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Journal Cover Journal of Applied Ichthyology     [SJR: 0.427]   [H-I: 33]
   [8 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0175-8659 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0426
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • A revised checklist of Cape Verde Islands sea fishes
    • Authors: R. Hanel; H.‐C. John
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: During ichthyological research and teaching activities in the Cape Verde Archipelago, the authors noticed that the readily available inventories of its sea fishes underrepresented the mesopelagic species, contrary to an older Spanish list, which regrettably remained widely unknown. These inventories were compared, revised, combined and commented on, plus a multitude of individual descriptions, survey reports, biogeographical treatises, and unpublished data were put in a checklist. From the resulting list of 1046 names thus far reported, 779 species are supported by records, respectively, their general zoogeography. Another 29 records need confirmation. Seventeen (in the literature, up to 20) species are believed to be endemic. The list comprises 91 first records, plus many earlier records from previously disregarded literature. Seventy‐five other names are erroneous either by synonym, misidentification, or misspelling. In 64 cases earlier listings referred to an erroneous geographical location. The number of recorded species will likely increase with future ichthyological research. The ichthyofauna of the Cape Verde Islands is composed mainly of widely distributed species, plus those from the Guinean Region, a few endemics, several amphi‐Atlantic species, as well as shore fishes from the NW African coast.
      PubDate: 2014-12-19T04:53:30.268245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12621
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 20 fish species from Pahang River,
           Maran district, Pahang, Malaysia
    • Authors: A. R. Zulkafli; M. N. A. Amal, S. Shohaimi, A. Mustafa, A. H. Ghani, S. Hashim, M. I. Anuar, M. P. Hasfairi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study reports the length–weight relationships (LWR) of 20 fish species from the Pahang River, Maran district, Pahang, Malaysia. The river supplies fishes mainly for local consumption and is a principal body of water for freshwater aquaculture in Malaysia. A total of 12 LWR of fishes were unknown to FishBase, and five new maximum lengths of fishes were identified from the study.
      PubDate: 2014-12-19T04:37:38.761927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12666
       
  • Effects of tank colour on feed intake, specific growth rate, growth
           efficiency and some physiological parameters of rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792)
    • Authors: S. Rahnama; M. S. Heydarnejad, M. Parto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-12-19T04:31:19.815667-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12664
       
  • Larval growth of two species of lanternfish at nearshore waters from an
           upwelling zone based on otolith microstructure analyses
    • Authors: M. F. Landaeta; J. E. Contreras, C. A. Bustos, G. Muñoz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Larval growth and hatching days of lanternfishes Diogenichthys laternatus and Myctophum nitidulum (Myctophidae) collected in September 2012 in nearshore waters (
      PubDate: 2014-12-19T04:26:25.322695-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12639
       
  • Effects of different food on growth and survival of first‐feeding
           taimen Hucho taimen (Pallas, 1773) larvae
    • Authors: C.‐A. Wang; J.‐Z. Ma, Q.‐Y. Xu, J.‐S. Yin, Z.‐G. Zhao, J.‐N. Li, L.‐S. Wang, L. Luo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A study was conducted to compare growth and survival of Hucho taimen larvae from 21 to 76 days after hatch (DAH) fed one of three diets: formulated feed alone (group F); a co‐feeding diet of water fleas, tubifex and formulated feed (group C); or live food of water fleas and tubifex (group L), and to investigate the potential use of dietary L‐alanyl‐L‐glutamine (L‐AG) in larval taimen for a more nutritious starter diet. Triplicate groups of 5000 fish were randomly assigned to each aquarium provided with water from a flow‐through system, and fed to apparent satiation. The results show that larvae can feed efficiently on floating crumbled particles of formulated feed. Weight gain of larvae fed only formulated feed was significantly lower than other groups at 34 DAH (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-19T04:25:52.048732-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12663
       
  • Population parameters of the fish fauna in a long‐established
           Amazonian reservoir (Amapá, Brazil)
    • Authors: J. C. Sá‐Oliveira; R. Angelini, V. J. Isaac‐Nahum
      Abstract: The present study focused on the fish fauna of the 44‐year‐old Coaracy Nunes reservoir in the northern Amazon basin, producing estimates of the growth constant (k), maximum and asymptotic body lengths and weights, natural mortality (M), the consumption/biomass ratio (QB) (intake of food by a group over a year), the Aspect ratio (Ar) of the caudal fin, growth performance (Φ), longevity, and trophic level for 45 fish species. Species collection was divided into eight sampling campaigns between May 2009 and July 2010. Gillnets were used in four of the sampling sites. The results revealed that (i) the most predominant species are Ageneiosus ucayalensis, Hemiodus unimaculatus, Serrasalmus gibbus and Geophagus proximus; (ii) small and medium‐sized fishes predominated in the community, characterized by high rates of growth and natural mortality, consistent with a predominance of r‐strategists; (iii) the body lengths of the detritivore species were similar to those of the piscivores, which are normally larger, but with higher growth rates, more similar to those recorded for the omnivores; (iv) consumption/biomass ratio (QB) × body length relationship is higher in the detritivores than in the omnivores and piscivores (which were similar to each other). Overall, the reservoir habitat appears to be advantageous to detritivorous fish species.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T00:48:52.783068-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12667
       
  • Occurrence of Pseudocorynopoma heterandria Eigenmann, 1914 (Characidae) in
           Paraíba do Sul River Basin (Southeastern Brazil)
    • Authors: F. L. K. Salgado; B. F. Terra, G. S. Camilo, E. O. Silva, F. G. Araújo
      PubDate: 2014-12-15T06:56:46.386487-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12657
       
  • Age, growth and mortality of Lutjanus alexandrei in estuarine and coastal
           waters of the tropical south‐western Atlantic
    • Authors: A. Aschenbrenner; B. P. Ferreira
      Abstract: Otolith‐based methods were used to determine life history traits of the endemic Brazilian snapper (Lutjanus alexandrei) in estuarine and coastal environments in the south‐western Atlantic. Fishes were caught as juveniles inside mangrove‐bordered estuaries by traditional corral fisheries whereas adults were captured at sea using motorboats with trap and gill nets. Fish were sampled during landings and 331 otolith pairs were extracted from L. alexandrei. Inshore mangroves comprised individuals of 0–4 years (mean: 2 years), while individuals in deeper reef environments were older (range: 3–22; mean: 8 years), indicating an ontogenetic shift at approximately age 3 or 4. Edge analysis was used to validate the annual deposition in the otoliths, suggesting that opaque growth rings were formed between April and September. Age‐at‐length data were used to predict L. alexandrei growth rates using the von Bertalanffy growth model from where the parameters were calculated: L∞ = 31 cm, k = 0.24, t0 = −1.26, r2 = 0.97. Mortality rates were estimated for coastal habitats, with Z = 0.22 and S = 0.78 year−1, based on ages 7–17. Additionally, evidence of ontogenetic migration is provided by age and size structure.
      PubDate: 2014-12-15T06:56:37.256458-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12633
       
  • Length‐weight relationships for 55 freshwater fish species from the
           Iguatemi River, Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil
    • Authors: V. F. Batista‐Silva; D. Bailly, E. A. L. Kashiwaqui, M. C. F. Abelha, W. J. Graça
      Abstract: This study reports the length‐weight relationship estimatives (LWRs) for 55 fish species caught in the Iguatemi River drainage, Upper Paraná River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The LWRs of 15 of the species are provided for the first time.
      PubDate: 2014-12-15T06:55:45.048588-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12654
       
  • Length–weight relationships and biological data on guayana
           pike‐conger Cynoponticus savanna (Bancroft, 1831)
    • Authors: J. A. Reis‐Filho; L. Specht
      Abstract: This study presents the first references available for Cynoponticus savanna length–weight relationships (LWR) as well as other biological information, based on its unique population in the South Atlantic Ocean, specifically, Todos os Santos Bay, on the Brazilian central coast. A total of 464 individuals were obtained from artisanal fishing landings between July 2012 and June 2013. Total lengths ranged from 14.5 to 139.6 cm. The length‐weight relationship was BW = 0.716 TL3.31. Length at first maturity (Lm) was 48.9 cm. Reproduction began gradually in May, reaching a peak around December, with most individuals completing reproduction by January. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was highest in January (GSI = 0.21) and lowest in March (GSI = 0.024). The male index (GSI = 0.073) was lower than in females (GSI = 0.10) (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-15T06:51:30.707136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12662
       
  • First record of the new unisexual triploid form, one genome of Cobitis
           hankugensis and two genomes of Cobitis longicorpa from a wild population
           (Cobitidae, Teleostei), South Korea
    • Authors: M. H. Ko; S. W. Yoon, C. H. Kim, J. Y. Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T02:26:39.285864-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12647
       
  • Improving nematode culture techniques and their effects on amino acid
           profile with considerations on production costs
    • Authors: B. H. Buck; J. Brüggemann, M. Hundt, A. A. Bischoff, B. Grote, S. Strieben, W. Hagen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of 11 different culture media for production of the free‐living nematode Turbatrix aceti. Several other harvesting methods were tested in addition to mass production. A further focus was the investigation of amino acid alterations caused by the application of various media during the culture of T. aceti and two additional nematode species, Panagrellus redivivus and Caenorhabditis elegans. Finally, a cost analysis for the production of T. aceti was generated and its outcome compared to the production of conventional live feed organisms. Altogether 11 liquid culture media were tested for mass production of the nematode Turbatrix aceti using a minimum of effort in terms of labour and costs. Six harvesting methods, including filtration as well as active swimming of T. aceti were evaluated. Additional to the culture of T. aceti in four of the above‐mentioned media, the nematodes P. redivivus and C. elegans were cultured on two different solid media. Cost analysis for the production of T. aceti includes those of the media, the equipment, as well as the labour costs for culture and harvest. An average density of approx. 30 × 106 ± 8.13 × 106 nematodes L−1 was achieved for T. aceti. The most efficient method (20 μm filtration) allowed harvesting 85.3 ± 2.7% of the nematodes from the medium without disturbing the particles. Lowest efficiency was achieved by combining sedimentation and filtration, accomplishing a harvest of 42.1 ± 5.8%. The amino acid profile of all three nematode species turned out to be both stable and very similar. Amino acid enrichment had little effect. The costs for producing one million T. aceti individuals ranged between 5.39 and 6.19 €, where labour costs accounted for 73 to 84% of the total production costs. In conclusion, T. aceti appears to be very robust, easy to handle, as well as cheaper to cultivate compared to other live‐feed organisms. Therefore, its use in commercial aquaculture should be given future consideration.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T00:06:03.5023-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12645
       
  • A non‐native fish assemblage in geothermal waters of Romania
    • Authors: I. Sas‐Kovács; I. C. Telcean, S.‐D. Covaciu‐Marcov
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T23:38:40.287378-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12652
       
  • Relationship between Fulton's condition factor and proximate body
           composition in three freshwater fish species
    • Authors: A. Mozsár; G. Boros, P. Sály, L. Antal, S. A. Nagy
      Abstract: Morphometric‐based condition indices are widely used to assess proximate body composition and, collaterally, feeding and living conditions of fish. However, the exact relationship between condition indices and proximate body composition of fish and its relatedness to life history traits and seasonality has yet to be fully explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine how the Fulton's condition factor (K‐factor) is related to the chemical composition (i.e. lipid, protein, water and carbon content, and molar carbon : nitrogen ratio), length and gonadal development of fish, and how these relationships are influenced by gender and seasonality in three freshwater fish species: Amur sleeper (Perccottus glenii), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus). It was found that the strength and direction of association between the K‐factor and proximate body composition can vary markedly among fish species. The K‐factor correlated positively with gonadal development in pumpkinseed and Amur sleeper, while no such relationship existed in rudd. Condition factor can be a reliable measure of lipid content; however, the relationship was stronger in species with higher and more variable lipid contents. Moreover, a striking and consistently negative linkage was found between the K‐factor and water content of the fish body, which corresponds to the findings of several other studies. In turn, any relationship between the K‐factor and the protein content of fish was not detected. Gender seemed to exert a negligible effect on the relationship between the K‐factor and proximate body composition, while seasonal variance was obvious in most relationships.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:17:30.895627-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12658
       
  • Weight–length relationships of six endemic fish species of Greece
    • Authors: O. Petriki; D. C. Bobori
      Abstract: The weight–length relationships (WLRs) for six endemic fish species of Greece are presented here. All WLRs were highly significant (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:17:07.718613-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12650
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 22 fish species from the East China
           Sea
    • Authors: M. Yagi; M. Yamada, M. Shimoda, J. Uchida, T. Kinoshita, K. Shimizu, N. Yamawaki, T. Aoshima, Y. Morii, H. Kanehara
      Abstract: Estimated length–weight relationships are presented for 22 commercially important marine fish species representing nine families, found in the East China Sea. A total of 2776 specimens were caught by otter trawl on the continental shelf in the East China Sea between 2009 and 2013. Information pertaining to length–weight relationships should lead to a better understanding of fish communities in the East China Sea.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:16:47.496677-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12648
       
  • First record of Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw, 1812) (Persiformes:
           Serranidae) in the Persian Gulf
    • Authors: P. Tavakoli‐Kolour; S. Khatami, A. Barkhordari, A. Farhadi
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:11:50.026251-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12636
       
  • The use of trophic resources by Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801) escaped
           from Mediterranean offshore fish farms
    • Authors: J. M. Valero‐Rodriguez; K. Toledo‐Guedes, P. Arechavala‐Lopez, D. Izquierdo‐Gomez, P. Sanchez‐Jerez
      Abstract: The population of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) has increased dramatically around the Western Mediterranean, accompanied by a higher seasonal incidence of the species in fishery landings. Presumably because of escapes, this new predator is gaining ground in marine habitats where it was normally not found. Given the lack of knowledge about the potential impact of this locally absent species on ecosystems and fishery resources, the objective of this study was to analyse the diet and predation behaviour of A. regius in order to evaluate its capability to adapt to a new environment as well as to identify its main prey. Stomach contents of 159 individuals were analysed and the identifiable prey items classified into major groups. Results showed that the diet of meagre was remarkably size‐dependent. The commercially important decapod Melicertus kerathurus (Index of Relative Importance IRI: 798.53), and to a lesser extent other crustaceans, were preferred to smaller sizes, while larger individuals gradually shifted to a piscivorous diet, particularly to Platichthys flesus (77.99 IRI). The potential ecological effects on the prey species are discussed, and management measures preventing the establishment of new local populations are suggested in order to harmonize coastal zone management policies with a sustainable production of meagre.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T02:11:32.893644-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12649
       
  • Investigation of a subtidal fish community in a south‐western
           Mediterranean settlement area of Morocco
    • Authors: H. Masski
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T01:59:06.42208-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12651
       
  • An assessment of bycatch reduction devices in Kuwait's shrimp trawl
           fishery
    • Authors: A. Al‐Baz; W. Chen
      Abstract: Three bycatch reduction devices (BRDs), i.e. the Turtle Excluder Device (TED), Square Mesh Codend (SMC) and Fisheye (FE), were tested to evaluate their feasibility in the Kuwait shrimp‐trawl fishery. All three BRDs could be fitted to a shrimp trawl and normal fishing activities could be conducted both on an industrial trawler and an artisanal dhow boat. The comparisons of the catch from a net equipped with a BRD on one side and a standard net (exact same net configuration but without a BRD device) on the other side of a double‐rigged shrimp trawler (steel boat) showed different results in the three BRD types. The net fitted with a TED performed well without capturing any turtles or large animals, and did not significantly reduce shrimp catch or fish bycatch (124.4: 117.0 and 852.0: 905.8, both P > 0.05). Although the SMC reduced both shrimp catch and bycatch in general, the Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed a significant difference only among bycatch (1034.2: 1147.3, P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T02:43:01.544186-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12653
       
  • Record of lattice blaasop, Takifugu oblongus (Bloch, 1786) from the Sea of
           Oman
    • Authors: L. A. Jawad; D. E. Pitassy
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T05:18:56.440665-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12640
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships and seasonal
           condition factors for two mudskippers, Periophthalmus modestus (Cantor,
           1842) and P. magnuspinnatus (Lee, Choi & Ryu, 1995) (Gobiidae),
           on tidal flats of Korea
    • Authors: G. W. Baeck; J. M. Park
      Abstract: Presented are the length–weight and length–length relationships and condition factors for two mudskippers, Periophthalmus modestus and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, on the tidal flats of Korea. Values of the exponent b, estimated by nonlinear least squares from weight and length data, were 3.031 for P. modestus and 3.044 for P. magnuspinnatus. All relationships between total and standard length were linear (r2 > 0.974). The condition factors were significantly higher during the post‐spawning season than at other times for both species.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T05:17:08.265211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12655
       
  • Reference values for selected hematological and serum biochemical
           parameters of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) juveniles
           under intensive aquaculture conditions
    • Authors: H. Peres; B. Costas, A. Perez‐Jimenez, I. Guerreiro, A. Oliva‐Teles
      Abstract: This work aims to establish normal reference intervals for selected hemato‐biochemical parameters, based on their potential clinical relevance, and which may contribute to evaluating the health, nutritional and welfare status of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) juveniles. Thirty‐one healthy Senegalese sole juveniles grown under intensive aquaculture conditions were used in the study. Based on the robust method with Box–Cox transformation data the established reference intervals for hematological parameters were: hematocrit 12–26%, hemoglobin 2.8–6 g dl−1, erythrocytes 90–97.0% total, leucocytes 4–10% total; erythrocyte indices and differential leucocytes counts were also evaluated. Reference intervals for biochemical parameters were (g dl−1) glucose 19–86 mg dl−1, total protein 2.6–6.3, albumin 1–2.34, globulins 1.8–4.1, lipids 0.7–1.3, triglycerides 0.3–1.8, total cholesterol 0.1–0.9 g dl−1, HDL‐cholesterol 4–65 mg dl−1, LDL‐cholesterol 7–532 mg dl−1, sodium 124–202 mmol L−1), potassium 1.1–4.6 mmol L−1, calcium 7.6–13.2 mg L−1, magnesium 1.8–4.8 mg L−1, inorganic phosphorus 3.4–9.5 mg L−1, alkaline phosphatase 93–598 U L−1, aspartate aminotransferase 118–605 U L−1, lactate dehydrogenase 8.7–782 U L−1, and creatine phosphokinase 31.5–552 U L−1. This data is expected to provide a valuable tool to monitor the stress, health and nutritional conditions of Senegalese sole juveniles under aquaculture production.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T05:16:49.515991-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12641
       
  • Effect of photoperiod manipulation on the growth performance of juvenile
           lenok, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)
    • Authors: Y. Liu; X. Li, G. F. Xu, S. Y. Bai, Y. Q. Zhang, W. Gu, Z. B. Mou
      Abstract: The effect of four different light regimes on growth was studied in lenok, Brachymystax lenok. Fish with average weights of 5.5 g were subjected to four different photoperiods (0L:24D, 6L:18D, 12L:12D and 24L:0D) for 35 days. The specific growth rate (SGR) of lenok in 24‐h darkness had a significantly higher SGR than those in the continuous light regime (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T05:13:26.670477-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12632
       
  • Length–weight relationships of four fish species from the
           Curimatidae family, Patos‐Mirim system, southern Brazil
    • Authors: F. Corrêa; E. Fontes De Oliveira, J. Pouey, S. Piedras
      Abstract: Determined were the length–weight relationships (LWRs) of four fish species of the Curimatidae family from the Patos‐Mirim lagoon system. Estimates for three of the species are reported here for the first time.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T05:12:09.970834-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12638
       
  • Fish migration through a fish passage associated with water velocities at
           the Changzhou fishway (Pearl River, China)
    • Authors: J. P. Tao; X. C. Tan, Z. Yang, X. Wang, Y. P. Cai, Y. Qiao, J. B. Chang
      Abstract: Hydraulics play an essential role in successful fish passage through fishways, yet little is known about the response of fish species to specific hydraulic characteristics. This study aims to determine the response of fish presence to water velocity that results from the flow regulation in the Changzhou Fishway (CFW). Water velocity meters and fish traps were used in the study to monitor water velocities and the presence of fish species at flood control levels as well as at normal pool levels. Water velocities in the CFW have a varied significantly as result of flow regulation, whereby water velocities at flood control levels are significantly higher than at normal pool levels (P = 0.014). A total of 3558 fish representing 28 species collected in the CFW were divided into two groups by cluster analysis. This type of divergence in species is strongly associated with the two controlled water levels in the fishway, wherein pelagic species predominate at normal pool levels, and demersal species predominate at flood control levels. This study suggests that the variations in water velocities trigger the shifts in species compositions that in the use of CFW.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T04:13:13.713879-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12634
       
  • Three major phylogenetic lineages of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus,
           1758) in the Krka River system (Croatia) revealed by complete
           mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing
    • Authors: M. Jadan; I. Strunjak‐Perović, N. Topić Popović, R. Čož‐Rakovac
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T07:04:42.640662-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12631
       
  • Implications for catch composition and revenue in changing from diamond to
           square mesh codends in the northeastern Mediterranean
    • Authors: A. R. Eryaşar; H. Özbilgin
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate the potential short‐term economic loss as a result of replacing the commercial diamond codend with a square mesh codend, and to compare fish lengths captured in 40 mm square (S40) vs 44 mm commercial hand‐woven diamond (CD44) mesh codends for red mullet (Mullus barbatus), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), bogue (Boops boops), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), axillary seabream (Pagellus acarne), and brushtooth lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis). A total of 20 hauls (10 hauls for S40 and 10 hauls for CD44) were conducted onboard a commercial trawler between 27 February and 11 April 2012 in Mersin Bay in the northeastern Mediterranean. Results showed that the 40 mm square mesh codend caught significantly fewer juveniles of all aforementioned species. However, when changing from the commercial diamond codend to the 40 mm square mesh codend the potential economic loss of revenue was found to be 40% in the study period, which covered the final 6 weeks of the fishing season.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T07:04:21.71497-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12643
       
  • Synchronous patterns of fluctuations in two stocks of anchovy Engraulis
           ringens Jenyns, 1842 in the Humboldt Current System
    • Authors: S. M. Cahuin; L. A. Cubillos, R. Escribano
      Abstract: Most of the studies investigating synchrony in fluctuations of abundance of small pelagic fish have been based on catch data only, which do not describe the dynamics of populations as a relative abundance index. In this paper, catch, biomass, recruitment and recruitment rate, were used to compare synchronous changes for two stocks of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) from 1982 to 2004. One is the North Central Peru stock (NCP) and the other is the shared South Peru‐Northern Chile stock (SPNC). Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant association between population time series, particularly during the growing phase of the stocks. Thus, the synchronous fluctuation pattern of the two stocks is due to the recovery phase and probably driven by density‐independent effects of simultaneous favorable environmental conditions occurring in the two regions. The conclusions were: (i) both NCP and SPNC anchovy stocks are in an overall positive phase of synchrony, (ii) higher correlations in the synchronous pattern of fluctuations occurred during simultaneous increase of biomass, and (iii) short‐term fluctuations were negative when the abundance of the stock was lower and/or impacted by El Niño events.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T07:03:59.987905-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12646
       
  • Reproductive ecology and diet of a persistent Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque,
           1820) population in the UK
    • Authors: A. Ruiz‐Navarro; J. R. Britton, M. C. Jackson, G. D. Davies, D. Sheath
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T07:03:37.804685-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12644
       
  • Length–weight relationships of five fish species from Hormozgan
           coastal waters (northeastern Persian Gulf)
    • Authors: M. Daliri; A. Moradinasab, M. Aghajanpour, M. Andakhsh, H. Raeisi, S. Bagheri Paeinkolaei
      Abstract: The study presents and describes the first length–weight relationships for five fish species: Lagocephalus inermis (Temminck and Schlegel, 1850); Chelonodon patoca (Hamilton, 1822); Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson, 1839); Pseudosynanceia melanostigma Day, 1875; and Chirocentrus nudus Swainson, 1839) from the coastal waters of Hormozgan in the northeastern Persian Gulf.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T07:03:17.905442-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12635
       
  • Stock structure analysis of ‘Bombay duck’ (Harpadon nehereus
           Hamilton, 1822) along the Indian coast using truss network morphometrics
    • Authors: D. G. Pazhayamadom; S. K. Chakraborty, A. K. Jaiswar, D. Sudheesan, A. M. Sajina, S. Jahageerdar
      Abstract: Harpadon nehereus, commonly known as ‘Bombay duck’, is a fish with a discontinuous distribution along the Indian peninsula. The fisheries are dominant on the north‐east and north‐west coast but are absent in commercial landings below 15° north latitude. Heretofore stock assessment studies had not considered the various spawning stock components that replenish this fishery, therefore the present study. Fish samples were collected from four locations: two each from the northeast and the northwest coasts. Twenty‐four morphometric variables were measured using a box‐truss network method. Factor analysis of these variables differentiated the east and the west coast fish populations. Multiple comparisons on the factor scores indicated two independent stocks on the east coast, whereas the fishery on the west coast is replenished by a single stock. The important morphometric traits that accounted for most of the stock variations were related to swimming adaptations of the fish. Future stock assessments can consider the population on the west coast as a single stock when formulating management plans. To harvest the resource in a sustainable manner, the maritime states on the west coast should adopt collaborative efforts towards managing this fishery.
      PubDate: 2014-11-10T01:13:01.485984-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12629
       
  • Short‐term effect of selectivity change in a trawling fishery in the
           Western Mediterranean
    • Authors: M. Samy‐Kamal; A. Forcada, J. L. Sánchez Lizaso
      Abstract: The change of mesh size or shape as a management measure to improve selectivity as proposed by the EU should be assessed using actual fishery data, despite being tested experimentally in previous studies. This work was conducted to evaluate the consequences of inserting either a 40‐mm square‐mesh or a 50‐mm diamond‐mesh (instead of the traditional 40‐mm diamond‐mesh) at codends in commercial Spanish trawlers. Landings in terms of biomass, income and catch composition were compared under commercial conditions. Four métiers were identified in the fishery: European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). No significant differences were observed in biomass or income owing to the new mesh in either European hake or red mullet. In contrast, the total biomass of the red shrimp métier and the biomass of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, were significantly higher after the selectivity change. Regarding the catch composition, only the European hake métier showed slight – but not significant – changes after using the new mesh. Considering these results, there was no short‐term effect (substantial biological or economic loss) as previous studies had expected. This could possibly be related to a higher performance of the new gear that may compensate for the lower retention of small sizes.
      PubDate: 2014-11-10T01:12:08.769178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12630
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 11 fish species from the Yibin reach
           of the Yangtze River, southwest China
    • Authors: L. Li; Q. W. Wei, J. M. Wu, X. Xie, L. Ren, H. Du
      Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWRs) were evaluated for 11 fish species from the Yibin reach of the upper Yangtze River, southwest China. Samples were collected from April 2012 to January 2013. Length‐weight relationships for 11 species were unknown to FishBase, and new maximum lengths are recorded for five species. Results indicate that parameter b ranged from 2.586 (Sinibotia superciliaris) to 3.164 (Rhinogobio ventralis), and r2 values ranged from 0.931 (Sinibotia superciliaris) to 0.996 (Silurus meridionalis).
      PubDate: 2014-11-10T01:11:40.808891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12622
       
  • Age and growth of Benthosema pterotum (Alcock, 1890) (Myctophidae) in the
           Oman Sea
    • Authors: S. P. Hosseini‐Shekarabi; T. Valinassab, Z. Bystydzieńska, T. Linkowski
      Abstract: Juvenile and adult specimens of Benthosema pterotum (skinnycheek lanternfish) were collected during several surveys conducted on the Iranian continental shelf of the Oman Sea. Age was estimated by enumeration of growth increments in sagittae otolith sections on the assumption of their daily deposition. Three distinct growth zones in otolith microstructure (central, middle, and external) were defined. These three zones presumably represent increments deposited during successive life history stages, characterized by a different migratory behavior and depth occurrence. The number of increments in the central zone of the B. pterotum otolith (26.8 on average) was thus far one of the lowest in myctophid species studied. A negative correlation between the number of increments in the central and middle zones was observed. This might suggest a functional relation between these two periods of early life history, when fewer larvae in the epipelagic layers may be compensated by a longer non‐migratory behavior of metamorphosis larvae and early juveniles. The maximum number of growth increments in B. pterotum otoliths, i.e. 315, indicated a short lifespan of probably
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T03:04:20.248025-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12620
       
  • Length‐weight relationships for five nemacheilian loaches
           (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Iran
    • Authors: H. Jamali; R. Patimar, M. Farhadi, A. Doost, V. Daraei
      Abstract: Length‐weight relationships were estimated for five nemacheilian loaches of Iran. Three of these species are endemic to Iran and the L‐W parameters of three species are given for the first time.
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T03:44:53.002352-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12624
       
  • Length–weight relationships of two endemic fish species in the
           Júcar River Basin, Iberian Peninsula
    • Authors: J. D. Alcaraz‐Hernández; F. Martínez‐Capel, E. J. Olaya‐Marín
      Abstract: This study provides length‐weight relationship (LWRs) information for two fish species (family Cyprinidae) in two headwater streams of the Júcar River Basin (Eastern Iberian Peninsula). Both species are endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and have no previous LWR estimates.
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T03:44:34.884053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12625
       
  • Occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the fish diet from a
           south‐eastern Brazilian reservoir
    • Authors: D. M. Rosa; G. B. Santos, P. L. A. Gomes, M. C. S. Campos, J. H. P. Dias
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T02:32:50.561073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12623
       
  • The influence of a longer photoperiod on growth parameters of European sea
           bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) reared in sea cages
    • Authors: Ş. Yildirim; H. Vardar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a long‐term photoperiod (15L : 9D) on both the somatic growth and husbandry parameters of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Experiments were conducted in triplicate in high density polyethylene (HDPE) floating cages with net depths of 14 m and diameters of 20 m. Experiments were performed with approximately 170 000 sea bass with initial average weights of 110.63 ± 3.12 g and 110.26 ± 29.70 g for the experimental and control groups, respectively. Beginning in April 2008, extended artificial lighting was used in the experimental cages for 13 months; the control group received no additional illumination. At the end of the experiments, the average weights of the experimental and control groups were 362.13 ± 7.72 and 310.34 ± 18.15 g, respectively. Specific growth rate (SGR) was relatively high in the experimental group compared to the control fish. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was 2.02 and 2.21 for the experimental and control groups, respectively, with significant differences also found between these groups (P 
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T04:56:47.773351-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12611
       
  • Effects of Ca and Mg concentrations in seawater on the growth and energy
           
    • Authors: M. L. Wang; X. M. Zhang, T. X. Gao, P. D. Zhang
      Abstract: Effects of seawater calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations on the growth and energy budget of juvenile Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) were investigated at 20°C and a salinity of 30 psu. The Ca/Mg ratio (Ca : Mg = 1 : 3) in the experimental water was kept constant. Five treatments were set: C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5, and the Ca and Mg concentrations were 700, 1100, 1600, 2200, and 2800 (mg L−1), respectively. After a 60‐day feeding trial the P. olivaceus survival rates were not affected significantly by Ca or Mg concentrations in the range of 700–2800 mg L−1. However, the specific growth rates (SGR) and weight gain (WG) of all treatments decreased with ascending Ca and Mg concentrations. The Ca and Mg concentrations had a strong influence on various energy parameters, namely, energy deposited for growth (G), energy lost for respiration (R), and energy lost in excretion (U), but had little influence on energy lost in feces (F). This indicated that the growth rate differences under different concentrations of Ca and Mg mainly resulted from differences of assimilation efficiency and energy channeled into respiration. The highest net growth efficiency was attained at the lowest concentration of Ca and Mg in seawater, and the higher concentrations of Ca and Mg increased the energy channeled to respiration and excretion, which led to significant reduction in growth. Therefore, the optimal growth of P. olivaceus could be obtained by regulating the concentration of Ca and Mg at 700 mg L−1, where the average energy budget was: 100C (100% energy consumed in food) = 47.21 (±0.63) G + 32.89 (±0.42) R + 16.71 (±0.56) F + 3.19 (±0.05) U.
      PubDate: 2014-08-30T03:31:45.303419-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12477
       
  • Clearhead icefish, (Protosalanx hyalocranius Abbott, 1901) (Salmoniformes,
           Salangidae), a new non‐native species has established a population
           in the Amur River, China
    • Authors: F. J. Tang; W. Liu, J. L. Wang, J. Henne, X. S. Cui
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T06:29:30.065471-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12454
       
  • Impact of live food on survival and growth of hatchery‐reared sea
           trout (Salmo trutta trutta L.) parr in the wild
    • Authors: R. Czerniawski; J. Domagala, T. Krepski, M. Pilecka‐Rapacz
      Abstract: Survival rates and growth parameters of hatchery‐reared sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta L.) fry were determined after stocking in the wild. The larvae were hatchery‐reared for 12 weeks in two groups: fry were fed either on live zooplankton and live chironomidae larvae (LFG), or fed a pellet diet (PFG). The survival rate and specific growth rates were higher in the LFG than in the PFG group. Most effective for hatchery‐reared fish intended for stocking was the natural, live feed. The mean number of chironomid larvae found in the stomachs of fish that were initially captured in the wild was significantly higher in the LFG than in the PFG group. The live diet supplied in the rearing period had a positive impact on the foraging skills of the sea trout fry and their survival in the wild after their release on 24 April 2010.
      PubDate: 2014-07-29T06:28:41.392399-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12503
       
  • First length–weight relationships of 11 fish species in the Aegean
           Sea
    • Authors: S. Yapici; P. K. Karachle, H. Filiz
      Abstract: Weight‐length relationships were established for eleven marine fish species caught in the SE Aegean Sea, Turkey. Additionally, a bibliographic review of such relationships for these species was conducted. Based on the results, the values of b parameter varied between 2.477 and 3.496, with one species having isometric growth, five negative and six positive allometric growth. Furthermore, for Aulopus filamentosus there exist no information in the literature, whilst for Callanthias ruber and Gnathophis mystax, there are no such information available from the Mediterranean.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T06:03:56.7133-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12459
       
  • Weight–length and length–length relationships for reef fish
           species from the Cape Verde Archipelago (tropical north‐eastern
           Atlantic)
    • Authors: M. T. Oliveira; M. N. Santos, R. Coelho, V. Monteiro, A. Martins, P. G. Lino
      Abstract: This study reports weight–length and length–length relationships for selected coastal reef fish species of the Cape Verde Archipelago (tropical north‐eastern Atlantic). Specimens were caught with different types of gear (long‐lines, hand‐lines, purse‐seines and traps) during commercial fishing activities and sampled during fish market operations. A total of 8328 individuals were sampled, representing 29 species from 14 Families. This study provides the first references on weight–length and length–length relationships for five and 23 fish species worldwide, for 10 and 24 species for the Eastern Atlantic and for 12 and 26 species for Cape Verde Archipelago, respectively. Additionally, it provides revised weight–length relationships for 11 species from Cape Verde waters.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T02:49:11.807088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12497
       
  • Spatiotemporal occurrence and feeding habits of tonguefish, Cynoglossus
           lighti Norman, 1925, larvae in Ariake Bay, Japan
    • Authors: G. Kume; K. Furumitsu, H. Nakata, T. Suzuki, M. Handa, A. Yamaguchi
      Abstract: Spatiotemporal occurrence and feeding habits of tonguefish (Cynoglossus lighti Norman, 1925) larvae were investigated in an offshore area (>5 m in depth) of the inner part of Ariake Bay, Japan. All specimens were symmetric, free‐swimming larvae. Although their seasonal abundance and distribution in the study site varied from year to year, spawning started in June and the larval abundance was high in August and September with a wide distribution in the inner part of the bay. Both present and previous study results strongly suggest that larvae may settle primarily in the estuary and near‐shore areas of Ariake Bay after their wide distribution in the offshore area of the bay during the free‐swimming stage. Larvae showed a clear feeding rhythm in which they fed on prey mainly during the daytime. Larvae fed exclusively on copepods, and identified prey were mostly Paracalanidae (mainly Parvocalanus crassirostris), Microsetella norvegica, and Oithona davisae. Pre‐metamorphosis larvae fed primarily on Paracalanidae and O. davisae, whereas O. davisae formed a smaller proportion of the early‐metamorphosis diet. In early metamorphoses, larvae fed preferentially on Paracalanidae and M. norvegica.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T02:45:21.155113-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12498
       
  • Length–weight relationships for freshwater fish species from the
           Pantanal of the Negro River, Brazil
    • Authors: V. F. Batista‐Silva; D. Bailly, É. A. Gubiani, F. E. S. Costa, V. L. Lescano de Ameida, T. Liparelli
      Abstract: The present study describes the length‐weight relationships (LWRs) of 28 species captured in Santa Virgínia Bay, in the Pantanal of the Negro River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over 3 years (1999 to 2001). The study provides the first references on LWRs for thirteen of these species.
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T04:16:28.621174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12495
       
  • Morphological parameters of abundant and threatened chondrichthyans of the
           northwestern Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: C. Barría; J. Navarro, M. Coll, U. Fernandez‐Arcaya, R. Sáez‐Liante
      Abstract: The diversity of chondrichthyans in the Mediterranean Sea is relatively high; however, available data indicate that this group is declining in abundance and several species are becoming rare. As a result, the collection of biological data is a priority for demographic models, stock assessments, and food web analysis. In the present study, we report morphological parameters and length–weight relationships of several chondrichthyan species, both abundant and threatened, from the western Mediterranean Sea. Samples were obtained with commercial and scientific bottom trawl vessels between 2001 and 2013. A total of 893 individuals belonging to 11 families and 20 species were weighed and total lengths measured. In addition, seven species of large demersal sharks were measured and length–length relationships obtained to study the relationships between different body length measurements. All species showed positive allometric or isometric growth, except for Centroscymnus coelolepis. The results of the length–weight relationships reveal differences between the western Mediterranean and nearby areas, depending on the species studied.
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T03:06:21.044171-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12499
       
  • Growth pattern of an endemic and endangered West Balkan Peninsula trout
           species (Salmo lourosensis, Delling, 2010)
    • Authors: A. Ntakis; R. Liasko, A. Oikonomou, I. D. Leonardos
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T02:48:43.987022-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12493
       
  • Length–weight relationships of fish species associated with the
           mangrove forest in the southwestern Terminos Lagoon, Campeche (Mexico)
    • Authors: L. E. Amador‐del Ángel; E. Guevara‐Carrió, R. Brito, A. T. Wakida‐Kusunoki
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWR) were calculated for 18 species representing 11 families of fishes. A total of 958 fish specimens from the southwestern Terminos Lagoon, Campeche (Mexico), several of which had none or few LWRs available in FishBase, were sampled (except December) using a shrimp otter trawl net from September 2003 to August 2004. Sample sizes ranged from seven Mugil curema and Archosargus probatocephalus individuals to 250 Eugerres plumieri.
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T02:27:14.845268-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12490
       
  • Presence of prohibited fishes in the Brazilian aquarium trade:
           effectiveness of laws, management options and future prospects
    • Authors: A. L. B. Magalhães
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T02:08:38.028365-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12491
       
  • Evaluation of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans isolated from
           Jenyn's sprat (Ramnogaster arcuata) as probiotic for juvenile rainbow
           trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)
    • Authors: A. Lopez Cazorla; M. G. Sica, L. I. Brugnoni, P. L. Marucci, M. A. Cubitto
      Abstract: A lactic acid bacterial strain, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans F2, isolated from the intestine of Ramnogaster arcuata, was evaluated as a growth promoter in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1972) farming. In addition, the safety of the strain was assessed according to the FAO recommendations. Strain F2 was susceptible to most antibiotics tested and no evidence of hemolytic activity was found. When the strain of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans F2 was administered with food, no adverse effects on health were observed and fish biomass increased 12% more in the treatment group than in the control group. Significant differences were detected in the specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio. In the group receiving Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans F2‐supplemented feed, quantitative differences in the microbial composition of fish feces with respect to the control group were observed. An important decrease in fungi and enterobacteria was observed in feces from the treatment group, coincident with an increase in lactic acid bacteria. This result would indicate a change in the composition of the intestinal microbiota of fish treated with the putative probiotic. These results suggest that the strain of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans F2 has the application potential to improve the performance in rainbow trout farming.
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T02:08:35.67106-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12496
       
  • Diet composition, feed preferences and mouth morphology of early stage
           silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864) larvae reared in
           outdoor tanks
    • Authors: F. A. Aya; M. N. C. Corpuz, L. M. B. Garcia
      Abstract: This study examined the diet composition, feeding preferences, and mouth morphology of the silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864) larvae under captive conditions. Larvae were reared in outdoor tanks (4 m3) with natural food grown 2 weeks prior to start of larval rearing. Food preference was measured by the Chesson's electivity index (αi). Gut content analysis of larvae sampled between 5 and 25 days after hatching (DAH) showed the dominance in the diet by zooplankton, mainly copepod nauplii, cladocerans and insect larvae. Small fish larvae (5–9 DAH; 3.32–6.29 mm standard length) preferred cladocerans, ciliates and copepod nauplii; whereas older larvae (12–25 DAH; 5.45–19.26 mm standard length) preferred insect larvae over cladocerans and adult insects. The mouth gape size at 5 DAH was 359 μm and increased to 3.75 mm at 40 DAH when body size grew at an average rate of 0.59 mm d−1. The standard length (SL) of L. plumbeus larvae was strongly associated with mouth size (r2 = 0.98, P 
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T02:08:32.825234-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12486
       
  • Immune responses and intestinal morphology of striped catfish,
           Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878), fed dietary nucleotides
    • Authors: M. Yaghobi; S. Dorafshan, M. Akhlaghi, F. Paykan Heyrati, N. Mahmoudi
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth performance, immune responses, and intestinal morphology of striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Different levels of NT (0, 0.25. 0.5, 0.75, and 1% weight per weight, WW−1) were used in the basal diet and then randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with an average initial weight of 1.52 ± 0.11 g for 10 weeks. Nucleotide supplementation did not improve growth parameters significantly (P > 0.05). Feeding fish with a NT‐containing diet significantly improved ACH50 activity and IgM levels in comparison to the control group (P 
      PubDate: 2014-07-02T01:13:02.406764-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12489
       
  • Length–weight relationships of seven freshwater fishes from the
           JiangSu province, China
    • Authors: S. K. Tang; T. Q. Zhang, M. H. Wang, G. Zhou, L. Q. Zhong, D. M. Li, J. L. Pan
      Abstract: The length‐weight relationships (LWRs) are presented for seven freshwater fish species (Odontobutis potamophila, Protosalanx chinensis, Acheilognathus chankaensis, Megalobrama skolkovii, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Macropodus chinensis, Pseudobrama simoni) from JiangSu province in China. A total of 1340 specimens were sampled and measured between August 2012 and September 2013. No information regarding the LWRs of these species was available in FishBase.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T07:28:30.821352-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12492
       
  • Effects of an artificial and annual opening of a natural sandbar on the
           fish community in a coastal lagoon system: a case study in Lagoa do Peixe
           floodplains, southern Brazil
    • Abstract: Two hypotheses were tested: that the artificial sandbar opening decreases the richness, diversity and abundance of fishes and alters the fish composition in floodplain ponds; that the salinity variations influence fish richness, diversity, abundance, as well as composition. Results suggest that artificial sandbar openings did not reduce the richness or diversity of freshwater fishes in southern Brazil floodplain ponds. Nevertheless, this process causes an increase in salinity, which determines significant differences in species composition between natural and managed areas. In this sense, the artificial sandbar opening must be considered with caution, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units in wetland systems of southern Brazil.
       
  • Length‐weight relationships of five fish species collected from
           Ranganadi River (Brahmaputra River tributary) in Assam, India
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWR) are presented for five fish species: Laubuka laubuca (Hamilton, 1822); Aspidoparia jaya (Hamilton, 1822); Channa gachua (Hamilton, 1822); Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton, 1822) and Badis badis (Hamilton, 1822) collected from the Ranganadi River in the Lakhimpur district of Assam, India. There were no prior LWR data regarding three of these species.
       
  • Length–weight relationship of two restricted‐range fish
           species from central Brazil highlands: Hyphessobrycon coelestinus Myers,
           1929 and Hasemania crenuchoides Zarske & Géry, 1999 (Characidae:
           Characiformes)
    • Abstract: This study presents length‐weight relationships (LWR) for two species of the family Characidae (Characiformes), Hyphessobrycon coelestinus and Hasemania crenuchoides, captured in the central highlands of Brazil.
       
  • Effects of salinity on survival, daily food intake and growth of juvenile
           round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) from a brackish water
           system
    • Abstract: The growth response of juvenile round gobies was tested in various salinities to assess the potential performance of the species in widely differing salinities in the Baltic Sea and adjacent waters. An experimental approach analysed the survival, daily food intake and growth of juvenile Neogobius melanostomus from the brackish water region of the Kiel Canal, Germany. Round gobies (TL = 61.5 ±5.3 mm; n = 40) were fed ad libitum (diet = mysid shrimp; energy content = 4.7 cal per mg dry weight) at salinity levels of 0.1, 7.5, 15 and 30 over 12 weeks. Two replicate tanks (125 × 30 × 30 cm; 100 L) were maintained for each salinity level, each holding five specimens at a mean temperature of 19.90°C (±0.64°C; n = 136). Survival at all levels was 100%, except for 0.1 with 90%. Mean daily food intake (% of body weight) increased from salinity level 0.1 to 15 (from 17.76% to 19.95%); specimens at level 30 showed a more diversified and lower mean food intake (18.44%). Mean cumulative body weight gain appeared greatest at a level of 7.5 (224.52%), closely followed by 0.1 (206.57%) and 15 (191.92%). In contrast, fish growth was significantly lower at a salinity level of 30 (100.57%). Results of the experiment indicate that salinity tolerance estimates of the round goby made by other authors are too low regarding specimens that stem from brackish habitats. Growth patterns of some specimens, even in the salinity 30 treatment, show that a further spread of this species into regions with higher salinities is quite possible.
       
  • Rapid response of invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) (Pallas,
           1814) to an environmental perturbation demonstrated in reproductive
           parameters of females
    • Abstract: Plasticity in life‐history traits appears to be very important for adaptation of invasive species to a novel environment. Predictable changes in life‐history traits have been observed in the progression of invasions in several fish species. Nevertheless, the novel environment of the invaded areas can pose a challenge to the invaders caused by sudden perturbations in the ecological conditions. The aim of this study was to examine whether a sudden environmental disruption would reflect in significant changes in the reproductive parameters of the females of an invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population. Samples were collected from the middle section of the River Danube (Bratislava, Slovakia) from the 2008 post‐spawning period to the end of spawning in 2010. The results support the prediction that after a strong environmental perturbation, the females increase their absolute as well as relative numbers of oocytes and their real absolute fecundity; the differences in all of these parameters were statistically significant. Another strong environmental disruption occurred in June 2010, although the response differed from that of 2009. In 2009, the females responded by increasing their oocyte numbers; in 2010, they extended their reproductive season by producing an extra batch of eggs. This can be explained by the different timing of the sudden perturbations. In summation, a coincidence between the environmental perturbations and the significant changes in their reproductive traits was found in the round goby females in the two subsequent years. This indicates that the round goby can respond rapidly to environmental disruptions, and that such reproductive flexibility likely helps the species in its successful invasions.
       
  • Effects of supplementing the diets of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836
           juveniles with citrus pectin
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increasing the levels of citrus pectin has anti‐nutritional effects when included in the diets of Mugil liza juveniles, including its effects on hepatic metabolism and modulation of the microbial community. Fish (mean weight 0.38 g ± 0.01) were stocked at a density of 15 fishes per tank and fed for 60 days with either a control diet or one of three diets containing different levels of pectin (4, 8 and 12%), in triplicates. The temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and alkalinity during the trial were, respectively, 25.0°C ± 0.1, 6.82 ± 0.02 mg L−1, 8.10 ± 0.06 and 147 mg ± 12.93 CaCO3. The total ammonia‐nitrogen (TAN) in PC4, PC8 and PC12 treatments were, respectively, 0.69 ± 0.38; 0.57 ± 0.35; 0.64 ± 0.39 and 0.45 ± 0.23 mg L−1. The increasing diet viscosity with pectin inclusion did not cause significant differences in growth. Fish fed with pectin demonstrated a reduction in their percentage body dry matter, crude protein and ash. Hepatic glycogen levels were elevated in the group fed with 12% pectin, while there were no effects in cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Citrus pectin did not exert any modulatory effect on the microbial community. Although the pectin‐supplemented fish showed enteritis during the experimental period, this did not impair animal performance. However, the use of this polysaccharide as a binder in mullet (Mugil liza) diets for longer periods should be considered with caution.
       
  • Survival of farmed, wild and first generation hybrid Atlantic salmon
           (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) to low temperatures following seawater
           transfer
    • Abstract: In Newfoundland and Labrador, all farmed Atlantic salmon originate from the Saint John River strain (New Brunswick), raising the question of impacts of escapees on wild, genetically distinct stocks. While adverse genetic changes due to hybridization between farmed and wild salmon might not be manifested until the second generation (F2), the existence of F2 or later generations depends ultimately on the survival of F1 hybrids. After smoltification, cold spring seawater temperatures (1.5–5°C) such as those observed on the south coast of Newfoundland can be problematic to salmon as the combination of abrupt seawater exposure and cold temperature is known to overwhelm osmoregulatory mechanisms. No significant differences in total mortality were observed among wild, farmed and F1 hybrids after transfer to seawater and exposure to very cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that farmed salmon and F1 hybrids resulting from crossing wild salmon and St John River farm salmon are as likely to survive seawater migration in cold temperatures as their wild counterparts.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of 11 fish
           species from Zhimai River estuary, China
    • Abstract: The present work provides the length–weight relationships (LWRs) and total length – standard length relationships (LLRs) of 11 fish species belonging to six families. The fishes were collected from seasonal bottom trawl surveys in the Zhimai River estuary, March 2011 to May 2013. This is the first record of LWRs and LLRs for several of the fish species in this area.
       
  • Shark bycatch in the experimental tuna longline fishery in Lakshadweep
           Sea, India
    • Abstract: Studied were the bycatch from the experimental longline fishing operations in the Lakshadweep Sea. The experiments were conducted on converted Pablo boats, originally used for pole and line fishing operations, to capture skipjack tuna in the Lakshadweep Islands. The overall bycatch rate was very high, with a mean hooking rate of 8.05/1000 hooks compared to the targeted tuna catch (1.75/1000 hooks). Bycatch contributed 82.4% of the catch in comparison to the tuna (17.6%) Thunnus albacares, in the longline operations. Silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformes) with 89.9% was the dominant shark species followed by C. amblyrhynchos, Galeocerdo cuvier, Alopias pelagicus, Negapriion acutedens and Sphyrna lewinii with 4.7, 2.7, 1.4, 0.7 and 0.7%, respectively. Sharks contributed to 74.1% of the catch, followed by 15.7% sailfishes and 10.2% miscellaneous fishes. Higher bycatch rates were evident during evening hours compared to mornings, but the results were not significant statistically. Studies on the effects of depth on the overall fishing performance and species selectivity failed to establish any significant relationship at a depth range of 35–100 m. Soaking time had a significant effect on bycatch rates. The hooking rate of sharks declined with an increase in soaking time. Considering the high shark bycatch in the fishery, an accurate monitoring of the longline fish catches in the Lakshadweep waters is an important step towards ensuring the sustainability of other populations, especially sharks.
       
  • A combination of corn gluten and soybean meal as a substitute for fishmeal
           in diets of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus, 1758) in brackish water
           
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to test the replacement of fishmeal (FM) with a combination of corn gluten meal (CGM)‐soybean meal (SBM) (at a ratio of 58 : 42, respectively) fortified with lysine, taurine and monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) diets. FM as the main protein source in the control diet (FM100) was replaced in 15% decrements while increasing the combination of replacement material: 85% FM (FM85), 70% FM (FM70), 55% FM (FM55) and 40% FM (FM40). The diets were fed to triplicate groups (n = 25 per group) for 9 weeks (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity of 18.59 ± 0.06°C, 7.32 ± 0.02 mg L−1, 7.73 ± 0.01 and 8.46 ± 0.04 g L−1, respectively). Initial weight of fish was 286.1 ± 0.1 g. At the end of the experiment, growth, feed and nutrient utilization performance of fish fed FM85 and FM70 were similar to FM100, but a further increase in plant protein led to a significant reduction of these parameters. Whole body, fillet, viscera and liver nutrient compositions were not affected significantly; however, whole body lipid levels were significantly lower in fish on FM55 and FM40 than those on FM100. The fish in–fish out ratio in the diets decreased from 2.12 in FM100 to 1.00 in FM40. The results suggest that the FM level could be reduced by 30% with a combined use of CGM‐SBM supplemented with lysine, taurine and MCP.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 10 fish species from a Ganga River
           Basin tributary, Uttarakhand, India
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWRs) are described for 10 fish species belonging to three families from the Gaula River, a tributary of the Ganga River Basin in India. LWRs for these species were unknown to FishBase, and new maximum lengths are recorded for one species. These results will be useful for fishery research, management and conservation in the least‐explored tributary of the Ganga River Basin.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of the silver European eel, Anguilla
           anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), across its geographic range
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships for European silver eel (Anguilla anguilla) sub‐populations in six countries (13 catchments) along the latitudinal gradient in the area of distribution in this study use three important sampling programs; these results concur with previous studies on European eel with the equation: W = 0.0010 L3.148 for the entire data set (sexes combined). Significant differences were observed among the 13 catchments, possibly implying differences in body condition. Male and female LWRs varied significantly between and among catchments, suggesting that the capacity of silver eels to migrate and reproduce successfully varies according to the sites.
       
  • Improvement of fish length estimates for underwater visual census of reef
           fish biomass
    • Abstract: Accuracy and precision are of great importance in the assessment of reef fish biomass when conducting an underwater visual census (UVC). Quantification and subsequent correction of the bias is required in order to standardize the estimates and correct for underwater distortion. To optimize the UVC, the observer should receive length‐measurement training in order to obtain in situ‐measurements that are as accurate and precise as possible. The objective of this study was to quantify the bias of fish length measurements made by divers with and without training in order to enhance reef fish biomass estimates. Adaptation of the diver to estimate fish lengths was analysed as a part of reef fish biomass monitoring in the Karimunjawa National Park, a national marine sanctuary in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Two divers practiced estimating a variety of fish in a natural environment by using styrofoam models attached to strings and sinkers. Analyses showed that by training the diver, his/her accuracy and precision improved substantially. Proving its reliability, an underwater visual census (UVC) becomes a useful and reliable method to assess the biomass of reef fishes.
       
  • Fatty acid composition of Turbatrix aceti and its use in feeding regimes
           of Coregonus maraena (Bloch, 1779): is it really a suitable alternative to
           Artemia nauplii'
    • Abstract: By incorporating the free‐swimming nematode Turbatrix aceti into early feeding regimes of the European whitefish Coregonus maraena, the suitability of this nematode species was investigated as an alternative to Artemia nauplii. During a 14‐day feeding trial in a total of 25 aquaria each 1.7 L (each treatment n = 5, 255 larvae/tank) T. aceti was used either as the sole live food or in combination with Artemia nauplii or microdiet to determine the effect of T. aceti on growth performance and survival rate of C. maraena. By analysing the fatty acid composition of T. aceti prior to and after enrichment with INVE spresso® it was investigated whether the amount of n3‐polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3‐PUFA) in T. aceti could be further enhanced. Supplementation of Artemia nauplii with T. aceti increased growth significantly within the first 5 days of rearing in comparison to the non‐supplemented food treatments (14.39 ± 0.15 mm compared to 13.44 ± 0.18 mm; mean ± SE). However, growth and survival of juvenile C. maraena on nematode‐supplemented Artemia nauplii did not differ significantly from non‐supplemented Artemia nauplii at the end of the 14‐day rearing period (15.22 ± 0.15 mm compared to 14.86 ± 0.24 mm). All feeding treatments containing Artemia nauplii showed significantly higher growth and lower mortality at the end of the experiment in comparison to diets containing only the microdiet or T. aceti or a combination thereof. The overall low performance of T. aceti alone can most likely be explained by an insufficient capacity of C. maraena to digest this nematode species efficiently. Enrichment with INVE spresso® successfully increased the proportion of DHA in the T. aceti tissue. The results reveal that T. aceti cannot be considered a full alternative to Artemia nauplii, at least not in the rearing of C. maraena, but might be a useful vector of essential fatty acids within the early rearing period of this and potentially other fish species when provided as live food along with Artemia nauplii.
       
  • Effects of formalin preservation on eye lens of bogue, Boops boops
           (Linnaeus, 1758): comparison of direct (post‐fixation) vs ultrasound
           (true) measurements
    •  
  • New insights to discriminate between Sympterygia acuta Garman 1877
           and Sympterygia bonapartii Müller & Henle, 1841 (Rajidae) of
           the Southwest Atlantic Ocean: on the use of geometric morphometrics and
           spinulation patterns
    • Abstract: Geometric‐morphometric and spinulation pattern approaches were employed to assess the discrimination of two species of Sympterygia skates in the Southwest Atlantic: Sympterygia acuta Garman 1877 and Sympterygia bonapartii Müller & Henle, 1841. Two types of variables were employed: linear morphometrics measurements (LMMs), and interlandmark distances (IlDs). The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the discriminant analysis (DA) do not overlap between the species. Morphometrically, S. bonapartii is characterized by a wider disc, larger pelvic fins, larger eyes, a greater distance between nostrils and between the first pair of gill slits, a greater interorbital distance between spiracles, and a wider mouth. On the other hand, S. acuta has a larger disc due to the snout size. Regarding the allometric coefficient analysis performed on the IlDs, S. bonapartii showed a positive allometry for the variables that comprise the Box‐Truss 3 (Ventral protocol), which can be related to the mouth width and the first gill slits. This growth type is consistent with those observed in the Box‐Truss 3 (Outline protocol), which is related to the disc width. It has been interpreted that both structures could develop together. In opposition, S. acuta showed isometric growth for the above‐mentioned variables; on the other hand, S. acuta showed positive allometry for all variables that defined the snout in the three protocols, indicating that the snout has a distinctive growth relative to the size through ontogeny. S. bonapartii, however, showed an isometric snout growth. The remaining variables that defined the morphogeometrical protocols displayed the same type of growth. Regarding spinulation, the thorns and dermal denticles proved to be useful to discriminate both species. Thorns of the caudal region were large and oval with smooth edges in S. bonapartii, and oval with lobed edges in S. acuta. Dermal denticles in S. acuta also presented two elongated ridges with a third small ridge between them, whereas those of S. bonapartii presented three elongated ridges of the same size.
       
  • Length‐weight relationships of 11 fish species from the upper Jinsha
           River, China
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWR) are described for eleven indigenous fishes from the upper Jinsha River, which is the upper stretch of the Yangtze River, China. This is the first record of length‐weight relationships for ten of these species in FishBase and new maximum lengths are recorded for seven species.
       
  • Length‐weight relationships of 26 fish species from the streams of
           the upper section of the Paraguay River basin (Mato Grosso, Brazil)
    • Abstract: This study provides data on the length‐weight relationships (LWR) for 26 tropical fish species collected in August 2010 (dry season) and May 2011 (wet season), and represents the first LWR references for these species in the small tributary streams flowing into the major rivers of the Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil.
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation of mannan oligosaccharide on growth
           performance and salinity tolerance in kutum, Rutilus kutum (Kamensky,
           1901) fry
    •  
  • Evaluating the genetic status of the IUCN vulnerable endemic Macedonian
           shad (Alosa macedonica, Vinciguerra, 1921) from Lake Volvi
    •  
  • Length–weight relationships for four small fish species caught in
           wetlands of central Yangtze River, China
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships for four native species (Oryzias latipes Temminck & Schlegel, 1846; Rhodeus ocellatus Kner, 1866; Rhinogobius giurinus Rutter, 1897; and Micropercops swinhonis Günther, 1873) were determined. The fish were collected from the wetlands of the central Yangtze River, in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Samples were obtained from May 2012 to January 2013. Length–weight relationships for O. latipes were determined for the first time.
       
  • Length–weight relationships for 15 fish species from the Hunan
           Hupingshan National Nature Reserve in central China
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) were estimated for 15 fish species representating 15 genera and six families from the Hunan Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, China. Six species are endemic to China, one of which is also endemic to the Yangtze River. The b values of all species were within the expected ranges, varying between 2.68 and 3.26. Data of 11 species represent the first description of LWRs and nine species have new records of maximum length.
       
  • Comparative analysis of intermuscular bones in three strains of common
           carp
    • Abstract: The objective was to document the variations in the intermuscular bone counts among three carp strains: mirror carp, hybrid carp [Boshi carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) × Heilongjiang carp (Cyprinus carpio)], and a cold‐resistant strain of Hebao carp. The intermuscular bone counts, lengths, and weights were obtained from 146 fish; the bone count ranged from 55 to 110 (mean 92.85) among the three strains. Mirror carp had the lowest number of intermuscular bones and a higher coefficient of variation in counts relative to the other two species. There was no relationship between the intermuscular bone counts to standard length or body length. Similarly, there was no difference in the intermuscular bone count or shape between the left and right sides of the body. However, the count was significantly higher (P 
       
  • Issue Information
    •  
  • Ageing Belanger's croaker, Johnius belangerii (Cuvier, 1830), based on
           otolith shape analysis
    • Abstract: The use of morphological characters and otolith weight as predictors of fish age has proven to be an efficient, objective and precise method, but studies were heretofore focused primarily on fast‐growing fish species. In the present study, Belanger's croaker, Johnius belangerii (Cuvier, 1830), is presented as a model species for slow‐growing fish where it is hypothesized that age has a significant effect on the otolith shape, and that the otolith weight has the potential to predict individual fish age as an alternative and objective method. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) of shape variables and cross‐validation were applied to a total of 359 sagittal otoliths in the age groups 0, 1 and 2. The shape variables demonstrated 64.1% correct age classification, and a 93.5% correct age classification with the inclusion of otolith weight in the discriminant function. Results show that a combination of shape variables and otolith weight work well in age determination of Belanger's croaker, and demonstrate its application potential for sciaenids that are distributed throughout the coastal waters of China.
       
  • Species composition of benthic fish fauna in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
    • Abstract: In order to determine the present benthic fish fauna in the Sea of Marmara, sampling was conducted at a total of 10 stations for 2 weeks in August 2009, using a commercial twin beam trawling vessel with 18 and 36 mm stretched mesh sizes at the cod‐end. In addition, some physicochemical parameters that play important roles, such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH, were measured for each station. As a result, 31 fish species from 23 families were found at a total of 10 stations in depths of 30–1000 m. At each station, the Shannon–Weaver diversity index, Simpson dominance index, species richness index, and evenness index were estimated. This study reports on species composition of the demersal fish catches in the Sea of Marmara for a preliminary assessment of the status of these fish communities.
       
  • A checklist of the protozoan and metazoan parasites of European eel
           (Anguilla anguilla): checklist of Anguilla anguilla parasites
    • Abstract: A comprehensive literature review on prevalence and distribution of parasites of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in European waters was conducted to set a baseline for future trend analyses and biodiversity considerations. The resulting checklist compiled from peer reviewed journals as well as grey literature including scientific reports, conference contributions, PhD theses and own survey data includes all protozoan and metazoan parasites of the European eel from freshwater, brackish and marine habitats. Parasites are arranged according to phylum and family. Species within families are listed alphabetically. Infected host organs, recorded habitats, localities, countries and literature citations are provided for each species. A total of 161 parasite species/taxa from 30 countries are listed. With the trypanorhynch cestode Tentacularia coryphaenae a new host record could be documented. Furthermore, three new locality records of parasitic nematodes could be added based on own survey data: Anisakis simplex from an eel caught in the Baltic Sea, Eustrongylides mergorum for German freshwaters, and Goezia anguillae from the Tagus estuary in Portugal. Special consideration was given to the distribution of the swimbladder nematode Anguillcoloides (Anguillicola) crassus. A map and table of first reported records of this neozoan parasite species for 25 countries as well as a survey map indicating all published localities documented in the checklist are provided.
       
  • Length‐weight relationships for 32 fish species in the Grijalva
           River Basin, México
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships were estimated for 32 species belonging to 11 fish families from the Grijalva River, México. For 24 of the species, the length‐weight relationships are published for the first time.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships for 135 fish
           species from the Xingu River (Amazon Basin, Brazil)
    • Abstract: Length–weight (LWR) and length–length relationships (LLR) are presented for 135 freshwater fish species sampled by several types of fishing gear between April 2012 and July 2014 in the middle and lower Xingu River Basin, northern Brazil. The report represents the first references on LWRs and LLRs for 114 and 119 species, respectively, and also provides a new maximum size for 96 species.
       
  • Length‐weight relationships of six fishes from intertidal and
           coastal waters in the northern Persian Gulf
    • Abstract: The length–weight relationships (LWRs) for six little‐known fish species collected in the northern Persian Gulf (south of Iran) are presented, namely, Plicofollis dussumieri, Pseudotriacanthus strigilifer, Cynoglossus bilineatus, Cynoglossus arel, Solea elongata, and Pseudorhombus elevates.
       
  • Length‐weight relationships of three cyprinid fishes from headwater
           of the Nujiang River, China
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWR) for three cyprinid fish species collected from the headwaters of the Nujiang River in Tibet, China, were determined. The values of parameter b in the LWR equations were estimated as 2.54 for Schizopygopsis thermalis, 3.3 for Ptychobarbus kaznakovi, and 2.74 for Schizothorax nukiangensis, respectively. These are the first LWR records for the three species.
       
  • Utility of fish scales from stock assessment surveys in stable isotope
           analysis for initial assessments of trophic relationships in riverine fish
           communities
    • Abstract: The utility of using fish scales collected during stock assessment exercises to assess the trophic relationships of riverine fishes using their stable isotopes of d13C and d15N was tested using three riverine fish communities in England (Rivers Great Ouse, Ivel and Goyt). In each river, European barbel Barbus barbus was an important species, with other cyprinid species, including chub Squalius cephalus, present. Stable isotope analyses was completed using relatively small sample sizes per species (
       
  • Individual variations and interrelationships in feeding rate, growth rate,
           and spontaneous activity in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus × O. aureus) at different feeding
           frequencies
    • Abstract: A 30‐day growth trial was conducted to investigate the individual variations in feeding rate, growth rate, spontaneous activity, and their possible interrelationships in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) reared individually at feeding frequencies of one and two meals daily. Results show that the feeding rate in energy (FRe), specific growth rate in energy (SGRe), and food conversion efficiency (FCE) of fish fed twice a day were significantly higher than that of fish fed only once. However, no significant differences in distance or in time spent swimming were observed between the groups. SGRe was positively correlated with FRe in fish fed only once daily, and SGRe was positively correlated with food conversion efficiency in energy (FCEe) between the two groups. SGRe was only inversely correlated with the distance that fish swam when fed once daily. The results suggest that the individual growth differences of hybrid tilapia could be attributed mainly to variations in FRe, and that the energy costs of spontaneous activity play an important role in the differences at feeding frequency of one meal a day. However, at feeding frequencies of two meals a day, individual growth differences in fish may be caused by variations in FCEe, and energy costs of spontaneous activity have only marginal effects on the differences.
       
  • Prey availability and selective feeding of sea trout (Salmo trutta L.,
           1758) fry stocked in small forest streams
    • Abstract: The food base and stomach contents of stocked sea trout (Salmo trutta) fry were determined in the first 4 months (April–August 2010) of life in two small lowland streams after resorption of the yolk sac. In each stream, 600 individual trout were released in a 200 m stocking‐section. The macrozoobenthos given as a food base for the fry were collected once a month from the streams using a bottom scraper. Three subsamples of macrozoobentos were considered as one sample from the stocking‐section. On the same day, 50 stocked fry were captured in each stream using electric fishing gear. Preferred food components were usually the taxa represented by number in a given stream in a particular month. Width size range of the prey in fish stomachs in May was from 0.10 to 1.47 mm, and from 0.11 to 3.78 mm in August. All food items found in both streams during the study months were also represented in intensity in the fish: Cyclopoida, and larvae of Baetidae and Chironomidae. Almost all Helodidae and Simuliidae larvae as well as the majority of Limoniidae and Nemouridae larvae were available as food each month.
       
  • Age‐0 striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792), response to
           immunostimulation
    • Abstract: Young‐of‐the‐year (age‐0) striped bass, Morone saxatilis, were studied to characterize their responses to inflammatory stimuli. There were two studies, with the hypotheses that (i) 24 h in larger fish. Study I was conducted to understand the cytokine expression pattern (IL‐1β, TNF‐α, Nramp and TGF‐β) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) stimulation in age‐0 striped bass (3.44 ± 1.68 g, 70.6 ± 10.3 mm fork length) up to 24 h post injection (hpi). Study II was similar to Study I, but striped bass were sampled over a longer time frame (by 48 hpi) and larger age‐0 striped bass were used (20.6 ± 5.9 g, 129.2 ± 10.9 mm fork length). It was confirmed that immunostimulants such as LPS and FCA induce production of inflammatory cytokines and Nramp, which are important in innate immune response to bacterial infection. The responses were rapidly stimulated with LPS (IL‐1β, TNF‐α, TGF‐β >3‐fold increase, compared to PBS) or FCA (IL‐1β >3‐fold and TGF‐β >2‐fold, compared to PBS) within 6 hpi and maintained in most cases 48 hpi (spleen Nramp and TGF‐β 2‐fold >PBS, at 24 and 48 h), similar to other teleosts. Intraperitoneal injection with PBS also simulated inflammatory gene expression, but was delayed (IL‐1β, TNF‐α, TGF‐β and Nramp, FCA and LPS< at 6 h; 24 h >LPS and PBS) in comparison to LPS and FCA, suggesting that this procedure and possibly the volume used can be stimulatory and potentially harmful in age‐0 fish. Therefore, this study suggests that age‐0 striped bass are capable of strong cytokine induction in response to immunological stimulation within a very short period of time.
       
 
 
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