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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 789 journals)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychological Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychosomatic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Psychotherapy & Psychological Disorders     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Research in Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Russian and East European Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social and Political Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 162)
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trauma Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trauma, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Traumatic Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Tropical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trust Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Jung Journal : Culture and Psyche     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Psikologi     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Law Text Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Learning & Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lernen und Lernstörungen     Hybrid Journal  
Liberabit. Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Linguistic Evidence in Security, Law and Intelligence     Open Access  
Longitudinal and Life Course Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology     Open Access  
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Mens Sana Monographs     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental     Open Access  
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Mental Health Review Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mentálhigiéné es Pszichoszomatika     Full-text available via subscription  
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Mindfulness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Motivational Interviewing : Training, Research, Implementation, Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Multivariate Behavioral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Music and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Music Therapy Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Musikterapi i Psykiatrien Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Narrative Works     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Natureza Humana     Open Access  
Netherlands Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Neuro-Disability and Psychotherapy : A Forum for the Practice and Development of Psychological Therapies for Neurological Conditions     Full-text available via subscription  
Neuropsychoanalysis : An Interdisciplinary Journal for Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Neuropsychologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Neuropsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Neuropsychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Neuroscience of Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Ideas in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Persona     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)

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Journal Cover Motivation and Emotion
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [18 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-6644 - ISSN (Online) 0146-7239
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.669]   [H-I: 41]
  • When does self-reported prosocial motivation predict helping? The
           moderating role of implicit prosocial motivation
    • Abstract: Abstract In three studies, we tested a motivational model to predict different types of helping from an interactionist, dual-system perspective. We argued that helping behavior is determined by the interplay of two distinct motivational systems: the explicit (i.e., conscious) and the implicit (i.e., unconscious). In line with previous research we expected that explicit prosocial motivation relates to helping, and additionally proposed that depending on the type of helping this relationship is moderated by implicit prosocial motivation: For planned helping, explicit prosocial motivation is a sufficient predictor, regardless of implicit prosocial motivation. For spontaneous helping, on the other hand, the effect of explicit prosocial motivation is moderated by implicit prosocial motivation, and only predictive when also implicit prosocial motivation is high. Study 1 (207 Dutch participants, M age  = 51.7 years; 51.7 % female) with self-reported willingness to help as dependent variable confirmed that planned helping was determined by explicit prosocial motivation, whereas its effect on spontaneous helping was moderated by implicit prosocial motivation. Study 2 (193 U.S. participants, M age  = 35.2 years; 64.2 % female) with real-life measures of planned help confirmed the hypothesized main effect of explicit prosocial motivation. Study 3 (73 Dutch participants, M age  = 20.8 years; 68.5 % female) with a real-life measure of spontaneous helping confirmed the moderating role of implicit prosocial motivation, as the effect of explicit prosocial motivation on helping was only significant for individuals with high implicit prosocial motivation. We argue that considering implicit prosocial motivation provides an overlooked avenue for a more systematic investigation of helping.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Background factors predicting accuracy and improvement in micro expression
    • Abstract: Abstract Micro expressions are brief facial expressions displayed when people attempt to conceal, hide, or repress their emotions. They are difficult to detect in real time, yet individuals who can accurately identify micro expressions receive higher workplace evaluations and can better detect deception. Two studies featuring college students and security officers examined background factors that may account for accuracy differences when reading micro expressions, both before and after training. Study 1 revealed that college students who were younger and high in openness to experience were better at recognizing micro expressions. However, individual differences did not predict improvement in micro expression recognition gained through training. Study 2 revealed experiential factors such as prior facial expression training and lack of law enforcement experience were more predictive of micro expression recognition than personality or demographic factors. Individuals in both studies showed recognition improvement with training, and the implications of the ability to improve at micro expression recognition are discussed in the context of security and interpersonal situations.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • The implications of counterfactual mind-sets for the functioning of
           implementation intentions
    • Abstract: Abstract Two experiments explored how counterfactual mind-sets interact with implementation intentions and affect their flexibility. Participants engaged in a subtractive mind-set, an additive mind-set, or a control condition and were subsequently given either goal intentions or implementation intentions that facilitated cue detection (Experiment 1) or the goal-directed response (Experiment 2). Dependent variables were the number of targets specified in the intentions and the legitimate alternatives to the targets (flexibility measure). In Experiment 1, the implementation intention (versus goal intention) group were better at detecting specified cues, but worse on alternatives, regardless of mind-set. In Experiment 2, an interaction emerged. For both specified and alternative responses, the subtractive mind-set paired with an implementation intention versus goal intention performed better. This pattern was reversed for additive mind-set conditions. Hence, how counterfactual mind-sets affect the flexibility of planning is dependent on the particular mind-set used and the specific operations of plan.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • When focusing on a goal interferes with action control: action versus
           state orientation and over-maintenance of intentions
    • Abstract: Abstract People vary in action versus state orientation, or the ease versus difficulty by which they can form and enact goals under demanding conditions (Kuhl and Beckmann in Volition and personality: action versus state orientation, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1994). According to the over-maintenance hypothesis, state-oriented people are prone to think about their intentions in a narrow linguistic format that prevents flexible action control. Two studies tested this hypothesis by manipulating intention focus among action- versus state-oriented participants and examining how well they performed difficult actions. Focusing strongly (rather than weakly) on the task goal led state-oriented participants to make more errors during incongruent trials of a Stroop task (Study 1) and led to greater task-switch costs in response latencies (Study 2). Action-oriented participants showed the reverse pattern, and performed difficult actions more effectively when focusing on the task goal. These findings suggest that focusing on intentions may paradoxically impair action control among state-oriented people.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Ain’t sure who to blame: Metacognitive influences on
           appraisal–emotion processes
    • Abstract: Abstract In this research, we propose that emotions are affected not only by appraisals, but also by a metacognitive sense of confidence versus doubt over the appraisals. Focusing on core-relational themes (CRTs), higher-order appraisals comprising the combined meaning of several appraisals, we predicted and found evidence, over two studies, that the effect of a CRT on the corresponding emotion is stronger if one feels confident about the validity of the CRT compared to feeling doubtful. In Study 1, CRT was manipulated by recall and in Study 2, CRT was manipulated in vivo. Both designs produced consistent support for the hypotheses. These findings demonstrate the need to consider metacognitive processes in understanding the effects of appraisals on emotions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Emotion and control in the planning of goals
    • Abstract: Abstract By planning the what, where, and when of pursuing a goal, people improve the likelihood that they will ultimately attain that goal. Whereas research to date has explored the breadth of this planning effect and its underlying processes, contextual variables that influence the formation and execution of plans have mostly gone unexplored. In light of the central role played by emotional experience in goal pursuit, its impact on planning remains an open question of both theoretical and practical importance. Here, we suggest that anger and sadness—and their corresponding, distinct cognitive appraisal patterns regarding control—differentially impact (1) the tendency to plan and (2) the implementation of plans. Anger (greater control) led to the formation of more plans for goal-directed behavior (Studies 1 and 2) and faster execution of real behavior as prescribed by predetermined plans (Study 3). Broader implications for theories of emotion and goal pursuit are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Anger and attitudinal reactions to negative feedback: The effects of
           emotional instability and power
    • Abstract: Abstract Feedback is a basic tool that is used to stimulate learning and performance at all organizational levels. However, negative feedback can sometimes evoke defensive responses such as feelings of anger or the repudiation of the feedback. In two experiments we explored whether people’s negating responses to feedback are grounded in their emotional instability, and if this effect is stronger for those who hold more power. The findings from Study 1 (N = 84) showed that in response to negative feedback more emotionally unstable individuals experienced more anger. In Study 2 (N = 47) we indicated that anger mediated the negative effects of emotional instability and power on liking of the feedback provider, perceived ability of the feedback provider, and feedback acceptance. Our findings indicate that power strengthens the influence of emotional instability on responses to negative feedback and point to the importance of anger as the underlying factor influencing crucial attitudinal feedback reactions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Perfectionism and emotion regulation in coaches: A test of the
           2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism
    • Abstract: Abstract The manner in which coaches regulate their emotions has implications for their performance and well-being. Drawing on research that has found perfectionism to predict emotion regulation in other settings, this study adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine whether subtypes of perfectionism among coaches were associated with variation in the use of emotion regulation strategies. Coaches (N = 238, M age = 23.92, SD = 10.32) from various sports completed measures of perfectionism (personal standards and evaluative concerns) and emotion regulation strategies (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and control of anger directed inwards and outwards). Moderated hierarchical regression provided mixed support for the 2 × 2 model. As expected, pure personal standards perfectionism (high standards/low concerns) was generally associated with the highest capacity for emotion regulation and pure evaluative concerns perfectionism (low standards/high concerns) with the lowest. Unexpectedly, mixed perfectionism (high standards/high concerns) was associated with the highest level of expressive suppression, suggesting that in some instances standards might exacerbate rather than attenuate concerns.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Correlational and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of commonly used
           empathy questionnaires: New insights
    • Abstract: Abstract Empathy is a concept whose history has been marred by conceptual inconsistencies. Dispositional measures of empathy have varied in constituent subscales and have been suggested to conflate with other related constructs. The current investigation consists of correlational and exploratory factor analyses with self-report empathy measures to assess the commonalities between these measures. Four hundred ninety-seven university undergraduates completed a battery of self-report dispositional empathy measures, along with situational and dispositional sympathy measures. The novel findings include moderate correlations between scales purporting to measure empathy, an interpretable six-factor structure which represent subcomponents of these empathy scales, and the modest ability of existing questionnaires to contribute to these factor structures. The retained factor structure is not consistent with previous definitions of empathy, and it appears that self-report empathy measures do not adequately measure a uniform, consistent construct.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14
  • Walking the talk: Value importance, value enactment, and well-being
    • Abstract: Abstract Prior research on intrinsic versus extrinsic values has focused on the comparative importance subjects assign to the two types of values, showing that relative intrinsic versus extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) predicts higher or increased well-being. In two studies, we show that rated action taken regarding the two types of values is just as essential to study. Support was found for four hypotheses: (1) there was a significant behavior/importance gap, such that participants “walked” (acted on values) less than they “talked” (endorsed those values); (2) this was especially true for intrinsic values, an interaction suggesting that the intrinsic ideals of personal growth, community, and connection often receive only lip service; (3) the “walk” (behavior ratings) measure of RIEVO subsumed the “talk” (importance ratings) RIEVO measure’s effects on well-being outcomes, suggesting that researchers interested in predicting well-being from values should perhaps focus on rated value enactment, not value importance; and (4) participants with higher meaning in life, lower search for meaning, more self-concordance at work, and greater chronological age evidenced more consistency between their talking and their walking.
      PubDate: 2014-08-09
  • Mothers’ motivation for involvement in their children’s
           schooling: mechanisms and outcomes
    • Abstract: Abstract While research has examined factors associated with parent involvement, little work has focused on why parents are involved in their children’s schooling. This study thus assessed mothers’ motivation for involvement (measured on a continuum of autonomy), their level of involvement, and their affect when involved in relation to children’s motivation and academic performance. Participants were 178 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students and their mothers. More autonomous motivation (identified, intrinsic) for involvement positively related to mothers’ levels of involvement and positive affect when involved. Identified motivation, as well as parental level of involvement, related to children’s academic perceived competence, self-worth, and reading grades. Results supported mediational models in which identified motivation was associated with higher academic perceived competence through cognitive involvement and reading grades through increased cognitive and personal involvement. For self-worth, there was an indirect path from identified motivation through personal involvement as well as a significant direct path. Results stress the importance of considering why parents are involved, especially when developing interventions to increase parent involvement.
      PubDate: 2014-08-09
  • How emotional expressions shape prosocial behavior: Interpersonal effects
           of anger and disappointment on compliance with requests
    • Abstract: Abstract People often express emotion to influence others, for instance when making a request. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how such emotional expressions shape compliance. We investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and disappointment on compliance with requests. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were more willing to offer help and donate to charity when a request was accompanied by disappointment rather than anger or no emotion. In Experiment 3, which involved a behavioral paradigm, emotional expressions trumped the effect of an explicit descriptive norm: Expressions of disappointment fostered generosity despite a non-generous norm, and expressions of anger undermined generosity despite a generous norm. Mediation analyses in Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that disappointment was more effective than anger in eliciting compliance because it was perceived as more appropriate for the context. Findings are discussed in relation to theorizing on social influence and the social functions of emotions.
      PubDate: 2014-08-09
  • What if I can’t? Success expectancies moderate the effects of
           utility value information on situational interest and performance
    • Abstract: Abstract Two studies tested how the effects of a utility value manipulation on interest and performance were moderated by expectations for success. College students learned a new technique for mentally solving multiplication problems with instructions containing task utility information or not. In Study 1 (N = 62), the effect of the utility value information was positive for individuals with high success expectancies, but negative for individuals with low success expectancies. Study 2 (N = 148) examined the causal role of success expectancies by manipulating whether participants received an expectancy boost before receiving the utility manipulation. The results showed further support for the importance of success expectancies in moderating the effect of directly-communicated utility value. The results are discussed in relation to other research on utility value, interest, and expectancy–value models of achievement behavior.
      PubDate: 2014-08-02
  • Achievement goals and emotions in athletes: The mediating role of
           challenge and threat appraisals
    • Abstract: Abstract Although the relationships between achievement goals and discrete emotions have been examined in a few studies, the process through which these relationships occur has received little attention. The present study investigated whether task and ego achievement goals were related to excitement, hope, and anxiety and whether these relationships were mediated by challenge and threat appraisals. We also examined whether the two achievement goals interact to predict emotions. Undergraduate students (N = 344) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing achievement goals, challenge and threat appraisals, perceived competence, hope, excitement, concentration disruption, worry, and somatic anxiety before taking part in a team sport trial. Results showed that task goal was positively related to excitement and hope, and these relationships were mediated by challenge appraisal. In addition, threat appraisal mediated the relationship between task goal and concentration disruption. Ego goal was indirectly related to excitement through challenge appraisal. Finally, ego goal positively predicted concentration disruption at low but not high levels of task goal. Our findings suggest that achievement goals may influence emotions through cognitive appraisals and the interaction between task and ego goals needs to be considered in future research.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Motivational systems and preferences for social support strategies
    • Abstract: Abstract The behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral approach system (BAS), and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) are motivational systems that guide people’s behavior. Motivational systems may be relevant to contexts of interpersonal communication, specifically those requiring social support. In these situations, people express preferences for approaching versus avoiding and emotion versus problem-focused comfort. This paper links people’s preferences for supportive strategies with their motivational systems. 335 participants reported their preferences for different strategies of social support and their motivational system orientations. As expected, BAS was associated with preferences for involving, problem-focused support. BIS, BAS, and FFFS were significantly associated with emotion-focused support, and FFFS was negatively associated with comfort that downplays affect. The motivational systems interact when manifesting associations with preferences for support strategies, and the BAS reward responsiveness subscale emerged as the most influential BAS subscale. These results indicate that BIS, BAS, and FFFS influence people’s preferences in contexts of interpersonal communication.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Seeing what you ought to see: The role of contextual factors in the social
           perception of achievement emotions
    • Abstract: Abstract To assess the impact of context information on emotion perception, participants saw a picture of a male or female person with either a neutral, happy or sad facial expression and received information about the context in which the picture was taken. Their task was to rate the emotion actually expressed in the photo (i.e., focal emotions) as well as emotions not actually expressed (i.e., non-focal emotions) and inferences extracted from them. We predicted and found that context information affected both the perception of emotions and the inferences that the observers drew from them. Perceivers used context information in order to make sense of what was perceived to the extent that in the case of neutral expressions and for non-focal emotions, they “see” things that do not actually exist.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • “I have paid my dues”: When physical pain reduces
           interpersonal justice motivations
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study we show that experiencing physical pain interacts with justice related cognition and serves to reduce justice-restoring behavior in the context of interpersonal moral transgressions. This is because concepts of punishment and justice are embodied within the experience of pain, allowing for a sense of atonement from one’s wrongdoings. Two thirds of the participants were induced to feel that their performance in a two player game was unfair. Half of those participants were then asked to engage in a physically painful task, and were afterwards less likely to make amends for past poor performance compared to players who completed a similar, but non-painful task. This effect was only evident for participants who are particularly sensitive to personal injustices and therefore sensitive to the justice restoring qualities of pain.
      PubDate: 2014-03-14
  • The effects of context on facial affect recognition
    • Abstract: Abstract In a sample of 325 college students, we examined how context influences judgments of facial expressions of emotion, using a newly developed facial affect recognition task in which emotional faces are superimposed upon emotional and neutral contexts. This research used a larger sample size than previous studies, included more emotions, varied the intensity level of the expressed emotion to avoid potential ceiling effects from very easy recognition, did not explicitly direct attention to the context, and aimed to understand how recognition is influenced by non-facial information, both situationally-relevant and situationally-irrelevant. Both accuracy and RT varied as a function of context. For all facial expressions of emotion other than happiness, accuracy increased when the emotion of the face and context matched, and decreased when they mismatched. For all emotions, participants responded faster when the emotion of the face and image matched and slower when they mismatched. Results suggest that the judgment of the facial expression is itself influenced by the contextual information instead of both being judged independently and then combined. Additionally, the results have implications for developing models of facial affect recognition and indicate that there are factors other than the face that can influence facial affect recognition judgments.
      PubDate: 2014-02-26
  • Exploring the effects of self-esteem and mortality salience on proximal
           and distally measured death anxiety: a further test of the dual process
           model of terror management
    • Abstract: Abstract The dual process model of terror management theory posits that proximal and distal defenses prevent death-related cognition from leading to death-anxiety. Further, the theory identifies self-esteem as a trait level resource that helps people avoid the awareness of death-anxiety. However, to date, no studies have examined the proximal and distal effects of death-related cognition and self-esteem on death-anxiety. In the present study, we assessed trait self-esteem, manipulated the awareness of death (mortality salience), and measured death-anxiety either immediately (proximally) or after a delay/distraction task (distally). Mortality salience did not lead to increased death-anxiety immediately after the mortality salience, but did so after a delay. Furthermore, this distal increase in death anxiety was only observed at low levels of self-esteem.
      PubDate: 2014-02-25
  • Watching for gains and losses: The effects of motivational challenge and
           threat on attention allocation during a visual search task
    • Abstract: Abstract This experiment tests predictions based on research and evidence around the biopsychosocial model (BPSM) that people in a challenge state have faster, more gain orientated search patterns than those in a threat state. Participants (n = 44) completed a motivated performance task involving the location of a target appearing in one of two search arrays: one associated with gaining points and the other associated with avoiding the loss of points. Midway through the task, participants received a false feedback prime about their performance invoking either challenge or threat. We found that participants receiving a challenge prime (high performance feedback) spent longer searching the gain array and made fewer fixations on the loss array. Those receiving a threat prime (low performance feedback) made fewer fixations on the gain array. These findings are in line with the BPSM and provide evidence that allocation of attention (measured using eye movement data) is related to challenge and threat.
      PubDate: 2014-02-21
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