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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 797 journals)
Journal of Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychological Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychosomatic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Psychotherapy & Psychological Disorders     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Russian and East European Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social and Political Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 202)
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trauma, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Traumatic Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Tropical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trust Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Jung Journal : Culture and Psyche     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Psikologi     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Law Text Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Learning & Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Lebenswelt : Aesthetics and philosophy of experience     Open Access  
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lernen und Lernstörungen     Hybrid Journal  
Liberabit. Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Linguistic Evidence in Security, Law and Intelligence     Open Access  
Longitudinal and Life Course Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology     Open Access  
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Mens Sana Monographs     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental     Open Access  
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Mental Health Review Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mentálhigiéné es Pszichoszomatika     Full-text available via subscription  
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Mindfulness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Motivational Interviewing : Training, Research, Implementation, Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Multivariate Behavioral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music Therapy Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Musikterapi i Psykiatrien Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Narrative Works     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Natureza Humana     Open Access  
Netherlands Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Neuro-Disability and Psychotherapy : A Forum for the Practice and Development of Psychological Therapies for Neurological Conditions     Full-text available via subscription  
Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics     Open Access  
Neuropsychoanalysis : An Interdisciplinary Journal for Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Neuropsychologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Neuropsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Neuroscience of Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Ideas in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)

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Journal Cover Motivation and Emotion
   [18 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.669]   [H-I: 41]
  • The dualistic model of passion for work: Discriminate and predictive
           validity with work engagement and workaholism
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this paper was to investigate the discriminant and predictive validity of the dualistic model of passion for work. Harmonious and obsessive passion was compared to work engagement and workaholism in two studies. Study 1 was cross-sectional and supported convergent and discriminant validity of the dualistic model using exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 was cross-lagged and applied confirmatory factor analyses, as well as hierarchical linear modeling to test discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity of harmonious and obsessive passion for work. Predictive validity was supported for obsessive and harmonious passion with respect to wellbeing, but not with respect to performance. When controlling for work engagement and workaholism, harmonious passion was negatively related to burnout and positively related to life satisfaction. In contrast, obsessive passion related positively to burnout and negatively to life satisfaction. Only workaholism predicted variance in supervisor rated organizational citizenship behaviors (negatively related), and none of the included variables were associated with supervisor rated in-role performance.
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
  • Too busy to feel neutral: Reducing cognitive resources attenuates neutral
           affective states
    • Abstract: Abstract Researchers often assume that neutral affect is a relatively affectless state, in that it is low in intensity and requires little, if any, cognitive resources to be maintained. In contrast to these assumptions, we examined the hypothesis that reducing one’s cognitive resources would lessen neutral affective experiences. Respondents (1) viewed negative, neutral, or positive photos, (2) completed a task that was or was not cognitively demanding, and (3) rated their negative, neutral, and positive feelings. As predicted, reducing people’s cognitive resources lessened their neutral affect after viewing neutral stimuli, lessened their negative affect after viewing negative stimuli, but did not affect their positive affect after viewing positive stimuli. Contrasting prior assumptions regarding neutral affect, these findings suggest that neutral states possess felt intensity and require cognitive resources to be maintained.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
  • Motivational determinants of prosocial behavior: What do included, hopeful
           excluded, and hopeless excluded individuals need to behave
    • Abstract: Abstract In light of the current relevance of analyzing the motivational determinants of prosocial behaviors, an experimental design was applied to examine the influence of rejection sensitivity, affective states, and trust on prosocial behavior in the included versus excluded context. The research was performed at a Spanish university with a sample of 118 students. The results confirm that excluded individuals are more prosocial than included individuals only when they see reconnection as possible (hopeful excluded individuals). The inclusion/exclusion experience moderated (1) the links between rejection sensitivity and both affective states and prosocial behavior, and (2) the mediation of trust between affective states and prosocial behavior. Finally, a predictive model of prosocial behavior moderated by the type of inclusion or exclusion was partially supported. Results indicate the relevance of promoting different variables in included individuals, hopeful excluded individuals, and hopeless excluded individuals for prosocial behavior.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09
  • Regularity of daily activities buffers the negative impact of low
           perceived control on affect
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of the present study was to examine the potential buffering effect of regularity of the duration of time spent on daily activities in the association between perceived control and affect in community-dwelling adults. The sample for the current study was derived from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal follow-up study, MIDUS-II. Findings corroborated the association between a general sense of perceived control and positive and negative affect. Further, daily regularity was found to moderate the relationships of perceived control and both positive and negative affect. In each case, the findings suggest that individuals who scored lower on perceived control measures were more likely to have better affective outcomes when they demonstrated greater regularity in daily activities. The findings imply the relevance of regularity to affective experiences.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03
  • Implicit motives and leadership performance revisited: What constitutes
           the leadership motive pattern?
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous research suggests that a combination of high need for power, low need for affiliation, and high activity inhibition—the so-called leadership motive pattern—is related to high leader effectiveness. However, when studying this relation, research has mainly relied on a typological approach based on dichotomous configurations of motives instead of using a dimensional approach via regression analysis with interaction terms. Applying the latter approach, we explored separate and interactive effects of need for power, need for affiliation, and activity inhibition on managerial performance. We administered picture story exercises to 70 managers, and found the three-way interaction between predictors to account for increases in income and team goal attainment. Follow-up analyses indicated that managers are most successful when they are high in all three predictors.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03
  • Relationship autonomy and support provision in romantic relationships
    • Abstract: Abstract Researchers have recently argued that SDT is a fundamental theory of relationship functioning and development. Specifically, prior research has proposed that self-determined motivations to be in one’s relationship—known as relationship autonomy—are associated with more adaptive relationship functioning. While empirical research has explored the association between relationship autonomy and defensiveness, the link with pro-partner behaviors such as support provision has received relatively little attention. The present research tested, across three studies, whether relationship autonomy is associated with more care for one’s partner. Three studies—one cross-sectional, one diary, and one dyadic study—suggest that relationship autonomy is associated with overall supportiveness both in the form of secure base support and basic psychological need support. Additionally, relationship autonomy was associated with less intrusiveness, suggesting that higher relationship autonomy is not simply associated with hyper-vigilance and being overbearing, but rather attention to the partner’s needs.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03
  • Effects of deterrence on intensity of group identification and efforts to
           protect group identity
    • Abstract: Abstract Group identification serves important functions such as motivating group members to work towards group goals and sustaining their efforts to maintain a positive group identity. Thus increasing or decreasing group identification has implications for group members’ commitment to achieving group goals. We propose that group identification and group-level efforts to protect group identity can be reduced or enhanced by deterrents to feeling identified with the ingroup. To test this idea, we exposed participants to different types of deterrents to group identification: a reason for not liking the ingroup (Study 1), difficulty of achieving an ingroup goal (Study 2), and a threat to ingroup positive identity (Study 3). Group identification and strength of efforts to achieve a group goal increased with the strength of deterrence, to the point where it decreased in the strong deterrent condition. Implications for intergroup motivation and social identity are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • I don’t care about others’ approval: Dysphoric individuals
           show reduced effort mobilization for obtaining a social reward
    • Abstract: Abstract Past research on reduced reward responsiveness in depression and dysphoria has mainly focused on monetary rewards. However, social rewards are important motivators and might be especially impaired in depression. The present study tested the hypothesis that nondysphoric individuals would mobilize more effort during a memory task without a clear performance standard when anticipating social approval for good performance. In contrast, dysphoric individuals were expected to be less sensitive to this reward and to mobilize less effort. Effort mobilization in this 2 (dysphoric vs. nondysphoric) × 2 (no reward vs. social approval) between-persons study was operationalized by participants’ cardiovascular reactivity. Results confirmed that nondysphorics had higher reactivity of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate when expecting to enter their name in the alleged “best list”, whereas dysphorics had lower cardiovascular reactivity. The present study expands evidence for reduced reward responsiveness in depression and dysphoria from an effort mobilization perspective by demonstrating reduced effort-related cardiovascular reactivity to social rewards.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • The subjective effort of everyday mental tasks: Attending, assessing, and
    • Abstract: Abstract Why are some mental tasks experienced as more effortful than others? Answers to this question about subjective effort have begun to be addressed by researchers investigating why some mental tasks are associated with more ‘elbow grease’ or ‘depletion’ than other tasks. It has been proposed that tasks such as sustained attention should be accompanied by more subjective effort than other tasks, such as assessing (e.g., counting a handful of items) or choosing randomly between two alternatives. In general, these proposals coincide with people’s intuitions regarding how effort should vary by mental task. However, little laboratory data have corroborated these conclusions. In two studies, we cataloged the relative amount of subjective effort associated with some basic and ubiquitous mental activities: attending (most subjective effort), assessing, and choosing (least subjective effort). Results support hypotheses about subjective effort. Because subjective effort is perceived to be experienced by a subject, we explored also the relationship between effort and the involvement of the ‘psychological self.’
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Bending perception to desire: Effects of task demands, motivation, and
           cognitive resources
    • Abstract: Abstract Determinants of motivated judgments were examined in this research. Three experiments investigated how dominant motivation, biasing difficulty and mental resources combine to produce motivationally congruent judgments. Studies 1 and 2 showed that where a biasing motivation is dominant the presence of resources can augment a motivational bias in judgment. Study 3 replicated that result and showed that resources contribute to the formation of biased judgments only where biasing is difficult to accomplish, but not where it is relatively easy to accomplish. In addition, Study 3 showed that where the accuracy motivation is dominant and biasing is the easy default, unbiased judgments will occur only in the presence (vs. absence) of resources. In contrast, where unbiased judgments are easy to come by, such judgments occur irrespective of resources.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Focused and fired up: Narrowed attention produces perceived proximity and
           increases goal-relevant action
    • Abstract: Abstract Insufficient physical activity contributes to rising obesity rates. We tested one social cognitive strategy aimed at increasing physical activity in the environment. Specifically, we tested whether attentional narrowing can shift people’s perceptual representations of the environment and improve exercise behavior. Participants who adopted a narrow focus of attention, compared to participants who looked around the environment as they naturally would, perceived a target as physically closer (Studies 1, 2). In addition, narrowed attention reduced the time required to walk to a finish line and increased subjective ease of physical task performance, two markers of improved exercise (Study 2). We discuss implications of attentional strategies for perception and action in regards to health and fitness.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Cultural differences in recognition of subdued facial expressions of
    • Abstract: Abstract A relative in-group advantage for recognizing emotional facial expressions presented at full intensity has been documented. The present study examined whether this in-group advantage also existed for the recognition of subdued expressions. American and Chinese participants judged Caucasian and Chinese angry, sad, and happy expressions at subtle, low, and moderate intensity levels. An in-group advantage was found at the low and moderate intensity levels for angry expressions (the effect was partial at moderate intensity), and at the moderate intensity level for sad expressions. But at milder expression intensities, the in-group advantage disappeared, replaced by a main cultural effect in recognition accuracy. American judges were more accurate than Chinese judges in judging both Caucasian and Chinese expressions at the subtle intensity level for angry expressions and at both the subtle and low intensity levels for sad expressions. The present findings suggest that the in-group advantage resides in recognizing expressions of mid-range intensities but diminishes in recognizing milder expressions, and when the in-group advantage stops, cultural differences in sensitivity to very subtle expressions come to fore, at least for negative emotions involving potential threats to social harmony. The present findings suggest that Americans may be better able to detect very subtle facial expressions of sadness and anger, which may have implications for our understanding of cross-cultural differences in emotion.
      PubDate: 2014-11-30
  • Older but wiser: Age moderates congruency effects between implicit and
           explicit motives on job satisfaction
    • Abstract: Abstract In the light of an aging workforce, age differences in workers’ motives are important guidelines for an age-differentiated human resource management. Whereas research has addressed age differences in explicit work values or motives, age differences in implicit motives and in the congruency between implicit and explicit motives (i-e-congruency) have been neglected so far. In two studies (N = 201 and 751), we investigated chronological age as a moderator of the relationship between i-e-congruency and job satisfaction. In general, we expected that high i-e-congruency is positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, life-experience and a change in future-work time-perspective should lead to higher i-e-congruency for older than for younger workers. Finally, we hypothesized that the relationship between i-e-congruency and job satisfaction is moderated by workers’ age such that i-e-congruency is more strongly related to job satisfaction for older than for younger workers. Results supported our hypotheses in the affiliation motive domain. Implications for workers’ careers and an age differentiated human resource management are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-13
  • Scarcity, engagement, and value
    • Abstract: Abstract Scarcity has been found to intensify value, positive or negative, rather than simply enhancing it. Some researchers have proposed that scarcity affects value by increasing how much attention is paid to a stimulus. We conceptualized sustained attention as stronger engagement and operationalized a situation of scarcity by telling participants who were choosing between two objects that the object that was chosen would then be replaced (Replenish) or not replaced (Scarce). To distinguish sustained attention-stronger engagement in a situation of scarcity from grabbing attention (salience from distinctiveness), the choice was between one option with a single instance (solitary-high salience) and a second option with several duplicates (abundant-low salience). We predicted that stronger engagement from a situation of scarcity would, first, intensify the value of the chosen item regardless of whether it was solitary or abundant, with positive items becoming more positive and negative items becoming more negative, and second, the stronger engagement from the situation of scarcity would transfer intensification to another separate object in the same setting. The results of Studies 1 and 2 supported both of these predictions. Study 3 tested a boundary condition for these scarcity–engagement effects in terms of how real participants experienced the choice items to be, where ‘realness’ is another source of engagement strength. As expected, the scarcity–engagement effect on intensifying value was replicated for participants who experienced the activity as real but was eliminated for those who did not.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09
  • Effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are related to striatal
           dopaminergic functioning
    • Abstract: Abstract Reward cues have been found to increase the investment of effort in tasks even when cues are presented suboptimally (i.e. very briefly), making them hard to consciously detect. Such effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are assumed to rely mainly on the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the ventral striatum. To provide further support for this assumption, we performed two studies investigating whether these effort responses vary with individual differences in markers of striatal dopaminergic functioning. Study 1 investigated the relation between physical effort responses and resting state eye-blink rate. Study 2 examined cognitive effort responses in relation to individually averaged error-related negativity. In both studies effort responses correlated with the markers only for suboptimal, but not for optimal reward cues. These findings provide further support for the idea that effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are mainly linked to the mesolimbic dopamine system, while responses to optimal reward cues also depend on higher-level cortical functions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-07
  • Effort deficits and depression: The influence of anhedonic depressive
           symptoms on cardiac autonomic activity during a mental challenge
    • Abstract: Abstract Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a “do your best” challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task’s goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30
  • Contrasting the effects of suboptimally versus optimally presented affect
           primes on effort-related cardiac response
    • Abstract: Abstract Participants worked on an easy versus difficult arithmetic task with integrated happiness versus sadness primes, presented either suboptimally (briefly and masked) or optimally (long and visible). As predicted by the IAPE model (Gendolla in International Journal of Psychophysiology 86:123–135, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.05.003), the affect primes moderated the task difficulty effect on mental effort in the suboptimal-prime condition: cardiac pre-ejection period response was stronger in the happiness/difficult than in the sadness/difficult condition and tended to be stronger in the sadness-easy than in the happiness-easy condition. These effects were reversed in the optimal-prime-presentation condition, suggesting behavior correction due to controlled prime processing. Moreover, neither suboptimally nor optimally presented affect primes had prime-congruent effects on conscious mood assessed via self-report. The results demonstrate differential effects of implicitly versus explicitly processed affect cues on mental effort and suggest that they can do so without inducing emotional feelings.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30
  • Assessment of adult age differences in task engagement: The utility of
           systolic blood pressure
    • Abstract: Abstract The constructs of effort and engagement are central to many theoretical frameworks associated with the study of aging. Age differences in the effort associated with effortful cognitive operations have been hypothesized to account for aging effects in ability, and shifting goals and motivation have been hypothesized to be associated with differential levels of engagement across situations in younger and older adults. Unfortunately, the assessment of effort and engagement—constructs that we view as relatively synonymous—has suffered in the field of aging due to the lack of well-validated measures. We suggest that systolic blood pressure might provide an easy and valid means for examining age differences in mental effort, and present evidence in support of its usage. Existing findings clearly support its potential utility, but further empirical and theoretical work is necessary.
      PubDate: 2014-09-28
  • Contemporary perspectives on effort: A special issue
    • PubDate: 2014-09-27
  • Reward-driven modulation of adaptive control: How prospective monetary
           gains interact with unpredictable control demands
    • Abstract: Abstract Shifting attention is an effortful control process and incurs a cost on the cognitive system. Previous research suggests that rewards, such as monetary gains, will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention when this demand for control is explicitly cued. Here, we hypothesized that prospective monetary gains will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention even when control demand is unpredictable and not cued beforehand in a modality shift paradigm. In two experiments we found that target detection was indeed facilitated by reward signals when an unpredictable shift of attention was required. In these crossmodal trials the target stimulus was preceded by an unpredictive stimulus directing attention to the opposite modality (i.e., visual–auditory or auditory–visual). Importantly, there was no reward effect in ipsimodal trials (i.e., visual–visual or auditory–auditory). Furthermore, the absence of the latter effect could not be explained in terms of physical limits in speed of responding. Potential motivation of monetary rewards thus selectively translates into motivational intensity when control (i.e., switching) is demanded in unpredictable ways.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
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