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Journal Cover Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 81]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Effects of pyrimidine nucleosides on growth performance, gut morphology,
           digestive enzymes, serum biochemical indices and immune response in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: A. Daneshmand; H. Kermanshahi; M. Danesh Mesgaran; A.J. King; S.A. Ibrahim
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): A. Daneshmand, H. Kermanshahi, M. Danesh Mesgaran, A.J. King, S.A. Ibrahim
      The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of pyrimidine nucleosides on growth, intestinal morphology, digestive enzymes and humoral immunity in broilers from 0 to 21 days of age. A total number of 360 day old chicks (Cobb 500) was randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replications. Treatments were comprised of a corn-soybean meal based control diet and diets containing 0.1% pure cytidine, 0.1% pure uridine and 0.1% equal amounts of pure cytidine (0.05%) and uridine (0.05%). On days 11 and 21, two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were euthanized to obtain samples of serum, intestine, bursa and spleen. The combination of cytidine plus uridine increased (P < 0.05) body weight and average daily gain of broilers. Supplementing cytidine plus uridine increased (P < 0.05) villus height and width along with activities of alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase; however, maltase was not affected by the experimental diets. The combination of cytidine and uridine increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and IgA activity in the jejunum, but there was no significant difference among treatments regarding the relative weight of the spleen. In conclusion, the study clearly indicated that the combination of cytidine and uridine could improve health status and performance of broilers.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Effects of soybean oil inclusion in the pre-lambing diet on udder size,
           colostrum secretion, and offspring thermoregulation and growth in
           hair-breed ewes
    • Authors: U. Macías-Cruz; A. Mejía-Vázquez; R. Vicente-Pérez; A. Correa-Calderón; P.H. Robinson; M. Mellado; C.A. Meza-Herrera; J.E. Guerra-Liera; L. Avendaño-Reyes
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): U. Macías-Cruz, A. Mejía-Vázquez, R. Vicente-Pérez, A. Correa-Calderón, P.H. Robinson, M. Mellado, C.A. Meza-Herrera, J.E. Guerra-Liera, L. Avendaño-Reyes
      Dietary inclusion of vegetable oils in pregnant females is beneficial to improve offspring development and growth during its pre- and post-natal life because these oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Excessive oil intake can result in contrary effects. To evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion level of soybean oil (SBO) during the last third of gestation on udder size, production and composition of colostrum, newborn thermoregulation, and lamb growth during the pre-weaning period, 30 Katahdin x Pelibuey multiparous ewes (Body weight [BW]= 50.8±0.38kg, body condition score [BCS]= 3.02±0.04 units) were assigned under a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments, which consisted in isoenergetic and isoprotein diets containing 0, 30 or 60g of SBO/kg DM. Diets were offered from d 100 of pregnancy to lambing. All measurements were collected around lambing and first 60 d post-lambing. There was no treatment x time interaction for BW, BCS, production and chemical composition of colostrum, and offspring thermoregulation. Maternal BW and BCS as well as chemical composition were not affected by SBO. Weight and volume of colostrum linearly increased (P = 0.01) as the dietary level of SBO increased from 0 to 60g/kg DM. Rectal temperature in newborn lambs was not affected by SBO, but eye and muzzle temperatures, as well as coat temperatures from ear, muzzle, loin, right flank, belly, rump, shoulder and leg linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing the SBO level in the pre-lambing diet. Treatment x time interaction affected (P ≤ 0.05) udder traits, being higher udder volume and circumference in ewes fed 60g of SBO/kg DM than in control during the pre-lambing period. At birth, morphometric measures in lambs were unaffected by the treatment x sex interaction or main factors, while male lambs from ewes fed 60g of SBO were the heaviest (P < 0.01) compared to any of the other treatments. Pre-weaning daily weight gain and weight at weaning showed a quadratic effect (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing levels of SBO. In general, results suggest that dietary inclusion of 60g of SBO/kg DM during the last third of pregnancy in hair ewes could be an optimal dose to simultaneously increase colostrum production, udder size pre-lambing, newborn thermoregulation and pre-weaning growth of their lambs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Effects of tannins on the fatty acid profiles of rumen fluids and milk
           from lactating goats fed a total mixed ration containing rapeseed oil
    • Authors: F.M. Abo-Donia; L.Y. Yang; A.N. Hristov; M. Wang; S.X. Tang; C.S. Zhou; X.F. Han; J.H. Kang; Z.L. Tan; Z.X. He
      Pages: 16 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): F.M. Abo-Donia, L.Y. Yang, A.N. Hristov, M. Wang, S.X. Tang, C.S. Zhou, X.F. Han, J.H. Kang, Z.L. Tan, Z.X. He
      The 4 experimental diets, all containing rapeseed oil, consisted of one control and 3 other diets supplemented with 3 different levels of commercial oenological extracts tannins (i.e. 3, 6 and 9g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively). The effect of the added tannins on the fatty acid profiles of ruminal fluid was tested in vitro, and 20 multiparous Liuyang black nannies [average body weight (BW): 26.3 ± 0.5kg] at week 6 of lactation were used in an in vivo experiment. For the in vitro experiment, the inclusion of dietary tannins did not (P > 0.05) affect fatty acid contents in the culture fluid in vitro, except the percentage of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) tended to increase (quadratically, P = 0.075) with increasing tannins level. Increasing incubation time decreased the percentage of total cis C17:1 (P = 0.001), cis-11 C18:1 (P < 0.0001), cis-12 C18:1 (P < 0.0001), trans-11 C18:1 (P = 0.016), total cis C18:1 (P < 0.0001) and C18:1 (P < 0.0001), cis-9, cis-12 C18:2n-6 linoleic acid (LA) (P < 0.0001) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P = 0.001). In the in vivo experiment, concentration of C16:1 in goat milk linearly increased (P = 0.032) and that of cis-11 C18:1 tended (quadratic effect, P = 0.072) to increase with increasing levels of tannins. Tannin inclusion did not affect (P > 0.05) the content of protein, lactose, ash, solid not fat and total solids in the goat milk, but higher levels of tannins reduced milk fat content (P = 0.005), compared with the control diet. Compared with the control, tannins inclusion decreased concentrations of cis-11 C20:1 (P = 0.022) and total n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P = 0.017) in milk at the 3g/kg DM inclusion rate, decreased C11:0 (P = 0.012) and C13:0 (P = 0.029) at 6g/kg DM, but increased cis-9 C18:1 (P = 0.043) and C22:6n-3 docosahexenoic acid (DHA) (P = 0.013) at the 9g/kg DM inclusion rate. Concentrations of cis-14 C18:1, cis-9, cis-12 C18:2n-6 LA, total cis MUFA, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA in milk linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary tannins. These data indicate that dietary inclusion of rapeseed oil in combination with tannins would be an effective tool for increasing the unsaturated fatty acids content in goat milk.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Effects of vitamin supplementation on growth performance and carcass
           characteristics in pigs
    • Authors: J.H. Cho; N. Lu; M.D. Lindemann
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): J.H. Cho, N. Lu, M.D. Lindemann
      Three experiments involving a total of 405 crossbred pigs were performed to evaluate the effects of increasing vitamin supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics. A common vitamin premix (VP) that provided adequate amounts of vitamins (4 fat-soluble and 7 B vitamins), was added at varied levels in Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 1 used 125 weanling pigs with initial body weight (BW) of 7.5 ± 0.2kg. Dietary treatments were basal diet with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.25%, and 0.50% added VP. The experimental diets were fed for 28 d in a single phase. The results demonstrated that average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) linearly increased (P < 0.005) with increasing VP levels during d 14–21, d 21–28, and the overall 28-d period. Experiment 2 used 100 crossbred pigs with initial BW of 49.4 ± 1.0kg. Dietary treatments were basal diet with 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% added VP. The experimental diets were fed for 67 d in a single phase. The results showed that the increasing VP levels did not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics of grower to finisher pigs. Experiment 3 was designed to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary supplementation of 5 B vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folacin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B12) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of nursery-finisher pigs. A total of 180 weanling pigs were provided a common diet without supplementation of the test B vitamins until they reached an average BW of 10kg. Then, 155 pigs were selected for allotment. The experimental diets were fed in 3 phases corresponding to 10–20kg, 20–50kg, and 50–105kg of BW, respectively; the 5 B vitamins were provided to be equivalent to 70%, 170%, 270%, 470%, and 870% of the NRC (1988) requirement estimates on a bioavailable basis for each BW phase. The results demonstrated that overall ADG and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased quadratically (P < 0.05), while overall ADFI tended to increase linearly (P = 0.10) as dietary B vitamins increased. The loin depth, loin eye area, and lean gain improved with increasing B vitamin levels (quadratic, P < 0.05). In summary, increasing supplementation of VP beyond NRC (1988) requirement estimates improved ADG and ADFI of nursery pigs while supplementing a subset of 5 B vitamins improved growth performance and carcass characteristics of grower to finisher pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Rosemary and lemongrass herbs as phytogenic feed additives to improve
           efficient feed utilization, manipulate rumen fermentation and elevate milk
           production of Damascus goats
    • Authors: A.E. Kholif; O.H. Matloup; T.A. Morsy; M.M. Abdo; A.A. Abu Elella; U.Y. Anele; K.C. Swanson
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): A.E. Kholif, O.H. Matloup, T.A. Morsy, M.M. Abdo, A.A. Abu Elella, U.Y. Anele, K.C. Swanson
      This study was conducted to determine the effect of rosemary or lemongrass herbs at 10g daily on feed utilization, milk production, milk composition, and fatty acid profile in lactating Damascus goats. Fifteen goats were divided into 3 treatments (5 goats each) and fed a basal diet of berseem clover and concentrates (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; Control treatment) or the control diet supplemented with either 10g daily of rosemary (Rosemary treatment), or 10g daily of lemongrass (Lemongrass treatment) for 12 weeks. Inclusion of lemongrass and rosemary did not affect (P > 0.05) nutrient intake. However, inclusion of lemongrass or rosemary increased (P < 0.05) organic matter and fiber digestion. Ruminal pH was not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Feeding lemongrass or rosemary treatment increased (P < 0.05) ruminal concentration of short chain fatty acids, propionate, and serum glucose concentration and decreased serum cholesterol concentration. Feeding lemongrass or rosemary treatment increased (P < 0.05) milk production (actual and energy corrected milk), and milk fat and lactose concentration. Feeding rosemary or lemongrass containing diet increased (P < 0.05) total unsaturated fatty acids and total conjugated linoleic acid and decreased total saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of lemongrass and rosemary in the diet of lactating Damascus goats at 10g/goat daily enhanced nutrient digestibility and milk yield, with positive ruminal fermentation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Changes in cortisol and glucose concentrations in rabbits transported to
           the slaughterhouse
    • Authors: P.A. Accorsi; A. Biscotto; R. Viggiani; C. Prodan; D. Bucci; V. Beghelli; M. Mattioli; C.A. Petrulli; G. Postiglione; C. Milandri
      Pages: 47 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): P.A. Accorsi, A. Biscotto, R. Viggiani, C. Prodan, D. Bucci, V. Beghelli, M. Mattioli, C.A. Petrulli, G. Postiglione, C. Milandri
      The effect of transport on Cortisol and Glucose serum concentrations were assessed in rabbits during summer and winter. Animals were divided into high (HSA, 307cm2/rabbit), medium (MSA, 373cm2/rabbit) and low space allowance (LSA, 475cm2/rabbit) transport groups, and rabbits slaughtered directly in the farm were used as control group (C). During summer, cortisol and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in HSA (high space allowance), MSA and LSA than in C rabbits (P < 0.01). LSA cortisol concentrations were significantly lower than MSA and HSA samples and MSA rabbits’ glycaemia was significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared with HSA animals. During winter, cortisol concentrations in group C were significantly lower than in MSA and HSA groups. Glycaemia in group C was lower than in LSA (P < 0.01) and HSA (P < 0.02) groups. Cortisol and glucose levels in summer were significantly higher than in winter. Our data clearly show that some stress-related physiological parameters are significantly modified by transport, in particular in the case of overcrowded transport crates.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Immune response of mature cows subjected to annual booster vaccination
           against neonatal calf diarrhoea with two different commercial vaccines: A
           non-inferiority study
    • Authors: Luc Durel; Clancy Rose; Tracy Bainbridge; Julien Roubert; Klaus-Ulrich Dressel; Johanna Bennemann; Antje Rückner; Thomas Vahlenkamp; Renaud Maillard
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Luc Durel, Clancy Rose, Tracy Bainbridge, Julien Roubert, Klaus-Ulrich Dressel, Johanna Bennemann, Antje Rückner, Thomas Vahlenkamp, Renaud Maillard
      Neonatal calf diarrhoea can have important economic consequences. Scour vaccines are available against some of the most frequent pathogens responsible for this disease: Bovine Rotavirus (BoRV), Bovine Coronavirus (BoCV) and E. coli K99. In this multi-centre, randomised, blinded study, adult cows vaccinated with a trivalent vaccine marketed for years (Rotavec™ Corona, MSD Animal Health - RC) prior to last parturition were revaccinated 12–15 months later, prior to the upcoming parturition, with either a single injection of a recently marketed vaccine (Bovigen™ Scour, Virbac - BS), or RC. The aim of this trial was to verify whether BS is not inferior to RC for the stimulation of the immune response and the passive transfer to calves in these conditions. A total of 136 multiparous dairy cows, from 5 different herds and located in 3 countries (France, UK and Germany) were enrolled in the study. Sixty-five cows were vaccinated with BS and 71 with RC. Antibody levels, measured by competitive ELISA and represented as percentage of inhibition (PI), were assessed in the cow's serum (on the day of vaccination: D0 and on days 21, 42 and at calving), in the colostrum and in the serum of calves in the first week of life. Differences in means of PI between groups and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The non-inferiority threshold was set at −10%. The relationships between antibody levels in the colostrum and the vaccination-calving interval (VCI) or the inter-booster vaccination interval (IBVI) were also analysed. All the lower margins of the 95% CI of the difference in means of PI, in all samples and for the 3 pathogens assessed, were above −10%. This result shows that BS is not inferior to RC for the stimulation of the immune response against BoRV, BoCV and E. coli K99 and the passive transfer of immunity to calves when this vaccine is administered to their dams previously vaccinated with RC. Furthermore, no correlation was found between PI values in the colostrum and the VCI or IBVI. The ratio of animals with a PI ≥ 95% in the colostrum, among cows with similar intervals, was not significantly different between groups, for all antigens tested. Therefore, this study shows that a single injection of the heterologous vaccine BS can be used as a booster in cattle previously vaccinated with RC.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Comparative efficacy of zinc supplementation from different sources on
           nutrient digestibility, hemato-biochemistry and anti-oxidant activity in
           guinea pigs
    • Authors: Sandeep Uniyal; Anil Kumar Garg; Sunil Ekanath Jadhav; Vinod Kumar Chaturvedi; Ranjan Kumar Mohanta
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Sandeep Uniyal, Anil Kumar Garg, Sunil Ekanath Jadhav, Vinod Kumar Chaturvedi, Ranjan Kumar Mohanta
      Nanominerals are recently advocated for replacing their organic and inorganic counterparts. To examine their comparative efficacy, a study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc through different sources and forms on apparent digestibility of nutrients, body weight gain, blood hemato-biochemistry, anti-oxidant activity, and serum mineral status in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Groups (T1, control (inorganic zinc; ZnSO4); T2, organic Zn (Zn methionine), commercial zinc nanoparticle (T3), two zinc nanoparticles prepared in our laboratory (T4, T5), were formed with six guinea pigs in each group (289 ± 3.5g body weight) in a randomized block design. They were supplemented with 20mg Zn per kg feed on dry matter basis for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each animal through cardiac puncture and analyzed for hemato-biochemistry, oxidants/anti-oxidants, thyroid hormones and serum minerals. The results showed that intake and digestibility of nutrients were not affected by source of supplementation. Oxidants/anti-oxidants, thyroid hormones, hemato-biochemistry and serum minerals were also not affected by source of supplementation. However, the growth rate was higher (P = 0.031) in commercial nano-Zn supplemented groups (T3) than in the other groups. Thus, supplementation of 20ppm commercial Zn nanoparticles had a positive effect on growth rate of guinea pigs. But supplementation of Zn increased erythrocytic SOD activity and serum zinc level, irrespective of the source of Zn. As evidenced in our study spanning 90 days of trial, zinc nanoparticles can be safely supplemented up to 20ppm level in the diet of guinea pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Effect of rubber mats on sow behavior and litter performance during
    • Authors: Garth R. Ruff; Monique D. Pairis-Garcia; Magnus R. Campler; Steven J. Moeller; Anna K. Johnson
      Pages: 65 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Garth R. Ruff, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Magnus R. Campler, Steven J. Moeller, Anna K. Johnson
      The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of rubber lying mats on sow behavior, production and litter performance throughout lactation. In total, 213 multiparous, late gestation, group housed sows were enrolled in the study after being blocked by parity and classified as lame or non-lame. Sows were randomly allocated to treatments; a farrowing crate with a perforated rubber lying mat (R), or a farrowing crate with standard metal slatted flooring (C). Sow behavior, lesion scores, sow weight, and body condition measurements were obtained once weekly over the course of 4 weeks around the farrowing event (1 week prior until 3 weeks post farrowing day). Piglet weights were recorded during the weeks of farrowing and weaning. Wean to estrus intervals and piglet mortality data were obtained post-hoc via records from the farm's computer database PigKnows®. Sows housed on the R treatment spent an increased proportion of time spent standing (P = 0.02) and tended to spend a lower proportion of their time spent lying (P = 0.07). Sows that were housed on R treatment weaned piglets with lower body weights when compared sows housed on C treatment (P < 0.05). Sows on the R treatment had a higher number of crushed piglets when compared to C treatment sows (P < 0.05). Rubber mats did not affect the total number of body lesions, body condition scores, or body weights of the sows (P > 0.05). In conclusion, rubber mats did not affect behavior of lame or non-lame sows during lactation but impacted weaning weights and total piglet mortality due to crushing. Further research evaluating alternative flooring during the farrowing and lactation period is needed in order to improve sow comfort and longevity while protecting piglet health and viability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Effects of fat sources and dietary C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids ratio on
           growth performance, ruminal fermentation and some blood components of
           Holstein calves
    • Authors: Amir Kadkhoday; Ahmad Riasi; Masoud Alikhani; Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky; Rasoul Kowsar
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Amir Kadkhoday, Ahmad Riasi, Masoud Alikhani, Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky, Rasoul Kowsar
      The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of fat sources and various ratios of dietary C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids, through inclusion of palm fat powder and flaxseed oil, on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, health indices and some blood components of Holstein calves during the pre and postweaning periods. A total of 65 Holstein calves (30 males and 35 females) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 5 experimental groups: 1- starter diet with no fat supplement (CON, C18:2:C18:3 = 18:1), 2- starter diet with 2.2% palm fat powder (PF, C18:2:C18:3 = 18:1), 3- starter diet with 1.5% palm fat powder and 0.8% Ca-salts of flaxseed oil (PCF, C18:2:C18:3 = 4:1), 4- starter diet with 2.7% Ca-salts of flaxseed oil (CFO, C18:2:C18:3 = 1.5:1) and 5- starter diet with 2.2% flaxseed oil (FO, C18:2:C18:3 = 1.5:1). Results showed that palm fat powder had no effect on feed efficiency, but increased (P < 0.05) BCS and decreased (P = 0.01) blood urea nitrogen compared to the CON. Feeding CFO increased (P < 0.01) ADG during postweaning period and feed efficiency over the entire study. Calves in the CFO group had better fecal scores (P = 0.03) and general appearance scores (P < 0.05) compared to the CON. Calves fed starter diet with lower C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids ratio (CFO and FO groups) had greater hip height (P = 0.01) and serum alkaline phosphatse (P = 0.04) and fewer days with diarrhea (P = 0.03) than the CON group. Fat sources and different C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids ratio had no effect on ruminal fermentation parameters. In general, our results provide evidence that different fat sources had no adverse effect on feed intake and growth performance of calf. Moreover, decreasing C18:2:C18:3 fatty acids ratio in calves starter diets, using Ca-salts of flaxseed oil (2.7%) or flaxseed oil (2.2%) had beneficial effects on growth performance, health indices and some blood components in Holstein dairy calves.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • The effect of selection and sex on genetic parameters of body weight at
           different ages in a commercial broiler chicken population
    • Authors: W. Mebratie; M. Shirali; P. Madsen; R.L. Sapp; R. Hawken; J. Jensen
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): W. Mebratie, M. Shirali, P. Madsen, R.L. Sapp, R. Hawken, J. Jensen
      Data from 54 selection rounds (SRs) for growth rate in a selection line from Cobb breeding company was used for analysis with the objective to investigate the extent of sex by genotype interaction for body weight (BW) in a commercial broiler chicken population, estimate genetic parameters of BW at three different ages, and study the development in genetic variance for BW over several generations of selection. BW was measured at three different ages (t, t-4 and t-7 days) in different birds of both sexes. For the first 39 SRs, BW was recorded at t days, however, as selection continued the birds reached desired BW earlier and the weighing age was changed to t-4 days for 7 SRs and then to t-7 days for the last 8 SRs. A bivariate random regression model regarding BW in each sex as different traits using segmented linear splines and heterogeneous residual variance was used to estimate genetic parameters of BW across the selection trajectory via Gibbs sampling. The genetic variance and the heritability estimates of BW in males and females were found to be different at all three ages. The genetic correlation between BW measured in males and females was less than unity and decreased further as age at weighing was increased. This illustrated that BW in the two sexes should be considered as different but correlated traits and models for BW should account for a decreasing genetic correlation as the distance between the weighing ages increased. An increased genetic variance of BW along the selection trajectory in the first period was observed and genetic correlations between BW measured in different SRs gradually decreased as the distance between SRs increased. Genetic correlations lower than unity between BW at early and late SRs in the first period indicated that the genetic background of BW has gradually changed along the selection trajectory. This change probably contributes significantly to maintaining large levels of genetic variance in highly selected broiler populations.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Copy number veriation regions detection in Qinchuan cattle
    • Authors: Jieping Huang; Ran Li; Xin Zhang; Yongzhen Huang; Ruihua Dang; Xianyong Lan; Hong Chen; Chuzhao Lei
      Pages: 88 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Jieping Huang, Ran Li, Xin Zhang, Yongzhen Huang, Ruihua Dang, Xianyong Lan, Hong Chen, Chuzhao Lei
      Copy number variation (CNV) is a main and prevalent structural alterations underlying evolution of animal, which is considered to affect gene expression and complex traits. In this study, we analyzed genomic characteristics of CNV regions (CNVRs) in 254 Qinchuan cattle using GeneSeek HD 77k BeadChip. PennCNV algorithm was utilized for CNVs detection with strict quality criteria. A total of 255 CNVRs were identified based on 2076 CNVs detected, containing 215 loss events, 31 gain events, and 9 mix events. These regions were 184Mb in length corresponding to 7.3% of the bovine genome. Our function enrichment analysis showed that the CNVRs overlapping with protein coding genes were significantly enriched with multiple biological functions and pathways. These CNVRs were also related with many economic traits of beef cattle including meat and carcass (57 QTLs), reproduction (36 QTLs), and growth (12 QTLs). In conclusion, our results enriched the information of CNVR maps of Qinchuan cattle which will be helpful for breeding of this cattle breed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • The effect of farrowing duration on maternal behavior of hyperprolific
           sows in organic outdoor production
    • Authors: Cecilie Kobek Thorsen; Sarah-Lina Aagaard Schild; Lena Rangstrup-Christensen; Trine Bilde; Lene Juul Pedersen
      Pages: 92 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Cecilie Kobek Thorsen, Sarah-Lina Aagaard Schild, Lena Rangstrup-Christensen, Trine Bilde, Lene Juul Pedersen
      Prolonged farrowing duration has previously been related to hypoxia, stillbirth and poor sow health post partum (pp). A difficult farrowing may affect sow behavior through exhaustion, sickness or pain and thus constitute a risk for sub-optimal maternal behavior. The aim of the present work was to study if the duration of farrowing in an organic sow herd affected sow postural changes, carefulness of lying down and nursing behavior relevant for early piglet mortality. Thirty-eight sows and their piglets housed in individual paddocks with an A-frame hut were video recorded from the day of farrowing and the following 72h. The average farrowing duration till the last live born piglet was 7.5 ± 7h (2.1–28.9h). The only effect found of farrowing duration was a 22 ± 10min reduced latency to leave the hut after birth of the last live born piglet when the farrowing increased with one hour. Other results showed normal, passive sow behavior with increasing activity as days past post partum (pp). Despite a large range in farrowing durations, no considerable effects were found suggesting exhaustion affecting maternal behavior. The results suggest that these organic sows were resilient enough to get through even a difficult farrowing without being energy depleted.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • The influence of natural selection in breeding programs: A simulation
    • Authors: Silvia García-Ballesteros; Juan Pablo Gutiérrez; Luis Varona; Jesús Fernández
      Pages: 98 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Silvia García-Ballesteros, Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Luis Varona, Jesús Fernández
      Natural selection, acting directly on fitness or through stabilizing selection for other traits, has always been present in natural populations. In principle, this force will reduce the genetic variability, which is required for artificial selection programs. The genetic improvement of a trait with economic interest by selection programs depends on the amount of genetic diversity for that trait in a particular population. Most studies on the development of breeding programs account only for the genetic variation for the target trait itself. The objective in this work is determining, through computer simulations, the consequences for the evolution of selection programs, considering not only the variability for the trait of interest but also for fitness under different mutational models. Additionally, a scenario where the trait was subjected to stabilizing selection was also studied. Different parameters as effective population size, phenotypic mean, phenotypic variance and heterozygosity were used to monitor the performance in the different scenarios. In conclusion, considering the action of direct natural selection does not lead to lower levels of genetic variability for neutral traits, and thus it does not reduce the ability of populations to respond to artificial selection regardless of the mutational model used. On the other hand, stabilizing selection penalizes individuals with an extreme phenotype (which is the major objective in the artificial selection), reducing their fitness. Therefore, the artificial selection was ineffective in improving traits subjected to stabilizing selection.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Genetic parameters and correlations between days open and production
           traits across lactations in pasture based dairy production systems
    • Authors: Nicolás Frioni; Gabriel Rovere; Ignacio Aguilar; Jorge I. Urioste
      Pages: 104 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Nicolás Frioni, Gabriel Rovere, Ignacio Aguilar, Jorge I. Urioste
      The aim of this study was to estimate the additive genetic correlations, heritabilities and repeatabilities of days open (DO), milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein yields (PY), using data from pasture based dairy systems of Uruguay, and to explore whether DO should be interpreted as a different trait across lactations or as a trait with repeated measures. The database contained 500, 412 and 294 thousand records of first, second and third lactation, respectively. Cows were offspring of 7747 sires. Fertility records lower and upper limits were 42 and 250 days, respectively. In a first approach (Mdiff) we estimated variance components and covariances over lactations, assuming that the traits were different at each lactation. In a second approach (Mrep) estimations were carried out considering each trait as a repeated measure along lactations. In Mdiff, DO with a production trait was analyzed considering each lactation as a different trait. Three six-variate linear models were analyzed (DO-MY, DO-FY, DO-PY, and lactations first to third). In the Mrep procedure, DO, MY, FY and PY were analyzed together with a multiple trait repeatability model. For all models, the fixed effects were herd-year-season and lactation-age classes. Animal and the permanent environment effect were included as random effects. The additive genetic correlations between DO and yield traits by Mdiff were between +0.39 and +0.78; by Mrep, they ranged from +0.44 to +0.55. Heritabilities of DO by Mdiff were between 0.04 and 0.06 and 0.05 by Mrep. The additive genetic correlations of DO between lactations ranged from +0.76 to +0.91. Heritabilities of MY, FY and PY were 0.23, 0.21 and 0.21, respectively. Repeatabilities obtained were 0.10, 0.49, 0.47 and 0.49 for DO, MY, FY and PY, respectively. We concluded that the heritability of DO was low but enough to consider the trait in selection programs. We confirmed unfavorable additive genetic correlations between DO and yield traits for the Uruguayan pasture systems, which supports the importance of considering fertility in selection programs to reduce or avoid a decline in reproduction. The additive genetic correlations of DO between lactations were high, suggesting that a plausible model should consider DO records of a given animal as repeated measures.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • High-fiber rapeseed co-product diet for Norwegian Landrace pigs: Effect on
    • Authors: M. Pérez de Nanclares; M.P. Trudeau; J.Ø. Hansen; L.T. Mydland; P.E. Urriola; G.C. Shurson; C. Piercey Åkesson; N.P. Kjos; M.Ø. Arntzen; M. Øverland
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 203
      Author(s): M. Pérez de Nanclares, M.P. Trudeau, J.Ø. Hansen, L.T. Mydland, P.E. Urriola, G.C. Shurson, C. Piercey Åkesson, N.P. Kjos, M.Ø. Arntzen, M. Øverland
      The effect of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) and wheat with high-fiber rapeseed (RS) co-products on the nutrient and energy digestibility of 40 Norwegian Landrace pigs (17.8 ± 2.7kg initial BW) was investigated. Pigs were fed a pelleted diet containing 200g/kg of a coarse fraction of air-classified rapeseed meal (RSM) and 40g/kg of RS hulls or a SBM control diet (20 pigs/dietary treatment) for 3 wk to estimate apparent ileal (AID) or total tract (ATTD) digestibility of energy and nutrients, organ weight, intestinal histomorphology, and digestive enzyme activities of individual pigs. Feeding high-fiber RS co-products increased (P = 0.004) the thyroid to body weight ratio and reduced (P < 0.05) the AID and ATTD of energy, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, P, and most of the amino acids (AA) and monosaccharides. The reduction in digestibility was not associated with morphological changes in ileum or colon. The reduced AID of CP and AA coincided with a decrease (P = 0.030) in trypsin activity in the jejunum. The AID of starch was not affected by the dietary treatment, which also coincided with similar amylase and maltase activities in the jejunum. Variation in nutrient digestibility was observed among individual pigs within each dietary treatment. In conclusion, feeding high-fiber RS co-products to pigs enlarged the thyroid gland and reduced the AID and ATTD of most nutrients and energy. The reduction in digestibility was not associated with changes in intestinal morphology, but correlated with digestive enzyme activities.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T14:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
  • Effects of different levels of canola meal peptides on growth performance
           and blood metabolites in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Sadegh Karimzadeh; Mansour Rezaei; Asadollah Teimouri Yansari
      Pages: 37 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 203
      Author(s): Sadegh Karimzadeh, Mansour Rezaei, Asadollah Teimouri Yansari
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canola meal peptides (CMP) on growth performance, blood metabolites, and antioxidant activities in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments with 5 pens and 10 broiler chickens in each pen. The broiler chickens were fed the basal diets supplemented with 0, 100, 150, 200, or 250mg CMP/kg for 42 d. With increasing the supplementation of CMP in the basal diet, body weight gain increased and feed conversion ratio decreased both linearly and quadratically from d 0 to 42 (P < 0.01). Supplementation of the basal diet with CMP increased (linear, P < 0.01) serum lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activities and immunoglobulin M concentrations at d 42. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased linearly and quadraticaly (P < 0.01), but total protein increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.01) and P and Ca increased linearly (P < 0.01) as dietary supplementation of CMP increased from 0 to 250mg/kg at d 21 and 42. The results indicated that the dietary supplementation of CMP can increase performance, blood metabolites, and antioxidant activities in broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
  • Polymorphisms in the SOX9 region and testicular disorder of sex
           development (38,XX; SRY-negative) in pigs
    • Authors: Monika Stachowiak; Izabela Szczerbal; Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk; Hanna Jackowiak; Pawel Sledzinski; Pawel Iskrzak; Stanislaw Dzimira; Marek Switonski
      Pages: 48 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 203
      Author(s): Monika Stachowiak, Izabela Szczerbal, Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Hanna Jackowiak, Pawel Sledzinski, Pawel Iskrzak, Stanislaw Dzimira, Marek Switonski
      Testicular XX disorder of sex development (XX DSD, SRY-negative), causing sterility, is quite frequently diagnosed in pig populations, however, its molecular background is still unknown. This disorder may affect carcass quality (boar taint) due to the presence of testicular tissue in animals with ambiguous female external genitalia. A chromosome fragment encompassing the SOX9 gene was previously considered as a candidate region in functional and association studies. We analyzed distribution of polymorphic variants in 5’UTR and in 3’-flanking regions of the SOX9 gene in a cohort of 12 XX DSD pigs and a panel of 116 normal females. Altogether, 8 previously known polymorphic sites were analyzed and no significant association under Bonferroni correction (P>0.0063) between DSD phenotype and identified SNPs was found. The region harboring the SOX9 gene was also searched for the presence of copy number variation (CNV) by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique (FISH), using a set of 7 BAC probes. A potential CNV region, manifested by size variation (large and small) of fluorescence signals, produced by a single BAC probe hybridizing downstream (approx. 500kb) of the SOX9 gene, was observed in 4 DSD cases. We conclude, that a new CNV polymorphism in the region harboring SOX9 gene can be considered as a promising marker for the DSD phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
  • Prospecting polymorphisms in the PPP3CA and FABP4 genes and their
           association with early pregnancy probability in Nellore heifers
    • Authors: M.M.D. Barbero; D.J.A. Santos; L. Takada; G.M.F. de Camargo; A.C. Freitas; I.S.D.P. Diaz; F.R.P. de Souza; H. Tonhati; L.G. Albuquerque; H.N. Oliveira
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.M.D. Barbero, D.J.A. Santos, L. Takada, G.M.F. de Camargo, A.C. Freitas, I.S.D.P. Diaz, F.R.P. de Souza, H. Tonhati, L.G. Albuquerque, H.N. Oliveira
      Early pregnancy probability (P16) in heifers is a trait of high economic value for beef cattle production. Early pregnancy is defined based on the conception and calving of a heifer given that the animal had entered the breeding season at about 16 months of age and is considered a strong predictor of puberty in Nellore cattle. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the protein phosphatase 3 – catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme (PPP3CA) and fatty acid-binding proteins 4 (FABP4) genes, which have been associated with P16. The exon regions of the candidate genes were sequenced in 380 heifers. Two polymorphisms were detected in PPP3CA and 13 in FABP4. A deletion (rs134413439) was identified in the FABP4 gene in all samples, which could be a variation that occurs across breeds since the reference genome is from a Hereford cow. Two SNPs in the FABP4 gene were associated with P16 after Bonferroni correction. However, none of the haplotypes exerted a significant effect (P>0.05). This study showed that the PPP3CA and FABP4 genes are polymorphic in Nellore cattle. Furthermore, the FABP4 gene was found to be associated with early pregnancy in heifers, reinforcing the contribution of lipid metabolism to reproduction.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:42:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
  • Gastrointestinal endotoxin and metabolic responses in cows fed and
           recovered from two different grain-rich challenges
    • Authors: M. Qumar; R. Khiaosa-ard; F. Klevenhusen; J.C. Plaizier; Q. Zebeli
      Pages: 120 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 203
      Author(s): M. Qumar, R. Khiaosa-ard, F. Klevenhusen, J.C. Plaizier, Q. Zebeli
      Effects of two grain-rich feeding challenges and their subsequent recovery on gastrointestinal endotoxin concentrations, acute phase response, and blood metabolites were determined in eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows. A 2 × 2 cross-over design was used. At the start of the experiment, cows were fed forage-only diet (baseline, d 0) and after a 6-d gradual adaptation, challenged with a 60% grain diet for 4 wk (d 7 – 35), either continuously (CONT) or interruptedly with a 1-wk break in the second wk (INT). Subsequently, cows were fed the forage-only diet for 9 wk to evaluate the recovery of the grain challenges. Feeding challenges markedly increased ruminal and fecal endotoxin concentrations, which returned to the baseline levels during the recovery phase. Ruminal endotoxin concentration tended to be higher in CONT than in INT cows on d 14 and 25. The concentration of acute phase proteins serum amyloid A and haptoglobin were not affected by the feeding challenges. The level of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase was transiently increased on d 14 and 25 only in the CONT cows. The concentration of glutamate dehydrogenase peaked on d 14 of both challenge models and lowered thereafter. Blood glucose and urea concentrations rose due to the challenges with glucose tending to be higher in INT than in CONT cows. Both feeding challenges lowered blood cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, and creatinine concentrations. In conclusion, the feeding challenges promoted endotoxin release in the rumen and hindgut but did not trigger an acute phase response. All altered variables returned to baseline values within 2 wk after the both interruptedly and continuously high-grain feeding.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
  • Crambe meal subjected to chemical and physical treatments in sheep feeding
    • Authors: Daiane Caroline Moura; Tatiane da Silva Fonseca; Suziane Rodrigues Soares; Henrique Melo da Silva; Flavio Junior Gonçalves Vieira; Leonardo Antônio Botini; Adilson de Paula Sinhorin; Ibukun Michael Ogunade; André Soares de Oliveira
      Pages: 136 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 203
      Author(s): Daiane Caroline Moura, Tatiane da Silva Fonseca, Suziane Rodrigues Soares, Henrique Melo da Silva, Flavio Junior Gonçalves Vieira, Leonardo Antônio Botini, Adilson de Paula Sinhorin, Ibukun Michael Ogunade, André Soares de Oliveira
      Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of alkaline treatments (20, 40 or 60g CaO/kg) or water extraction on glucosinolate (GIs) concentration in crambe meal (CM), and to determine effects of replacing soybean meal with CM on intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep. Twenty-five samples of CM (300g each) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: Control (446mg GI/kg dry matter (DM)); alkaline treatment (20, 40 or 60g CaO/kg CM); and water extraction. Alkaline treatment and water extraction of CM did not differ (P > 0.05) in GI concentration. In addition, the level of CaO added (20, 40 or 60g/kg CM as feed) did not affect (P = 0.47) the GIs concentration. Eight Santa Inês male sheep (25.6 ± 2.6kg body weight) were distributed to two 4 × 4 Latin squares with four periods of 15 days each (10 days of adaptation and 5 days of sample collection) and received one of the following four different isonitrogenous diets (160g CP/kg dry matter), formulated by substituting soybean meal: Control (soybean meal); untreated CM; Alkaline-treated CM (40g CaO/kg); and water extracted CM. Replacing soybean meal with CM did not affect (P > 0.05) feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of allantoin. Alkaline treatment or water extraction partially decreased GIs concentration in CM by 46 ± 12% (P < 0.05), but did not affect (P > 0.05) feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of allantoin. The processing method (alkaline treatment vs. water extraction) had no effect (P > 0.05) on feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of allantoin. Therefore, CM with GIs concentrations under 450mg/kg DM can be used as substitute for soybean meal as an exclusive protein source in ruminant diets.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
  • A longitudinal field study investigating the association between teat-end
           shape and two minute milk yield, milking unit-on time, and time in low
           flow rate
    • Authors: M. Wieland; D.V. Nydam; P.D. Virkler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Wieland, D.V. Nydam, P.D. Virkler
      Data from electronic milk meters that measure milking characteristics have been used to monitor and improve parlor efficiency. However, the variability within them and associated cow characteristics such as teat-end shape have not been investigated by rigorous methods. Our primary objective was to investigate the association of teat-end shape (TES) and the milking characteristics: two minute milk yield (2MIN), milking unit-on time (DUR), and time in low flow rate (LOW). The secondary objective was to determine which of cow, day, and milking time (i.e., 1st, 2nd, and 3rd milking session of each day) contributes most of the variation in 2MIN, DUR, and LOW. In a longitudinal field study 284,601 milking observations from 3,312 cows were analyzed from a commercial dairy herd. Cows were milked thrice daily. Teat-end shape was classified into 3 categories: pointed, flat, and round. Udder level milking characteristics were gathered using on-farm milk meters. Three-level null models were generated to determine the variance components present at the different levels. Cow, day, and milking time attributed 84%, 2%, and 14%; 78%, 2%, and 20%; and 21%, 5%, and 74% to the variation in 2MIN, DUR, and LOW, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed differences in 2MIN [least squares means ± standard errors (LSM ± SE)] among cows with different TES: 6.4 ± 0.1; 7.3 ± 0.1; and 6.7 ± 0.1kg in cows with pointed, flat, and round TES, respectively. There was an interaction between TES and milking mode such that DUR was shortest for cows with flat [LSM ± SE (229 ± 3s)] TES when milked on automatic take-off compared with cows with pointed (248 ± 3s) and round (243 ± 1s) TES, but was not different when milking clusters were detached manually. Time in low flow rate was lowest in cows with flat [LSM, 95%CI (10.3, 9.9–10.7s)] TES when milked on automatic take-off compared with cows with pointed (11.4, 11.1–11.7s) and round (11.5, 11.4–11.6s) TES, whereas LOW was highest in cows with flat (30.2, 27.5–33.2s) TES compared with cows with pointed (19.0, 18.0–20.1s) and round (19.7, 19.1–20.2s) TES when milking clusters were detached manually. Different milking machine settings and milking routine such as limiting the employment of manual milking mode for cows with different teat-end shape might have the potential to increase parlor efficiency and decrease potentially harmful effects of machine milking on teat tissue condition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.011
  • Detection of pig genome regions determining production traits using an
           information theory approach
    • Authors: Alicja Borowska; Henry Reyer; Klaus Wimmers; Patrick F. Varley; Tomasz Szwaczkowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Alicja Borowska, Henry Reyer, Klaus Wimmers, Patrick F. Varley, Tomasz Szwaczkowski
      The objectives of the study were to detect the SNPs associated with pig production traits and estimate interactions between the most informative pairs of SNPs using entropy analysis. 1296 pigs were genotyped and phenotyped. The following traits were recorded: backfat, days to 110kg, feed conversion ratio, percent lean meat and terminal line index for Maxgro™. After validation of the genotypic data, 50 951 SNPs were considered for further analysis. Entropy and conditional entropy for each SNP were estimated. Mutual information for most informative SNPs was performed to estimate an interaction between pairs of SNPs. Generally, the majority of loci showed relatively small contributions to the traits. The largest number of SNPs with high conditional entropy coefficients was identified on chromosome 1. The most important SNPs and pairs of them for all traits were mainly located on chromosomes: 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16 and 17. High mutual information was estimated for SNPs located nearby. Many of the most prominent SNPs are localised within candidate genes affecting pig production traits.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.012
  • Genomic differentiation as a tool for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
           prioritization for Genome wide association and phenotype prediction in
    • Authors: Sajjad Toghiani; Ling-Yun Chang; Ashley Ling; Sammy E. Aggrey; Romdhane Rekaya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sajjad Toghiani, Ling-Yun Chang, Ashley Ling, Sammy E. Aggrey, Romdhane Rekaya
      Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in detecting associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypic variation and in identifying several causative mutations. However, SNPs with significant association identified using GWAS tend to explain only small fraction of the phenotypic variations. GWAS are affected by lack of power due to small sample size, large numbers of highly correlated markers, and the moderate to small effects of most quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This situation is further complicated by the continuous increase in marker density, especially with the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The latter generates an unprecedented number of marker variants, with a complex linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure limiting the advantage and adequacy of existing methods that internally try to prioritize (filter) SNPs (e.g. BayesB, and BayesR). Consequently, it is becoming necessary to either filter SNPs before conducting the association analysis or to enlist additional sources of information. Methods that include biological prior information (e.g. BayesRC) are limited by the amount and quality of available prior information. Knowledge of genetic diversity based on evolutionary forces is beneficial for tracking loci influenced by selection. The fixation index (FST), as a measure of allele frequency variation among sub-populations, provides a tool to reveal genomic regions under selection pressure. In order to evaluate its usefulness as an additional source of information, a simulation was carried out. A trait with heritability of 0.4 was simulated and three subpopulations were created based on the empirical phenotypic distribution (< 5% quantile; > 95% quantile; and between 5 and 95% quantiles). Marker data was simulated to mimic a bovine chip of 600K, 1 million, and 3 million SNP marker panels. Genetic complexity of the trait was modelled by the number of QTLs, their distribution, and the magnitude of their effects. Using different empirical cut off values for FST, most QTLs were correctly detected using as few as 2.5% of SNP markers in the panels. Furthermore, the genomic similarity, calculated based on the selected SNPs, was very high (>0.80) for individuals with similar genetic and phenotypic values despite having limited to no pedigree relationship. These results indicate that filtering SNPs using FST could be beneficial for use in GWAS by focusing on genome regions under selection pressure. High functional genomic similarity based on selected markers indicates similarity in SNP signatures, regardless of relatedness, and translates into high phenotypic correlation that could be used in decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.007
  • Genetic analysis for farrowing rate and litter size for Landrace and
           Yorkshire sows in South China
    • Authors: Xiujin Li; Shuihua Xie; Xiaohong Liu; Yaosheng Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Xiujin Li, Shuihua Xie, Xiaohong Liu, Yaosheng Chen
      Farrowing rate (FR) and litter size (LS) are economically important traits that directly affect the number of weaned piglets per sow per year. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and calculate genetic trends for FR and LS at birth in herds of Landrace and Yorkshire sows in South China. We analyzed 16,451 Landrace sows with 58,091 observations and 33,953 Yorkshire sows with 101,486 observations for FR, and we analyzed 15,079 Landrace sows with 47,831 litters and 31,470 Yorkshire sows with 83,974 litters for LS traits. We used a single-trait threshold model to analyze FR. A joint multi-trait linear-threshold model was used to analyze three LS traits simultaneously: total number of piglets born (NBT), number of piglets born alive (NBA), and number of piglets born dead (NBD). Estimated heritability values for FR were 0.112±0.012 in Landrace and 0.120±0.010 in Yorkshire sows. For the three LS traits, the highest heritability was estimated for NBT, followed by NBA and NBD in both breeds, with values ranging from 0.044±0.004 to 0.109±0.008 in Landrace and from 0.039±0.004 to 0.108±0.007 in Yorkshire. Estimated correlations between NBT and NBA ranged from 0.861±0.018 to 0.949±0.010 in Landrace and from 0.895±0.009 to 0.933±0.009 in Yorkshire for random additive genetic effects, random permanent effects, and random service sire effects. Estimates of correlations between NBT and NBD ranged from −0.010±0.092 to 0.353±0.058 in Landrace and from 0.253±0.065 to 0.516±0.044 in Yorkshire. Estimates of correlations between NBA and NBD were not significantly different from 0 in either population, except for additive genetic effects in Yorkshire sows (0.267±0.059). Among the genetic trends, NBT and NBA showed persistent improvements in both breeds, whereas NBD shows no apparent improvement in either population. Genetic trends for FR showed slight declines over time in both populations. The estimated genetic parameters suggest the possibility of improving these reproductive traits by selection. Our results confirm that the selection criterion for LS should be NBA rather than NBT. Despite its low effect, the effect of service sire should be included as a random effect in the statistical model. Finally, due to the genetic downtrend for FR, this trait should be included in future pig breeding goals in South China.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.008
  • Comparison reproductive, growth performance, carcass and meat quality of
           Liangshan pig crossbred with Duroc and Berkshire genotypes and heterosis
    • Authors: Jia Luo; Linyuan Shen; Zhendong Tan; Xiao Cheng; Dongli Yang; Yuan Fan; Qiong Yang; Jideng Ma; Qianzi Tang; An’an Jiang; Dongmei Jiang; Guoqing Tang; Yanzhi Jiang; Xuewi Li; Runlin Yang; Shunhua Zhang; Li Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jia Luo, Linyuan Shen, Zhendong Tan, Xiao Cheng, Dongli Yang, Yuan Fan, Qiong Yang, Jideng Ma, Qianzi Tang, An’an Jiang, Dongmei Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Yanzhi Jiang, Xuewi Li, Runlin Yang, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
      Background The Liangshan breed of pig is well known for its excellent meat quality attributes, but poor carcass quality and growth attributes have limited its economic value. By crossing the Liangshan with western breeds that have strong growth attributes may improve the general performance of the breed. Objectives The objective of this research was to study the effects of slaughter age and cross-breeding on reproduction, growth, carcass, meat quality, and to estimate the heterosis values of the various traits. Materials Samples were taken from 636 pigs of three different genotypes [Liangshan pure breed (LS), Duroc-Liangshan cross (DL), and Berkshire-Liangshan cross (BL)]. Results DL and BL F1 generations showed improved reproductive and growth traits than purebred Liangshan pigs. DL and BL had better carcass quality than LS, with a significant reduction in backfat thickness and sebum rate. Crossbreeds had higher L24h and shear force, and lower marbling scores than LS. Drip loss in DL was markedly lower than in LS and BL, but BL had the lowest cooking loss, higher L45min and pH45min. By estimating heterosis, reproduction traits were significantly improved in both DL and BL. Growth performance showed no significant difference among the breeds. Backfat thickness and loin muscle area was significantly improved in the DL and BL breeds, although there was no difference in lean percentage and sebum rate. BL showed improved heterosis, with excellent intramuscular fat, higher pH45min, lower L45min and cooking loss. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that crossing Berkshire with Liangshan pigs could be an alternative genotype in the commercial pork production system.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.010
  • Relationship between semen quality and meat quality traits in Belgian
           Piétrain boars
    • Authors: Ioannis Arsenakis; Ruth Appeltant; Steven Sarrazin; Tom Rijsselaere; Ann Van Soom; Dominiek Maes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ioannis Arsenakis, Ruth Appeltant, Steven Sarrazin, Tom Rijsselaere, Ann Van Soom, Dominiek Maes
      The main objective of this study was to assess the semen quality of Piétrain boars originating from Belgian AI centers and to correlate these results with their meat quality traits. Freshly diluted semen doses from 140 boars originating from 10 artificial insemination (AI) centers were used and stored for five days at 17°C. Motility was assessed daily using a computer assisted semen analyzer (Hamilton-Thorne), while morphology and concentration were assessed on the day of semen collection (Day 0) by eosin-nigrosin staining and the Bürker counting chamber, respectively. These data were correlated with the lean meat percentage, loin eye depth and backfat thickness using linear mixed models taking into account the clustering of boars within each AI center and the daily measurements for each semen dose. The mean values (±SD) on Day 0 were: motility 79.7±8.2%, live sperm 91.5±4.3%, live normal sperm 83.6±7.4%, and concentration 29.0±10.6 (x106 sperm/mL). The average five-day motility across all AI centers was 77.7±8.9%. None of the assessed semen quality traits were associated with lean meat percentage. Motility and progressive motility on Day 0 were positively associated with backfat thickness (P <0.05), while no overall negative associations were elucidated between the latter semen quality traits and loin eye depth. The percentages of live and normal live sperm were not correlated with backfat thickness nor loin eye depth. To conclude, selection of terminal Belgian Piétrain boars for reduced backfat thickness might negatively influence semen motility, whereas selection for increased lean meat percentage and loin eye depth would not necessarily compromise semen quality traits.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.009
  • Net energy levels of reduced crude protein, amino acid-supplemented diets
           for heavy pigs
    • Authors: Cintia Fracaroli; Dani Perondi; Luan Sousa dos Santos; Welex Cândido da Silva; Alini Mari Veira; Luciano Hauschild
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Cintia Fracaroli, Dani Perondi, Luan Sousa dos Santos, Welex Cândido da Silva, Alini Mari Veira, Luciano Hauschild
      This study aimed to investigate the effects of different net energy (NE) levels of diets with reduced crude protein (CP) that were supplemented with amino acids on feeding behavior, performance and carcass characteristics of heavy pigs (100 to 130kg). Pigs were randomly allocated to experimental groups under a randomized complete block design with initial body weight as the blocking criterion. There were 5 treatments (NE levels: 2300, 2388, 2475, 2563 and 2650 Kcal NE/kg, as-fed basis) with 13 pigs per treatment, and the animal was the experimental unit. The diets were based on corn, soybean meal and wheat bran. CP levels were similar between diets and approximately 2% below the requirement (13.9%). Pigs were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment. Electronic feeder systems automatically recorded the visits to the feeders, the timing of meals, and the amount of feed consumed per meal. Based on these recorded data, daily feed intake was calculated and feeding behavior was evaluated. At the end of the experiment, the pigs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Net energy levels did not affect the average daily feed intake (P > 0.05) but did influence the feeding behavior of the pigs. The pigs fed the 2388, 2475 and 2563kcal NE/kg diets had fewer (P < 0.05) daily meals than those fed the 2300 and 2650kcal NE/kg diets. Thus, these animals occupied the feeders for less time daily (P < 0.05) compared to those fed the 2300 and 2650kcal NE/kg diets. The average daily NE intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing NE; however, average daily gain did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatments. There was a quadratic relationship (P < 0.01) between feed efficiency and increasing NE levels. The feed efficiency of pigs fed the 2563kcal NE/kg diet did not differ (P > 0.05) from that of pigs in the 2388 and 2475kcal NE/kg treatments, but was 9% higher (P < 0.05) than in the 2300 and 2650kcal NE/kg treatments. Furthermore, loin depth and loin eye area did not change significantly (P > 0.05) when NE levels increased from 2300 to 2650kcal NE/kg in the diets. However, a linear effect (P < 0.01) was observed for hot carcass yield and a trend toward a quadratic effect (P < 0.10) for hot carcass weight, backfat thickness and lean percentage. Among the studied levels, 2388, 2475 and 2563kcal NE/kg produced the best results for reduced CP diets fed to heavy pigs because the pigs occupied the feeders for less time and showed higher feed efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.014
  • Energy and protein requirements for maintenance of Southern Yellow cattle
           fed a corn silage or straw-based diet
    • Authors: M. Wei; L. Chen; X.M. Lian; Z.Q. Chen; S.J. Wei; P.S. Yan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Wei, L. Chen, X.M. Lian, Z.Q. Chen, S.J. Wei, P.S. Yan
      The objective of this study was to estimate the net energy and net protein requirements for maintenance (NEm and NPm) of Southern Yellow cattle in China. A database involving 175 cattle with body weight (BW) ranging from 211 to 454kg was obtained from a series of calorimetry experiments. The diets offered to cattle consisted of proportionately corn-soybean meal concentrate and roughage containing corn silage, rice straw and wheat straw. Linear regression equations of the logarithm of heat production (HP) and retained energy (RE) against metabolizable energy intake (MEI) were developed to predict the maintenance requirements for metabolizable energy (MEm) and NEm. The combined data indicated that the MEm and NEm were 522 and 348 MJ/kg0.75 of BW·d−1, respectively. In addition, the partial efficiency of use of ME for maintenance was 0.66, and the partial efficiency for growth was 0.51. Similarly, there was also a linear relationship between retained nitrogen (RN) and nitrogen intake (NI). The pooled data provided a NPm of 2.63g/kg0.75 of BW·d−1 and a metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance (MPm) of 3.93g/kg0.75 of BW·d−1 for Southern Yellow cattle. In conclusion, our estimate of NEm was extremely similar to the value of the AFRC nutritional system, whereas it was slightly greater than that recommended by the NRC nutritional system. Additionally, the MPm value obtained in the current study was in agreement with the NRC recommendation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.002
  • The effects of pre-transport supplementation with electrolytes and betaine
           on performance, carcass yield and meat quality of broilers in summer and
    • Authors: J.A. Downing; M.J. Kerr; D.L. Hopkins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.A. Downing, M.J. Kerr, D.L. Hopkins
      The consequences of high ambient temperature for broiler chickens collectively results in poorer productivity, prostration and even death. As they approach processing weight, broilers are particularly sensitive to heat stress as they produce large amounts of metabolic heat. Transport from farm to the processing site is a stress for broilers. So, the combination of high ambient temperature prior to transport and the stress associated with transport to processing have unwanted effects on broiler performance and meat quality. In two experiments (summer and winter) the effect of supplementing the water of Ross-308 broiler chickens with electrolytes, with or without betaine for 2 days before processing, on performance and breast muscle meat quality were investigated. In the summer experiment broilers were exposed to a cyclic high temperature protocol over the two days (9 h at 28-29°C and 14 h at 22-24°C). In the winter experiment the shed temperature ranged between 14-18°C. The growth performance of birds during supplementation and then the breast muscle meat quality 24-72 h post-mortem were determined. In both experiments betaine had no effect on any performance or meat quality measure and the electrolyte supplementation had no effect on growth performance. In the summer experiment, electrolyte supplementation had significant effects on some measures of meat quality. Breast muscle from supplemented birds had lower 24 h post-mortem pH and based on meat ‘lightness’, lower levels of PSE meat. The 72 h drip loss was significantly lower in meat from birds that had been supplemented with electrolytes. The electrolyte supplements had no effects on meat ‘redness’ or ‘yellowness’, on shear force or cooking losses. In the winter experiment, the electrolyte supplementation had no effect on growth performance or breast muscle meat quality. In this experiment, the average shed temperature was approximately 16°C with peak values of approximately 18°C. The growth rate of the birds was approximately 40% higher than that identified in industry performance standards for the Ross-308 strain. The data suggest that the temperature for best performance of the Ross-308 is lower than the 18-24°C currently accepted as ideal. In all experiments there were significant effects of bird gender on performance and meat quality measures. While electrolyte supplementation supported improvements in meat quality during periods of moderately high ambient temperature, the commercial benefit of these would need to be assessed. The value of electrolyte supplementation is likely to be more substantial when broiler chickens experience heat wave conditions with temperatures > 32°C, but this remains to be evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.006
  • How do stocking density and straw provision affect fouling in
           conventionally housed slaughter pigs'
    • Authors: Mona Lilian Vestbjerg Larsen; Maja Bertelsen; Lene Juul Pedersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mona Lilian Vestbjerg Larsen, Maja Bertelsen, Lene Juul Pedersen
      The aim of the study was to investigate when fouling appears in conventionally housed slaughter pigs and whether stocking density and straw provision are risk factors to fouling. During four batches of a total of 112 pens with slaughter pigs, pens were randomly assigned to one level of each of two treatments: (1) 150g of straw provided per pig per day on the solid floor (n=56) v. no straw provided (n=56), (2) stocking density of 1.21 (n=56) v. 0.73m2/pig (n=56). Fouling was recorded each day, and a pen had an event of fouling if at least half of the solid floor was wet with excreta and/or urine. Only the first event of fouling for each pen was included, and thus results represent whether a pen had a fouling event or not and when it happened. Data was analysed by using a Cox regression assuming proportional hazard and with right censoring of pens that never developed fouling. First event of fouling was mostly seen during the first week after insertion and in the last 3 weeks prior to slaughter (10 week study period). Pens with high stocking density had a 90% higher hazard of fouling compared to pens with low stocking density (P=0.016), meaning that pens with a high stocking density had a higher risk of fouling and of developing it earlier. Pens with straw provided had a 49% higher hazard of fouling compared to pens with no straw provided (P=0.14). No interaction was seen between stocking density and straw provision (P=0.80). In conclusion, stocking density was a significant risk factor of fouling, whereas straw provision only indicated this numerically within the used experimental setup and chosen sample size. The results suggest that lowering the stocking density to a level of around 1.21m2/pig could reduce the risk of fouling in slaughter pigs. The relationship between fouling and straw provision needs further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.005
  • Recognition and drinking behaviour analysis of individual pigs based on
           machine vision
    • Authors: Wei-xing Zhu; Yi-zheng Guo; Peng-peng Jiao; Chang-hua Ma; Chen Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Wei-xing Zhu, Yi-zheng Guo, Peng-peng Jiao, Chang-hua Ma, Chen Chen
      Water consumption by individual pigs can be an interesting indicator of their health. A method using machine vision is proposed to (a) recognise the presence of an individual pig within the drinking zone and (b) analyse the vision images to determine if the pig is drinking. First, isolation of an individual pig within the drinking zone is extracted from the topview of the set of video sequences for group-housed pigs. Next, the distance between the individual pig and the drink nipple is calculated and used to determine whether the individual pig is in contact with the drink nipple. If yes, the colour moments, area, perimeter and other features of the pig are extracted. Then the features are normalised. The individual pig is recognised by computing the Euclidean distance between the pig and the standard sample. The contact time between an individual pig and the drink nipple is used to determine whether the pig is drinking. The pigsty contains 7 pigs and is monitored in real-time, and 140 video clips containing images of the individual pigs while drinking are captured. The correct (drinking) recognition rate for individual pigs is 90.7%. Our method differs from traditional methods in that it avoids any disturbance to the pigs, and it can be used for the recognition of individual pigs within a stress-free environment. Our results can provide a reference point and direction for exploration of other behaviours of topview group-housed pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.003
  • Relationship between residual feed intake and carcass composition, meat
           quality and size of small intestine in a population of F2 chickens
    • Authors: Hakimeh Emamgholi Begli; Rasoul Vaez Torshizi; Ali Akbar Masoudi; Alireza Ehsani; Just Jensen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Hakimeh Emamgholi Begli, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi, Ali Akbar Masoudi, Alireza Ehsani, Just Jensen
      Feed represent about 70% of the total costs in poultry production. These costs can be reduced by improving feed efficiency through genetic selection. Selection for improving feed efficiency may have correlated effects on other economically important traits such as carcass composition and meat quality. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the breeding values of cumulative residual feed intake (RFI) and carcass weight, carcass compositions, meat quality, and size of small intestines in chicken. The population studied was an F2 derived from a cross between an Arian fast-growing broiler line and Iranian native fowl. Individual feed intake and body weight measured every week from 2 to 12 weeks and carcass and meat quality traits were assessed after slaughtering at 12 weeks of age. Breeding values for cumulative RFI (RFIBV) were calculated using a quadratic spline with four knots and heterogeneous residual variance. Traits were analyzed using analysis of covariance with a model including RFIBV and sex. No significant relationship was observed between RFIBV with live body weight and eviscerated carcass weight (P > 0.05). RFIBV had negative association with breast muscle percentage, gizzard percentage and Ultimate pH of breast meat (P < 0.05). A positive relationship existed between RFIBV and abdominal fat percentage, skin percentage, lightness and yellowness of breast muscle color. No significant relationship was detected between RFIBV and back and neck, wing, liver, lung, spleen bursa and heart percentages. Also a non-significant association was observed between RFIBV and cooking loss percentage, shear force, drip loss percentage and small intestinal morphometric measurements. In general, the results suggest that selection on RFI will improve the feed efficiency of chickens without impairing carcass compositions and meat quality characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T22:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.001
  • Does supplementation during previous phase influence performance during
           the growing and finishing phase in Nellore cattle'
    • Authors: M.T.P. Roth; F.D. de Resende; I.M. de Oliveira; R.M. Fernandes; L. Custódio; G.R. Siqueira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.T.P. Roth, F.D. de Resende, I.M. de Oliveira, R.M. Fernandes, L. Custódio, G.R. Siqueira
      In Brazil, the beef cattle are widely raised in pasture post weaning, but the supplementation has been studied only in individual phases of the animal's growth curve. Therefore, the objective of this study was evaluated the nutritional interrelationship between the growing and finishing phases in the performance of Nellore bulls. Eighty-four weaned calves (body weight [BW] = 205 ± 4.7kg; 8 months) raised on pasture during the growing phase (dry season, summer and autumn) and finished in feedlot were used. The experiment was conducted as a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 1) two supplements levels in the dry season (protein [1g/kg BW/day - PR1] or protein-energy [3g/kg BW/day - PE] supplement); 2) two supplement levels in summer (mineral supplement [ad libitum - MS] or protein supplement [1g/kg BW/day - PR2]); and three supplement levels in autumn (MS, PR2 or PE). The animals were finished with a common diet. The dry season supplementation affected the average daily gain (ADG) in the summer (P < 0.05). In summer, animals fed MS had a greater ADG when fed PR1 in the previous (dry) season than those receiving PE (0.696 vs. 0.581kg, P < 0.01); while, no difference in ADG was observed when the animals received PR2 (0.815kg, P = 0.99). In autumn, animals fed PR2 in the previous (summer) season exhibited 11.3% lower ADG than those supplemented with MS (0.503 vs. 0.567kg, P < 0.01), regardless of the autumn supplementation. Dry season supplementation did not affect the ADG during finishing phase (0.909kg, P = 0.14). The animals fed PR2 in the summer and PE in the autumn had tendency of lower ADG during the feedlot (P = 0.06) compared with animals fed MS, however, they were finished 20 d earlier (P = 0.06). In conclusion, to provide PE in the dry season, followed by MS in the summer is not recommended, because this strategy reduces the ADG. In addition, dry season supplementation does not affect the ADG during finishing phase, while supply supplements of greater nutritional value in autumn reduces feedlot period.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.019
  • Effects of intermittent cold stimulation on antioxidant capacity and mRNA
           expression in broilers
    • Authors: Jianhong Li; Fangfang Huang; Xiang Li; Yingying Su; Huitang Li; Jun Bao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jianhong Li, Fangfang Huang, Xiang Li, Yingying Su, Huitang Li, Jun Bao
      In this study, the effects of intermittent cold stress on the antioxidant capacity and antioxidant-related gene expression in broilers were examined. AA broilers were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was kept in a normal thermal environment. Treatment groups I, II, and III were maintained at 3°C, 5°C, and 7°C lower than the control group, respectively, for 6-h periods at intervals of 2 days from 22 days of age to 42 days of age. At 35 days of age, the antioxidant indexes of group I and the control group were higher than those of groups II and III (P < 0.05). At 42 days of age, the activities of TAOC and GSH-Px were higher in group I than in the control group, group II and III. The activities of TSOD and CAT were higher in group I than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). The TAOC activity of all treatment groups increased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age. (P < 0.05). The GSH-Px activity of group I and the CAT activity of group III increased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). The GSH-Px activity of group II and the control group and the CAT activity of group II decreased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). At 35 days of age, mRNA expression levels of SOD were lower in all treatment groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). At 42 days of age, mRNA expression levels of SOD were higher in group I and the control group than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). At 35 days of age, GSH-PX expression was lower in groups II and III than in the control group and group I (P < 0.05), but did not differ between group I and the control group (P > 0.05). At 42 days of age, GSH-Px expression was higher in the control than in groups II and III (P < 0.05) and higher in group I than in the control (P < 0.05). SOD expression in all treatment groups increased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). GSH-Px expression in the control group and groups II and III decreased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). The influence of intermittent cold treatment on SOD and GSH-Px expression was consistent with SOD and GSH-Px activities. These results suggested that the influence of cold on antioxidant capacity is related to gene transcription regulation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.004
  • Parentage assignment using SNP markers, inbreeding and population size for
           the Brazilian Red Sindhi cattle
    • Authors: João Cláudio do C. Panetto; Marco Antonio Machado; Marcos Vinicius G.B. da Silva; Rosangela Silveira Barbosa; Glaucyana Gouveia dos Santos; Ricardo de M.H. Leite; Maria Gabriela C.D. Peixoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): João Cláudio do C. Panetto, Marco Antonio Machado, Marcos Vinicius G.B. da Silva, Rosangela Silveira Barbosa, Glaucyana Gouveia dos Santos, Ricardo de M.H. Leite, Maria Gabriela C.D. Peixoto
      Brazilian Red Sindhi was originated from a very small number of founders and showed a consistent growth during the last three decades. One relevant herd was kept without proper birth recording and the reconstruction of parentage was possible for this herd through the use of a panel with 3,894 SNP markers. Pedigree errors were also identified and corrected for animals sampled in various herds distributed in different Brazilian regions. A panel containing 71 SNP markers was indicated as the minimum number for the effective parentage verification within the Red Sindhi population in Brazil. Corrected genealogy was used for the description of inbreeding and effective population size, which was accessed with the paired increases in coancestry approach. Average inbreeding was high (F=9.03%) for 15,217 inbred animals (54.1% of the total). Nevertheless, a trend of decrease with time was observed for this parameter with the average individual increases in inbreeding approach ( ∆ F i ) . This population went through a bottleneck during the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, reaching a minimum population size of N e = 55.8 6. After that period, a consistent increase in the number of breeders and animals has raised the effective population size to the current value of N e = 87.55 .

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.008
  • Mutations in inhibin alpha gene and their association with litter size in
           Kalahari Red and Nigerian goats
    • Authors: A.M. Isa; M.N. Bemji; M. Wheto; T.J. Williams; E.M. Ibeagha-Awemu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.M. Isa, M.N. Bemji, M. Wheto, T.J. Williams, E.M. Ibeagha-Awemu
      This study was conducted to identify SNPs in inhibin alpha (INHA) gene and investigate their association with litter size in two Nigerian goat breeds {West African Dwarf (WAD, n= 226), Red Sokoto (RS, n= 70)} and Kalahari Red (KR, n=70). Sequence analyses revealed four SNPs {g.−65C>G/rs643347356 (5’UTR), g.2518G>A (a novel variant in exon 2), g.3041A>G/rs641311609 (exon 3) and g.3234C>T/rs670889338 (3’UTR)}. Homozygous wild type CC at g.−65C>G and GG at g.2518G>A loci were predominant genotypes in Kalahari Red goats. CC was the predominant genotype in all the three breeds at g.3234C>T locus and the frequency of allele C was 0.88, 0.98 and 0.98 in WAD, RS and KR populations respectively. Allele diversity index was low (He<0.3) in the three breeds at g.−65C>G, g.2518G>A and g.3234C>T loci. WAD and KR goats had moderate genetic diversity (0.25≤PIC≤0.5) at g.3041A>G locus. Pair-wise comparison revealed that does having CT genotype at g.3234C>T locus had significantly (P=0.01) larger litter size compared with CC in WAD goats, while SNP genotype at other loci were not significantly associated with litter size.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T09:48:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.012
  • Feeding regimen of breeder broiler hen influences growth performance of
           the broiler chickens
    • Authors: Majid Gholami; Alireza Seidavi; Cormac J. O'Shea; Yeasmin Akter; Mohammad Dadashbeiki; Bojlul Bahar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Majid Gholami, Alireza Seidavi, Cormac J. O'Shea, Yeasmin Akter, Mohammad Dadashbeiki, Bojlul Bahar
      This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding regimens for the breeder broiler hen on the performance of broiler chickens. Breeder broiler hens (196 hens and 28 roosters; age between 31 to 38 wk) were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments that differ in the proportion of daily allowance served at different times with 1 (100% at 0400h), 2 (50% at 0400 and 1600, or 75% and 25% at 0400 and 1600, respectively), 3 (33% at 0400, 1200 and 1600, or 50% at 0400 and 25% at 1200 and 1600), and 4 (33% at 0400, 22% at 0800, 1200 and 1600, or 55% at 0400 and 17% at 0800, 1200 and 1600) meals in every 24-h cycle. There were 4 replicates per treatment, each consisted of 7 hens and 1 rooster received experimental diets for 8 wk continuously. The growth performance, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein intake, protein conversion ratio, energy intake, and energy conversion ratio in the broiler chicken were evaluated for 42 d. Dietary regimens (frequency and timetable) for breeder broiler hens affected (P < 0.001) the feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein intake, protein conversion ratio, energy intake, and energy conversion ratio in the offspring (d 0 to 42). Overall feed conversion, protein conversion and energy conversion in broiler chickens from breeder hens received daily allowances in 3 or 4 meals were improved compared to those from breeder hens received 100% dietary allowance as a single meal. It is concluded that providing the daily diet allowance of breeder broiler hens in 3 or 4 meals is likely to improve growth performance in their offspring.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T09:48:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.010
  • Effect of dietary wheat bran inclusion on nutrient and energy
           digestibility and microbial metabolites in weaned pigs
    • Authors: B. Koo; M.M. Hossain; C.M. Nyachoti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): B. Koo, M.M. Hossain, C.M. Nyachoti
      This study was conducted to assess effect of including 40g/kg of wheat bran (WB) in weaner diet on nutrient and energy digestibility and on microbial metabolites. Six weaned piglets (7.3 ± 0.1kg of initial body weight) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were fed 1 of 2 test diets consisting of: 1) control (a barley-wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diet), and 2) WB diet (40g/kg of coarsely milled WB; 1,091 μm), which were assigned according to a 2 × 2 Latin square design repeated 3 times. At the end of the second period, all pigs were fed a corn starch-based diet containing 50g casein/kg to estimate basal endogenous amino acids (AA) losses. Piglets fed the WB diet had lower coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and gross energy than those fed the control diet (P < 0.05). Also, inclusion of WB tended to reduce coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility of OM and DM (P ≤ 0.10). Furthermore, the WB diet showed less digestible energy compared to the control diet (P < 0.05). There were no differences or trends in the coefficient of standardized ileal digestibility (CSID) of CP and AA between the 2 diets. Feeding the WB diet increased (P < 0.05) fecal acetate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in feces and tended to increase (P ≤ 0.10) acetate, propionate, valerate, and total VFA in intestinal digesta compared with the control diet. In conclusion, results indicated that dietary inclusion of WB decreased nutrients and energy digestibility, but increased VFA production in the ileal digesta and feces.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T09:48:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.011
  • Starter and subsequent grower response of Pekin ducks to low-protein diets
           in starter phase
    • Authors: M. Xie; Y. Jiang; J. Tang; Q. Zhang; W. Huang; S.S. Hou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Xie, Y. Jiang, J. Tang, Q. Zhang, W. Huang, S.S. Hou
      A dose-response experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding 6 starter diets containing the analyzed crude protein (CP) contents (168.6, 178.9, 184.2, 192.0, 195.8, and 203.3g/kg) from d 1 to 19 on growth performance and carcass traits of starter Pekin ducks and the subsequent growth performance and carcass traits of ducks fed a common grower diet from d 20 to 35. The 480 one-d-old male White Pekin ducks were divided to 6 experimental treatments and each treatment had 8 replicate pens of 10 ducks. All starter experimental diets were formulated to contain similar dietary energy concentration and standardized ileal digestible amino acid contents. At d 19 and 35, the growth performance of each pen were determined and 2 ducks were randomly selected from each pen and harvested to evaluate carcass traits. During the starter period, as dietary CP decreased from 203.3 to 168.6g/kg, the body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not affected but feed/gain increased linearly (P = 0.017). According to broken-line regression, the 196.8g/kg was the minimum dietary CP requirement necessary to obtain the optimal feed/gain during the starter period. Moreover, the breast meat percentage of starter ducklings was not influenced by reducing dietary CP, but the leg meat percentage decreased linearly (P = 0.024) and abdominal fat percentage increased linearly (P = 0.018). During the grower period from d 20 to 35, the protein restriction during the starter phase had no negative effects on the subsequent growth performance from d 20 to 35 or carcass traits at d 35. It was concluded that reducing dietary CP had negative effects on the performance of starter ducks but the protein restriction during the starter phase had no adverse effects on the performance of grower Pekin ducks.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:42:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.005
  • Improving welfare and production in the peri-weaning period: Effects of
           co-mingling and intermittent suckling on the stress response, performance,
           behaviour, and gastrointestinal tract carbohydrate absorption in young
    • Authors: D.L. Turpin; P. Langendijk; C. Sharp; J.R. Pluske
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D.L. Turpin, P. Langendijk, C. Sharp, J.R. Pluske
      We investigated the effect of different pre-weaning interventions on performance, aspects of behaviour, and selected neuroendocrine, inflammatory and immune indices in 593 weanling pigs (59 litters, weaning age 22 ± 1.7). Measurements were taken at various time points two weeks before and after weaning. Sugar absorption tests (20% mannitol and 20% galactose solutions') were used to assess gastrointestinal tract (GIT) absorptive capacity. One week before weaning, litters were either co-mingled (CoM) for 8hours daily with another litter or not co-mingled (NoCoM). Half of the litters were also subjected to intermittent suckling (IS) involving separation from their sow for 8hours daily and the other half remained with their sow (NoIS). Hence, four treatments were produced in a 2×2 factorial design; (1) CoM IS (n = 16 litters), (2) CoM NoIS (n = 14 litters), (3) NoCoM IS (n = 16 litters), (4) NoCoM NoIS (n = 13 litters). Measurements are compared within each of the main effects (CoM or IS) unless otherwise stated. Acute weaning stress was evidenced by increases in cortisol, haptoglobin and N:L ratios when data were combined (P < 0.001). However, there were tendencies (P < 0.1) for lower cortisol in IS pigs and higher N:L ratios in CoM pigs at weaning. While CoM did not affect performance before weaning, growth (P < 0.05), feed intake (P < 0.05) and body weight (P < 0.05) were reduced in CoM pigs 7 to 14 days after weaning. One week of IS before weaning improved feed intake before weaning (P < 0.01), resulting in better growth (P = 0.01) and a tendency (P < 0.1)' for a higher feed intake 2 to 7 days after weaning. Co-mingled piglets had more scratches 4 days before weaning (P < 0.001), but tended to have fewer scratches 2 days after weaning (P < 0.1). Pigs exposed to either IS or CoM displayed more sleeping behaviour the day after weaning (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). A higher mannitol absorption was evident in CoM NoIS pigs 3 days after weaning (P < 0.01), and galactose absorption was reduced in IS pigs 3 days before weaning (P < 0.05) and tended to be reduced 3 days after weaning (P < 0.1), likely reflecting a GIT adaptive response. Overall, despite improvements in mannitol absorption and behaviour, there was no beneficial effect of CoM on performance after weaning. Alternatively, IS improved behaviour and performance during the first week after weaning.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:42:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.006
  • Measurement of abomasal conditions (pH, pressure and temperature) in
           healthy and diarrheic dairy calves using a wireless ambulatory capsule
    • Authors: Thomas Hildebrandt; Eberhard Scheuch; Werner Weitschies; Michael Grimm; Felix Schneider; Lisa Bachmann; Ingrid Vervuert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Thomas Hildebrandt, Eberhard Scheuch, Werner Weitschies, Michael Grimm, Felix Schneider, Lisa Bachmann, Ingrid Vervuert
      This study investigated abomasal luminal parameters in healthy and diarrheic calves by using a wireless ambulatory capsule (WAC). The acetaminophen absorption test (APAT) was used to determine abomasal emptying rate. Four healthy and five diarrheic female Holstein-Friesian calves (age < 14 days) were included in the study. For APAT, calves were fed 2L of milk replacer containing 50mg acetaminophen/kg body weight, and blood samples were taken during a 12-h period afterward. Concomitantly, a WAC in the abomasum continuously measured luminal pH, pressure, and temperature. Five hours post suckling, intraluminal temperature was significantly higher in diarrheic calves than in healthy calves. Abomasal pH and pressure were not significantly different, but intraluminal pressure was always numerically lower in diarrheic calves. During APAT no significant differences in maximum acetaminophen concentrations (Cmax) and time to reach maximum acetaminophen concentration (Tmax) were observed. Nonlinear regression findings revealed a longer acetaminophen half-time (AAP t1/2) in diarrheic calves compared to healthy calves [564 ± 96min vs. 393 ± 84min, respectively; P = 0.04] and lower area under the concentration curve values (e.g., 60min postprandial AUC60 681 ± 244 (µg∙min)/mL vs. 1064 ± 23 (µg∙min)/mL, respectively; P = 0.04). In conclusion, abomasal luminal conditions were different between diarrheic and healthy calves. Significant differences in APAT reflected a delay in abomasal emptying in diarrheic calves. Impaired abomasal movement may induce enhanced bacterial fermentation processes as indicated by a higher abomasal temperature in diarrheic calves, which should be considered in management of their feeding.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T14:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.06.011
  • Effects of a dietary supplementation with zinc oxide nanoparticles,
           compared to zinc oxide and zinc methionine, on performance, egg quality,
           and zinc status of laying hens
    • Authors: M. Abedini; F. Shariatmadari; M.A. Karimi Torshizi; H. Ahmadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Abedini, F. Shariatmadari, M.A. Karimi Torshizi, H. Ahmadi
      An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with different Zn sources on performance, egg quality, bone parameters, Zn status, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) content in laying hens. A total of 192 laying hens at 52 wk of age, with the initial average body weight of 1.53 ± 0.02kg, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 4 replicate cages and 12 laying hens per cage. Dietary treatments included the corn-soybean meal based diet (without Zn supplementation), and basal diet supplemented with 80mg Zn/kg diet from Zn oxide-nanoparticles (ZnO-NP), Zn oxide, and Zn-Met. The results showed that dietary Zn supplementation had no effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live body weight, and egg loss. However, the greatest egg production and egg weight observed in ZnO-NP and Zn-Met treatments respectively (P < 0.05). Laying hens fed diets supplemented with ZnO-NP and Zn-Met had a greater egg mass compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, Zn supplementation increased egg shell weight and Haugh unit (P < 0.05). Dietary ZnO-NP supplementation increased egg shell thickness and egg shell strength, as compared to control (P < 0.05). The bone breaking strength and ash weight was greater in ZnO-NP and Zn-Met treatments, respectively (P < 0.05). The Zn deposition in tibia, liver, pancreas, and egg was greater in laying hens fed ZnO-NP and Zn-Met (P < 0.01). Plasma Zn status was not influenced by treatments. In treatments supplemented with ZnO-NP and Zn-Met, the SOD in the liver and pancreas were greater than the other treatments (P < 0.01). The MDA content in egg was reduced in treatments supplemented with Zn (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this study has shown that supplementation of a diet with ZnO-NP be a suitable source of zinc for laying hens.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T14:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.06.010
  • Effect of tannins-rich extract from Acacia mearnsii or monensin as feed
           additives on ruminal fermentation efficiency in cattle
    • Authors: F. Perna Junior; E.C.O. Cassiano; M.F. Martins; L.A.S. Romero; D.C.V. Zapata; L.A. Pinedo; C.T. Marino; P.H.M. Rodrigues
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): F. Perna Junior, E.C.O. Cassiano, M.F. Martins, L.A.S. Romero, D.C.V. Zapata, L.A. Pinedo, C.T. Marino, P.H.M. Rodrigues
      Methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, is considered to be a significant loss of productive potential in ruminants. The objective was to evaluate the effect of monensin and Acacia mearnsii tannins on ruminal fermentation efficiency in cattle. Six rumen-cannulated cows were distributed three diets, each of which differed in the additive used, in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experimental design. Treatments were the Control, Monensin (300mg per animal and day or about 18mg/kg of dry matter - DM) and a tannin-rich extract from Acacia mearnsii (100g per animal and day or about 0.6% of DM). Each experimental period consisted of 21 days; the first 15 days were used for diet adaptation and the last 5 days for data collection. On experimental day 21, ruminal pH was analyzed by a continuous measurement probe. In order to quantify short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), methane (CH4), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen) production, protozoa and the ruminal dynamics, rumen contents were sampled prior to and 3, 6, 9 and 12hours after morning feeding. The fermentation technique consisted of incubation of liquid and solid rumen contents in bottles in a water bath (39°C) for 30minutes. Subsequent measurement of methane production was made using gas chromatography and used for the final estimation of Relative Energy Loss (REL). There was no effect (P>0.05) of additives on pH, ruminal DM disappearance rate, the concentrations of NH3-N, the production of acetic or butyric acids or the total ruminal SCFA. Monensin treatment was responsible for reducing CH4 production by 10.7%, whereas tannin inclusion reduced it by 8.0%, when compared to the control treatment. The REL was decreased (P<0.05) by 20.3% and 23.8% with tannin and monensin administration, respectively. Additionally, monensin increased propionic acid production by 39.5% when compared to the control treatment (P<0.05); therefore, the short-term use monensin or tannin in diets with the same proportion of roughage and concentrate has shown to be a viable option when formulating cattle diets aimed at improving energy efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T14:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.06.009
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