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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 795 journals)
Journal of Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychological Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychosomatic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Psychotherapy & Psychological Disorders     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Research in Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Russian and East European Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social and Political Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 193)
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trauma, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Traumatic Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Tropical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trust Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Jung Journal : Culture and Psyche     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Psikologi     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Law Text Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Learning & Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lernen und Lernstörungen     Hybrid Journal  
Liberabit. Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Linguistic Evidence in Security, Law and Intelligence     Open Access  
Longitudinal and Life Course Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology     Open Access  
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Mens Sana Monographs     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental     Open Access  
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Mental Health Review Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mentálhigiéné es Pszichoszomatika     Full-text available via subscription  
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Mindfulness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Motivational Interviewing : Training, Research, Implementation, Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Multivariate Behavioral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music Therapy Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Musikterapi i Psykiatrien Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Narrative Works     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Natureza Humana     Open Access  
Netherlands Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Neuro-Disability and Psychotherapy : A Forum for the Practice and Development of Psychological Therapies for Neurological Conditions     Full-text available via subscription  
Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics     Open Access  
Neuropsychoanalysis : An Interdisciplinary Journal for Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Neuropsychologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Neuroscience of Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Ideas in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)

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Journal Cover Motivation and Emotion
   [18 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.669]   [H-I: 41]
  • Effects of deterrence on intensity of group identification and efforts to
           protect group identity
    • Abstract: Abstract Group identification serves important functions such as motivating group members to work towards group goals and sustaining their efforts to maintain a positive group identity. Thus increasing or decreasing group identification has implications for group members’ commitment to achieving group goals. We propose that group identification and group-level efforts to protect group identity can be reduced or enhanced by deterrents to feeling identified with the ingroup. To test this idea, we exposed participants to different types of deterrents to group identification: a reason for not liking the ingroup (Study 1), difficulty of achieving an ingroup goal (Study 2), and a threat to ingroup positive identity (Study 3). Group identification and strength of efforts to achieve a group goal increased with the strength of deterrence, to the point where it decreased in the strong deterrent condition. Implications for intergroup motivation and social identity are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • I don’t care about others’ approval: Dysphoric individuals
           show reduced effort mobilization for obtaining a social reward
    • Abstract: Abstract Past research on reduced reward responsiveness in depression and dysphoria has mainly focused on monetary rewards. However, social rewards are important motivators and might be especially impaired in depression. The present study tested the hypothesis that nondysphoric individuals would mobilize more effort during a memory task without a clear performance standard when anticipating social approval for good performance. In contrast, dysphoric individuals were expected to be less sensitive to this reward and to mobilize less effort. Effort mobilization in this 2 (dysphoric vs. nondysphoric) × 2 (no reward vs. social approval) between-persons study was operationalized by participants’ cardiovascular reactivity. Results confirmed that nondysphorics had higher reactivity of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate when expecting to enter their name in the alleged “best list”, whereas dysphorics had lower cardiovascular reactivity. The present study expands evidence for reduced reward responsiveness in depression and dysphoria from an effort mobilization perspective by demonstrating reduced effort-related cardiovascular reactivity to social rewards.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • The subjective effort of everyday mental tasks: Attending, assessing, and
           choosing
    • Abstract: Abstract Why are some mental tasks experienced as more effortful than others? Answers to this question about subjective effort have begun to be addressed by researchers investigating why some mental tasks are associated with more ‘elbow grease’ or ‘depletion’ than other tasks. It has been proposed that tasks such as sustained attention should be accompanied by more subjective effort than other tasks, such as assessing (e.g., counting a handful of items) or choosing randomly between two alternatives. In general, these proposals coincide with people’s intuitions regarding how effort should vary by mental task. However, little laboratory data have corroborated these conclusions. In two studies, we cataloged the relative amount of subjective effort associated with some basic and ubiquitous mental activities: attending (most subjective effort), assessing, and choosing (least subjective effort). Results support hypotheses about subjective effort. Because subjective effort is perceived to be experienced by a subject, we explored also the relationship between effort and the involvement of the ‘psychological self.’
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Bending perception to desire: Effects of task demands, motivation, and
           cognitive resources
    • Abstract: Abstract Determinants of motivated judgments were examined in this research. Three experiments investigated how dominant motivation, biasing difficulty and mental resources combine to produce motivationally congruent judgments. Studies 1 and 2 showed that where a biasing motivation is dominant the presence of resources can augment a motivational bias in judgment. Study 3 replicated that result and showed that resources contribute to the formation of biased judgments only where biasing is difficult to accomplish, but not where it is relatively easy to accomplish. In addition, Study 3 showed that where the accuracy motivation is dominant and biasing is the easy default, unbiased judgments will occur only in the presence (vs. absence) of resources. In contrast, where unbiased judgments are easy to come by, such judgments occur irrespective of resources.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Focused and fired up: Narrowed attention produces perceived proximity and
           increases goal-relevant action
    • Abstract: Abstract Insufficient physical activity contributes to rising obesity rates. We tested one social cognitive strategy aimed at increasing physical activity in the environment. Specifically, we tested whether attentional narrowing can shift people’s perceptual representations of the environment and improve exercise behavior. Participants who adopted a narrow focus of attention, compared to participants who looked around the environment as they naturally would, perceived a target as physically closer (Studies 1, 2). In addition, narrowed attention reduced the time required to walk to a finish line and increased subjective ease of physical task performance, two markers of improved exercise (Study 2). We discuss implications of attentional strategies for perception and action in regards to health and fitness.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Older but wiser: Age moderates congruency effects between implicit and
           explicit motives on job satisfaction
    • Abstract: Abstract In the light of an aging workforce, age differences in workers’ motives are important guidelines for an age-differentiated human resource management. Whereas research has addressed age differences in explicit work values or motives, age differences in implicit motives and in the congruency between implicit and explicit motives (i-e-congruency) have been neglected so far. In two studies (N = 201 and 751), we investigated chronological age as a moderator of the relationship between i-e-congruency and job satisfaction. In general, we expected that high i-e-congruency is positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, life-experience and a change in future-work time-perspective should lead to higher i-e-congruency for older than for younger workers. Finally, we hypothesized that the relationship between i-e-congruency and job satisfaction is moderated by workers’ age such that i-e-congruency is more strongly related to job satisfaction for older than for younger workers. Results supported our hypotheses in the affiliation motive domain. Implications for workers’ careers and an age differentiated human resource management are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-13
       
  • Basic psychological need satisfaction, need frustration, and need strength
           across four cultures
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study investigated whether satisfaction and frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, as identified within Basic Psychological Need Theory (BPNT; Deci and Ryan, Psychol Inquiry 11:227–268, 2000; Ryan and Deci, Psychol Inquiry 11:319–338, 2000), contributes to participants’ well-being and ill-being, regardless of their cultural background and interpersonal differences in need strength, as indexed by either need valuation (i.e., the stated importance of the need to the person) or need desire (i.e., the desire to get a need met). In Study 1, involving late adolescents from Belgium and China (total N = 685; Mean age = 17 years), autonomy and competence satisfaction had unique associations with well-being and individual differences in need valuation did not moderate these associations. Study 2 involved participants from four culturally diverse nations (Belgium, China, USA, and Peru; total N = 1,051; Mean age = 20 years). Results provided evidence for the measurement equivalence of an adapted scale tapping into both need satisfaction and need frustration. Satisfaction of each of the three needs was found to contribute uniquely to the prediction of well-being, whereas frustration of each of the three needs contributed uniquely to the prediction of ill-being. Consistent with Study 1, the effects of need satisfaction and need frustration were found to be equivalent across the four countries and were not moderated by individual differences in the desire for need satisfaction. These findings underscore BPNT’s universality claim, which states that the satisfaction of basic needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence represent essential nutrients for optimal functioning across cultures and across individual differences in need strength.
      PubDate: 2014-11-12
       
  • The role of cognitive emotion regulation on the vicarious emotional
           response
    • Abstract: Abstract Perceiving another in need may provoke two possible emotional responses: empathic concern and personal distress. This research aims to test whether different emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and rumination) may lead to different vicarious emotional responses (i.e., empathic concern and personal distress). In this sense, we hypothesized that reappraisal may lead to a greater feeling of empathic concern, whereas rumination may lead to a higher feeling of personal distress. To test the hypotheses we used experimental instructions (Study 1) and a priming procedure (Study 2) to manipulate the emotion regulation strategies. The results supported our hypotheses. Furthermore in the rumination condition the emotional experience was described as being more negative and more highly arousing than in the reappraisal condition. We discuss the effect of these two forms of cognitive emotion regulation on empathic concern and personal distress.
      PubDate: 2014-11-09
       
  • Beyond arousal: Valence, dominance, and motivation in the lateralization
           of affective memory
    • Abstract: Abstract Studies have found that memory for the affective dimensions of valence and arousal are lateralized in left and right hemispheric systems, yet much heterogeneity has been demonstrated across studies. We explored possible reasons for this heterogeneity by assessing the lateralization of the affective dimensions of valence and dominance and correlations with behavioral inhibition and activation sensitivities (BIS/BAS). Seventy-one females viewed words differing in valence and dominance presented to each hemisphere, completed immediate recall and recognition tests, and the BIS/BAS scales. We found evidence of both valence- and dominance-based patterns of memory lateralization, with relatively more evidence for valence-based patterns. Our analyses also revealed that BIS sensitivity was associated with a valence-based pattern of recall lateralization. Our findings reveal the utility of dominance and BIS sensitivity in accounting for heterogeneity in findings in the literature on affective memory lateralization, highlight potential processes underlying affective memory biases, and can inform models of the hemispheric lateralization of emotion in the context of memory.
      PubDate: 2014-11-06
       
  • The effect of age and time perspective on implicit motives
    • Abstract: Abstract People differ in how open-ended or limited they perceive their future. We argue that individual differences in future time perspective affect the activation of implicit motives. Perceiving the time remaining for the satisfaction of one’s motives as limited should be associated with a higher activation of these motives than perceiving one’s future as more open-ended. Given that future time perspective decreases across adulthood, older adults should score higher on implicit motives than younger adults. This hypothesis was supported in a study with young (n = 53, age M = 25.60 years) and older adults (n = 55, age M = 68.05 years). Additionally, an experimental manipulation of future time perspective showed that age-related differences in implicit motives are influenced by future time perspective. These findings demonstrate that future time perspective is an important factor to explain the strength of motives.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
       
  • The joy of pain and the pain of joy: In-group identification predicts
           schadenfreude and gluckschmerz following rival groups’ fortunes
    • Abstract: Abstract Four studies examined how in-group identification in the domain of sports is associated with schadenfreude in reaction to another group’s suffering or gluckschmerz in reaction to another group’s good fortune. Schadenfreude increased as a function of in-group identification when the outgroup was a rival team rather than a non-rival team in Study 1. Study 2 showed that those who experience schadenfreude at learning of an outgroup player’s injury will also tend to feel gluckschmerz when they learn of the player’s recovery. Studies 3 and 4 replicated and extended these findings for both schadenfreude and gluckschmerz, and showed that neither the degree of severity of an injury nor the level of physical pain associated with the injury moderated the link between identification and both schadenfreude and gluckschmerz. Mediation analyses indicated that perceived in-group gain or loss, deservedness, and dislike were prime mediators of links between in-group identification and both emotions.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
       
  • You’re too much for me: Contagion of motivation depends on
           perceiver-model distance
    • Abstract: Abstract This research aimed to investigate the conditions under which motivational contagion occurs. Based on assimilation/contrast models in priming research, we hypothesized that motivational contagion should only occur in case of moderate distance between perceiver and model’s motivation. A first lab-study supported this hypothesis by showing that the effect of the exposure to a model presented as highly intrinsically motivated (compared to a model presented as moderately intrinsically motivated or to a not-presented model) depended on participants’ initial intrinsic motivation. While it led intrinsically motivated participants to invest more effort to learn a new activity, those who were weakly intrinsically motivated exerted less effort. A second study in a real educational context confirmed our hypothesis by showing that weakly intrinsically motivated students invested more effort during a physical education term when yoked with a peer with a moderate intrinsic motivation than when yoked a highly intrinsically motivated peer.
      PubDate: 2014-11-04
       
  • Influence of motivation to quit smoking on the startle reflex: differences
           between smokers in different stages of change
    • Abstract: Abstract Studies that have investigated the effect of motivation to change on the startle reflex have been limited to comparisons among smokers with low and high motivation, but differences in the startle reflex throughout all stages of change have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify differences in the startle reflex in response to tobacco-related cues in smokers in the initial, intermediate, and final stages of change. The startle reflex was recorded in 67 smokers and ex-smokers while they viewed pleasant, neutral, unpleasant, and tobacco-related pictures. The results showed that the pattern of the startle reflex in response to tobacco-related pictures varied according to the motivation to change. In smokers in the initial stages, the magnitude of the startle reflex was similar between tobacco-related pictures and pleasant pictures. In smokers in intermediate stages, the magnitude of the startle reflex was similar between tobacco-related pictures and unpleasant pictures. In ex-smokers in the final stages, the magnitude of the startle reflex was similar between tobacco-related pictures and neutral pictures. These results suggest that motivational systems that are activated by tobacco-related cues vary according to smokers’ motivation to change.
      PubDate: 2014-11-04
       
  • Scarcity, engagement, and value
    • Abstract: Abstract Scarcity has been found to intensify value, positive or negative, rather than simply enhancing it. Some researchers have proposed that scarcity affects value by increasing how much attention is paid to a stimulus. We conceptualized sustained attention as stronger engagement and operationalized a situation of scarcity by telling participants who were choosing between two objects that the object that was chosen would then be replaced (Replenish) or not replaced (Scarce). To distinguish sustained attention-stronger engagement in a situation of scarcity from grabbing attention (salience from distinctiveness), the choice was between one option with a single instance (solitary-high salience) and a second option with several duplicates (abundant-low salience). We predicted that stronger engagement from a situation of scarcity would, first, intensify the value of the chosen item regardless of whether it was solitary or abundant, with positive items becoming more positive and negative items becoming more negative, and second, the stronger engagement from the situation of scarcity would transfer intensification to another separate object in the same setting. The results of Studies 1 and 2 supported both of these predictions. Study 3 tested a boundary condition for these scarcity–engagement effects in terms of how real participants experienced the choice items to be, where ‘realness’ is another source of engagement strength. As expected, the scarcity–engagement effect on intensifying value was replicated for participants who experienced the activity as real but was eliminated for those who did not.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09
       
  • Effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are related to striatal
           dopaminergic functioning
    • Abstract: Abstract Reward cues have been found to increase the investment of effort in tasks even when cues are presented suboptimally (i.e. very briefly), making them hard to consciously detect. Such effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are assumed to rely mainly on the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the ventral striatum. To provide further support for this assumption, we performed two studies investigating whether these effort responses vary with individual differences in markers of striatal dopaminergic functioning. Study 1 investigated the relation between physical effort responses and resting state eye-blink rate. Study 2 examined cognitive effort responses in relation to individually averaged error-related negativity. In both studies effort responses correlated with the markers only for suboptimal, but not for optimal reward cues. These findings provide further support for the idea that effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are mainly linked to the mesolimbic dopamine system, while responses to optimal reward cues also depend on higher-level cortical functions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-07
       
  • Effort deficits and depression: The influence of anhedonic depressive
           symptoms on cardiac autonomic activity during a mental challenge
    • Abstract: Abstract Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a “do your best” challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task’s goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30
       
  • Contrasting the effects of suboptimally versus optimally presented affect
           primes on effort-related cardiac response
    • Abstract: Abstract Participants worked on an easy versus difficult arithmetic task with integrated happiness versus sadness primes, presented either suboptimally (briefly and masked) or optimally (long and visible). As predicted by the IAPE model (Gendolla in International Journal of Psychophysiology 86:123–135, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.05.003), the affect primes moderated the task difficulty effect on mental effort in the suboptimal-prime condition: cardiac pre-ejection period response was stronger in the happiness/difficult than in the sadness/difficult condition and tended to be stronger in the sadness-easy than in the happiness-easy condition. These effects were reversed in the optimal-prime-presentation condition, suggesting behavior correction due to controlled prime processing. Moreover, neither suboptimally nor optimally presented affect primes had prime-congruent effects on conscious mood assessed via self-report. The results demonstrate differential effects of implicitly versus explicitly processed affect cues on mental effort and suggest that they can do so without inducing emotional feelings.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30
       
  • Assessment of adult age differences in task engagement: The utility of
           systolic blood pressure
    • Abstract: Abstract The constructs of effort and engagement are central to many theoretical frameworks associated with the study of aging. Age differences in the effort associated with effortful cognitive operations have been hypothesized to account for aging effects in ability, and shifting goals and motivation have been hypothesized to be associated with differential levels of engagement across situations in younger and older adults. Unfortunately, the assessment of effort and engagement—constructs that we view as relatively synonymous—has suffered in the field of aging due to the lack of well-validated measures. We suggest that systolic blood pressure might provide an easy and valid means for examining age differences in mental effort, and present evidence in support of its usage. Existing findings clearly support its potential utility, but further empirical and theoretical work is necessary.
      PubDate: 2014-09-28
       
  • Contemporary perspectives on effort: A special issue
    • PubDate: 2014-09-27
       
  • Reward-driven modulation of adaptive control: How prospective monetary
           gains interact with unpredictable control demands
    • Abstract: Abstract Shifting attention is an effortful control process and incurs a cost on the cognitive system. Previous research suggests that rewards, such as monetary gains, will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention when this demand for control is explicitly cued. Here, we hypothesized that prospective monetary gains will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention even when control demand is unpredictable and not cued beforehand in a modality shift paradigm. In two experiments we found that target detection was indeed facilitated by reward signals when an unpredictable shift of attention was required. In these crossmodal trials the target stimulus was preceded by an unpredictive stimulus directing attention to the opposite modality (i.e., visual–auditory or auditory–visual). Importantly, there was no reward effect in ipsimodal trials (i.e., visual–visual or auditory–auditory). Furthermore, the absence of the latter effect could not be explained in terms of physical limits in speed of responding. Potential motivation of monetary rewards thus selectively translates into motivational intensity when control (i.e., switching) is demanded in unpredictable ways.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
       
 
 
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