the supplementation of WP increased Bifidobacterium spp. counts only when CaB was not added (CaB × WP, P = 0.049). Results obtained in the present study indicate that the supplementation of WP without CaB addition improved the FCR of broiler chickens. However, the supplementation of WP together with CaB improve duodenal development, increases nutrient AID, and the weight and ingestion of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.001
       
  • Dietary supplementation with Lonicera macranthoides leaf powder enhances
           growth performance and muscle growth of Chinese Tibetan pigs
    • Authors: Z.Y. Wang; Y.H. Duan; F.N. Li; B.C. Yang; J.X. Zhang; S.Z. Hou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Z.Y. Wang, Y.H. Duan, F.N. Li, B.C. Yang, J.X. Zhang, S.Z. Hou
      This study was conducted to explore the effects of dietary supplementation with Lonicera macranthoides leaf (LML) on growth performance and muscle growth of Chinese Tibetan pigs. L. macranthoides leaves were harvested, air-dried, and milled to powder. Ninety-six pigs with an average initial body weight of 5.03 ± 0.24kg were randomly assigned into four groups (24 pigs per group) in a completely randomized design according to the body weight. Pigs were fed either a basal diet with no supplement (control), or a diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% of LML powder. Results showed that dietary supplementation with 1.5% powder increased ADG and lean percentage, improved the gain:feed ratio, and lowered the incidence of diarrhea in Tibetan pigs (P < 0.05), compared with the control group. Moreover, dietary supplementation with 1.0% and 1.5% powder increased the concentration of several free amino acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle and the mRNA expression of selected AA transporters, significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes related to muscle growth (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested that the dietary level of LML powder within the range of 1.0%~1.5% would facilitate the absorption and utilization of free AA, thus improving muscle growth and growth performance of Chinese Tibetan pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.026
       
  • Validating porcine SCD haplotype effects on fatty acid desaturation and
           fat deposition in different genetic backgrounds
    • Authors: Ana I. Fernández; Cristina Óvilo; Carmen Barragán; M. Carmen Rodríguez; Luis Silió; Josep Maria Folch; Almudena Fernández
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ana I. Fernández, Cristina Óvilo, Carmen Barragán, M. Carmen Rodríguez, Luis Silió, Josep Maria Folch, Almudena Fernández
      Fatty acid composition and fat desaturation have profound effects on meat quality. One of the major enzymes participating in fatty acid metabolism is the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), which is the key enzyme involved in the fatty acid desaturation, in particular in the synthesis of C18:1 from C18:0 and C16:1 from C16:0. Previous studies have reported a likely causal SCD haplotype (g.2108C>T, g.2228T>C, g.2281A>G) determining desaturation potential in Duroc-based populations. In the current study we have evaluated the effects of SCD polymorphisms on fatty acid desaturation and SCD gene expression in muscle and subcutaneous fat in three experimental backcrosses and validated these effects in a Chinese-European hybrid pigs. In addition, we have evaluated the joint effects of SCD polymorphisms and major mutations (LEPR c.1987C>T, RYR1c.1843C>T, MC4Rc.1426A>G) previously reported to be involved in porcine fat deposition and fatty acids metabolism, in order to clarify SCD polymorphisms’ actual effects. The obtained results from association and gene expression analyses support the SCD haplotype effects on fatty acid desaturation, and moreover on fat atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It also reveals potential effects on intramuscular fat content, not previously reported, likely conditional on breed fatness status. Moreover, a new polymorphism, g.2520G>A, that could impact splicing and SCD translation and which appears in complete linkage disequilibrium with the causal SCD haplotype, has been here identified. In addition, the conducted joint analyses of SCD with LEPR, RYR1 and MC4R genetic variants show complex gene relations that could hamper the discrimination of specific gene effects and the success of selection strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:05:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.021
       
  • Genomic differentiation as a tool for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
           prioritization for Genome wide association and phenotype prediction in
           livestock
    • Authors: Sajjad Toghiani; Ling-Yun Chang; Ashley Ling; Sammy E. Aggrey; Romdhane Rekaya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sajjad Toghiani, Ling-Yun Chang, Ashley Ling, Sammy E. Aggrey, Romdhane Rekaya
      Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in detecting associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypic variation and in identifying several causative mutations. However, SNPs with significant association identified using GWAS tend to explain only small fraction of the phenotypic variations. GWAS are affected by lack of power due to small sample size, large numbers of highly correlated markers, and the moderate to small effects of most quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This situation is further complicated by the continuous increase in marker density, especially with the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The latter generates an unprecedented number of marker variants, with a complex linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure limiting the advantage and adequacy of existing methods that internally try to prioritize (filter) SNPs (e.g. BayesB, and BayesR). Consequently, it is becoming necessary to either filter SNPs before conducting the association analysis or to enlist additional sources of information. Methods that include biological prior information (e.g. BayesRC) are limited by the amount and quality of available prior information. Knowledge of genetic diversity based on evolutionary forces is beneficial for tracking loci influenced by selection. The fixation index (FST), as a measure of allele frequency variation among sub-populations, provides a tool to reveal genomic regions under selection pressure. In order to evaluate its usefulness as an additional source of information, a simulation was carried out. A trait with heritability of 0.4 was simulated and three subpopulations were created based on the empirical phenotypic distribution (< 5% quantile; > 95% quantile; and between 5 and 95% quantiles). Marker data was simulated to mimic a bovine chip of 600K, 1 million, and 3 million SNP marker panels. Genetic complexity of the trait was modelled by the number of QTLs, their distribution, and the magnitude of their effects. Using different empirical cut off values for FST, most QTLs were correctly detected using as few as 2.5% of SNP markers in the panels. Furthermore, the genomic similarity, calculated based on the selected SNPs, was very high (>0.80) for individuals with similar genetic and phenotypic values despite having limited to no pedigree relationship. These results indicate that filtering SNPs using FST could be beneficial for use in GWAS by focusing on genome regions under selection pressure. High functional genomic similarity based on selected markers indicates similarity in SNP signatures, regardless of relatedness, and translates into high phenotypic correlation that could be used in decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.007
       
  • Genetic analysis for farrowing rate and litter size for Landrace and
           Yorkshire sows in South China
    • Authors: Xiujin Li; Shuihua Xie; Xiaohong Liu; Yaosheng Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Xiujin Li, Shuihua Xie, Xiaohong Liu, Yaosheng Chen
      Farrowing rate (FR) and litter size (LS) are economically important traits that directly affect the number of weaned piglets per sow per year. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and calculate genetic trends for FR and LS at birth in herds of Landrace and Yorkshire sows in South China. We analyzed 16,451 Landrace sows with 58,091 observations and 33,953 Yorkshire sows with 101,486 observations for FR, and we analyzed 15,079 Landrace sows with 47,831 litters and 31,470 Yorkshire sows with 83,974 litters for LS traits. We used a single-trait threshold model to analyze FR. A joint multi-trait linear-threshold model was used to analyze three LS traits simultaneously: total number of piglets born (NBT), number of piglets born alive (NBA), and number of piglets born dead (NBD). Estimated heritability values for FR were 0.112±0.012 in Landrace and 0.120±0.010 in Yorkshire sows. For the three LS traits, the highest heritability was estimated for NBT, followed by NBA and NBD in both breeds, with values ranging from 0.044±0.004 to 0.109±0.008 in Landrace and from 0.039±0.004 to 0.108±0.007 in Yorkshire. Estimated correlations between NBT and NBA ranged from 0.861±0.018 to 0.949±0.010 in Landrace and from 0.895±0.009 to 0.933±0.009 in Yorkshire for random additive genetic effects, random permanent effects, and random service sire effects. Estimates of correlations between NBT and NBD ranged from −0.010±0.092 to 0.353±0.058 in Landrace and from 0.253±0.065 to 0.516±0.044 in Yorkshire. Estimates of correlations between NBA and NBD were not significantly different from 0 in either population, except for additive genetic effects in Yorkshire sows (0.267±0.059). Among the genetic trends, NBT and NBA showed persistent improvements in both breeds, whereas NBD shows no apparent improvement in either population. Genetic trends for FR showed slight declines over time in both populations. The estimated genetic parameters suggest the possibility of improving these reproductive traits by selection. Our results confirm that the selection criterion for LS should be NBA rather than NBT. Despite its low effect, the effect of service sire should be included as a random effect in the statistical model. Finally, due to the genetic downtrend for FR, this trait should be included in future pig breeding goals in South China.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.008
       
  • Relationship between residual feed intake and carcass composition, meat
           quality and size of small intestine in a population of F2 chickens
    • Authors: Hakimeh Emamgholi Begli; Rasoul Vaez Torshizi; Ali Akbar Masoudi; Alireza Ehsani; Just Jensen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Hakimeh Emamgholi Begli, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi, Ali Akbar Masoudi, Alireza Ehsani, Just Jensen
      Feed represent about 70% of the total costs in poultry production. These costs can be reduced by improving feed efficiency through genetic selection. Selection for improving feed efficiency may have correlated effects on other economically important traits such as carcass composition and meat quality. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the breeding values of cumulative residual feed intake (RFI) and carcass weight, carcass compositions, meat quality, and size of small intestines in chicken. The population studied was an F2 derived from a cross between an Arian fast-growing broiler line and Iranian native fowl. Individual feed intake and body weight measured every week from 2 to 12 weeks and carcass and meat quality traits were assessed after slaughtering at 12 weeks of age. Breeding values for cumulative RFI (RFIBV) were calculated using a quadratic spline with four knots and heterogeneous residual variance. Traits were analyzed using analysis of covariance with a model including RFIBV and sex. No significant relationship was observed between RFIBV with live body weight and eviscerated carcass weight (P > 0.05). RFIBV had negative association with breast muscle percentage, gizzard percentage and Ultimate pH of breast meat (P < 0.05). A positive relationship existed between RFIBV and abdominal fat percentage, skin percentage, lightness and yellowness of breast muscle color. No significant relationship was detected between RFIBV and back and neck, wing, liver, lung, spleen bursa and heart percentages. Also a non-significant association was observed between RFIBV and cooking loss percentage, shear force, drip loss percentage and small intestinal morphometric measurements. In general, the results suggest that selection on RFI will improve the feed efficiency of chickens without impairing carcass compositions and meat quality characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T22:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.001
       
 
 
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