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Journal Cover Journal of Applied Ichthyology
  [SJR: 0.482]   [H-I: 36]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0175-8659 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0426
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of seven fish
           species from Irtysh River and its tributaries, northwest China
    • Abstract: Length–weight and length–length relationships are reported for seven fish species belonging to four families and seven genera from the Irtysh River and its tributaries, northwest China. A total of 1,351 individuals were collected using three layers of drift gill nets (inner mesh size 13 cm, outer mesh size 26 cm), set gillnets (mesh size 2.5 cm), and purse net (mesh size 1 cm) on a monthly basis from April to October 2013. One length–weight relationship, five length–length relationships, and two maximum lengths are presented for the first time in FishBase. This biometric data and their relationships are relevant to the management and conservation of local fishes and fisheries.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T02:20:24.931791-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13129
       
  • Spinal deformities in free‐ranging bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas
           (Müller and Henle, 1839), from the western South Atlantic Ocean
    • Authors: A. S. Afonso; Y. V. Niella, E. Cavalcanti, M. B. Andrade, J. S. Afonso, P. S. Pinto, F. H. V. Hazin
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T06:13:10.615647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13125
       
  • Lack of mtDNA variation among remote middle Volga and upper Ural brown
           trout suggests recent and rapid recolonization
    • Abstract: Brown trout populations from the middle Volga and upper Ural drainages in the Russian Federation were analyzed with respect to their inter‐relationships and phylogenetic status using complete mtDNA control region sequences and 10 microsatellite loci. Among 56 individuals from eight populations (six from the middle Volga and two from the upper Ural drainages) only one haplotype was detected: Iran1 from the Danube phylogenetic lineage. This haplotype is very frequent in the southern Caspian basin in Iran. Given the high diversity of haplotypes in northern Iran, in contrast to the complete domination of the Iran1 haplotype in our study, it seems likely that Iran1 reached the middle Volga and upper Ural drainages as a consequence of colonization from the southern Caspian basin. In contrast to the mtDNA analysis, a more pronounced differentiation was observed among the studied populations on the basis of microsatellite DNA data. Based on this result, it is proposed that each population should be treated as a distinct management unit in the context of future conservation activities.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T06:20:26.446-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13126
       
  • Neutrophil activity affects Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852)
           antibody production against heat‐killed Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine
           
    • Authors: P. A. Subramani; A. A. Daniels Gnanamuthu, R. D. Michael
      Abstract: Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the important and most common pathogens of warm water fish. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures against A. hydrophila infection are essential to prevent loss of fish production in aquaculture. A heat‐killed vaccine was developed against three strains of A. hydrophila, namely O21, O26 and O28, and analysed for their comparative immunogenicity in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852). Studied were the neutrophil activity and specific antibody response of the host against the vaccines, which showed that neutrophil activity was highest for the heat‐killed O21, but that the heat‐killed O28 produced the highest antibody titres. The antibody cross‐reactivity tests indicated that the antibody raised against O28 was pan‐reactive whereas it was less cross‐reactive in O21. Thus strain O28 may be used as a vaccine candidate for a pan‐protection of fish from various strains of A. hydrophila infections. However, further rigorous studies with different fish species and bacterial strains are needed to confirm these results.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T06:20:23.425036-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13123
       
  • Length–weight relationships for nine fish species in Lake
           Dianshan, China
    • Abstract: Presented are the relationships between fork length (FL) and weight (W) for nine fish species sampled from 2010 to 2012 in Lake Dianshan, Shanghai, China. Values of the parameters a ranged from 0.005 to 0.017 and b values ranged from 2.590 to 3.511; all r2 for the relationships were higher than 0.950. A new maximum length for Plagiognathops microlepis is also reported.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T07:00:53.002241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13106
       
  • Dietary methionine requirement of pre‐adult blunt snout bream,
           (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih, 1955)
    • Abstract: A nine‐week feeding trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that an adequate methionine diet might improve growth, feed utilization, body composition and physiology, and biochemical parameters in pre‐adult blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala, whereas a methionine deficiency might have adverse effects on these parameters. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetics semi‐purified diets (33.0% crude protein, 7.0% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded methionine levels (0.39–1.54% of dry weight) at 0.25% increments replaced by equal proportions of glycine. Results show that the survival rate (SR) was not significantly affected by the dietary methionine level. Final weight (FW), feed efficiency ratios (FER), weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary methionine levels up to 1.00% and then showed a declining trend. Using quadratic regression analysis of FER and SGR, the dietary methionine requirement was estimated to be 0.74% (2.24% of dietary protein) and 0.76% of the diet (2.30% of dietary protein), respectively. Fish fed the 0.39% methionine diet showed significantly lower whole body protein content compared to those fed with 0.85, 1.00 and 1.24% methionine diets (P  0.05). Most important, the optimal dietary methionine level of pre‐adult blunt snout bream should be 0.74–0.76% of the diet (2.24–2.30% of dietary protein).
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T07:00:52.171396-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13117
       
  • Effect of age, size and digestive tract development on weaning
           effectiveness in crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Abstract: The study aim was to determine the optimum age, wet body weight (WBW) and total length (TL) of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), to ensure the effectiveness of weaning directly without a gradual transfer from live food to a compound feed. Moreover, the state of development of the digestive tract was analyzed histologically based on the height of enterocytes. Experimental rearing was conducted between days 5 and 45 post hatch (DPH). Initial WBW of fish was 2.2 ± 0.6 (n = 30) mg and TL 6.1 ± 0.1 (n = 30) mm. Rearing was carried out at 27 ± 0.5°C, with fish divided into six groups: one control (C) fed with Artemia sp. nauplii, and five groups initially fed with Artemia sp. but later replaced by a compound feed. Weaning with the compound diet started at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 DPH in groups labeled F15, F20, F25, F30, F35, respectively. Larvae were fed three times per day (08.00 h, 13.00 h, 18.00 h) in equal portions (4% of larvae biomass per day, converted to the dry matter of the feed). Daily biomass growth was adopted as 15%. Each group was triplicated (n = 50 individuals per replicate). Highest values of TL 42.1 ± 0.7 (n = 30) mm and WBW 905.3 ± 50.3 (n = 30) mg were recorded in the control group at 45 DPH; lowest survival rate of 45 DPH was in group F15 (90.7 ± 1.2%, n = 30). The highest value of the enterocyte epithelial length was observed in individuals within groups F30, 34.8 ± 1.2 μm (n = 30) and F35, 35.4 ± 3.6 μm (n = 30), respectively, 30 and 35 DPH; highest percentage of deformations on the final day of the experiment was in group F15 (100 ± 0.0%, n = 30). The results indicate that an effective direct transfer from live food to prepared diets (with no gradual transfer) cannot be performed with crucian carp larvae before 30 DPH at 27°C, when the fish have reached TL = 31.1 ± 0.4 mm (n = 30) and WBW = 436.9 ± 13.7 mg (n = 30).
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T02:35:38.689232-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13100
       
  • New record of two established populations of Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque
           (1819) (Centrarchidae) from the state of Querétaro, Central Mexico
    • PubDate: 2016-06-25T02:35:33.376691-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13112
       
  • Intestinal histomorphology, autochthonous microbiota and growth
           performance of the oscar (Astronotus ocellatus Agassiz, 1831) following
           dietary administration of xylooligosaccharide
    • Abstract: The present study investigates the changes in intestinal histomorphology, autochthonous microbiota and growth performance of the oscar, Astronotus ocellatus, following dietary administration of different levels of xylooligosaccharide (XOS). One hundred forty‐four oscars (8.88 ± 0.23 g; n = 144) were randomly stocked in 12 aquaria (100‐L) assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicate. Fish were fed a commercial diet, Biomar, supplemented with different levels (0 [control], 0.5, 1, 2%) of XOS for 8 weeks. Treatments were investigated under static aerated water conditions with a 70% daily water exchange. Evaluation of intestinal histomorphology (villus height, enterocytes height and thickness of the tunica muscularis) revealed no significant differences between XOS‐fed groups and the control treatment (P > 0.05). However, administration of XOS in the oscar diet increased the total autochthonous intestinal heterotrophic bacteria significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T02:35:30.343123-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13118
       
  • Longline selectivity for white‐spotted conger Conger myriaster
           (Brevoort, 1856) in Haizhou Bay, China
    • Abstract: Conger myriaster is one of the most commercially important fish stocks in the Haizhou Bay, China. As the type of longline fishing hook has a significant effect on its capture, three hook sizes (nos. 302, 303, 304) were compared in experiments conducted along the Haizhou Bay from September to November 2012. C. myriaster selectivity analysis using the different hook widths was obtained by analysing the catch rate, CPUE, total length distribution and selection curves. The log‐normal model equation was used to explore the longline selection, and anova was employed to analyse the difference in catch rate and CPUE among the three hook sizes. The longline selectivity for C. myriaster was well described by a log‐normal model equation. Hook no. 303 proved to have the highest catch rate, CPUE, and the estimated model lengths within three types of hooks tested in the experiments, in accordance with the fact that no. 303 is also the favourite hook used by local fishermen. Overall, the present study indicates that hook no. 303 has the best selection and is an appropriate size for sustainable utilisation of C. myriaster.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T02:35:27.836538-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13114
       
  • Effect of dietary L‐malic acid supplementation on growth, feed
           utilization and digestive function of juvenile GIFT tilapia Oreochromis
           niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Abstract: Two feeding trials (FTs) were conducted in 2013 and 2014, respectively, to determine the optimal L‐malic acid (LMA) level for juvenile GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) Oreochromis niloticus. Except for the LMA level, the FT1 and FT2 had a similar diet formulation. In FT1, LMA was included at 0 (basal diet), 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g kg−1, respectively. After 20 weeks, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improved but not differentiated with 1–8 g kg−1 LMA. Further increasing the LMA supply initially decreased the feed intake (16 g kg−1), and then decreased both feed intake and feed utilization (32 g kg−1), thus impairing the fish growth. FT2 was subsequently conducted with a smaller LMA range (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 g kg−1, respectively) but was unfortunately terminated at the end of 8 weeks because 20% of the fish were badly injured during weighing. Unexpectedly, growth and feed utilization were still improved but not differentiated with 0.5–8 g kg−1 LMA. In FT2, beneficial effects of LMA inclusion on the digestive function (pepsin, foregut amylase and foregut lipase), the activities of serum lysozyme and hepatic superoxide dismutase, and liver lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde concentration) were found. Taking the results of FT1 and FT2 together, it could be concluded that dietary LMA supplementation at low concentrations (0.5–8 g kg−1) could improve growth and feed utilization, but excess LMA (≥16 g kg−1) might compromise feed intake and/or feed utilization, thus impairing fish growth. To reduce feed costs in commercial practice, 0.5 g kg−1 LMA is recommended in the feed of juvenile GIFT tilapia based on the results of this study.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T02:35:24.525419-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13119
       
  • Length–weight relationships of three schizothoracinae fish species
           
    • Authors: H. P. Liu; S. W. Ye, Z. J. Li
      Abstract: The focus was on the length–weight relationships of three schizothoracinae species endemic to Tibet, including Schizothorax oconnori Lloyd, 1908, Ptychobarbus dipogon (Regan, 1905) and Schizopygopsis younghusbandi Regan, 1905, all of which are characterized by slow growth, late maturation and vulnerability to the environment (Ma et al., 2010, 2012; Duan et al., 2014). Among them, Schizothorax oconnori is an endangered fish and listed in the China species Red List (Wang and Xie, 2004, 2009). Samples were obtained by drift net fishing (mesh size 2 cm × 3 cm; 50 m net length) in November 2008. The r2 value was 0.94, 0.97, 0.98 and the b value 3.51, 3.12, 3.16, representing Schizothorax oconnori, Ptychobarbus dipogon, and Schizopygopsis younghusbandi, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25T02:35:22.953544-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13115
       
  • Early identification of hybrids of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita and
           Catla catla using nuclear marker‐based multiplex PCR
    • Authors: M. Mohanty; P. Jayasankar, L. Sahoo, P. Das, B. Kumar Das, D. K. Verma, P. Routray
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T05:45:48.087133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13111
       
  • The effect of triiodothyronine on survival, growth and metamorphosis of
           yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830) larvae
    • PubDate: 2016-06-20T05:45:46.669676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13116
       
  • Unusually high production of oocytes in two invasive populations of
           topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck and Schlegel, 1846)
    • PubDate: 2016-06-18T02:15:46.265208-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13107
       
  • Diet of characin, Brycon falcatus (Muller and Troschel, 1844) in the
           Amazon Basin: a case study on an attractant for fish in the Teles Pires
           River
    • Authors: L. S. de Matos; J. O. S. Silva, P. S. M. de Andrade, L. N. Carvalho
      Abstract: The use of fresh soybeans as an attractant in fishing has been altering the diet of the characiform Brycon falcatus, which are thriving at fishing spots. This has subsequently affected the amount of abdominal fat in the species from the Tapajós River basin, Southern Amazon. In the Teles Pires River basin region, one of the most common capture techniques employed by fishermen is the use of attractant feeds (soybeans, corn, cassava) at certain locations to attract mostly omnivorous fish. Tourists also feed fish chips and breadcrumbs. In the experimental design, rivers were mapped according to attractant availability to develop an attractant‐density classification system comprising four rivers with different attractant densities (low, medium, and high), plus a river serving as control (no attractants). Monthly collections were carried out during the 2012 and 2013 dry seasons. For diet analyses, methods of frequency of occurrence and relative volume were used to calculate the feeding index (IAi) of 97 specimens. For analyses of abdominal fat, an index was calculated by dividing the wet weight of the abdominal fat by the total wet weight of each individual. Standard length ranged from 15.0 to 48.5 cm, and weight between 0.18 and 4.40 kg. Composition and diversity of diet items changed with the increasing density of attractants. In the river with a high attractant density, fresh soybeans and corn were dominant diet items; in the control river, the diet was natural (e.g. seeds, fruits, leaves, and insects) and therefore similar to those described for B. falcatus in undisturbed environments. Fish collected from rivers with high attractant densities were in better condition than those from the river with no attractants. Although use of attractants is prohibited by State legislation, there are no inspections. This study clearly shows an alteration in the natural diet and abdominal fat of B. falcatus resulting from an imbalanced, high‐calorie feed via an attractant. It is recommended that these areas be monitored for the preservation of B. falcatus.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18T02:15:29.730064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13108
       
  • Changes in smolt traits of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758)
           and linkages to parr density and water temperature
    • Abstract: Smolt traits (length, age) and timing of smolt migration of wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., were investigated in the Simojoki River, northern Baltic Sea. The aim was to determine whether they responded to changes in parr length, parr density and temperature from 2000 to 2014. Annual electrofishing surveys and smolt numbers determined parr densities by springtime trapping in the river mouth. During the smolt trapping period captured parr and smolts were aged from scales. Water temperature was measured daily. Mean length decreased from 137 mm (TL) to 129 mm among 2‐year‐old smolts, and from 150 mm to 139 mm among 3‐year‐olds. Median date of the smolt migration was 10 days earlier, from early June to late May during the study period, linked to the rise in air temperature in May at the nearby Kemi‐Tornio airport. However, the median day temperature and the mean daily water temperatures during the second (Q2) and third (Q3) migration quartiles did not change. This implied that migration began when a suitable water temperature was reached, independent of the date.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18T02:10:28.533255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13113
       
  • Validation of annulus formation in sagittal otoliths of three tropical
           cichlids Oreochromis andersonii (Castelnau, 1861), Oreochromis macrochir
           (Boulenger, 1912), and Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger, 1896)
    • Authors: R. A. Peel; G. C. Taylor, O. L. F. Weyl
      Abstract: The periodicity of growth zone formation in sagittal otoliths of Oreochromis andersonii, Oreochromis macrochir and Coptodon rendalli from the Upper Zambezi region, southern Africa, was validated to test the hypothesis that a single growth zone is deposited annually. Edge analysis was carried out on 754 O. andersonii (54–492 mm TL), 601 O. macrochir (83–438 mm TL) and 622 C. rendalli (45–379 mm TL) caught between August 2010 and August 2011 in Lake Liambezi and the Kavango, Kwando and Upper Zambezi rivers. This was corroborated for O. andersonii (n = 17) and C. rendalli (n = 16) using a fluorochrome marking experiment conducted in a large earthen pond (625 m2, 1.5 m deep) adjacent to the Kavango River. Both methods demonstrated that growth zone deposition occurred annually in juvenile and adult fishes. For edge analysis, the highest proportion of otoliths with an opaque margin was observed in summer from October to December. The fluorochrome marking experiment, however, revealed that opaque zone deposition took place in winter between June and September when water temperatures were lowest (17°C), indicating a lag between opaque zone deposition and detection on the otolith edge.
      PubDate: 2016-06-11T00:30:33.419553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13110
       
  • Modulating effect of a magnetic field on Saprolegnia parasitica, Coker,
           1923 infecting trout (Salmo trutta, L.) eggs
    • Abstract: The aim of study was to investigate the effects of static magnetic fields [1 mT (miliTesla), 5 and 10 mT] on Saprolegnia parasitica growth, development, and cytotoxicity in the infection of trout eggs in hatcheries under laboratory and industrial conditions. The egg envelope (SEM) structures resulting from infection with and development of S. parasitica are also presented. S. parasitica mycelium was cultured on a microbiological medium SDA in Petri dishes (4 ± 0.2°C, 97% humidity) exposed to a magnetic field and in a control, to assess the mycelium growth rate. Effects of the magnetic field on cytotoxicity of S. parasitica after a 21‐day incubation on SDA medium were analyzed using the colorimetric cytotoxicity test MTT. Eggs of brown trout Salmo trutta were infected with S. parasitica by inoculum and incubated in glass vessels (4 ± 0.2°C) in a magnetic field and a control. The degree of mycelium invasion of the egg envelopes and the percentage of egg mortality were recorded daily thoughout the period of embrionic development. The magnetic field effects on brown trout eggs infected by wild strains of fungus‐like organisms (FLO) in the hatchery (4°C ± 0.1) were also investigated. Changes in the structure of brown trout egg envelopes as a result of infection and development of S. parasitica were examined in a FIB/SEM. The effects of magnetic fields of 5 and 10 mT on slowing the growth of mycelium of S. parasitica in vitro were also observed. Determining biochemical properties of S. parasitica also showed the effects of the magnetic field in differentiating the cytotoxicity. All magnetic field values showed a distinct decrease from medium to low values of S. parasitica cytotoxicity; the most effective reduction was observed at 5 mT. Magnetic fields in all tested levels slowed development of the mycelium on the incubated trout eggs, resulting in a decrease in the number of eggs infected by S. parasitica and thus permitting a greater hatching success. Similar effects were observed in other hatching conditions where eggs were also exposed. No negative effects of magnetic field treatment on the condition of the newly‐hatched larvae were observed. The SEM and FIB (Focused Ion Beam) analyses revealed penetration of S. parasitica via radial canals of the envelope. The magnetic field had no effect on the structure of hyphae or sporangia of S. parasitica, but did affect the growth rate of mycelium on the egg surface.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T02:41:40.869275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13099
       
  • Length–weight relationships of five commercial fish species from the
           Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships are described for five fish species from the coast of the Hormuz Strait in the Persian Gulf, Iran. Specimens were collected between August 2010 and July 2011 using shrimp beam trawls, gill nets and intertidal fishing weirs. Relationships for three of the species had no previous data in the international science global databank on fishes: www.FishBase.org. A new maximum length was recorded for Acanthopagrus latus.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T02:41:33.035996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13109
       
  • Changes in tissue composition in Brazilian mojarra Eugerres brasilianus
           (Cuvier, 1830) females at different stages of gonadal development as a
           starting point for development of broodstock diets
    • Authors: L. B. G. Santos; C. F. F. Craveiro, F. R. M. Ramos, C. N. C. Bomfim, R. C. Martino, R. O. Cavalli
      Abstract: Thie study evaluated the changes in proximate composition and fatty acid profile in the muscle, liver and ovarian tissues of wild‐caught Brazilian mojarra Eugerres brasilianus females during sexual maturation as a starting point for the development of broodstock diets. A total of 114 females captured in the Santa Cruz Canal, Itapissuma, PE, north‐eastern Brazil, from August 2012 to April 2013, were classified into four stages of gonadal development by histological analyses. Ovarian protein and total lipid levels increased with maturation, and a simultaneous decrease in liver protein and lipid levels was observed. The levels of arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n‐6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n‐3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n‐3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n‐3) also increased in the ovary as the gonadal development proceeded; they represented 96.4% of the total highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in the ovaries of fully mature females. These findings highlight the need to include protein and lipid‐rich sources containing n‐6 HUFA, particularly ARA, and n‐3 HUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) in the diets of Brazilian mojarra breeders.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T02:41:32.434618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13103
       
  • Does diet variation determine the digestive tract length of Capoeta
           banarescui Turan, Kottelat, Ekmekci and Imamoglu, 2006'
    • Authors: S. Akin; H. Turan, N. Kaymak
      Abstract: This study tested the spatial variations in the digestive/intestine tract length of Capoeta banarescui, with regard to their diets in different habitats. Highly varied diets observed in a previous study within the same river system posed the question whether this flexibility is reflected in the digestive tract and intestine length of the species in the Yeşilırmak River, Turkey. Totals of 382 specimens (standard length 4.6–19.1 cm) were captured by electro‐fishing along the river in September 2012 at 11 locations spanning elevations from 34 to 992 m. The stomach, intestine and total digestive tract lengths were measured, and stomach contents analysed from 196 specimens. For statistical analyses, the stomach, intestine and total digestive tract length were expressed as percentages of total weight and standard length. The data provided evidence that the digestive tract and intestine lengths varied significantly among locations in association with the diet. Fish having dominantly carnivorous diets (e.g. chironomid larvae/invertebrates) in two locations had significantly shorter intestines and digestive tracts than those with diets dominated by benthic algae and other plants. The data indicated that C. banarescui showed broad flexibility in their feeding habits. Feeding heavily on plant materials might lead to the development of longer digestive tracts, increasing the active surface area for digestion; alternatively, there may be less invested in development of the digestive tract when feeding primarily on carnivorous diets where the respective digestive enzymes are readily available. The data suggest that phenotypic plasticity in the digestive tract length of C. banarescui is associated more with the abundant protein‐rich carnivorous food sources in the studied habitats. Whether this digestive tract plasticity has a genetic background remains to be verified in future studies.
      PubDate: 2016-06-04T00:55:31.775557-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13104
       
  • Naming Moroccan fish: when diversity faces standardisation imperatives
    • Authors: H. Masski; A. Ait Hammou
      Abstract: The Moroccan national fisheries information system aims at adopting a standard list of common names for fishery products. Thus, the goal of this study is to provide a means structuring vernacular names, which, although in wide use, are highly variable and do not necessarily meet trade requisites. The 138 species considered in this study have 691 vernacular names – an average of five names per species. Large disparities in the number of vernacular names were found between species and among the 16 study sites. Much of this variability is due to pronunciation and syllable adjunction, which do not affect the root name structure. Pronunciation aside, for the most part the analysed variability in vernacular names of fishes is of linguistic origin stemming from four geographic – and thus cultural – groups. The Iberian names, preponderant in the eastern Moroccan Mediterranean, decreased southward in favour of Arabic, Amazigh and French. According to these results, the adoption of a unique standard, if even possible, might encounter resistance to dissemination by the fishermen and local populations. The adoption of two names lists, one for the Moroccan Mediterranean and one for the Moroccan Atlantic, may be a good compromise. Most efforts at standardisation should then be invested at fish markets in order to integrate fish identification and labelling processes prior to selling.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T03:45:28.515544-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13098
       
  • Length–weight relationship of the Pacific goliath grouper,
           Epinephelus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt, 1868)
    • PubDate: 2016-06-02T04:00:49.219507-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13101
       
  • Growth variation of Schizothorax dulongensis Huang, 1985 along altitudinal
           gradients: implications for the Tibetan Plateau fishes under climate
           change
    • PubDate: 2016-06-02T03:45:40.980398-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13102
       
  • Liver alteration and hematological and serum biochemical responses of
           common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, following long‐term
           feeding of pistachio (Pistacia vera) green hull extract as a source of
           natural phenol
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of pistachio green hull extract (PGHE) on hematological and serum biochemical changes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Three hundred common carp (11.65 ± 1.65 g) were fed one of five different dietary treatments (with three replications) containing 0, 0.5, 1.5, 4.5 or 9 g PGHE kg−1diet for ten continuous weeks. Each tank had a 90‐L capacity and water flow rate of about 500 ml min_1.Total phenolic compounds of the different diets differed significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2016-05-31T02:15:55.109081-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13095
       
  • Survival and growth of early life stages of leaf fish (Monocirrhus
           polyacanthus, Heckel 1840) cultured under different stocking densities and
           live food densities
    • Authors: F. M. Ramos; H. A. Abe, R. Y. Fujimoto
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different live foods, (Artemia sp. and Moina minuta), and different stocking densities on the larval rearing success of the leaf fish, Monocirrhus polyacanthus. A completely randomized factorial design (3 × 3; three replicates) was used. Two subsequent experiments were performed for each live food, using three food densities (100, 200 and 300 prey per larva) and three stocking densities (10, 15 and 20 larvae L−1). Fish were fed twice a day. Water quality parameters pH (4.08–4.02), dissolved oxygen (3.7–3.6 mg L−1), temperature (27.9–27.8°C), conductivity (147.2–127.4 μs cm−1) and total ammonia (0.78–0.38 μg L−1) were determined. Weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), body mass, relative condition factor and survival were evaluated. The water quality was influenced by the live food and stocking densities. Fish fed M. minuta showed better weight gain, specific growth ratio (SGR), biomass gain, relative condition factor and survival than in the other treatment. Artemia sp. showed no improved influence on the larvae performance subjected to different treatments. The beneficial role in growth and survival of leaf fish larva when fed with M. minuta is discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31T02:15:22.213801-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13092
       
  • Inter‐ and intraspecific variation in the surface pattern of the
           dermal bones of two sturgeon species
    • Abstract: Archaeological bone remains of sturgeon (Acipenser sturio/Acipenser oxyrinchus) from northwestern Europe are often identified to species on the basis of their surface morphology and then used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the two species through time. The dermal bones of A. sturio are said to have an exterior surface pattern consisting of tubercles, while those of A. oxyrinchus are said to display alveoli. In the present paper, the validity of the surface pattern as a species‐specific characteristic is critically assessed. To this purpose, dermal plates from modern, genetically identified museum specimens were studied and the surface morphology observed in a series of archaeological remains was compared with the genetic identifications obtained on these same remains. The analyses show that the surface pattern of dermal bones is related to the size of the individual, with the pattern of small A. oxyrinchus being similar to that of A. sturio. In addition, variations in the surface pattern among the bones of a single individual and within the same bone have been observed. These findings explain previous conflicting results between morphological and genetic identifications and allow the formulation of some recommendations for more accurate morphological identification of isolated archaeological sturgeon dermal bones.
      PubDate: 2016-05-30T05:35:35.767666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13091
       
  • Resource selection by juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus
           (Forbes and Richardson, 1905) in the channelized Missouri River, Nebraska,
           USA
    • Authors: B. L. Eder; B. C. Neely, J. D. Haas, J. D. Adams
      Abstract: Habitat selection has been quantified for age‐0 and adult pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus Bull. Illinois State Lab. Nat. Hist., 7, 1905, 37, but little is known regarding habitat use of the juvenile fish. The objective of this study was to quantify habitat use and selection of juvenile pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River, Nebraska, USA. Thirty‐seven age‐4 pallid sturgeon with transmitters were released in July of 2014, plus an additional 21 in September, with habitat monitored using biotelemetry. Age‐1 and age‐4 hatchery reared pallid sturgeon were found to avoid areas associated with the outside bend and thalweg habitats that were characterized by rapid water velocity (>1 ms−1), which accounted for 50% of the area in the channelized Missouri River. Age‐1 pallid sturgeon selected an off‐channel habitat and inside bend habitat while age‐4 pallid sturgeon selected an off‐channel and inside bend channel border habitat. Juvenile pallid sturgeon in unaltered rivers have been shown to associate with island tips and sand bars, habitat that is largely absent in the channelized Missouri River. This study indicates that juvenile pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River, Nebraska are selecting habitats with shallow water and slow water velocity, similar to those associated with island tips and sand bars in unaltered reaches.
      PubDate: 2016-05-30T05:00:49.322292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13096
       
  • Length–length and length–weight relationships for eight drum
           species in southeastern Louisiana
    • Authors: M. T. O'Connell; A. M. U. O'Connell
      Abstract: Length–length and length–weight relationships can vary temporally and spatially, so it is imperative that accurate estimates of these relationships are available. Total length–standard length (TL‐SL) and standard length–total weight (SL–TW) relationships were calculated for eight species of drum (Sciaenidae) occurring in estuaries of southeastern Louisiana. Data were derived from monthly trawl, beach seine, and gillnet collections taken in and around Lake Pontchartrain between 2000 and 2012. Overall TL–SL relationships (ignoring the month) were found for seven species and overall SL–TW relationships were found for eight species. The strong r2 values (all > 0.950, except for one instance) indicate that these relationships are robust and will be appropriate for use by scientists managing these species.
      PubDate: 2016-05-30T04:40:24.564677-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13105
       
  • Seasonal changes in sex ratio and size‐related sex reversal of the
           protogynous hermaphroditic bluespotted seabass Cephalopholis taeniops
           (Valenciennes, 1828)
    • Authors: M. P. V. Costa; L. A. Sampaio, R. B. Robaldo, J. C. B. Cousin
      Abstract: Seasonal changes in sex ratio and size‐related sex reversal of the protogynous hermaphroditic Cephalopholis taeniops were studied from histological and population data of 218 individuals captured by hook and line, July 2009–November 2012, in Cape Verde archipelago. This study showed that C. taeniops have a diandric protogynous hermaphrodite sexual model, with young individuals undergoing bisexual development and hermaphrodites above 28 cm. All gonads had a bisexual immature stage with primary and secondary males. Primary males possibly originate from immature bisexual individuals, whereas secondary males likely result from females that have already reproduced and changed sex.
      PubDate: 2016-05-30T00:15:45.788219-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13094
       
  • Eumetazoan parasites of two marine fish species from Baja California,
           Mexico: Sebastes miniatus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) and Caulolatilus
           princeps (Jenyns, 1840)
    • Abstract: It is hypothesized that two fish species sharing a same demersal habitat might show a similar community of parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the parasite community component of of two marine fishes on the northwest coast of México of economical interest, the vermilion rockfish Sebastes miniatus and the ocean whitefish Caulolatilus princeps. From February to December 2005, 210 specimens of S. miniatus (85–550 mm total length TL) and 91 C. princeps (85–550 mm TL) were obtained from the San Quintín sportfishing catch, at Pacific Baja California. Skin, eyes, fins and gill cavity were examined in situ, and their internal organs removed for later analysis, including a portion of flesh. In S. miniatus, 12 parasite taxa were identified as belonging to Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala and Copepoda; the stomach, pyloric caeca, and intestine (digestive tract) were the most parasitized organs with seven of the 12 species. In S. miniatus, the most abundant parasite was Parabothriocephalus sagitticeps (80.8 individuals/host ± 33.4 SE: standard error), highest prevalence was Microcotyle sebastis (92.6%), and the highest average intensity of infection was the cestode P. sagitticeps (190.4 ± 48.1 SE). The C. princeps showed six species belonging to Monogenea, Digenea, Nematoda and Copepoda; the digestive tract presented the greatest infestation, with four of the six species recorded. The most abundant nematode was Hysterothylacium aduncum (16.5 ± 3.5 individuals/host), the main prevalent species was Anisakis sp., and the highest value of infection intensity was by Hatschekia sp. The nematodes Anisakis sp. and H. aduncum were shared between the two host fishes, and are a zoonotic risk to humans if the fishes are not cooked properly.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28T01:10:29.543606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13093
       
  • Length–weight relationships of nine freshwater fish species from the
           Liujiang River, Guangxi, China
    • Authors: A. Y. He; L. H. Xiu, J. Yang
      Abstract: Studied were the length–weight relationships (LWRs) of 599 fish specimens covering four families, nine genera and nine species (Sinibrama macrops, Acrossocheilus parallens, Microphysogobio fukiensis, Squalidus wolterstorffi, Pseudohemiculter dispar, Tachysurus fulvidraco, Hemibagrus macropterus, Pseudobagrus crassilabris and Siniperca kneri) collected in the Liujiang River, a tributary of the Pearl River, in March 2014, September 2014 and March 2015. The b value varied between 2.385 (P. crassilabris) and 3.178 (P. dispar), with the mean b = 2.85 at P 
      PubDate: 2016-05-19T04:16:18.376364-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13073
       
  • Isolation and evaluation of autochthonous Bacillus subtilis strains as
           probiotics for fat snook (Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860)
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to isolate and select autochthonous strains of Bacillus subtilis from the fat snook, Centropomus parallelus, and examine the viability of the Bacillus bacteria to determine their beneficial effect on gut colonization in reared fish. Twenty strains of Bacillus were isolated and further confirmed as B. subtilis using PCR. Among the 20 strains, two strains (B02 and B03) exhibited an inhibitory performance against five tested pathogens. The Bacillus strains B02 and B03 were added to the fish ration, and after 30 days the number of viable colonies were maintained or increased under the conditions of refrigeration (5°C), freezing (−18°C), or room temperature (30°C). These strains showed a growth rate of 0.18–0.21 h and a doubling time of 3.34–3.9 h. Both strains were tolerant to variations in NaCl, and B03 was also tolerant to bile exposure. The ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract was also examined in healthy fat snook juveniles fed diets enriched for 30 days with strains B02 and B03. The amount of B. subtilis in the gastrointestinal juvenile tract was significantly higher in fish fed the enriched ration compared to controls. Based on these results, strains B02 and B03 were considered as candidate probiotics for fat snook.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19T04:15:39.587334-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13080
       
  • Length–weight relationships for 10 elasmobranch species from the
           Oman Sea
    • Authors: A. R. Rastgoo; M. R. Fatemi, T. Valinassab, M. S. Mortazavi
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) were estimated for ten elasmobranch species from Iranian waters of the Oman Sea. All specimens were collected by bottom trawl (mesh size 80 mm in the cod end) between May and December 2014. A total of 509 individuals (107 Torpedo sinuspersici, 68 Rhinobatos punctifer, 63 Chaenogaleus macrostoma, 72 Himantura walga, 80 Himantura gerrardi, 58 Gymnura poecilura, 4 Himantura uarnak, 4 Rhinoptera javanica, 14 Aetobatus flagellum, and 39 Pastinachus sephen) were sampled and studied. Results showed that most species had positive allometric or isometric growth but that more studies were needed for final decisions on growth patterns. Both the disk length‐body weight (DL/BW) and disk width‐body weight (DW/BW) relationships also showed a good fit, reinforcing the credibility of the data in relation to the LWRs. This study is the first report of LWRs for these elasmobranchs in the northern Oman Sea.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T00:58:41.483709-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.12941
       
  • Estimation of genetic parameters for disease‐resistance traits in
           Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther, 1873)
    • Authors: F. Liu; Y. Z. Li, X. X. Wang, X. F. Liu, H. F. Xing, Y. H. Wu, W. S. Xiu, C. W. Shao, S. L. Chen
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for three traits based on 28 Cynoglossus semilaevis families approximately 6 months of age (at least 5 cm total length), including trait_1 (survival of 26 families, 3434 individuals in total subjected to challenge tests with Edwardsiella tarda), trait_2 (survival of 20 families, 2016 individuals in total subjected to challenge tests with Vibrio anguillarum) and trait_3 (survival of 27 families, 9340 individuals tagged at circa 180 days of age and reared in indoor ponds for circa another 5 months). The result showed that there were large differences in the survival of the families after challenge (11.11–65.31% for E. tarda and 9.18–70.54% for V. anguillarum). Additionally, the survival of families reared in indoor ponds was also different, varying from 21.00% to 73.67%. Heritabilities of the three traits varied from 0.14 to 0.26, as estimated by the linear model (LM) and the threshold model (TM). The trait_1 heritabilities (0.26 and 0.19 estimated by LM and TM) were higher than those of the others (0.20 and 0.23 estimated by LM, 0.14 and 0.19 estimated by TM). The estimates of heritabilities using LM were consistently higher than those of TM in this study. There were significant medium genetic correlations of 0.44 and 0.42 between trait_1 and trait_2 obtained from LM and TM (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T00:56:39.446051-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13067
       
  • Effect of cellulase, phytase and pectinase supplementation on growth
           performance and nutrient digestibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss, Walbaum 1792) fry fed diets containing canola meal
    • Authors: N. O. Yigit; E. Keser
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing exogenous enzymes on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and apparent nutrient digestibility in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry diets containing 32% canola meal. Five experimental diets (including a control diet containing no enzymes) were prepared as isonitrogenous (44% crude protein) and isocaloric (4000 kcal DE kg1). The four other diets contained either cellulase, phytase, pectinase or an enzyme mix (a mixture of cellulase, phytase and pectinase in the same ratio). The feeding trial was conducted in triplicate for 12 weeks in 15 tanks (100‐L). At the beginning of the experiment 20 rainbow trout fry (initial weight 1.23 g) were stocked into each tank. Mean water temperature in the rearing tanks was 11°C and water flow in each tank was 6 L min−1. At the end of the experiment the growth parameters and FCR displayed no significant differences in enzyme supplementation (P > 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in dry matter, protein, or lipid digestibility with enzyme supplementation (P > 0.05). The results of this study showed that the addition of pectinase, phytase, cellulase or an enzyme mix to a diet containing 32% canola meal had no effect on growth, feed efficiency or dry matter, protein, or lipid digestibility in rainbow trout fry.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:14:24.909273-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13088
       
  • Growth, parasitic infection and hematology in Colossoma macropomum Cuvier,
           1818 fed diets containing Allium sativum
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a dietary Allium sativum (garlic) addition on growth, parasite infestation and blood parameters in Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) using 12 net‐cages (1 m3). There were four treatments with three replicates each (15 fish per replicate). Tambaqui of 112.4 g mean weight were fed for 45 days with diets containing 0, 15, 30 and 45 g of fresh garlic kg−1 feed. Garlic did not affect the tambaqui survival, growth, feed conversion, body condition, plasma glucose levels, total plasma protein levels or red blood cells. Total leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers decreased in fish fed diets containing 45 g garlic kg−1 feed, but neutrophils decreased in fish fed diets containing 15, 30 and 45 g garlic kg−1 diet, while the number of immature leukocytes increased in fish fed 30 g and 45 g garlic kg−1diet. Gills in fish fed 30 and 45 g kg−1 diet had lower infestation (52% and 63%, respectively) of Anacanthorus spathulatus (Monogenea) compared to controls. The application of garlic in diets improved the response of leukocytes and enhanced the resistance to infections by monogeneans.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:14:02.225047-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13086
       
  • A new record of dasyatid fish from the Sea of Marmara: Tortonese's
           stingray, Dasyatis tortonesei Capapé, 1975 (Dasyatidae)
    • PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:13:39.377548-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13087
       
  • Trapped in their own ‘home’: unexpected records of intertidal
           fish desiccation during low tides
    • PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:12:38.959231-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13074
       
  • Length–weight relationships and condition factors of two fish
           species from the southern Caspian Sea basin: Alburnoides samiii
           Mousavi‐Sabet, Vatandoust & Doadrio, 2015 and Ponticola iranicus
           Vasil′eva, Mousavi‐Sabet & Vasil′ev, 2015
    • Abstract: The present study describes the length–weight relationships (LWRs) and condition factors (K) of Alburnoides samiii and Ponticola iranicus in the Sefidroud River from the southern Caspian Sea basin, September 2013 to August 2014. This study presents the first known reference in the FishBase database regarding the LWRs and condition factors for these two indigenous species.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:12:12.543259-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13083
       
  • Length‐weight relationships of three cyprinid fish species from
           southwestern China
    • Authors: H. Y. Cao; Z. Yang, L. Cai, L. Pan
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWRs) were determined for three cyprinid fish species [Acrossocheilus yunnanensis (Regan, 1904), Onychostoma simum (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant, 1874) and Spinibarbus sinensis (Bleeker, 1871)] from southwestern China. Samples were obtained with various fishing gear (set nets, drift gill nets, fish cages, hook and electrofishing). Prior to this study, the LWRs for these three species (A. yunnanensis, O. simum and S. sinensis) were unknown.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:12:00.441087-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13085
       
  • Morphological divergence in Indian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps
           Valenciennes, 1847– Does it imply adaptive variation?
    • Authors: S. Sukumaran; A. Gopalakrishnan, W. Sebastian, P. Vijayagopal, S. Nandakumar Rao, N. Raju, S. Ismail, E. M. Abdussamad, P.K. Asokan, K. P. Said Koya, P. Rohit
      Abstract: The Indian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps, is an important pelagic species in Indian waters, and shows divergent morphology while in sympatry. The reasons behind this divergent morphology were investigated using morphometric, genetic and nutritional analyses. Twenty‐one morphometric characters (as percentage of standard length) and eight meristic characters were studied in the three variants to assess whether they are significantly diverged. Distinct clustering of morphotypes was evident in the principal component analysis on log‐transformed ratios of morphological characters with PC1 and PC2, explaining 50.7% and 17.6% of the total morphological variation, respectively. PC1 was highly correlated with the distance from snout to anal origin, depth at dorsal, distance from snout to pelvic and distance from snout to first dorsal. PC2 was highly correlated with head length, caudal width and anal depth. Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was conducted using log‐transformed morphometric ratios, with the results showing the clusters to be well differentiated (R = 0.511; P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:11:57.252282-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13060
       
  • Isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci from
           Gymnocypris chui and cross‐amplification in seven highly specialized
           Schizothoracinae fishes
    • Authors: R. Y. Zhang; K. Zhao
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T07:11:03.238099-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13066
       
  • Length–weight relationship of 10 freshwater fish species in
           Amazonian streams, Trombetas River basin (Brazil)
    • Authors: D. C. O. Rosa; B. E. Soares, M. P. Albrecht, E. P. Caramaschi
      Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWR) were analyzed for 10 fish species from 26 Amazonian streams located in four micro‐basins in the Trombetas River basin, Pará State, Brazil. LWRs were calculated based on 1831 individuals sampled between 2010 and 2012 using a manual trawl. The coefficients of proportionality and allometry were within the ranges estimated for most fishes. No previous LWR information was available for these species in the literature.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T23:11:50.168845-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13082
       
  • The ontogeny of neurosensory structures in larval Atlantic halibut,
           Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: A. J. Borsky; I. R. Bricknell
      Abstract: The ontogenic development of neurosensory structures in larval Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.) was examined using microscopy imaging techniques and analysis. Larval samples were preserved at developmental stages of 444, 486, 528, 570, 612, and 666 degree‐days, respectively. Larvae were measured and photographed macroscopically. The fish were then embedded in paraffin for histological processing. 5 μm sequential sections of the anterior of the larvae were cut and stained using hematoxylin and eosin dyes. The resulting sections were examined using an Olympus BX60 compound microscope. The development of neurosensory structures such as neuromasts and sensory papillae were observed throughout all developmental stages of larvae and early development of the lateral line was observed at 666 degree‐days. Neuromast frequency increased as larvae matured, suggesting that larvae were approaching their first feeding event towards the end of the sampling period. Possible implications of development on larval first feeding are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T01:41:40.94088-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13064
       
  • Occurrence of chromatophoroma or chromatophoromatosis in Sardinella
           longiceps (Valenciennes, 1847) from Tamilnadu, southeast coast of India
    • Authors: V. Singaravel; A. Gopalakrishnan, R. Vijayakumar, K. Raja, S. Asrafuzzaman
      Abstract: The study was undertaken to analyse the prevalence of skin tumours in Sardinella longiceps, and to investigate the tumour type occurrence, distribution and histology. Fish samples were collected from three different landing centres (Cuddalore, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam) of Tamilnadu, southeast coast of India, from January 2014 to December 2014. A total of 192 661 individuals were examined, 750 of which had tumours for an overall prevalence of 0.39%. By station, higher prevalence was observed in Parangipettai (0.41%) followed by Cuddalore (0.39%) and Nagapattinam (0.36%). Chromatophoromas were predominant among the types of tumours in sardines. The multi‐coloured cutaneous tumour masses were in the head and body skin. Among the chromatphoromas, the erythrophoromas were most abundant followed by melanophoromas, iridophoromas and leucophoromas. Histologically, the tumour lesions were characterized by hyperplastic pigment cells intermingled with fibroblasts. The gross‐morphological and histopathological diagnoses of these lesions were compatible with erythrophoroma, melanophoroma, iridophoroma and leucophoroma.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T01:41:18.148641-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13084
       
  • Diet composition of greater weever, Trachinus draco (Linnaeus, 1758)
           captured in the eastern‐central Adriatic Sea in relation to fish
           size, season and sampling area
    • Abstract: The diet compositions of greater weever, Trachinus draco, from the eastern‐central Adriatic Sea, were investigated with respect to seasons, fish size and sampling locations. Analyzed were the stomach contents of 592 specimens, total length (TL) of 9.9–31.2 cm, collected by commercial bottom trawls from January to December 2008. The frequency of empty stomachs varied significantly with the season (43.3% maximum during winter; 6.8% minimum during summer). Prey items identified in the stomachs belonged to seven major taxonomic groups: Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Decapoda, Mysidacea, Isopoda, Amphipoda and Teleostei. Decapods were the most important prey (%IRI = 72.8) followed by teleosts (%IRI = 16.4) and mysids (%IRI = 15.0); other prey groups were only occasionally ingested. Diet composition showed little seasonal variation; decapods were the most important prey in all seasons. Fish size was the most important factor influencing the composition of the diet. Small individuals (
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T01:40:52.425632-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13081
       
  • The effects of endosulfan on P450 1A gene expression, antioxidant enzymes
           activity and histopathological alterations in liver of Persian sturgeon
           (Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1987)
    • Authors: R. Safari; M. Khalili, M. Reza Imanpour, M. Pourkazemi
      Abstract: The effects of 14 days exposure to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (10 and 40 μg L−1) were investigated in mRNA‐ P450 1A expression, antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) activity and histopathological alterations of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) fingerlings with weights of 3–5 g. The results illustrated that the relative mRNA‐ P450 1A expression level significantly increased (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T03:25:20.12785-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13072
       
  • Length–weight relationships of two fish species from the middle
           reaches of the Jinsha River, China
    • Authors: T. B. Zhu; D. G. Yang
      Abstract: This study provides the first report of length–weight relationships (LWRs) for Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant, 1874) and Jinshaia sinensis (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant, 1874) collected from the middle reaches of the Jinsha River, southwest China. Samples were obtained between June 2005 and November 2006. A total of 491 specimens belonging to two fish species were analyzed. LWRs were W = 0.0170L2.970 (r2 = 0.980) for P. prochilus and W = 0.0194L2.849 (r2 = 0.977) for J. sinensis. Prior to this study, the LWRs for P. prochilus were unknown. In addition, new maximum size for J. sinensis was provided.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06T03:19:05.334064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jai.13079
       
  • A checklist of the protozoan and metazoan parasites of European eel
           (Anguilla anguilla): checklist of Anguilla anguilla parasites
    • Abstract: A comprehensive literature review on prevalence and distribution of parasites of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in European waters was conducted to set a baseline for future trend analyses and biodiversity considerations. The resulting checklist compiled from peer reviewed journals as well as grey literature including scientific reports, conference contributions, PhD theses and own survey data includes all protozoan and metazoan parasites of the European eel from freshwater, brackish and marine habitats. Parasites are arranged according to phylum and family. Species within families are listed alphabetically. Infected host organs, recorded habitats, localities, countries and literature citations are provided for each species. A total of 161 parasite species ⁄ taxa from 30 countries are listed. With the trypanorhynch cestode Tentacularia coryphaenae a new host record could be documented. Furthermore, three new locality records of parasitic nematodes could be added based on own survey data: Anisakis simplex from an eel caught in the Baltic Sea, Eustrongylides mergorum for German freshwaters, and Goezia anguillae from the Tagus estuary in Portugal. Special consideration was given to the distribution of the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus. A map and table of first reported records of this neozoan parasite species for 25 countries as well as a survey map indicating all published localities documented in the checklist are provided.
       
  • Length–weight relationship of five commercially important freshwater
           fish species in the Kashmir Valley, India
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships were analysed for five commercially important freshwater fishes, namely, Bangana diplostoma (Heckel, 1838), Schizopyge niger (Heckel, 1838), Schizothorax curvifrons (Heckel, 1838), Schizothorax plagiostomus (Heckel, 1838) and Glyptosternon reticulatum (McClelland, 1842) from different water bodies in the Kashmir Valley, India. A total of 610 samples were collected between October 2013 and May 2015 using various indigenous cast nets. Of these five species, Schizopyge niger has a new maximum length record for the FishBase LWR database.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of two fish species from the Yangtze
           River, China
    • Abstract: Fish samples for the study were collected from the Yangtze River in China. Length–weight relationships were determined for two endemic fish species (Leiocassis longirostris Günther, 1864 and Schistura fasciolata Nichols & Pope, 1927) for the first time.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of Dermogenys pusilla Kuhl & van
           Hasselt, 1823 (Zenarchopteridae) and Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822)
           (Cyprinidae) from the Ganges River (NW Bangladesh)
    • Abstract: Length‐weight relationships (LWRs) were determined for Dermogenys pusilla (n = 75) and Labeo bata (n = 304) from the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh, collected between July 2013 and June 2014, using traditional fishing gear (e.g. cast net, square lift net and gill net). Total length (TL) was measured to 0.1 cm and whole body weight (BW) was taken to the nearest 0.1 g for each individual. The TL varied from 6.60 to 16.10 cm for D. pusilla and 7.90–25.20 cm for L. bata. The BW ranged from 1.20 to 10.90 g for D. pusilla and 4.70–167.30 g for L. bata. All LWRs were highly significant (P 
       
  • Critical thermal maxima of juvenile alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula,
           Lacépède, 1803) from three Mississippi‐drainage
           populations acclimated to three temperatures
    • Abstract: Local adaptation may cause thermal tolerance to vary between nearby but distinct populations of a species. During the summer of 2013, alligator gar Atractosteus spatula spawned from broodstock collected from three populations within the Mississippi River drainage separated by a 5° latitudinal gradient were acclimated to three temperatures (25, 30, and 35°C). Ten fish from each population were acclimated at each temperature. CTMax was determined at each temperature for each population, using five fish for each population‐acclimation temperature pairing. CTMax for each population‐acclimation temperature pairing was compared using two‐factor anova. CTMax increased significantly with acclimation temperature (F2,40 = 600.5, P 
       
  • Length–weight relationships and length–length relationships of
           13 fish species in Rongcheng Bay, China
    • Abstract: The present study provides the length–weight relationships (LWRs) of 13 fish species belonging to eight families that were collected in Rongcheng Bay, March 2009 to December 2014. The r2 values ranged from 0.953 to 0.994 and values of b varied from 2.542 to 3.454. The study also describes the total length – standard length relationships (LLRs) for these fish species. This is the first record of length–weight and length–length relationships for the fish species in this area.
       
  • Effects of clove oil, essential oil of Lippia alba and 2‐phe
           anaesthesia on juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801)
    • Abstract: The objectives of this experiment were to (i) determine the efficacy of essential oils of clove (CO) and Lippia alba (EOLA) to induce deep anaesthesia in juvenile specimens (49.0 ± 6.2 g body mass, 16.6 ± 0.8 cm; n = 8 per treatment) of meagre (Argyrosomus regius); and (ii) study the feasibility of these substances, together with 2‐phenoxyethanol (2‐PHE), as potential sedatives [low concentration: (i) EOLA: 12 mg L−1; (ii) CO: 1 mg L−1; and (iii) 2‐PHE: 33 mg·L −1; n = 8 per treatment] for live fish transport of this species. All test were performed at a constant temperature (18°C). Thus, the main primary stress indicator (plasma cortisol) and secondary factors (plasma metabolites) were evaluated. In addition, growth hormone (GH) mRNA expression was also evaluated in the pituitary gland. The results indicated that EOLA is considered to be effective for deep anaesthesia when the concentration is close to 160 mg L−1, while CO produces the same effect when lower concentrations are added (40–50 mg L−1). Regarding sedative concentrations, a significant ~3‐fold increase in plasma cortisol levels was detected in the EOLA group when compared to control specimens. In addition, glucose levels were not reduced and significantly increased (~1.6‐fold) for 2‐PHE in relation to the control fish. None of the anaesthetics promoted a significant difference for GH expression with respect to the control group, but a significant ~2‐fold increase for 2‐PHE treatment with respect to the EOLA exposition was found in this gene expression. Results show that none of the anaesthetics analysed, at least in the ranges of concentrations used in this study (EOLA 12 mg L−1, CO 1 mg L−1, 2‐PHE 33 mg L−1), are recommended for live fish transport, as shown by the absence of inhibition on the stress parameters assessed.
       
  • Hatchery performance in a major rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss,
           Walbaum, 1792) seed production area of Turkey
    • Abstract: This study aims to determine the production characteristics and performance of rainbow trout hatcheries in Seydikemer, Muğla, Turkey where over half of the total production of eyed eggs and juveniles take place. For this purpose six hatcheries with different production scales were selected and coded A, B, C, D, E and F (with capacities of 60, 15, 5.6, 4, 0.95 and 0.6 million juveniles per year, respectively). From each hatchery, 20 females were selected and their egg qualities (egg number, diameter and weight, fertilization, eyed egg, hatching, swim‐up fry and survival rates at 120 days after hatching) and juvenile growth rates were monitored until the 120th day after hatching under each farms own conditions. The sperm characteristics of 10 broodstock males from each hatchery were also examined. Although fertilization and eyed egg rates were similar among the farms, hatching, swim‐up fry, and survival rates at the 120th day after hatching differed significantly. The average eyed egg, hatching and survival rates (calculated from selected 20 females) were 72, 55, and 32%, respectively. While sperm characteristics except duration of motility (s), were significantly different among the farms, average sperm concentration (per ml), motility (%) and duration of motility (s) in the region were 11.8 × 109, 55.3, and 56.4, respectively. The best hatchery performance was observed in Farm A because of better records and management applications than in the other farms.
       
  • Occurrence and prevalence of Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896) on
           Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea
    • Abstract: In this paper the host‐parasite relationship between Philometra filiformis and the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus from the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea were studied. A total of 305 (257 females and 48 males) specimens of common pandora were sampled from June 2009 to April 2011 from commercial landings as well as from bottom trawl surveys. A total of 39 P. erythrinus were parasitized (mean prevalence, P = 12.80%; mean abundance, A = 0.19), with the parasite occurring throughout the study area and with wide fluctuations in prevalence values ranging from 0 to 28.60%. Prevalence increased with age of the host, with most parasites (27.78%) found in the older common pandora whereby P. filiformis parasitized only the females. A significant correlation between prevalence, abundance and maturity stages of the fish was evident, with most parasites found in mature/spawning specimens. The varying degrees of gonadic damage caused by this nematode reveal a serious threat to the reproductive success of P. erythrinus.
       
  • Issue Information
    •  
  • Age, growth, mortality and population structure of silver croaker Pennahia
           argentata (Houttuyn, 1782) and red bigeye Priacanthus macracanthus Cuvier,
           1829 in the north‐central Taiwan Strait
    • Abstract: The main objectives of this study were to estimate the age, growth, mortality and population structure of silver croaker Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn, 1782) and red bigeye Priacanthus macracanthus Cuvier, 1829 and to explore the factors causing the fluctuation of the fish populations and the ecological parameters. The two species were randomly sampled, with 80~120 individuals of each species captured every month from a single trawler fishery (mesh size 250 mm), March to November 2006, in the north‐central Taiwan Strait. A total of 994 speciments of silver croaker and 851 speciments of red bigeye were collected. Compared with previous studies, the mean length and weight, mean age, the minimum size at first sexual maturity, the asymptotic length (L∞) and weight (W∞) of the two species has decreased in recent decades, indicating that the populations were younger, smaller and earlier in sexual maturity. Meanwhile, the growth coefficient (K) increased, the mortality coefficients (Z, F, M) were higher, and the exploitation rate (E) indicated overfishing. Fishing is a key driving force that can cause abundant fluctuations and changes in ecological characteristics in these two demersal fishes in this area. Accordingly, the traditional fishery management approach, such as the reduction in fishing effort, coupled with the Ecosystem‐based Fishery Management (EBFM) should be implemented to achieve sustainable demersal fisheries.
       
  • Species composition of benthic fish fauna in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
    • Abstract: In order to determine the present benthic fish fauna in the Sea of Marmara, sampling was conducted at a total of 10 stations for 2 weeks in August 2009, using a commercial twin beam trawling vessel with 18 and 36 mm stretched mesh sizes at the cod‐end. In addition, some physicochemical parameters that play important roles, such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH, were measured for each station. As a result, 31 fish species from 23 families were found at a total of 10 stations in depths of 30–1000 m. At each station, the Shannon–Weaver diversity index, Simpson dominance index, species richness index, and evenness index were estimated. This study reports on species composition of the demersal fish catches in the Sea of Marmara for a preliminary assessment of the status of these fish communities.
       
  • Measuring fish length and assessing behaviour in a high‐biodiversity
           reach of the Upper Yangtze River using an acoustic camera and echo sounder
           
    • Abstract: In the past decade improved acoustic hard‐ and software have enabled estimations of abundance and distribution patterns of aquatic organism, including non‐intrusive monitoring of fish migrations and behaviour. In this study, a high frequency acoustic camera (DIDSON‐LR, 1.2 MHz, 0.7 MHz) and a portable split‐beam scientific echo sounder (Simrad EY60, 200 kHz) collected acoustic data on 192 and 157 individuals within 24 hr (19–20 April 2011) in the Mituo reach of the Yangtze River, China. Mean fish length estimated from the acoustic camera data was 18.7 ± 5.6 cm, with an average swimming speed of 0.19 ± 0.13 m s−1. The mean fish target strength (TS) produced by the echo sounder was −43.8 ± 4.4 dB, which corresponded to 5.7–119.9 cm fish length when converted by three different TS‐length equations. Average swimming speed was 0.11 ± 0.06 m s−1 from the echo sounder. Compared with the actual fish catch by the three layers of drift gill net in the survey area, the target length indicated by DIDSON was more accurate than the EY60 results, which were highly affected by the choice of TS length equations. It was determined that the two devices used synchronously could estimate fish length effectively to investigate their behaviour and distribution.
       
  • Length–length and length–weight relationships for four endemic
           Cyprinid species in Küçük Menderes River Basin, Turkey
    • Abstract: Length–length and length–weight relationships were studied for four endemic Cyprinid species from the Küçük Menderes River Basin located in the Western Anatolian region of Turkey. Fish were sampled from Tahtalı and Beydağı reservoirs, Bulgurca, Şaşal and Azmak streams during 2013–2014, using multimesh gillnets in the reservoirs and by electrofishing in the streams. First records of length–weight relationships for Barbus pergamonensis Karaman, 1971, Squalius kosswigi (Karaman, 1972) and Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus (Boulenger, 1896) are reported in addition to three new maximum total lengths for Chondrostoma holmwoodii (Boulenger, 1896), Squalius kosswigi (Karaman, 1972) and Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus (Boulenger, 1896).
       
  • Age and growth of damselfish Chromis notata (Temminck & Schlegel,
           1843), Jeju Island, Korea
    • Abstract: This study investigated the age and growth of damselfish, Chromis notate, from Jeju Island in Korea. Samples were collected monthly by lift net from September 2013 to August 2014. Total lengths of the damselfish ranged from 6.4 to 15.3 cm. The relationship between total length and wet weight was WW = 0.0125TL3.1631 for females, and WW = 0.0091TL3.2769 for males. The slopes in the relationship between length and weight were not significantly different between sexes, but were significantly different in the intercepts. There were more female than male specimens (1.3:1). Age determination was conducted using the otoliths. Marginal increment (MI) declined in summer and winter, which suggests that two rings are formed each year. Ages of sampled individuals ranged from 1 to 5 years. Length‐at‐age data were fitted using the von Bertalanffy growth model. The estimated growth functions were Lt = 19.93 [1 − exp−0.21 (t + 0.811)] total length and wet weight was females, and Lt = 16.47 [1 − exp−0.32 (t + 0.499)] for males.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of three fish species from Trasimeno
           Lake, Italy
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships for Alburnus arborella, Esox cisalpinus and Scardinius hesperidicus from Trasimeno Lake are provided. A total of 4,205 specimens were collected for examination from 2008 to 2014 throughout the lake by means of electrofishing and nets. For all species the value of b ranged from 2.887 for Esox cisalpinus males to 3.115 for Scardinius hesperidicus. The study provides the first reference of length–weight relationships for the three species. A new maximum total length is also reported for E. cisalpinus.
       
  • Description of burrowing behaviour of the pipefish Syngnathus abaster
           Risso, 1827 in the Ria Formosa lagoon, Portugal
    •  
  • Extending depth record of hornyhead turbot Pleuronichthys verticalis
           Jordan and Gilbert, 1880 from the Gulf of California, Mexico
    •  
  • Growth response of cultured larvae of silver therapon Leiopotherapon
           plumbeus (Kner, 1864) in outdoor tanks in relation to fertilizer type and
           fish density
    • Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of fertilizer type and fish density on early growth and survival of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks. In the first experiment, larvae (1.92 ± 0.09 mm total length) were stocked into nine, 4 m3 tanks at an initial density of 0.5 larvae L−1 and reared for 42 days at an ambient temperature of 28.8–30.7°C. Three treatments with three replicates each were compared: organic (chicken manure, OF) or inorganic fertilizers (ammonium phosphate, IF) applied once every 2 weeks, and the unfertilized (NF) tanks serving as the control group. Water quality, zooplankton densities, survival or growth of L. plumbeus larvae did not vary significantly in either fertilized or unfertilized tanks. Fertilization resulted in elevated nutrient concentrations, which did affect survival (2.10%–6.07%) of the fish larvae. In the second experiment, larvae were stocked at densities of 0.4 or 0.6 larvae L−1 in tanks fertilized at 4–5 days interval with OF and IF for 30 days. Growth performance of L. plumbeus larvae was affected by fish density, with significantly larger (20.04 ± 2.65 mm in total length) and higher specific growth rate (SGR; 6.97 ± 0.48% day−1) at 0.4 larvae L−1 than at 0.6 L−1. Fry production did not vary significantly between fish density treatment groups given the same fertilizer types, but survival rates were improved at 0.4 L−1. Together, production of L. plumbeus larvae in outdoor tanks can be optimized at a lower stocking density, regardless of the type of fertilizer used.
       
  • Length‐weight relationship of two cichlid fish species, Etroplus
           suratensis (Bloch, 1790) and Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795) from Lake
           Vembanad, Kerala, India
    • Abstract: The present study describes the length–weight relationships (LWRs) of two cichlid fish species, Etroplus suratensis (Bloch, 1790) and Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795) collected from Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India during the period June 2012 to May 2013 using gill nets with various mesh sizes (3.5–9 cm) and cast nets with a 1.5 cm mesh size. The values of parameters b in the LWR equation were estimated as 2.67 for E. suratensis and 2.72 for E. maculatus, respectively.
       
  • Length–weight relationships of five fish species from an Atlantic
           coastal drainage in Brazil
    • Abstract: Length–weight relationships (LWR) are presented for five fish species from the Restinga de Maricá, southeastern Brazil. Specimens were caught in pools and streams with different types of fishing gear: seine net, dip net, and sieve. The LWRs of three species are new for this region, and of Phalloptychus januarius are published for the first time.
       
  • Length–weight and length–length relationships of five Mystus
           species from the Ganges and Rupsha rivers, Bangladesh
    • Abstract: This study focused on the length–weight and length–length relationships of five Mystus species from Bangladesh. A sum of 398 individuals (Mystus bleekeri = 47, Mystus cavasius = 171, Mystus gulio = 59, Mystus tengra = 65, and Mystus vittatus = 56) was collected from the Ganges and Rupsha rivers, Bangladesh. Fishes were caught by gill net (mesh sizes: 2.0–4.0 cm) and cast net (mesh sizes: 1.5–3.0 cm) from July 2014 to June 2015. Total length (TL), fork length (FL) and standard length (SL) were measured to 0.1 cm, while whole body weight (W) was taken to the nearest 0.1 g for each individual. The TL ranged from 6.0–13.5 cm for M. bleekeri, 5.0–15.0 cm for M. cavasius, 7.4–17.2 cm for M. gulio, 4.6–11.6 cm for M. tengra and 5.5–12.3 cm for M. vittatus. The W varied from 3.0–18.2 g for M. bleekeri, 1.3–30.4 g for M. cavasius, 6.1–62.2 g for M. gulio, 1.7–15.1 g for M. tengra and 2.7–19.2 g for M. vittatus. All LWRs were highly significant (p 
       
  • Evaluation of chemical treatments to mitigate or eradicate Gnathia
           maxillaris infestations
    • Abstract: The eradication of the haematophagous isopod ectoparasite Gnathia maxillaris was not achieved after several years of physical elimination of larvae by filtration and chemical treatment with trichlorfon in a captive marine fish population in exhibition aquaria. In this study, different in vitro laboratory assays were performed to find effective alternative anti‐parasitic treatments to trichlorfon (lufenuron, emamectin benzoate, cypermethrin and abamectin). The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values at 96 hr were calculated for each compound using both larval stages (zuphea and praniza); morphological deformities generated throughout the life cycle, reduction in egg laying and survival of adult forms were also determined. Abamectin, cypermethrin and emamectin benzoate proved effective at limiting further Gnathia maxillaris development, but their efficacy at eradicating an infestation in large tanks was not supported by laboratory assays. However, the use of lufenuron proved to be a good substitute for trichlorfon when treating this type of infestation in large‐volume tanks (LC50 55.8 mg m−3 for praniza). Routine lufenuron treatment once a month via an oral dose at 10 mg kg−1 body weight eradicated G. maxillaris from the exhibition aquaria.
       
  • Influence of juvenile stunting on grow‐out performance of rohu,
           Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Abstract: Rohu Labeo rohita juveniles stunted for 2, 4, 6, 8 10 and 12 months at 20 and 40 m−3 densities were subsequently cultured for 1 year in six grow‐out earthen ponds each 0.09 ha. Each pond was stocked with juveniles stunted for a particular duration (treatment) at a combined density of 8,000 ha−1 from two density groups at a 1:1 ratio. Electronic tags were implanted in 20 juveniles of each density group in all treatments as sub‐samples to track fish growth per individual. Another grow‐out study evaluated the growth of a fresh batch of rohu juveniles against similar sized but stunted 12‐month‐old juveniles, stocked together at 8,000 ha−1 density (1:1). Thirty juveniles from each group in this pond were tagged. After the year‐long grow‐out phase, survival (85.6%–96.3%) showed a positive correlation with the juvenile stunting duration. The study revealed a minimal influence of stunting density on juvenile growth in a subsequent grow‐out phase when they were stunted up to 8 months. But a higher stunting density (40 m−3) favoured growth in juveniles stunted for longer periods (>8 months). Growth curves of the lower and higher stunting density groups as well as “all rohu populations” in the treatments showed convergence with those of control (2 months stunted) only in the 4‐month stunted juveniles. The growth convergence in this treatment was achieved within 6 months of culture and subsequently surpassed that of control to over‐compensate at the end of 12 months of culture. No such compensatory growth (CG) response was observed in the 6‐ to 12‐month stunted rohu, because the growth curves run almost parallel to each other. The study also revealed juvenile stunting for more than 6 months delayed the initiation of the growth recovery process in the stunted individuals during their subsequent grow‐out phase. In the second study, identical growth trajectories of the fresh batch and the year‐long stunted juveniles reaffirmed a non‐existence of CG activity in the later. Such results indicate that juvenile stunting in rohu for 6 months and beyond does not lead to a better fish yield or economic gain to farmers, but rather adds to the investment costs because of the need for more feed and maintenance during stunting.
       
  • Effects of sustained predation by fast‐growing transgenic common
           carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) on gastropods in artificial
           environments
    • Abstract: The present study addressed the effects of growth hormone‐transgenic and non‐transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) predation on the community and populations of four gastropod species cultured in artificial environments. After a 110‐day population‐based predation experiment (three replicate pools [16 m2] for each genotype with one fish [total length 45.0~51.4 cm] and 150 Bellamya aeruginosa (Reeve 1863) per pool), there were no significant effects of predation by either transgenic or non‐transgenic carp on the biomass, number, or size selectivity of the population. Following a 10‐day community‐based predation experiment (three replicate pools [16 m2] for each genotype with one fish [total length 45.0~50.5 cm] and 150 Alocinma longicornis (Benson 1842), 100 Parafossarulus sinensis (Neunayr 1883), 55 B. aeruginosa, and 33 Radix auricularia L. per pool), the consumption rate and the number of gastropods predated by transgenic carp were 2.60 times and 2.85 times higher, respectively, than those of non‐transgenic carp. Furthermore, the biomass of A. longicornis, P. sinensis and B. aeruginosa consumed by transgenic carp was significantly (p 
       
 
 
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