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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 889 journals)
Showing 801 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
School Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Seeing and Perceiving     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Setting     Full-text available via subscription  
Sexual Abuse A Journal of Research and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Siglo Cero. Revista Española sobre Discapacidad Intelectual     Open Access  
SIGNUM TEMPORIS : Journal of Pedagogy and Psychology     Open Access  
Simmel Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Action : The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Social Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Inquiry into Well-Being     Open Access  
Social Issues and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Psychological and Personality Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Social Psychology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spatial Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spirituality in Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Studi Junghiani     Full-text available via subscription  
Stylus (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
SUCHT - Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Praxis / Journal of Addiction Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Suma Psicologica     Open Access  
Swiss Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tätigkeitstheorie : E-Journal for Activity Theoretical Research in Germany     Open Access  
Teaching of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Temas em Psicologia     Open Access  
Tempo Psicanalitico     Open Access  
Terapia familiare     Full-text available via subscription  
Terapia Psicológica     Open Access  
Tesis Psicologica     Open Access  
TESTFÓRUM     Open Access  
The Arts in Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Clinical Neuropsychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Humanistic Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The International Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Journals of Gerontology : Series B : Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Communities : The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Thinking & Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tobacco Use Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transactional Analysis Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trivium : Estudos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Undecidable Unconscious : A Journal of Deconstruction and Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas Psychologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unoesc & Ciência - ACHS     Open Access  
Vinculo - Revista do NESME     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Violence and Gender     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Visnyk of NTUU - Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogics     Open Access  
Voices : A World Forum for Music Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Voices : The Art and Science of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Wawasan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Winnicott e-prints     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Arbeits - und Organisationspsychologie A&O     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für die Notarpraxis     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zeitschrift für Gerontopsychologie und -psychiatrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Гуманітарний вісник Запорізької державної інженерної академії     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Motivation and Emotion
  [SJR: 1.186]   [H-I: 56]   [27 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Trait anger, neuroticism, and the hostile reaction to provocation:
           examining the hierarchical organization of affective traits in context
    • Authors: Elizabeth Ferguson Leki; Benjamin M. Wilkowski
      Pages: 713 - 729
      Abstract: It has been suggested that the broad trait of neuroticism may predict the tendency to become aggressive when provoked. Based on functionalist theories of emotion, however, we suspected that only the more specific trait of anger would predict such tendencies. To test these competing predictions, two laboratory studies and one daily diary study were conducted. Consistent with functionalist accounts, trait anger consistently predicted the angry emotional and aggressive behavioral response to provocation, even after controlling for neuroticism. This was true in relation to laboratory-based provocations and in provocations experienced in daily life. Neuroticism only predicted a more diverse negative emotional reaction. It is therefore proposed that trait anger clearly elicits an angry emotional response, which directly motivates aggressive behavior. By contrast, neuroticism may lead to a very diverse reaction which elicits different and even contradictory behavioral tendencies.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9637-3
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2017)
  • Why distractors with need-supportive content can mitigate ironic effects
           of thought suppression
    • Authors: Deming Wang; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis; Martin S. Hagger
      Abstract: Thought suppression is a self-regulatory strategy commonly used to avoid unwanted thoughts although it can ironically make unwanted thoughts more intrusive and accessible. To reduce these ironic effects, it is important to explore mechanisms underlying effective suppression. The present study recruited 126 undergraduate students and examined the influence of distractor content on suppression outcomes by examining perceived satisfaction and immersion of distractors as mechanisms of effective suppression. Based on self-determination theory, we proposed that distractors associated with the satisfaction of the psychological need for autonomy would mitigate ironic effects of thought suppression because they would be perceived as satisfying and immersive. Results showed that need-supportive distractors reduced intrusion frequency because they were indeed perceived as more satisfying. Our findings also point towards the unique satisfying properties of distractors involving psychological need satisfaction because effects of single, pleasant and personally relevant distractors have been controlled for. Findings are discussed using Wegner’s (Psychological Review 101:34–52, 1994) theories of thought suppression and principles of self-determination theory.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9653-3
  • Comparison of choose-a-movie and approach–avoidance paradigms to
           measure social motivation
    • Authors: Indu Dubey; Danielle Ropar; Antonia Hamilton
      Abstract: Social motivation is a subjective state which is rather difficult to quantify. It has sometimes been conceptualised as “behavioural effort” to seek social contact. Two paradigms: approach–avoidance (AA) and choose a movie (CAM), based on the same conceptualisation, have been used to measure social motivation in people with and without autism. However, in absence of a direct comparison, it is hard to know which of these paradigms has higher sensitivity in estimating preference for social over non-social stimuli. Here we compare these two tasks for their utility in (1) evaluating social seeking in typical people and (2) identifying the influence of autistic traits on social motivation. Our results suggest that CAM reveals a clear preference for social stimuli over non-social in typical adults but AA fails to do so. Also, social seeking measured with CAM but not AA has a negative relationship between autistic traits.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9647-1
  • Perfectionism and the pursuit of personal goals: A self-determination
           theory analysis
    • Authors: Emily Moore; Anne C. Holding; Nora H. Hope; Brenda Harvey; Theodore A. Powers; David Zuroff; Richard Koestner
      Abstract: Previous studies have shown that self-critical and personal standards forms of perfectionism are associated with progress on personal goals in opposite ways. The present study used a 5-wave prospective longitudinal design to examine what motivational factors account for the finding that self-critical perfectionism has been reliably associated with poor goal progress whereas personal standard perfectionism has been associated with good progress. Specifically, we adopted a self-determination theory perspective to examine the role of autonomy in mediating the effects of perfectionism. Our results replicated previous findings linking the two forms of perfectionism with opposite patterns of goal progress. Importantly, the results suggested that the negative goal effects of self-critical perfectionism are mediated by lower levels of autonomous goal motivation. The results also demonstrated links from personal standards perfectionism to greater autonomous goal motivation. Interestingly, the effects of self-critical perfectionism on goal progress appeared to be dynamic over time and implicated affective mechanisms. The results of the investigation point to the value of adopting a self-determination theory perspective to understand perfectionism.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9654-2
  • The dynamics of avoidance goal regulation
    • Authors: Timothy Ballard; Gillian Yeo; Jeffrey B. Vancouver; Andrew Neal
      Abstract: An avoidance goal is an undesired state from which a person seeks to distance themselves. Though important for understanding behavior, avoidance goals have received less attention than approach goals. In this paper, we present a dynamic, formal model that provides a framework for describing and predicting the dynamics of avoidance goal regulation. We conduct a series of simulations to examine the dynamic pattern of behavior that emerges from the model when an avoidance goal is pursued in isolation and when an approach goal is also present. Two versions of the model were examined. In the first, the avoidance goal is regulated by a positive feedback loop. In the second, the avoidance goal is regulated by a negative feedback loop. We find that the positive feedback model produces a pattern of runaway behavior, even in a scenario where an approach goal is also present. By contrast, the negative feedback loop model produces a stable pattern of behavior that is more consistent with existing theory. The findings provide an important step toward theoretical parsimony by demonstrating that avoidance goal regulation, like approach goal regulation, can be understood using a negative feedback control system framework. We discuss new insights provided by this model and its potential to spark empirical research.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9640-8
  • A self-determination theory approach to problematic drinking and intimate
           partner violence
    • Authors: Lindsey M. Rodriguez; Angelo M. DiBello; Robert Wickham; Benjamin W. Hadden; Zachary G. Baker; Camilla S. Øverup
      Abstract: Problematic drinking has long been established as an important antecedent to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). As little research has evaluated individual differences beyond anger in this association, this research examines problematic drinking and IPV perpetration through the lens of self-determination theory (SDT), the relational perspective suggesting individuals are motivated to be in their relationship for autonomous (i.e., self-driven) and controlled (i.e., guilt-driven) reasons. We test the hypothesis that problematic drinking is more strongly associated with IPV among those who are controlled in their motivation in four independent samples (N = 617). College students in relationships completed measures of alcohol consumption, negative alcohol-related consequences, relationship motivation, and IPV perpetration. Results generally suggested that the association between both alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences and IPV perpetration is only significant among those endorsing greater controlled motivation. This study supports problematic drinking as not being an equal risk factor for all individuals, and suggests that some people may be more vulnerable to problematic drinking resulting in relationship aggression.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9655-1
  • Basic psychological needs and work motivation: A longitudinal test of
    • Authors: Anja H. Olafsen; Edward L. Deci; Hallgeir Halvari
      Abstract: Most work-related studies of self-determination theory (SDT) have focused either on satisfaction of basic psychological needs or on types of work motivation when studying motivational processes at work. The few studies that have considered both mechanisms have usually assumed that satisfaction or frustration of basic psychological needs is a prerequisite of different types of work motivation. Nevertheless, the directionality of this relation has not been explicitly tested in previous studies of the workplace. The current study explored the relations among managerial need support, basic psychological need satisfaction at work, and work motivation. It tested competing sets of hypotheses regarding the directionality of these three core constructs within SDT’s model of work motivation. A longitudinal analysis suggested that managerial need support was positively directly related to basic psychological need satisfaction but not directly related to work motivation. Further, results indicated that basic psychological need satisfaction was related to work motivation over time and not the other way around. In addition, it was found an indirect relation between in managerial need support and in work motivation through in basic psychological need satisfaction. These findings have important implications for future SDT research testing process models in the workplace.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9646-2
  • Construing action abstractly and experiencing autonomy: Implications for
           physical activity and diet
    • Authors: Allison M. Sweeney; Antonio L. Freitas
      Abstract: Mentally representing action in terms of abstract goals rather than concrete procedures has been found to facilitate self-regulation, including meeting health goals. The present research examined whether autonomous motivation mediates the association between abstract thinking and health behavior engagement. We hypothesized that abstract (vs. concrete) thinking relates to viewing oneself as behaving autonomously, which, in turn, is positively associated with engaging in health behaviors. Two studies tested whether abstract thinking is associated with greater health behavior engagement and whether autonomous motivation statistically mediates this association. In Study 1, abstract thinking was associated positively with physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. In Study 2, supporting pre-registered hypotheses, there was a significant indirect effect of abstract thinking on vigorous physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake through autonomous motivation. Whereas past research has emphasized that abstract thinking orients attention towards the value of broader goals, this research establishes that autonomous motivation helps explain associations between abstract thinking and health behavior engagement.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9645-3
  • The uncertainty appraisal enhances the prominent deck B effect in the Iowa
           gambling task
    • Authors: Elvan Arıkan İyilikci; Sonia Amado
      Abstract: The Iowa gambling task (Bechara et al., Cognition 50:7–15, 1994) is designed to simulate a decision making problem under ambiguity, in which the degree of reliance on emotional cues arising from previous experiences contributes to perform advantageously. Recent studies based on the appraisal tendency framework demonstrated that emotional certainty (associated with intuitive strategies) leads to a more advantageous decision pattern, whereas emotional uncertainty (associated with deliberative strategies) impairs the performance in the IGT (Bagneux et al., Motivation and Emotion 37(4):818–827, 2013; Bollon and Bagneux, Cognition and Emotion 27(2):376–384, 2013). Due to the problems in the IGT (Dunn et al., Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30:239–271, 2006; Steingroever et al., Psychological Assessment 25(1):180–193, 2013), however, it is an open question to what extent the disadvantageous IGT performance in the uncertainty conditions was based on risky decision making. Addressing the main criticisms on the IGT, the primary aim of the present study is to provide a further explanation for the underlying source of the IGT impairment led by uncertainty appraisals. In line with previous research, we found that participants in the certainty-associated emotion condition (disgust) outperformed those in uncertainty-associated conditions (fear, sadness) in the gambling game. Detailed four-deck format analyses on decision patterns and knowledge levels provided supporting evidence for our main hypothesis that the weak IGT scores in the uncertainty conditions can be summarized as a failure to anticipate the badness and the goodness of the most difficult decks, and a dominant preference for a risky option with high immediate gains and infrequent losses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9643-5
  • “It wasn’t your fault, but …...”: Schadenfreude about an
           undeserved misfortune
    • Authors: Mariëtte Berndsen; Marika Tiggemann; Samantha Chapman
      Abstract: Although it is well-established that an objectively deserved misfortune promotes schadenfreude about the misfortune, there is a small body of research suggesting that an undeserved misfortune can also enhance schadenfreude. The aim of the present study was to investigate the processes that underlie schadenfreude about an undeserved misfortune. Participants (N = 61) were asked to respond to a scenario in which a person was responsible or not responsible for a negative action. In the responsible condition, two independent routes to schadenfreude were observed: deservingness of the misfortune (traditional route) and resentment towards the target. More importantly, results showed that when the target of the misfortune was not responsible for the negative action, the relationship between schadenfreude and resentment towards the target was mediated by the re-construal of an objectively undeserved misfortune as a ‘deserved’ misfortune. The study further found that expressing schadenfreude about another’s misfortune makes one feel better about oneself without affecting moral emotions. The findings expand our understanding of schadenfreude about undeserved negative outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9639-1
  • Mental contrasting of counterfactual fantasies attenuates disappointment,
           regret, and resentment
    • Authors: Nora Rebekka Krott; Gabriele Oettingen
      Abstract: Negative emotions elicited by positive counterfactuals about an alternative past—“if only” reconstructions of negative life events—are functional in preparing people to act when opportunities to restore the alternative past will arise. If the counterfactual past is lost, because restorative opportunities are absent, letting go of the negative emotions should be the better solution, sheltering people from feelings of distress. In six experimental studies, the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting (Oettingen, European Review of Social Psychology 23:1–63, 2012) attenuated the negative emotions elicited by positive fantasies about a lost counterfactual past, specifically, disappointment, regret and resentment. Mental contrasting (vs. relevant control conditions) led people to feel less disappointed when evaluating their lost counterfactual past compared with their current reality, indicating reduced commitment to the lost counterfactual past (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 4), and it attenuated post-decisional regret and resentment (Studies 5 and 6). These findings held when participants were induced to focus on lost counterfactual pasts for which they were responsible (Studies 4 and 5), for which they blamed another person (Study 6), or for which they deemed no one responsible (Studies 2 and 3). The findings are relevant for building interventions that help people to come to terms with their lost counterfactual past.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9644-4
  • Performance-approach goals, science task preference, and academic
           procrastination: Exploring the moderating role of competence perceptions
    • Authors: Eric D. Deemer; Mike Yough; Samantha A. Morel
      Abstract: Classic achievement goal theory states that normative (performance-approach) achievement goals exert maladaptive effects on behavior when perceptions of competence are low, thus leading individuals to choose easy or difficult tasks to avoid demonstrating lack of ability. The present research tested this prediction by examining the conditional indirect relationship between performance-approach goals and problematic procrastination among college science majors. As hypothesized, performance-approach goals were significant positive predictors of procrastination through their relationship with science anxiety only for students with (a) low science self-efficacy and (b) a preference for either low or highly difficult science tasks. These effects were not observed for high efficacy students preferring tasks of low and high difficulty. Implications for achievement goal theory and research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9649-z
  • Harmful fun: Pranks and sadistic motivation
    • Authors: Christopher T. Burris; Rebecca Leitch
      Abstract: Two studies tested whether pranking is a context for observing sadistic motivation, understood as a compensatory/restorative response to insults to the self that manifests as displaced aggression. A disrespect sensitivity/anger rumination (DSAR) index outperformed a measure of dispositional sadism in predicting sadistic thoughts and emotions congruent with sadistic motivation across the span of a recalled prank (Study 1). DSAR also predicted greater sadistic affect/motivation and greater self-elevation/victim derogation among prank viewers when the prospect of significant long-term harm befalling prank victims was salient, but not when harm was minimized (Study 2). Fueled by displaced hostility, enjoyment of others’ experienced harm in pranking contexts indeed appears sadistic.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9651-5
  • Sex differences in emotion recognition ability: The mediating role of
           trait emotional awareness
    • Authors: Ron Wright; Robert Riedel; Lee Sechrest; Richard D. Lane; Ryan Smith
      Abstract: Although previous research on emotion recognition ability (ERA) has found consistent evidence for a female advantage, the explanation for this sex difference remains incompletely understood. This study compared males and females on four emotion recognition tasks, using a community sample of 379 adults drawn from two regions of the United States (stratified with respect to age, sex, and socioeconomic status). Participants also completed the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), a measure of trait emotional awareness (EA) thought to primarily reflect individual differences in emotion concept learning. We observed that individual differences in LEAS scores mediated the relationship between sex and ERA; in addition, we observed that ERA distributions were noticeably non-normal, and that—similar to findings with other cognitive performance measures—males had more variability in ERA than females. These results further characterize sex differences in ERA and suggest that these differences may be explained by differences in EA—a trait variable linked primarily to early learning.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9648-0
  • The association of affective temperaments and bipolar spectrum
           psychopathology: An experience sampling study
    • Authors: Sarah H. Sperry; Neus Barrantes-Vidal; Thomas R. Kwapil
      Abstract: Affective temperaments are trait-like expressions of affect that underlie mood psychopathology. Numerous studies have examined affective temperaments in laboratory-based studies; however, few have examined the expression of these temperaments in daily life. The present study examined affective temperaments and their associations with the expression of bipolar spectrum characteristics in daily life using experience sampling methodology. Young adults (n = 290) completed the TEMPS-A and were signaled eight times daily for 1 week to complete smartphone surveys assessing affect, cognition, and behavior. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with positive affect, sense of self, and success. In contrast, cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with negative affect, impulsivity, negative sense of self, and difficulty concentrating. Those high in cyclothymic/irritable temperament were especially reactive to the experience of stress. Affective temperaments were differentially associated with the expression of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in daily life. The findings offer validation of the TEMPS-A, as well as the adaptive and maladaptive characteristics of hyperthymic and cyclothymic/irritable temperaments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9652-4
  • Self versus other oriented social motivation, not lack of empathic or
           moral ability, explains behavioral outcomes in children with high theory
           of mind abilities
    • Authors: Ceymi Doenyas
      Abstract: Although traditionally it was believed that having advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities led to social competence and prosocial behaviors in children, it has also been shown that some children use their high ToM abilities to strategically manipulate others instead of acting prosocially towards them. It is an important developmental task to understand the factors contributing to this behavioral divergence for children with advanced ToM understanding, which also has significant practical implications for bullying interventions. We contend that this divergence cannot be explained by a lack of moral competence or empathy, but that the existing evidence lends itself better to a motivational explanation. We propose that the direction of social motivation varies across children and the self versus other oriented social motivation determines if children will use their developed morality and empathy competencies in social interactions to act prosocially or instead cognitively divert moral and empathic emotions to avoid negative feelings about manipulating others. We show how self versus other orientation has been used as a legitimate distinction to inform other domains of psychology and conclude by discussing possible correlates and precursors of this difference in the direction of social orientation in children.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9636-4
  • Facilitating empathy through virtual reality
    • Authors: Nicola S. Schutte; Emma J. Stilinović
      Abstract: This research experimentally investigated whether virtual reality experience can prompt greater empathy and whether greater engagement with a virtual reality connects this virtual reality experience to empathy. Randomly assigned participants viewed a documentary featuring a young girl living in a refugee camp either in a virtual reality format or in a control two-dimensional format. Results indicated that the virtual reality experience resulted in greater engagement and a higher level of empathy for the refugee girl compared to the control condition. Greater engagement was a process connecting the virtual reality experience to empathy. Virtual reality has the potential to influence interpersonal emotions such as empathy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9641-7
  • Effects of emotional prosody on novel word learning in relation to
           autism-like traits
    • Authors: Melina J. West; David A. Copland; Wendy L. Arnott; Nicole L. Nelson; Anthony J. Angwin
      Abstract: Emotional information can influence various cognitive processes, such as attention, motivation, and memory. Differences in the processing of emotion have been observed in individuals with high levels of autism-like traits. The current study aimed to determine the influence of emotional prosody on word learning ability in neurotypical adults who varied in their levels of autism-like traits. Thirty-eight participants learned 30 nonsense words as names for 30 “alien” characters. Alien names were verbally presented with happy, fearful, or neutral prosody. For all participants, recall performance was significantly worse for words spoken with fearful prosody compared to neutral. Recall performance was also worse for words spoken with happy prosody compared to neutral, but only for those with lower levels of autism-like traits. The findings suggest that emotional prosody can interfere with word learning, and that people with fewer autism-like traits may be more susceptible to such interference due to a higher attention bias toward emotion.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9642-6
  • Motives matter: The emotional consequences of recalled self- and other-
           focused prosocial acts
    • Authors: Dylan Wiwad; Lara B. Aknin
      Abstract: Past research has demonstrated that engaging in and reflecting upon past instances of prosocial behavior promote happiness. Yet, people provide help for a myriad of reasons. Do the motives for giving impact its emotional consequences' In three experiments (N > 680), we compared the emotional outcomes of recalling a past instance of prosocial behavior motivated by self-focused and other-focused concerns. Using both between and within subjects designs, we find that recalling an instance of other-focused helping leads to higher positive affect than recalling an instance of self-focused helping. This finding was mediated by feelings of morality. The present work suggests that not all acts of kindness offer equivalent well-being benefits and that selfish motives may undermine the emotional rewards that typically follow other-focused prosocial behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9638-2
  • When is your partner willing to help you' The role of daily goal
           conflict and perceived gratitude
    • Authors: Sara Kindt; Maarten Vansteenkiste; Annmarie Cano; Liesbet Goubert
      Abstract: Motivation to provide help might vary from day-to-day. Previous research showed that autonomously motivated help (i.e., helping because you enjoy/value this behavior), compared with controlled motivated help (i.e., helping because you feel you should do so), has beneficial effects for both the help provider and recipient. In a sample of chronic pain patients and partners (N = 64 dyads), this diary study examined whether (1) same- and prior day perceived gratitude (i.e., received appreciation for providing support) in partners and (2) same- and prior day goal conflicts in partners (i.e., amount of interference between helping one’s partner in pain and other goals) predicted partners’ helping motivation. Partners provided more autonomously motivated help on days that they perceived more gratitude from their partner and when they experienced less goal conflicts. Lagged analyses indicated that perceived gratitude (but not goal conflict) even predicted an increase in autonomous helping motivation the next day. Implications are discussed in the context of Self-Determination Theory.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9635-5
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