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Journal Cover   Journal of Applied Ichthyology
  [SJR: 0.482]   [H-I: 36]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0175-8659 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0426
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Length‐weight relationships of 14 fish species from a lowland
           tropical reservoir in southeastern Brazil
    • Abstract: The present work reports the length‐weight relationships of 14 abundant fish species from a tropical reservoir (Juturnaiba Reservoir), which is the water supply for several municipalities in the northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Fishes were collected quarterly in 2006 and 2007 using gillnets of different mesh sizes (15–120 mm stretched mesh) that were set up at sunset and retrieved the following morning, remaining for ca. 15 h. Of the 14 species, eight had no records in the FishBase LWR database; new maximum lengths are given for eight species.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T02:24:41.279567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12833
  • Length–weight relationships of six fish species from the Zengqu
           River and the Ouqu River, southwest China
    • Authors: T. B. Zhu; D. G. Yang, Y. Liu, F. Li
      Abstract: This study provides the first report of length–weight relationships (LWRs) for six endemic fish species collected from the Zengqu River and the Ouqu River, two of the tributaries to the upper reaches of the Jinsha River, southwest China. Samples were obtained in May 2013 and September 2013 using various types of fishing gear. A total of 413 specimens belonging to six fish species were analyzed; their LWRs were W = 0.0069L3.086 (r2 = 0.987) for Schizothorax wangchiachii (Fang, 1936), W = 0.0076L3.029 (r2 = 0.980) for Schizothorax dolichonema (Herzenstein, 1889), W = 0.0029L3.315 (r2 = 0.961) for Schizopygopsis malacanthus (Herzenstein, 1891), W = 0.0082L 2.970 (r2 = 0.950) for Ptychobarbus kaznakovi (Nikolsky, 1903), W = 0.0017L3.464 (r2 = 0.957) for Triplophysa stolioczkae (Steindachner, 1866), and W = 0.0037L 3.190 (r2 = 0.956) for Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein, 1888). Prior to this study, the LWRs for S. dolichonema, P. kaznakovi and T. orientalis were unknown. In addition, new maximum sizes for four of the species are provided.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T02:23:28.644231-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12843
  • Length–weight relationships and reproductive parameters of Amblyceps
           apangi Nath and Dey, 1989 from Nagaland, India
    • Authors: L. N. Humtsoe; S. Bordoloi
      Abstract: The present study describes certain biological parameters of a hill stream catfish, Amblyceps apangi Nath and Dey, 1989 first described from Arunachal Pradesh, India. The distributional range of the fish was later recorded from the states of Manipur and Nagaland. The fish is very rare and this is the first report on certain biological parameters based on collections (140 males, 105 females) from streams in the Doyang watershed, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River. The value of the allometric coefficient (b) indicated close to isometric growth in males (2.989) and negative allometric growth in females (2.945). The relative condition factor was found to be close to 1 in different size groups. Both males and females attained first maturity (M50) in length group 6.0–7.0 cm. Peak values (Male 0.424, Female 1.465) in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) occurred from April to May, indicating one spawning season per year. The overall female to male ratio was 1 : 1.33. Absolute fecundity ranged from 17 to 122 for fishes of total length 6.34–10.3 cm.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T02:19:30.942929-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12827
  • High frequency of deformations in Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus malma,
           Walbaum, 1792), an introduced population
    • Authors: G. Sahashi
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T23:53:30.978356-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12842
  • Length‐weight relationships of 10 fish species from two tributaries
           of Indus River Basin in Jammu and Kashmir, India
    • Authors: A. Bashir; N. K. Sharma, B. S. Bisht, R. Singh, J. I. Mir
      Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWRs) are described for 10 fish species belonging to three families from the Jhelum and Poonch River, tributaries of the Indus river basin in India. LWRs for these species were unknown to FishBase and new maximum lengths are recorded for three species. These results will be useful for fishery research, management and conservation in these tributaries of Jammu and Kashmir.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T23:51:52.784768-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12844
  • Processing traits of European catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758) from
           outdoor flow‐through and indoor recycling aquaculture units
    • Abstract: The quality of fish cultured using recycling units may differ from that of fish from outdoor farming units due to a range of deviating environmental determinants. This applies not only to flesh quality but also to morphological (processing) traits. This study evaluates processing yields of sibling fish cultured in two different farming units: (i) an outdoor pond aquaculture system with a flow‐through regime (24.6 ± 0.2°C), and (ii) indoor tanks using a recirculation aquaculture system (RAS; 26.0 ± 1.0°C). Clear differences were observed in the most important processing traits, i.e. skinned trunk and fillet yields, which were both significantly higher (P 
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T23:51:30.261976-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12848
  • Radiocesium concentrations and body size of largemouth bass, Micropterus
           salmoides (Lacépède, 1802), and smallmouth bass,
           M. dolomieu Lacépède, 1802, in Lake Hayama, Japan
    • Authors: K. Takagi; S. Yamamoto, K. Matsuda, A. Tomiya, M. Enomoto, Y. Shigenobu, K. Fujimoto, T. Ono, T. Morita, K. Uchida, T. Watanabe
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T07:07:08.600045-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12846
  • Effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) supplementary
           feeding with modified cereals on pond water quality and nutrient budget
    • Abstract: This 4‐month study (10 May – 6 September 2012) evaluated the effects of supplementary feeding on common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) growth, water quality, natural food availability and nutrient balance under different pond treatment regimes (eight rectangular earthen ponds; 0.03 ha surface area; 3‐year‐old carp). The nitrogen and phosphorus budgets were calculated as the difference between input (food, fish stocked and influent water) and output (effluent water and fish harvested). Three types of supplementary feeds were used: wheat, thermally‐treated wheat, and thermally‐treated and pressed wheat. An additional test group was provided with naturally available forage only and served as a control. The type of supplementary feed did not influence the water quality, with the exception of dissolved oxygen. No significant differences among experimental ponds were observed in zooplankton abundance. The use of modified cereals (especially thermally‐treated and pressed wheat) improved carp growth performance and resulted in lower nutrient concentrations in effluent water via improving their digestibility. Both thermally‐treated and thermally‐treated and pressed cereals improved the balance of phosphorus; hence these diets could be beneficial, not only from the fish production point of view but also as a tool to reduce the deterioration of pond water quality.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T07:01:19.507286-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12850
  • Quality and quantity of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) spermatozoa after
           varying cold water treatments
    • Authors: M. Blecha; J. Kristan, A. Mohagheghi Samarin, M. Rodina, T. Policar
      Abstract: Three groups of seven pond‐cultured pikeperch males, held under controlled conditions of low water temperature and for a varying photoperiod were injected with 500 IU kg−1 human chorionic gonadotropin. Following a latent period of 72 h, sperm was collected. Stripping was on 26 March (Group A), 21 April (Group B), and 13 June (Group C). Spermatozoa was obtained from 85% fish in group B and from 42% of fish in group C. Mean volume of stripped semen for Group A was 0.64 ml, for Group B 1.07 ml, and for Group C 1.80 ml, while the mean concentration of spermatozoa was similar in all groups (15.73 ± 2.68–19.34 ± 3.87 109 ml−1). Group A spermatozoa showed the longest motile period (89.93 ± 10.20 s) and Group B the shortest (55.18 ± 10.46 s). The highest velocity at 15 s post‐activation was recorded in group A (220 ± 22.3 μm s−1) and the lowest in Group B (159 ± 35 μm s−1). Group C showed velocity of 187 μm s−1. The results of our study showed that the length of the cold water period had no influence on spermatozoa quality, but did have an influence on the ability of males to produce sperm.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T07:00:54.918935-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12853
  • Contaminants in muscle tissue from paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and
           hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) after being raised in
           reclaimed effluent water
    • PubDate: 2015-06-30T07:00:30.774833-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12854
  • Determination of the best post‐ovulatory stripping time for the
           common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: A. M. Samarin; D. Gela, D. Bytyutskyy, T. Policar
      Abstract: To determine the best time interval between ovulation and controlled egg stripping in female common carp (Cyprinus carpio), ovulated eggs were retained at 20°C inside the fish body until 12–14 h post‐ovulation (HPO). The eggs of four females were stripped with two‐hour intervals after ovulation for 12–14 HPO and fertilized with mixed milt obtained from three males. Eyeing, hatching and eyed‐egg mortality rates as well as the occurrence of larval malformations and ploidy anomalies were considered as indices to assess egg quality. The results indicated that throughout 4–6 HPO the eyeing and hatching rates remained approximately 90 and 80% of the initial rates, respectively. Although not significantly different (P > 0.05), the viability rates (eyeing and hatching percentages) increased to about 7.5% of the initial rates at 2–4 HPO compared with 0–2 HPO. Thereafter, the eyeing and hatching rates decreased over time linearly and finally dropped to 11 and 2.5% in eggs fertilized at 12–14 HPO, respectively. Eyed‐egg mortality and larval malformation rates did not display any marked increase in eggs fertilized up to four hours after ovulation but thereafter increased significantly; more than 50% of eyed eggs died, and approx. 20% of hatched larvae were malformed at 8–10 HPO. Post‐ovulatory oocyte ageing did not affect the ploidy level of the larvae. Based on the results obtained in this study, common carp egg quality is maintained inside the fish body for at least four HPO. The best post‐ovulatory stripping time was estimated to be within 2–4 HPO and therefore we recommend that the eggs be retained inside the fish body for this period of time after ovulation. The complete loss of egg viability also occurs 12–14 h after ovulation.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T06:57:30.560303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12855
  • Length–weight relationships for six fish species in Iskenderun Bay
           (Eastern Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey)
    • Authors: D. Erguden; S. A. Erguden, M. Gurlek
      Abstract: The length–weight relationships (LWRs) were estimated for six non‐indigenous fish species, namely, Apogon smithi (Kotthaus, 1970); Ostorhinchus fasciatus (White, 1790); Pomadasys stridens (Forsskål, 1775); Champsodon capensis Regan, 1908; Torquigener flavimaculosus Hardy & Randall, 1983; and Tylerius spinosissimus (Regan, 1908) from Iskenderun Bay, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Their length–weight relationship b values ranged from 2.902 to 3.501, and all regressions were found to be significant for all six species (P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T06:39:45.046675-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12839
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of four species
           of genus Pethia and genus Puntius from wetlands of Lakhimpur district,
           Assam, India
    • Authors: G. Kaushik; S. Bordoloi
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWR) and length–length relationships (LLR) were estimated for four species, namely, Puntius sophore (Hamilton, 1822), Puntius chola (Hamilton, 1822), Pethia ornatus (Vishwanath & Laisram, 2004) and Pethia ticto (Hamilton, 1822) collected from different wetlands of Lakhimpur, Assam. The values of the parameter slope (b) in the LWR were 3.30 for Puntius sophore, 3.22 for Puntius chola, 2.61 for Pethia ornatus and 3.27 for Pethia ticto. The relationships among TL, FL and SL were all linear (r2 > 0.95).
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T06:39:23.078395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12841
  • Length–weight relationships of nine fish species from the streams of
           Hunan Zhangjiajie Chinese Giant Salamander National Natural Reserve, China
    • Authors: Z. Q. Liang; C. R. Wang, Y. A. Wu, L. H. Wen, Q. W. Wei, X. P. Yuan, H. Li, F. C. Liao, L. Li
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWR), W = aLb, were estimated for nine fish species belonging to three orders, four families and nine genera from the Hunan Zhangjiajie Chinese Giant Salamander National Natural Reserve, in the northwestern part of Hunan Province of central China. Six of the species are endemic to China, of which three are also endemic to the Yangtze River. The r2 value ranged from 0.9546 to 0.9924. Values of b varied from 2.9177 to 3.6752. This study represents the first reference on LWR for nine species, and are new maximum length records for six species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T06:37:12.801293-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12826
  • Additional record of the yellowmouth barracuda, Sphyraena viridensis
           Cuvier, 1829 (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) from the NE Aegean Sea (Izmir
           Bay, Turkey)
    • Authors: O. Akyol
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T06:35:37.392834-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12832
  • Length‐weight relationships of 19 fish species from the Saemangeum
           Reservoir in South Korea
    • Abstract: The length‐weight relationships were analysed for 19 species classified into nine families from the Saemangeum reservoir, South Korea. The sample size ranged from 12 individuals for Silurus asotus and Micropterus salmoides to 548 for Liza haematocheila. Six species have no length‐weight information in FishBase.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30T06:22:48.582366-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12825
  • Weight–length relationships of six batoids in the Ecuadorian Pacific
    • Abstract: Weight–length relationships (WLR) were estimated for six batoids, namely: Urotrygon chilensis, Narcine entemedor, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Rhinobatos planiceps, Rhinobatos prahli and Urobatis tumbesensis captured in the Ecuadorian Pacific. Data were collected between October 2013 and August 2014 in two artisanal fishing ports. In addition, this represents the first WLR estimations for five of the species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T05:37:21.602512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12829
  • Length–weight relationships for two marine fish species from the
           Gulf of Oman: Uranoscopus guttatus Cuvier, 1829 and Lagocephalus inermis
           (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)
    • Abstract: This study presents the first report of length–weight relationships (LWRs) for Uranoscopus guttatus and Lagocephalus inermis from the Iranian coast on the Gulf of Oman. A wide range of body lengths and weights were obtained using samples from non‐selective trawling surveys. The LWRs obtained were W = 41.408L3.519 and W = 16.525L2.847 for U. guttatus and L. inermis, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T05:36:59.034986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12821
  • Length‐weight relationships of 18 fish species from the Siluriformes
           order in a hydrographic subtropical basin in southern Brazil
    • Abstract: The present paper describes the length–weight relationship of 18 fish species from the Siluriformes order in a subtropical basin, southern Brazil.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T02:51:17.494799-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12822
  • Length–weight relationships of fish from Madeira River, Brazilian
           Amazon, before the construction of hydropower plants
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) are presented for 112 freshwater fish species representing 23 families and five orders captured in the Madeira River, the largest white‐water river tributary of the Amazon River. The allometry coefficient (b) of the LWR (Wt = aSLb) ranged from 2.446 to 3.856 with a median value of 3.102. Eight new LWR records are presented for Amazonian species as information for FishBase. LWRs in the present study provide historical data on a and b coefficients prior to the damming of the Madeira River in November 2011, allowing comparison estimates of predicted future population parameters as influenced by human intervention.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T02:50:38.646599-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12819
  • Length–weight relationships of eight freshwater (Cypriniformes) fish
           species from Turkey
    • Authors: H. Ayyildiz; Y. Emre, A. Yagci, A. Altin
      Abstract: The length–weight relationships for eight freshwater fish species collected from Beyşehir Lake, Eğirdir Lake, Aksu River, Alara River, Göksu River and Menzelet Reservoir, were analysed. This paper represents the first LWR references for four of these species and also four of these species are endemic to Turkey.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T02:34:50.423091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12828
  • Length–weight relationship of two fish species from Poonch River,
           Western Indian Himalaya: Glyptothorax kashmirensis (Hora, 1923) and
           Crossocheilus diplochilus (Heckel, 1838)
    • Authors: N. K. Sharma; R. Singh, N. N. Pandey, M. S. Akhtar, J. I. Mir
      Abstract: This study provides the first report of length–weight relationships (LWRs) for two fish species, Glyptothorax kashmirensis and Crossocheilus diplochilus, collected from the Poonch River, one of the lesser tributaries to the Indus basin in India. New maximum length records are reported for both species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T02:33:43.209265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12834
  • Length–weight relationships of two cyprinid fish species,
           Crossocheilus latius (Hamilton, 1822) and Garra gotyla gotyla (Gray, 1830)
           from the Ganga River Basin, India
    • Authors: N. K. Sharma; J. I. Mir, A. K. Dobriyal, R. Singh
      Abstract: This study provides length–weight relationship (LWR) information for two fish species (family Cyprinidae), Crossocheilus latius (Hamilton, 1822) and Garra gotyla gotyla (Gray, 1830), from a tributary of the Ganga River Basin, India. Both species had no previous LWR estimates as per Fishbase 2014.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T02:03:17.034252-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12835
  • Relationship of otolith length to fish total length in six demersal
           species from the NW Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: C. Viva; P. Sartor, D. Bertolini, S. De Ranieri, A. Ligas
      Abstract: Relationships between otolith major axis length (mm) and fish size (total length, cm) were described by means of linear regression analysis for six demersal fish species from the NW Mediterranean: blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), greater forkbeard (Phycis blennoides), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), poor cod (Trisopetus minutus capelanus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), and Mediterranean mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus). Results show that reconstruction of body size from otolith measurement is possible by applying this approach based on the relationship of otolith length – fish length.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T01:59:57.466906-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12838
  • Length–weight relationships for eight fish species from the Ravi
           River, north‐western India
    • Authors: N. K. Sharma; J. I. Mir, R. Singh, M. S. Akhtar, N. N. Pandey
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) were evaluated for Badis badis (n = 25), Sperata seenghala (n = 26), Labeo gonius (n = 34), Rasbora rasbora (n = 30), Bagarius bagarius (n = 24), Gagata cenia (n = 27), Glyptothorax stoliczkae (n = 24) and Channa orientalis (n = 28) from the Ravi River tributary in North India. Altogether 218 samples of eight species were obtained between May and November 2014 using cast nets and gill nets. LWRs for these species were unknown to FishBase, and new maximum lengths were recorded for two of these species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T01:58:12.510793-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12836
  • Length–weight relationship of Hyporthodus haifensis and Mycteroperca
           rubra (Pisces; Serranidae) from the North‐Eastern Mediterranean Sea,
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) for Hyporthodus haifensis and Mycteroperca rubra were studied using longlines at depths of 5–150 m, in the Gulf of Antalya, northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Fishing operations were carried out daily with 15 fishing boats. A total of 170 individuals were sampled. The LWR relationships of Hyporthodus haifensis and Mycteroperca rubra were calculated as W = 0.009L3.142 (r2) = 0.996 and W = 0.0081L3.0652 (r2) = 0.989 P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T01:37:44.131595-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12837
  • Length‐weight relationships of 19 freshwater fishes from the
           Daechung Reservoir in South Korea
    • Abstract: The length‐weight relationships for nineteen freshwater fish species in the Daechung Reservoir, South Korea, were analyzed. LWR data for fourteen of these species were not yet listed in FishBase.
      PubDate: 2015-06-22T05:32:54.402137-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12767
  • Endocrine changes during the previtellogenic stage of the great sturgeon,
           Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: B. Falahatkar
      Abstract: The study aimed to investigate changes in serum concentrations of sex steroids, thyroid hormones, stress indices, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, calcium and phosphorus, as well as the growth in the 3‐year old previtellogenic stage of great sturgeon, Huso huso over a 6‐month period. Forty individually marked fish (mean weight 6913 g) were divided among three circular tanks under a natural temperature and photoperiod. Every 1.5 months fish were weighed and blood samples taken for serum analysis. Fish showed significant changes in 17β estradiol, testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, cholesterol, and phosphorus, but not in triacylglycerol and calcium concentrations. From the January onset of the experiment to the end of the trial in July, there was a decrease in sex steroids and cortisol concentrations as well as a decline in T3 concentrations from March and in T4 from February to July. The mean weight of fish increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Although the oocyte diameter increased from 197 to 202 μm, the difference was not significant. The histological data on oocytes suggest that the great sturgeon, like the other sturgeons, has a heterogeneous asynchronous ovarian development in the early stage of reproduction. This data might be useful to the further understanding of the physiology of Huso huso and/or to improve its culture. Moreover, it leads to a general increase in the understanding of the basic reproductive biology of this valuable chondrostean species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-20T02:01:46.130265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12813
  • Documented predation of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Forbes &
           Richardson, 1905) by flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque,
    • Authors: K. D. Steffensen; S. A. Lundgren, T. W. Huenemann
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T07:16:21.191769-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12831
  • Increasing capture efficiency of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus
    • Authors: R. J. DeVries; D. A. Hann, H. L. Schramm
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of environmental parameters on the probability of capturing endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) using trotlines in the lower Mississippi River. Pallid sturgeon were sampled by trotlines year round from 2008 to 2011. A logistic regression model indicated water temperature (T; P 
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T07:15:34.371141-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12814
  • Length‐weight relationships of eight freshwater fishes from the
           Yangtze River and Lake Taihu, China
    • Authors: S. K. Tang; T. Q. Zhang, J. M. Lu, B. Q. Zhu, D. M. Li
      Abstract: The length‐weight relationships (LWRs) are presented for eight freshwater fish species (Acheilognathus macropterus, Saurogobio dabryi, Saurogobio gymnocheilus, Sinobdella sinensis, Pelteobagrus eupogon, Rhinogobius cliffordpopei, Neosalanx jordani, and Silurus meridionalis) from the Yangtze River and Lake Taihu. A total of 1044 specimens were sampled and measured between July 2012 and June 2014. Among the eight species, five species have no LWR estimates in FishBase.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T07:15:12.443443-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12817
  • Ontogenetic changes in RNA, DNA and protein contents of Chinese loach,
           Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Dabry de Thiersant, 1872), larvae and juveniles
    • Abstract: The changes in nucleic acid‐based indices and protein variables of Chinese loach, Paramisgurnus dabryanus, larvae and juveniles from hatching to 60 days after hatching (DAH) were conducted to assess its growth potential. The nucleic acid contents were analysed using a UV‐based method (n = 3, rearing temperature 24.4 ± 0.4°C, dissolve oxygen 7.1 ± 0.5 mg L−1, pH 7.9 ± 0.4). Ribonucleic acid (RNA) concentration significantly decreased from 2 to 5 DAH, then increased rapidly until 10 DAH, declining slightly thereafter. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentration increased 2–5 DAH, decreased until 9 DAH, slightly increased again around 26 DAH, and then declined to a relatively stable level. Both RNA‐DNA and protein‐DNA ratios showed a statistically obvious relationship with growth rates. A significantly positive relationship was found between RNA‐DNA ratio and growth rates during the early life stage of Chinese loach. According to the results, growth of Chinese loach is characterized by rapid hyperplasia from hatching through completion of the yolk‐sac stage followed by continued rapid hyperplasia combined with increasing hypertrophy after feeding commences. The stage preceding 17 DAH of Chinese loach P. dabryanus is presumed to be critical for its survival and growth at 24°C.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T07:14:12.872678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12808
  • Diet of two commercially important shark species in the United Arab
           Emirates: milk shark, Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837), and
    • Authors: R. W. Jabado; S. M. Al Ghais, W. Hamza, A. C. Henderson, A. A. Al Mesafri
      Abstract: The diets of the milk shark, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and the slit‐eye shark, Loxodon macrorhinus, landed from the artisanal fishery in the Arabian Gulf waters of the United Arab Emirates were investigated to determine their dietary preferences. Stomach contents from 57 milk sharks and 53 slit eye sharks were collected from Abu Dhabi (R. acutus, n = 23), Dubai (R. acutus, n = 5; L. macrorhinus, n = 15) and Ras Al Khaimah (R. acutus, n = 29; L. macrorhinus, n = 38) during fishery surveys from January to May 2012. Prey items were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level, grouped into five categories including ‘teleost fish’, ‘cephalopods’, ‘crustaceans’, ‘invertebrates’, and ‘other’. The diets of both species were described using the numeric, frequency and weight methods, and the index of relative importance (IRI). The majority of stomachs for both species had food, with 66.6% of milk shark stomachs and 90.5% of slit‐eye shark stomachs containing prey items, both dominated by small teleosts. Rhizoprionodon acutus fed on a wide variety of teleost species, primarily Engraulidae (anchovies) (28%), Gerreidae (mojarras) (5.6%) and Carangidae (jacks) (1.6%) with occasional crustacean and cephalopod prey (8%). On the other hand, L. macrorhinus seemed to have a preference for one species in terms of teleosts (anchovies) (35.1%) and fed on a wider variety of crustaceans and cephalopods (22.6%). There was little overlap in the diets of these two species, suggesting that they may either be using different habitats or that in these waters, the milk shark is a generalist species while the slit‐eye is a specialist feeder.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T07:13:51.019377-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12805
  • Evaluation of safflower meal as a protein source in diets of rainbow trout
           [Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792)]*
    • Authors: S. Ustaoglu Tiril; M. Kerim
      Abstract: The effects of different levels of safflower meal (a residue of the plant oil extraction process) in diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and body composition were investigated. Four different diets containing 0% (Control group), 10% (Diet 1), 15% (Diet 2) and 20% (Diet 3) safflower meal were formulated for the fish with a mean weight of 132.70 ± 0.75 g fed for 70 days. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among dietary treatments for weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (P > 0.05). There were also no differences in the digestibility of crude protein and crude lipid between groups (P > 0.05). Supplementation of safflower meal in the diets also had no adverse effects on body composition. The results indicate that safflower meal is a promising feed ingredient and can be used up to a concentration of 20% in the rainbow trout diet with no adverse effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility or body composition.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T07:13:06.788489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12807
  • Effect of avermectin (AVM) on the expression of γ‐aminobutyric
           acid A receptor (GABAAR) in Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)
    • Authors: A. L. Zhou; K. Hu, J. M. Ruan, H. P. Cao, Y. Wang, Y. N. Zhao, X. L. Yang
      Abstract: This study describes the effect of avermectin (AVM) on the expression of γ‐aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in Carassius gibelio. To assess the specific expression of GABAAR in the brain, gonads, liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, and skin of C. gibelio, the expression of GABAAR α1 subunit (GABAARα1) was measured by Western blotting. To study the effects of AVM on the expression of GABAAR, the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, and 96 h of AVM was determined and the expression of GABAAR in the brain, liver, and kidneys of the corresponding C. gibelio evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results show that GABAAR was expressed in the brain, gonads, liver, kidneys, heart, intestines, muscles, and skin, while primarily distributed in the central nervous system and moderately distributed in peripheral tissues. The expression of GABAAR in the brain, liver, and kidney tissues of C. gibelio was increased with the treatment of AVM at 24 h LC50, but attenuated by the treatment of AVM at 48 h LC50 and 96 h LC50. This suggests a threshold effect of AVM.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17T06:51:57.80356-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12794
  • Development and characterization of 21 novel microsatellite markers for
           the Amur catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: M. Xie; F. Shao, Y. Zhang, Z. Peng
      PubDate: 2015-06-11T02:31:14.441209-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12815
  • Factors influencing three‐spined stickleback
           Gasterosteus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758) catch per unit effort
    • Abstract: Different types of fishing gear are known to vary in catch per unit effort (CPUE), but little is known regarding this in respect to the three‐spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758). The influence of the three‐spined stickleback CPUE by trap model, baiting and visual attractors was investigated. One trap type was found to out‐perform the other; however, baiting or attractors did not influence the CPUE. Hence, the results suggest that while the choice of trap type may have an impact on the three‐spined stickleback CPUE, baiting or attractors do not seem to improve the impact.
      PubDate: 2015-06-11T02:26:40.784256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12810
  • Isolation and characterization of sixteen microsatellite loci for the
           rudderfish Kyphosus elegans (Centrarchiformes: Kyphosidae) from Easter
           Island, discovered with Next Generation Sequencing
    • PubDate: 2015-06-11T02:26:20.06234-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12812
  • Distribution, abundance and condition of invasive Ponto‐Caspian
           gobies Ponticola kessleri (Günther, 1861), Neogobius fluviatilis
           (Pallas, 1814), and Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) in the Sava
           River basin, Croatia
    • Abstract: Distributions, population densities, invasive potentials and adverse impacts of invasive Ponto‐Caspian gobies on native fauna in the Sava River basin remain unknown, whereby 23 locations in the Sava basin were sampled during a three‐year period (2011–2013). Among the five Ponto‐Caspian goby species previously reported in Croatia, only Neogobius fluviatilis (291), Neogobius melanostomus (177) and Ponticola kessleri (21) specimens were collected. Proterorhinus semilunaris and Babka gymnotrachelus were not found. N. fluviatilis was dominant among the invasive gobies at the majority of locations and almost omnipresent (apart from the upper Sava reaches) in the Sava basin. N. melanostomus was found only in the navigable Sava reaches, but its distribution range still seems to be expanding. The status of P. kessleri invasion remains unclear, as it was only found in 2011 at three locations in the lower Sava reaches. No significant (P > 0.05) increase in average catch‐per‐unit‐effort (CPUE) values was observed during the three‐year period. There is some evidence that a decline in Gobio gobio populations might be expected in response to increasing N. fluviatilis population densities. The findings suggest that further range expansions by the Ponto‐Caspian gobies can be expected in Croatia and the implementation of measures to limit their spreading should be considered.
      PubDate: 2015-06-11T02:17:33.18787-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12803
  • Length‐weight relationship of 11 fish species from a tributary of
           the Amazon River system in northern Brazil
    • Abstract: The length–weight relationships (LWRs) of 11 freshwater fish for eight families (Leporinus friderici, Pterophyllum scalare, Geophagus camopiensis, Curimata incompta, Astyanax bimaculatus, Tetragonopterus chalceus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Metynnis lippincottianus, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Hemiodus unimaculatus and Colomesus asellus) captured in tributary of the Amazon River system (Brazil) were investigated. These results represent the first reference on the LWRs for all 11 species in the eastern Amazon.
      PubDate: 2015-06-04T00:54:23.500601-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12791
  • Isolation and characterization of 15 novel microsatellite loci from an
           endangered bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Tchang, 1930)
    • Authors: W. Luo; K. Zhao, Y. Zhang, Z. Peng
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T02:01:29.417651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12816
  • Reproductive biology and growth of bluestripe herring Herklotsichthys
           quadrimaculatus (Rüppell, 1837) in the northernmost waters
    • Authors: S. Oka; K. Miyamoto
      Abstract: In order to examine the reproductive biology and growth of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus in the northernmost part of its reproductive range, the size frequency, gonadal development, and otolith daily increments of this species were collected from the coastal waters of Okinawa Island, southern Japan. Juveniles (3.0) between March and August, which was the estimated spawning period. The modal hatching period back‐calculated from otolith daily increments was from April to May, which would be the peak of spawning. Because mature and spent ovaries also contained mature and immature oocytes, it was concluded that females spawn several times during the spawning season. Age determination from otolith increments showed logistic growth up to 97 mm (ca. 180 days post‐hatch), after which growth was almost stagnant. Maximum size and age were 121.6 mm SL and 384 days, respectively. The adult size decreased between August and September, indicating a change in the age cohort. Thus, the fish reached the end of their lifespans after spawning. Some of these ecological features were different from those of a previous study performed in southern areas; these differences suggest a flexible life history that could change to adapt to the surrounding environment.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T01:58:13.094013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12811
  • First record of Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758 in Portugal (Iberian
    • Authors: C. Gkenas; J. Gago, N. Mesquita, M. J. Alves, F. Ribeiro
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T01:57:47.274627-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12806
  • Reproductive biology of female cardinalfish, Epigonus crassicaudus de
           Buen, 1959
    • Abstract: The cardinalfish (Epigonus crassicaudus) is a long‐lived and endemic deep‐water fish inhabiting the central and southern coast off Chile. Knowledge about basic biological attributes including maturity aspects is fragmentary in this species. The historical and comprehensive data available are applied to provide a detailed study of the reproductive biology of the female cardinalfish. The gonadosomatic index was computed from 5110 female gonads collected by onboard scientific observers between October 2000 and December 2012. A total of 1467 females gonads collected between March 2007 and December 2009 were subjected to histological analysis of maturation upon which a maturity ogive was estimated. The ovarian development of this specie is asynchronous, characterized by a continuous reproductive cycle in which reproductive activity is found throughout the year with a maximum during the austral autumn and summer (between May and June). Length at 50% maturity was estimated in 23.2 cm of fork length (95% CI: 21.7–23.9 cm). The results presented here are compared with previous sparse estimates available for this species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T01:53:50.942144-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12802
  • Biological control of streptococcal infection in Nile tilapia Oreochromis
           niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using filter‐feeding bivalve mussel
           Pilsbryoconcha exilis (Lea, 1838)
    • Abstract: Since bivalve mussels are able to graze heavily on bacteria, in this paper it is hypothesized that when mussels are cultured with fish, the filtering efficiency of the mussels will keep the bacterial population below a certain threshold and thus assist in reducing the risk of bacterial disease outbreaks. The ability of the filter‐feeding bivalve mussel Pilsbryoconcha exilis to control Streptococcus agalactiae was tested in a laboratory‐scale tilapia culture system. Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), the bivalve mussel as well as the bacteria were cultured at different combinations using four treatments: treatment‐1: mussel and bacteria but no fish, treatment‐2: tilapia and mussel but no bacteria, treatment‐3: tilapia and bacteria but no mussel, and treatment‐4: tilapia, mussels, and bacteria. All treatments were run in three replicates; stocking rates were 10 tilapia juveniles; five mussels; and about 3.5 × 105 colony forming units (CFU) ml−1 of bacteria in 50‐L aquaria with 40‐L volume. The mussel reduced the bacterial population by 83.6–87.1% in a 3‐week period whereas in the absence of the mussel, the bacterial counts increased by 31.5%. Oresence of the mussel also resulted in significantly higher growth and lower mortality of tilapia juveniles than when the mussel was absent. The results of this experiment suggest that the freshwater mussel P. exilis could control the population of S. agalactiae in a laboratory‐scale tilapia culture system. Future studies should focus on the dynamic interactions among fish, mussels, and bacteria as well as on how input such as feed and other organic materials affect these interactions.
      PubDate: 2015-05-28T07:15:41.223061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12804
  • Northward range extension of the nakedband gaper, Champsodon nudivittis
           (Ogilby, 1895) (Osteichthyes: Champsodontidae), towards Maden Island,
           Edremit Bay, Turkey
    • PubDate: 2015-05-28T04:33:03.836642-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12799
  • Growth and muscle cellularity of diploid and triploid Atlantic cod (Gadus
           morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare somatic growth and muscle fibre development in diploid and triploid siblings of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) during the larval stage. Newly hatched larvae were transferred into 200‐L tanks, three tanks per ploidy group (70 larvae L−1, continuous light, gradually increasing seawater temperature 7–11°C and flow rates 50–117 L h−1). Larvae were fed rotifers from 2 to 22 days post hatch (dph), Artemia 19–31 dph and weaned onto a microparticulate diet from 26 dph until the end of the experiment. Measurements of growth (dry weight, standard length) and muscle cellullarity were taken at intervals between 1 and 44 dph. Ploidy groups showed a similar performance throughout the trial, although a marked stagnation in growth was observed for triploids during the weaning from Artemia onto dry feed. Overall, diploid and triploid cod larvae showed a similar development in muscle fibre growth pattern during the experimental period. For both groups, the total number of fast muscle fibres showed a 10‐fold increase (from 384 to 3462), whereas the diameter of fast fibre increased from 8.9 to 13.3 μm (mean number from all treatments). Thus, a temporary but significant effect of triploidy on fast muscle fibre growth pattern was observed in 19 dph larvae in terms of fibre size and number, with triploids showing larger mean fast fibre diameter (11.62 ± 0.63 vs. 10.05 ± 0.34) and a lower number of fibres with a diameter
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T07:17:38.808207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12792
  • Evaluating bony structures for ageing and growth parameters of Capoeta
           banarescui inhabiting the lower Melet River (Ordu, Turkey)
    • Authors: D. Bostanci; G. Kurucu, N. Polat
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of bony structures for age determination. A total of 247 Capoeta banarescui individuals were analyzed. Fish were caught on the lower Melet River between July 2010 and October 2012. Sex ratio was 2.5 : 1. The specimens ranged from 8.1 to 21 cm in total length and 5.07 to 108.93 g in weight. Age determined from vertebrae, scales, asteriscus and lapillus otoliths were variable. The highest percent agreement (PA) (69.2%) and the lowest average percent error (APE) (4.24%) and coefficient of variation (CV) (8.71%) were obtained for vertebrae. Hence, it was determined that the vertebra is the most reliable ageing structure for C. banarescui in the lower Melet River. Females were age I–V years and males I–V years. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was established for females, males, and all individuals, respectively: Lt = 23.9 [1−e−0.22 (t+1.89)], Lt = 21.8 [1−e−0.26 (t+1.58)], Lt = 26.7 [1−e−0.17 (t+2.21)].
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T02:26:05.752511-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12787
  • Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus
           (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post‐stocking
    • Authors: D. R. Stewart; J. M. Long
      Abstract: In this study it was sought to quantify post‐stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-23T02:43:09.925672-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12797
  • Length‐weight relationships for 15 fish species from Atlantic rain
           forest streams, southeastern Brazil
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships were determined for 15 fish species from the tributary Atlantic rain forest steams that drain into Sepetiba Bay, southeastern Brazil. This is the first record of length‐weight relationships for 12 of these species and new maximum lengths for four species. These results will be useful for management and conservation of this area of the Atlantic rain forest drainages.
      PubDate: 2015-05-23T02:42:51.629029-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12788
  • Production of recombinant great sturgeon (Huso huso, Linnaeus, 1758)
           growth hormone (GH) by Pichia pastoris (Guillierm, 1956)
    • Authors: L. Azizzadeh Pormehr; M. Pourkazemi
      Abstract: In this research, the encoding cDNA of growth hormone (GH) was cloned from the pituitary gland of great sturgeon Huso huso (three adults: two females and one male, 7–9 years old, 70–90 kg, reared in concrete ponds). In order to obtain the great sturgeon recombinant GH expression in Pichia pastoris, the mature encoding cDNA was first cloned in TA vector PTZ57R and then sequenced. After confirmation of the correct GH sequence, the GH coding sequence was subcloned into pHILS1 expression vector. The yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 strain was transformed with the expression plasmid. Results obtained from this study showed that great sturgeon GH recombinants were expressed upon induction with methanol and exported into the medium. The level of expression was examined using RNA analysis, SDS‐PAGE, and western blot analysis. RNA analysis of the recombinant strains showed a sharp, specific band in 800 bp. The specific band in transformants indicated the presence of GH RNA in the yeast. SDS‐PAGE and western blot analysis showed a specific 21 kDa band for the growth hormone. Culture conditions were optimized for pH = 6 and incubation time (after 24 h induction, peaking at 72 h) for maximal protein production. The results provide useful information for the future production of recombinant growth hormones in other sturgeon species.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T06:02:52.740337-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12784
  • Isolation and characterization of tandem repeat sequences in the growth
           hormone gene of the red seabream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel,
    • Authors: E. Sawayama; M. Takagi
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T01:00:23.704934-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12800
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of eight endemic
           Aphanius species from Turkey
    • Abstract: Length–weight and length–length relationships were assessed for eight endemic Aphanius species from Turkey. This study provides a new reference on length–weight and length–length relationships and new maximum sizes for all species examined.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T00:59:38.857572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12789
  • Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus
           (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska
    • Abstract: We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi‐gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T00:58:43.253048-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12785
  • Effects of catching methods on quality changes of Rutilus kutum (Kamensky,
           1901) during storage in ice
    • Authors: P. Raoofi; S. M. Ojagh, B. Shabanpour, M. Eighani
      Abstract: The quality of fish varies among the different methods of capture and storage times. In this study Rutilus kutum was captured by beach seine and gillnet and stored for up to 16 days; thereafter the changes in microbiological quality (total viable and psychrophilic counts) and chemical quality (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acids) were evaluated. The storage time and method of capture had significant effects (P 
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:58:28.125031-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12795
  • Length‐weight and length‐length relationships of four Alosa
           species along the southern Caspian Sea coast
    • Abstract: This study investigates length‐weight and length‐length relationships of four shad species (Alosa braschnikowi, Alosa caspia, Alosa kessleri, and Alosa saposchnikowii) captured on the southern Caspian Sea coast of Iran. The relationship of total length (TL), fork length (FL) and standard length (SL) and the relationship between total length and body weight are presented.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:58:12.76612-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12790
  • Fatty acid composition of wild Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835)
           larvae: implications on lipid metabolism and trophic relationships
    • Authors: G. A. Kopprio; M. Graeve, G. Kattner, R. J. Lara
      Abstract: The fatty acid composition of the pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis larvae was studied to elucidate potential dietary relationships. Their principal fatty acids were characteristic for membrane lipids of aquatic organisms. The fatty acid composition varied little throughout seasons, with high proportions of 22 : 6(n‐3) (27% of total fatty acids), which is biosynthesized de novo from dietary precursor fatty acids and/or accumulated from the diet. Other major fatty acids were 16 : 0 and 18 : 0. The diatom‐typical 16 : 1(n‐7) and other dietary fatty acids (zooplankton and microplankton) are not reflected in the larvae, thus limiting the use of fatty acids as trophic markers for food web relationships of atherinopsids.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:57:56.842721-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12786
  • Length–weight relationships for 85 fish species from Guam
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) were developed for 85 reef and bottom‐fish species from Guam. These are the first published LWRs for Guam, and include new LWRs for nine species lacking these relationships in FishBase.
  • Characterization and SNP variation of the interleukin‐1β gene
           of bighead carp (Cyprinus pellegrini Tchang, 1933) and five strains of
           common carp [Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus (1758)] in China
    • Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in humans and livestock. The present study was to determine the genetic variation of this cytokine in six carp strains. Among the sampled individuals, a total of 13 SNPs, including eight in introns and five in coding regions, were identified at intron 5, exon 6, intron 6 and exon 7. Three positions of 1700, 1733 and 1934 resulted in variable amino acid changes with Phe to Tyr, Pro to Leu and Lys to Asn, respectively. Five positions with minor allele frequency (MAF) were larger than 0.05. Among 13 SNPs, eight positions of allele frequency and ten positions of genotypic frequency showed significant differences between some populations. The genotype distributions of the 13 SNPs were consistent with the assumption of the Hardy‐Weinberg equilibrium, with the exception of two positions in the Yibu and bighead carp (P 
  • Anesthesia of wild female Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin,
           1897) breeders during controlled propagation: effects on hematological
           parameters, stress response and reproductive performance
    • Abstract: This study examined the effects of anesthesia on the hematological and biochemical parameters as well as the reproductive performance of wild female Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, during controlled spawning. Fourteen mature females were divided into two groups: ‘anesthetized’ and ‘non‐anesthetized’. All activities including transportation, catheterizing and handling were performed with both groups: (i) under anesthesia (150 ppm clove oil), and (ii) without anesthesia. After 10 days storage and handling, blood samples were taken from all fish after anesthesia. No significant differences were found in the reproductive performance of either group. However, differences were found in the hematological parameters, with values being significantly higher in the non‐anesthetized group, including neutrophils (34.36 ± 6.33% vs 23.63 ± 5.22%), monocytes (2.84 ± 1.70% vs 1.27 ± 0.64%), mean corpuscular volume (321.3 ± 39.40 pg vs 228.0 ± 24.46 pg) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (106.9 ± 15.70 fl vs 76.50 ± 7.50 fl). Significantly lower values were found in the non‐anesthetized group for lymphocytes (60.68 ± 7.25% vs 73.54 ± 4.80%), Hb (4.62 ± 0.74 mg dl−1 vs 6.28 ± 1.21 mg dl−1), Hct (13.86 ± 1.76% vs 18.84 ± 3.85%), red blood cell (0.43 ± 0.05 cell mm−3 vs 0.85 ± 0.13 × 106 cell mm−3) and white blood cell (22 403 ± 2240 cell mm−3 vs 35 318 ± 3084 cell mm−3). The non‐anesthetized fish had significantly higher cortisol levels compared to the anesthetized group (62.33 ± 8.85 ng ml−1 vs 46.12 ± 8.07 ng ml−1). There was no difference in plasma glucose levels between groups. It is concluded that the use of clove oil as an anesthetic is suitable for handling of wild female Persian sturgeon in controlled propagation programmes. However, further research is needed to determine a standardized protocol for the safe application of anesthesia for use in sturgeons in general.
  • Using otolith shape and morphometry to identify four Alburnus species
           (A. chalcoides, A. escherichii, A. mossulensis and
           A. tarichi) in Turkish inland waters
    • Abstract: Asteriscus otolith shapes as well as their morphometry and shape contours were investigated in order to identify four allopatric Alburnus species: A. chalcoides (Güldenstädt, 1772) (Ordu), A. escherichii Steindachner, 1897 (Eskişehir), A. mossulensis Heckel, 1843 (Tunceli), and A. tarichi (Güldenstädt, 1814) (Van) in Turkish inland waters. These were compared using the shape indices (form factor, roundness, circularity, ellipticity, rectangularity and aspect ratio), and the morphological characters [otolith weight (OWE), otolith length (OL), otolith width (OW), otolith perimeter (OP), and otolith area (OA)]. The overall canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) classification score was 93.8%, with the lowest score for A. escherichii (82.5%) and the highest for A. chalcoides (100%). The otolith shapes, morphology and shape contours of all sampled fish were a clear species differentiator, thereby demonstrating that the otolith shape is species‐specific. The current study presents for the first time comprehensive variation information on interspecific left‐right asteriscus otoliths in males and females of each Alburnus species: A. chalcoides from Ordu, A. escherichii from Eskişehir, A. mossulensis from Tunceli and A. tarichi from Van, based on a total of 307 individuals. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, shape contours and other otolith characters vary within the same genus; these differences should be investigated not only in other freshwater fish species or genera but also in the same species living in different habitats. In addition, further investigation is required not only with respect to the morphometry, biometry, shape, geometry, and shape contours of the otoliths, but also regarding the genetic methods for robust identification of various sympatric and allopatric fish populations.
  • Length–weight relationships of two fish species from the upper
           reaches of the Yangtze River, China
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships were determined for two fish species (Jinshaia sinensis Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant, 1874; and Zacco platypus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) collected from the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in China. The length–weight relationships were determined for the first time.
  • Length–length and length–weight relationships of fish species
           from the Lake Eyre Basin, Australia
    • Abstract: The Lake Eyre Basin in central Australia is one of the world's last unregulated dryland river systems. To facilitate future research in this area, the relationships between total length, standard length, and wet weight for 10 widespread, large‐bodied freshwater fish species are presented. All linear relationships were strong (r2 > 0.90) and values of the exponent b of the length–weight relationships ranged from 2.786 to 3.336. These results provide novel baseline data for species in this area.
  • Structure of fish assemblages in seven tropical reservoirs in southeastern
           Brazil during the rainy season; what matters: physico‐chemical or
           hydrological connectivity influences'
    • Abstract: Closely connected reservoirs were hypothesized to have more similar fish compositions than do spatially isolated reservoirs, and that environmental variables play an important role in shaping assemblage structure on a local scale. Fish assemblages and environmental variables were sampled in seven reservoirs constructed to generate hydroelectricity, with most inflowing water coming directly or via transposition of the Paraiba do Sul River, in Southeastern Brazil. Using gill nets and environmental measurement variables, fish collections were carried out between January and February 2008 (wet season), when increases in temperature and rainfall increase hydrological connectivity, facilitating fish movements throughout the river‐reservoir system. Mean fish density, biomass and the number of species did not differ significantly among the seven reservoirs. On the other hand, the assemblage structure differed among almost all pairs of reservoirs. Of the reservoirs connected in series, only two (Santana and Vigário) showed a similar assemblage structure, suggesting that hydrological connectivity plays a minor role. Physico‐chemical variables changed among reservoirs and seemed to play an important role in determining the assemblage structure, with higher conductivity (average = 108 μS cm−1) and TDS – total dissolved solid (0.07 g L−1), and low pH (5.8) in the Pereira Passos Reservoir associated with a high number of the Siluriformes Loricariichthys castaneus, and with the opposite conditions in Tocos (conductivity = 27 μS cm−1; TDS = 0.02 g L−1; pH = 7) that were associated with a high number of the carnivorous Characiformes Oligosarcus hepsetus and Hoplias malabaricus. A direct relationship was found between abundance of the catfishes Pimelodus fur and Glanidium albescens and high turbidity (90.4 NTU) and low temperature (25.3°C) and transparency (0.1 m) in the Ilha dos Pombos Reservoir. Moreover, a close relationship was found between high abundance of the cichlid Cichla kelberi and the high temperature and transparency of Lajes (28.3°C; 2.2 m) and Santa Branca (27.1°C; 2.6 m) reservoirs. These findings support the hypothesis that physico‐chemical variables structure fish assemblages in reservoirs, but that hydrological connectivity seems to play a minor role in shaping assemblage structure. However, other unmeasured variables (e.g. physical habitat characteristics and biotic interactions) and other seasons need to be evaluated in further studies.
  • Seasonality affects the parasitism levels in two fish species in the
           eastern Amazon region
    • Abstract: Fish parasite communities have strong interactions with the environment, the host fish, and the aquatic invertebrate communities. Thus, factors directly involving their different life cycles, such as different host populations and environments, as well as seasonal fluctuations in water levels can cause different responses. The main factors structuring parasite communities may be the hydrodynamic variations, together with seasonal variations in the availability of infectious stages of parasites in the environment. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of the rainy and dry seasons on parasite infracommunities in fish species in the Amazon River System of Brazil. Between October 2009 and April 2011, specimens of Colossoma macropomum and Colossoma macropomum × Piaractus brachypomus hybrids (tambatinga) were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasite communities were similar in these two species that both showed aggregate dispersion, although the hybrid specimens were less parasitized. For both hosts, the Brillouin diversity, species richness, evenness and Berger‐Parker dominance indices were similar in the rainy season and dry season, except that the Berger‐Parker dominance index for the C. macropomum × P. brachypomus hybrid was higher during the dry season. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant parasite, followed by Piscinoodinium pillulare, in both hosts. However, C. macropomum had a higher prevalence and abundance in the dry season, while in the C. macropomum × P. brachypomus hybrid, only the I. multifiliis prevalence increased. The abundance of monogenean species (Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni, Mymarothecium and Notozothecium janauachensis) was higher during the dry season in the gills of C. macropomum. Despite overdispersion of the lernaeid Perulernaea gamitanae, a seasonal pattern was seen only in the C. macropomum × P. brachypomus hybrid, with higher prevalence in the rainy season. The low prevalence and abundance of the ectoparasites Tetrahymena sp., Trichodina sp. and Braga patagonica, as well as of the endoparasites Procamallalus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus and Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, were not affected by seasonality. This information is applicable in farming practice for these economically important fish, as it indicates the best time for prophylactic management and treatment against parasites, in order to prevent economic losses in fish farms.
  • Effect of water temperature on egg incubation time and quality of newly
           hatched larvae of northern pike (Esox lucius L., 1758)
    • Abstract: This study examined the effect of temperature on egg incubation, survival of eggs during embryonic development and quality of newly hatched larvae of northern pike (Esox lucius L.) under laboratory conditions. Eggs of similar size (diameter 2.7 ± 0.16 mm and weight 6.11 ± 0.35 mg) from five females were incubated at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 18°C (groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively). The lowest fertilization (FR) and hatching rates (HR) were observed in larvae incubated in group A, 44.6 ± 3.2% and 18.26 ± 2.25%, respectively. The highest FR and HR were found in group B (FR, 71.3 ± 4.3%; HR, 56.2 ± 3.21%) and C (FR, 65.6 ± 3.1%; HR, 65.5 ± 5.41%). Time of incubation period varied from 38 ± 0.33 days (120 ± 1.03°d) when 5% larvae were hatched to 46 ± 0.42 days (144 ± 1.31°d) when 95% larvae were hatched in group A and 2.5 ± 0.08 days (44.67 ± 1.42°d) when 5% larvae were hatched to 3.42 ± 0.06 days (61.11 ± 1.07°d) when 95% larvae were hatched in group E. Larvae from groups A, D, and E were characterized by the lowest values of variables such as resistance to osmotic stress after 90 min of exposure of saline solution (OS = 54 ± 3–76 ± 3%), frequency of normally developed larvae (FNL = 23.8 ± 4.14–87. 1 ± 2.42%), and yolk sac volume (YsV = 3.41 ± 0.44–3.89 ± 0.45 μl3). The highest quality larvae were recorded in groups B and C: OS = 92 ± 3% and 80 ± 4%, FNL = 89.7 ± 3.62% and 93.8 ± 3.17, YsV = 3.3 ± 0.66 μl3 and 3.04 ± 0.42 μl3). Fertilization and hatching rates and quality of larvae showed optimal temperature for successful egg incubation and production of high quality larvae to be 6 to 10°C. Relationship of ontogenic rate to temperature showed development of the pike embryo to be hypothetically stopped at 3.3°C.
  • Length–weight relationship of 13 fish species from the Ili River,
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships of 13 fish species are presented from samples collected in the Ili River, northwestern China. This study provides the first description of length‐weight relationships for five of the species. Coefficients of determination (r2) were >0.95 for 10 of the species.
  • Length–weight relationships for six fish species from the middle of
           the Yalu Tsangpo River, China
    • Abstract: This paper reports the length–weight relationships for six fish species belonging to the Cyprinidae from the middle of the Yalu Tsangpo River in China. Samples were obtained by electroshock and drift net fishing techniques (mesh size 2 cm × 3 cm; 200 m net length) in April and September to October 2014. Length–weight relationships estimates for these species were not available in FishBase. A total of 737 specimens were used to estimate the a and b parameters. New maximum total lengths are also reported for six species. The r2 values range from 0.98 to 0.99. Values of b vary from 2.88 to 3.19.
  • Length–weight relationships for five endemic fish species in the
           upper Yangtze River basin, China
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships were estimated for five endemic fish species in the upper Yangtze River: Platysmacheilus nudiventris Luo, Le & Chen, 1977, Xenophysogobio nudicorpa (Huang & Zhang, 1986), Homatula potanini (Günther, 1896), Leptobotia rubrilabris (Dabry de Thiersant, 1872), and Euchiloglanis kishinouyei Kimura, 1934. The a values ranged from 0.0079 to 0.0134, and b values from 2.833 to 3.081. These five endemic species are rare, small and difficult to find and capture. Thus the sampling period was lengthy, from May 2010 to May 2014. A total of 718 specimens were available for analysis, and the length–weight relationships are the first reports for these five endemic fish species.
  • A survey of epitheliocystis disease in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil
  • The role of zooplankton as food in carp pond farming: a review
    • Abstract: This review paper aims to offer a current view on the function of zooplankton as food for common carp, as traditionally its role has been underestimated compared with benthic invertebrates or supplementary feeding. We prove the importance of zooplankton organisms in the life cycle of common carp in fishponds. As in other fish species, carp larvae feed mainly on zooplankton, starting with small organisms (rotifers) and as they grow then shifting to larger organisms, e.g. copepods and cladocerans. As adults they are commonly benthic feeders, concentrating principally on zoobenthos (mainly chironomid larvae); however, zooplankton is also an important part of the diet, depending on food availability and spatial and temporal variation. Zooplankton is high in protein (above 50% of dry matter for some groups) and lipids (approximately 10% of dry matter with a significant proportion of unsaturated fatty acids). Natural food therefore may provide a high nutritional content, compared to other diets. Appropriate management strategies in fishponds can potentially increase the production of zooplankton, e.g. monitoring zooplankton levels and stocking fish at the appropriate moment, control of environmental variables favouring zooplankton development, and utilizing sustainable fish stocking densities.
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships for nine fish
           species from Lhasa River Basin, Tibet, China
    • Abstract: The present study reports length–weight relationships (LWR) and length–length relationships (LLR) for five native freshwater fish species (Schizopygopsis younghusbandi, Triplophysa orientalis, T. tibetana, T. stewartii and T. stenura) and four introduced freshwater fish species (Pseudorasbora parva, Carassius auratus, Micropercops cinctus and Oryzias latipes) captured in the Lhasa River Basin, Tibet, China. Five of the LWRs are presented for the first time.
  • Length–weight relationships of three fish species from the Tajan
           River, Iran
    • Abstract: The study describes the length–weight relationships for two Cobitid species, namely Cobitis keyvani and Sabanejewia aurata, plus a Gobiid species, Ponticola gorlap, all from the Tajan River in Mazandaran province, Iran.
  • Length‐weight relationships of fish species in Kordan River (Namak
           Lake basin), Iran
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships were estimated for three little‐known species in Kordan River, in the Namak Lake Basin, Iran. For all species the estimated length‐weight relationship parameters fell within normal distributions and predicted ranges.
  • Length‐weight relationships for nine fish species of Laohegou River,
           a tributary of upper Yangtze River, China
    • Abstract: This paper provides length‐weight relationships for nine fish species from the Laohegou River, a tributary of the upper Yangtze River. Length‐weight relationships for six of these species are recorded for the first time. New maximum lengths for two species are also reported.
  • Length–weight relationships of thirty‐seven fish species from
           the Hongshui River, Southwest China
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for 37 fish species belonging to ten families from the middle and lower stream of the Hongshui River, one of the main tributaries to the Pearl River, Southwest China. Length‐weight relationships for 26 species are unknown to FishBase and new maximum lengths are recorded for 20 species. These results are useful for fishery research, conservation and management in the Hongshui River.
  • The effects of storage time of frozen pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758)
           fillets on the chemical composition as determined by various deterioration
    • Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the effects of frozen storage on the proximate composition and chemical indices of pike (Esox lucius) stored for a period of six months at −20°C. During storage the moisture, protein and fatty acid contents decreased and the ash, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) and peroxide value (PV) content increased significantly (P 
  • Length–weight relationships and biological data of Odontobutis
           sinensis (Wu, Chen & Chong, 2002) from Liangzi Lake, China
    • Abstract: This study provides the first biological information on a small freshwater benthic fish species Odontobutis sinensis (Wu, Chen & Chong, 2002) from Liangzi Lake, China. The length‐weight relationship was BW = 0.0080TL3.23. The male : female sex ratio was 1.56 : 1. Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI), the spawning season is from April to June. Females first matured at 7.90 cm total length (TL). Absolute fecundity varied from 346 to 2588 eggs. Main food items consisted of crustaceans and smaller fishes.
  • Maladaptive behavioural phenotypes in captive‐reared darters
           (Etheostoma caeruleum, Storer 1845)
    • Abstract: The foraging and anti‐predator behaviour of captive‐reared rainbow darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) was compared to their wild‐caught counterparts. Wild‐caught darters responded with appropriate anti‐predator behaviour (reduced foraging activity) when exposed to alarm cues (e.g. stimuli from damaged skin) from both wild‐caught and captive‐reared darters, indicating that the diet in captivity did not inhibit the production of alarm cues. Captive‐reared individuals did not change their level of activity when exposed to alarm cues; however, their significantly lower baseline activity (movement and prey consumption) makes it unclear as to whether they actually failed to recognize risk. Regardless, captive‐reared darters showed little motivation to feed when food became available (i.e. they made few movements to obtain food) and appeared impervious to chemical cues indicating risk. Exposing captive‐reared individuals to both semi‐natural foraging opportunities and predator‐recognition training before their release is recommended.
  • Effect of water temperature on early life history of African
           sharp‐tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)
    • Abstract: Early life history of Clarias gariepinus from egg fertilization to full yolk sac resorption was studied at 33 temperatures within the thermal range 17.4–35.6°C. The viable temperature range for embryonic development; temperature at which ontogeny is hypothetically arrested (15.4°C); viable temperature range for larval development; and the number of effective day‐degrees for the embryonic and larval periods were determined. The early life history of C. gariepinus was found to be temperature‐dependent in terms of the onset of key ontogenetic events, developmental rate, survival rate, and size of larvae. The length of the incubation period, hatching period, size of larvae at hatching, time to first intake of exogenous food, and time to full yolk sac resorption with and without exogenous feed supply, were inversely proportional to the temperature within the optimal temperature range. In terms of survival, the zone of thermal tolerance for early life history of C. gariepinus ranged from 18.9 to 33.2°C with the thermal optimum from 22.9 to 30.3°C, typical for thermophilous species. Temperature ranges of 20.6–22.9°C and 30.2–33.2°C were found to be suboptimal. Temperatures below 17.5 and above 35.1°C may be considered lethal during the embryonic period, and those below 18.9 and above 33.2°C are lethal during the larval period.
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of four endemic
           fish species from the upper Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau, China
    • Abstract: Length–weight (LWRs) and length–length relationships (LLRs) were estimated for four important endemic fish species representating two genera and one family from the upper Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau, China. Three of the species are endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, and the fourth is endemic to the Yellow River. The b values of all species were within expected ranges, varying between 2.54 and 3.33. The LLRs were highly correlated. The data of the four species represent the first description of their length–weight and length–length relationships.
  • Effects of dietary xanthophylls/astaxanthin ratios on the growth and skin
           pigmentation of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (Richardson,
    • Abstract: An 8‐week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary xanthophylls/ astaxanthin ratio on the growth and skin color of large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Five pigment‐supplemented diets were formulated to contain 75/0, 50/25, 37.5/37.5, 25/50 and 0/75 mg kg−1 of xanthophylls/astaxanthin. The xanthophylls contain 89.31% lutein and 6.12% zeaxanthin. A diet without pigment supplementation was used as the control. The large yellow croaker juveniles (13.80 ± 0.03 g) were randomly distributed in 18 sea cages (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 m) at a density of 45 fish per cage. Water temperature ranged from 21 to 31°C during the feeding trial. To obtain results, the survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, skin redness, skin yellowness, skin lightness, skin carotenoid content and skin melanin content were measured. The results showed that the survival rate, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). The ventral skin lightness was also not affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05); however, the dorsal skin lightness of fish fed with the control diet was significantly lower than those fed with pigment‐supplemented diets (P  0.05). Lightness and yellowness were linearly related to skin carotenoid content. Meanwhile, skin yellowness and carotenoid content were linearly related to the proportion of xanthophylls in dietary pigments.
  • Analysis of length‐weight relationship of sympatric hill stream
           teleosts Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807) and Barilius vagra
           (Hamilton, 1822) from Garhwal Himalaya, India
    • Abstract: The present study describes the length–weight relationships (LWRs) of two important ornamental hill stream fishes, Barilius bendelisis and Barilius vagra (Hamilton), of northern India. A total of 630 specimens were collected from January to June 2011 in a spring‐fed stream in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Information regarding LWRs of these species was not yet available in FishBase.
  • Age, growth and reproduction of the black sea bream Spondyliosoma
           cantharus (Linnaeus, ) (Sparidae) in the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria)
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the basic population‐specific parameters necessary for fish stock assessment in the Gulf of Annaba and to compare these with data from other Mediterranean regions. Black sea bream Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus, 1758) (N = 501) were collected monthly from January to December 2008 along the Algerian eastern coasts. More than 22 fish were collected each month and ranged in size from 13.4 to 40 cm total length, weighing from 36 to 1080 g eviscerated weight. Biological sampling included weighing and measuring the fish, gonad weighing, sex and maturity stage determination, and age estimation through otolith readings. Validity of the otolith readings for estimating age and growth was supported using the back‐calculation method. Estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy model are: L∞ = 33.54 cm, W∞ = 633.46 g, k = 0.52 year−1 and to = −0.04 year. The growth performance index (φ) is: 2.76. The length‐weight relationship is: EW = 4.4.10−6 TL3.23. The spawning period occurred from February to May, while the gamete emission peaked in April. Females reached sexual maturity at 19.3 cm (2 years) and males at 21.3 cm (3 years). Sexual inversion occurs at approximately 24.3 cm. Spondyliosoma cantharus was characterized as being a protogynic hermaphrodite.
  • An expected marine alien fish caught at the coast of Northern Cyprus:
           Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828)
  • Invasive bivalve assessment in the diet of pejerrey, Odontesthes
           bonariensis (Valenciennes, 1835), at the Upper Río de la Plata,
  • Assessing the use of two southwestern Atlantic estuaries by different life
           cycle stages of the anadromous catfish Genidens barbus
           (Lacépède, 1803) as revealed by Sr : Ca and
           Ba : Ca ratios in otoliths
  • On the occurrence of live sharksucker, Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus, 1758
           (Perciformes: Echeneidae), in Turkish waters (Eastern Mediterranean)
  • Confirmation of the presence of the Atlantic tripletail, Lobotes
           surinamensis (Bloch, 1790), in the Sea of Oman
  • Occurrence of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) in a World Biosphere
           Reserve, the Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon (Argentina)
  • Effect of salt content on the denaturation of pike eel (Muraenesox
           cinereus Forsskål, 1775) actomyosin
    • Abstract: Investigated were the effects of the salt content on the denaturation of actomyosin (AM) extracted from the dorsal muscle of pike eel, Muraenesox cinereus. The results indicated a notable amount of secondary structure change, particularly the α‐helix. Increasing the salt concentration reduced the Ca‐ATPase activity. Surface hydrophobicity of AM increased concomitantly with an increase in the salt concentration. Total and reactive sulfhydryls also changed with an increase in the salt concentration. Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated that the salt‐curing led to some shifts from high to lower transitional temperatures. Disulfide linkages and hydrophobic interactions appear to be critical for the changes in actomyosin.
  • Spawning activity of the four major Chinese carps in the middle mainstream
           of the Yangtze River, during the Three Gorges Reservoir operation period,
    • Abstract: River flow alterations caused by dams have introduced many ecological problems, in particular a decline in aquatic species such as fishes. One compensatory measure is to create a hydrological process similar to the natural state with regard to the survival requirements of the fish. In recent years, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has introduced man‐made flood by ecological operation experiments to facilitate spawning of the four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River, China. To investigate the fish spawning activities and their responses to the TGR operation, eggs from the four major Chinese carps were sampled using conical drift nets in the middle mainstream of the Yangtze River, May to July in 2012 and 2013. Spawning timing, location, and scale of the four carps were studied and compared between the 2 years; key hydrological and environmental factors associated with spawning were determined by principal component analysis and stepwise regression analysis. Two factors were significantly positive when correlated with egg abundance: one was increasing rate of the river flow (flood amplitude), and the other was river transparency; only one factor, starting of the river flow (flooding occasions), was significantly and negatively correlated with the time of spawning. Comparison of egg abundance in one flood pulse response to different operation rules showed that flooding made by an ecological operation induced a larger scale of spawning than a conventional operation. The study implied that suitable flood conditions could produce a successful spawning event, and that the occasion and pattern of the flood process might result in different responses in fish spawning. Further research is required to develop more scientific monitoring designs in order to obtain accurate field data for both biotic and abiotic factors, and explore new research methods for egg abundance estimations combined with particle experiment and hydrodynamic modeling. This work is fundamental to improve the strategic decisions on reservoir operation and river management.
  • The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on the oxidative stress
           markers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792)
    • Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in agricultural commodities used as animal feedstuff in Central Europe. This study focuses on determining effects of diets containing DON on oxidative stress markers and detoxifying enzymes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The fish were fed with commercial pellets containing DON at a concentration of 2 mg kg−1. Selected enzymes were measured in liver, gill and caudal kidney of the fish after 23 and 32 days of the experiment. Significant differences between the control and experimental groups were observed concerning activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in kidney, glutathione reductase (GR) in gill and kidney, catalase (CAT) in kidney and liver and glutathione S‐transferase (GST) in gill and liver. No significant differences were found for superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene expression, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). The data show that DON in the diet at the concentration below EC recommendation (2006/576/EC) induces oxidative stress in the rainbow trout.
  • Fish by‐catch in shrimp beam trawls in the northern South China Sea
    • Abstract: The by‐catch of shrimp beam trawl fisheries in the northern South China Sea were estimated during the 2005–2006 and 2012–2013 fishing seasons. A total of 98 hauls from three important shrimp fishing grounds were used in the analyses. A total of 119 by‐catch species were captured, compared with only 15 target species. The ratio of by‐catch to shrimp ranged from 1.01 to 13.90. The dominant standard length (SL) range of fish by‐catch was 51–100 mm. The percentage of juveniles in the total catch of some fish species was high (e.g. 100% for A. aneus).
  • The in vitro antifungal activity of 30 Chinese herb extracts to
           Saprolegnia sp.
    • Abstract: Chinese traditional medicines have been used for several thousands of years in Asian countries, not only in humans but also in many animal species. These compounds prevent and control different types of diseases including internal diseases as well as some infectious diseases, where the aetiological agent is viral, bacterial, parasitic or mycotic. Rhizoma coptidis is believed to inhibit Shigella dysenteriae and that Radix isatidis can prevent flu caused by the influenza virus. It is thus hypothesized that some of these traditional herbal compounds will have anti‐fungal activity. Saprolegniosis is a disease common in fish and their eggs in both fresh and brackish water; a newer, safer medication against Saprolegnia is needed after the prohibition in many countries of the extremely effective fungicide, malachite green. In the present study an attempt is made to identify herbal compounds that have anti‐Saprolegnia activity. A strain of Saprolegnia, CCF1301, was isolated from the skin of infected grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and identified as Saprolegnia ferax by the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region and ITS region. This strain was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of thirty Chinese traditional herbal medicine extracts, and a modified dish dilution method was developed for the evaluation. Saprolegnia‐infected rapeseeds with visible hyphae were transplanted onto prepared PDA plates containing 2 g L−1 herbal plant extracts and incubated at 20°C for 48 h. Each herbal plant species was tested in triplicate. Those herbal plant extracts that showed negative mycelium presence at 2 g L−1 were further tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) evaluation. The results showed that Syzygium aromaticum, Magnolia officinalis, Melaphis chinensis, Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, and Sophora flavescentis exhibited enhanced growth inhibition at 2 g L−1 and MIC values of 500, 62.5, 250, 62.5, 250 mg L−1 concentrations, respectively. It was obvious that Magnolia officinalis and Euphorbia fischeriana Steud exhibited the best antifungal activity. Since there is a high natural toxicity in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, its applicability as the main ingredient in an aquaculture therapeutic formulation requires further research. Thus, Magnolia officinalis would appear to be the more valuable antifungal herbal species with which to pursue further research.
  • Use of dolphins and caimans as bait for Calophysus macropterus
           (Lichtenstein, 1819) (Siluriforme: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon
    • Abstract: A new fishery has been developing in the Amazon that uses dolphin and caiman species as bait to catch piracatinga (Calophysus macropterus), having thus the potential to cause adverse food‐web impacts; however a lack of basic understanding of this fishery is a limitation to the necessary management action. Interviews with fishers and analyses of fishing records in Brazil were used for the study, including harvest methods, types of baits used, commercialization chains, and the rate of increase of piracatinga yields in recent years. Piracatinga fishers are subsistence fishers who harvest piracatinga as a means to alleviate economic constraints when the catch of other species is not profitable or banned due to (reproductive) closed seasons. Harvesting is done with wooden and nylon crates and cages in which whole or pieces of caimans and dolphins are placed to attract the piracatinga, entrapping them. The piracatinga are then sold to intermediate sellers for resale to a few large fish freezing and processing plants for export to Colombia. Annual piracatinga yields in the study area increased at an average rate of 446.5% per year, from 865 kg in 2003 to 23 176 kg in 2009. Because dolphins and caimans comprise various endangered species, the Brazilian government has recently implemented a ban on this fishery, which can be enforced at fish freezing and processing plants. However, there is a danger that such enforcement will lead to the development of a geographically dispersed chain of commercialization and export, such as currently exists for other species including caimans, which would be impossible to control.
  • Experimental evaluation of using calcein and alizarin red S for immersion
           marking of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) to assess
           growth and identification of marks in otoliths, scales and fin rays
    • Abstract: In order to evaluate the effects of immersion marking with calcein (CAL) and alizarin red S (ARS) on growth and mortality of juvenile bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, and assess mark quality in otoliths, scales, and fin rays, CAL from 50 to 200 mg L−1 and ARS from 150 to 300 mg L−1 concentrations were used. With the exception of non‐lateral line scales from 50 mg L−1 CAL treatments, immersion for 24 h produced detectable marks in sagittae, lateral line and non‐lateral line scales, and fin rays (dorsal, pectoral, ventral, anal, and caudal) at 100 days post‐marking. Detectable fluorescent marks in sagittae were readily observed at concentrations of 150–200 mg L−1 CAL or 150–300 mg L−1 ARS. Marks were poorly visible in all non‐lateral line scales from both CAL‐ and ARS‐treated groups. Fluorescent marks were readily detected in lateral line scales at 100–200 mg L−1 CAL or 150–300 mg L−1 ARS, and in fin rays at 150–200 mg L−1 CAL or 150–300 mg L−1 ARS. In particular, optimal marks were observed at the highest concentrations investigated in sagittae (300 mg L−1 ARS), lateral line scales (150–200 mg L−1 CAL or 250–300 mg L−1 ARS), and fin rays (200 mg L−1 CAL or 250–300 mg L−1 ARS). However, fluorescent marks visible to the naked eye were not produced by any of the CAL or ARS treatments in sagittae, scales, or fin rays during this experiment. In addition, there was no significant difference on survival and growth of marked fish compared to controls throughout the experiment (P > 0.05).
  • Trawl selectivity‐induced evolution effects on age structure and
           size‐at‐age of largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus)
           Linnaeus, 1758 in the East China Sea, China
    • Abstract: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the life history traits of fishes have changed in many exploited populations, caused principally by intense fishing mortality and size‐selectivity of the fishing gear. Broad and intensive trawl fishing over an extended period has the enormous potential to change the biological characters of exploited fish populations. An individual‐based model was developed to explore the interactions between trawl fishing and evolutionary changes in length‐at‐age and age structure of an exploited fish population. A perennial fish population was simulated with a multiple age structure in the model to examine the effects of long‐term trawl fishing on hairtail, Trichiurus lepturus, in the East China Sea. The results revealed that distribution of the body length‐at‐age and the age structure of the fish population were irreversibly changed under long‐term trawl fishing. The simulated results confirm that the length‐at‐age is increasing shorter, the younger individuals dominate, the influence of trawl selectivity on the biological traits of the fish population is highly significant, and that these changes have potentially evolutionary consequences on the fish body length‐at‐age.
  • Diel cycle size‐dependent trophic structure of neotropical fishes: a
           three year case analysis from 35 floodplain lakes in Colombia
    • Abstract: Investigated were whether fish assemblages in 35 neotropical floodplain lakes along the Magdalena River, Colombia (ranging from 4 to 2333 ha) have a trophic structure that is dependent on fish body size within the diel cycle (24 h), and whether any changes to the trophic structure of fish assemblages occur during the diel cycle. Sampling was done during diel cycles in the rainy seasons between 2008 and 2011 (ten lakes in 2008, 20 in 2010, and five in 2011). Small fish (27–87 mm) were most active from 06:01 to 18:00, while larger predatory fish (>87 mm) were inactive during this time. In addition to fish body size, trophic group composition also varied throughout the diel cycle: insectivores, piscivores, and omnivore‐insectivores were the dominant groups from 06:01 to 18:00; carnivores, carnivore‐insectivores, and detritivores dominated from 18:01 to 06:00. This study highlights the importance of fish size in predicting predator‐prey interactions during different periods of the diel cycle.
  • Spatio‐temporal dynamics in the location of the fishing grounds and
           catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi
           Nichols, 1920) from Chinese trawl fleets on the high seas of the Southeast
           Pacific Ocean, 2001–2010
    • Abstract: The decadal spatio‐temporal distribution of the fishing effort and catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, stock are poorly understood. Data from the Chinese jack mackerel fleet was used to describe the location of the fishing effort and the relationship between standardized CPUE and sea surface temperatures (SST) during the period 2001–2010. A significant change in the spatio‐temporal distribution of fishing effort and standardized CPUE was observed for jack mackerel during the study period. From January to March, the average CPUE was generally
  • Seasonal growth of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 in a tropical estuarine
    • Abstract: Seasonal changes in the abiotic factors and cyclical events – with the reproduction diagnosed by the gonadosomatic index and the energy status diagnosed by the condition index – were estimators of seasonal growth for juvenile and adult lebranche mullets, Mugil liza, during the rainy and dry seasons in a tropical estuarine system of the western south Atlantic. Fish were collected monthly by gillnets of different mesh sizes. Salinity, water temperature (°C) and dissolved oxygen (%) were measured using a multiparameter. Daily rainfall data (mm) were obtained from the National Institute of Meteorology. Seasonal rings were identified and counted in the sagittae otoliths. Relative Marginal Increment (RMI) was calculated to determine the seasonal growth rate. Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) and Condition Index (CI) were assessed separately for juveniles and adults by anova, with time (month) M. liza growth is controlled by annual cycles of biological and abiotic processes. Using general linear models, the seasonal growth rate of M. liza was well predicted by body condition and rainfall for juveniles, and by salinity for adults. Seasonal variation was observed in the Mundaú Lagoon, with rainfall directly or indirectly being the main seasonal factor influencing the cyclical biological fish processes of M. liza.
  • The effects of tissue type and body size on δ13C and δ15N values
           in parrotfish (Labridae) from Zanzibar, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Differences between the stable isotopic ratios (δ13C and δ15N) of two tissues (blood and muscle) from four species of East African coral reef parrotfishes (family: Labridae, tribe: Scarini) were analysed across a broad spectrum of body sizes. Comparison of isotopic ratios between the tissues allowed the assessment of using blood as an alternative tissue to muscle. In 2010–2011, constant differences between tissues (δblood minus δmuscle) were found across a broad range of sampled fish lengths. Linear relationships between the tissues, specific for an isotope, indicate that constants could be generated for converting blood isotope into muscle isotope values. Only one species, Chlorurus sordidus, displayed an inconsistent difference between tissues in δ15N, indicating that this ratio was dependent on fish length. The δ13C of both tissues was positively related linearly to fish length for three species, while δ15N showed no relationship with body length. The results are interpreted as indicating dietary consistency over days to weeks, the time of tissue turnover for blood and muscle, respectively. Lastly, differences among the species, even closely related species, show that the generation of tissue conversion constants is species‐specific.
  • Age and growth of Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea,
    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the age relationships in lengths and weights of Boops boops (Linneaus, 1756) in Izmir Bay, central Aegean Sea. A total of 932 specimens (503 females and 429 males) were caught by gillnet, trammel net and a combination thereof on a monthly sampling basis from November 2008 through October 2009. Total length and weight of sampled fish ranged from 11.3 to 27.9 cm and from 12.2 to 261.7 g, with a mean of 19.6 cm and 82.7 g, respectively. Length‐weight relationships for all individuals were described by the parameters a = 0.0050, b = 3.237 and r² = 0.956. The von Bertalanffy growth curve fitted to the lengths‐at‐age provided parameters of L∞ = 29.87 cm k = 0.243 and to = −0.98 for males and L∞ = 30.79 cm, k = 0.239 and to = −0.90 for females. Based on otolith readings, age determinations varied from 1 to 5 years. Maximum age was 5 years in age group 2, with 29.84 and 37.97% for males and females, respectively. The overall 1 : 1.17 sex ratio of males to females was significantly biased toward females (P  0.05), with a value of 1.028 for the entire population. The growth performance index (Φ’) was 2.33 and 2.36 for males and females, respectively. Results were similar to other geographical areas, which suggests that a common fisheries management might be possible.
  • Issue Information
  • Mislabeled and counterfeit sturgeon caviar from Bulgaria and Romania
    • Abstract: A market survey was performed on caviar from Romania and Bulgaria, two of the last range states of critically endangered sturgeons threatened by poaching and illegal trade. Twenty‐seven samples were collected between April 2011 and February 2012, including two samples of Bulgarian farm caviar bought in an Austrian fish shop. Mitochondrial sequences of the cytochrome b gene and microsatellites were used for species identification. Ten samples were in agreement with the species code on their CITES labels, but four samples were mislabeled, six samples were counterfeit and four samples were offered as ‘wild origin,’ ignoring the fishing bans in place. At least one sample was upgraded from a lower priced species to a more expensive species. These results demonstrate the weakness of sturgeon protection in these Member States of the European Union and key range states. Therefore, we recommend intensifying conservation and enforcement efforts, including also DNA testing of caviar in containers with apparently correct CITES labels.
  • Identification ability of tetraploid microsatellite loci in parentage
    • Abstract: An anadromous fish, the Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray) is included in the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. To save populations from extinction, artificial propagation had been sought since the 1980s and was achieved in 2009. Additional genetic information and methods will become crucial components in genetic management of the residual A. sinensis population. Microsatellite markers can provide information on the family structure, to avoid inbreeding or founder effects. However, the polyploidy derivative nature of the A. sinensis genome has added difficulties in settling these problems. Given the costs associated with genetic data collection, the trade‐off between the amount of molecular data (how many loci are needed and which loci should be used) and the number of individuals sampled warrants consideration in order to maximize both efficiency and parentage analysis. Formulas to calculate the resolving power for tetraploid microsatellite loci in a given population are provided; these formulas are adapted from those fitted to the diploid loci in Neff et al. (Mol. Ecol., 9, 2000a, 515) and require genetic data only from the parent or parents in question, and an estimate of population allele frequencies. These formulas will help in addressing practical problems, such as the choice of genetic loci in A. sinensis conservation aquaculture programs.
  • Length‐weight relationships of nine fish species from the Tetulia
           River, southern Bangladesh
    • Abstract: The present study describes the length‐weight relationships (LWRs) for nine fish species from the Tetulia River, southern Bangladesh, namely Anabas testudineus, Coilia dussumieri, Otolithoides biauritus, Otolithoides pama, Pethia conchonius, Polynemus paradiseus, Puntius lateristriga, Setipinna taty and Sillaginopsis panijus. A total of 1380 specimens were caught using traditional fishing gear from March 2012 to February 2013. Individual total length (TL) and body weight (BW) were measured by digital slide calipers and digital balance, respectively. The LWR was calculated as W= a Lb, where the W is the BW in g and L the TL in cm, a and b are regression parameters. This study presents the very first references on LWRs for seven of the species. The results are valuable for the application of sustainable management and conservation of these fishes in the Tetulia River and surrounding ecosystems.
  • Records of Stomias boa boa (Risso, 1810) and Nemichthys scolopaceus
           Richardson, 1848 from Mersin Bay, Turkey
  • Changes in water parameters in carp ponds of northern Austrian
           (Waldviertel) over the last 30 years
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