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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)

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Journal Cover Journal of Applied Ichthyology
  [SJR: 0.51]   [H-I: 44]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0175-8659 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0426
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Description of 21 microsatellites for the Chinese bitterling, Rhodeus
           sinensis Günther, 1868
    • Authors: L.-W. Xiong; Q. Wang, S.-B. Wang, J.-G. Wang, Q. Feng, L.-J. Yue
      Abstract: Chinese bitterling (Rhodeus sinensis) is a freshwater fish endemic to China. During the past several decades, natural populations of this species have become endangered due to habitat fragmentation and water pollution. To help conserve and restore R. sinensis, Illumina Miseq sequencing was used to identify 21 polymorphic microsatellites. The number of alleles varied from 3 to 13, and the observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.3067 to 0.9145 and 0.3845 to 0.9521, respectively. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.3173 to 0.9105. These novel microsatellites will be useful in both conservation and management of R. sinensis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T06:07:16.795886-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13380
       
  • Egg identification of three economical important fish species using DNA
           barcoding in comparison to a morphological determination
    • Authors: T. Hofmann; T. Knebelsberger, M. Kloppmann, J. Ulleweit, M. J. Raupach
      Abstract: Accurate identification of fish eggs to species level is a challenging task as many species have similar egg sizes and morphology. The results of egg determination of three economically important fish species are presented by using DNA barcoding in comparison to the classical morphological determination. About 500 fish eggs from the Celtic Sea were collected, morphologically identified and used for DNA analysis. In total, DNA barcodes were successfully obtained from 98% of the investigated eggs, including 167 DNA barcodes from 169 morphologically identified fish eggs of Merluccius merluccius (98.8%), 257 of 262 Scomber scombrus (98.1%), and 47 from 50 Trachurus trachurus (94%). Overall, species identification with DNA barcodes showed a congruence of 96.2% to identification by morphology, whereas 3.8% (n = 18) of the analyzed eggs were morphologically assigned to the wrong species. The highest number of incorrect identified eggs was for S. scombrus (n = 15). Our study highlights the usefulness of DNA barcoding for valid fish egg identification but also indicates the robustness of the classical morphology-based approach.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T13:20:37.259248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13389
       
  • Age, growth and reproduction of non-native largemouth bass Micropterus
           salmoides (Lacépède, 1802) populations in two temperate African
           impoundments
    • Authors: G. C. Taylor; O. L. F. Weyl
      Abstract: This study aims to improve the understanding of the establishment success of Micropterus salmoides by assessing growth, maturity and reproductive seasonality of two populations from the temperate region in South Africa. Results are compared to those from other populations to test previously proposed hypotheses that the (i) extent of the spawning season, (ii) longevity, and (iii) growth performance are environmentally temperature dependent. Micropterus salmoides were sampled monthly between March 2010 and March 2012 from Wriggleswade and Mankazana impoundments using either angling or multi-meshed (35, 45, 47, 57, 65, 73, 77, 93, 106, 118, 150 and 153 mm) multifilament gillnet fleets, and a 1 m seine net. The assessed populations in South Africa performed as expected compared to other introduced populations. Age at maturity (1.3–2 years) and length at maturity (232–254 mm FL) were similar to other temperate populations. A well-defined, spring spawning season conformed to findings in other temperate populations. Using sectioned sagittal otoliths it was shown that fish were long-lived (14 years). Growth rates differed significantly between the two assessed populations but both were slower growing than tropical and subtropical introduced populations. Growth performance (Φ′: 2.77–2.99) was similar to other temperate populations. These results indicate that the biology of introduced M. salmoides populations in South Africa is comparable to those of other temperate populations and supports the environmental temperature-dependent hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T08:24:33.032504-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13353
       
  • Spawning lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) and their
           habitat characteristics in Rainy River, Ontario and Minnesota
    • Authors: A. Smith; K. E. Smokorowski, M. Power
      Abstract: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning habitat in the Rainy River was studied in light of the ongoing review of the rules governing water levels upstream that affect discharge rates through the International Falls dam. The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of spawning Lake Sturgeon below the dam by: (i) evaluating weight–length relationships, condition, age and growth; (ii) identifying spawning locations and characterizing its physical attributes; and, (iii) evaluating the effects of water surface elevation on the availability of spawning habitat. Spawning was confirmed with use of egg mats, and targeted sampling of spawning individuals was completed using gillnets and electrofishing. Physical attributes of spawning locations, including temperature, depth and water velocity were collected at a range of water levels using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler and representative sediment sampling. Biological characteristics and timing of spawning events were consistent with those previously reported for Lake Sturgeon. However, a wider range of depths (0.3–10.5 m) and velocities (0.01–1.9 m3/s) than reported in most single site studies was found here, with the ranges encompassing what is reported in the literature as a whole. Lake Sturgeon were found to prefer coarse spawning substrates dominated by bedrock, boulder or cobble. The availability of preferred spawning habitat varied significantly with the changing water levels observed during the study and was eventually limited at higher water levels by river channel form. Because of the implications for dewatering of nest sites, keeping flows constant during spawning is critical to Rainy River Lake Sturgeon spawning success.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:40:41.202948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13372
       
  • A study on age and growth characteristics of spiny gurnard (Lepidotrigla
           dieuzeidei Blanc & Hureau, 1973), northeastern Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: A. Başusta; N. Başusta, M. Calta, E. I. Ozcan
      Abstract: This study investigated the age and growth characteristics of spiny gurnard, Lepidotrigla dieuzeidei, from the northeastern Mediterranean. Samples were collected by commercial trawls during the 2012–2013 fishing seasons. A total 1,878 speciments ranged from 7.10 to 15.90 cm total length and 2.28–35.88 g in weight. Female/male ratio was 1.2/1. The total length–weight relationship was W = 0.002 TL3.579 (r² = .909) for sexes combined, W = 0.0021 TL3.551 (r² = .914) for males and W = 0.0019 TL3.602 (r² = .904) for females. Age determination was conducted using the sagittal otoliths. Ages of examined individulas ranged from 3 to 11 years. Total length-at-age data were fitted using the von Bertalanffy growth model. Estimated growth functions were TLt = 18.100 [1−e−0.14 (t + 0.63)] for sexes combined, TLt = 23.587 [1−e−0.08 (t + 1.56)] for males and TLt = 16.612 [1−e−0.19 (t + 0.15)] for females.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:40:38.000487-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13384
       
  • Design and test of a grid to reduce bycatch in the longfin inshore squid
           (Doryteuthis pealeii) trawl fishery
    • Authors: S. M. Bayse; M. V. Pol, M. Walsh, A. Walsh, T. Bendiksen, P. He
      Abstract: A species separation grid was tested for a squid trawl to reduce finfish bycatch in the Nantucket Sound longfin inshore squid (Doryteuthis pealeii) fishery in southern New England, USA. The experimental trawl with a grid significantly reduces bycatch of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) (76.4%, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:40:35.621332-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13381
       
  • Comparative precision of age estimates from two southern reservoir
           populations of paddlefish [Polyodon spathula (Walbaum, 1792)]
    • Authors: J. M. Long; A. A. Nealis
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine whether location and sex affected the age precision estimates between two southern, reservoir populations of paddlefish [Polyodon spathula (Walbaum, 1792)]. From 589 paddlefish collected in Grand Lake and Keystone Lake, Oklahoma in 2011, ages from dentaries were estimated using three independent readers and precision was compared with coefficient of variation between locations and sexes. Ages were more precisely estimated from Grand Lake and from females.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:40:28.74648-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13394
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 21 fish species from the upland Ganga
           River Basin tributaries of Central Indian Himalaya
    • Authors: R. Singh Patiyal; J. Iqbal Mir
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) are described for 21 fish species belonging to six families from different tributaries of the upland Ganga Basin in India. LWRs for five selected species were unknown to FishBase and new maximum lengths are recorded for 13 species. These results will be useful for fishery research, management and conservation in these tributaries of the Ganga River basin.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T03:25:56.745497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13386
       
  • Development and characterization of 21 novel microsatellite markers for
           the Australian smelt Retropinna semoni (Weber, 1895)
    • Authors: M. R.-U. Islam; D. J. Schmidt, J. M. Hughes
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T03:25:55.295362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13391
       
  • Length–weight relationships of three fish species from a tropical
           mangrove estuary of Sarawak, Malaysia
    • Authors: M. K. Abu Hena; M. H. Idris, A. H. Rajaee, M. A. M. Siddique
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships for three mangrove fish species, Setipinna melanochir (Bleeker, 1849), Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830), and Nibea soldado (Lacépède, 1802) were determined. Samplings were conducted in a tropical mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia (3°59′25.76′′N; 113°43′51.6′′E) at the peak of three different seasons using gillnets (100 × 2.5 m, mesh sizes 1, 2 and 4 inches) during 2014–2015. No information regarding length–weight relationships of these species was reported previously in FishBase.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T23:31:43.484858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13385
       
  • Growth and mortality of exploited fishes in China's coastal seas and their
           uses for yield-per-recruit analyses
    • Authors: C. Liang; D. Pauly
      Abstract: Given the scarcity of information suitable for other forms of fish stock assessments, the growth, and mortality of 10 important marine exploited fishes in China's coastal seas were estimated, based on published length-frequency data and the ELEFAN approach and software. The resulting parameters, complemented with growth curves from FishBase were then used for yield-per-recruit analyses. These 10 species were both traditional commercial species (Trichiurus lepturus, Larimichthys polyactis, Scomber japonicus) and less commercial interest species (Coilia nasus, Engraulis japonicus, Decapterus maruadsi, Psenopsis anomala, Coilia mystus, Setipinna tenuifilis, Harpadon nehereus). The yield-per-recruit analyses indicated that the fishing mortality experienced by these 10 fish species was very high, especially in view of the extremely small cod-end mesh sizes deployed by Chinese trawlers, of about 10 mm or less (vs. 25 mm as minimum legal size). More precisely, all 10 species suffered from growth overfishing, which was very pronounced in large species. Indeed, enlarging cod-end mesh size, by increasing mean sizes at first capture, would increase yield-per-recruit for all 10 fish species by a factor of up to 2.5. Obviously, such increases in mesh size would have to be in tandem with other management measures designed to ensure the sustainability of China's marine fisheries resources.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T00:05:41.534645-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13379
       
  • Natural stranding of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill,
           1815) in Scot's Bay, Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, from populations of
           concern in the United States and Canada
    • Authors: N. D. Stewart; Y. Cormier, L. M. Logan-Chesney, G. Gibson, I. Wirgin, M. J. Dadswell, M. J. W. Stokesbury
      Abstract: Natural mortality of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) has been determined to be low (M = 0.07). Reported herein is the mortality by beach stranding of 11 Atlantic sturgeon in Scot's Bay, part of the inner Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, Canada on 22 June 2014. Genetic analyses, histological analysis and age determination were performed to determine origin, maturity stage and age of the stranded Atlantic sturgeon. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that four of the Atlantic sturgeon (2 males and 2 females) were from the Saint John River, NB population, which was designated as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Seven Atlantic sturgeon (1 male, 5 females, 1 unknown) were from the Kennebec River, Maine population, that was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the U. S. Ageing of A. oxyrinchus Atlantic sturgeon by pectoral fin spine analysis determined that the mean age of the individuals from the Saint John River (x̄ = 24.25 years, SD = 5.0) and the Kennebec River (x̄ = 22.7 years, SD = 3.5) were not significantly different. This is the first report of a stranding event of Atlantic sturgeon, and describes a source of natural mortality affecting populations of concern in both Canada and the U. S.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T00:05:38.134225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13371
       
  • First occurrence of the oceanic puffer, Lagocephalus lagocephalus
           (Linnaeus, 1758) in Iskenderun Bay, north-eastern Mediterranean, Turkey
    • Authors: D. Erguden; M. Gurlek, C. Turan
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T00:05:36.212248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13363
       
  • Length–weight relationships for two loach species, Sinibotia
           superciliaris (Günther, 1892) and Sinibotia reevesae (Chang, 1944)
           collected from the Tuojiang River, China
    • Authors: Z.-Y. Wen; C.-J. Qin, B.-W. Xie, D.-Y. Yuan, R. Li, Y.-C. Zou
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships were determined for two loach species, Sinibotia superciliaris (Günther, 1892) and Sinibotia reevesae (Chang, 1944). Samples were collected with gill nets (30 × 15 m, mesh-size 1.5 cm) and fish cages (mesh-size 0.5 cm) as well as by electroshock (CWB-2000 P, 12 V, 250 HZ) between May 2013 and June 2015 from the Tuojiang River in southwest China. It is believed that the size range covered is close to a commonly known size range of each species. The length–weight relationship values of b were determined as 3.105 for S. superciliaris and 3.381 for S. reevesae. The data will be helpful in further research regarding these species in the upper Yangtze River Basin.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T00:05:26.171367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13393
       
  • Characteristics of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817 in
           a tributary of Lake Michigan, USA: Status of the Muskegon River population
           
    • Authors: B. S. Harris; C. R. Ruetz, A. C. Wieten, M. E. Altenritter, K. M. Smith
      Abstract: The overall goal of this study was to characterize the age, growth, condition, and total catch of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in a remnant population associated with a Lake Michigan, USA tributary. Lake sturgeon were captured (2008–2013) using large-mesh (25.4 and 30.5 cm) and small-mesh (6.4 and 7.6 cm) gill netting in Muskegon Lake (which connects the Muskegon River to Lake Michigan), and adults were captured with boat electrofishing in the Muskegon River. A total of 268 unique lake sturgeon (24.8–191.0 cm total length;
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:17:26.020411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13365
       
  • Discards in bottom-trawl fishery in the western Black Sea (Turkey)
    • Authors: T. Yıldız; F. S. Karakulak
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the discards of target and non-target species from bottom trawlers (rhombic and 40 mm cod end mesh size nets) in the Black Sea. On-board sampling was conducted on the southwestern coasts of the Black Sea in the fishing ports of Rumelifeneri and Igneada for a total of 66 hauls on two commercial bottom trawlers from October 2012 to April 2013 and from October 2013 to April 2014. A total of 32 species were captured, including 25 species of fish, three crustacea, two echinodermata and two mollusca. Mullus barbatus and Merlangius merlangus euxinus were the target species, whereas 24 species were always discarded. Scophthalmus maximus and Pomatomus saltatrix were always retained. The two regions were similar in terms of catch and discard compositions, CPUE, DPUE and discard ratio. Discarding is important in the Black Sea commercial bottom trawl fishery and accounts for as much as 31.4% of the total bottom trawl catch. The results showed that the discard rates varied among species, depths (p = .04) and seasons (p = .0001). Finally, it was concluded that in the western Black Sea, when the impacts of depth and season are considered, that the discard quantity can be reduced.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:17:10.130717-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13362
       
  • Length–weight relationships of nine fish species from the Tongjiang
           section of the Songhua River, China
    • Authors: T. B. Huo; M. Y. Yuan, J. L. Wang, P. L. Li, W. Liu, X. C. Wu
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships were evaluated for nine fish species from the Tongjiang section of the Songhua River in China. A total of 675 fish specimens were collected from 4 May to 29 October 2014. Length–weight relationships for six fish species (Romanogobio tenuicorpus, Leuciscus waleckii, Opsariichthys bidens, Microphysogobio amurensis, Pelteobagrus ussuriensis and Misgurnus mohoity) were new to FishBase in 2015, but the length–weight relationships of P. ussuriensis was studied by Ma in 2015. New data on M. mohoity is offered, and this study also shows new maximum total lengths for three fish species. The r2 values ranged from .95 to .99. Values of b varied from 2.504 to 3.471.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:16:54.234966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13373
       
  • Koi herpesvirus infection in experimentally infected common carp Cyprinus
           carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) and three potential carrier fish species Carassius
           carassius (Linnaeus, 1758); Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758); and Tinca
           tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) by quantitative real-time PCR and in-situ
           hybridization
    • Authors: L. Gaede; J. Steinbrück, S. M. Bergmann, K. Jäger, H. Gräfe, H. A. Schoon, S. Speck, U. Truyen
      Abstract: Only single cells in the carrier fish species Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) for koi herpesvirus (KHV) are infected in contrast to large numbers in the susceptible species common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus 1758). Several species of the family Cyprinidae have been described as virus carrier species, showing no clinical signs of a KHV disease but able to transmit the virus to other susceptible fish. In this study, 72 common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758), 36 tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758), 36 crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) and 36 common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758) were experimentally infected with KHV (isolate “Israel”) by immersion and kept at 20°C. The fish were euthanized at 12 timepoints over a period of 90 days and virus DNA was quantified in tissues by a real-time TaqMan PCR. Whereas KHV-DNA was found in Cyprinus carpio for up to 90 days, the virus DNA was detectable only in single individuals of Rutilus rutilus, Tinca tinca and Carassius carassius for up to 25 days after experimental virus exposure. Tissue samples of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius were screened by in-situ hybridization. Positive signals were found in various organs of the common carp tested crucian carp. In the latter species a much smaller number of virus-positive stained cells was detected compared to the infected carp.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:26:16.818707-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13368
       
  • Seasonal variability of gillnet selectivity in Chilean hake Merluccius
           gayi gayi (Guichenot, 1848)
    • Authors: D. Queirolo; A. Flores
      Abstract: This study examines the seasonal variability in gillnet size selectivity for the main Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi) fishery off the coast of central Chile. Selectivity estimates were based on five gillnet mesh sizes (50, 60, 70, 80, 90 mm) in four traditional fishing areas, and during periods of low and high reproductive activity. Average fish length caught in the earlier period (low reproductive activity) was 30.8 cm LT (±4.17), and significantly longer (p  .05). For females, however, both the selectivity factor and the estimated modal lengths changed significantly depending on the time of year (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:26:14.953916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13336
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of four native fish
           species from the Yalong River, China
    • Authors: B. S. Ma; B. Xu, K. J. Wei, L. J. Deng, W. X. Gan, X. Y. Zhu, Y. H. Yao
      Abstract: Length-weight and length-length relationships were estimated for four native fish species from the Yalong River and its tributaries, China. A total of 976 specimens were collected monthly using trap nets and electric fishing in May 2013 and July 2015 to February 2016. This study presents the first references on LWRs (length–weight relationships) and LLRs (length–length relationships) for three species (Gymnocypris firmispinatus, Paracobitis variegatus and Euchiloglanis kishinouyei). Moreover, maturation length, absolute fecundity and predominant food items for the four species were also described in the study.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:26:07.282873-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13359
       
  • Leiomyosarcoma in pickhandle barracuda, Sphyraena jello Cuvier, 1829
    • Authors: V. Singaravel; A. Gopalakrishnan, K. Raja, R. Vijayakumar
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:21:10.551158-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13366
       
  • First record of Maccallumtrema xiphiados and the Philichthys xiphiae in
           the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Baja
           California Sur, Mexico
    • Authors: S. Ortega-García; S. Hernández-Trujillo
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:21:02.449584-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13364
       
  • Length–weight relationships of four small indigenous fish species from
           an inland artisanal fishery, Bangladesh
    • Authors: M. A. Islam; M. A. B. Siddik, M. A. Hanif, M. R. Chaklader, A. Nahar, I. Ilham
      Abstract: This study reports the length–weight relationships (LWRs) of four small indigenous species, Trichogaster lalius (Hamilton, 1822), Nandus meni (Hossain & Sarker, 2013), Lepidocephalichthys annandalei (Chaudhuri, 1912) and Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822) collected between July 2015 and August 2016 from fishermen's catches landed in an inland fish landing center, northeastern Bangladesh. In the study, a new maximum total length (TL) is given for L. annandalei and LWRs of three species T. lalius, N. meni and L. annandalei for the first time in FishBase. Estimated LWRs were W = .014 TL3.17, (r2 = .982) for T. lalius, W = .006 TL3.38, (r2 = .961) for N. meni, W = .004 TL3.27, (r2 = .965) for L. annandalei and W = .020 TL2.87, (r2 = .978) for B. dario.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:20:59.473727-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13374
       
  • Survival, growth and physiological responses of juvenile Japanese flounder
           (Paralichthys olivaceus, Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) exposed to different
           dissolved oxygen concentrations and stocking densities
    • Authors: H.-Y. Guo; X.-Y. Dong, X.-M. Zhang, P.-D. Zhang, W.-T. Li
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine to what extent juvenile Japanese flounder can adapt to different stocking densities in captivity and to examine whether growth and some physiological parameters critical for welfare might be affected by different dissolved oxygen levels. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) juveniles (initial weight 1.27 ± 0.04 g/fish) were reared at five stocking densities (500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500 ind/m3) and two levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (5.5 ± 0.5 mg/L or 14 ± 2 mg/L) with duplicate tanks for each treatment in water-recirculating systems for 40 days. Survival and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were not affected either by stocking density or dissolved oxygen, whereas final body weight, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of fish under low DO concentration decreased significantly with increasing stocking density. In contrast, growth of fish reared in high DO levels were unaffected by the stocking density. Furthermore, fish in this group had a higher feed intake and, consequently, grew faster (SGR) and achieved a higher final weight than fish reared at the low DO level. A significant reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and red blood cell (RBC) count of fish were recorded as DO concentration increased. Furthermore, the activity of protease decreased significantly with increasing stocking density and increased significantly with increasing DO concentration. The ventilation frequency results indicate that gill ventilation decreased significantly as DO levels increased. This study demonstrates that stocking density can affect the growth performance and physiological parameters critical for welfare of juvenile Japanese flounder. Also shown is that pure oxygen supplementation is an effective way to improve the growth of juvenile Japanese flounder when reared at a high stocking density.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:20:58.478838-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13369
       
  • Trophic ecology of two syntopic sciaenid species (Micropogonias furnieri
           (Desmarest, 1823) and Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus) (Metzelaar, 1919) in a
           tropical bay in south-eastern Brazil
    • Authors: M. M. Martins; H. S. Mendonça, S. S. Rodrigues, F. G. Araújo
      Abstract: Analyzed were the diets of two closely related species of Sciaenidae (Micropogonias furnieri and Ctenosciena gracilicirrhus) coexisting in high abundance in the outer zone of Sepetiba Bay. Their sizes and seasonal niche dimensions were also analysed. The tested hypothesis was that these two abundant species do not overlap in the trophic niche despite occurring in the same area and having similar sizes and body shapes and where an intraspecific overlap is likely to occur. The stomach contents of 198 M. furnieri specimens (85–280 mm total length) and 198 C. gracilicirrhus (49–131 mm total length) were examined. Quarterly diurnal fish samplings were performed using bottom trawls between winter 2012 and autumn 2013. In each season, three replicate tows were taken against the current during 20 min at the bottom with a towing speed of circa 4.5 km/hr, covering a distance of approximately 1,500 m. The trawl had an 8 m headline, 11 m ground rope, 25 mm stretched mesh and 12 mm mesh cod-end liner. Significant differences were detected in the diet between the two species (Pseudo-F = 5.16; p = .001) and among size classes (Pseudo-F = 2.23; p = .001), but not among seasons (Pseudo-F = 0.36; p = .920), according to PERMANOVA. Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on Polychaeta and Caprella, whereas C. gracilicirrhus fed preferably on Caprella. Both species tended to specialize as they grew in size, with M. furnieri preferring Polychaeta, and C. gracilicirrhus specializing in Caprella. As expected, a high intraspecific niche overlap was observed among the size classes within each species, but not at an interspecific level and with the two syntopic species using different feeding resources.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:20:55.415965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13360
       
  • Length–weight relationships of two sympatric species (Knipowitschia
           byblisia Ahnelt, 2011 and K. caunosi Ahnelt, 2011) in Köycegiz Lake,
           Turkey
    • Authors: D. Innal; D. Giannetto
      Abstract: This study provides basic information on length–weight relationships for Knipowitschia byblisia Ahnelt, 2011 and Knipowitschia caunosi Ahnelt, 2011, two endemic species of Köycegiz Lake Basin (Southern-West of Turkey). Samplings were carried out seasonally from 2014 to 2015 by means of beach seine nets with mesh sizes from 10 to 35 mm. A total of 343 individuals from the two fish species were examined, with more specimens belonging to K. byblisa (90.4%). The total length–weight relationships were calculated as: W = 0.0054 TL3.384for K. byblisia and W = 0.0058 TL3.417for K. caunosi, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:20:52.519123-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13376
       
  • Growth performance and metabolic response of juvenile grouper Epinephelus
           moara (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842) fed low dietary protein and high lipid
           levels
    • Authors: S. M. Peng; C. J. Zhang, Q. X. Gao, Z. H. Shi, C. Chen, J. G. Wang
      Abstract: Nine test diets were formulated at three low levels of crude protein (P; 35%, 40% or 45%) and three high levels of crude lipid (L; 9%, 12% or 15%) to investigate whether Epinephelus moara differs in the nutrient requirements from any of the other closely-related grouper species, and if there are any indications that a further decrease in protein with increasing dietary lipid would induce a higher protein-sparing effect. Fish (20.34 ± 0.82 g/ind) were distributed among 27 experimental cages (100 cm diameter, 80 cm depth), with 20 fish per cage and three replicates for each test diet. The experiment was conducted over an 8-week period at a temperature of 23.9–25.7°C. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) tended to increase either with an increase in dietary protein level (at the same lipid level) or with the increase in dietary lipid level (at the same protein level, except at the 45% protein level). The highest weight gain and SGR occurred in fish fed the diet P45/L12. The serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) contents in fish were significantly increased as the dietary lipid increased. The increase of dietary protein significantly decreased the activities of serum and hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity significantly increased with the decrease of dietary protein and lipid levels (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:20:51.473848-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13361
       
  • Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the design of
           management and conservation strategies of the critically endangered
           Barrens topminnow (Fundulus julisia, Williams & Etnier, 1982)
    • Authors: C. Hurt; A. Harman
      Abstract: The decline of the Barrens topminnow (Fundulus julisia), a small schooling fish endemic to the Barrens Plateau region of Middle Tennessee, is one of the most dramatic cases of species imperilment in eastern North America. Loss of undisturbed habitat, coupled with the introduction of the invasive Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) has led to the extirpation of 12 out of 14 natural populations since the 1980s. Identified is a set of 14 microsatellite loci to improve conservation and management strategies for the species. Four loci were cross-amplified using primers designed for congeneric taxa and 10 loci were developed from whole genome Illumina sequencing. Initial surveys in two populations suggest significant structuring of genetic variation and differing levels of heterozygosity among populations. These markers will contribute valuable information to ongoing conservation and management efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:20:47.876142-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13370
       
  • Length–weight relationships of three fish species in the East China
           Sea
    • Authors: Q. Wang; C. Y. Sha, J. Q. Zhang, D. F. Zhang
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships were determined for three fish species (Acanthopagrus latus Houttuyn, 1782; Acentrogobius caninus Valenciennes, 1837; and Nematalosa japonica Regan, 1917). Samples were collected from the East China Sea (N 27.306020, E 120.918026), from May to July in 2015–2016. Samples were collected using commercial trawls (5 cm main trawl and 3 cm codend mesh). Length–weight relationships for these three species were determined for the first time.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:20:46.153674-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13375
       
  • Effects of dietary amino acid l-lysine on survival, growth and
           haemato-biochemical parameters in Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis
           (Bloch, 1974), fingerlings
    • Authors: I. Ahmed
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to estimate the dietary lysine requirement of fingerling Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (total length = 6.35 ± 1.10 cm; weight = 4.70 ± 0.65 g) by feeding six isonitrogenous (400 g/kg CP) and isocaloric diets (17.90 kJ/g) containing six supplemental lysine levels ranging from 11.0 to 23.5 g/kg (diets I to VI, in incremental steps of 2.5 g/kg). Triplicate groups with 20 fish each were stocked in 75-L circular continuous flow-through troughs and fed experimental diets at 4% BW/day twice daily (08:00 and 18:00 h). Maximum live weight gain (304%), best-feed conversion ratio (FCR, 1.46) and protein efficiency ratio (PER, 1.71) were obtained at 18.5 g/kg dietary lysine, beyond which these values showed a slight declining tendency. Best values for somatic and hematological indices were also obtained at this level. Significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:44:04.691529-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13355
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 12 indigenous fish species in the Gajner
           Beel floodplain (NW Bangladesh)
    • Authors: M. Y. Hossain; M. A. Hossen, Z. F. Ahmed, M. A. Hossain, M. N. U. Pramanik, F. Nawer, A. K. Paul, D. Khatun, N. Haque, M. A. Islam
      Abstract: The length–weight relationships (LWRs) were studied for 814 individuals covering eight families and 12 species of fish, e.g., Botia dario, Botia lohachata, Channa orientalis, Esomus danricus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Macrognathus pancalus, Nandus nandus, Ompok pabda, Pethia phutunio, Pethia ticto, Trichogaster fasciata and Trichogaster lalius captured from the Gajner beel floodplain, northwestern (NW) Bangladesh. Samples were collected occasionally from catches of fishermen from November 2014 to October 2015 using different types of traditional fishing gear, including gill net (mesh size ranges from 1.0 to 3.0 cm), cast net (mesh size ranges from 1.0 to 2.0 cm), square lift net (mesh size ~1.0 cm) and conical and box trap. The total length (TL) and body weight (BW) were measured for each individual. The allometric co-efficient b values ranged between 2.64 (B. lohachata) to 3.27 (N. nandus) and were highly significant, with p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:44:03.205272-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13354
       
  • Fatty acid profiles of Trachinus radiatus Cuvier, 1829
           (Perciformes-Trachinoidei, Trachinidae)
    • Authors: D. Đikić; I. Landeka, D. Franjević, D. Skaramuca, R. Fuchs, S. Matić Skoko, P. Tutman, I. Lukić, B. Skaramuca
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to analyse the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the streaked (starry) weever (Trachinus radiatus), a prized food fish in the countries of its distribution. Fish (N = 20) were sampled in July 2011. Location: 42.761019°N, 17.765090°W; Adriatic Sea, Elaphite Islands near Dubrovnik, Croatia, at 5–10 m depth using longline hooks; body length ranges: 24.1–47.2 cm, weight ranges: 120–960 g. Morphological species determination was genetically confirmed (Folmer region of COI gene). Biochemical analysis of T. radiatus muscular tissue (filet) revealed average ± SD dry matter of 252.3 ± 14.8 g/kg w.w.; moisture of 747.7 ± 14.8 g/kg w.w., and ash of 28.0 ± 6.9 g/kg w.w. Intramuscular crude protein content exceeded the total lipid (TL = 11.9 ± 4.0 g/kg w.w.) content approximately 17.7 fold. Unsaturated FA (UFA) was higher than saturated FA (SFA), with a predominance of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). The ω3:ω6 ratio was 4.9:1, respectively. Among individually determined fatty acids, the PUFA 22:6n3 (DHA) was highly present (29.99 ± 2.75% TL) followed by a relatively high 20:5n3 (EPA) content. There was 25 fold higher EPA content than of substrate αLNA, and a 15.5 fold higher DHA content to DPAn3. Such ratios indicate that besides trophic ingestion, FA bioconversion elongase/desaturase synthesis pathways toward ω3 PUFA in Weevers could be highly efficient.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:43:59.169476-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13356
       
  • Length–weight relationships of eight Asian freshwater fish species in
           Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Laos PDR)
    • Authors: A. Tessier; J. Guillard, V. Chanudet, M. Cottet
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) were determined for eight Asian freshwater fish species that were not yet recorded in any peer-reviewed journal indexed in the Web of Science or the FishBase database. Fish specimens from Nam Theun 2 reservoir in Lao PDR, were collected from April 2012 to August 2016 using several methods to cover a large size-spectrum for each species. For LWRs using the general equation from Beckman (1948), the parameter b (slope value on the growth pattern) ranges from 2.908 (Puntius brevis) to 3.429 (Rasbora paviana). This study provides an update in maximum lengths for two species and first LWRs for eight common freshwater species found mainly in reservoirs, and thus represents a means for further population dynamic evolution analyses and local fisheries management.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T01:30:51.076561-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13341
       
  • Length-weight relationships of four sharks caught in the Northern Persian
           Gulf and Oman Sea
    • Authors: H. Raeisi; E. Kamrani, R. Patimar, I. Sourinejad, S. Haghparast, B. Rahnema
      Abstract: The length–weight relationships (LWRs) for four little-known shark species collected in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea from March 2014 to September 2015 are presented, namely: Carcharhinus dussumieri, Carcharhinus macloti, Chiloscyllium arabicum, and Chaenogaleus macrostoma.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T01:25:50.239666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13272
       
  • Back-calculating growth at age from scale readings for Squalius microlepis
           Heckel, 1843 and Scardinius plotizza Heckel & Kner, 1858 in the Neretva
           River basin (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
    • Authors: P. Ivanković; T. Treer, T. Tomljanović, Z. Knezović, S. Salaj
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T07:15:49.016296-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13349
       
  • Length–weight relationships of six coral reef-fish species from Chuuk,
           Federated States of Micronesia
    • Authors: J. Cuetos-Bueno; D. Hernandez-Ortiz
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for six reef species in Chuuk lagoon (Federated States of Micronesia) captured by commercial fishers. Specimens were sampled opportunistically over a period of 2 months between July and September 2014. Relationships include those for four common species not currently reported in FishBase (Caesio teres, Myripristis adusta, Lethrinus erythracanthus, and Chlorurus frontalis), and for two species with relationships based on just one or two samples (Scarus oviceps, and Plectropomus oligacanthus). While estimates for some species are tentative given limited size-range sampling, they still present an improvement in the currently available LWRs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T07:15:46.322564-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13339
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of three Clupeonella
           species (Clupeidae) from the Caspian Sea
    • Authors: M. S. Alavi-Yeganeh; A. Vahedian, B. Bakhshaei, G. Bahmani
      Abstract: This study investigated length–weight and length–length relationships of three Clupeonella species: C. caspia, C. engrauliformis and C. grimmi captured in the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Using a lantern net, 206 specimens were collected from July to August 2016. Presented for two of the species are the length–weight and the length–length relationships as well as the first reference on length–weight and length–length relationships for C. caspia in its distribution range.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:53.361318-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13344
       
  • Occurrence of Nemipterus randalli Russell, 1986 (Nemipteridae) off Izmir
           Bay, Turkey
    • Authors: İ. Aydın; O. Akyol
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:50.926004-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13331
       
  • Length–weight relationship of six indigenous fish species from Deepor
           beel, a Ramsar site in Assam, India
    • Authors: S. Borah; B. K. Bhattacharjya, B. J. Saud, A. K. Yadav, D. Debnath, S. Yengkokpam, P. Das, N. Sharma, N. S. Singh, K. K. Sarma
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships for six small indigenous fish species, namely: Trichogaster chuna (Hamilton, 1822), Trichogaster lalius (Hamilton, 1822), Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider, 1801, Chanda nama Hamilton, 1822, Parambassis lala (Hamilton, 1822), and Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were studied for the first time from Deepor beel, a Ramsar site (589 ha water spread area) located in Assam, India. A total of 617 fish specimens were collected for the present study on a monthly basis from February to August in 2016 from landing centres adjoining the beel. In the present study, b value ranges from 2.778 to 3.215, which is within the normal range. The LWRs for these six fish species from Deepor beel had not yet been reported for FishBase.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:49.938011-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13348
       
  • Sympatric and syntopic occurrence of cownose rays: Neonatal strategies for
           survival'
    • Authors: B. Sousa Rangel; V. Paes da Cruz, A. Rodrigues, M. L. Góes de Araujo, C. Oliveira, F. Foresti, R. Guimarães Moreira
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:49.030979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13343
       
  • The effects of dietary Betaplus® and TechnoMos® on growth performance,
           blood parameters, and intestinal microflora in juvenile kutum, Rutilus
           kutum (Kamensky, 1901)
    • Authors: A. K. Amirkolaie; S. Karimzadeh, S. P. Miandehy
      Abstract: The main goal of the current study was to assess the combined effects of a dietary probiotic Betaplus and prebiotic TechnoMos on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and intestinal microflora in juvenile Rutilus kutum. Four experimental diets were prepared with the addition of Betaplus and/or TechnoMos to a basal diet for R. kutum juveniles. The diets were randomly assigned to one of 12 tanks, with three replications per diet. The results showed that supplementation of both pro- and prebiotic, separately or in combination, improved fish growth parameters (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:47.465503-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13322
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of eight fish species
           from Bohai Bay, China
    • Authors: H.-L. Xu; D.-X. Gu, R. Wang, J.-H. Sun, D.-Q. Bai
      Abstract: Length–weight and length–length relationships (LWRs and LLRs) for eight fish species collected quarterly by trawl net in Bohai Bay, China, were estimated in a total of 1,395 specimens from 2012 to 2015. These were Pholis fangi, Setipinna taty, Engraulis japonicus, Larimichthys polyactis, Thryssa kammalensis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Johnius grypotus and Sardinella zunasi. The LWRs for the last two fish species are first reports for FishBase.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:46.046266-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13337
       
  • Occurrence of rare deep-water fish Sudis hyalina Rafinesque, 1810
           (Paralepididae) in Gökova Bay, Aegean Sea of Turkey
    • Authors: D. Türker; A. Kara, H. Bal, Ö. K. Tünay
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:45.150664-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13332
       
  • Salinity-induced changes to the survival, growth and glycogen distribution
           in the early fry stages of silver barb, Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker,
           1850)
    • Authors: N. Romano; F. Syukri, A. Karami, N. Omar, N. Khalid
      Abstract: Five-week-old silver barb, Barbodes gonionotus, fry (initial length = 10 mm) were subjected to different salinities of 0, 3, 6 or 9 ppt for 17 days, to then assess their survival and growth. Whole body histological sections were stained with Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS). Groups of 15 fish were triplicated in each treatment with an ambient temperature (26–28°C). Results showed that growth and condition factor significantly decreased and increased (p  .05), between 0 and 6 ppt (at 98% and 87%, respectively), the decrease was significant at 9 ppt (22%). In addition, the fry at 9 ppt had fewer gill mucous cells as well as reduced PAS positive staining intensity within the liver and intestine. This suggests energy was becoming exhausted, leading to mortalities and lower growth. Silver barb early fry were relatively sensitive to elevated salinity, which was likely due to their young age, but short-term exposure to 3–6 ppt can be used to decrease potential freshwater diseases in the early nursery culture.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:42.437748-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13338
       
  • Do young on-grown eels, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), outperform
           glass eels after transition to a natural prey diet'
    • Authors: J. Dainys; H. Gorfine, E. Šidagytė, E. Jakubavičiūtė, M. Kirka, Ž. Pūtys, L. Ložys
      Abstract: Survival rates among European eels, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), on-grown using a formulated diet in a commercial aquaculture facility, were compared with glass eels from the same cohort following their transition to a natural prey diet in the laboratory. Treatments included zero, 42-day, and 196-day periods of grow-out prior to 30-day experimental periods when eels were fed Chironomus spp. larvae (10 tanks, each containing 240-L water and 40 glass or 10 on-growing eels; 12:12 hr photoperiod; water temperature 18°C). All glass eels survived, compared to 87% (42-day) and 99% (196-day) for on-grown eels. Although the eels on-grown for 196 days had a high survival rate, they did lose weight. Farm-reared eels may have accumulated sufficient resources over the 196-days to survive the first 30 days after weaning from a formulated diet, but not for an additional 30 days (84% survival). Lack of superior survival rates among on-grown eels challenges the presumed benefits of releasing on-grown eels for population restoration.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:33.824549-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13347
       
  • New maximum size records and length–weight relationships for two
           species, Corica soborna (Hamilton, 1822) and Mystus bleekeri (Day, 1877),
           from the Ganges River (NW Bangladesh)
    • Authors: M. Y. Hossain; M. A. Hossen, F. Nawer, D. Khatun, M. N. U. Pramanik, M. F. Parvin, K. Yahya
      Abstract: This study records new maximum lengths and provides length–weight relationships (LWRs) for two small indigenous fishes, Corica soborna (Hamilton, 1822) and Mystus bleekeri (Day, 1877), from the Ganges River in northwestern Bangladesh. Fishes were sampled sporadically using gill nets and cast nets from August 2015 to July 2016. New maximum recorded lengths weere 5.3 cm total length (TL) for C. soborna and 17.7 cm TL for M. bleekeri. The LWRs were highly significant (p .958. These findings will play a significant role in the fisheries resource management.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:31.036829-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13342
       
  • Combination of dietary β-glucan and Bacillus subtilis as a potential
           synbiotic for pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887)
    • Authors: B. S. Cerozi; R. B. Zanon, T. S. C. Silva, J. E. P. Cyrino
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:29.064582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13340
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships for six commercial
           fishes from southern Korean waters
    • Authors: S. H. Huh; J. M. Jeong, J. M. Park
      Abstract: Presented are the relationships between total length and weight, and between total length and standard length for six commercial fishes collected twice a month from local fish markets in southern Korea between 2005–2006 for Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker, 1854), Hexagrammos agrammus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843) and Hexagrammos otakii (Jordan & Starks, 1895), and monthly in 2004 for Dentex tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843), Doederleinia berycoides (Hilgendorf, 1879) and Scomberomorus niphonius (Cuvier, 1832). The LWR for D. tumifrons is estimated for the first time, and a new maximum length was recorded for S. niphonius. All total length and weight relationships were significant (all r2 > .953). The values of exponent b, estimated using simple linear least squares of log-transformed weight and length data, ranged from 2.945 to 3.317.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:27.704507-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13345
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 18 fish species from Paraíba do Sul
           basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    • Authors: T. M. S. Freitas; G. M. Dutra, G. N. Salvador
      Abstract: The present study established the length–weight relationships (LWRs) for 18 species of freshwater fish from Paraíba do Sul River basin, southeastern Brazil. LWR parameters are estimated for the first time for seven of these species. The allometric coefficient b varied from 2.81 to 3.32. These data complement the effort to understand the biology of one of the most threatened Brazilian basins.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T01:40:25.533054-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13346
       
  • Buccal swab: A tissue sampling method for refinement of experimental
           procedures involving rainbow trout
    • Authors: S. Colussi; V. Campia, M. Righetti, T. Scanzio, M. V. Riina, E. A. V. Burioli, C. Foglini, F. Ingravalle, M. Prearo, P. L. Acutis
      Abstract: Buccal swabbing is a minimally invasive method to obtain DNA and biological material from humans and animals, including fish. Reports on buccal swabbing in fish are few and only for a limited number of species. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is an important animal model and because the yield of DNA may vary among and within different species in individuals of different sizes, it was selected as useful to optimize the buccal DNA collection in this species. Different storage methods were evaluated, aimed at DNA preservation by limiting DNA degradation and bacterial growth, using commonly available and inexpensive reagents. DNA quality was also tested by amplification of a single-copy nuclear gene and a mitochondrial gene. The results suggest that ethanol is the best storage choice for buccal swab sampling in fish genetic studies, as well as suitable for small-bodied rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T02:20:45.25244-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13324
       
  • Diet, feeding patterns, and prey selection of subyearling Atlantic salmon
           (Salmo salar) and subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in
           a tributary of Lake Ontario
    • Authors: J. H. Johnson; K. J. Nash, R. A. Chiavelli, J. A. DiRado, G. E. Mackey, J. R. Knight, A. R. Diaz
      Abstract: Since juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) occupy a similar habitat in Lake Ontario tributaries, we sought to determine the degree of diet similarity between these species in order to assess the potential for interspecific competition. Atlantic salmon, an historically important but currently extirpated component of the Lake Ontario fish community, are the focus of a bi-national restoration effort. Presently this effort includes the release of hatchery produced juvenile Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries. These same tributaries support substantial numbers of naturally reproduced juvenile Pacific salmonids including Chinook salmon. Subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling Chinook salmon had significantly different diets during each of the three time periods examined. Atlantic salmon fed slightly more from the benthos than from the drift and consumed mainly chirononmids (47.0%) and ephemeropterans (21.1%). The diet of subyearling Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the drift and consisted mainly of chironomids (60.2%) and terrestrial invertebrates (16.0%). Low diet similarity between subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling Chinook salmon likely minimizes competitive interactions for food between these species in Lake Ontario tributaries. However, the availability of small prey such as chironomids which comprise over 50% of the diet of each species, soon after emergence, could constitute a short term resource limitation. To our knowledge this is the first study of interspecific diet associations between these two important salmonid species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T02:20:41.48794-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13335
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of 16 fish species from
           Amapá, Brazilian Amazon
    • Abstract: The present study provides length-weight (LWR) and total length-standard length (LLR) relationships for 16 freshwater fish species collected in coastal rivers of the northern Brazilian, state of Amapá in 2015. Fishes were caught in heterogenic environments like ponds, stream and river channel with sieve and trawl. As result, we present novel information of LWR and LLR for 11 and 15 species, respectively. Maximum values (first values or new maximum values) of TL, SL and WT are presented for 14, 12 and 15 species, respectively.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of five fish species from Carangidae family
           in waters of the northern Persian Gulf, Iran
    • Abstract: This research describes and presents some biological aspects of five fish species from carangidae family including: Alepes djedaba, Ulua mentalis, Alectis indica, Carangoides coeruleopinnatus, and Carangoides bajad in the Iranian waters of the northern Persian Gulf (Hormozgan Province, Iran). Samples were collected from April to September 2016. The fishing gears were gill nets (80, 100, 120 and 145 mm stretched mesh size), bottom and midwater trawls (30, 40 and 75 mm stretched mesh size in cod-end) of local and commercial fishery. The b values of length–weight relationships ranged from 2.512 (95% CL = 0.054) for U. mentalis to 2.953 (95% CL = 0.155) for C. coeruleopinnatus and the correlation coefficient values (r2) were high for all species.
       
  • Population genetics of wild Siniperca knerii Garman, 1912 in China as
           evaluated by microsatellites
    • Abstract: The Chinese perch Siniperca knerii Garman, 1912 is an endemic perciform freshwater fish species mainly distributed in the Yangtze River and the Pearl River of China. To evaluate their genetic diversity in these rivers, microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic structure and genetic variability among nine wild populations of S. knerii. In this study, the 12 loci used were polymorphic, with observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranging from 0.4079 to 0.8886 and polymorphism information content (PIC) ranging from 0.4511 to 0.7146. Results showed that six populations from the Yangtze River had a higher genetic diversity than those from the three Pearl River populations. The Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis recovered genetic clusters that matched localities perfectly or the kind of ecology environment with a significant Fst between them. The findings of this research should provide useful information for management and conservation of S. knerii stocks.
       
  • Length–weight relationship of 12 fish species from the Lhasa River and
           surrounding area in Tibet, China
    • Abstract: Presented are the relationship between standard length (SL) and weight (W) for 12 fish species in Tibet, China, representing three families and six genera from the Lhasa River. All fish samples were collected by either electro-shocker (12 V, 200 Hz), fish cages (mouth opening: 40 × 40 cm2, 5 m), or drift gillnets (3 × 1.5 m; mesh-size: 3 cm to 8 cm) from different areas in the Lhasa River Basin, August and September 2015. Parameter b ranged from 2.88 to 3.29, and all correlation coefficient (r2) values were higher than 0.95. Length–weight relationships (LWRs) for three of the species as well as one maximum length are first reports for FishBase.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of seven myctophid fishes (Myctophiformes:
           myctophidae) in the South China Sea
    • Abstract: The study included 546 specimens of seven myctophid fish species from the South China Sea (captured during June 2015 by bottom and mid-water trawls). Length-weight relationships (LWRs), W = aLb, were estimated using standard length. The species belong to four genera. The values for the parameter a ranged from 0.006 to 0.022, while the b values ranged from 2.710 to 3.476 (Range of r2 values: .938 to .971). According to FishBase, this study presents the first LWRs for these species, including two maximum standard lengths for Diaphus chrysorhynchus and Notoscopelus resplendens.
       
  • Geographic variations of the mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra (Liu, 1932)
           (Rajidae) in the Yellow and East seas based on molecular and morphometric
           data
    • Abstract: In order to prove the fisheries-related hypothesis of the presence of two local populations of the mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra in the Yellow Sea (Sensu Jo et al., ), the geographic variations of 90 individuals (in molecule) and 129 individuals (in morphology) were investigated. The skates were collected from the middle Yellow Sea (Daechungdo), southern Yellow Sea (Heuksando), and the middle East Sea (Ulleungdo) using gill nets, bottom trawls and longlines. Comparing 471 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) sequences, only three haplotypes (BR1–BR3) were found. The Daechungdo and Heuksando individuals displayed all three haplotypes, whereas the Ulleungdo individuals displayed a single haplotype (BR3). Pairwise fixation indices (FST) showed that the Daechungdo and Heuksando individuals were not genetically distinguishable (with a value of −0.0344), whereas the Ulleungdo individuals were clearly distinct from both the Daechungdo and Heuksando individuals (with values of 0.6875 and 0.6871, respectively). Similar to the molecular result, a canonical discriminant analysis based on seven morphometric characters showed that the Ulleungdo individuals had positive values on the first axis, whereas those from the other two locations had negative values, slightly differentiating the two populations (East Sea population vs Yellow Sea population). This study is the first to identify two populations of mottled skate in the northwest Pacific.
       
  • Growth, body composition and digestive enzyme responses of Caspian Kutum,
           Rutilus frisii (Kamenskii, 1901), juveniles fed different levels of
           carbohydrates
    • Abstract: The study evaluated the effects of dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities in juveniles Caspian Kutum, Rutilus frisii (Kamenskii, 1901). Fish with an initial average weight of 0.8 ± 0.2 g (means ± SD) were fed five isonitrogenous and isoenergic formulated diets with different carbohydrate levels of 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% in triplicate groups for 10 weeks (fifteen 45-L aquaria with 30 fish per tank and water temperature of 21.5–23.5°C). Based on the results, growth performance of Caspian Kutum was significantly improved by increasing carbohydrate levels from 15% to 35% (p 
       
  • Identification of key nutrients for gonadal development by comparative
           analysis of proximate composition and fatty/amino acid profile in tissues
           and eggs of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray, 1835)
    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to characterize the proximate composition and fatty/amino acid profile in muscle, liver and gonads obtained from farmed male and female Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) with gonad development at stage II, and to discern the key nutrients for gonads by comparing the nutrients between tissues and between fish at different gonad stages. Chinese sturgeon were reared in an outdoor circular cement pool at temperatures ranging from 8°C to 26°C, and fed with 70% artificial diets and 30% frozen forage fish at a feeding rate of 0.2%–1.5% body weight according to the water temperature. Three male and three female A. sinensis were sampled for analyses. Results showed that the lipid content in gonads was significantly higher than in other tissues in both males and females (p 
       
  • Length – length relationships of 16 Caribbean elasmobranchs
    • Abstract: Elasmobranchs are commonly landed without fins and heads; however, the knowledge of total length is necessary for fishery management. We provide useful equations to extrapolate partial from elasmobranch carcasses lengths, to total lengths. Length-Length Relationships (LLR) are described for 16 commercial elasmobranch species all included in the IUCN Red List: Hexanchus nakamurai, Heptranchias perlo, Squalus cubensis, Squatina dumeril, Scyliorhinus boa, Mustelus minicanis, M. higmani, M. norrisi, Carcharhinus acronotus, C. falciformis, C. limbatus, Galeocerdo cuvier, Rhizoprionodon lalandii, R. porosus, Sphyrna lewini and Pseudobatos percellens. This study provide new LLR equations and rsepresent an improvement in the knowledge of these species.
       
  • Migration patterns and home range of pike-perch (Sander lucioperca,
           Linnaeus, 1758) in Dutch river systems
    • Abstract: Pike-perch (Sander lucioperca L. 1758) is one of the freshwater species caught by professional fishermen in the Netherlands. The species is also popular with sport fishermen. Little is known about its migration and rehabilitation in large river systems. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the movements of pike-perch in the Dutch large river systems and investigate when and how far individual fish swim up- or downstream. Seasonal migration was expected. The second objective was to gain information on how many fish pass the Haringvlietdam when migrating downstream during high discharge, and ending up in the North Sea. The third objective was to gain data on how many fish were caught by the fishermen. NEDAP TRAIL System® transponders were surgically implanted in 286 pike-perch between June 2007 and October 2008. Marked fish could be detected via several detection stations in the river systems throughout the Netherlands and one in the River Rhine station in Germany. Sport fishermen were asked to inform the organization when a marked fish was caught. Data collected between June 2007 and April 2010 indicate a pike-perch home range of 30–40 km, with some individuals migrating up to more than 200 km. A regional approach regarding fisheries management is necessary. No seasonal patterns were found. Swimming activity was highest during darkness. Results showed pike-perch around the Haringvlietdam swimming in the saltwater area on the sea side of the dam, and returning to the freshwater Lake Haringvliet, indicating that the structure of the dam is used for feeding, but also that the fish will die if the dam is closed when fish are still outside.
       
  • The relationship between otolith size and estimated age of tigertooth
           croaker (Otolithes ruber Bloch and Schneider, 1801) in Oman Sea, Iran
    • Abstract: The relationships between somatic growth and otolith dimensions, otolith size to estimated age and growth parameters of the tigertooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) were investigated in 100 specimens (size range: 19.1–52.0 cm, total length) from the Oman Sea area, September 2014. All 100 otoliths were sectioned and determined by age. The oldest specimen was a 4.5-year-old female with a total length of 40.6 cm; the youngest specimen was also a female estimated at 1 year of age with a total length of 19.1 cm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was estimated as Lt = 54.70 (1 − exp (−0.37 (t + 0.21))). Concluded was that there is a significant relationship between body size, otolith dimensions and estimated age of Otolithes ruber.
       
  • Southwards range extension of the great seahorse (Hippocampus kelloggi
           Jordan & Snyder, 1901) in Australia
    •  
  • New records of Speleogobius trigloides Zander & Jelinek, 1976 and
           S. llorisi Kovačić, Ordines & Schliewen, 2016 (Osteichthyes: Gobiidae)
           in the Aegean Sea
    •  
  • Length–weight relationships of fish species from Lower Paranapanema
           River Basin, Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships were estimated for six fish species occurring in direct tributaries of the Lower Paranapanema River Basin. Data is described for the first time for five species and new measurements are provided for one species in the FishBase database. Studies of fish diversity are critical for species management and conservation, especially in this basin, which has suffered from many anthropical impacts.
       
  • Using adaptive resolution imaging sonar to investigate Chinese sturgeon
           (Acipenser sinensis Gray, 1835) behaviour on its only spawning ground in
           the Yangtze River
    • Abstract: The present study investigated the presence of Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis on its only remaining spawning ground (below the Gezhauba Dam), and monitored the behaviour under different environmental conditions from 24 December 2015 to 23 January 2016. A fixed ARIS (Adaptive Resolution Imaging Sonar) system was used and a total of 72 Chinese sturgeon were detected during nine observations. Detections initially recorded a few A. sinensis in the early days of late-December 2015, with an increase in recordings, leading to a peak in early-January 2016 and declining thereafter. Water temperature slowly decreased during the study period from 18.1 to 15.7°C. During the middle of this temperature decline the sturgeon observations peaked, suggesting that Chinese sturgeon could have an optimal temperature range. The sturgeon Detections Per Unit Effort (DPUE) was higher in the night hours, peaking before dawn, suggesting a circadian behaviour rhythm. Sturgeon spawning was not observed during the investigation period. A delay in the decrease in water temperature caused by the Three Gorges Reservoir and the few numbers of reproductively mature individuals are suspected to have contributed to the failure in natural breeding.
       
  • Seasonal profile of the diet of the dace Telestes karsticus Marčić &
           Mrakovčić, 2011 (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae) endemic to Sušik Creek,
           Croatia
    • Abstract: The first data on the feeding ecology of the endemic Telestes karsticus are presented for specimens sampled monthly (July 2007–July 2008) from the Sušik Creek in the Lug Polje field, Croatia. Macrozoobenthos density was calculated and compared with the stomach contents of T. karsticus and the seasonal profile of the diet was examined. The ratio of gut length vs. standard length was 0.9 ± 0.12. Gut contents revealed that benthic invertebrates accounted for the majority of food consumed, although terrestrial arthropods, plant material, algae and fish were also found. Since this is the only fish species in the investigated creek, T. karsticus can be concluded to be cannibalistic. The proportion of empty guts found in all seasons was small, indicating year round feeding. The number and diversity of prey species was highest in spring and lowest in summer. Ivlev's electivity index was very high for Cladocera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Hymenoptera in all seasons, suggesting positive selection for these prey groups, as opposed to Oligochaeta, Isopoda and Bivalva, which showed negative values in all seasons. For Actinopterygii, the Ivlev coefficient of selection was highly negative in spring, and highly positive in summer. Plant matter was detected in stomach contents in all seasons, with the highest share found in summer when other prey species were less available. The karstic dace is a generalised feeder, consuming the most available prey, and therefore can be classified as a euryphagous omnivore.
       
  • The effects of population density and lake characteristics on growth and
           size structure of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1815) in
           boreal forest lakes in Canada
    • Abstract: This paper examines the effect of lake characteristics on population density and how this variation affects growth, mortality and population size structure of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. The study was conducted on 17 recreationally fished, reproductively isolated boreal forest lakes in Newfoundland, Canada from 1993 to 2000. A standardized sampling program, the Fyke Littoral Index Netting program (FLIN) was used to collected data that describes brook trout population parameters and life history attributes. Regression analyses showed significant relationships between fish density and biomass and characteristics of the lakes. Variation in fish density and biomass was explained by lake surface area and littoral habitat area. Significant relationships were found when growth, mortality and size structure were regressed against density. The proportional stock distribution and theoretical maximum size of brook trout were negatively related to density, and natural mortality was positively related to density. The largest maximum length and highest proportional stock densities occurred at brook trout densities of less than 30 fish/ha. In general, the higher the proportion of littoral habitat area the higher the densities of brook trout, which correspondingly had important effects on growth, natural mortality and size structure of the brook trout populations. This information is critical to the development of management strategies aimed at altering size distribution to produce specific fisheries management outcomes.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of two Nemacheilid fish species [Schistura
           fasciata Lokeshwor and Vishwanath, 2011 and Schistura reticulofasciata
           (Singh and Bănărescu, 1982)] from Simsang River, Meghalaya, India
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) are presented for two fish species: Schistura fasciata Lokeshwor and Vishwanath, 2011 and Schistura reticulofasciata (Singh and Bănărescu, 1982), sampled from the Simsang River in Meghalaya, India. Fishes were caught seasonally from January to December 2015, with cast nets (10–15 mm mesh size) and electrofishing devices. The b values in the LWRs were determined as 3.09 for S. fasciata and 3.318 for S. reticulofasciata.
       
  • Dietary protein requirement of juvenile triangular bream Megalobrama
           terminalis (Richardson, 1846)
    • Abstract: A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary protein requirement of juvenile triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis). Five semi-purified diets (white fishmeal as a protein source) were formulated with five crude protein (CP) levels (26.30%, 32.94%, 38.33%, 44.18% and 50.09%; diets P1–P5). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups (20 per fish replicate, initially weighing 1.30 ± 0.02 g). The following parameters were measured to evaluate the effects of different CP levels: weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), daily feed intake (DFI), viscerosomatic index (VSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPF), lipid retention (LR), liver glycogen content and plasma triglyceride level. The results of the feeding trial showed that WG, SGR and FE were significantly enhanced by an increasing dietary protein level of up to 44.18%, but there were no significant differences in protein levels from 44.18% to 50.09%. The PER and DFI showed a decreasing trend with increasing dietary CP levels. The VSI and HSI were not significantly affected by the different treatments, whereas the IPF increased significantly with decreasing CP levels. The highest LR value, liver glycogen value and triglyceride level in plasma were observed in fish fed the lowest CP diet (P1). Based on the WG and FE, this study suggests an optimum dietary protein level for M. terminalis of 44.18%.
       
  • Larval distribution of the common dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus
           Linnaeus, 1758 (Coryphaenidae) in the East Sea/Sea of Japan
    •  
  • Effect of Anilocra frontalis parasitization on the thermal tolerance,
           acclimation capacity and condition of its fish host Pomatoschistus microps
           (Krøyer, 1838)
    •  
  • First record of the rare anthiine Meganthias kingyo (Kon, Yoshino &
           Sakurai, 2000) (Serranidae) from the Philippines
    •  
  • Growth, biochemical, fatty acid composition, and mRNA levels of hepatic
           enzymes in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis
           niloticus) (Linnaeus, 1758) at different stocking densities
    • Abstract: Investigated were the effects of stocking density on juvenile growth performance, serum biochemistry, fatty acid composition, and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT), Oreochromis niloticus. Juvenile fish (n = 900) were distributed into 15 tanks at five initial stocking densities (75, 150, 225, 300, and 375 g/m3 per 800-L tank, represented as D1–D5, respectively). Temperature was maintained at 28 ± 0.3°C, and water flow rate into the tanks was about 8 L/min. The fish accepted floating pelleted feed (crude protein 28%, crude lipid 6%, and gross energy 149.2 KJ/g diet). The feed amount offered was 4%–8% of body weight. At the end of the 60-day experiment, the final stocking densities were 1,454.18, 2,010.60, 2,913.13, 3,819.73, and 4,380.80 g/m3, respectively. Growth and body mass coefficient of variation were significantly affected (p  .05). Muscle lipid contents decreased with stocking density from D1 to D5. Serum total protein and cholesterol levels were not affected by the stocking density but the D5 group produced the highest serum cortisol and lactate levels and the lowest glucose levels compared to those of the other groups. Lower muscle saturated fatty acid and n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were observed in the D4 group than in the other groups, whereas the reverse was found in the n−6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthetase, hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase, and lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in response to a high density. These data suggest that the GIFT adapted to high-density conditions by altering the composition of muscle fatty acid and stimulating lipid metabolic enzymes. These mechanisms may help fish respond to high stocking density stress in intensive aquaculture systems.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships for eight fish species
           from the Jarrahi River, southwestern Iran
    • Abstract: Length–weight and length–length relationships were estimated for eight fish species belonging to three families from the Jarrahi River in southwestern Iran. The study was performed between June 2009 and September 2011. Weight–length relationships were estimated using the logarithmic form of the equation W = aLb. The b values varied between 2.96 and 3.61 and determined as 3.42 for Alburnus mossulensis Heckel, 1843; 3.33 for Alburnoides idignensis Bogutskaya and Coad, 2009; 2.85 for Barbus grypus Heckel, 1843; 3.61 for Barilius mesopotamicus Berg, 1932; 3.16 for Cyprinion kais (Heckel, 1843); 3.36 for Cyprinion macrostomum Heckel, 1843; 3.27 for Paraschistura nielseni (Nalbant and Bianco, 1998); and 2.96 for Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981. This study presents the first LWR and LLR references for these species in the Jarrahi River.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of three fish species from Liaodong Bay,
           Bohai Sea, China
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) in the present study were determined for three fish species: Collichthys niveatus Jordan & Starks, 1906; Ctenotrypauchen chinensis Steindachner, 1867 and Liparis tanakae (Gilbert & Burke, 1912), collected from Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea, China using bottom trawl nets from June to August 2014. The b parameters in the fitted LWRs for the three fish species were 2.882, 2.991 and 3.353, respectively. A new maximum total length (15.6 cm) for C. chinensis was recorded. The LWRs for the three fish species are first reported in FishBase.
       
  • Issue Information
    •  
  • Effects of feeding rate on the growth performance of gynogenetic albino
           sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae
    • Abstract: The feeding rate effects were studied on the growth performance of gynogenetic diploid larvae of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus during the first 4 weeks of exogenous feeding. The experimental rearing was conducted from 7 to 38 days post-hatch (dph) in a circulation system. This was set up in four groups with three replicates (440 individuals/replicate), viz: AC-control larvae fed Artemia sp., CFC-control larvae fed compound feed, AG-gynogenetic larvae fed Artemia sp., and CFG-gynogenetic larvae fed compound feed. The larvae were reared in glass tanks (44 L volume, 10 individuals/L) with the temperature maintained at 18 ± 0.5°C, photoperiod of 12L:12D and water flow regime of 1-L/min and fed 50%, 25%, 25%, and 9% of their total biomass/day during feeding. Highest TL and WBW of gynogenetic diploid larvae (AG) were observed with 50.6 ± 1.2 mm and 607.3 ± 36.1 mg (n = 30) at 38 dph. Highest TL and WBW of control larvae (AC) were recorded with 49.5 ± 3.8 mm and 600.8 ± 88.0 mg (n = 30), respectively, with 73.1% ± 11.4% survival; the lowest survival rate was at 46.4% ± 7.1% (n = 30) for the CFG group. The results indicate that the gynogenetic and normal larvae of sterlet fed with live food (Artemia nauplii) from 7 dph can achieve higher growth and survivability compared to the larvae fed with formulated test feed. Results of this study suggest that the effective rearing of sterlet larvae from 7 to 38 dph strongly depends upon the types of feed rather than the genome manipulation performed.
       
  • Immunolocalization of Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl− co-transporter (NKCC)
           and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit during short-term salinity
           transfer in the gills of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus, Borodin,
           1897) juveniles
    • Abstract: The study tests the physiological responses of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, during the abrupt release of juveniles from freshwater (FW) into brackish waters (BW = 11‰) of the Caspian Sea. Fish weight at release was 2-3 g (2.55 ± 0.41 g; 8.8 ± 0.58 cm TL). Totals of 160 individuals were randomly distributed into four fiber-glass aerated tanks (volume 60-L). Two tanks served as controls (FW groups), and two as exposure tanks for BW (Caspian Sea water = CSW). Fish were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hr after abrupt transfer to CSW. Plasma osmolality, immunolocalization of Na+, K+ -ATPase (NKA) and Na+/K+/2Cl– (NKCC) Co-transporter, NKA activity and the NKA α-subunit mRNA expression were analyzed. Blood osmolality of fish transferred from FW to CSW increased significantly within hours post-transfer (p 
       
  • Partial replacement of fishmeal in diets for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus,
           Linnaeus, 1758) culture using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis, Linneus, 1758)
           meat
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether meat from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) harvested from offshore structures could be used as an alternative protein source in aquaculture fish feed for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Two feeding experiments with turbot were conducted in an initial experiment to test the applicability of mussel meal as a fishmeal replacement and/or supplement in turbot feed. In experiment A, the welfare, acceptance, and digestibility of feedstuff with 100%, 50% and 0% of mussel meal replacement for the fishmeal were tested for 8 weeks. In experiment B that followed, the convenience ratio of mussel meal protein in turbot feed for optimum growth was examined. Feedstuff with 25%, 10% and 0% of mussel meal were also fed for 8 (+6) weeks. Growth rates of fish were measured every 2 weeks and their health condition (liver somatic index) determined at the beginning and end of the experiments. Experiment A revealed that a replacement of fishmeal with either 100% or 50% mussel meal resulted in depressed growth (SGR: 1.31 ± 0.04 with 100% mussel meal; 1.54 ± 0.04 with 50% mussel meal; 1.71 ± 0.07 with 0% mussel meal). Experiment B revealed that a fishmeal replacement with 10% or 25% of mussel meal did not reduce growth nor did it have a negative effect on the health of the tested turbot. The study revealed that mussel meal has a high potential to serve as a supplement or as a fishmeal replacement in feed for turbot raised in aquaculture systems. Thus, its use in commercial aquaculture should be given future consideration.
       
  • Comparison of body composition and sensory quality of wild and farmed
           whitefish (Coregonus macrophthalmus [Nüsslin, 1882])
    • Abstract: This study compared the body composition (fillet yield, chemical composition and lipid quality of fillets) and sensory quality of captured wild (by gillnet in August 2011) with experimentally raised farmed (reared in concrete flow-through raceways, average water temperature 10 ± 3°C) whitefish, Coregonus macrophthalmus, from Lake Constance. The study was conducted in 2011 using 28 wild and 24 farmed market-sized fish of approximately equal total lengths (25.1 ± 1.21 and 25.6 ± 1.28 cm). Farmed female Coregonus macrophthalmus exhibited a 3.3% lower fillet yield resulting from larger gonads and a shallower body shape. The protein contents of farmed and wild fillets were equal (17.5% vs. 17.4%), but farmed fish fillets contained less moisture (76.1% vs.77.4%), less ash (1.2% vs. 1.6%), and more lipid (5.1% vs. 4.1%) than wild-caught specimens. Levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were higher in farmed fish (42.0 vs. 31.0 g/100 g lipid), as well as the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 26.0 vs. 19.7 g/100 g lipid), in particular 22:6n−3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; 7.3 vs. 2.1 g/100 g lipid). Conversely, wild fish fillets contained significantly more 20:4n−6 (arachidonic acid, AA; 1.6 vs. 0.4 g/100 g lipid) and 20:5n−3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; 4.1 vs. 3.2 g/100 g lipid). Sensory evaluation of odour, colour, texture and flavour by an experienced six-person panel revealed a significant preference for the colour (79% vs. 21%) of farmed fish fillets. In conclusion, farmed whitefish can be strong competitors to wild whitefish in terms of product quality, with higher levels of healthy fatty acids and a more attractive fillet colour. Farmed Coregonus macrophthalmus thus represents a promising and pragmatic approach, compensating for the current capture decline in the whitefish fisheries of Lake Constance.
       
  • Does a diet including pellets from salmon cage farms affect the taste of
           wild saithe (Pollachius virens Linnaeus, 1758)'
    •  
  • Cross-effects of dietary probiotic supplementation and rearing temperature
           on antioxidant responses in European seabass [Dicentrarchus labrax
           (Linnaeus, 1758)] juveniles
    • Abstract: Temperature modulates the metabolism in both fish and bacteria and therefore the effect of probiotic bacteria on its host may vary accordingly. The current study aim was to evaluate the effect of probiotic supplementation (Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Pediococcus sp.) in juvenile seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, when reared under different temperatures (17, 20 and 23°C). A control diet was tested against a probiotic-supplemented diet, with a concentration of 3 × 109 CFU probiotic/kg diet. Antioxidant responses (TG, GSH, GSSG, GR, CAT and GSTs) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated after 70 days of dietary probiotic supplementation. An effect of temperature was observed on LPO, which increased significantly in fish reared at 17°C (p 
       
  • Combined gut-content and stable isotope trophic analysis of the pelagic
           stingray Pteroplaytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) diet from the western
           North Atlantic Ocean
    • Abstract: The understanding of trophic relationships is vital for correctly modeling ecosystems and ecosystem effects of fisheries removals. The pelagic stingray is found in epipelagic sub-tropical and tropical waters worldwide and is a common bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries. Between August 2008 and November 2011, 156 specimens (81 males; 75 females) were collected during pelagic longline fishing operations in the US South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico. Stomach content analyses found that the major prey items were cephalopod molluscs (59.18%), followed by actinopterygiian fishes (37.75%), and decapod crustaceans (35.71%). These concentrations of prey items found in the stomachs coincide with previous studies done in the Pacific Ocean. In contrast to previous studies that found high percentages of empty stomachs (63%), the current percentage of empty stomachs was much lower (25.6%), likely due to shorter times between collection and inspection. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) was performed on white muscle in order to correlate the trophic position with gut-content analysis. The δ13C values ranged from -18.81‰ to -16.70‰, while the δ15N ranged from 6.11‰ to 11.88‰. Modeling of stable isotope data suggest that while squid are occasionally an important part of the pelagic stingray diet, prey usually consist of shrimp and other pelagic crustaceans. Pelagic stingrays fed within two trophic levels, but their prey appeared to feed on different carbon sources than those found in other pelagic elasmobranchs. A deeper understanding of the pelagic stingray diet sources can help fisheries management as it begins to transition into ecosystem-based management.
       
  • Predicting impacts of south-to-north water transfer project on fish
           assemblages in Hongze Lake, China
    • Abstract: The Chinese government implemented the ambitious south-north water transfer project (SNWTP), which aims to transport water from the Yangtze to the north of China where water shortages are severe. Although the ecological impacts of this project have been addressed publically, there remains a poor understanding of the effects of such large-scale water transfers on the populations of aquatic species. The potential ecological impacts of such water transfers on the Hongze Lake fish assemblages are assessed here using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Random Forest (RF) modeling. Using SOM, twenty-three fish species in 15 sampling sites were classified into two assemblages and four sub-assemblages corresponding to four distinct habitats (deep water macrophytes, deep water bare silt, shallow water bare silt, and shallow water macrophytes). The RF model further showed that water depth and transparency were the abiotic drivers underpinning fish assemblages in Hongze Lake. As the SNWTP is forecasted to modify the distribution of water depth and water clarity, major knock-on effects are expected on downstream lake fish assemblages.
       
  • Trophic levels of teleost and elasmobranch species in the Persian Gulf and
           Oman Sea
    • Abstract: Knowing the trophic level of marine organisms is essential to understanding their ecological role in the ecosystem and for quantifying the ecosystem effects of fishing to establish effective management of fishing resources. In comparison to other systems, information about the trophic level of marine organisms in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea is very scarce. Here, the main aim was to estimate trophic level in these areas using all available diet information from different marine species using TrophLab software. The trophic level of 32 fish species was estimated with the available diet data. The trophic level ranged from 2.28 to 4.50. High trophic levels were found for Chorocentrus nudus (TL = 4.7), Saurida tumbil (TL = 4.6), Rhizoprionodon acutus (TL = 4.5), Torpedo sinuspersici (TL=4.5), Gymnura poecilura (TL = 4.5), Sphyraena putnamae (TL = 4.5) and Euthynnus affinis (TL = 4.5). In contrast, lower trophic levels were estimated for Tenualosa ilisha (TL = 2.28) and Sardinella sindensis (TL = 2.92). As expected, a positive correlation was found between the trophic level and body size, indicating changes in the diet due to variations in predatory capacities. The results of this study may be useful in the formulation of trophic indicators and modelling of the ecosystems.
       
  • Estimates on age, growth and mortality of the French angelfish Pomacanthus
           paru (Bloch, 1787) (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae) in the southwestern Atlantic
           
    • Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine age, growth and mortality of the French angelfish Pomacanthus paru. Age was solely determined by sectioned otoliths. All tetracycline-treated otoliths were 1 year of age and revealed a clear fluorescent mark when observed under UV light. Otolith weight increased exponentially with standard length, and linearly with age, indicating that otolith growth continues with age and is independent of size. Age of fish in the sample ranged from 1 to 27 years. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was TLt = 36.33 (1 − e−0.12 (t + 0)). Total rate mortality (Z) was estimated to be 0.10. Attaining maximal size slowly, P. paru has a long life expectancy. Most linear growth is achieved within approximately 74% of the lifetime of the fish. Besides being an important ornamental species, P. paru has been commonly captured for decades as bycatch in trap fisheries. These growth parameters should be used with the purpose of managing fisheries targeting this species before more meaningful limits can be imposed. In the aquarium trade management, it is suggested that conservationist issues should be based on capture-per-area and the establishment of protected areas.
       
  • Reproductive biology of the migratory freshwater fish Salminus
           brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816) in the Cuiabá River basin, Brazil
    • Abstract: This study provides information on the reproductive biology of the dorado Salminus brasiliensis from the Cuiabá River basin, through determinating life history trajectories (length at first maturity, fecundity and spawning type) and the reproductive period, thus establishing the relationships between biotic factors and rainfall and river levels that might act as potential triggers for maturation and spawning. Salminus brasiliensis is a migratory species of great commercial and ecological importance. Individuals were collected monthly from August 2013 to July 2014 in the Cuiabá River. Analyses were performed based on biometric data and the gonads. Females attained greater lengths than males in the Cuiabá River basin, and with a significant difference in the sex ratio in favor of females. Peak reproductive activity occurred in November and December and was related to rainfall. Reproduction was seasonal, with spawning and reproductive potential correlating positively with the length and mass of the gonads of mature females. Average length at first maturity for females was estimated at 55 cm. A regular (annual) monitoring programme of essential biological variables to support a trend analysis over years (not just a snapshot study, as this one) is strongly recommended in order to give advice for the proper fishing policies in the region, as without regular basic data on the population dynamics, management is not possible.
       
  • Seasonal niche segregation of two sympatric xenocyprinid fishes
    • Abstract: Xenocypris microlepis (Bleeker, 1871) and Xenocypris davidi (Bleeker, 1871) are two closely related xenocyprinid species potentially subject to exploitative competition. They often coexist in many freshwater ecosystems, which offers an opportunity to analyze their relationships. The present study describes the seasonal feeding habits of age-3 X. microlepis and X. davidi in Xin'anjiang Reservoir, located in Zhejiang, China, as determined by stable isotope analysis. Particulate organic matter (POM; 50%) and periphyton (50%) were the major items observed in the X. microlepis diet, whereas periphyton (>60%) was prevalent in the X. davidi diet. Seasonal variations were observed in the diet compositions of both xenocyprinid species. Whereas X. microlepis tended to ingest more sediment organic matter (SOM) in autumn than in spring and summer, SOM was the secondary food item for X. davidi over the three seasons. The seasonal diet shift observed in this work indicates niche segregation of the sympatric pair. The results of this study contribute to the current knowledge of seasonal trophic interactions in predator–prey systems where sympatric xenocyprinids are present.
       
  • Ovarian development and changes in the expression of pituitary
           gonadotropin subunits during the reproductive cycle of female Malaysian
           river catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus (Valenciennes, 1840), in captivity
    • Abstract: Determining the expression level of genes encoding the subunit gonadotropic hormones is critical in understanding the reproductive cycle and gonadal development in fish species. The objectives of this study were to monitor changes in the mRNA expression of three gonadotropin (GtH) subunits (α, FSHβ, and LHβ) during gonadal development of the female Malaysian river catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus, in captivity. In the study a quantitative real-time PCR approach was developed to assess these three mRNA transcript GtH subunit profiles and compare them with ovarian development. The number of transcript encoding GtH hormone, α, FSHβ, and LHβ subunits in pituitary glands of female H. nemurus was measured throughout the reproductive cycle from August 2013 to October 2015, with fish aged 1–27 months. The mRNA expression of GtH subunits increased with ovarian development throughout the reproductive cycle. The FSHβ mRNA level increased during ovarian development, reached its peak in mid-vitellogenesis, and was reduced during ovulation and spawning, whereas the LHβ mRNA level significantly increased in late vitellogenesis and reached its peak during the ovulation and spawning season (April–May). In α subunit, the mRNA level corresponded to FSHβ and LHβ, with a peak expression during ovulation. The findings suggest that FSH was strongly activated during vitellogenesis, whereas LH was involved at the end of gonadal development process, during ovulation, and in the final oocyte maturation.
       
  • Difference in age, growth, and sexual demography of black-spot tuskfish,
           Choerodon schoenleinii (Valenciennes, 1839), in two adjacent populations,
           Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan
    • Abstract: To better understand the plasticity of life history traits in the blackspot tuskfish, Choerodon schoenleinii (Valenciennes, 1839), the characteristics of the population around the Yaeyama Islands (24°N, 124E) were examined and compared to those around Okinawajima Island (26°N, 128E) that had been investigated in a previous study. Age and growth of the Yaeyama population were examined based on 103 specimens collected at fish markets between 2006 and 2016. Specimens included 83 females (25.2–69.0 cm total length [TL]), and 20 males (43.1–71.8 cm TL). Ages determined from sectioned otoliths ranged from 1–9 for females, and 4–15 for males. Values for von Bertalanffy growth functions were Lt = 74.2 {1−exp[−0.23 (t + 0.38)]}, and the growth of the Yaeyama population was significantly faster than that of the previously studied population. Sexual demography of the two populations was compared using body length data on landings measured at the fish markets. In the Yaeyama population, females and males ranged from 24–65 cm TL and 39–75 cm TL, respectively; length at 50% individual sex change size was estimated at 54.7 ± 0.56 cm (±95% C.I.). In contrast, in the Okinawajima population, females and males ranged from 16–65 cm TL and 30–75 cm TL, respectively; meanwhile, 50% sex change size was estimated to be 50.0 ± 0.25 cm. There were thus significant differences in the size at sex change between the two populations. This difference may be related to the difference in population density between the sites.
       
  • Dynamics of sex reversal in the marbled swamp eel (Synbranchus marmoratus
           Bloch, 1795), a diandric hermaphrodite from Marechal Dutra Reservoir,
           northeastern Brazil
    • Abstract: This study characterizes the dynamics of sex reversal in the marbled swamp eel, Synbranchus marmoratus (Osteichthyes: Synbranchidae), a diandric hermaphrodite, within the context of managing species with complex sex allocations. Monthly sampling in Marechal Dutra Reservoir, northeastern Brazil, was conducted using metal eel traps from July, 2013, to June, 2014, during which a total of 288 individuals were captured. Morphological and histological comparisons of gonads identified four sex types: primary males (n = 18), females (n = 197), transitional individuals (n = 30), and secondary males (n = 43). Primary males were smallest, ranging 18–32 cm total length. Females were numerically dominant throughout the 1-year sampling period, and ranged 20–60 cm. Transitional individuals ranged 32–60 cm, and secondary males ranged 46–74 cm. The otolith-based age of 52 specimens ranged 0.5 to 5+ year. Primary males were only observed at ages 0.5 and 1, and transitional individuals were only observed at ages 3 and 4 during the female-to-secondary-male transition, supporting the existence of two types of individuals: gonochoristic males and protogynous hermaphrodites. This observation was further supported by histological observations of deteriorating ovarian tissue in transitional individuals. Given the length of time required for individuals to attain secondary male status, this species appears to be particularly vulnerable to over-exploitation. Comparisons with results from other studies suggest sex allocations and adult size distributions vary substantially within this species’ range, adding complexity to management efforts.
       
  • Nutritional profile of soaked Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and its
           utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias
           gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings
    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of soaking as a cheap processing method in improving the nutritional utilization of Cajanus cajan for partial replacement of soybean meal in formulated diets of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). The nutrient profile of soaked C. cajan revealed a significant reduction (≤50%) in all anti-nutritional factors. Proximate and amino acids were also affected by this processing method. Six practical diets (35 g/kg crude protein, 19.1 KJ/g diet) containing substitution levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% C. cajan for soybean protein (included at 578 g/kg) were then formulated and fed to triplicate groups (n = 50 in each group) of C. gariepinus fingerlings (1.41 ± 0.06 g) in a hapa pond system (1 × 1 × 1 m3) for 56 days (mean temperature 25.3 ± 0.6). The results revealed that fish survival was not significantly affected until a 40% substitution of soybean was reached. However, beyond 20% soybean substitution, growth was significantly reduced (≥7%; p ≤ .05). Fish fed the highest substitution of soaked C. cajan meal (50% soybean replacement) had the poorest performance. The cost of the compound diets was substantially reduced with the inclusion of soaked C. cajan. Production costs of 1 kg fish using the diet with an inclusion of up to 20% soaked C. cajan meal replacement were comparable to using the control diet. It was concluded that soaking C. cajan seed for 24 hr improved the nutritional profile of the ingredients to replace 20% of the soybean (included at 57.8%) protein in the diet of C. gariepinus with no negative effect on growth and nutrient utilization.
       
  • Effects of chitosan-oligosaccharides on growth performance, digestive
           enzyme and intestinal bacterial flora of tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes
           Temminck et Schlegel, 1850)
    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) levels on digestive enzyme activity, intestinal bacteria flora, and growth performance of the tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes). Some 600 fish (initial body weight 129.2 ± 3.1 g) were randomly allocated into twelve 2,000-L blue cylinder aquaria with 1,500-L of sea water and divided into four groups (n = 3 aquaria/diet). The fish were fed experimental diets supplemented with different levels of COS (0% [control, L1], 0.05% [LC1], 0.1% [LC2], and 0.2% [LC3]) for 8 weeks. During the experiment, the water temperature was 18 ± 1°C, salinity 28 ± 0.1, pH 8.0 ± 0.1 (mean ± SD, n = 672); airstones were positioned at the bottom of the tank, dissolved oxygen content was above 7.0 mg/L, with a photoperiod of 12 hr light: 12 hr dark. The results showed that dietary COS significantly increased growth performance, intestinal-somatic index (ISI), and intestinal protease as well as lipase activity (p  .05). High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that COS affected the richness and diversity of intestinal microbial species. The Shannon index of intestinal bacterial flora was significantly higher in the control group than in other groups (p 
       
  • Fatty acid profiles of the topmouth culter (Culter alburnus Basilewsky,
           1855) from five lakes located at different latitudes in China
    • Abstract: The topmouth culter (Culter alburnus Basilewsky, 1855) is a freshwater carnivorous fish of high nutritional value and widely distributed in lakes and reservoirs of China. In order to evaluate the fatty acid profiles in relation to habitat characteristics and to elucidate the main composition predictors, C. alburnus were collected from five lakes (Xingkai- LXk, Hongze- LHz, Kuilei- LKl, Chidong- LCd and Dongting- LDt) in China, ranging in latitudes from 28°30′ to 44°44′N and altitudes from 4 to 64 m. Ten fish from each lake ranging in total lengths from 414.2 to 423.9 mm were sampled between May to June in 2013 and 2014. A total of 23 fatty acids were identified using gas chromatography. Fatty acids that predominated in muscle samples of the fish were 16:0, 18:0, 16:1n−7, 18:1n−9, 20:5n−3, 22:6n−3 and 20:4n−6. Important differences in the fatty acid profiles of fish from high and low latitude lakes were discernible in that the two high latitudinal lakes (LXk and LHz) had significantly higher (p 
       
  • Citric acid as a feed additive in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg,
           1887) diets
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate citric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%) in isonitrogenous (23% of digestible protein) and isoenergetic (13.38 MJ of digestible energy/kg) pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) diets. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, haematological parameters and pH of the diets, stomach and gut, somatic indices, nitrogen retention and body composition of pacu juveniles. Fish (n = 160, 12.53 ± 0.17g) were distributed in 16 aquaria (300-L) with a recirculating water system (4 L/min) and controlled temperature (25.26 ± 0.47°C) in an experimental design completely randomized with four treatments and four replicates. Posteriorly, apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) were assessed with pacu (n = 96, 80.35 ± 5.12 g) fed experimental diets including 0.1% chromium oxide III. Diet pH decreased (p 
       
  • Morphometric analysis of otoliths of juvenile crucifix sea catfish Sciades
           proops (Valenciennes, 1840)
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze the morphometry of otoliths for Sciades proops juveniles by testing the hypothesis of equality in morphometric relationships for the right and left otoliths, which could then be interchangeably used to estimate fish size or weight. Samples were obtained monthly directly from anglers after each event that took place off the state of Sergipe from March/2014 to April/2015. Anglers used rod and reel during these events, with no restriction on hook size or line thickness. Each fish specimen sampled had their total weight (W, g) and total length (TL, cm) measured and their lapillus otoliths removed and stored separately. Each otolith had its length (OL), width (OWi), and thickness (OT) measured (all in mm) under a stereomicroscope. Otoliths were weighed using a precision scale (OW, g). A total of 883 specimens were sampled: TL = 12.0–60.5 cm and W = 9.8–1880 g. The weight-length relationship for the juvenile fishes was W = 0.0052TL3.086 and for their otoliths was OW = 0.0002OL3.177. The weight-length and length-length relationships fitted for each otolith (right and left) were not statistically different and thus all relations were estimated for grouped otoliths. The length-length relationships for the otoliths were: OWi = 0.947OL−0.205 and OT = O.484OL−0.698. The relationship estimated for juvenile fish and otolith weight was Wj = 1076.1OW−9.120. For juvenile fish total length and otolith length, width and thickness, the following relationships were estimated: TLj = 4.028OL−3.199, TLj = 4.208OWi−2.091, and TLj = 7.824OT + 3.659, respectively. Relationships between fish and otolith size, and between fish and otolith weight indicated a change in slope close to Lm50, which should be better explored when more adult specimens are available.
       
  • An evaluation of elastomer and coded wire tag performance in juvenile
           Tibet fish Oxygymnocypris stewartii (Lloyd, 1908) under laboratory
           conditions
    • Abstract: A 95-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of a visible implant elastomer tag (VIE) versus a coded wire tag (CWT) implanted in juvenile Tibet fish Oxygymnocypris stewartii (Lloyd, 1908; total length 5~7 cm) under laboratory conditions. Mortality, tag retention and growth in three groups of juvenile O. stewartii (VIE-tagged, CWT-tagged and control) in duplicate were determined in six indoor tanks (300-L/tank volume, 100 fish/tank) at 15.6 ± 0.5°C water temperature. Results showed that neither tagging method had a significant difference on the mortality of the experimental fish, but that the growth rate in the VIE group was significantly lower than in the CWT and control groups. Mean tag retention in the VIE group was 95.2%, and 98.9% in the CWT group, with no significant differences in tag retention in the two methods. The study indicates that both VIE and CWT are suitable short-term tagging methods for hatchery O. stewartii juveniles.
       
  • First record of the buccaneer anchovy Encrasicholina punctifer (Fowler,
           1938) (Clupeiformes; Engraulidae) in the Mediterranean Sea, confirmed
           through DNA barcoding
    •  
  • Occurrence of blunthead puffer, Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller and
           Troschel, 1848) (Tetraodontidae) in north-eastern Aegean Sea (Izmir Bay,
           Turkey)
    •  
  • Occurrence of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842) (Cobitidae) in the
           Taquari River, Upper Paraná Basin, Brazil
    •  
  • First record of the honeycomb stingray Himantura leoparda
           (Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last, 2008) (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae) in the
           Mediterranean Sea, confirmed by DNA barcoding
    •  
  • A new record of Atlantic tripletail, Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch, 1790),
           in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)
    •  
  • Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) propagation
           using cryopreserved sperm samples
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the artificial seminal plasma (ASP) as the extender as well as methanol as the cryoprotectant for cryopreservation, and to collect information on the fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm samples. Eggs from Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, females were control-fertilized with native sperm diluted with ASP and cryopreserved sperm (ASP as extender [in 1:100 ratio] and 10% methanol in v/v final concentration). No statistical differences (p 
       
  • The role of temperature and daytime as indicators for the spawning
           migration of the Caspian lamprey Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870
    •  
  • Diet of the blue shark Prionace glauca in the Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean
           during the years 2013 to 2015
    •  
  • Development of 34 polynucleotide repeat microsatellites for Chinese lake
           gudgeon (Sarcocheilichthys sinensis Bleeker, 1871) by transcriptome
           sequencing
    • Abstract: A total of 34 novel polymorphic polynucleotide repeat microsatellites were developed for Sarcocheilichthys sinensis through transcriptome sequencing. Results of polymorphism characterization in a test population showed that the number of alleles of these loci ranged from 2 to 12, averaging 5.2 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.0333 to 0.9667 and from 0.0333 to 0.8825, respectively. Twenty-seven loci were proven to be highly informative because the values of their polymorphism information contents were greater than 0.5. These novel polymorphic microsatellite markers would be useful tools for further population and conservation genetic studies of S. sinensis.
       
  • Exploring the molecular diversity of Eleotridae (Gobiiformes) using
           mitochondrial DNA
    • Abstract: Species with wide geographic distributions can consist of different lineages or even of different species. The present study evaluated the molecular diversity of the family Eleotridae by analyzing sequences of the COI gene from species collected in different locations in a Neotropical region as well as sequences from BOLD and GenBank. The analysis revealed the distinction and differentiation of a variety of species with high statistical support, including Gobiomorus dormitor (two lineages), Dormitator maculatus (three lineages) and Eleotris fusca (three lineages), and a number of different lineages of Microphilypnus. This indicates the existence of a number of unknown cryptic species that have not been reported previously, increasing the potential diversity of eleotrid species in the Neotropics.
       
  • Gonadosomatic index-based size at first sexual maturity of male and female
           Amblygaster clupeoides (Bleeker, 1849) (Clupeidae) on the east coast of
           the Malaysian peninsular
    • Abstract: Size at first sexual maturity and condition of Amblygaster clupeoides were determined in a population at the Malaysian east coast. A total of 887 specimens were collected from commercial fishing vessels between March and November 2012. A random sample was taken each time to avoid bias in the cohort sampling. Size at first sexual maturity was determined by the relationship between the total length and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Similarly, the relationship between the condition factor and GSI was applied to determine the condition at first sexual maturity. The sex ratio was close to 1:1. The total length at first sexual maturity of both males and females were at around 18 cm. Males with a GSI of ≥3.2% and females with a GSI of ≥6.5% were mature, having condition factors of ≥0.90 and ≥0.93, respectively. Based on these results the minimum permissible capture size was identified. This study establishes a strong need for regular and continued monitoring of the changes in fish size at first sexual maturity.
       
  • Morphometric relationships for four Scombridae fish species in Australian
           waters
    • Abstract: Morphometric relationships (length–weight and fork length–total length) were estimated for four scombrid species (Thunnus tonggol, Euthynnus affinis, Cybiosarda elegans, and Rastrelliger kanagurta) that are of growing importance to fisheries, but are also important predators representing different trophic levels in the neritic regime of Australian waters. The sample of 1,137 fish representing a broad size range for each species produced highly significant model fits (r2 > .95) that provide researchers with reliable information for future biological studies, stock assessment, and ecosystem models.
       
  • Length-weight relationships of five fish species in Tibet, southwest China
    • Abstract: Length-weight relationships (LWR) were evaluated for five species: Schizothorax integrilabiatus (Wu et al., 1992); Shizopygopsis stoliczkai Steindachner, 1866; Gymnocypris chui Tchang, Yueh & Hwang, 1964; Gymnocypris scleracanthus Tsao, Wu, Chen & Zhu, 1992; and Triplophysa tibetana (Regan, 1905). A total of 567 specimens were collected whereby S. integrilabiatus was caught with 12-volt electric fishing gear (water depth, 1 m) in Buqun Lake in May 2015. Both G. chui and G. scleracantus were caught with 12-volt electric fishing gear (water depth,1 m) and set gillnets (mesh size 3 cm) in Lange Lake in July 2015, S. stoliczkhai was caught with 3 cm mesh size set gillnets in Shiquan River in August 2015, T. tibetana was caught with 12 V electric fishing gear in the Zhongba reach of the Yarlung Zangbo River in August 2015. This study provides the first published length–weight references on LWR for the five species. New maximum total lengths were recorded for three species, including Shizopygopsis stoliczkai, Gymnocypris chui, and Gymnocypris scleracanthus.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 19 freshwater fishes from the Upo
           Wetland in South Korea
    • Abstract: The length–weight relationships (LWRs) for 19 freshwater fish species in Upo Wetland, South Korea, were analyzed. Fish samples were collected quarterly using scoop-nets (5 mm mesh), casting nets (7 mm mesh) and a fixed shore net (15 mm mesh) from 2007 to 2014. LWRs data for three species have not yet been listed in FishBase.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of four fish species from the Niulan
           River, China
    • Abstract: This study provides the length–weight relationships (LWRs) for four fish species [Leptobotia rubrilabris (Dabry de Thiersant, 1872); Opsariichthys bidens Günther, 1873; Xenocypris yunnanensis Nichols, 1925; and Sinogastromyzon sichangensis Chang, 1944] collected from the Niulan River, China. Samples were obtained between April 2008 and June 2011 using various types of fishing gear [drift gill nets (mesh: 5 × 5 cm), hook and electro fishing]. A total of 136 specimens belonging to four fish species were analyzed. For each species the sample size, length range, weight range, LWR, 95% confidence intervals of a and b, and coefficient of correlation were determined. Prior to this study, the LWRs for S. sichangensis and X. yunnanensis were unknown. New maximum sizes for S. sichangensis and X. yunnanensis are also provided.
       
  • Length–weight relationships for four stingray species from the
           tropical Atlantic Ocean
    • Abstract: This study provides separate length–weight relationships (LWRs) for males, females and pooled individuals for four stingray species (Dasyatis guttata, Dasyatis marianae, Gymnura micrura, and Rhinoptera bonasus) found in the tropical Atlantic. The specimens were sampled monthly between April 2009 and February 2011 along the coast of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil, using different fishing gear. For three species, the LWR parameters are reported for the first time, including D. marianae, an endemic species.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of 15 fish species from the Lower
           Uruguay freshwater ecoregion
    • Abstract: This work is the first report on length–weight relationships for 15 fish species from the Lower Uruguay freshwater ecoregion. Fishes were collected between 2008 and 2010 in eight streams (Cañada del Sauce, San Luis, Don Esteban Chico and Grande, de la Palmita, Lencina, del Sauce and del Totoral), all tributaries to the Negro River (Uruguay). A standardized fishing effort (50 electric pulses along 100 m) with an electrofishing device (Type IG600T, Hans Grassl GmbH, Schönau am Königssee, Germany) was conducted in each wadeable stream reach. New maximal standard lengths and total weight are given for five and 13 fish species, respectively.
       
  • Length–weight relationships for 35 fish species of the Atlantic
           Forest, SP/RJ—Brazil
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) for 35 freshwater fish species from the SP/RJ coastal basin in Brazil are presented in this paper. Fishes were captured between 2011 and 2015 on an irregular basis using electrofishing, sieves, trawl nets, cast nets and fish-traps. In this study new LWRs are reported for 28 species, plus the total weight and length for 34 and nine species, respectively. The study provides new information on less-studied species and can serve as a basis for management and conservation in this area.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of three fish species from the Bay of
           Bengal, Bangladesh
    • Abstract: The present study describes the length–weight (LWR) of three fish species, Chela cachius (Hamilton, 1822), Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton, 1822) and Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) captured in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, from December 2014 to November 2015. Fishes were captured with either gill nets (mesh size 2.0–5.0 cm) or set bag nets (mesh size 2.0–4.0 cm). The b values in the study varied from 2.88 (C. ramcarati) to 3.00 (S. gibbosa), with a mean a value of 2.94 at p 
       
  • Length–weight relationships of Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807),
           Barilius shacra (Hamilton, 1822) and Barilius barna (Hamilton, 1822) from
           Manas River in Assam, India
    • Abstract: The present study describes the length–weight relationships (LWRs) for three ornamental hill stream fish species from the Manas River in Assam, India, namely, Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807), Barilius shacra (Hamilton, 1822), and Barilius barna (Hamilton, 1822). Fishes were collected on a monthly basis from March 2015 to February 2016 with cast nets (270 cm, 1.2 cm) and gillnets (7,500 × 130 cm, 5 cm). This is the first information on LWR data for two of the species.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships for 11 species of the
           genus Alburnoides Jeitteles, 1861 (Cyprinidae) from Iran
    • Abstract: Length–weight (LWR) and length–length (LLR) relationships were estimated for 11 Alburnoides species from 15 localities throughout Iran. These represent the first reports of LWR and LLRs data for 10 species, including: Alburnoides coadi (40 specimens), A. damghani (30), A. eichwaldii (110), A. holciki (30), A. idigensis (113), A. namaki (30), A. nicolausi (30), A. parhami (30), A. qanati (30) and A. tabarestanensis (30) and first LLR data for A. samiii. Nine of these species are endemic and two are native to Iran. The length–weight parameter b for these species ranged from a minimum of 2.94 for Alburnoides nicolausi to a maximum of 3.37 for Alburnoides parhami, with regression coefficients (r2) ranging from 0.91 to 0.99. All LLRs were highly significant (r2 > 0.96).
       
  • Length–weight relationships of three small indigenous fish species from
           the Lower Brahmaputra, India
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) for three small indigenous fish species from the lower Brahmaputra in Assam, India: Glyptothorax telchitta, Nangra assamensis, and Gudusia chapra were studied on a monthly basis from February 2015 to January 2016. Various fishing gear types were employed: cast nets (9′ ½”), gillnets (30 × 0.9 m, 0.5″; 60 × 3 m, 1.5″) and mosquito nets (20 × 6 m, 0.04″). No previous reference is available on LWR data for two of these species.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships for nine species of the
           genus Paracobitis (Nemacheiliidae) in Iran
    • Abstract: Length–weight (LWR) and length–length (LLR) relationships were estimated for 330 specimens from nine Paracobitis species in 11 localities throughout Iran. All fish were collected upon occasion by electrofishing throughout Iran from July 2010 to October 2016. These represent the first reports of LWR data for eight species including: Paracobitis atrakensis, P. hircanica, P. longicauda, P. molavii, P. persa, P. rhadinaeus, P. smithi and P. vignai and first LLR data for all species. A new maximum length is reported for P. malapterura. Four of these species are endemic and five species are native to Iran. The length–weight parameter b ranged from a minimum of 2.74 for P. atrakensis to a maximum of 3.01 for P. longicauda, with regression coefficients (r2) ranging from 0.96 to 0.99. All LLRs were highly significant (r2 > .96).
       
  • Length–weight relationships for seven fish species from Marajó Bay,
           Amazon estuary, northern Brazil
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for seven fish species inhabiting the intertidal mudflats in the Marajó Bay, northern Brazil. A total of 514 specimens were collected quarterly between November 1994 and December 1995 using a beach seine (5 mm mesh size between opposite knots). Slope b of the LWR varied between 2.93 and 3.11, with a mean of 3.02. This study represents the first reference on LWRs for seven species and a new maximum length record for one of these species.
       
  • Length-weight relationships of insular cichlids from Patos Lagoon estuary,
           subtropical Brazil
    • Abstract: The present study reports the length-weight relationships (LWRs) of three cichlids (Crenicichla lepidota, Cichlasoma portalegrense and Geophagus brasiliensis) collected in a system of pools of the largest estuarine island of Patos lagoon, southern Brazil. Fishes were sampled during random field trips performed from April 2015 to April 2016, using a beach seine (net 5 × 2 m; mesh size 5 mm) and a hand net (diameter 45 cm, mesh size 2 mm). The LWRs for C. portalegrense are presented herein for the first time.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships for seven fish species
           from the Zohreh River, Iran
    • Abstract: Length–weight and length–length parameters were calculated for seven fish species belonging to five families in the Zohreh River, Iran. The weight–length relationships were estimated using the equation W = aLb. The b values varied between 2.72 and 3.33, with a mean ± SD of 2.88 ± 0.28. The b values parameter in the length–weight relationship equations were calculated as 3.15 for Alburnus mossulensis Heckel, 1843; 3.78 for Barilius mesopotamicus Berg, 1932; 2.86 for Cyprinion macrostomum Heckel, 1843; 2.89 for Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker, 1851); 2.80 for Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander, 1794); 2.72 for Liza abu (Heckel, 1843); and 3.19 for Paraschistura nielseni (Nalbant and Bianco, 1998). This study presents the first LWR and LLR references for these species in the Zohreh River.
       
  • Length–weight relationships for 19 headwater fish species from streams
           in the Sinos River basin, southern Brazil
    • Abstract: This study reports the length–weight relationship estimates (LWRs) for 19 fish species inhabiting low order headwater streams in the Sinos River basin of southern Brazil. Between 2010 and 2014, 19 species at 47 sites were sampled in 10 sub-basins by electrofishing in winter and summer. For two species, Bryconamericus iheringii and Phalloceros caudimaculatus, the estimates in this study offer new maximum size ranges compared to previous studies.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of two mugilid species from tropical
           estuarine systems in Alagoas, northeastern coast of Brazil
    • Abstract: Length-weight relationships were estimated for two mugilid species from estuarine systems in Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. Fish were sampled monthly using nylon monofilament gillnets with different mesh sizes during two fishery surveys. The first LWR reference for Mugil curvidens and new maximum lengths for both M. rubioculus and M. curvidens are provided.
       
  • Length–weight relationships for three small reef-fishes from the
           Argentine coast: Helcogrammoides cunninghami (Smitt, 1898), Ribeiroclinus
           eigenmanni (Jordan, 1888), and Hypleurochilus fissicornis (Quoy and
           Gaimard, 1824)
    • Abstract: In this study the first length–weight relationships are provided for Helcogrammoides cunninghami and Ribeiroclinus eigenmanni inhabiting subtidal rocky areas in northern Patagonia, and for Hypleurochilus fissicornis inhabiting intertidal rocky areas in Buenos Aires Province. Specimens were collected between 2009 and 2016, from seven different locations in northern Patagonia and Buenos Aires Province (Southwest Atlantic Coast; 37°–42°S), using a trawling dredge or a small hand net. New maximum lengths were recorded for R. eigenmanni and H. fissicornis.
       
  • Length weight relationships of two small indigenous cyprinid fishes,
           Osteobrama cotio (Hamilton, 1822) and Salmophasia phulo (Hamilton, 1822)
           from Panchet Reservoir, Damodar River (tributary of River Ganga), India
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships were determined for two small indigenous cyprinid fishes: Osteobrama cotio (Hamilton, 1822) and Salmophasia phulo (Hamilton, 1822) collected from Panchet reservoir, Damodar River, India. About 143 specimens of Osteobrama cotio (5.2–10.4 cm TL) and 113 specimens of Salmophasia phulo (2.9–8.2 cm TL) were collected from November 2014 to June 2016 using gillnets of mesh size ranging from 25 to 120 mm (STR) and dragnets of mesh size 10–20 mm (STR). No previous information on LWRs for these two species from an Indian reservoir was available in the literature.
       
  • Length–weight relationships, sex ratio and growth estimates for five
           sympatric sillaginids (Pisces) from the northern Arabian Sea coast
    • Abstract: Five species were collected (n = sample sizes in parentheses): Sillago arabica (8), S. attenuata (26), S. indica (971), S. sihama (77) and Sillaginopodys chondropus (18) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. Specimens were caught with gill nets (mesh size 2.5 cm knot-to-knot) by medium-sized commercial fishing vessels from September 2015 to April 2016. The parameter slope (b) in the length–weight relationships ranged from 2.44−3.21 for sexes grouped. Sex ratios were male-biased in all species and deviated from an ideal 1:1 sex ratio. Applying the von Bertalanffy function growth coefficient, reasonable growth (K = 0.890 year−1) was estimated for Sillago sihama, whereas this was slower in S. attenuata (0.24 year−1). Goodness of fit range was Rn = 0.32–1.0. This study provides a new reference for LWRs in three of the species (S. arabica, S. attenuata, and S. chondropus), with a new maximum total length for S. indica to add to FishBase. The data presented here on the five sillaginid species can be useful for local management and conservation of these species.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationship of Strongylura
           strongylura (van Hasselt, 1823) and Hyporhamphus limbatus (Valenciennes,
           1847) from Chilika Lake, India
    • Abstract: Analyzed were the length–weight relationship (LWR) and length–length relationship (LLR) of two fish species, Strongylura strongylura (family Belonidae) and Hyporhamphus limbatus (family Hemiramphidae) from Chilika Lake, India. A total of 616 specimens were sampled bi-monthly from August 2014 to June 2016 using seine nets and screen barrier nets operated by local fishermen that were used for the present estimates.
       
  • Twelve novel microsatellite markers for the Chinese golden loach Sinibotia
           superciliaris (Günther 1892)
    •  
  • Length–weight relationship of five fish species from the Xiaonanhai
           reach of the Upper Yangtze River, southwest China
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) were determined for five fish species, including two endemic species [Platysmacheilus nudiventris (Luo, Le & Chen, 1977), and Rhinogobio cylindricus (Günther, 1888)] from the Xiaonanhai reach of the Upper Yangtze River in southwest China. Samples were obtained between July 2011 and October 2012 using various types of fishing gear and electroshock fishing techniques. For each species, the sample size, length range, weight range, LWR, 95% confidence intervals of a and b, and coefficient of correlation were determined. Length–weight relationships for two species were unknown to FishBase, and new maximum lengths are recorded for two species.
       
  • Movement and habitat use of juvenile Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens,
           Rafinesque, 1817) in a large hydroelectric reservoir (Nelson River,
           Canada)
    • Abstract: Movement and habitat utilization of juvenile Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were examined in Stephens Lake, a large hydroelectric reservoir on the Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada, between 21 June 2011, and 15 October 2012. Stephens Lake is defined by a sharp hydraulic gradient at the upstream end (Gull Rapids) and a pronounced reservoir transition zone (RTZ), characterized by a change in substrate composition from coarse to fine. Twenty juvenile Lake Sturgeon
       
  • First record of exotic Piaractus brachypomus Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes:
           Serrasalmidae) in Zarivar Lake, western Iran
    •  
  • Characterization of feeding habits, prey diversity and diet overlap of two
           sympatric species: Bronze catfish, Netuma bilineata (Valenciennes, 1840)
           and blacktip sea catfish, Plicofollis dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1840) in
           the northern Arabian Sea
    • Abstract: This study describes the diet composition, diet overlap and prey diversity in two economically and ecologically important marine catfish species: the bronze catfish (Netuma bilineata) and the blacktip sea catfish (Plicofollis dussumieri) collected between January and December 2015 from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. Stomach data of 342 bronze catfish and 283 blacktip sea catfish were examined. Diet composition and feeding strategy of each species by identification of stomach contents were weighed and enumerated. Both species primarily consumed teleosts, Brachyura and small amounts of a wide variety of prey items; however, specialization was a more common trait for the bronze catfish than for the black tip sea catfish. The Morisita-Horn index showed considerable diet overlap in percentage of mean weights (0.847) than in numbers (0.612) between co-prey pairs of both species. The highest Bray-Curtis similarity between the southwest monsoon (SWM) and south inter monsoon (SIM) was observed in bronze catfish and lowest between autumn inter monsoon (AIM) seasons in both species. While Bray-Curtis dissimilarity was observed, both species share diet niches and diet overlap. The present study evaluation of the feeding strategy and potential competition between two sympatric species of marine catfishes can provide the framework for their conservation and management in the region.
       
  • Anaesthesia and transport of juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum
           (Cuvier, 1818) with tricaine methane-sulphonate: Implications on secondary
           and oxidative stress responses
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaesthetic efficacy and the effect of sedation with tricaine (TMS®), also known as MS-222, on secondary and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum transported in hyperoxia for 2, 6 and 10 hr. Juveniles were placed in aquaria containing six different concentrations of buffered tricaine (150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 mg/L) and the times for anaesthesia induction and recovery determined. Fish transported in hyperoxic conditions were investigated for glycemia, ionic concentration (K+, Ca++, Na+) and osmolality, haematocrit (Ht) and haemoglobin concentration (Hb), partial pressure of gases (pCO2 and pO2), pH and bicarbonate concentration (HCO3−) in whole blood collected from caudal vasculature. Total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) were investigated in gills, brain and liver. All concentrations of TMS® induced deep anaesthesia in juvenile tambaqui in this study. A concentration of 240 mg/L of TMS® was sufficient to induce rapid anaesthesia (
       
 
 
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