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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 873 journals)
Showing 801 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Social Issues and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Psychological and Personality Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Social Psychology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spatial Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spirituality in Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Studi Junghiani     Full-text available via subscription  
Stylus (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
SUCHT - Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Praxis / Journal of Addiction Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Suma Psicologica     Open Access  
Swiss Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access  
Tätigkeitstheorie : E-Journal for Activity Theoretical Research in Germany     Open Access  
Teaching of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Temas em Psicologia     Open Access  
Tempo Psicanalitico     Open Access  
Terapia familiare     Full-text available via subscription  
Terapia Psicológica     Open Access  
Tesis Psicologica     Open Access  
TESTFÓRUM     Open Access  
The Arts in Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Clinical Neuropsychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Humanistic Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The International Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Journals of Gerontology : Series B : Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Communities : The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Thinking & Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tobacco Use Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transactional Analysis Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Trivium : Estudos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Undecidable Unconscious : A Journal of Deconstruction and Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Psychology     Open Access  
Universitas Psychologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unoesc & Ciência - ACHS     Open Access  
Vinculo - Revista do NESME     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Violence and Gender     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Visnyk of NTUU - Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogics     Open Access  
Voices : A World Forum for Music Therapy     Open Access  
Voices : The Art and Science of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Wawasan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Winnicott e-prints     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Arbeits - und Organisationspsychologie A&O     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für die Notarpraxis     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Zeitschrift für Gerontopsychologie und -psychiatrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Гуманітарний вісник Запорізької державної інженерної академії     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Motivation and Emotion
  [SJR: 1.186]   [H-I: 56]   [25 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Change in physical and psychological health over time in patients with
           cardiovascular disease: on the benefits of being self-determined,
           physically active, and eating well
    • Authors: Camille Guertin; Luc G. Pelletier; Claudie Émond; Gilles Lalande
      Pages: 294 - 307
      Abstract: This study tested a longitudinal model examining the roles of motivation and perceived competence in the prediction of physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) in individuals with cardiovascular diseases, and the effects of adopting these behaviors on individuals’ health. Participants completed measures of global motivation (baseline), contextual motivation and perceived competence for PA and HE (3 months), and self-reports of PA and HE behaviors (6 months). Physiological indicators and life satisfaction were assessed at the baseline and at 12 months. Structural equation modeling supported that individuals with self-determined motivation (SDM) were more likely to feel competent in changing their lifestyle and to engage in moderate and strenuous (vs. mild) exercise and HE behaviors, which had beneficial effects on individuals’ physiological and psychological health. This research confirms the respective roles of SDM and perceived competence in the health behavior change process and emphasizes the key function of SDM in the adherence of healthy behaviors over time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9608-8
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2017)
  • Do generation and regulation of emotions interact? Examination of their
           relationships in young adults
    • Authors: Melanie M. Cochrane; Colette M. Smart; Mauricio A. Garcia-Barrera
      Pages: 393 - 401
      Abstract: Emotions can be generated in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of a stimulus (‘bottom up’) and in response to cognitive interpretations of an event (‘top down’). Similarly, emotion regulation (ER) strategies may deploy bottom-up or top-down processes, however the specific nature of these processes remains unclear. In this study we sought to replicate and extend previous studies that have investigated the interaction between ER and emotion generation. Specifically, we examined the relationship between both methods of emotion generation and ER in a sample of 75 undergraduate students who completed self-report questionnaires and a behavioral task of ER. We attempted to extend previous research by testing whether the positive effect of cognitive reappraisal on top-down generated emotions was specific to reappraisal or true of multiple ER strategies. Overall there was a main effect of generation such that top-down generated emotion was better regulated by cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and appraisal strategies. We also found a main effect of ER such that cognitive reappraisal was perceived as the most successful ER strategy. We argue that ER is a state-dependent process that includes dynamic cycles between emotion generation and regulation processes. We further discuss expressive suppression as a top-down emotion regulation strategy in the context of our study despite debated literature.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9609-7
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2017)
  • Emotion dysregulation and threat-related attention bias variability
    • Authors: Joseph R. Bardeen; Thomas A. Daniel; J. Benjamin Hinnant; Holly K. Orcutt
      Pages: 402 - 409
      Abstract: Although theory suggests that a bias for attending to threat information (ABT) may be a biobehavioral process underlying the transdiagnostic vulnerability factor of emotion dysregulation, there is a paucity of empirical evidence showing direct associations between emotion dysregulation and ABT. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between ABT and emotion dysregulation. Participants (N = 200) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires and a modified dot-probe task with both neutral and threat stimuli and four stimulus presentation durations. Task response times were used to examine traditionally calculated ABT scores, as well as attention bias variability (ABV). As predicted, those with greater emotion dysregulation exhibited greater ABV. Importantly, emotion dysregulation was not associated with response time variability on trials for which only neutral stimuli were presented, thus increasing confidence that emotion dysregulation-related ABV is specific to the presence of threat stimuli and not merely a function of general variability in response times. Results suggest that those with greater emotion dysregulation exhibit attentional dyscontrol in the presence of perceived threat that is characterized by dynamic shifts between vigilance and avoidance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9604-z
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2017)
  • Emotions associated with counterfactual comparisons drive decision-making
           in Footbridge-type moral dilemmas
    • Authors: Alessandra Tasso; Michela Sarlo; Lorella Lotto
      Pages: 410 - 418
      Abstract: Based on the dual-process theory of moral judgment, it has been suggested that in Footbridge-type dilemmas the anticipation of the emotional consequences of causing intentional harm might contribute to the decision of rejecting utilitarian resolutions. However, no empirical data have been reported on the emotions felt by participants after their decisions, and the role played by emotions in Trolley-type dilemmas remains to be determined. The present study investigated the specific emotions engaged both after decision choices and after the generation of the counterfactual scenario in Trolley- and Footbridge-type dilemmas. The results support the idea that in Footbridge-type dilemmas decision-making is driven by the attempt to minimize the aversive emotional state evoked by the decision outcome. A greater increase in emotional intensity was found overall for Footbridge-type than Trolley-type dilemmas after the counterfactual generation following typical (non-utilitarian) choices, with guilt, regret, and shame being the emotions that increased most. Critically, in Footbridge-type dilemmas only, typical choices were predicted by the increase in regret intensity experienced after counterfactual generation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9607-9
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 3 (2017)
  • Approach–avoidance of facial affect is moderated by the presence of an
           observer-irrelevant trigger
    • Authors: S. B. Renard; P. J. de Jong; G. H. M. Pijnenborg
      Pages: 265 - 272
      Abstract: This study examined whether approach–avoidance related behaviour elicited by facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger that may influence the observer’s attributions of the actor’s emotion. Participants were shown happy, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions. Half of these were presented with a plausible trigger of the expression (a drink). Approach–avoidance related behaviour was indexed explicitly through a questionnaire (measuring intentions) and implicitly through a manikin version of the affective Simon task (measuring automatic behavioural tendencies). In the absence of an observer-irrelevant trigger, participants expressed the intention to avoid disgusted and approach happy facial expressions. Participants also showed a stronger approach tendency towards happy than towards disgusted facial expressions. The presence of the observer-irrelevant trigger had a moderating effect, decreasing the intention to approach happy and to avoid disgusted expressions. The trigger had no moderating effect on the approach–avoidance tendencies. Thus the influence of an observer-irrelevant trigger appears to reflect more of a controlled than automatic process.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-016-9595-1
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 2 (2017)
  • Aberrations in emotional processing of violence-dependent stimuli are the
           core features of sadism
    • Authors: Janko Međedović
      Pages: 273 - 283
      Abstract: Psychopathy and sadism are personality traits that share emotional deficits and propensity towards violence. However, sadism should be based on additional affective aberrations: pleasant emotional responses to hurting others or witnessing others in pain. In Study 1 (N = 116) emotional responses to violent and peaceful images and their associations with the subclinical trait sadism are analyzed. The results showed that elevated positive emotions when observing violent stimuli and negative emotions as a reaction to peaceful stimuli predicted sadism, even when variance of psychopathy was controlled in the analysis. In Study 2 (N = 156) implicit associations between violence-dependent stimuli (measured by IAT task) and terms describing positive and negative emotions are analyzed. Again, lower negative associations to violent stimuli predicted sadism, together with psychopathic trait of callous affect. The obtained results provide additional clarification of emotional processes in subclinical sadism.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-016-9596-0
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 2 (2017)
  • The augment effect of negative affective background on positive stimulus:
           Two randomized controlled trials
    • Authors: Nan Zhang
      Abstract: Based on the affective endowment-contrast theory, negative affect (NA) is hypothesized to augment positive affect (PA). Study 1 examined this contrast effect (augment effect) in a laboratory setting. Participants (n = 94) were assigned into positive, negative or neutral affective background conditions through false feedback procedure, and then a same positive stimulus was given to all participants. Results indicated that participants in negative condition experienced more feelings of PA and less NA after receiving the positive stimulus compared to the other two conditions. Study 2 investigated this augment effect under naturalistic context. Participants (n = 150) were classified into high positive, high negative, or mild positive affective background groups based on their naturally occurred affects. Then a positive manipulation was giving to all participants. Results indicated that participants in the high negative group experienced the most decrease in feelings of NA after receiving the positive manipulation. Results from the two studies provided evidence to the endowment-contrast theory, indicating that the valance of positive stimulus was augmented under negative affective background.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9621-y
  • A study named desire: Local focus increases approach motivation for
    • Authors: Anne E. Kotynski; Heath A. Demaree
      Abstract: When we desire something, our approach motivation is high. Recent research shows affective states high in approach motivation cause attentional narrowing (localization) (e.g.; Gable and Harmon-Jones in Psychological Science 19:476–482, 2008; Juergensen and Demaree in Motivation and Emotion 39:580–588, 2015). Does the reciprocal relationship exist' That is, when our attention is narrowed, does our motivation to approach something desirable increase' To test this, we primed participants with either global or local attentional focus before viewing images of desirable items (e.g., desserts) or neutral items (e.g., furniture). Relative to participants primed with global attentional focus, participants primed with local attentional focus demonstrated greater approach motivation to desirable desserts compared to neutral items on an Approach Avoidance Task. Despite greater approach motivation for desserts, participants with localized attention did not subjectively rate desserts as more desirable than participants with global attention. These results suggest that increased approach motivation following local priming is evidenced at an implicit level only: participants appear to be unaware of appetitive images’ increased desirability.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9622-x
  • Determinants of depressive mood states in everyday life: An experience
           sampling study
    • Authors: Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; Tanya Karvounis; Rachel Pemberton; Linda Hartley-Clark; Ben Richardson
      Abstract: This study tests relative contributions and time-course of proposed risk/protective factors (e.g., stress, coping, and lack of social interactions) for influencing depressed mood states in daily life. Seventy-three participants completed baseline measurement of major depressive disorder symptomatology, followed by smartphone app-based monitoring of momentary experiences of depressed mood and risk/protective factors for 7 days. All predictors had deteriorating impacts on mood as lag increased, and the optimal lag appears to be less than 120 min. Linear decay in effect sizes was found for physical activity, social interaction, and tiredness, whereas exponential decline in effect sizes was found for stress and coping ability. Stress, coping, and depressed mood at the prior time-point were the best predictors of subsequent mood. These effects did not differ as a function of trait depressive symptom severity. Findings highlight the influence of spacing of assessments in identification and magnitude of predictors of mood states, and provide insights into key drivers of change in mood and their time-course.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9620-z
  • The links between self-determined motivations and behavioral automaticity
           in a variety of real-life behaviors
    • Authors: Rémi Radel; Luc Pelletier; Dusan Pjevac; Boris Cheval
      Abstract: The different motivations postulated by the Self-Determination Theory have proved to be meaningful to predict the level of engagement in a wide variety of life domains. The present research examines the relation between the different forms of self-determined motivation and behavioral automaticity of 12 behaviors associated with different life domains. Following 1743 measurements of self-determination (using a short version of the situational motivational scale, SIMS8), behavioral automaticity (using the self-reported behavioral automaticity index, SRBAI), and behavioral frequency (self-reported number of executions in a unit of time) for 12 various common behaviors collected on 315 young adults (Mage = 20.60 ± 2.87 years) through an online survey, the results of crossed linear mixed models indicated that self-determined motivations are more associated with behavioral automaticity than non-self-determined motivations (intrinsic motivation: β = 0.13, p < .001, identified extrinsic motivation: β = 0.13, p < .001; external extrinsic motivation : β = 0.08, p < .001; amotivation: β = 0.02, p = .433). Furthermore, self-determination played a moderating role between the repetition of behaviors and behavioral automaticity (β = 0.06, p < .002) suggesting that self-determination facilitated automatization, as high level of behavioral automaticity was achieved with less frequent behaviors when behaviors were performed for highly self-determined (β = 0.41, p < .001) than weakly self-determined reasons (β = 0.29, p < .001). The applications of these findings for learning and habit formation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9618-6
  • Seeing bad does good: Relational benefits of accuracy regarding
           partners’ negative moods
    • Authors: Eshkol Rafaeli; Reuma Gadassi; Maryhope Howland; Ayelet Boussi; Gal Lazarus
      Abstract: When would greater empathic accuracy (EA) be an asset and when would it not? In two studies of romantic couples (both employing daily diaries, the second also involving a lab-based video-recall paradigm), we explored the associations between EA (at the day-level, person-level, and in the lab) and an important relationship outcome: negative relationship feelings. Our results show that accuracy is tied more strongly to this relational outcome when negative (vs. positive) moods are the target of empathic judgments. The association between accuracy and (better) feelings was true for both perceivers and targets. Importantly, these associations emerged only in diary-based accuracy scores, and not in the lab-based ones. These results further support the importance of everyday empathic accuracy. They also highlight the need to consider such accuracy as multi-faceted, and in particular, to recognize the differential role of attending to our partners’ negative versus positive moods in daily life.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9614-x
  • When sex doesn’t sell to men: mortality salience, disgust and the appeal
           of products and advertisements featuring sexualized women
    • Authors: Seon Min Lee; Nathan A. Heflick; Joon Woo Park; Heeyoung Kim; Jieun Koo; Seungwoo Chun
      Abstract: Although men typically hold favorable views of advertisements featuring female sexuality, from a Terror Management Theory perspective, this should be less the case when thoughts of human mortality are salient. Two experiments conducted in South Korea supported this hypothesis across a variety of products (e.g., perfume and vodka). Men became more negative towards advertisements featuring female sexuality, and had reduced purchase intentions for those products, after thinking about their own mortality. Study 2 found that these effects were mediated by heightened disgust. Mortality thoughts did not impact women in either study. These findings uniquely demonstrate that thoughts of death interact with female sex-appeal to influence men’s consumer choices, and that disgust mediates these processes. Implications for the role of emotion, and cultural differences, in terror management, for attitudes toward female sexuality, and for marketing strategies are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9615-9
  • Perceiving emotion in non-social targets: The effect of trait empathy on
           emotional contagion through art
    • Authors: Olga Stavrova; Andrea Meckel
      Abstract: This research examines the role of trait empathy in emotional contagion through non-social targets—art objects. Studies 1a and 1b showed that high- (compared to low-) empathy individuals are more likely to infer an artist’s emotions based on the emotional valence of the artwork and, as a result, are more likely to experience the respective emotions themselves. Studies 2a and 2b experimentally manipulated artists’ emotions via revealing details about their personal life. Study 3 experimentally induced positive vs. negative emotions in individuals who then wrote literary texts. These texts were shown to another sample of participants. High- (compared to low-) empathy participants were more like to accurately identify and take on the emotions ostensibly (Studies 2a and 2b) or actually (Study 3) experienced by the “artists”. High-empathy individuals’ enhanced sensitivity to others’ emotions is not restricted to social targets, such as faces, but extends to products of the human mind, such as objects of art.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9619-5
  • Normative goals and the regulation of social behavior: The case of respect
    • Authors: David Dunning
      Abstract: The rational actor model has a long and successful history of explaining human motivation across several disciplinary fields, but its focus on material self-interest fails to explain the many courtesies that people extend to each other and the frequent sacrifices they make on a day-to-day basis. What promotes this pro-social behavior—in particular trust in other people? I argue that interpersonal trust is supported by normative goals, in that people trust others, even complete strangers, because of a sense of what they ought to do, by social rules and obligations they feel they must follow. In particular, people feel they must respect the character of the other person, constrained to act as though the other individual is an honorable human being, irrespective of what they may privately believe. I describe how respect underlies trust in economic games as well as pro-social behavior in other social settings. This focus on normative goals, such as respect, suggests that people do not always act in alignment with their expectations, regulate themselves in terms their actions rather than possible outcomes of those actions, and choose pro-social action not out of desire to benefit others as much as a simple acquiescence to situational demands.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9616-8
  • How guilt leads to reparation? Exploring the processes underlying the
           effects of guilt
    • Authors: Aurélien Graton; François Ric
      Abstract: It is widely assumed that guilt leads people to engage into reparatory behaviors. However, the processes underlying this effect are in need for further specification. Four studies tested potential underlying cognitive mechanisms. Results suggest that guilt increases attention toward positive and reparation-oriented cues (Study 1) and makes attitudes toward reparation-oriented primes more positive (Study 3). No effect was found for accessibility of reparation words (Studies 2a, b). Taken together, these results suggest that guilt leads people to pay more attention to reparation means and to develop a more positive attitude toward reparation means, but does not render reparatory means more accessible. Implications for a better knowledge of guilt’s behavioral consequences are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9612-z
  • Where do desires come from? Positivity offset and negativity bias predict
           implicit attitude toward temptations
    • Authors: Alethea H. Q. Koh; Lile Jia; Edward R. Hirt
      Abstract: Temptations elicit both appetitive and aversive responses because they offer hedonic gratification on the one hand and impede long-term goal pursuit on the other hand (Fujita, Personality and Social Psychology Review 15(4):352–366, 2011). In this paper, we investigate how people’s affective responses toward temptations are regulated by the appetitive and aversive motivational systems. We employ the mini Motivated Action Measure (miniMAM; Lang et al., Communication Methods and Measures 5(2):146–162, 2011) to measure the signature patterns with which the two systems regulate affective activation: positivity offset and negativity bias. We found that positivity offset and negativity bias predict unique variance (5.5%) of dieters’ (N = 312) implicit attitude toward tempting foods, over and above predictors related to behavioral regulation (BIS/BAS: Carver, White, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67:319–333, 1994; BSC: Tangney et al., Journal of Personality 72(2):271–324, 2004). By contrast, positivity offset and negativity bias did not predict dieters’ behavioral intentions for tempting foods. Investigating how the appetitive and aversive systems regulate affective activation apart from behavioral responses offers unique insights into people’s desires towards temptations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9617-7
  • “When the going gets tough, the tough get going”: Motivation towards
           closure and effort investment in the performance of cognitive tasks
    • Authors: Sindhuja Sankaran; Ewa Szumowska; Małgorzata Kossowska
      Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that the need for closure (NFC), which refers to an individual’s aversion toward uncertainty and the desire to quickly reduce it, leads to reluctance to invest effort in judgments and decision making. However, we argue that NFC may lead to either an increase or a decrease in effort depending on the availability of easy vs. difficult means to achieve closure and perceived importance of the task goal. We found that when closure could be achieved via both less and more demanding means, NFC was associated with decreased effort unless the task was perceived as important (Study 1). However, when attaining closure was possible via demanding means only, NFC was associated with increased effort, regardless of the task importance (Study 2). Moreover, NFC was related to choosing a more instrumental strategy for the goal of closure, even if this strategy required effort (Study 3). The results are discussed in the light of cognitive energetics theory.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9613-y
  • On the emotions associated with violations of three moral codes
           (community, autonomy, divinity)
    • Authors: Dolichan Kollareth; James A. Russell
      Abstract: According to CAD theory, different moral domains are associated with different emotions: (C) community violations with contempt, (A) autonomy violations with anger, and (D) divinity violations with disgust. Do people from different cultural groups make the same associations? Three studies (Ns = 120, 240, 240) tested the CAD theory. Participants from three cultural groups—North Americans, North Indians, and South Indians—associated emotions (with words or facial expressions) with vignettes of moral violations. Across all three cultures, moral violations were associated with more than one emotion: all negative rather than positive, anger for most, and disgust for violations involving sex and pathogens. CAD faired poorly, with C and A collapsing, and D limited to sex and pathogens.
      PubDate: 2017-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9611-0
  • Individual differences in hedonic capacity, depressed mood, and affective
           states predict emotional reactivity
    • Authors: Abhishek Saxena; Katherine R. Luking; Deanna M. Barch; David Pagliaccio
      Abstract: Identifying factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in emotional reactivity is central to understanding the basic mechanisms that give rise to adaptive emotion reactivity and to disruptions that may occur in psychopathology. The current study related emotional reactivity in an unselected young adult sample (N = 101) to individual difference factors relevant to emotional functioning and mood pathology, specifically anhedonia, depressed mood, and current affective state. To assess emotional reactivity, participants rated their emotional responses to 100 pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Increased self-reported anhedonia (i.e. reduced hedonic capacity) predicted blunted emotional reactivity to both positive and negative images, relative to neutral images, while elevated depressed mood predicted potentiated emotional reactivity to negative vs. neutral images. Anhedonia also accounted for far greater variance in emotional reactivity than depressed mood. Further, more positive affective state predicted potentiated reactivity to positive versus neutral images while more negative affective state predicted potentiated reactivity to negative versus neutral images beyond effects of anhedonia and depressed mood. The current study identified separable effects of anhedonia, depressed mood, and current affect on emotional reactivity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9610-1
  • “Tears of joy” and “tears and joy?” personal accounts of
           dimorphous and mixed expressions of emotion
    • Authors: Oriana R. Aragón
      Abstract: In this investigation two distinct theoretical frameworks were applied to personal accounts of experiencing both smiles and crying, informally referred to as “tears of joy.” Dimorphous theory posits that such expressions arise from a positive or negative appraisal, and a single corresponding emotional experience. In contrast, mixed emotions theoretically arise from simultaneous positive and negative appraisals, positive and negative emotions, which might also culminate in two expressions of emotion. Across three experimental studies participants were exposed to a positive story, or a story with mixed positive and negative aspects. Participants reported on their appraisals, emotions, and personal accounts of their expressions. Explicit, freely-written, and implicit measures, as well as participants’ own explanations for their reported smiling and crying all converged on patterns supporting both dimorphous and mixed expressions of emotion. Data suggest the subjective experience of both “tears of joy” and “tears and joy.”
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9606-x
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