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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 821 journals)
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Occupational Psychology, Employment and Disability JOPED     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Open Psychology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pediatric Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 294)
Journal of Personality Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Personality Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Psychological Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy     Open Access  
Journal of Psychology in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Psychosomatic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Psychotherapy & Psychological Disorders     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Russian & East European Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social and Political Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Ontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 240)
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trauma, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Traumatic Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Tropical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trust Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Jung Journal : Culture and Psyche     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Psikologi     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
La Colmena     Open Access  
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Law & Psychology Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Law Text Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Learning & Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lebenswelt : Aesthetics and philosophy of experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lernen und Lernstörungen     Hybrid Journal  
Liberabit. Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Linguistic Evidence in Security, Law and Intelligence     Open Access  
Longitudinal and Life Course Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology     Open Access  
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Mens Sana Monographs     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental     Open Access  
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Mental Health Review Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mentálhigiéné es Pszichoszomatika     Full-text available via subscription  
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Mindfulness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Motivational Interviewing : Training, Research, Implementation, Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Multivariate Behavioral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music Therapy Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Musikterapi i Psykiatrien Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Narrative Works     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Natureza Humana     Open Access  
Netherlands Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Neuro-Disability and Psychotherapy : A Forum for the Practice and Development of Psychological Therapies for Neurological Conditions     Full-text available via subscription  
Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics     Open Access  
Neuropsychoanalysis : An Interdisciplinary Journal for Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover   Motivation and Emotion
  [SJR: 1.121]   [H-I: 45]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Matches between assigned goal-types and both implicit and explicit motive
           dispositions predict goal self-concordance
    • Abstract: Abstract Some individuals feel strong conviction and interest in pursuing personal goals, and minimal pressure and compulsion (i.e., they feel more “self-concordant” in their goal pursuits). Sheldon and colleagues argue that this is because their goals well match their implicit personalities (Sheldon, Pers Soc Psychol Rev 18:349–365, 2014). We evaluated this claim in a new way by first measuring participants’ implicit and explicit Need for Affiliation and Need for Achievement (using the Picture Story Exercise and the Personality Research Form), then randomly assigning them to list and pursue either Relationship or Competence goals during the semester, then measuring the rated self-concordance of the resultant goals. We tested four goal-type by motive-type interactions as predictors of rated self-concordance, finding good support for three of the interaction hypotheses and suggestive support for the fourth. It appears that the self-concordance measure indeed assesses “fit” between personal goals and both implicit and explicit motives.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • What you want to avoid is what you see: Social avoidance motivation
           affects the interpretation of emotional faces
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the effects of habitual social approach and avoidance motivation on the classification of facial expressions of different visual clarity. Participants (N = 78) categorized partially masked emotional faces expressing either anger or happiness as positive or negative. Participants generally tended to interpret the facial expressions in a positive way. This positivity effect was reduced when persons were highly avoidance motivated. Social avoidance motivation predicted fewer positive and more negative interpretations in the least visible condition that provided extremely little information on the facial expression. Thus, people high in social avoidance motivation are likely to have anticipated angry faces as the facial stimuli offered only minimal information. The results for social approach motivation did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, it seems that persons who are most afraid of having negative social interactions (i.e., those high in social avoidance motivation), anticipate and interpret social information in the most negative way, which could lead to the reinforcement of the avoidance motivation.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Too busy to feel neutral: Reducing cognitive resources attenuates neutral
           affective states
    • Abstract: Abstract Researchers often assume that neutral affect is a relatively affectless state, in that it is low in intensity and requires little, if any, cognitive resources to be maintained. In contrast to these assumptions, we examined the hypothesis that reducing one’s cognitive resources would lessen neutral affective experiences. Respondents (1) viewed negative, neutral, or positive photos, (2) completed a task that was or was not cognitively demanding, and (3) rated their negative, neutral, and positive feelings. As predicted, reducing people’s cognitive resources lessened their neutral affect after viewing neutral stimuli, lessened their negative affect after viewing negative stimuli, but did not affect their positive affect after viewing positive stimuli. Contrasting prior assumptions regarding neutral affect, these findings suggest that neutral states possess felt intensity and require cognitive resources to be maintained.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Does optimism moderate mood repair? A daily diary study
    • Abstract: Abstract A naturalistic study was conducted to investigate the influence of optimism on the regulation of daily sad mood. 161 undergraduate students (n = 116, 72 % female) with a mean age of 20.54 years (SD = 5.04) participated. The sample majority was Caucasian (n = 149, 92.5 %). At baseline participants completed questionnaires that included the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) followed by a 7 day online mood, cognition and emotion regulation diary. Correlational analyses revealed LOT-R was associated with active repair, increased use of both adaptive and maladaptive repair strategies, reduced negative cognitions and greater perceived effectiveness, but was unrelated to sadness duration. Multi-level modeling revealed LOT-R did not interact with adaptive and maladaptive mood regulation strategies to predict ability to implement strategies, however perceived effectiveness was less tied to strategy type for those higher on LOT-R. Active repair and perceptions of control over emotions may contribute to enhanced affective functioning associated with optimism.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Relationship autonomy and support provision in romantic relationships
    • Abstract: Abstract Researchers have recently argued that SDT is a fundamental theory of relationship functioning and development. Specifically, prior research has proposed that self-determined motivations to be in one’s relationship—known as relationship autonomy—are associated with more adaptive relationship functioning. While empirical research has explored the association between relationship autonomy and defensiveness, the link with pro-partner behaviors such as support provision has received relatively little attention. The present research tested, across three studies, whether relationship autonomy is associated with more care for one’s partner. Three studies—one cross-sectional, one diary, and one dyadic study—suggest that relationship autonomy is associated with overall supportiveness both in the form of secure base support and basic psychological need support. Additionally, relationship autonomy was associated with less intrusiveness, suggesting that higher relationship autonomy is not simply associated with hyper-vigilance and being overbearing, but rather attention to the partner’s needs.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • The influence of a virtual companion on amusement when watching funny
           films
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigated the role of a virtual companion and trait cheerfulness on the elicitation of amusement. Ninety participants watched funny films in four conditions: either alone, with a virtual companion laughing or verbally expressing amusement at fixed time points (pre-scripted), or additionally joining the participant’s laughter (responsive companion). Amusement was assessed facially and vocally by coding Duchenne Displays and laughter vocalizations. Participants’ cheerful mood pre and post the film watching and positive experience were assessed. Results showed that high trait cheerful individuals generally experienced and expressed more amusement than low trait cheerful individuals. The presence of a virtual companion (compared to being alone) led to more laughter for individuals low in trait cheerfulness. Unexpectedly, the responsive companion did not elicit more amusement than the pre-scripted companion. The general disliking of virtual companions and gelotophobia related negatively to amusement. Amusement expressing virtual companions may be used in interventions aiming at eliciting positive responses, especially for individuals with higher thresholds for amusement.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Need for achievement moderates the effect of motive-relevant challenge on
           salivary cortisol changes
    • Abstract: Abstract The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis plays a key role in the physiological response to stress, preparing the organism for appropriate action. While some research has examined universally relevant threats, other research has suggested that individual differences may moderate the relationship between stress and cortisol release, such that some individuals exhibit modified reactivity to personally relevant stressors or challenges. In the present study we investigated whether one individual difference—the implicit need for achievement—moderates the effect of motive-relevant challenge on salivary cortisol. Participants’ salivary cortisol and felt affect were measured before and after engagement in an achievement task. In the positive- and no-feedback conditions, individuals high in implicit achievement motivation demonstrated increased cortisol response to the task, whereas in the negative feedback condition, individuals high in implicit achievement motivation demonstrated a dampened cortisol response. Furthermore, changes in cortisol were accompanied by changes in felt affect in the same direction, specifically hedonic tone. These results suggest that the HPA axis also responds to non-social-evaluative challenge in a personality-contingent manner.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Regularity of daily activities buffers the negative impact of low
           perceived control on affect
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of the present study was to examine the potential buffering effect of regularity of the duration of time spent on daily activities in the association between perceived control and affect in community-dwelling adults. The sample for the current study was derived from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal follow-up study, MIDUS-II. Findings corroborated the association between a general sense of perceived control and positive and negative affect. Further, daily regularity was found to moderate the relationships of perceived control and both positive and negative affect. In each case, the findings suggest that individuals who scored lower on perceived control measures were more likely to have better affective outcomes when they demonstrated greater regularity in daily activities. The findings imply the relevance of regularity to affective experiences.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Differences between American and Chinese preschoolers in emotional
           responses to resistance to temptation and mishap contexts
    • Abstract: Abstract Americans typically are more emotionally expressive than Chinese, even in early childhood (Camras et al. in Infancy 11:131–155, 2007; Markus and Kitayama in The self in social psychology. Psychology Press, New York, pp 339–371, 1999; Rothbaum and Rusk in Socioemotional development in cultural context. Guilford Press, New York, pp 99–127, 2011), probably because emotional expression, especially intense or negative expression, disrupts social harmony and is discouraged in Chinese children, but indicates individuality and is more accepted in American children. However, extant research has primarily focused on emotions elicited by relatively primitive stimuli. As highly socialized contexts have particular potential to reveal sociocultural impact on children’s emotional expressiveness, 35 Chinese and 39 American 3-year olds were compared in the current study on a range of emotional indices in two highly socialized, emotionally challenging situations—resistance to temptation and a “mishap” paradigm, in which children were led to believe they broke someone’s toy. American children were more emotionally expressive of happiness and sadness than Chinese children. However, Chinese children’s anger showed a cumulative pattern across contexts, in contrast to Americans’. Findings suggest that differences in emotional expressiveness between American and Chinese children are dimension-specific, emotion-specific, and context-specific. Implications for children’s individualized emotional well-being are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • The dualistic model of passion for work: Discriminate and predictive
           validity with work engagement and workaholism
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this paper was to investigate the discriminant and predictive validity of the dualistic model of passion for work. Harmonious and obsessive passion was compared to work engagement and workaholism in two studies. Study 1 was cross-sectional and supported convergent and discriminant validity of the dualistic model using exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 was cross-lagged and applied confirmatory factor analyses, as well as hierarchical linear modeling to test discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity of harmonious and obsessive passion for work. Predictive validity was supported for obsessive and harmonious passion with respect to wellbeing, but not with respect to performance. When controlling for work engagement and workaholism, harmonious passion was negatively related to burnout and positively related to life satisfaction. In contrast, obsessive passion related positively to burnout and negatively to life satisfaction. Only workaholism predicted variance in supervisor rated organizational citizenship behaviors (negatively related), and none of the included variables were associated with supervisor rated in-role performance.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Motivational determinants of prosocial behavior: What do included, hopeful
           excluded, and hopeless excluded individuals need to behave
           prosocially?
    • Abstract: Abstract In light of the current relevance of analyzing the motivational determinants of prosocial behaviors, an experimental design was applied to examine the influence of rejection sensitivity, affective states, and trust on prosocial behavior in the included versus excluded context. The research was performed at a Spanish university with a sample of 118 students. The results confirm that excluded individuals are more prosocial than included individuals only when they see reconnection as possible (hopeful excluded individuals). The inclusion/exclusion experience moderated (1) the links between rejection sensitivity and both affective states and prosocial behavior, and (2) the mediation of trust between affective states and prosocial behavior. Finally, a predictive model of prosocial behavior moderated by the type of inclusion or exclusion was partially supported. Results indicate the relevance of promoting different variables in included individuals, hopeful excluded individuals, and hopeless excluded individuals for prosocial behavior.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • You’re too much for me: Contagion of motivation depends on
           perceiver-model distance
    • Abstract: Abstract This research aimed to investigate the conditions under which motivational contagion occurs. Based on assimilation/contrast models in priming research, we hypothesized that motivational contagion should only occur in case of moderate distance between perceiver and model’s motivation. A first lab-study supported this hypothesis by showing that the effect of the exposure to a model presented as highly intrinsically motivated (compared to a model presented as moderately intrinsically motivated or to a not-presented model) depended on participants’ initial intrinsic motivation. While it led intrinsically motivated participants to invest more effort to learn a new activity, those who were weakly intrinsically motivated exerted less effort. A second study in a real educational context confirmed our hypothesis by showing that weakly intrinsically motivated students invested more effort during a physical education term when yoked with a peer with a moderate intrinsic motivation than when yoked a highly intrinsically motivated peer.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Pursuing the good life: A short-term follow-up study of the role of
           positive/negative emotions and ego-resilience in personal goal striving
           and eudaimonic well-being
    • Abstract: Abstract Using the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson in Rev Gen Psychol 2:300–319, 1998) as a foundation, this research examined the role of positive emotion and ego-resilience in personal goal striving and eudaimonic well-being. Undergraduate students (N = 129; 71 % women) completed measures of ego-resilience and positive emotions, viewed either a positive emotion inducing video (amusement or awe) or a neutral (control) video, and then listed their personal goals for the upcoming 4 weeks. Four weeks later, participants completed measures of goal progress, eudaimonic well-being, positive emotions, and ego-resilience. The results of the emotion manipulation revealed that individuals in the awe condition reported significantly more personal growth goals. Self-reported positive emotions predicted increased ego-resilience supporting Fredrickson’s (Rev Gen Psychol 2:300–319, 1998) hypothesis that positive emotions ‘build’ resources. Ego-resilience partially mediated the relationship between positive emotions and eudaimonic well-being. These results suggest that positive emotions and ego-resilience jointly support well-being.
      PubDate: 2015-04-03
       
  • Implicit motives and leadership performance revisited: What constitutes
           the leadership motive pattern?
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous research suggests that a combination of high need for power, low need for affiliation, and high activity inhibition—the so-called leadership motive pattern—is related to high leader effectiveness. However, when studying this relation, research has mainly relied on a typological approach based on dichotomous configurations of motives instead of using a dimensional approach via regression analysis with interaction terms. Applying the latter approach, we explored separate and interactive effects of need for power, need for affiliation, and activity inhibition on managerial performance. We administered picture story exercises to 70 managers, and found the three-way interaction between predictors to account for increases in income and team goal attainment. Follow-up analyses indicated that managers are most successful when they are high in all three predictors.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Influence of motivation to quit smoking on the startle reflex: differences
           between smokers in different stages of change
    • Abstract: Abstract Studies that have investigated the effect of motivation to change on the startle reflex have been limited to comparisons among smokers with low and high motivation, but differences in the startle reflex throughout all stages of change have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify differences in the startle reflex in response to tobacco-related cues in smokers in the initial, intermediate, and final stages of change. The startle reflex was recorded in 67 smokers and ex-smokers while they viewed pleasant, neutral, unpleasant, and tobacco-related pictures. The results showed that the pattern of the startle reflex in response to tobacco-related pictures varied according to the motivation to change. In smokers in the initial stages, the magnitude of the startle reflex was similar between tobacco-related pictures and pleasant pictures. In smokers in intermediate stages, the magnitude of the startle reflex was similar between tobacco-related pictures and unpleasant pictures. In ex-smokers in the final stages, the magnitude of the startle reflex was similar between tobacco-related pictures and neutral pictures. These results suggest that motivational systems that are activated by tobacco-related cues vary according to smokers’ motivation to change.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • The effect of age and time perspective on implicit motives
    • Abstract: Abstract People differ in how open-ended or limited they perceive their future. We argue that individual differences in future time perspective affect the activation of implicit motives. Perceiving the time remaining for the satisfaction of one’s motives as limited should be associated with a higher activation of these motives than perceiving one’s future as more open-ended. Given that future time perspective decreases across adulthood, older adults should score higher on implicit motives than younger adults. This hypothesis was supported in a study with young (n = 53, age M = 25.60 years) and older adults (n = 55, age M = 68.05 years). Additionally, an experimental manipulation of future time perspective showed that age-related differences in implicit motives are influenced by future time perspective. These findings demonstrate that future time perspective is an important factor to explain the strength of motives.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • The relationship of basic need satisfaction, motivational climate and
           personality to well-being and stress patterns among elite athletes: An
           explorative study
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated whether need satisfaction, need dissatisfaction, motivational climate, perfectionism and self-esteem relate to athletes’ discrete profiles of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and perceived stress. Participants were 103 elite active orienteers (49 men and 54 women; mean age = 22.3 ± 4.4) who clustered into three distinctive well-being and stress patterns: Cluster 1 (lower well-being/higher stress; n = 26), Cluster 2 (higher well-being/lower stress; n = 39), and Cluster 3 (moderate well-being/moderate stress; n = 36). Cluster 1 and 2 constituted distinct well-being/stress profiles and differed significantly (p < .01) in mastery-oriented climate, need satisfaction, need dissatisfaction, perfectionistic concerns and self-esteem scores. A discriminant analysis showed these five variables to correctly assign 88 % of Cluster 1 and 2 participants into their respective groups, although mastery-oriented climate was revealed as a less influential indicator (function loading <.40). The substantial function loading of need dissatisfaction supports the importance of assessing both need satisfaction and dissatisfaction as they contribute uniquely to well-being.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Motivated goal pursuit and working memory: Are there age-related
           differences?
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of motivated behaviors linked to achievement goal pursuit on age-related differences in working memory (WM) has not been extensively investigated. In this study, younger and older participants completed a classical 2-back working memory task that included different types of goal-relevant stimuli. In particular, in Experiment 1 we used euro banknotes as stimuli, whereas in Experiment 2 we used Neapolitan playing cards. In Experiment 3, we directly compared working memory performance for euros and Neapolitan playing cards. We chose stimuli to induce different motivated behaviors linked to the pursuit of achievement goals (e.g., mastery, self-referential vs. performance, normative-based) and to examine their effects on working memory performance. Results showed how older adults were able to recognize target stimuli as well as younger adults when stimuli were goal-relevant. However, Neapolitan playing cards produced a greater number of errors, especially in the older adults. Finally, in Experiment 4, the same pattern of results occurred when motivated behavior was promoted using a dispositional induction technique. Our results show that motivated behaviors evoked by qualitatively diverse achievement goals can modulate WM performance in aging.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Older but wiser: Age moderates congruency effects between implicit and
           explicit motives on job satisfaction
    • Abstract: Abstract In the light of an aging workforce, age differences in workers’ motives are important guidelines for an age-differentiated human resource management. Whereas research has addressed age differences in explicit work values or motives, age differences in implicit motives and in the congruency between implicit and explicit motives (i-e-congruency) have been neglected so far. In two studies (N = 201 and 751), we investigated chronological age as a moderator of the relationship between i-e-congruency and job satisfaction. In general, we expected that high i-e-congruency is positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, life-experience and a change in future-work time-perspective should lead to higher i-e-congruency for older than for younger workers. Finally, we hypothesized that the relationship between i-e-congruency and job satisfaction is moderated by workers’ age such that i-e-congruency is more strongly related to job satisfaction for older than for younger workers. Results supported our hypotheses in the affiliation motive domain. Implications for workers’ careers and an age differentiated human resource management are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Cultural differences in recognition of subdued facial expressions of
           emotions
    • Abstract: Abstract A relative in-group advantage for recognizing emotional facial expressions presented at full intensity has been documented. The present study examined whether this in-group advantage also existed for the recognition of subdued expressions. American and Chinese participants judged Caucasian and Chinese angry, sad, and happy expressions at subtle, low, and moderate intensity levels. An in-group advantage was found at the low and moderate intensity levels for angry expressions (the effect was partial at moderate intensity), and at the moderate intensity level for sad expressions. But at milder expression intensities, the in-group advantage disappeared, replaced by a main cultural effect in recognition accuracy. American judges were more accurate than Chinese judges in judging both Caucasian and Chinese expressions at the subtle intensity level for angry expressions and at both the subtle and low intensity levels for sad expressions. The present findings suggest that the in-group advantage resides in recognizing expressions of mid-range intensities but diminishes in recognizing milder expressions, and when the in-group advantage stops, cultural differences in sensitivity to very subtle expressions come to fore, at least for negative emotions involving potential threats to social harmony. The present findings suggest that Americans may be better able to detect very subtle facial expressions of sadness and anger, which may have implications for our understanding of cross-cultural differences in emotion.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
 
 
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