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Journal Cover   European Journal of Agronomy
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 60]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1161-0301
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Modelling gross margins and potential N exports from cropland in
           south-eastern Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2013
      Source:European Journal of Agronomy, Volume 47
      Author(s): David Nash , Penny Riffkin , Robert Harris , Alan Blackburn , Cam Nicholson , Mark McDonald
      This study simulated the economic and environmental performance of three types of wheat sown into soils with three initial N contents and using ten different fertiliser management strategies. The Agricultural Productions Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to model crop yields for which gross margins were estimated and a Bayesian Network used to estimate environmental risk. Based on economic and environmental considerations, it would appear that for low N soils more than 10kgN/ha is needed at sowing. For soils with medium to high N, short and medium season wheat varieties need only 10kgN/ha, while long season varieties require >10kgN/ha, at sowing. Additional N fertiliser can be applied after sowing to maximise gross margins, taking into account potential crop yield and seasonal conditions. Interestingly, the study suggests that where farmers increase their gross margins they are improving their environmental performance. This is counter intuitive as it implies N fertiliser applications can lessen N exports. This results from the enhanced water uptake by the crop outweighing the adverse effects of increased N availability. It would appear that flexible cropping systems that maximise crop potential with minimum sowing N, maximise both economic and environmental performance.
      Highlights ► Fertiliser application to crops on low N soils can lower total N exports. ► Management of fertiliser to maximise gross margins may minimise N exports. ► Bayesian Networks can help improve fertiliser management in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2015-06-25T22:00:12Z
  • Phosphorus levels in croplands of the European Union with implications for
           P fertilizer use
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:European Journal of Agronomy, Volume 55
      Author(s): Gergely Tóth , Rannveig-Anna Guicharnaud , Brigitta Tóth , Tamás Hermann
      In the frame of the Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame Survey sampling of topsoil was carried out on around 22,000 points in 25 EU Member States in 2009 and in additional 2 Member States in 2012. Besides other basic soil properties soil phosphorus (P) content of the samples were also measured in a single laboratory in both years. Based on the results of the LUCAS topsoil survey we performed an assessment of plant available P status of European croplands. Higher P levels can be observed in regions where higher crop yields can be expected and where high fertilizer P inputs are reported. Plant available phosphorus levels were determined using two selected fertilizer recommendation systems: one from Hungary and one from the United Kingdom. The fertilizer recommendation system of the UK does not recommend additional fertilizer use on croplands with highest P supply, which covers regions mostly in Belgium and the Netherlands. According to a Hungarian advisory system there is a need for fertilizer P input in all regions of the EU. We established a P fertilizer need map based on integrating results from the two systems. Based on data from 2009 and 2012, P input demand of croplands in the European Union was estimated to 3,849,873  tons ( P 2 O 5 ) / year . Meanwhile we found disparities of calculated input need and reported fertilizer statistics both on local (country) scale and EU level. The first ever uniform topsoil P survey of the EU highlights the contradictions between soil P management of different countries of the Union and the inconsistencies between reported P fertilizer consumption and advised P doses. Our analysis shows a status of a baseline period of the years 2009 and 2012, while a repeated LUCAS topsoil survey can be a useful tool to monitor future changes of nutrient levels, including P in soils of the EU.

      PubDate: 2015-06-25T22:00:12Z
  • Changes in bread-making quality attributes of bread wheat varieties
           cultivated in Spain during the 20th century
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:European Journal of Agronomy, Volume 63
      Author(s): Miguel Sanchez-Garcia , Fanny Álvaro , Ariadna Peremarti , Juan A. Martín-Sánchez , Conxita Royo
      Genetic gains in quality traits were assessed in grain samples from 4 field experiments involving 16 bread wheat varieties representative of those most widely cultivated in Spain during the 20th century. The allelic composition at three glutenin loci (Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1) was obtained by PCR-based DNA markers and published references. From 1930 to 2000 grain protein content decreased by −0.030%y−1, or in relative terms by −0.21%y−1, but the protein produced per hectare increased by 0.39%y−1. Alveographic tests revealed significant changes in dough rheological properties. Dough strength (W) and tenacity (P) increased at relative rates of 1.38%y−1 and 0.99%y−1, respectively, while dough extensibility (L) decreased by −0.46%y−1, resulting in an increase of 1.45%y−1in dough equilibrium (P/L). The rise in protein quality could be related to the replacement of the null allele by subunits 1 or 2* at Glu-A1 and the prevalence of subunits 7+8 and 5+10 at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively, in the most recent varieties. Dough extensibility was affected by water input during the crop cycle, this relationship being partially explained by the presence of the 5+10 HMW glutenin subunit. Fermentation tolerance was improved in the most modern varieties. Collapse during fermentation was avoided only in doughs with a W ≥159 J ×10−4 and a P/L ≥0.56mm H2O mm−1, levels achieved by most of the modern varieties. The over-strong and unbalanced rheological properties of some modern varieties resulted in highly porous doughs, and no clear advances in dough maximum height during fermentation were attained.

      PubDate: 2015-06-25T22:00:12Z
  • Breeding effects on the cultivar×environment interaction of durum
           wheat yield
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:European Journal of Agronomy, Volume 68
      Author(s): Joan Subira , Fanny Álvaro , Luis F. García del Moral , Conxita Royo
      Understanding the effect of past durum wheat breeding activities on the cultivar×environment (C×E) interaction of yield and yield components may guide future breeding strategies. A historical series of 24 cultivars released in Italy and Spain during the 20th century was grown in 13 environments with average yields ranging between 1425 and 6670kgha−1. The most important environmental factors affecting the C×E interaction for yield were reference evapotranspiration before anthesis and water input during grain filling. The response of cultivars to environmental variables in terms of yield and yield components was associated to the allelic composition for the Rht-B1 locus. Improved semi-dwarf cultivars (carrying the Rht-B1b allele) had the best yield performance in environments with high water input after anthesis, while tall cultivars (carrying allele Rht-B1a) were better adapted to environments with high evapotranspirative demand before anthesis and low water input after it. The introduction of the Rht-B1b allele improved the capacity of the crop to respond to water availability during grain filling by increasing the number of grains spike−1 and grain weight. Yield increases due to breeding caused a loss of stability from the static viewpoint, but not from a dynamic approach based on the superiority measure (Pi ). Some semi-dwarf cultivars maintained the levels of yield stability characteristic of the old tall ones. Our results suggest that durum breeding in the 20th century enhanced the response of the crop to environmental improvements.

      PubDate: 2015-05-18T11:02:54Z
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