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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 790 journals)
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychological Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychosomatic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Psychotherapy & Psychological Disorders     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Research in Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Russian and East European Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social and Political Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 182)
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trauma, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Traumatic Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Tropical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trust Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Jung Journal : Culture and Psyche     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Psikologi     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Law Text Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Learning & Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lernen und Lernstörungen     Hybrid Journal  
Liberabit. Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Linguistic Evidence in Security, Law and Intelligence     Open Access  
Longitudinal and Life Course Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology     Open Access  
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Mens Sana Monographs     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental     Open Access  
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Mental Health Review Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mentálhigiéné es Pszichoszomatika     Full-text available via subscription  
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Mindfulness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Motivational Interviewing : Training, Research, Implementation, Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Multivariate Behavioral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Music Therapy Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Musikterapi i Psykiatrien Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Narrative Works     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Natureza Humana     Open Access  
Netherlands Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Neuro-Disability and Psychotherapy : A Forum for the Practice and Development of Psychological Therapies for Neurological Conditions     Full-text available via subscription  
Neuropsychoanalysis : An Interdisciplinary Journal for Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Neuropsychologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Neuropsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Neuroscience of Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Ideas in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Persona     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)

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Journal Cover Motivation and Emotion
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [18 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.669]   [H-I: 41]
  • “Yuck, that’s disgusting!”—“No, not to
           me!”: Antecedents of disgust in geriatric care and its relation to
           emotional exhaustion and intention to leave
    • Abstract: Abstract Core disgust is a common but hushed up stressor in nursing. We seek to change this problematic situation by examining several antecedents (e.g., emotional self-efficacy, job autonomy) and consequences of core disgust (e.g., emotional exhaustion, intention to leave) based on affective events theory. Furthermore, we investigate the moderating role of organizational identification in the relation between inauthenticity and intention to leave, proposing that high identification buffers negative effects. Data were collected from 423 geriatric nurses working in 50 care institutions. Multi-level structural equation model was applied and indicated a good data fit of our model. Emotional self-efficacy and job autonomy were negatively associated with core disgust; core disgust was positively related to inauthenticity and emotional exhaustion. Indirect effects were identified for core disgust on intention to leave, mediated by inauthenticity and emotional exhaustion. Finally, organizational identification was a significant moderator. Thus, an appropriate coping with core disgust is important for (geriatric) nurses’ health and should deserve more attention in research on turnover.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17
       
  • Scarcity, engagement, and value
    • Abstract: Abstract Scarcity has been found to intensify value, positive or negative, rather than simply enhancing it. Some researchers have proposed that scarcity affects value by increasing how much attention is paid to a stimulus. We conceptualized sustained attention as stronger engagement and operationalized a situation of scarcity by telling participants who were choosing between two objects that the object that was chosen would then be replaced (Replenish) or not replaced (Scarce). To distinguish sustained attention-stronger engagement in a situation of scarcity from grabbing attention (salience from distinctiveness), the choice was between one option with a single instance (solitary-high salience) and a second option with several duplicates (abundant-low salience). We predicted that stronger engagement from a situation of scarcity would, first, intensify the value of the chosen item regardless of whether it was solitary or abundant, with positive items becoming more positive and negative items becoming more negative, and second, the stronger engagement from the situation of scarcity would transfer intensification to another separate object in the same setting. The results of Studies 1 and 2 supported both of these predictions. Study 3 tested a boundary condition for these scarcity–engagement effects in terms of how real participants experienced the choice items to be, where ‘realness’ is another source of engagement strength. As expected, the scarcity–engagement effect on intensifying value was replicated for participants who experienced the activity as real but was eliminated for those who did not.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09
       
  • Effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are related to striatal
           dopaminergic functioning
    • Abstract: Abstract Reward cues have been found to increase the investment of effort in tasks even when cues are presented suboptimally (i.e. very briefly), making them hard to consciously detect. Such effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are assumed to rely mainly on the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the ventral striatum. To provide further support for this assumption, we performed two studies investigating whether these effort responses vary with individual differences in markers of striatal dopaminergic functioning. Study 1 investigated the relation between physical effort responses and resting state eye-blink rate. Study 2 examined cognitive effort responses in relation to individually averaged error-related negativity. In both studies effort responses correlated with the markers only for suboptimal, but not for optimal reward cues. These findings provide further support for the idea that effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are mainly linked to the mesolimbic dopamine system, while responses to optimal reward cues also depend on higher-level cortical functions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-07
       
  • The relationship of basic need satisfaction, motivational climate and
           personality to well-being and stress patterns among elite athletes: An
           explorative study
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated whether need satisfaction, need dissatisfaction, motivational climate, perfectionism and self-esteem relate to athletes’ discrete profiles of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and perceived stress. Participants were 103 elite active orienteers (49 men and 54 women; mean age = 22.3 ± 4.4) who clustered into three distinctive well-being and stress patterns: Cluster 1 (lower well-being/higher stress; n = 26), Cluster 2 (higher well-being/lower stress; n = 39), and Cluster 3 (moderate well-being/moderate stress; n = 36). Cluster 1 and 2 constituted distinct well-being/stress profiles and differed significantly (p < .01) in mastery-oriented climate, need satisfaction, need dissatisfaction, perfectionistic concerns and self-esteem scores. A discriminant analysis showed these five variables to correctly assign 88 % of Cluster 1 and 2 participants into their respective groups, although mastery-oriented climate was revealed as a less influential indicator (function loading <.40). The substantial function loading of need dissatisfaction supports the importance of assessing both need satisfaction and dissatisfaction as they contribute uniquely to well-being.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
       
  • When does self-reported prosocial motivation predict helping? The
           moderating role of implicit prosocial motivation
    • Abstract: Abstract In three studies, we tested a motivational model to predict different types of helping from an interactionist, dual-system perspective. We argued that helping behavior is determined by the interplay of two distinct motivational systems: the explicit (i.e., conscious) and the implicit (i.e., unconscious). In line with previous research we expected that explicit prosocial motivation relates to helping, and additionally proposed that depending on the type of helping this relationship is moderated by implicit prosocial motivation: For planned helping, explicit prosocial motivation is a sufficient predictor, regardless of implicit prosocial motivation. For spontaneous helping, on the other hand, the effect of explicit prosocial motivation is moderated by implicit prosocial motivation, and only predictive when also implicit prosocial motivation is high. Study 1 (207 Dutch participants, M age  = 51.7 years; 51.7 % female) with self-reported willingness to help as dependent variable confirmed that planned helping was determined by explicit prosocial motivation, whereas its effect on spontaneous helping was moderated by implicit prosocial motivation. Study 2 (193 U.S. participants, M age  = 35.2 years; 64.2 % female) with real-life measures of planned help confirmed the hypothesized main effect of explicit prosocial motivation. Study 3 (73 Dutch participants, M age  = 20.8 years; 68.5 % female) with a real-life measure of spontaneous helping confirmed the moderating role of implicit prosocial motivation, as the effect of explicit prosocial motivation on helping was only significant for individuals with high implicit prosocial motivation. We argue that considering implicit prosocial motivation provides an overlooked avenue for a more systematic investigation of helping.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Background factors predicting accuracy and improvement in micro expression
           recognition
    • Abstract: Abstract Micro expressions are brief facial expressions displayed when people attempt to conceal, hide, or repress their emotions. They are difficult to detect in real time, yet individuals who can accurately identify micro expressions receive higher workplace evaluations and can better detect deception. Two studies featuring college students and security officers examined background factors that may account for accuracy differences when reading micro expressions, both before and after training. Study 1 revealed that college students who were younger and high in openness to experience were better at recognizing micro expressions. However, individual differences did not predict improvement in micro expression recognition gained through training. Study 2 revealed experiential factors such as prior facial expression training and lack of law enforcement experience were more predictive of micro expression recognition than personality or demographic factors. Individuals in both studies showed recognition improvement with training, and the implications of the ability to improve at micro expression recognition are discussed in the context of security and interpersonal situations.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • The implications of counterfactual mind-sets for the functioning of
           implementation intentions
    • Abstract: Abstract Two experiments explored how counterfactual mind-sets interact with implementation intentions and affect their flexibility. Participants engaged in a subtractive mind-set, an additive mind-set, or a control condition and were subsequently given either goal intentions or implementation intentions that facilitated cue detection (Experiment 1) or the goal-directed response (Experiment 2). Dependent variables were the number of targets specified in the intentions and the legitimate alternatives to the targets (flexibility measure). In Experiment 1, the implementation intention (versus goal intention) group were better at detecting specified cues, but worse on alternatives, regardless of mind-set. In Experiment 2, an interaction emerged. For both specified and alternative responses, the subtractive mind-set paired with an implementation intention versus goal intention performed better. This pattern was reversed for additive mind-set conditions. Hence, how counterfactual mind-sets affect the flexibility of planning is dependent on the particular mind-set used and the specific operations of plan.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • When focusing on a goal interferes with action control: action versus
           state orientation and over-maintenance of intentions
    • Abstract: Abstract People vary in action versus state orientation, or the ease versus difficulty by which they can form and enact goals under demanding conditions (Kuhl and Beckmann in Volition and personality: action versus state orientation, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1994). According to the over-maintenance hypothesis, state-oriented people are prone to think about their intentions in a narrow linguistic format that prevents flexible action control. Two studies tested this hypothesis by manipulating intention focus among action- versus state-oriented participants and examining how well they performed difficult actions. Focusing strongly (rather than weakly) on the task goal led state-oriented participants to make more errors during incongruent trials of a Stroop task (Study 1) and led to greater task-switch costs in response latencies (Study 2). Action-oriented participants showed the reverse pattern, and performed difficult actions more effectively when focusing on the task goal. These findings suggest that focusing on intentions may paradoxically impair action control among state-oriented people.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Ain’t sure who to blame: Metacognitive influences on
           appraisal–emotion processes
    • Abstract: Abstract In this research, we propose that emotions are affected not only by appraisals, but also by a metacognitive sense of confidence versus doubt over the appraisals. Focusing on core-relational themes (CRTs), higher-order appraisals comprising the combined meaning of several appraisals, we predicted and found evidence, over two studies, that the effect of a CRT on the corresponding emotion is stronger if one feels confident about the validity of the CRT compared to feeling doubtful. In Study 1, CRT was manipulated by recall and in Study 2, CRT was manipulated in vivo. Both designs produced consistent support for the hypotheses. These findings demonstrate the need to consider metacognitive processes in understanding the effects of appraisals on emotions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Emotion and control in the planning of goals
    • Abstract: Abstract By planning the what, where, and when of pursuing a goal, people improve the likelihood that they will ultimately attain that goal. Whereas research to date has explored the breadth of this planning effect and its underlying processes, contextual variables that influence the formation and execution of plans have mostly gone unexplored. In light of the central role played by emotional experience in goal pursuit, its impact on planning remains an open question of both theoretical and practical importance. Here, we suggest that anger and sadness—and their corresponding, distinct cognitive appraisal patterns regarding control—differentially impact (1) the tendency to plan and (2) the implementation of plans. Anger (greater control) led to the formation of more plans for goal-directed behavior (Studies 1 and 2) and faster execution of real behavior as prescribed by predetermined plans (Study 3). Broader implications for theories of emotion and goal pursuit are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Anger and attitudinal reactions to negative feedback: The effects of
           emotional instability and power
    • Abstract: Abstract Feedback is a basic tool that is used to stimulate learning and performance at all organizational levels. However, negative feedback can sometimes evoke defensive responses such as feelings of anger or the repudiation of the feedback. In two experiments we explored whether people’s negating responses to feedback are grounded in their emotional instability, and if this effect is stronger for those who hold more power. The findings from Study 1 (N = 84) showed that in response to negative feedback more emotionally unstable individuals experienced more anger. In Study 2 (N = 47) we indicated that anger mediated the negative effects of emotional instability and power on liking of the feedback provider, perceived ability of the feedback provider, and feedback acceptance. Our findings indicate that power strengthens the influence of emotional instability on responses to negative feedback and point to the importance of anger as the underlying factor influencing crucial attitudinal feedback reactions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Perfectionism and emotion regulation in coaches: A test of the
           2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism
    • Abstract: Abstract The manner in which coaches regulate their emotions has implications for their performance and well-being. Drawing on research that has found perfectionism to predict emotion regulation in other settings, this study adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine whether subtypes of perfectionism among coaches were associated with variation in the use of emotion regulation strategies. Coaches (N = 238, M age = 23.92, SD = 10.32) from various sports completed measures of perfectionism (personal standards and evaluative concerns) and emotion regulation strategies (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and control of anger directed inwards and outwards). Moderated hierarchical regression provided mixed support for the 2 × 2 model. As expected, pure personal standards perfectionism (high standards/low concerns) was generally associated with the highest capacity for emotion regulation and pure evaluative concerns perfectionism (low standards/high concerns) with the lowest. Unexpectedly, mixed perfectionism (high standards/high concerns) was associated with the highest level of expressive suppression, suggesting that in some instances standards might exacerbate rather than attenuate concerns.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Effort deficits and depression: The influence of anhedonic depressive
           symptoms on cardiac autonomic activity during a mental challenge
    • Abstract: Abstract Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a “do your best” challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task’s goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30
       
  • Contrasting the effects of suboptimally versus optimally presented affect
           primes on effort-related cardiac response
    • Abstract: Abstract Participants worked on an easy versus difficult arithmetic task with integrated happiness versus sadness primes, presented either suboptimally (briefly and masked) or optimally (long and visible). As predicted by the IAPE model (Gendolla in International Journal of Psychophysiology 86:123–135, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.05.003), the affect primes moderated the task difficulty effect on mental effort in the suboptimal-prime condition: cardiac pre-ejection period response was stronger in the happiness/difficult than in the sadness/difficult condition and tended to be stronger in the sadness-easy than in the happiness-easy condition. These effects were reversed in the optimal-prime-presentation condition, suggesting behavior correction due to controlled prime processing. Moreover, neither suboptimally nor optimally presented affect primes had prime-congruent effects on conscious mood assessed via self-report. The results demonstrate differential effects of implicitly versus explicitly processed affect cues on mental effort and suggest that they can do so without inducing emotional feelings.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30
       
  • Assessment of adult age differences in task engagement: The utility of
           systolic blood pressure
    • Abstract: Abstract The constructs of effort and engagement are central to many theoretical frameworks associated with the study of aging. Age differences in the effort associated with effortful cognitive operations have been hypothesized to account for aging effects in ability, and shifting goals and motivation have been hypothesized to be associated with differential levels of engagement across situations in younger and older adults. Unfortunately, the assessment of effort and engagement—constructs that we view as relatively synonymous—has suffered in the field of aging due to the lack of well-validated measures. We suggest that systolic blood pressure might provide an easy and valid means for examining age differences in mental effort, and present evidence in support of its usage. Existing findings clearly support its potential utility, but further empirical and theoretical work is necessary.
      PubDate: 2014-09-28
       
  • Contemporary perspectives on effort: A special issue
    • PubDate: 2014-09-27
       
  • Reward-driven modulation of adaptive control: How prospective monetary
           gains interact with unpredictable control demands
    • Abstract: Abstract Shifting attention is an effortful control process and incurs a cost on the cognitive system. Previous research suggests that rewards, such as monetary gains, will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention when this demand for control is explicitly cued. Here, we hypothesized that prospective monetary gains will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention even when control demand is unpredictable and not cued beforehand in a modality shift paradigm. In two experiments we found that target detection was indeed facilitated by reward signals when an unpredictable shift of attention was required. In these crossmodal trials the target stimulus was preceded by an unpredictive stimulus directing attention to the opposite modality (i.e., visual–auditory or auditory–visual). Importantly, there was no reward effect in ipsimodal trials (i.e., visual–visual or auditory–auditory). Furthermore, the absence of the latter effect could not be explained in terms of physical limits in speed of responding. Potential motivation of monetary rewards thus selectively translates into motivational intensity when control (i.e., switching) is demanded in unpredictable ways.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
       
  • I don’t care about others’ approval: Dysphoric individuals
           show reduced effort mobilization for obtaining a social reward
    • Abstract: Abstract Past research on reduced reward responsiveness in depression and dysphoria has mainly focused on monetary rewards. However, social rewards are important motivators and might be especially impaired in depression. The present study tested the hypothesis that nondysphoric individuals would mobilize more effort during a memory task without a clear performance standard when anticipating social approval for good performance. In contrast, dysphoric individuals were expected to be less sensitive to this reward and to mobilize less effort. Effort mobilization in this 2 (dysphoric vs. nondysphoric) × 2 (no reward vs. social approval) between-persons study was operationalized by participants’ cardiovascular reactivity. Results confirmed that nondysphorics had higher reactivity of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate when expecting to enter their name in the alleged “best list”, whereas dysphorics had lower cardiovascular reactivity. The present study expands evidence for reduced reward responsiveness in depression and dysphoria from an effort mobilization perspective by demonstrating reduced effort-related cardiovascular reactivity to social rewards.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
       
  • Correlational and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of commonly used
           empathy questionnaires: New insights
    • Abstract: Abstract Empathy is a concept whose history has been marred by conceptual inconsistencies. Dispositional measures of empathy have varied in constituent subscales and have been suggested to conflate with other related constructs. The current investigation consists of correlational and exploratory factor analyses with self-report empathy measures to assess the commonalities between these measures. Four hundred ninety-seven university undergraduates completed a battery of self-report dispositional empathy measures, along with situational and dispositional sympathy measures. The novel findings include moderate correlations between scales purporting to measure empathy, an interpretable six-factor structure which represent subcomponents of these empathy scales, and the modest ability of existing questionnaires to contribute to these factor structures. The retained factor structure is not consistent with previous definitions of empathy, and it appears that self-report empathy measures do not adequately measure a uniform, consistent construct.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14
       
  • Walking the talk: Value importance, value enactment, and well-being
    • Abstract: Abstract Prior research on intrinsic versus extrinsic values has focused on the comparative importance subjects assign to the two types of values, showing that relative intrinsic versus extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) predicts higher or increased well-being. In two studies, we show that rated action taken regarding the two types of values is just as essential to study. Support was found for four hypotheses: (1) there was a significant behavior/importance gap, such that participants “walked” (acted on values) less than they “talked” (endorsed those values); (2) this was especially true for intrinsic values, an interaction suggesting that the intrinsic ideals of personal growth, community, and connection often receive only lip service; (3) the “walk” (behavior ratings) measure of RIEVO subsumed the “talk” (importance ratings) RIEVO measure’s effects on well-being outcomes, suggesting that researchers interested in predicting well-being from values should perhaps focus on rated value enactment, not value importance; and (4) participants with higher meaning in life, lower search for meaning, more self-concordance at work, and greater chronological age evidenced more consistency between their talking and their walking.
      PubDate: 2014-08-09
       
 
 
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