- What motivates deviant behavior in the workplace? An examination of the
mechanisms by which procedural injustice affects deviance
- Authors: Jesse S. Michel; Michael B. Hargis
Pages: 51 - 68
Abstract: This research examines the motivational and social-cognitive processes underlying the procedural injustice and deviance relationship. Based on psychological need and self-determination theories, it was hypothesized that intrinsic motivation would mediate the relationship between procedural injustice and deviance. Based on the general aggression model and social-cognitive theory, it was hypothesized that this positive indirect effect would be moderated by dispositional aggression. Two studies were conducted, including multi-wave and multi-source data, to test these relationships through mediation and moderated mediation procedures. Results supported both hypotheses: intrinsic motivation mediated the procedural injustice and deviance relationship; and this positive indirect effect was moderated by dispositional aggression, such that higher levels of aggression increased the magnitude of the indirect effect. Results were consistent across multiple measures of intrinsic motivation, aggression, and deviance (self- and other-report). Theoretical and practical contributions include support for a process-based theory of deviant behavior in the workplace and organizational interventions aimed at enriching one’s job to develop greater feelings of intrinsic motivation.
Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2017)
- Can’t get you out of my mind: empathy, distress, and recurring
thoughts about a person in need
- Authors: Eric L. Stocks; Belén López-Pérez; Luis V. Oceja
Pages: 84 - 95
Abstract: Research suggests that empathic concern and distress give rise to different patterns of helping behavior. It has been proposed that this difference is caused by the effects of these emotions on recurrent thoughts about the person in need. However, no research has directly investigated this potential explanation. To remedy this, we tested the hypotheses that distress, but not empathic concern, is associated with both anticipated recurring thoughts (Study 1) and experienced recurring thoughts (Study 2) about a victim. We also tested the hypothesis that distress is associated with thoughts about the victim, whereas empathic concern is associated with thoughts about the victim’s situation (Study 3), which is potentially a consequence of the motives associated with each emotion. Lastly, we assessed the causal relations between distress, empathic concern, and recurrent thoughts (Study 4). Overall, results demonstrate a distinctive, and important, pattern of associations among empathic concern, distress, and different forms of recurrent thoughts about the emotion-eliciting stimulus.
Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2017)
- I might ease your pain, but only if you’re sad: The impact of the
empathized emotion in the empathy-helping association
- Authors: Claudia Sassenrath; Stefan Pfattheicher; Johannes Keller
Pages: 96 - 106
Abstract: Ample research demonstrated that empathizing with someone in need promotes helping that person. Two studies examined whether this effect of empathy on helping behavior holds across different emotional reactions expressed by a target in need. Results of Study 1 indicate that perspective taking with a sad needy target increased empathic concern which, in turn, fostered helping the individual. This relation was not found for participants taking the perspective of angry or disgusted needy targets. Study 2 provides further support for the underlying mechanism of the results of Study 1. Perspective taking with a sad needy target increased empathizers’ empathic concern because perception of target neediness was increased. Again, this pattern was not found for perspective taking with an angry needy target. The findings correspond to theorizing on the role of emotions in person perception. Hence, the current research provides insights regarding the boundary conditions of the empathy-helping association.
Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2017)
- Perceived effects of other people’s emotion regulation on their
vicarious emotional response
- Authors: Belén López-Pérez; Janice Sanchez; Brian Parkinson
Pages: 113 - 121
Abstract: Across two studies, we investigated how friends’ typically used emotion regulation strategies (rumination or reappraisal) influence judgements about their vicarious emotions (sympathy, tenderness, and personal distress) when presented with a photograph of a suffering toddler. Results of both studies demonstrated that participants reporting on a ruminative friend indicated that their friend would feel greater personal distress and less tenderness and would perceive the toddler as experiencing more need and pain than participants reporting on a reappraising friend. These results are consistent with the behavioural trajectories associated with rumination and reappraisal, and are discussed in light of their implications for interpersonal emotion regulation.
Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2017)
- When feeling poorly at work does not mean acting poorly at work: The
moderating role of work-related emotional intelligence
- Authors: Sukumarakurup Krishnakumar; Kay Hopkins; Michael D. Robinson
Pages: 122 - 134
Abstract: It is important, both theoretically and for applied reasons, to understand who is likely to engage in counterproductive work behaviors. It is known that such behaviors are more likely to be exhibited by unhappy employees (i.e., those high in job negative affect), but this should be particularly true for individuals low in work-related emotional intelligence. The current study (N = 91) examined moderation-related hypotheses of this type in relation to five counterproductive work behaviors—abuse, sabotage, theft, withdrawal, and production deviance—among a sample of employees working at least 20 h per week. These behaviors varied positively by job negative affect and negatively by work-related emotional intelligence. In addition, the two predictors interacted for all five outcomes such that the highest levels of counterproductive work behavior were observed among employees who were high in job negative affect and low in emotional intelligence. The discussion focuses on implications for understanding counterproductive work behaviors and on the value of assessing work-related emotional intelligence as an ability that differs by employees.
Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2017)
- Motivating emotional intelligence: A reinforcement sensitivity theory
- Authors: Alison M. Bacon; Philip J. Corr
Abstract: Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) is generally associated with positive outcomes and can inform clinical and social interventions. We investigated the sub-factors of trait EI: Wellbeing, Self-control, Emotionality, and Sociability, in the context of the reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) of motivation. In Study 1, participants (N = 247) completed Carver and White’s (J Personal Soc Psychol 67:319–333; Carver, White, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67:319–333, 1994) BIS/BAS scales and a measure of trait EI. All EI sub-factors were positively associated with BAS Drive and negatively with BIS. Study 2 (N = 382) employed a new questionnaire based on revised RST (Corr and Cooper, Psychol Assess 28:1427–1440; Corr, Cooper, Psychological Assessment 28:1427–1440, 2016). All trait EI factors were positively associated with BAS Goal-Drive Persistence and Reward Interest, and negatively with the BIS. Self-control showed negative associations with BAS Impulsivity and was the only factor not to correlate with BAS Reward Reactivity. Results suggest that high trait EI individuals are goal driven, sensitive to reward and lower in avoidance motivation and negative emotion. This motivational basis to trait EI further explicates its structure.
- Compassionate goals and affect in social situations
- Authors: Amy Canevello; Jennifer Crocker
Abstract: Optimal social interactions can leave people feeling socially connected and at ease, which has clear implications for health and psychological well-being. Yet, not all social interactions leave people feelings at ease and connected. What explains this variability? We draw from the egosystem–ecosystem theory of social motivation (Crocker and Canevello 2008) to suggest that compassionate goals to support others explain some of this variability. We explored the nature of this association across four studies and varying social contexts. Across studies, compassionate goals predicted greater feelings of ease and connection. Results also indicate that a cooperative mindset may be one mechanism underlying this association: Findings suggest a temporal sequence in which compassionate goals lead to cooperative mindsets, which then lead to feeling at ease and connected. Thus, these studies suggest that people’s compassionate goals lead to their sense of interpersonal ease and connection, which may ultimately have implications for their sense of belonging.
- The important role of the context in which achievement goals are adopted:
an experimental test
- Authors: Moti Benita; Noa Shane; Orit Elgali; Guy Roth
Abstract: Two experimental studies using Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun’s (Journal of Educational Psychology 103(3):632–648, 2011) differentiation between self-goals and task-goals, were conducted to examine the relative influence of achievement goals and motivational contexts on behavioral and emotional engagement. In Study 1, 133 college students were prompted to adopt self-goals (intrapersonal standards) or other-goals (performance standards) in one of two motivational contexts (autonomy-supportive or autonomy-suppressive) while playing a computer game. In Study 2, 129 college students performed the same assignment, this time adopting either other-goals or task-goals (absolute standards). Study 1 indicated that autonomy-support facilitated behavioral and emotional engagement in autonomy suppressive contexts, but self-goals merely promoted emotional engagement relative to other-goals. Study 2 replicated Study 1’s findings by showing that autonomy support promoted self-reported behavioral engagement and task-goals promoted emotional engagement but further revealed that only when task-goals were adopted in an autonomy-supportive context did they promote better behavioral engagement than other-goals. Thus, Study 2 highlighted the importance of the context in which the achievement goals were adopted (i.e., autonomy-supportive versus suppressive) as an important determinant of the outcome.
- Performance, incentives, and needs for autonomy, competence, and
relatedness: a meta-analysis
- Authors: Christopher P. Cerasoli; Jessica M. Nicklin; Alexander S. Nassrelgrgawi
Pages: 781 - 813
Abstract: Although self-determination theory (SDT) is one of the most widely cited theories of human motivation and function, critics have questioned the practical utility of its three needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in performance contexts. We conduct a meta-analysis (k = 108, N = 30,648) to explore the magnitude and boundary conditions of need satisfaction and performance. As expected, autonomy (ρ = .28), competence (ρ = .37), and relatedness (ρ = .25) predict performance. Incentivization per se has little impact on need-satisfaction: instead, the need satisfaction → performance relationship is moderated by incentive salience. Consistent with a crowding-out hypothesis, need satisfaction matters less to performance when incentives are directly salient (ρ = .22) and more when indirectly salient (ρ = .45). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that indirectly salient incentives and need-satisfaction are indeed compatible, providing a direct response to criticisms of SDT in performance contexts. Additional unexpected findings and future directions are discussed.
Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 6 (2016)
- Self-image threat decreases stereotyping: The role of motivation toward
- Authors: Małgorzata Kossowska; Marcin Bukowski; Ana Guinote; Piotr Dragon; Arie W. Kruglanski
Pages: 830 - 841
Abstract: Some prior research indicated that self-image threat may lead people to stereotyping and prejudiced evaluations of others. Other studies found that self-image threat may promote less stereotypical thinking and unprejudiced behavior. In a series of three studies, we demonstrate that self-image threat may lead to either more or less stereotypical perception of the outgroup depending on the level of the individuals` motivation toward closure (NFC). The results reveal that when individuals high (vs. low) in NFC perceived a member of an outgroup, they are less likely to use stereotypical traits if their self-image had been threatened by negative feedback (Study 1) or if they had imagined an example of their own immoral activity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, our results demonstrate that the fear of invalidity resulting from self-image threat induction is responsible for the foregoing effects (Study 3). These results are discussed in light of theories of motivational readiness and lay epistemics.
Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 6 (2016)
- Mediation models of implicit theories and achievement goals predict
planning and withdrawal after failure
- Authors: Patricia A. Smiley; Katherine V. Buttitta; Samuel Y. Chung; Valeska X. Dubon; Lillian K. Chang
Pages: 878 - 894
Abstract: Dweck posits that implicit theories of intelligence provide a meaning system that organizes goal-based patterns of response in achievement situations. Goals of increasing competence or demonstrating competence provide purposes for engaging in achievement tasks and frameworks for interpreting and responding to outcomes. Despite suggestions that within an implicit theory framework, attributions and emotions should mediate associations between goals and post-failure responses, such models have rarely been explicitly tested. We obtained questionnaire data from college students (N = 261) on implicit theories, goals, and attributions, as well as emotions and behavior after a hypothetical failure. Path analysis showed that learning goal and effort attribution mediated the association between incremental theory and post-failure intention to plan remedial action. Theory-consistent indirect effects that predicted intention to withdraw were also identified. Findings provide support for Dweck’s theory and extend our understanding of the roles of goals, attributions, and emotions in explaining responses to achievement setbacks.
Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 6 (2016)
- Reflecting on schadenfreude: serious consequences of a misfortune for
which one is not responsible diminish previously expressed schadenfreude;
the role of immorality appraisals and moral emotions
- Authors: Mariëtte Berndsen; N. T. Feather
Pages: 895 - 913
Abstract: Participants (Study 1: N = 138, Study 2: N = 153) responded to a video in which a person suffered a mishap. The studies manipulated whether or not the person was responsible for the mishap and the degree to which the consequences were subsequently found to be serious. Results of Study 1 showed reduction in schadenfreude and more compassion for the victim in the serious condition due to appraisals that it was immoral to laugh about the misfortune. The stronger these appraisals and the stronger the initial schadenfreude, the stronger were moral emotions (guilt, shame, and regret) about initially expressed schadenfreude. Moral emotions and compassion fostered prosocial behavior. Study 2 extended these results by showing that seriousness of the consequences acted as a moderator for most of these findings with significant effects occurring in the serious condition only. Most reduction in schadenfreude occurred when the consequences were serious and when the person was less responsible for the misfortune. The studies extend past research by investigating schadenfreude and other emotions in a context that does not involve social comparison and where participants reflected on their initial expressions of schadenfreude.
Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 6 (2016)
- Individual differences in trait anxiety and goal-commitment predict
updating efficiency on the reading span task
- Authors: Elizabeth J. Edwards; Mark S. Edwards; Michael Lyvers
Pages: 936 - 945
Abstract: According to attentional control theory (ACT; Eysenck et al. in Emotion 7(2):336–353, 2007) anxious individuals recruit motivation on demanding tasks, which helps prevent performance shortfalls. We used a quasi-experimental design to examine the relationship between trait anxiety (operationalised using questionnaire scores), situational stress (manipulated using ego threat instructions) and motivation (indexed using a self-report goal-commitment scale) in predicting effectiveness (accuracy) and efficiency (accuracy divided by RT) on the reading span task. After controlling for depression, the variables were not related to effectiveness; however there was a significant trait anxiety × goal-commitment interaction on reading span efficiency. Higher trait anxiety predicted better efficiency at higher goal-commitment, and poorer efficiency at lower goal-commitment, and these relationships were independent of situational stress. Results are interpreted in terms of ACT.
Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 6 (2016)
- How expected evaluation influences creativity: Regulatory focus as
- Authors: Jia Wang; Ling Wang; Ru-De Liu; Hui-Zhen Dong
Abstract: Two studies investigated the effect of expected evaluation and regulatory focus on individuals’ creative performance. In both studies, first, the type of evaluation (informational versus controlling) was manipulated, and then regulatory focus was measured as an individual difference (in Study 1) or induced as a state using a pencil-and-paper maze task (in Study 2). Results provided evidence that participants who expect an informational evaluation were more likely to adopt an eager strategy; whereas participants who expected a controlling evaluation were more likely to adopt a vigilant strategy. Furthermore, participants in promotion-informational and prevention-controlling groups (regulatory fit conditions) performed more creatively than those in promotion-controlling and prevention-informational groups (regulatory non-fit conditions). In sum, the present findings contribute to a better understanding of how external evaluations and basic motivational orientations influence creative performance.
- Emotion regulation strategy selection in daily life: The role of social
context and goals
- Authors: Tammy English; Ihno A. Lee; Oliver P. John; James J. Gross
Abstract: Recent studies have begun to document the diversity of ways people regulate their emotions. However, one unanswered question is why people regulate their emotions as they do in everyday life. In the present research, we examined how social context and goals influence strategy selection in daily high points and low points. As expected, suppression was particularly tied to social features of context: it was used more when others were present, especially non-close partners, and when people had instrumental goals, especially more interpersonal ones (e.g., avoid conflict). Distraction and reappraisal were used more when regulating for hedonic reasons (e.g., to feel better), but these strategies were also linked to certain instrumental goals (e.g., getting work done). When contra-hedonic regulation occurred, it primarily took the form of dampening positive emotion during high points. Suppression was more likely to be used for contra-hedonic regulation, whereas reappraisal and distraction were used more for pro-hedonic regulation. Overall, these findings highlight the social nature of emotion regulation and underscore the importance of examining regulation in both positive and negative contexts.
- Assisted versus asserted autonomy satisfaction: Their unique associations
with wellbeing, integration of experience, and conflict negotiation
- Authors: Lisa Legault; Kayla Ray; Amy Hudgins; Marissa Pelosi; Will Shannon
Abstract: We investigate the possibility of two distinct approaches to autonomy satisfaction—one that is contextually “assisted” and one that is individually “asserted”. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (Pilot Study and Study 1; N = 449) develop and validate the two-factor structure. We then show that asserted and assisted autonomy orientations predict psychological wellbeing through distinct pathways (i.e., highly active/agentic vs. interdependent). In Study 2 (N = 206), we examine the sociodevelopmental antecedents of each type of autonomy satisfaction, revealing that assisted autonomy is associated with having had authoritiative parents, whereas asserted autonomy is associated with having had authoritarian parents. In Study 3 (N = 109) we show that asserted—but not assisted—autonomy predicts the integration of negative life experiences. Finally, in Study 4 (N = 202), we examine the degree to which assisted and asserted autonomy moderate responses to conflict in need-thwarting contexts, showing that assisted autonomy predicts an acquiescent coping style, whereas asserted autonomy predicts an assertive negotiation style.
- The implications of need-satisfying work climates on state mindfulness in
a longitudinal analysis of work outcomes
- Authors: Anja H. Olafsen
Abstract: Literature on mindfulness in the workplace is scarce, and the antecedents of state mindfulness are not understood. This study sought to investigate antecedents and outcomes of state mindfulness in a self-determination theory model in the work domain. Specifically, the present study contributes to an understanding of mindfulness by examining the implications of managerial need support and subsequent need satisfaction on state mindfulness, as well as outcomes of state mindfulness among employees. Results from a longitudinal analysis using data from four time points over 15 months supported the prediction that a need-supportive work climate related positively to state mindfulness through satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Furthermore, higher levels of state mindfulness had positive implications on subjective well-being as well as work-related outcomes. Specifically, the results showed a positive relation to subjective well-being and goal attainment, while a negative relation to burnout. Lastly, need satisfaction had an indirect relation to these outcomes through state mindfulness. These findings contribute to creating a link between the literature showing the importance of need-supportive work climates for well-being and other work-related outcomes, and the emerging literature on the positive benefits of mindfulness in organizational settings.
- The impact of rewards on empathic accuracy and emotional mimicry
- Authors: Ursula Hess; Christophe Blaison; Stéphane Dandeneau
Abstract: The notion that motivation influences empathic accuracy has been inferred from aspects of the task, the situation or the relationship between interaction partners or between groups. The present research assessed whether monetary reward influences cognitive and affective empathy. In Study 1, cognitive empathy was assessed for 42 participants who decoded briefly (33 ms) presented expressions of sadness and anger. For half the participants, correctly decoded expressions on male faces were rewarded, for the other half correctly decoded expressions on female faces were rewarded. The results showed that rewards increase empathic accuracy for both emotions equally. In Study 2, facial EMG was measured as well to assess emotional mimicry as an index of affective empathy. Study 2 replicated the findings from Study 1 and found a moderation of affective empathy as indexed through facial mimicry for sadness. Thus, simple monetary rewards affect both cognitive and affective empathy.
- When friends exchange negative feedback
- Authors: Stacey R. Finkelstein; Ayelet Fishbach; Yanping Tu
Abstract: In four studies, we document an increase in the amount of negative feedback friends and colleagues exchange as their relationship deepens. We find that both actual and perceived relationship depth increase the amount of negative feedback people seek from and provide to each other, as well as their tendency to invest in a focal (relationship or performance) goal in response to negative feedback. The amount of positive feedback on goal pursuit, by contrast, remains stable as the relationship deepens. We attribute the increase in negative feedback to the different meaning of such feedback for people in deep versus shallow relationships: only in the context of deep relationships does negative feedback signal insufficient resource investment in the focal goal, and hence close friends and colleagues seek, provide, and respond to negative feedback.
- It ain’t over ‘til it’s over: The effect of task completion on the
savoring of success
- Authors: Marina Schall; Thomas Goetz; Sarah E. Martiny; Nathan C. Hall
Abstract: The present research investigated a common yet to date unexamined assumption that individuals are unlikely to savor success when they have not yet fully completed a task. In Study 1 (N = 83), we assessed savoring responses of soccer players who were either winning or were tied at the end of the first half (in progress) and at the end of the match (completed). In Study 2 (N = 121 undergraduates), performance feedback (successful vs. average) and task completion (in progress vs. completed) were manipulated and savoring was assessed. In both studies, successful individuals reported savoring their positive experience less when the task was in progress as compared to completed. Results of a third study (N = 152 undergraduates) showed that lower savoring of success was due to individuals’ focus on and worries about future performance as well as the perception that positive emotions have limited utility. We discuss these findings in terms of the consequences for performance and well-being.