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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 842 journals)
Journal of Intelligence     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access  
Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Latina/o Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Loss and Trauma: International Perspectives on Stress & Coping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mathematical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology     Open Access  
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Neuropsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Occupational Psychology, Employment and Disability JOPED     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Open Psychology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pediatric Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Journal of Personality Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Personality Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Psychological Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy     Open Access  
Journal of Psychology in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychosomatic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Russian & East European Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social and Political Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social Ontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 99)
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trauma, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Traumatic Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Tropical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trust Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Jung Journal : Culture and Psyche     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Psikologi     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
La Colmena     Open Access  
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Language and Text     Open Access  
Law & Psychology Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Law Text Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Learning & Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lebenswelt : Aesthetics and philosophy of experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lernen und Lernstörungen     Hybrid Journal  
Liberabit. Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Linguistic Evidence in Security, Law and Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Longitudinal and Life Course Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology     Open Access  
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Mens Sana Monographs     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental     Open Access  
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Mental Health Review Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Mentálhigiéné es Pszichoszomatika     Full-text available via subscription  
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

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Journal Cover   Motivation and Emotion
  [SJR: 1.121]   [H-I: 45]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Why crying does and sometimes does not seem to alleviate mood: a
           quasi-experimental study
    • Abstract: Abstract Whereas retrospective studies suggest that crying can be beneficial in terms of mood enhancement, results of quasi-experimental laboratory studies consistently demonstrate its negative effects on mood. The present study was specifically designed to evaluate a parsimonious explanation for this paradox by assessing mood after crying in a laboratory, both immediately and at follow up. Mood ratings of 28 objectively established criers and 32 non-criers were compared before and immediately after the exposure to an emotional movie, as well as 20 and 90 min later. As expected, immediately after the film, negative mood significantly increased in criers, while it did not change in non-criers. This mood deterioration was followed by a recovery that resulted in return to the baseline mood levels at the third measurement. Criers subsequently reported mood enhancements at the final measurement compared to the pre-film measurement. Crying frequency did not predict mood changes above those predicted by the presence of crying. The observed relation between crying and more long-term mood recovery reconciles seemingly contrasting earlier results and provides a simple and obvious explanation. After the initial deterioration of mood following crying that was observed in laboratory studies, it apparently takes some time for the mood, not just to recover, but also to become even less negative than before the emotional event, which corresponds to the results of retrospective studies.
      PubDate: 2015-08-23
  • Muslims’ emotions toward Americans predict support for Hezbollah and
           Al Qaeda for threat-specific reasons
    • Abstract: Abstract Using a random sample of 243 Muslims in Lebanon and Syria, we examined whether support for Hezbollah or for Al Qaeda is predicted by functionally-relevant emotional responses to specific threats perceived to be posed by Americans. In line with the sociofunctional approach, perceived resource domination threat from Americans elicited anger, and perceived value contamination threat elicited disgust/contempt toward Americans. Importantly, these intergroup emotions in turn differentially predicted support for Hezbollah and Al Qaeda through desires for the organizations to accomplish different goals to address the threat perceptions. Specifically, anger toward Americans predicted support for Hezbollah through desires for the organization to restore threatened symbolic resources by bringing pride and respect to Arabs. In contrast, disgust/contempt toward Americans predicted support for Al Qaeda through desires for the organization to protect threatened ingroup values by de-contaminating Islam from Western cultural influence. Theoretical explanations and implications for addressing and mitigating hostilities between the groups are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-22
  • In-lecture learning motivation predicts students’ motivation,
           intention, and behaviour for after-lecture learning: Examining the
           trans-contextual model across universities from UK, China, and Pakistan
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a cross-cultural examination of the trans-contextual model in University education setting. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of students’ perceived autonomy support and in-lecture learning motivation on motivation, intention, and behaviour with respect to after-lecture learning via the mediation of the social cognitive variables: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. University students from UK, China, and Pakistan completed the questionnaires of the study variables. Results revealed that in-lecture perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation were positively associated with autonomous motivation and intention to engage in after-lecture learning activities via the mediation of the social cognitive variables in all samples. After controlling for the effect of past behaviour, relations between intention and behaviour were only observed in the Chinese sample. In conclusion, the trans-contextual model can be applied to University education, but cultural differences appear to moderate the predictive power of the model, particularly for the intention-behaviour relationship.
      PubDate: 2015-08-20
  • Guiding others for their own good: Action orientation is associated with
           prosocial enactment of the implicit power motive
    • Abstract: Abstract Prior research has repeatedly documented how people who are implicitly motivated by power motives may hurt other people’s interests. However, people may also enact the implicit power motive (nPower) in a prosocial manner. Using an Operant Motive Test, the authors differentiated five enactment strategies within nPower and investigated personality antecedents and personal benefits of a prosocial enactment strategy. Two studies found that demand-related action orientation (i.e., ability to self-regulate positive affect) was associated with prosocial enactment of nPower. Furthermore, prosocial enactment of nPower was associated with a higher explicit power motive among future teachers (Study 1) and future psychologists (Study 2). Finally, there was an indirect effect of action orientation through the prosocial enactment of nPower on the explicit power motive (Studies 1 and 2) and, in turn, on well-being (Study 2). Our integration of motivation and self-regulation research (the “what” and “how” of goal striving) helps to better understand the dual nature of power motives.
      PubDate: 2015-08-15
  • What about the “ups and downs” in our daily life? The
           influence of affective instability on mental health
    • Abstract: Abstract Although affective instability is considered to be a crucial factor for mental disorders, research on affective instability and mental health is still rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate affective instability and mental health operationalized by the degree of psychological distress and life satisfaction. Using ecological momentary assessment, we investigated affective intensity and instability in a general population sample (n = 218). Psychological distress and life satisfaction were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In general, we found that positive affect was more variable than negative affect. When we accounted for the overlap between variables, our findings demonstrated that besides the effects of intensity in negative affect and positive affect, higher positive affective instability was related to better concurrent mental health. Longitudinally, negative affective intensity was a decisive factor in the development of mental health. In sum, our findings revealed that affective instability was not dysfunctional per se. In fact, instability in positive affect seems to be important to achieve mental health.
      PubDate: 2015-08-15
  • Ego depletion and the use of mental contrasting
    • Abstract: Abstract Mentally contrasting a desired future with present reality leads to goal pursuit in accordance with people’s expectations of realizing the desired future. Because mental contrasting is a purposeful self-regulation strategy that involves mental effort and complex information processing we suspected that people who are depleted or mentally fatigued are less likely to mentally contrast than those who are not. Indeed, participants who performed a depleting first task were less likely to subsequently mentally contrast about an important personal wish than those who performed a nondepleting first task. However, activating the desired future and present reality by priming (Study 1) or increasing the demand for mental contrasting by confronting participants with an impending task (Study 2) counteracted the effect of depletion on the reduced use of mental contrasting. We discuss implications for the use of mental contrasting and the strength model of self-control.
      PubDate: 2015-08-11
  • Approach-motivated positive affect and emotion regulation alter
           global–local focus and food choice
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was designed to investigate how both the experience of approach-motivated positive affect and emotion regulation alter attentional focus and food choice. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Participants in the neutral group were asked to view a series of images that depicted everyday, non-emotional items. Participants in the other two groups viewed a series of images depicting appetizing desserts. One of these groups was asked to naturally view the dessert images, whereas the other group was instructed to reappraise their emotional responses to the delicious desserts (by thinking of the desserts’ negative qualities). Following exposure to the images, data were collected from participants (N = 115) in each of the three groups on global–local focus and subsequent snack selections. Compared to participants in the neutral group, participants who naturally viewed the dessert images evidenced a more local attentional focus on Navon’s (Cognit Psychol 9(3):353–383, 1977) letters task. Relative to those who naturally viewed the dessert images, participants asked to reappraise (down-regulate) to the dessert images evidenced a more global attentional focus and took significantly more healthy compared to unhealthy snacks. This is the first evidence indicating that the use of emotion regulation can alter the impact of approach motivated stimuli on subsequent global–local focus and eating behavior.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Divergent effects of reappraisal and labeling internal affective feelings
           on subjective emotional experience
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous experimental studies on the effects of affect labeling have examined labeling of external affective events, primarily. Few studies have examined the consequences of labeling one’s internal affective state. The current study tested the effects of labeling one’s internal affective state in response to negatively valenced images on concurrent reaction time performance, subjective ratings of emotion, and skin conductance responses, compared to a reappraisal instruction and a view instruction. Consistent with prior research, reappraisal resulted in slower reaction times on the concurrent auditory discrimination task and reduced subjective ratings of emotion, compared with the view instruction. In contrast, affect labeling resulted in increased subjective ratings of emotion, but had no effect on reaction times. Skin conductance responses were higher for unpleasant than neutral pictures but did not differ across instruction type. The results suggest further research directly comparing the consequences of labeling internal affective feelings versus labeling external affective events is warranted.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • The moderating role of specific self-efficacy in the impact of positive
           mood on cognitive performance
    • Abstract: Abstract Research concerning the impact of positive mood on cognitive performance is inconsistent. We suggest that specific self-efficacy moderates this relationship. The current study proposed that participants in a positive mood with a high level of specific self-efficacy would anticipate mood-maintaining success on a task. Hence, they would be more strongly motivated, and perform better on the task, than individuals in other moods. Conversely, participants in a positive mood with low specific self-efficacy should expect mood-threatening failure. Thus, these individuals should be less motivated and perform more poorly than individuals in other moods. The current study included 139 participants with different levels of specific self-efficacy performing a comprehension task in either a positive or negative mood or a control condition. Results confirmed our hypothesis whereby specific self-efficacy affects cognitive performance but only during a positive mood. These findings support the role of specific self-efficacy in maintaining positive mood by regulating task activity.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Separating the effects of task load and task motivation on the
           effort–fatigue relationship
    • Abstract: Abstract A study is reported on the effects of task load and task motivation on the relationship between effort and fatigue in a demanding life-support simulation, aimed to test the hypothesis that effort, rather than demands, was the direct cause of fatigue in task performance. This was done by independently manipulating two factors that affect effort: task load and task motivation. A total of 28 participants were tested in a mixed 3 × 2 factorial design; task load (within-Ss) was varied in terms of the number of manual control systems (1, 3 or 5) that needed to be managed during a 100 min session, while task motivation (between-Ss) was defined by instructions (standard vs. enhanced) designed to influence the level of voluntary commitment to task goals. Effort and fatigue were measured by self report, as were perceived demands and anxiety (included as manipulation checks). While both task load and task motivation led to an increase in effort, there was a stronger fatigue response to task load under enhanced task motivation. As predicted, while both perceived demands and anxiety increased with task load, they were not affected by task motivation. An independent assessment of after-effects of fatigue on a fault finding task showed an increased use of low effort strategies under enhanced task motivation. The findings support the hypothesized effort → fatigue linkage. During task performance, fatigue is a consequence not of task demands per se, but of the level of commitment of effort in meeting demands.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Is emotion suppression beneficial or harmful? It depends on
           self-regulatory strength
    • Abstract: Abstract The emotion regulation strategy of expressive suppression intervenes late in the process of emotion generation and encompasses two self-control tasks: the inhibition of the experience of emotion and the inhibition of the expression of emotion. Thus, expressive suppression requires effortful self-control, and therefore the consequences of expressive suppression may differ depending on self-regulatory strength. We examined the influence of trait self-regulatory strength on the outcomes of spontaneous expressive suppression in 102 participants who discussed a topic of conflict with their partners. Self-regulatory strength was assessed via high-frequency heart rate variability measured at rest (HF-HRV). As expected, expressive suppression was positively associated with negative affect in participants with low (but not high) HF-HRV. Furthermore, expressive suppression was positively associated with the partner’s relationship satisfaction and constructive social behavior in participants with high (but not low) HF-HRV. To conclude, the present research demonstrates how considering expressive suppression as an act of self-control can yield a more differentiated perspective on the outcomes of expressive suppression.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Differential effects of emotional expressions and scenes on visual search
    • Abstract: Abstract Although research has shown that emotional content modulates attention, such studies often differ in the types of stimuli used to evoke emotions. Some studies utilize emotionally valenced scenes and others utilize emotional facial expressions. Importantly, the comparability of the effect of these two stimulus classes on attention is unclear. In the present experiments, we contrasted the effects of emotional scenes and facial expressions with the same valence on visual search speed. Overall, scenes caused greater disruption in visual search than faces, and emotional content appeared to modulate this effect with larger differences between scenes and faces arising for more negatively valenced stimuli. This pattern of findings was largely replicated after varying task difficulty in Study 2 and the visual properties of the search array and task difficulty in Study 3. These findings indicate that emotional scenes and faces produce differential effects on attention, and suggest that negative emotional scenes are particularly potent in disrupting the allocation of attention.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • The awareness of death reduces subjective vitality and self-regulatory
           energy for individuals with low interdependent self-construal
    • Abstract: Abstract Existentialists have proposed that defining the self in terms of social groups—interdependent self-construal—helps maintain adaptive psychological functioning in the face of death awareness. Supporting this idea, research has demonstrated that when the awareness of death is experimentally heightened, individuals display greater investment in their social groups. No research, however, has directly tested the fundamental assertion that the awareness of death aversely effects psychological functioning for those without an interdependent self-construal. To provide an initial test of this claim, we examined the extent to which the awareness of death compromises the subjective sense of energy and aliveness (i.e., vitality) and self-regulatory energy at varying levels of interdependent self-construal. Specifically, in two experiments, we measured interdependent self-construal, experimentally heightened the awareness of death, and subsequently measured subjective vitality (Study 1) and self-regulation (Study 2). Results demonstrated that heightened death awareness reduced subjective vitality and self-regulation, but only for individuals with low, not high, levels of interdependent self-construal.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Motivational systems and autonomic functioning: Overlapping and
           differential contributions to anhedonic depression and anxious arousal
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined multiple aspects of temperament in order to better understand the distinction and overlap between anxious and depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Temperament was measured at the motivational level via self-reported behavioral inhibition (BI) and behavioral activation (BA) and at the physiological level via autonomic functioning [i.e., skin conductance levels (SCL) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)]. Emerging adults (N = 170) reported on their BI and BA; SCL and RSA baseline scores were averaged during a 6-min resting period. Results revealed that high RSA was associated with fewer anhedonic depressive symptoms independent of BI and BA, whereas SCL contributed to anhedonic depressive symptoms through a three-way interaction with BI and BA. Specifically, high SCL exacerbated anhedonic depressive symptoms for individuals exhibiting profiles of high BI/low BA and low BI/high BA. This study highlights the importance of examining the unique interactions between psychophysiological and self-report measures of temperament when studying the development of internalizing symptoms in emerging adulthood.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Are you feeling what I’m feeling? The role of facial mimicry in
           facilitating reconnection following social exclusion
    • Abstract: Abstract The present work investigated the interpersonal functions of facial mimicry after social exclusion. Specifically, we examined two distinct functions that facial mimicry may serve in promoting reconnection: facilitating the understanding of others’ emotions and/or fostering interpersonal rapport. Using a novel facial mimicry paradigm, we found that although people exhibited both greater facial mimicry (Studies 1 and 2) and superior emotion-decoding accuracy (Study 2) after exclusion, facial mimicry did not mediate the relationship between exclusion and decoding accuracy (Study 2). Instead, we found support for facial mimicry serving to promote interpersonal rapport. Specifically, in Study 3, naïve judges rated videos of target-participant pairs from Study 1 for social closeness. Findings indicated that pairs with a previously-excluded participant were rated as socially closer than pairs with a previously-included participant (Study 3). Importantly, enhanced facial mimicry was found to mediate the relationship between exclusion and rated closeness. Altogether these findings suggest that facial mimicry may promote reconnection after social exclusion by fostering rapport.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Individual differences in response to uncertainty and decision making: The
           role of behavioral inhibition system and need for closure
    • Abstract: Abstract In two studies, we examined the influence of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and need for closure (NFC) on information processing in decision making. We expected that BIS would regulate behavior in a decisional context and that this relationship would be mediated by epistemic motivation expressed by NFC. In addition, drawing on contradictory findings in the literature on anxiety, NFC, and information processing, we investigated the moderating role of decision rules. The results supported our predictions. BIS was strongly and positively related to NFC, and through NFC it was related to decision-making style. Moreover, decision task characteristics moderated the relationship between NFC and decision making. When a task did not offer a confident decision rule, high NFC participants prolonged the information search more than low NFC individuals. However, when a reliable strategy was suggested, high NFC participants behaved in line with it. These results are discussed within an uncertainty management framework.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Affect variation across days of the week: influences of perfectionism and
           academic motivation
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study used a prospective design and the assessment of personal goals to examine the relation of self-critical and personal standards perfectionism to affective variation across days of the week. University students completed baseline measures of perfectionism and subsequently reported their nightly affect for seven consecutive days. Participants also listed four important personal goals for the academic year and rated their autonomous and controlled motivation for these goals. The expected pattern of affect variation across the week was obtained—highest positive affect on Saturday followed by a drop on Monday which continued through Thursday. The two forms of perfectionism were significantly related to daily affect on Monday, but in opposite ways, and these opposing patterns were mediated by differences in motivation for academic goals. Self-critical perfectionists felt highly controlled about their academic goals and responded negatively to the resumption of school on Monday. Personal standard perfectionists felt highly autonomous about their academic goals and responded positively to the return to school on Monday. The two forms of perfectionism were unrelated to affect experienced on Saturdays. The study suggests that personality and motivational factors can be used to understand affect variation from the weekend to the start of the week.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • The importance of disaggregating within-person changes and individual
           differences among internalized motives, self-esteem and self-efficacy
    • Abstract: Abstract Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the implications of differentiating between within-person weekly changes and between-person differences in average levels of autonomy support and internalized motivation for one’s self-esteem and self-efficacy. Thirty-nine adults who were socially disadvantaged and unemployed completed weekly questionnaire assessments over 11-weeks of a sports-based educational program. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-person changes in perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted identified regulation and introjected regulation; however, between-person differences in perceived autonomy support predicted identified regulation only. Within-person changes in introjected regulation positively predicted global self-esteem and self-efficacy towards future employment in coaching; however, between-person differences in introjected regulation negatively predicted self-esteem and self-efficacy. In contrast, within-person changes in identified regulation, as well as between-person differences, were positively associated with self-efficacy. Between-person differences in identified regulation also positively predicted self-esteem. It was also demonstrated that many of these contrasting relationships are hidden if the different processes are not disaggregated. As a result, we propose that different internalization processes exist which depend on whether within-person changes or sustained levels of motivation are explored.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Allometric control of daily mood and anxiety fluctuations
    • Abstract: Abstract It is widely assumed that homeostatic control mechanisms regulate mood fluctuations whenever they deviate from a single set point. However, these mechanisms seem to be insufficient to explain the rich flexibility shown by the affective system. Much like the multistable physiological systems that operate on different time scales under allometric control, the affective system may show multistability. In this study, we looked for the signature of multistability, i.e. scaling, to test the hypothesis that mood and anxiety fluctuations are under allometric control, and we explored the associations between scaling and several emotion regulation strategies. Thirty-two undergraduate students reported mood and anxiety scores three times per day for a period of 50 days. Each time series was analyzed to obtain the scaling exponent h. In all cases .5 < h < 1, thus lending support to the main hypothesis of the study. Anxiety scaling exponents were associated with both positive reappraisal and refocusing strategies. Future research should focus on the association between the loss of multistability and socioemotional unflexibility.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Torn between want and should: An experience-sampling study on motivational
           conflict, well-being, self-control, and mindfulness
    • Abstract: Abstract We assumed that situations of motivational want conflict (i.e., feeling that one wants to do something else) and should conflict (i.e., thinking that one should do something else) show differential relationships to different components of well-being because more affective or more cognitive motivational aspects are ignored, respectively. Moreover, we assumed that these differences contribute to the understanding of different self-regulatory styles. Using an experience-sampling approach, 58 university students indicated their current affect, the underlying form of motivation, and whether they experienced a want or a should conflict regarding their daily activities (N = 2376). Furthermore, we assessed participants’ self-control and mindfulness before and life satisfaction after the experience-sampling period. As expected, want conflicts came along with lower affective well-being, but were unrelated to cognitive life satisfaction. Although should conflicts also yielded a small, negative association with some aspects of affective well-being, overall, their negative relation with life satisfaction was more pronounced. Positive paths of self-control on affective well-being were mediated via less want and should conflicts, whereas positive paths of both mindfulness and self-control on life satisfaction were mediated via less should conflicts. The relative importance of want and should conflicts in daily self-regulation and well-being is discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
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